WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxin transport inhibitors

  1. Molecular modeling of auxin transport inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, G.; Black-Schaefer, C.; Bures, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular modeling techniques have been used to study the chemical and steric properties of auxin transport inhibitors. These bind to a specific site on the plant plasma membrane characterized by its affinity for N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A three-dimensional model was derived from critical features of ligands for the NPA receptor, and a suggested binding conformation is proposed. This model, along with three-dimensional structural searching techniques, was then used to search the Abbott corporate database of chemical structures. Of the 467 compounds that satisfied the search criteria, 77 representative molecules were evaluated for their ability to compete for [ 3 H]NPA binding to corn microsomal membranes. Nineteen showed activity that ranged from 16 to 85% of the maximum NPA binding. Four of the most active of these, from chemical classes not included in the original compound set, also inhibited polar auxin transport through corn coleoptile sections

  2. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T.; Hocart, Charles H.; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation. PMID:26253705

  3. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Ge, Pei; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  4. Differential effects of auxin polar transport inhibitors on rooting in some Crassulaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of auxin polar transport inhibitors, 2,3,5-triio-dobenzoic acid (TIBA, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA and methyl 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (morphactin IT 3456, as a lanolin paste, on root formation in cuttings of some species of Crassulaceae, such as Bryophyllum daigremontianum, B. calycinum, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and K. tubiflora, were studied. Cuttings of these plants were easily rooted in water without any treatment. TIBA and morphactin IT 3456 completely inhibited root formation in the cuttings of these plants but NPA did not when these inhibitors were applied around the stem below the leaves. When TIBA and morphactin were applied around the stem near the top, but leaves were present below the treatment, the root formation was observed in B. calycinum and K. blossfeldiana but in a smaller degree than in control cuttings. These results strongly suggest that endogenous auxin is required for root formation in cuttings of Crassulaceae plants. The differential mode of action of NPA is discussed together with its effect on auxin polar transport.

  5. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  6. Regulation of auxin transport during gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, A.; Brady, S.; Kirpalani, N.; Buer, C.; Muday, G.

    Plants respond to changes in the gravity vector by differential growth across the gravity-stimulated organ. The plant hormone auxin, which is normally basipetally transported, changes in direction and auxin redistribution has been suggested to drive this differential growth or gravitropism. The mechanisms by which auxin transport directionality changes in response to a change in gravity vector are largely unknown. Using the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, we have been exploring several regulatory mechanisms that may control auxin transport. Mutations that alter protein phosphorylation suggest that auxin transport in arabidopsis roots may be controlled via phosphorylation and this signal may facilitate gravitropic bending. The protein kinase mutant pinoid (pid9) has reduced auxin transport; whereas the protein phosphatase mutant, rcn1, has elevated transport, suggesting reciprocal regulation of auxin transport by reversible protein phosphorylation. In both of these mutants, the auxin transport defects are accompanied by gravitropic defects, linking phosphorylation signaling to gravity-induced changes in auxin transport. Additionally, auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by changes in an endogenous auxin efflux inhibitor. Flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol, have been implicated in regulation of auxin transport in vivo and in vitro. Mutants that make no flavonoids have reduced root gravitropic bending. Furthermore, changes in auxin-induced gene expression and flavonoid accumulation patterns have been observed during gravity stimulation. Current studies are examining whether there are spatial and temporal changes in flavonoid accumulation that precede gravitropic bending and whether the absence of these changes are the cause of the altered gravity response in plants with mutations that block flavonoid synthesis. These results support the idea that auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by several mechanisms including

  7. Auxin transport at cellular level: new insights supported by mathematical modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Petr; Kubeš, Martin; Laňková, Martina; Dobrev, Petre; Klíma, Petr; Kohoutová, M.; Petrášek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára; Jiřina, M.; Zažímalová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2012), s. 3815-3827 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin metabolism * auxin transport * auxin transport inhibitors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.242, year: 2012

  8. The microtubule cytoskeleton does not integrate auxin transport and gravitropism in maize roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Lee, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Cholodny-Went hypothesis of gravitropism suggests that the graviresponse is controlled by the distribution of auxin. However, the mechanism of auxin transport during the graviresponse of roots is still unresolved. To determine whether the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is participating in auxin transport, the cytoskeleton was examined and the movement of 3H-IAA measured in intact and excised taxol, oryzalin, and naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-treated roots of Zea mays cv. Merit. Taxol and oryzalin did not inhibit the graviresponse of roots but the auxin transport inhibitor NPA greatly inhibited both auxin transport and graviresponse. NPA had no effect on MT organization in vertical roots, but caused MT reorientation in horizontally placed roots. Regardless of treatment, the organization of MTs in intact roots differed from that in root segments. The MT inhibitors, taxol and oryzalin had opposite effects on the MTs, namely, depolymerization (oryzalin) and stabilization and thickening (taxol), but both treatments caused swelling of the roots. The data indicate that the MT cytoskeleton does not directly interfere with auxin transport or auxin-mediated growth responses in maize roots.

  9. Inhibition of polar calcium movement and gravitropism in roots treated with auxin-transport inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit strong positive gravitropism. In both species, gravistimulation induces polar movement of calcium across the root tip from the upper side to the lower side. Roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) are not responsive to gravity and gravistimulation induces little or no polar movement of calcium across the root tip. Treatment of maize or pea roots with inhibitors of auxin transport (morphactin, naphthylphthalamic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) prevents both gravitropism and gravity-induced polar movement of calcium across the root tip. The results indicate that calcium movement and auxin movement are closely linked in roots and that gravity-induced redistribution of calcium across the root cap may play an important role in the development of gravitropic curvature.

  10. Strigolactone Inhibition of Branching Independent of Polar Auxin Transport1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael G.; Beveridge, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    The outgrowth of axillary buds into branches is regulated systemically via plant hormones and the demand of growing shoot tips for sugars. The plant hormone auxin is thought to act via two mechanisms. One mechanism involves auxin regulation of systemic signals, cytokinins and strigolactones, which can move into axillary buds. The other involves suppression of auxin transport/canalization from axillary buds into the main stem and is enhanced by a low sink for auxin in the stem. In this theory, the relative ability of the buds and stem to transport auxin controls bud outgrowth. Here, we evaluate whether auxin transport is required or regulated during bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum). The profound, systemic, and long-term effects of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid had very little inhibitory effect on bud outgrowth in strigolactone-deficient mutants. Strigolactones can also inhibit bud outgrowth in N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid-treated shoots that have greatly diminished auxin transport. Moreover, strigolactones can inhibit bud outgrowth despite a much diminished auxin supply in in vitro or decapitated plants. These findings demonstrate that auxin sink strength in the stem is not important for bud outgrowth in pea. Consistent with alternative mechanisms of auxin regulation of systemic signals, enhanced auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can suppress branching in yucca1D plants compared with wild-type plants, but has no effect on bud outgrowth in a strigolactone-deficient mutant background. PMID:26111543

  11. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  12. Patterning of leaf vein networks by convergent auxin transport pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Megan G; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.

  13. Patterning of leaf vein networks by convergent auxin transport pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan G Sawchuk

    Full Text Available The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1 intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.

  14. Acropetal Auxin Transport Inhibition Is Involved in Indeterminate But Not Determinate Nodule Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. P. Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes enter into a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, leading to nodule development. Two main types of nodules have been widely studied, indeterminate and determinate, which differ in the location of the first cell division in the root cortex, and persistency of the nodule meristem. Here, we compared the control of auxin transport, content, and response during the early stages of indeterminate and determinate nodule development in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, respectively, to investigate whether differences in auxin transport control could explain the differences in the location of cortical cell divisions. While auxin responses were activated in dividing cortical cells during nodulation of both nodule types, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid content at the nodule initiation site was transiently increased in M. truncatula, but transiently reduced in L. japonicus. Root acropetal auxin transport was reduced in M. truncatula at the very start of nodule initiation, in contrast to a prolonged increase in acropetal auxin transport in L. japonicus. The auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA only induced pseudonodules in legume species forming indeterminate nodules, but failed to elicit such structures in a range of species forming determinate nodules. The development of these pseudonodules in M. truncatula exhibited increased auxin responses in a small primordium formed from the pericycle, endodermis, and inner cortex, similar to rhizobia-induced nodule primordia. In contrast, a diffuse cortical auxin response and no associated cortical cell divisions were found in L. japonicus. Collectively, we hypothesize that a step of acropetal auxin transport inhibition is unique to the process of indeterminate nodule development, leading to auxin responses in pericycle, endodermis, and inner cortex cells, while increased auxin responses in outer cortex cells likely

  15. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  16. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  17. Critical consideration on the relationship between auxin transport and calcium transients in gravity perception of Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masatsugu; Furuichi, Takuya; Tatsumi, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Plants regulate their growth and morphogenesis in response to gravity field, known as gravitropism. In the early process of gravitropism, changes in the gravity vector (gravistimulation) are transduced into certain intracellular signals, termed gravity perception. The plant hormone auxin is not only a crucial factor to represent gravitropism but also a potential signaling molecule for gravity perception. Another strong candidate for the signaling molecule is calcium ion of which cytoplasmic concentration ([Ca2+]c) is known to increase in response to gravistimulation. However, relationship between these two factors, say which is in the first place, has been controversial. This issue is addressed here mainly based on recent progress including our latest studies. Gravistimulation by turning plants 180° induced a two-peaked [Ca2+]c-increase lasting for several minutes in Arabidopsis seedlings expressing apoaequorin; only the second peak was sensitive to the gravistimulation. Peak amplitudes of the [Ca2+]c-increase were attenuated by the 10 µM auxin transport inhibitor (TIBA) and vesicle trafficking inhibitor (BFA), whereas the onset time and rate of rise of the second peak were not significantly altered. This result indicates that polar auxin transport is not involved in the initial phase of the second [Ca2+]c-increase. It is likely that the gravi-induced [Ca2+]c-increase constitutes an upstream event of the auxin transport, but may positively be modulated by auxin since its peak amplitude is attenuated by the inhibition of auxin transport. PMID:19513245

  18. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  19. Auxin Transporters - Why So Many?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zažímalová, Eva; Murphy, A. S.; Yang, H.; Hoyerová, Klára; Hošek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-14 ISSN 1943-0264 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin transporters * auxin carriers * plant development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.371, year: 2010

  20. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Contents 545 I. 545 II. 546 III. 546 IV. 548 V. 548 VI. 549 VII. 549 Acknowledgements 549 References 549 SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Use of membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying auxin transport of auxin: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin regulating growth, is transported polarly in plants. IAA stimulates a rapid increase in the rate of electrogenic proton secretion by the plasma membrane. This not only increases the magnitude of the pH and electrical gradients providing the driving force for polar auxin transport and uptake of sugars, amino acids and inorganic ions, but, by acidifying the cell wall, also leads to growth. We find that auxin uptake by membrane vesicles isolated from actively growing plant tissues exhibits some of the same properties as by cells: the accumulation depends on the pH gradient, is saturable and specific for auxin, and enhanced by herbicides that inhibit polar auxin transport. We are using accumulation of a radioactive weak acid to quantify the pH gradient and distribution of fluorescent cyanine dyes to monitor the membrane potential. The magnitude of IAA accumulation exceeds that predicted from the pH gradient, and in the absence of a pH gradient, a membrane potential fails to support any auxin accumulation, leading to the conclusion that the transmembrane potential is not a significant driving force for auxin accumulation in this system. Since increasing the external ionic strength decreases saturable auxin accumulation, we are investigating how modifying the surface potential of the vesicles affects the interaction of the amphipathic IAA molecules with the membranes and whether protein modifying reagents affect the saturability and stimulation by NPA. These studies should provide information on the location and function of the auxin binding site and may enable us to identify the solubilized protein. 5 refs

  2. Polar transport in plants mediated by membrane transporters: focus on mechanisms of polar auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naramoto, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    Directional cell-to-cell transport of functional molecules, called polar transport, enables plants to sense and respond to developmental and environmental signals. Transporters that localize to plasma membranes (PMs) in a polar manner are key components of these systems. PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers, which are the most studied polar-localized PM proteins, are implicated in the polar transport of auxin that in turn regulates plant development and tropic growth. In this review, the regulatory mechanisms underlying polar localization of PINs, control of auxin efflux activity, and PIN abundance at PMs are considered. Up to date information on polar-localized nutrient transporters that regulate directional nutrient movement from soil into the root vasculature is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  4. Differential auxin transport and accumulation in the stem base lead to profuse adventitious root primordia formation in the aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignolli, F; Mariotti, L; Picciarelli, P; Vidoz, M L

    2017-06-01

    The aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato is characterized by a profuse and precocious formation of adventitious root primordia along the stem. We demonstrated that auxin is involved in the aer phenotype but ruled out higher auxin sensitivity of mutant plants. Interestingly, polar auxin transport was altered in aer, as young seedlings showed a reduced response to an auxin transport inhibitor and higher expression of auxin export carriers SlPIN1 and SlPIN3. An abrupt reduction in transcripts of auxin efflux and influx genes in older aer hypocotyls caused a marked deceleration of auxin transport in more mature tissues. Indeed, in 20days old aer plants, the transport of labeled IAA was faster in apices than in hypocotyls, displaying an opposite trend in comparison to a wild type. In addition, auxin transport facilitators (SlPIN1, SlPIN4, SlLAX5) were more expressed in aer apices than in hypocotyls, suggesting that auxin moves faster from the upper to the lower part of the stem. Consequently, a significantly higher level of free and conjugated IAA was found at the base of aer stems with respect to their apices. This auxin accumulation is likely the cause of the aer phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Parasitic nematodes modulate PIN-mediated auxin transport to facilitate infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Grunewald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive plant pathogens that cause significant yield losses. They induce highly specialized feeding sites (NFS in infected plant roots from which they withdraw nutrients. In order to establish these NFS, it is thought that the nematodes manipulate the molecular and physiological pathways of their hosts. Evidence is accumulating that the plant signalling molecule auxin is involved in the initiation and development of the feeding sites of sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. Intercellular transport of auxin is essential for various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we analysed the spatial and temporal expression of PIN auxin transporters during the early events of NFS establishment using promoter-GUS/GFP fusion lines. Additionally, single and double pin mutants were used in infection studies to analyse the role of the different PIN proteins during cyst nematode infection. Based on our results, we postulate a model in which PIN1-mediated auxin transport is needed to deliver auxin to the initial syncytial cell, whereas PIN3 and PIN4 distribute the accumulated auxin laterally and are involved in the radial expansion of the NFS. Our data demonstrate that cyst nematodes are able to hijack the auxin distribution network in order to facilitate the infection process.

  6. Parasitic nematodes modulate PIN-mediated auxin transport to facilitate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Wim; Cannoot, Bernard; Friml, Jirí; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive plant pathogens that cause significant yield losses. They induce highly specialized feeding sites (NFS) in infected plant roots from which they withdraw nutrients. In order to establish these NFS, it is thought that the nematodes manipulate the molecular and physiological pathways of their hosts. Evidence is accumulating that the plant signalling molecule auxin is involved in the initiation and development of the feeding sites of sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. Intercellular transport of auxin is essential for various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we analysed the spatial and temporal expression of PIN auxin transporters during the early events of NFS establishment using promoter-GUS/GFP fusion lines. Additionally, single and double pin mutants were used in infection studies to analyse the role of the different PIN proteins during cyst nematode infection. Based on our results, we postulate a model in which PIN1-mediated auxin transport is needed to deliver auxin to the initial syncytial cell, whereas PIN3 and PIN4 distribute the accumulated auxin laterally and are involved in the radial expansion of the NFS. Our data demonstrate that cyst nematodes are able to hijack the auxin distribution network in order to facilitate the infection process.

  7. Cytokinins and polar transport of auxin in axillary pea buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kalousek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cytokinin on auxin transport during release of axillary buds from apical dominance was studied. Expression of auxin-carrier coding genes PsAUX1 (AUXIN RESISTANT 1 and PsPIN1 (PIN-FORMED 1 was explored in axillary buds of the 2nd node of 7-day pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Vladan after decapitation or after exogenous application of benzyladenine (6-benzylaminopurine onto axillary buds of intact plants. Localization of the PsPIN1 protein, the key factor for polar transport of auxin in axillary buds, was visualised by immunohistochemistry. After exogenous application of cytokinin the expression of PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 rapidly increased with a simultaneous rapid decrease in PsDRM1 and PsAD1 expression – genes related to bud dormancy. The same changes in expression were observed after decapitation, however they were markedly slower. The PsPIN1 auxin efflux carrier in the inhibited axillary buds of intact plants was localised in a non-polar manner. After exogenous application of cytokinin gradual polarisation of the PsPIN1 protein occurred on the basal pole of polar auxin transport competent cells. Despite the fact that direct auxin application to buds of intact plants led to an increase in PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 expression, the buds remained dormant (non-growing what was accompanied by persistent expression of the dormancy markers PsDRM1 and PsAD1. The results indicate a possible effect of cytokinins on biosynthesis, and/or transport of auxin in axillary buds and they highlight the importance of auxin-cytokinin crosstalk in the regulation of bud outgrowth after breaking of apical dominance.

  8. Effects of ethylene on the kinetics of curvature and auxin redistribution in gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus.

  9. Flux-based transport enhancement as a plausible unifying mechanism for auxin transport in meristem development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Stoma

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants continuously generate new organs through the activity of populations of stem cells called meristems. The shoot apical meristem initiates leaves, flowers, and lateral meristems in highly ordered, spiralled, or whorled patterns via a process called phyllotaxis. It is commonly accepted that the active transport of the plant hormone auxin plays a major role in this process. Current hypotheses propose that cellular hormone transporters of the PIN family would create local auxin maxima at precise positions, which in turn would lead to organ initiation. To explain how auxin transporters could create hormone fluxes to distinct regions within the plant, different concepts have been proposed. A major hypothesis, canalization, proposes that the auxin transporters act by amplifying and stabilizing existing fluxes, which could be initiated, for example, by local diffusion. This convincingly explains the organised auxin fluxes during vein formation, but for the shoot apical meristem a second hypothesis was proposed, where the hormone would be systematically transported towards the areas with the highest concentrations. This implies the coexistence of two radically different mechanisms for PIN allocation in the membrane, one based on flux sensing and the other on local concentration sensing. Because these patterning processes require the interaction of hundreds of cells, it is impossible to estimate on a purely intuitive basis if a particular scenario is plausible or not. Therefore, computational modelling provides a powerful means to test this type of complex hypothesis. Here, using a dedicated computer simulation tool, we show that a flux-based polarization hypothesis is able to explain auxin transport at the shoot meristem as well, thus providing a unifying concept for the control of auxin distribution in the plant. Further experiments are now required to distinguish between flux-based polarization and other hypotheses.

  10. ZIFL1.1 transporter modulates polar auxin transport by stabilizing membrane abundance of multiple PINs in Arabidopsis root tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Estelle; Baster, Pawel; Friml, Jiří; Duque, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell directional flow of the phytohormone auxin is primarily established by polar localization of the PIN auxin transporters, a process tightly regulated at multiple levels by auxin itself. We recently reported that, in the context of strong auxin flows, activity of the vacuolar ZIFL1.1 transporter is required for fine-tuning of polar auxin transport rates in the Arabidopsis root. In particular, ZIFL1.1 function protects plasma-membrane stability of the PIN2 carrier in epidermal root tip cells under conditions normally triggering PIN2 degradation. Here, we show that ZIFL1.1 activity at the root tip also promotes PIN1 plasma-membrane abundance in central cylinder cells, thus supporting the notion that ZIFL1.1 acts as a general positive modulator of polar auxin transport in roots. PMID:23857365

  11. Single-cell-based system to monitor carrier driven cellular auxin homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Abundance and distribution of the plant hormone auxin play important roles in plant development. Besides other metabolic processes, various auxin carriers control the cellular level of active auxin and, hence, are major regulators of cellular auxin homeostasis. Despite the developmental importance of auxin transporters, a simple medium-to-high throughput approach to assess carrier activities is still missing. Here we show that carrier driven depletion of cellular auxin correlates with reduced nuclear auxin signaling in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cell cultures. Results We developed an easy to use transient single-cell-based system to detect carrier activity. We use the relative changes in signaling output of the auxin responsive promoter element DR5 to indirectly visualize auxin carrier activity. The feasibility of the transient approach was demonstrated by pharmacological and genetic interference with auxin signaling and transport. As a proof of concept, we provide visual evidence that the prominent auxin transport proteins PIN-FORMED (PIN)2 and PIN5 regulate cellular auxin homeostasis at the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. Our data suggest that PIN2 and PIN5 have different sensitivities to the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Also the putative PIN-LIKES (PILS) auxin carrier activity at the ER is insensitive to NPA in our system, indicating that NPA blocks intercellular, but not intracellular auxin transport. Conclusions This single-cell-based system is a useful tool by which the activity of putative auxin carriers, such as PINs, PILS and WALLS ARE THIN1 (WAT1), can be indirectly visualized in a medium-to-high throughput manner. Moreover, our single cell system might be useful to investigate also other hormonal signaling pathways, such as cytokinin. PMID:23379388

  12. Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1 − Cullin − F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P < 0.001) increase in susceptibility of blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root

  13. N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE Proteins Regulate Meristem Initiation by Modulating Auxin Transport and MAX2 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Ghawana, Sanjay; Jones, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE (NDL) proteins interact with the G? subunit (AGB1) of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the presen...

  14. Phosphorylation of conserved PIN motifs directs Arabidopsis PIN1 polarity and auxin transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, F.; Kemel Zago, M.; Abas, L.; van Marion, A.; Galván-Ampudia, C.S.; Offringa, R.

    2010-01-01

    Polar cell-to-cell transport of auxin by plasma membrane-localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers generates auxin gradients that provide positional information for various plant developmental processes. The apical-basal polar localization of the PIN proteins that determines the direction of

  15. Simulation of organ patterning on the floral meristem using a polar auxin transport model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Mourik

    Full Text Available An intriguing phenomenon in plant development is the timing and positioning of lateral organ initiation, which is a fundamental aspect of plant architecture. Although important progress has been made in elucidating the role of auxin transport in the vegetative shoot to explain the phyllotaxis of leaf formation in a spiral fashion, a model study of the role of auxin transport in whorled organ patterning in the expanding floral meristem is not available yet. We present an initial simulation approach to study the mechanisms that are expected to play an important role. Starting point is a confocal imaging study of Arabidopsis floral meristems at consecutive time points during flower development. These images reveal auxin accumulation patterns at the positions of the organs, which strongly suggests that the role of auxin in the floral meristem is similar to the role it plays in the shoot apical meristem. This is the basis for a simulation study of auxin transport through a growing floral meristem, which may answer the question whether auxin transport can in itself be responsible for the typical whorled floral pattern. We combined a cellular growth model for the meristem with a polar auxin transport model. The model predicts that sepals are initiated by auxin maxima arising early during meristem outgrowth. These form a pre-pattern relative to which a series of smaller auxin maxima are positioned, which partially overlap with the anlagen of petals, stamens, and carpels. We adjusted the model parameters corresponding to properties of floral mutants and found that the model predictions agree with the observed mutant patterns. The predicted timing of the primordia outgrowth and the timing and positioning of the sepal primordia show remarkable similarities with a developing flower in nature.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of the soybean (Glycine max GmLAX auxin transporter gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin eChai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in regulation of plant growth and development as well as plant responses to abiotic stresses. This is mainly achieved through its uneven distribution in plants via a polar auxin transport process. Auxin transporters are major players in polar auxin transport. The AUXIN RESISTANT 1 ⁄ LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX auxin influx carriers belong to the amino acid permease family of proton-driven transporters and function in the uptake of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. In this study, genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the soybean AUX⁄LAX (GmLAX gene family, including phylogenic relationships, chromosome localization, and gene structure, were carried out. A total of 15 GmLAX genes, including seven duplicated gene pairs, were identified in the soybean genome. They were distributed on 10 chromosomes. Despite their higher percentage identities at the protein level, GmLAXs exhibited versatile tissue-specific expression patterns, indicating coordinated functioning during plant growth and development. Most GmLAXs were responsive to drought and dehydration stresses and auxin and abscisic acid (ABA stimuli, in a tissue- and/or time point- sensitive mode. Several GmLAX members were involved in responding to salt stress. Sequence analysis revealed that promoters of GmLAXs contained different combinations of stress-related cis-regulatory elements. These studies suggest that the soybean GmLAXs were under control of a very complex regulatory network, responding to various internal and external signals. This study helps to identity candidate GmLAXs for further analysis of their roles in soybean development and adaption to adverse environments.

  17. Auxin as an inducer of asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Giannoutsou, Eleni; Apostolakos, Panagiotis; Galatis, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The data presented in this work revealed that in Zea mays the exogenously added auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), promoted the establishment of subsidiary cell mother cell (SMC) polarity and the subsequent subsidiary cell formation, while treatment with auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-napthoxyacetic acid (NOA) specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. Furthermore, in young guard cell mother cells (GMCs) the PIN1 auxin efflux carriers were mainly localized in the transverse GMC faces, while in the advanced GMCs they appeared both in the transverse and the lateral ones adjacent to SMCs. Considering that phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is an active component of auxin signal transduction and that phospholipid signaling contributes in the establishment of polarity, treatments with the specific inhibitor of the PI3K LY294002 were carried out. The presence of LY294002 suppressed polarization of SMCs and prevented their asymmetrical division, whereas combined treatment with exogenously added NAA and LY294002 restricted the promotional auxin influence on subsidiary cell formation. These findings support the view that auxin is involved in Z. mays subsidiary cell formation, probably functioning as inducer of the asymmetrical SMC division. Collectively, the results obtained from treatments with auxin transport inhibitors and the appearance of PIN1 proteins in the lateral GMC faces indicate a local transfer of auxin from GMCs to SMCs. Moreover, auxin signal transduction seems to be mediated by the catalytic function of PI3K.

  18. Arabidopsis N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE1, a positive regulator of auxin transport in a G protein-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Uhrig, Joachm F; Zhou, Jiping; Temple, Brenda; Jiang, Kun; Jones, Alan M

    2009-11-01

    Root architecture results from coordinated cell division and expansion in spatially distinct cells of the root and is established and maintained by gradients of auxin and nutrients such as sugars. Auxin is transported acropetally through the root within the central stele and then, upon reaching the root apex, auxin is transported basipetally through the outer cortical and epidermal cells. The two Gbetagamma dimers of the Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric G protein complex are differentially localized to the central and cortical tissues of the Arabidopsis roots. A null mutation in either the single beta (AGB1) or the two gamma (AGG1 and AGG2) subunits confers phenotypes that disrupt the proper architecture of Arabidopsis roots and are consistent with altered auxin transport. Here, we describe an evolutionarily conserved interaction between AGB1/AGG dimers and a protein designated N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE1 (NDL1). The Arabidopsis genome encodes two homologs of NDL1 (NDL2 and NDL3), which also interact with AGB1/AGG1 and AGB1/AGG2 dimers. We show that NDL proteins act in a signaling pathway that modulates root auxin transport and auxin gradients in part by affecting the levels of at least two auxin transport facilitators. Reduction of NDL family gene expression and overexpression of NDL1 alter root architecture, auxin transport, and auxin maxima. AGB1, auxin, and sugars are required for NDL1 protein stability in regions of the root where auxin gradients are established; thus, the signaling mechanism contains feedback loops.

  19. Arabidopsis thickvein mutation affects vein thickness and organ vascularization, and resides in a provascular cell-specific spermine synthase involved in vein definition and in polar auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Nicole K; Nelson, Timothy

    2005-06-01

    Polar auxin transport has been implicated in the induction of vascular tissue and in the definition of vein positions. Leaves treated with chemical inhibitors of polar auxin transport exhibited vascular phenotypes that include increased vein thickness and vascularization. We describe a recessive mutant, thickvein (tkv), which develops thicker veins in leaves and in inflorescence stems. The increased vein thickness is attributable to an increased number of vascular cells. Mutant plants have smaller leaves and shorter inflorescence stems, and this reduction in organ size and height is accompanied by an increase in organ vascularization, which appears to be attributable to an increase in the recruitment of cells into veins. Furthermore, although floral development is normal, auxin transport in the inflorescence stem is significantly reduced in the mutant, suggesting that the defect in auxin transport is responsible for the vascular phenotypes. In the primary root, the veins appear morphologically normal, but root growth in the tkv mutant is hypersensitive to exogenous cytokinin. The tkv mutation was found to reside in the ACL5 gene, which encodes a spermine synthase and whose expression is specific to provascular cells. We propose that ACL5/TKV is involved in vein definition (defining the boundaries between veins and nonvein regions) and in polar auxin transport, and that polyamines are involved in this process.

  20. Maintenance of asymmetric cellular localization of an auxin transport protein through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein complex is controlled and the significance of this polar distribution. Experimental evidence suggests that asymmetries in the auxin efflux carrier may be established through localized secretion of Golgi vesicles, whereas an attachment of a subunit of the efflux carrier to the actin cytoskeleton may maintain this localization. In addition, the idea that this localization of the efflux carrier may control both the polarity of auxin movement and more globally regulate developmental polarity is explored. Finally, evidence indicating that the gravity vector controls auxin transport polarity is summarized and possible mechanisms for the environmentally induced changes in auxin transport polarity are discussed.

  1. Excessive Cellular S-nitrosothiol Impairs Endocytosis of Auxin Efflux Transporter PIN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1 is the key enzyme that regulates cellular levels of S-nitrosylation across kingdoms. We have previously reported that loss of GSNOR1 resulted in impaired auxin signaling and compromised auxin transport in Arabidopsis, leading to the auxin-related morphological phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the compromised auxin transport in gsnor1-3 mutant is still unknown. Endocytosis of plasma-membrane (PM-localized efflux PIN proteins play critical roles in auxin transport. Therefore, we investigate whether loss of GSNOR1 function has any effects on the endocytosis of PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins. It was found that the endocytosis of either the endogenous PIN2 or the transgenically expressed PIN2-GFP was compromised in the root cells of gsnor1-3 seedlings relative to Col-0. The internalization of PM-associated PIN2 or PIN2-GFP into Brefeldin A (BFA bodies was significantly reduced in gsnor1-3 upon BFA treatment in a manner independent of de novo protein synthesis. In addition, the exogenously applied GSNO not only compromised the endocytosis of PIN2-GFP but also inhibited the root elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that, besides the reduced PIN2 level, one or more compromised components in the endocytosis pathway could account for the reduced endocytosis of PIN2 in gsnor1-3.

  2. N-MYC down-regulated-like proteins regulate meristem initiation by modulating auxin transport and MAX2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Ghawana, Sanjay; Jones, Alan M

    2013-01-01

    N-MYC down-regulated-like (NDL) proteins interact with the Gβ subunit (AGB1) of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the present study, we analyzed whether NDL proteins play an important role in AGB1-dependent, auxin-mediated meristem development. Expression levels of NDL gene family members need to be tightly regulated, and altered expression (both over-expression and down-regulation) confers ectopic growth. Over-expression of NDL1 disrupts vegetative and reproductive organ development. Reduced expression of the NDL gene family members results in asymmetric leaf emergence, twinning of rosette leaves, defects in leaf formation, and abnormal silique distribution. Reduced expression of the NDL genes in the agb1-2 (null allele) mutant rescues some of the abnormal phenotypes, such as silique morphology, silique distribution, and peduncle angle, suggesting that proper levels of NDL proteins are maintained by AGB1. We found that all of these abnormal aerial phenotypes due to altered NDL expression were associated with increases in basipetal auxin transport, altered auxin maxima and altered MAX2 expression within the inflorescence stem. NDL proteins, together with AGB1, act as positive regulators of meristem initiation and branching. AGB1 and NDL1 positively regulate basipetal inflorescence auxin transport and modulate MAX2 expression in shoots, which in turn regulates organ and lateral meristem formation by the establishment and maintenance of auxin gradients.

  3. N-MYC down-regulated-like proteins regulate meristem initiation by modulating auxin transport and MAX2 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwanti Mudgil

    Full Text Available N-MYC down-regulated-like (NDL proteins interact with the Gβ subunit (AGB1 of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the present study, we analyzed whether NDL proteins play an important role in AGB1-dependent, auxin-mediated meristem development.Expression levels of NDL gene family members need to be tightly regulated, and altered expression (both over-expression and down-regulation confers ectopic growth. Over-expression of NDL1 disrupts vegetative and reproductive organ development. Reduced expression of the NDL gene family members results in asymmetric leaf emergence, twinning of rosette leaves, defects in leaf formation, and abnormal silique distribution. Reduced expression of the NDL genes in the agb1-2 (null allele mutant rescues some of the abnormal phenotypes, such as silique morphology, silique distribution, and peduncle angle, suggesting that proper levels of NDL proteins are maintained by AGB1. We found that all of these abnormal aerial phenotypes due to altered NDL expression were associated with increases in basipetal auxin transport, altered auxin maxima and altered MAX2 expression within the inflorescence stem.NDL proteins, together with AGB1, act as positive regulators of meristem initiation and branching. AGB1 and NDL1 positively regulate basipetal inflorescence auxin transport and modulate MAX2 expression in shoots, which in turn regulates organ and lateral meristem formation by the establishment and maintenance of auxin gradients.

  4. Arabidopsis thickvein Mutation Affects Vein Thickness and Organ Vascularization, and Resides in a Provascular Cell-Specific Spermine Synthase Involved in Vein Definition and in Polar Auxin Transport1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Nicole K.; Nelson, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Polar auxin transport has been implicated in the induction of vascular tissue and in the definition of vein positions. Leaves treated with chemical inhibitors of polar auxin transport exhibited vascular phenotypes that include increased vein thickness and vascularization. We describe a recessive mutant, thickvein (tkv), which develops thicker veins in leaves and in inflorescence stems. The increased vein thickness is attributable to an increased number of vascular cells. Mutant plants have smaller leaves and shorter inflorescence stems, and this reduction in organ size and height is accompanied by an increase in organ vascularization, which appears to be attributable to an increase in the recruitment of cells into veins. Furthermore, although floral development is normal, auxin transport in the inflorescence stem is significantly reduced in the mutant, suggesting that the defect in auxin transport is responsible for the vascular phenotypes. In the primary root, the veins appear morphologically normal, but root growth in the tkv mutant is hypersensitive to exogenous cytokinin. The tkv mutation was found to reside in the ACL5 gene, which encodes a spermine synthase and whose expression is specific to provascular cells. We propose that ACL5/TKV is involved in vein definition (defining the boundaries between veins and nonvein regions) and in polar auxin transport, and that polyamines are involved in this process. PMID:15894745

  5. Arabidopsis N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE1, a Positive Regulator of Auxin Transport in a G Protein–Mediated Pathway[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Uhrig, Joachm F.; Zhou, Jiping; Temple, Brenda; Jiang, Kun; Jones, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Root architecture results from coordinated cell division and expansion in spatially distinct cells of the root and is established and maintained by gradients of auxin and nutrients such as sugars. Auxin is transported acropetally through the root within the central stele and then, upon reaching the root apex, auxin is transported basipetally through the outer cortical and epidermal cells. The two Gβγ dimers of the Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric G protein complex are differentially localized to the central and cortical tissues of the Arabidopsis roots. A null mutation in either the single β (AGB1) or the two γ (AGG1 and AGG2) subunits confers phenotypes that disrupt the proper architecture of Arabidopsis roots and are consistent with altered auxin transport. Here, we describe an evolutionarily conserved interaction between AGB1/AGG dimers and a protein designated N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE1 (NDL1). The Arabidopsis genome encodes two homologs of NDL1 (NDL2 and NDL3), which also interact with AGB1/AGG1 and AGB1/AGG2 dimers. We show that NDL proteins act in a signaling pathway that modulates root auxin transport and auxin gradients in part by affecting the levels of at least two auxin transport facilitators. Reduction of NDL family gene expression and overexpression of NDL1 alter root architecture, auxin transport, and auxin maxima. AGB1, auxin, and sugars are required for NDL1 protein stability in regions of the root where auxin gradients are established; thus, the signaling mechanism contains feedback loops. PMID:19948787

  6. Auxin influx inhibitors 1-NOA, 2-NOA, and CHPAA interfere with membrane dynamics in tobacco cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laňková, Martina; Smith, R. S.; Pešek, Bedřich; Kubeš, Martin; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 13 (2010), s. 3589-3598 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600380702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Grant - others:_(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin efflux carrier * auxin influx carrier * auxin transport Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.818, year: 2010

  7. Abscisic Acid Regulates Auxin Homeostasis in Rice Root Tips to Promote Root Hair Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10 had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2 had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module. Treatment of the DR5-GUS and OsPIN-GUS lines with ABA and an auxin efflux inhibitor showed that ABA-induced root hair elongation depends on polar auxin transport. To examine the transcriptional response to ABA, we divided rice root tips into three regions: short root hair, long root hair and root tip zones; and conducted RNA-seq analysis with or without ABA treatment. Examination of genes involved in auxin transport, biosynthesis and metabolism indicated that ABA promotes auxin biosynthesis and polar auxin transport in the root tip, which may lead to auxin accumulation in the long root hair zone. Our findings shed light on how ABA regulates root hair elongation through crosstalk with auxin biosynthesis and transport to orchestrate plant development.

  8. Biosynthetic pathway of the phytohormone auxin in insects and screening of its inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Yokokura, Junpei; Ito, Tsukasa; Arai, Ryoma; Yokoyama, Chiaki; Toshima, Hiroaki; Nagata, Shinji; Asami, Tadao; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2014-10-01

    Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by galling insects. The galls are used for food and habitation, and the phytohormone auxin, produced by the insects, may be involved in their formation. We found that the silkworm, a non-galling insect, also produces an active form of auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), by de novo synthesis from tryptophan (Trp). A detailed metabolic analysis of IAA using IAA synthetic enzymes from silkworms indicated an IAA biosynthetic pathway composed of a three-step conversion: Trp → indole-3-acetaldoxime → indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAAld) → IAA, of which the first step is limiting IAA production. This pathway was shown to also operate in gall-inducing sawfly. Screening of a chemical library identified two compounds that showed strong inhibitory activities on the conversion step IAAld → IAA. The inhibitors can be efficiently used to demonstrate the importance of insect-synthesized auxin in gall formation in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clathrin-Mediated Auxin Efflux and Maxima Regulate Hypocotyl Hook Formation and Light-Stimulated Hook Opening in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Juan; Yan, Xu; Wang, Chao; Xu, Jian; Pan, Jianwei

    2016-01-04

    The establishment of auxin maxima by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3)- and AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (LAX) 3 (AUX1/LAX3)-mediated auxin transport is essential for hook formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Until now, however, the underlying regulatory mechanism has remained poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of function of clathrin light chain CLC2 and CLC3 genes enhanced auxin maxima and thereby hook curvature, alleviated the inhibitory effect of auxin overproduction on auxin maxima and hook curvature, and delayed blue light-stimulated auxin maxima reduction and hook opening. Moreover, pharmacological experiments revealed that auxin maxima formation and hook curvature in clc2 clc3 were sensitive to auxin efflux inhibitors 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid but not to the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid. Live-cell imaging analysis further uncovered that loss of CLC2 and CLC3 function impaired PIN3 endocytosis and promoted its lateralization in the cortical cells but did not affect AUX1 localization. Taken together, these results suggest that clathrin regulates auxin maxima and thereby hook formation through modulating PIN3 localization and auxin efflux, providing a novel mechanism that integrates developmental signals and environmental cues to regulate plant skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional feedback regulation of YUCCA genes in response to auxin levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Mitsui, Marie; Kakei, Yusuke; Mitani, Yuka; Nakamura, Ayako; Ishii, Takahiro; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2015-08-01

    The IPyA pathway, the major auxin biosynthesis pathway, is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels. The phytohormone auxin plays an important role in plant growth and development, and levels of active free auxin are determined by biosynthesis, conjugation, and polar transport. Unlike conjugation and polar transport, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanism of auxin biosynthesis. We discovered that expression of genes encoding indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway enzymes is regulated by elevated or reduced active auxin levels. Expression levels of TAR2, YUC1, YUC2, YUC4, and YUC6 were downregulated in response to synthetic auxins [1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] exogenously applied to Arabidopsis thaliana L. seedlings. Concomitantly, reduced levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were observed. Alternatively, expression of these YUCCA genes was upregulated by the auxin biosynthetic inhibitor kynurenine in Arabidopsis seedlings, accompanied by reduced IAA levels. These results indicate that expression of YUCCA genes is regulated by active auxin levels. Similar results were also observed in auxin-overproduction and auxin-deficient mutants. Exogenous application of IPyA to Arabidopsis seedlings preincubated with kynurenine increased endogenous IAA levels, while preincubation with 2,4-D reduced endogenous IAA levels compared to seedlings exposed only to IPyA. These results suggest that in vivo conversion of IPyA to IAA was enhanced under reduced auxin levels, while IPyA to IAA conversion was depressed in the presence of excess auxin. Based on these results, we propose that the IPyA pathway is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels.

  11. An auxin transport independent pathway is involved in phosphate stress-induced root architectural alterations in Arabidopsis. Identification of BIG as a mediator of auxin in pericycle cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bucio, José; Hernández-Abreu, Esmeralda; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Pérez-Torres, Anahí; Rampey, Rebekah A; Bartel, Bonnie; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2005-02-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants display a number of root developmental responses to low phosphate availability, including primary root growth inhibition, greater formation of lateral roots, and increased root hair elongation. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms by which phosphorus (P) availability alters postembryonic root development, we performed a mutant screen to identify genetic determinants involved in the response to P deprivation. Three low phosphate-resistant root lines (lpr1-1 to lpr1-3) were isolated because of their reduced lateral root formation in low P conditions. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that all lpr1 mutants were allelic to BIG, which is required for normal auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Detailed characterization of lateral root primordia (LRP) development in wild-type and lpr1 mutants revealed that BIG is required for pericycle cell activation to form LRP in both high (1 mm) and low (1 microm) P conditions, but not for the low P-induced alterations in primary root growth, lateral root emergence, and root hair elongation. Exogenously supplied auxin restored normal lateral root formation in lpr1 mutants in the two P treatments. Treatment of wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings with brefeldin A, a fungal metabolite that blocks auxin transport, phenocopies the root developmental alterations observed in lpr1 mutants in both high and low P conditions, suggesting that BIG participates in vesicular targeting of auxin transporters. Taken together, our results show that auxin transport and BIG function have fundamental roles in pericycle cell activation to form LRP and promote root hair elongation. The mechanism that activates root system architectural alterations in response to P deprivation, however, seems to be independent of auxin transport and BIG.

  12. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  13. Gene expression profile of zeitlupe/lov kelch protein1 T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana: Downregulation of auxin-inducible genes in hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Aya; Takase, Tomoyuki; Kitaki, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kiyosue, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of hypocotyl cells has been studied as a model for elucidating the contribution of cellular expansion to plant organ growth. ZEITLUPE (ZTL) or LOV KELCH PROTEIN1 (LKP1) is a positive regulator of warmth-induced hypocotyl elongation under white light in Arabidopsis, although the molecular mechanisms by which it promotes hypocotyl cell elongation remain unknown. Microarray analysis showed that 134 genes were upregulated and 204 genes including 15 auxin-inducible genes were downregulated in the seedlings of 2 ztl T-DNA insertion mutants grown under warm conditions with continuous white light. Application of a polar auxin transport inhibitor, an auxin antagonist or an auxin biosynthesis inhibitor inhibited hypocotyl elongation of control seedlings to the level observed with the ztl mutant. Our data suggest the involvement of auxin and auxin-inducible genes in ZTL-mediated hypocotyl elongation.

  14. Hormonal control of root development on epiphyllous plantlets of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) marnierianum: role of auxin and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Epiphyllous plantlets develop on leaves of Bryophyllum marnierianum when they are excised from the plant. Shortly after leaf excision, plantlet shoots develop from primordia located near the leaf margin. After the shoots have enlarged for several days, roots appear at their base. In this investigation, factors regulating plantlet root development were studied. The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) abolished root formation without markedly affecting shoot growth. This suggested that auxin transport from the plantlet shoot induces root development. Excision of plantlet apical buds inhibits root development. Application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in lanolin at the site of the apical buds restores root outgrowth. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, reverses TIBA inhibition of plantlet root emergence on leaf explants. Both of these observations support the hypothesis that auxin, produced by the plantlet, induces root development. Exogenous ethylene causes precocious root development several days before that of a control without hormone. Ethylene treatment cannot bypass the TIBA block of root formation. Therefore, ethylene does not act downstream of auxin in root induction. However, ethylene amplifies the effects of low concentrations of NAA, which in the absence of ethylene do not induce roots. Ag(2)S(2)O(3), an ethylene blocker, and CoCl(2), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, do not abolish plantlet root development. It is therefore unlikely that ethylene is essential for root formation. Taken together, the experiments suggest that roots develop when auxin transport from the shoot reaches a certain threshold. Ethylene may augment this effect by lowering the threshold and may come into play when the parent leaf senesces.

  15. Pavement cells: a model system for non-transcriptional auxin signalling and crosstalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jisheng; Wang, Fei; Zheng, Shiqin; Xu, Tongda; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2015-08-01

    Auxin (indole acetic acid) is a multifunctional phytohormone controlling various developmental patterns, morphogenetic processes, and growth behaviours in plants. The transcription-based pathway activated by the nuclear TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESISTANT 1/auxin-related F-box auxin receptors is well established, but the long-sought molecular mechanisms of non-transcriptional auxin signalling remained enigmatic until very recently. Along with the establishment of the Arabidopsis leaf epidermal pavement cell (PC) as an exciting and amenable model system in the past decade, we began to gain insight into non-transcriptional auxin signalling. The puzzle-piece shape of PCs forms from intercalated or interdigitated cell growth, requiring local intra- and inter-cellular coordination of lobe and indent formation. Precise coordination of this interdigitated pattern requires auxin and an extracellular auxin sensing system that activates plasma membrane-associated Rho GTPases from plants and subsequent downstream events regulating cytoskeletal reorganization and PIN polarization. Apart from auxin, mechanical stress and cytokinin have been shown to affect PC interdigitation, possibly by interacting with auxin signals. This review focuses upon signalling mechanisms for cell polarity formation in PCs, with an emphasis on non-transcriptional auxin signalling in polarized cell expansion and pattern formation and how different auxin pathways interplay with each other and with other signals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Inherited phenotype instability of inflorescence and floral organ development in homeotic barley double mutants and its specific modification by auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Kaselytė, Greta; Okockytė, Vaiva; Žukauskaitė, Justina; Žvingila, Donatas; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2015-03-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) double mutants Hv-Hd/tw2, formed by hybridization, are characterized by inherited phenotypic instability and by several new features, such as bract/leaf-like structures, long naked gaps in the spike, and a wide spectrum of variations in the basic and ectopic flowers, which are absent in single mutants. Several of these features resemble those of mutations in auxin distribution, and thus the aim of this study was to determine whether auxin imbalances are related to phenotypic variations and instability. The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on variation in basic and ectopic flowers were therefore examined, together with the effects of 2,4-D on spike structure. The character of phenotypic instability and the effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D were compared in callus cultures and intact plants of single homeotic Hv-tw2 and Hv-Hooded/Kap (in the BKn3 gene) mutants and alternative double mutant lines: offspring from individual plants in distal hybrid generations (F9-F10) that all had the same BKn3 allele as determined by DNA sequencing. For intact plants, two auxin inhibitors, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA) and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), were used. Callus growth and flower/spike structures of the Hv-tw2 mutant differed in their responses to HFCA and PCIB. An increase in normal basic flowers after exposure to auxin inhibitors and a decrease in their frequencies caused by 2,4-D were observed, and there were also modifications in the spectra of ectopic flowers, especially those with sexual organs, but the effects depended on the genotype. Exposure to 2,4-D decreased the frequency of short gaps and lodicule transformations in Hv-tw2 and of long naked gaps in double mutants. The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D suggest that ectopic auxin maxima or deficiencies arise in various regions of the inflorescence/flower primordia. Based on the phenotypic instability observed, definite

  17. The Shape of an Auxin Pulse, and What It Tells Us about the Transport Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Mitchison

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Auxin underlies many processes in plant development and physiology, and this makes it of prime importance to understand its movements through plant tissues. In stems and coleoptiles, classic experiments showed that the peak region of a pulse of radio-labelled auxin moves at a roughly constant velocity down a stem or coleoptile segment. As the pulse moves it becomes broader, at a roughly constant rate. It is shown here that this 'spreading rate' is larger than can be accounted for by a single channel model, but can be explained by coupling of channels with differing polar transport rates. An extreme case is where strongly polar channels are coupled to completely apolar channels, in which case auxin in the apolar part is 'dragged along' by the polar part in a somewhat diffuse distribution. The behaviour of this model is explored, together with others that can account for the experimentally observed spreading rates. It is also shown that saturation of carriers involved in lateral transport can explain the characteristic shape of pulses that result from uptake of large amounts of auxin.

  18. The pea branching RMS2 gene encodes the PsAFB4/5 auxin receptor and is involved in an auxin-strigolactone regulation loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligerot, Yasmine; de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Waldie, Tanya; Troadec, Christelle; Citerne, Sylvie; Kadakia, Nikita; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Prigge, Michael; Aubert, Grégoire; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Leyser, Ottoline; Estelle, Mark; Debellé, Frédéric; Rameau, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are well known for their role in repressing shoot branching. In pea, increased transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes are observed in stems of highly branched SL deficient (ramosus1 (rms1) and rms5) and SL response (rms3 and rms4) mutants indicative of negative feedback control. In contrast, the highly branched rms2 mutant has reduced transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes. Grafting studies and hormone quantification led to a model where RMS2 mediates a shoot-to-root feedback signal that regulates both SL biosynthesis gene transcript levels and xylem sap levels of cytokinin exported from roots. Here we cloned RMS2 using synteny with Medicago truncatula and demonstrated that it encodes a putative auxin receptor of the AFB4/5 clade. Phenotypes similar to rms2 were found in Arabidopsis afb4/5 mutants, including increased shoot branching, low expression of SL biosynthesis genes and high auxin levels in stems. Moreover, afb4/5 and rms2 display a specific resistance to the herbicide picloram. Yeast-two-hybrid experiments supported the hypothesis that the RMS2 protein functions as an auxin receptor. SL root feeding using hydroponics repressed auxin levels in stems and down-regulated transcript levels of auxin biosynthesis genes within one hour. This auxin down-regulation was also observed in plants treated with the polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA. Together these data suggest a homeostatic feedback loop in which auxin up-regulates SL synthesis in an RMS2-dependent manner and SL down-regulates auxin synthesis in an RMS3 and RMS4-dependent manner.

  19. Enquiry into the Topology of Plasma Membrane-Localized PIN Auxin Transport Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodzyński, Tomasz; Vanneste, Steffen; Zwiewka, Marta; Pernisová, Markéta; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří

    2016-11-07

    Auxin directs plant ontogenesis via differential accumulation within tissues depending largely on the activity of PIN proteins that mediate auxin efflux from cells and its directional cell-to-cell transport. Regardless of the developmental importance of PINs, the structure of these transporters is poorly characterized. Here, we present experimental data concerning protein topology of plasma membrane-localized PINs. Utilizing approaches based on pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent reporters combined with immunolocalization techniques, we mapped the membrane topology of PINs and further cross-validated our results using available topology modeling software. We delineated the topology of PIN1 with two transmembrane (TM) bundles of five α-helices linked by a large intracellular loop and a C-terminus positioned outside the cytoplasm. Using constraints derived from our experimental data, we also provide an updated position of helical regions generating a verisimilitude model of PIN1. Since the canonical long PINs show a high degree of conservation in TM domains and auxin transport capacity has been demonstrated for Arabidopsis representatives of this group, this empirically enhanced topological model of PIN1 will be an important starting point for further studies on PIN structure-function relationships. In addition, we have established protocols that can be used to probe the topology of other plasma membrane proteins in plants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Defining the selectivity of processes along the auxin response chain: a study using auxin analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simon, Sibu; Kubeš, Martin; Baster, P.; Robert, S.; Dobrev, Petre; Friml, J.; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 4 (2013), s. 1034-1048 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin analogues * auxin signalling * auxin transport Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  1. Diversification and expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX and ABCB families of putative auxin transporters in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eCarraro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively, and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also evidence for differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of proteins involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ

  2. Fusarium oxysporum volatiles enhance plant growth via affecting auxin transport and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios eBitas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption.

  3. A reappraisal of the role of abscisic acid and its interaction with auxin in apical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Morris G; Oh, Choonseok

    2006-10-01

    Evidence from pea rms1, Arabidopsis max4 and petunia dad1 mutant studies suggest an unidentified carotenoid-derived/plastid-produced branching inhibitor which moves acropetally from the roots to the shoots and interacts with auxin in the control of apical dominance. Since the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), known to inhibit some growth processes, is also carotenoid derived/plastid produced, and because there has been indirect evidence for its involvement with branching, a re-examination of the role of ABA in apical dominance is timely. Even though it has been determined that ABA probably is not the second messenger for auxin in apical dominance and is not the above-mentioned unidentified branching inhibitor, the similarity of their derivation suggests possible relationships and/or interactions. The classic Thimann-Skoog auxin replacement test for apical dominance with auxin [0.5 % naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)] applied both apically and basally was combined in similar treatments with 1 % ABA in Ipomoea nil (Japanese Morning Glory), Solanum lycopersicum (Better Boy tomato) and Helianthus annuus (Mammoth Grey-striped Sunflower). Auxin, apically applied to the cut stem surface of decapitated shoots, strongly restored apical dominance in all three species, whereas the similar treatment with ABA did not. However, when ABA was applied basally, i.e. below the lateral bud of interest, there was a significant moderate repression of its outgrowth in Ipomoea and Solanum. There was also some additive repression when apical auxin and basal ABA treatments were combined in Ipomoea. The finding that basally applied ABA is able partially to restore apical dominance via acropetal transport up the shoot suggests possible interactions between ABA, auxin and the unidentified carotenoid-derived branching inhibitor that justify further investigation.

  4. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  5. Auxin apical control of the auxin polar transport and its oscillation - a suggested cellular transduction mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed hypothesis concerns the transduction of auxin molecular signals arriving from the apoplast at the plasma membrane or recognized by the proteineous receptors of the responding cell, to the concentration gradients oscillating in the supracellular space, associated usually with the specific plant growth and differentiation. Acting as an agonist from outside the target cell auxin stimulates in this cell: (1 the liberation of auxin from the cytosolic pool of its conjugates directly into the basipetal efflux; (2 the synthesis of new auxin which restores the cytosolic reserve of auxin conjugates. The functioning of such a system may be effective in a series of processes initiated by the changing concentration of cytosolic calcium. The hypothesis suggests a molecular mechanism for the development and effective operation of the morphogenetic field in the supracellular space of the plant body, such as the field resulting from auxin waves discovered in cambium.

  6. The exocyst complex contributes to PIN auxin efflux carrier recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdová, Edita; Synek, Lukáš; Pečenková, Tamara; Hála, Michal; Kulich, I.; Fowler, J.E.; Murphy, A.S.; Žárský, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2013), s. 709-719 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P853; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/1629; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB600380802 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME10033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : exocyst * polar auxin transport * PIN recycling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.815, year: 2013

  7. Lateral root initiation and formation within the parental root meristem of Cucurbita pepo: is auxin a key player?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Kiryushkin, Alexey S; Semenova, Victoria A; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2018-04-19

    In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging. The effects of exogenous auxin and auxin transport inhibitors on root branching were analysed. The earliest LRI event involved a group of symmetric anticlinal divisions in pericycle cell files at a distance of 250-350 µm from the initial cells. The visualization of the ARMs enabled the precise detection of cells involved in determining the site of LR primordium formation. A local ARM appeared in sister cells of the pericycle and endodermis files before the first division. Cortical cells contributed to LR development after the anticlinal divisions in the pericycle via the formation of an ARM. Exogenous auxins did not increase the total number of LRs and did not affect the LRI index. Although exogenous auxin transport inhibitors acted in different ways, they all reduced the number of LRs formed. Literature data, as well as results obtained in this study, suggest that the formation of a local ARM before the first anticlinal formative divisions is the common mechanism underlying LRI in flowering plants. We propose that the mechanisms of the regulation of root branching are independent of the position of the LRI site relative to the parental root tip.

  8. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijie Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi, which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering.

  9. Action of Abscisic Acid on Auxin Transport and its Relation to Phototropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqvi, S. M.; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    The action of abscisic acid on the kinetics of auxin transport through Zea mays L. (cv. Goudster) coleoptiles has been investigated. Abscisic acid applied simultaneously with indoleacetic acid-2-14C in the donor block reduced the transport intensity without materially affecting the basipetal...... velocity or the uptake. No effect on acropetal transport was observed. The data have been used to discuss the similarities in effects of abscisic acid and visible radiation and a hypothesis is proposed to explain the phenomena of phototropism....

  10. The MEDIATOR genes MED12 and MED13 control Arabidopsis root system configuration influencing sugar and auxin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya-González, Javier; López-Bucio, Jesús Salvador; Prado-Rodríguez, José Carlos; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Guevara-García, Ángel Arturo; López-Bucio, José

    2017-09-01

    Arabidopsis med12 and med13 mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes related to an altered auxin homeostasis. Sucrose supplementation reactivates both cell division and elongation in primary roots as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression in these mutants. An analysis of primary root growth of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants in response to sucrose and/or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) placed MED12 upstream of auxin transport for the sugar modulation of root growth. The MEDIATOR (MED) complex plays diverse functions in plant development, hormone signaling and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance through coordination of transcription. Here, we performed genetic, developmental, molecular and pharmacological analyses to characterize the role of MED12 and MED13 on the configuration of root architecture and its relationship with auxin and sugar responses. Arabidopsis med12 and med13 single mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes consistent with altered auxin homeostasis including altered primary root growth, lateral root development, and root hair elongation. MED12 and MED13 were required for activation of cell division and elongation in primary roots, as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression. Remarkably, most of these mutant phenotypes were rescued by supplying sucrose to the growth medium. The growth response of primary roots of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants to sucrose and application of auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) revealed the correlation of med12 phenotype with the activity of the auxin intake permease and suggests that MED12 acts upstream of AUX1 in the root growth response to sugar. These data provide compelling evidence that MEDIATOR links sugar sensing to auxin transport and distribution during root morphogenesis.

  11. The Arabidopsis concentration-dependent influx/efflux transporter ABCB4 regulates cellular auxin levels in the root epidermis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubeš, Martin; Yang, H.; Richter, G.L.; Cheng, Y.; Młodzińska, E.; Wang, X.; Blakeslee, J.J.; Carraro, N.; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Hoyerová, Klára; Ann Peer, W.; Murphy, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2012), s. 640-654 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin * auxin transporters * ATP-binding cassette B4 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.582, year: 2012

  12. ROTUNDA3 function in plant development by phosphatase 2A-mediated regulation of auxin transporter recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelias, Michael; Neyt, Pia; De Groeve, Steven; Aesaert, Stijn; Coussens, Griet; Rolčík, Jakub; Bruno, Leonardo; De Winne, Nancy; Van Minnebruggen, Annemie; Van Montagu, Marc; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis; Friml, Jiří; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2016-03-08

    The shaping of organs in plants depends on the intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin, of which the directional signaling is determined by the polar subcellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins. Phosphorylation dynamics of PIN proteins are affected by the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and the PINOID kinase, which act antagonistically to mediate their apical-basal polar delivery. Here, we identified the ROTUNDA3 (RON3) protein as a regulator of the PP2A phosphatase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The RON3 gene was map-based cloned starting from the ron3-1 leaf mutant and found to be a unique, plant-specific gene coding for a protein with high and dispersed proline content. The ron3-1 and ron3-2 mutant phenotypes [i.e., reduced apical dominance, primary root length, lateral root emergence, and growth; increased ectopic stages II, IV, and V lateral root primordia; decreased auxin maxima in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-treated root apical meristems; hypergravitropic root growth and response; increased IAA levels in shoot apices; and reduced auxin accumulation in root meristems] support a role for RON3 in auxin biology. The affinity-purified PP2A complex with RON3 as bait suggested that RON3 might act in PIN transporter trafficking. Indeed, pharmacological interference with vesicle trafficking processes revealed that single ron3-2 and double ron3-2 rcn1 mutants have altered PIN polarity and endocytosis in specific cells. Our data indicate that RON3 contributes to auxin-mediated development by playing a role in PIN recycling and polarity establishment through regulation of the PP2A complex activity.

  13. Distribution of indole-3-acetic acid in Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings and relationship between auxin transport, carbohydrate metabolism and adventitious root formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahkami, Amir H.; Melzer, Michael; Ghaffari, Mohammad R.; Pollmann, Stephan; Ghorbani, Majid; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Druege, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    To determine the contribution of polar auxin transport (PAT) to auxin accumulation and to adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings, the level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was monitored in non-treated cuttings and cuttings treated with the auxin transport blocker naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and was complemented with precise anatomical studies. The temporal course of carbohydrates, amino acids and activities of controlling enzymes was also inves...

  14. Gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism via counteracting auxin dynamics in cucumber roots: clinorotation and spaceflight experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Keita; Okamoto, Miki; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Fujii, Nobuharu; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Kamada, Motoshi; Kasahara, Haruo; Osada, Ikuko; Shimazu, Toru; Fusejima, Yasuo; Higashibata, Akira; Yamazaki, Takashi; Ishioka, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Akie; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-09-01

    Roots of land plants show gravitropism and hydrotropism in response to gravity and moisture gradients, respectively, for controlling their growth orientation. Gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism, although the mechanistic aspects are poorly understood. Here, we differentiated hydrotropism from gravitropism in cucumber roots by conducting clinorotation and spaceflight experiments. We also compared mechanisms regulating hydrotropism and auxin-regulated gravitropism. Clinorotated or microgravity (μG)-grown cucumber seedling roots hydrotropically bent toward wet substrate in the presence of moisture gradients, but they grew straight in the direction of normal gravitational force at the Earth's surface (1G) on the ground or centrifuge-generated 1G in space. The roots appeared to become hydrotropically more sensitive to moisture gradients under μG conditions in space. Auxin transport inhibitors significantly reduced the hydrotropic response of clinorotated seedling roots. The auxin efflux protein CsPIN5 was differentially expressed in roots of both clinorotated and μG-grown seedlings; with higher expression in the high-humidity (concave) side than the low-humidity (convex) side of hydrotropically responding roots. Our results suggest that roots become hydrotropically sensitive in μG, and CsPIN5-mediated auxin transport has an important role in inducing root hydrotropism. Thus, hydrotropic and gravitropic responses in cucumber roots may compete via differential auxin dynamics established in response to moisture gradients and gravity. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. A mutation in the Arabidopsis HYL1 gene encoding a dsRNA binding protein affects responses to abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Fedoroff, N.

    2000-01-01

    Both physiological and genetic evidence indicate interconnections among plant responses to different hormones. We describe a pleiotropic recessive Arabidopsis transposon insertion mutation, designated hyponastic leaves (hyl1), that alters the plant's responses to several hormones. The mutant is characterized by shorter stature, delayed flowering, leaf hyponasty, reduced fertility, decreased rate of root growth, and an altered root gravitropic response. It also exhibits less sensitivity to auxin and cytokinin and hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid normalizes the mutant phenotype somewhat, whereas another auxin transport inhibitor, N-(1-naph-thyl)phthalamic acid, exacerbates the phenotype. The gene, designated HYL1, encodes a 419-amino acid protein that contains two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding motifs, a nuclear localization motif, and a C-terminal repeat structure suggestive of a protein-protein interaction domain. We present evidence that the HYL1 gene is ABA-regulated and encodes a nuclear dsRNA binding protein. We hypothesize that the HYL1 protein is a regulatory protein functioning at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level.

  16. In vitro oxidation of indoleacetic acid by soluble auxin-oxidases and peroxidases from maize roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beffa, R.; Martin, H.V.; Pilet, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    Soluble auxin-oxidases were extracted from Zea mays L. cv LG11 apical root segments and partially separated from peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) by size-exclusion chromatography. Auxin-oxidases were resolved into one main peak corresponding to a molecular mass of 32.5 kilodaltons and a minor peak at 54.5 kilodaltons. Peroxidases were separated into at least four peaks, with molecular masses from 32.5 to 78 kilodaltons. In vitro activity of indoleacetic acid-oxidases was dependent on the presence of MnCl 2 and p-coumaric acid. Compound(s) present in the crude extract and several synthetic auxin transport inhibitors (including 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) inhibited auxin-oxidase activity, but had no effect on peroxidases. The products resulting from the in vitro enzymatic oxidation of [ 3 H]indoleacetic acid were separated by HPLC and the major metabolite was found to cochromatograph with indol-3yl-methanol

  17. Regulation of ABCB1/PGP1-catalysed auxin transport by linker phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, Sina; Wang, Bangjun; Fukao, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin is controlled by PIN-and ABCB/PGP-efflux catalysts. PIN polarity is regulated by the AGC protein kinase, PINOID (PID), while ABCB activity was shown to be dependent on interaction with the FKBP42, TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-I...

  18. myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is required for polar auxin transport and organ development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming

    2010-01-01

    , cotyledon venation patterning, root growth, and root cap development. The mutant roots are also agravitropic and have reduced basipetal auxin transport. mips1 mutants have significantly reduced levels of major phosphatidylinositols and exhibit much slower

  19. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H.; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin. PMID

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2014-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin.

  1. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe eDruege

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled

  2. Partial loss-of-function alleles reveal a role for GNOM in auxin transport-related, post-embryonic development of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldner, Niko; Richter, Sandra; Vieten, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis GNOM gene encodes an ARF GDP/GTP exchange factor involved in embryonic axis formation and polar localisation of the auxin efflux regulator PIN1. To examine whether GNOM also plays a role in post-embryonic development and to clarify its involvement in auxin transport, we have...

  3. Auxin uptake, transport and accumulation in relation to rooting and ageing of mung bean cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, B.C.; Shaheed, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The rooting response of mung bean cuttings (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. cv. Berkin) to indoleacetic acid (IAA) progressively declined when they were aged in water prior to auxin treatment. With increased duration of the ageing period the uptake of basally-supplied auxin by cuttings decreased. This correlated with diminished transpiration. Notwithstanding this decline in the uptake of IAA, a decreasing proportion of the acquired auxin was transported acropetally out of the hypocotyl with increasing age of the cuttings. Recovery of 14 C from cuttings 24 h after the foliar application of 14 C-IAA declined with increasing age of the cuttings. Furthermore, the total amount of radioactivity recovered in the hypocotyl diminished as a function of the increasing age of cuttings, as did the proportion of radioactivity located in the hypocotyl. (author)

  4. Characterization of transmembrane auxin transport in Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seifertová, Daniela; Skůpa, Petr; Rychtář, J.; Laňková, Martina; Pařezová, Markéta; Dobrev, Petre; Hoyerová, Klára; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 6 (2014), s. 429-437 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin influx * Auxin efflux * Auxin metabolic profiling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  5. 5'-azido-N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, a photolabile analog of the auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid: synthesis and binding properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voet, J.G.; Howley, K.; Shumsky, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The polar transport of the plant growth regulator, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAAH), is thought to involve the participation of several proteins in the plasma membrane, including a specific, saturable, voltage independent H + /IAA - efflux carrier located preferentially at the basal end of each cell. Auxin transport is specifically inhibited by the herbicide, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), which binds specifically to a protein in the plasma membrane, thought to be either the IAA - efflux carrier or an allosteric effector protein. They have synthesized and characterized a photolabile analog of NPA, 5'-azido-N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (Az-NPA). This potential photoaffinity label for the NPA binding protein competes with 3 H-NPA for binding sites on Curcurbita pepo L. (zucchini) stem cell membranes with K/sub j/ = 1.5 x 10 -7 M. The K/sub i/ for NPA under these conditions is 2 x 10 -8 M, indicating that the affinity of Az-NPA for the membranes is only 7.5 fold lower than NPA. While the binding of 4.6 x 10 -6 M Az-NPA to NPA binding sites is reversible in the dark, exposure to light results in a 30% loss in 3 H-NPA binding ability. Pretreatment with 10 -4 M NPA protects the membranes against photodestruction of 3 H-NPA binding sites by Az-NPA, supporting the conclusion that Az-NPA destroys these sites by specific covalent attachment

  6. S-nitrosylation mediates nitric oxide -auxin crosstalk in auxin signaling and polar auxin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) and auxin phytohormone cross talk has been implicated in plant development and growth. Addition and removal of NO moieties to cysteine residues of proteins, is termed S-nitrosylation and de-nitrosylation, respectively and functions as an on/off switch of protein activity. This dyna...

  7. OsPIN5b modulates rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and yield by changing auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Coneva, Viktoriya; Casaretto, José A; Ying, Shan; Mahmood, Kashif; Liu, Fang; Nambara, Eiji; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    Plant architecture attributes such as tillering, plant height and panicle size are important agronomic traits that determine rice (Oryza sativa) productivity. Here, we report that altered auxin content, transport and distribution affect these traits, and hence rice yield. Overexpression of the auxin efflux carrier-like gene OsPIN5b causes pleiotropic effects, mainly reducing plant height, leaf and tiller number, shoot and root biomass, seed-setting rate, panicle length and yield parameters. Conversely, reduced expression of OsPIN5b results in higher tiller number, more vigorous root system, longer panicles and increased yield. We show that OsPIN5b is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -localized protein that participates in auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution in vivo. This work describes an example of an auxin-related gene where modulating its expression can simultaneously improve plant architecture and yield potential in rice, and reveals an important effect of hormonal signaling on these traits. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-10-03

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA ratios. Microscope observation showed that auxin treatment delayed rupture of the soybean seed coat and radicle protrusion. qPCR assay revealed that transcription of the genes involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated by application of auxin, while expression of genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated. Accordingly, further phytohormone quantification shows that auxin significantly increased ABA content, whereas the active GA 1 and GA 4 levels were decreased, resulting insignificant decreases in the ratiosGA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA.Consistent with this, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone reversed the delayed-germination phenotype associated with auxin treatment, while paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Altogether, exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination by mediating ABA and GA biosynthesis.

  9. Dynamic regulation of auxin oxidase and conjugating enzymes AtDAO1 and GH3 modulates auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Band, Leah R; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Rashed, Afaf; Holman, Tara; Wilson, Michael H; Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; King, John R; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm J; Owen, Markus R

    2016-09-27

    The hormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development, and great progress has been made understanding auxin transport and signaling. Here, we show that auxin metabolism and homeostasis are also regulated in a complex manner. The principal auxin degradation pathways in Arabidopsis include oxidation by Arabidopsis thaliana gene DIOXYGENASE FOR AUXIN OXIDATION 1/2 (AtDAO1/2) and conjugation by Gretchen Hagen3s (GH3s). Metabolic profiling of dao1-1 root tissues revealed a 50% decrease in the oxidation product 2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) and increases in the conjugated forms indole-3-acetic acid aspartic acid (IAA-Asp) and indole-3-acetic acid glutamic acid (IAA-Glu) of 438- and 240-fold, respectively, whereas auxin remains close to the WT. By fitting parameter values to a mathematical model of these metabolic pathways, we show that, in addition to reduced oxidation, both auxin biosynthesis and conjugation are increased in dao1-1 Transcripts of AtDAO1 and GH3 genes increase in response to auxin over different timescales and concentration ranges. Including this regulation of AtDAO1 and GH3 in an extended model reveals that auxin oxidation is more important for auxin homoeostasis at lower hormone concentrations, whereas auxin conjugation is most significant at high auxin levels. Finally, embedding our homeostasis model in a multicellular simulation to assess the spatial effect of the dao1-1 mutant shows that auxin increases in outer root tissues in agreement with the dao1-1 mutant root hair phenotype. We conclude that auxin homeostasis is dependent on AtDAO1, acting in concert with GH3, to maintain auxin at optimal levels for plant growth and development.

  10. Phyllotaxis involves auxin drainage through leaf primordia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Yamini; Marti, Dominik; Frenz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of leaves and flowers around the stem, known as phyllotaxis, is controlled by an auxin-dependent reiterative mechanism that leads to regular spacing of the organs and thereby to remarkably precise phyllotactic patterns. The mechanism is based on the active cellular transport...... of phyllotaxis invoke the accumulation of auxin at leaf initials and removal of auxin through their developing vascular strand, the midvein. We have developed a precise microsurgical tool to ablate the midvein at high spatial and temporal resolution in order to test its function in leaf formation and phyllotaxis...

  11. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. What has been seen cannot be unseen-detecting auxin in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pařízková, Barbora; Pernisová, M.; Novák, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 2736. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA16-01137S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * Auxin distribution * Auxin signalling * Auxin transport * Direct visualization * Indirect visualization * Receptor * Sensor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  13. Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Li Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1 and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns. Hydropathy analysis revealed that both polypeptides have two hydrophobic regions with five transmembrane segments and a predominantly hydrophilic core. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that McPIN1 shared the highest homology to the group of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato PIN1, while McPIN3 belonged to another group, including Arabidopsis and tomato PIN3 as well as PIN4. This suggests different roles for McPIN1 and McPIN3 in auxin transport involved in the fruit development of bitter gourd. Maximum mRNA levels for both genes were detected in staminate and pistillate flowers. McPIN1 is expressed in a particular period of early fruit development but McPIN3 continues to be expressed until the last stage of fruit ripening. Moreover, these two genes are auxin-inducible and qualified as early auxin-response genes. Their expression patterns suggest that these two auxin transporter genes play a pivotal role in fruit setting and development.

  14. Expression Profiling of Strawberry Allergen Fra a during Fruit Ripening Controlled by Exogenous Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Uno, Yuichi

    2017-06-02

    Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an important plant hormone in strawberry fruit that controls fruit fleshiness and ripening. In this study, we treated strawberry fruits with exogenous auxin or auxin inhibitors at pre- and post-harvest stages, and analyzed Fra a transcriptional and translational expression levels during fruit development by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Pre-harvest treatment with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone did not affect Fra a expression, but applied in conjunction with achene removal NAA promoted fruit pigmentation and Fra a protein accumulation. The response was developmental stage-specific: Fra a 1 was highly expressed in immature fruit, whereas Fra a 2 was expressed in young to ripe fruit. In post-harvest treatments, auxin did not contribute to Fra a induction. Auxin inhibitors delayed fruit ripening; as a result, they seemed to influence Fra a 1 expression. Thus, Fra a expression was not directly regulated by auxin, but might be associated with the ripening process and/or external factors in a paralog-specific manner.

  15. Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Ovules Is Anther-Dependent at Maturation and Changes Dynamically upon Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Larsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin is a vital component for plant reproduction as it regulates the development of both male and female reproductive organs, including ovules and gynoecia. Furthermore, auxin plays important roles in the development and growth of seeds and fruits. Auxin responses can be detected in ovules shortly after fertilization, and it has been suggested that this accumulation is a prerequisite for the developmental reprogramming of the ovules to seeds, and of the gynoecium to a fruit. However, the roles of auxin at the final stages of ovule development, and the sources of auxin leading to the observed responses in ovules after fertilization have remained elusive. Here we have characterized the auxin readout in Arabidopsis ovules, at the pre-anthesis, anthesis and in the immediate post-fertilization stages, using the R2D2 auxin sensor. In addition we have mapped the expression of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation genes, as well as that of auxin transporting proteins, during the same developmental stages. These analyses reveal specific spatiotemporal patterns of the different auxin homeostasis regulators. Auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin transport proteins define a pre-patterning of vascular cell identity in the pre-anthesis funiculus. Furthermore, our data suggests that auxin efflux from the ovule is restricted in an anther-dependent manner, presumably to synchronize reproductive organ development and thereby optimizing the chances of successful fertilization. Finally, de novo auxin biosynthesis together with reduced auxin conjugation and transport result in an enhanced auxin readout throughout the sporophytic tissues of the ovules soon after fertilization. Together, our results suggest a sophisticated set of regulatory cascades that allow successful fertilization and the subsequent transition of the female reproductive structures into seeds and fruits.

  16. A comprehensive phylogeny of auxin homeostasis genes involved in adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Sánchez-García

    Full Text Available Understanding the functional basis of auxin homeostasis requires knowledge about auxin biosynthesis, auxin transport and auxin catabolism genes, which is not always directly available despite the recent whole-genome sequencing of many plant species. Through sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analyses on a selection of 11 plant species with high-quality genome annotation, we identified the putative gene homologs involved in auxin biosynthesis, auxin catabolism and auxin transport pathways in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. To deepen our knowledge of the regulatory events underlying auxin-mediated adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings, we used RNA-sequencing data to confirm the expression profiles of some auxin homeostasis genes during the rooting of two carnation cultivars with different rooting behaviors. We also confirmed the presence of several auxin-related metabolites in the stem cutting tissues. Our findings offer a comprehensive overview of auxin homeostasis genes in carnation and provide a solid foundation for further experiments investigating the role of auxin homeostasis in the regulation of adventitious root formation in carnation.

  17. Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Jin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in regulating myriads of plant growth and developmental processes. Microbe infection can disturb auxin signaling resulting in defects in these processes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Auxin signaling begins with perception of auxin by a transient co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box transport inhibitor response 1/auxin signaling F-box (TIR1/AFB protein and an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the co-receptor triggers ubiquitination and 26S proteasome degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins, leading to subsequent events, including expression of auxin-responsive genes. Here we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV, a devastating pathogen of rice, causes disease symptoms including dwarfing, increased tiller number and short crown roots in infected rice as a result of reduced sensitivity to auxin signaling. The RDV capsid protein P2 binds OsIAA10, blocking the interaction between OsIAA10 and OsTIR1 and inhibiting 26S proteasome-mediated OsIAA10 degradation. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing wild-type or a dominant-negative (degradation-resistant mutant of OsIAA10 phenocopy RDV symptoms are more susceptible to RDV infection; however, knockdown of OsIAA10 enhances the resistance of rice to RDV infection. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral protein reprogramming of a key step in auxin signaling initiation that enhances viral infection and pathogenesis.

  18. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inê s CR; Willige, Bjö rn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  19. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  20. A rho scaffold integrates the secretory system with feedback mechanisms in regulation of auxin distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Hazak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Development in multicellular organisms depends on the ability of individual cells to coordinate their behavior by means of small signaling molecules to form correctly patterned tissues. In plants, a unique mechanism of directional transport of the signaling molecule auxin between cells connects cell polarity and tissue patterning and thus is required for many aspects of plant development. Direction of auxin flow is determined by polar subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux transporters. Dynamic PIN polar localization results from the constitutive endocytic cycling to and from the plasma membrane, but it is not well understood how this mechanism connects to regulators of cell polarity. The Rho family small GTPases ROPs/RACs are master regulators of cell polarity, however their role in regulating polar protein trafficking and polar auxin transport has not been established. Here, by analysis of mutants and transgenic plants, we show that the ROP interactor and polarity regulator scaffold protein ICR1 is required for recruitment of PIN proteins to the polar domains at the plasma membrane. icr1 mutant embryos and plants display an a array of severe developmental aberrations that are caused by compromised differential auxin distribution. ICR1 functions at the plasma membrane where it is required for exocytosis but does not recycle together with PINs. ICR1 expression is quickly induced by auxin but is suppressed at the positions of stable auxin maxima in the hypophysis and later in the embryonic and mature root meristems. Our results imply that ICR1 is part of an auxin regulated positive feedback loop realized by a unique integration of auxin-dependent transcriptional regulation into ROP-mediated modulation of cell polarity. Thus, ICR1 forms an auxin-modulated link between cell polarity, exocytosis, and auxin transport-dependent tissue patterning.

  1. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen Gas Is Involved in Auxin-Induced Lateral Root Formation by Modulating Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2 in bacteria and algae has been widely studied, and it has attracted increasing attention in the context of animals and plants. However, the role of endogenous H2 in lateral root (LR formation is still unclear. Here, our results showed that H2-induced lateral root formation is a universal event. Naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA; the auxin analog was able to trigger endogenous H2 production in tomato seedlings, and a contrasting response was observed in the presence of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid (NPA, an auxin transport inhibitor. NPA-triggered the inhibition of H2 production and thereafter lateral root development was rescued by exogenously applied H2. Detection of endogenous nitric oxide (NO by the specific probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR analyses revealed that the NO level was increased in both NAA- and H2-treated tomato seedlings. Furthermore, NO production and thereafter LR formation induced by auxin and H2 were prevented by 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO; a specific scavenger of NO and the inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR; an important NO synthetic enzyme. Molecular evidence confirmed that some representative NO-targeted cell cycle regulatory genes were also induced by H2, but was impaired by the removal of endogenous NO. Genetic evidence suggested that in the presence of H2, Arabidopsis mutants nia2 (in particular and nia1 (two nitrate reductases (NR-defective mutants exhibited defects in lateral root length. Together, these results demonstrated that auxin-induced H2 production was associated with lateral root formation, at least partially via a NR-dependent NO synthesis.

  3. The role of auxin in temperature regulated hypocotyl elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estelle, Mark [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-10-02

    The major goal of this project was to determine how auxin mediates the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to increased ambient temperature. Previous studies have shown that the response is due, in part, to increased auxin biosynthesis via the IPA auxin biosynthetic pathway. This effect is related to increased transcription of genes that encode enzymes in this pathway. However, during the last year we have shown that transcription of key auxin regulated genes increases within minutes of a shift to elevated temperature. This response is probably to rapid to be explained by changes in the levels of auxin biosynthetic enzymes. Interestingly, we have recently discovered that temperature shift is associated with a rapid increase in the level of the auxin co-receptor TIR1. This change appears is the result of increased stability of the protein. At the same time, we have discovered that stability of TIR1 is dependent on the chaperone HSP9o and its co-chaperone SGT1. By using the specific HSP90 inhibitor GDA, we show that HSP90 is required for the temperature dependent change in TIR1 levels. We have also shown that HSP90 and SGT1 interact directly with TIR1. Our results also lead us to propose a new model in which the plant responds rapidly to changes in ambient temperature by directly regulating the TIR1/AFB receptor system, thus modulating the auxin signaling pathway.

  4. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2011-03-24

    Deposition of ammonium (NH4 +) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH4 + is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Adaptation of root growth to increased ambient temperature requires auxin and ethylene coordination in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Qionghui; Wei, Shaodong; Zhou, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A fresh look at the roles of auxin, ethylene, and polar auxin transport during the plant root growth response to warmer ambient temperature (AT). Abstract: The ambient temperature (AT) affects plant growth and development. Plants can sense changes in the AT, but how this change......-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). AUX1, PIN1, and PIN2 are involved in the ckrc1-1 root gravity response under increased AT. Furthermore, CKRC1-dependent auxin biosynthesis was critical for maintaining PIN1, PIN2, and AUX1 expression at elevated temperatures. Ethylene was also involved...... in this regulation through the ETR1 pathway. Higher AT can promote CKRC1-dependent auxin biosynthesis by enhancing ETR1-mediated ethylene signaling. Our research suggested that the interaction between auxin and ethylene and that the interaction-mediated polar auxin transport play important roles during the plant...

  6. Light-mediated polarization of the PIN3 auxin transporter for the phototropic response in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Zhaojun; Galván-Ampudia Carlos S; Demarsy Emilie; Langowski Lukasz; Kleine-Vehn Jürgen; Fan Yuanwei; Morita Miyo T; Tasaka Masao; Fankhauser Christian; Offringa Remko; Friml Jirí

    2011-01-01

    Phototropism is an adaptation response through which plants grow towards the light. It involves light perception and asymmetric distribution of the plant hormone auxin. Here we identify a crucial part of the mechanism for phototropism revealing how light perception initiates auxin redistribution that leads to directional growth. We show that light polarizes the cellular localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN3 in hypocotyl endodermis cells resulting in changes in auxin distribution and d...

  7. myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is required for polar auxin transport and organ development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-06-01

    myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is a conserved enzyme that catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in inositol biosynthesis. Despite its wide occurrence in all eukaryotes, the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase and de novo inositol biosynthesis in cell signaling and organism development has been unclear. In this study, we isolated loss-of-function mutants in the Arabidopsis MIPS1 gene from different ecotypes. It was found that all mips1 mutants are defective in embryogenesis, cotyledon venation patterning, root growth, and root cap development. The mutant roots are also agravitropic and have reduced basipetal auxin transport. mips1 mutants have significantly reduced levels of major phosphatidylinositols and exhibit much slower rates of endocytosis. Treatment with brefeldin A induces slower PIN2 protein aggregation in mips1, indicating altered PIN2 trafficking. Our results demonstrate that MIPS1 is critical for maintaining phosphatidylinositol levels and affects pattern formation in plants likely through regulation of auxin distribution. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Suppression of elongation and growth of tomato seedlings by auxin biosynthesis inhibitors and modeling of the growth and environmental response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashide, Tadahisa; Narukawa, Megumi; Shimada, Yukihisa; Soeno, Kazuo

    2014-04-02

    To develop a growth inhibitor, the effects of auxin inhibitors were investigated. Application of 30 μM L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) or (S)-methyl 2-((1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)oxy)-3-phenylpropanoate (KOK1101), decreased the endogenous IAA levels in tomato seedlings at 8 days after sowing. Then, 10-1200 μM AOPP or KOK1101 were sprayed on the leaves and stem of 2-3 leaf stage tomato plants grown under a range of environmental conditions. We predicted plant growth and environmental response using a model based on the observed suppression of leaf enlargement. Spraying AOPP or KOK1101 decreased stem length and leaf area. Concentration-dependent inhibitions and dose response curves were observed. Although the effects of the inhibitors on dry weight varied according to the environmental conditions, the net assimilation rate was not influenced by the inhibitors. Accordingly, the observed decrease in dry weight caused by the inhibitors may result from decreased leaf area. Validation of the model based on observed data independent of the dataset showed good correlations between the observed and predicted values of dry weight and leaf area index.

  9. Sensory role of actin in auxin-dependent responses of tobacco BY-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Maisch, Jan; Nick, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Polar auxin transport depends on the polar localization of auxin-efflux carriers. The cycling of these carriers between cell interior and plasma membrane depends on actin. The dynamic of actin not only affects auxin transport, but also changes the auxin-responsiveness. To study the potential link between auxin responsiveness and actin dynamics, we investigated developmental responses of the non-transformed BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow 2) cell line and the transgenic BY-2 strain GF11 (stably transformed BY-2 cells with a GFP-fimbrin actin-binding domain 2 construct). The developmental process was divided into three distinct stages: cell cycling, cell elongation and file disintegration. Several phenotypes were measured to monitor the cellular responses to different concentrations of exogenous natural auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). We found that auxin stimulated and prolonged the mitotic activity, and delayed the exit from the proliferation phase. However, both responses were suppressed in the GF11 line. At the stationary phase of the cultivation cycle, auxin strongly accelerated the cell file disintegration. Interestingly, it was not suppressed but progressed to a more complete disintegration in the GF11 line. During the cultivation cycle, we also followed the organization of actin in the GF11 line and did not detect any significant difference in actin organization from untreated control or exogenous IAA treatment. Therefore, our findings indicate that the specific differences observed in the GF11 line must be linked with a function of actin that is not structural. It means that there is a sensory role of actin for auxin signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced Conjugation of Auxin by GH3 Enzymes Leads to Poor Adventitious Rooting in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Antonio; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Albacete, Alfonso; González-Bayón, Rebeca; Justamante, María Salud; Ibáñez, Sergio; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Commercial carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus ) cultivars are vegetatively propagated from axillary stem cuttings through adventitious rooting; a process which is affected by complex interactions between nutrient and hormone levels and is strongly genotype-dependent. To deepen our understanding of the regulatory events controlling this process, we performed a comparative study of adventitious root (AR) formation in two carnation cultivars with contrasting rooting performance, "2101-02 MFR" and "2003 R 8", as well as in the reference cultivar "Master". We provided molecular evidence that localized auxin response in the stem cutting base was required for efficient adventitious rooting in this species, which was dynamically established by polar auxin transport from the leaves. In turn, the bad-rooting behavior of the "2003 R 8" cultivar was correlated with enhanced synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid conjugated to aspartic acid by GH3 proteins in the stem cutting base. Treatment of stem cuttings with a competitive inhibitor of GH3 enzyme activity significantly improved rooting of "2003 R 8". Our results allowed us to propose a working model where endogenous auxin homeostasis regulated by GH3 proteins accounts for the cultivar dependency of AR formation in carnation stem cuttings.

  11. A recovery principle provides insight into auxin pattern control in the Arabidopsis root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon; Liu, Junli; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Lindsey, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Regulated auxin patterning provides a key mechanism for controlling root growth and development. We have developed a data-driven mechanistic model using realistic root geometry and formulated a principle to theoretically investigate quantitative auxin pattern recovery following auxin transport perturbation. This principle reveals that auxin patterning is potentially controlled by multiple combinations of interlinked levels and localisation of influx and efflux carriers. We demonstrate that (1) when efflux carriers maintain polarity but change levels, maintaining the same auxin pattern requires non-uniform and polar distribution of influx carriers; (2) the emergence of the same auxin pattern, from different levels of influx carriers with the same nonpolar localisation, requires simultaneous modulation of efflux carrier level and polarity; and (3) multiple patterns of influx and efflux carriers for maintaining an auxin pattern do not have spatially proportional correlation. This reveals that auxin pattern formation requires coordination between influx and efflux carriers. We further show that the model makes various predictions that can be experimentally validated. PMID:28220889

  12. The role of auxins in somatic embryogenesis of Abies alba

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráková, Zuzana; Eliášová, Kateřina; Fischerová, Lucie; Vágner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), s. 587-596 ISSN 1895-104X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin inhibitor * Fir * Phytohormone Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  13. Coevolving MAPK and PID phosphosites indicate an ancient environmental control of PIN auxin transporters in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Magdalena; Hatzimasoura, Elizabeth; Kállai, Brigitta M; Nagy, Szilvia K; Jäger, Katalin; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Nádai, Tímea V; Mészáros, Tamás; López-Juez, Enrique; Barnabás, Beáta; Palme, Klaus; Bögre, László; Ditengou, Franck A; Dóczi, Róbert

    2018-01-01

    Plant growth flexibly adapts to environmental conditions, implying cross-talk between environmental signalling and developmental regulation. Here, we show that the PIN auxin efflux carrier family possesses three highly conserved putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) sites adjacent to the phosphorylation sites of the well-characterised AGC kinase PINOID, which regulates the polar localisation of PINs and directional auxin transport, thereby underpinning organ growth. The conserved sites of PIN1 are phosphorylated in vitro by two environmentally activated MAPKs, MPK4 and MPK6. In contrast to AGC kinases, MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of PIN1 at adjacent sites leads to a partial loss of the plasma membrane localisation of PIN1. MAPK-mediated modulation of PIN trafficking may participate in environmental adjustment of plant growth. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Overexpression of the Auxin Binding PROTEIN1 Modulates PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport in Tobacco Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čovanová, Milada; Sauer, M.; Rychtář, J.; Friml, J.; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797; GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/12/P951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ZEA - MAYS -L * PLANT HORMONE AUXIN * MEMBRANE H+-ATPASE Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  15. The effect of NGATHA altered activity in auxin signaling pathways within the Arabidopsis gynoecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMartinez-Fernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The four NGATHA genes (NGA form a small subfamily within the large family of B3-domain transcription factors of Arabidopsis thaliana. NGA genes act redundantly to direct the development of the apical tissues of the gynoecium, the style and the stigma. Previous studies indicate that NGA genes could exert this function at least partially by directing the synthesis of auxin at the distal end of the developing gynoecium through the upregulation of two different YUCCA genes, which encode flavin monooxygenases involved in auxin biosynthesis. We have compared three developing pistil transcriptome data sets from wildtype, nga quadruple mutants and a 35S::NGA3 line. The differentially expressed genes showed a significant enrichment for auxin-related genes, supporting the idea of NGA genes as major regulators of auxin accumulation and distribution within the developing gynoecium.We have introduced reporter lines for several of these differentially expressed genes involved in synthesis, transport and response to auxin in NGA gain- and loss-of-function backgrounds. We present here a detailed map of the response of these reporters to NGA misregulation that could help to clarify the role of NGA in auxin-mediated gynoecium morphogenesis. Our data point to a very reduced auxin synthesis in the developing apical gynoecium of nga mutants, likely responsible for the lack of DR5rev::GFP reporter activity observed in these mutants. In addition, NGA altered activity affects the expression of protein kinases that regulate the cellular localization of auxin efflux regulators, and thus likely impact auxin transport. Finally, protein accumulation in pistils of several ARFs was differentially affected by nga mutations or NGA overexpression, suggesting that these accumulation patterns depend not only on auxin distribution but could be also regulated by transcriptional networks involving NGA factors.

  16. Enhanced Conjugation of Auxin by GH3 Enzymes Leads to Poor Adventitious Rooting in Carnation Stem Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cultivars are vegetatively propagated from axillary stem cuttings through adventitious rooting; a process which is affected by complex interactions between nutrient and hormone levels and is strongly genotype-dependent. To deepen our understanding of the regulatory events controlling this process, we performed a comparative study of adventitious root (AR formation in two carnation cultivars with contrasting rooting performance, “2101–02 MFR” and “2003 R 8”, as well as in the reference cultivar “Master”. We provided molecular evidence that localized auxin response in the stem cutting base was required for efficient adventitious rooting in this species, which was dynamically established by polar auxin transport from the leaves. In turn, the bad-rooting behavior of the “2003 R 8” cultivar was correlated with enhanced synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid conjugated to aspartic acid by GH3 proteins in the stem cutting base. Treatment of stem cuttings with a competitive inhibitor of GH3 enzyme activity significantly improved rooting of “2003 R 8”. Our results allowed us to propose a working model where endogenous auxin homeostasis regulated by GH3 proteins accounts for the cultivar dependency of AR formation in carnation stem cuttings.

  17. Antagonistic regulation of PIN phosphorylation by PP2A and PINOID directs auxin flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michniewicz, M.; Zago, M.K.; Abas, L.; Weijers, D.; Schweighofer, A.; Meskiene, I.; Heisler, M.G.; Ohno, C.; Zhang, J.; Huang, F.; Schwab, R.; Weigel, D.; Meyerowitz, E.M.; Luschnig, C.; Offringa, R.; Friml, J.

    2007-01-01

    In plants, cell polarity and tissue patterning are connected by intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin, whose directional signaling depends on polar subcellular localization of PIN auxin transport proteins. The mechanism of polar targeting of PINs or other cargos in plants is largely

  18. Expression of a gymnosperm PIN homologous gene correlates with auxin immunolocalization pattern at cotyledon formation and in demarcation of the procambium during Picea abies somatic embryo development and in seedling tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palovaara, Joakim; Hallberg, Henrik; Stasolla, Claudio; Luit, Bert; Hakman, Inger

    2010-04-01

    In seed plants, the body organization is established during embryogenesis and is uniform across gymnosperms and angiosperms, despite differences during early embryogeny. Evidence from angiosperms implicates the plant hormone auxin and its polar transport, mainly established by the PIN family of auxin efflux transporters, in the patterning of embryos. Here, PaPIN1 from Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), a gene widely expressed in conifer tissues and organs, was characterized and its expression and localization patterns were determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization during somatic embryo development and in seedlings. PaPIN1 shares the predicted structure of other PIN proteins, but its central hydrophilic loop is longer than most PINs. In phylogenetic analyses, PaPIN1 clusters with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. PIN3, PIN4 and PIN7, but its expression pattern also suggests similarity to PIN1. The PaPIN1 expression signal was high in the protoderm of pre-cotyledonary embryos, but not if embryos were pre-treated with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). This, together with a high auxin immunolocalization signal in this cell layer, suggests a role of PaPIN1 during cotyledon formation. At later stages, high PaPIN1 expression was observed in differentiating procambium, running from the tip of incipient cotyledons down through the embryo axis and to the root apical meristem (RAM), although the mode of RAM specification in conifer embryos differs from that of most angiosperms. Also, the PaPIN1 in situ signal was high in seedling root tips including root cap columella cells. The results thus suggest that PaPIN1 provides an ancient function associated with auxin transport and embryo pattern formation prior to the separation of angiosperms and gymnosperms, in spite of some morphological differences.

  19. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-10-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stresses affect LR formation. We proposed that SSA regulates LR emergence by interrupting AUX1-mediated auxin transport from shoot to root. Here, by analyzing both ABA- and auxin-related mutants, we show that AUX1 is also required for SSA-mediated suppression of primary root growth. Ammonium content in shoots was furthermore shown to increase linearly with shoot-, but not root-supplied, ammonium, suggesting it may represent the internal trigger for SSA inhibition of root development. Taken together, our data identify AUX1-mediated auxin transport as a key transmission step in the sensing of excessive ammonium exposure and its inhibitory effect on root development. 

  20. Auxin production in the endosperm drives seed coat development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Duarte D; Batista, Rita A; Roszak, Pawel J; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, seed development is initiated by the fusion of the maternal egg and central cells with two paternal sperm cells, leading to the formation of embryo and endosperm, respectively. The fertilization products are surrounded by the maternally derived seed coat, whose development prior to fertilization is blocked by epigenetic regulators belonging to the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein family. Here we show that fertilization of the central cell results in the production of auxin and most likely its export to the maternal tissues, which drives seed coat development by removing PcG function. We furthermore show that mutants for the MADS-box transcription factor AGL62 have an impaired transport of auxin from the endosperm to the integuments, which results in seed abortion. We propose that AGL62 regulates auxin transport from the endosperm to the integuments, leading to the removal of the PcG block on seed coat development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20542.001 PMID:27848912

  1. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated.

  2. Auxin molecular field maps define AUX1 selectivity: many auxin herbicides are not substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoyerová, Klára; Hošek, Petr; Quareshy, M.; Li, J.; Klíma, Petr; Kubeš, Martin; Yemm, A. A.; Neve, P.; Tripathi, A.; Bennett, M.J.; Napier, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 4 (2018), s. 1625-1639 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19557S; GA MŠk LD15137 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin transport * cheminformatics * herbicide * herbicide resistance * molecular field maps * pharmacophore * structure–activity relationship * uptake carrier Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  3. The novel cyst nematode effector protein 19C07 interacts with the Arabidopsis auxin influx transporter LAX3 to control feeding site development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Chronis, Demosthenis; Kenning, Charlotte; Peret, Benjamin; Hewezi, Tarek; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J; Hussey, Richard; Bennett, Malcolm; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2011-02-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes penetrate plant roots and transform cells near the vasculature into specialized feeding sites called syncytia. Syncytia form by incorporating neighboring cells into a single fused cell by cell wall dissolution. This process is initiated via injection of esophageal gland cell effector proteins from the nematode stylet into the host cell. Once inside the cell, these proteins may interact with host proteins that regulate the phytohormone auxin, as cellular concentrations of auxin increase in developing syncytia. Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) Hg19C07 is a novel effector protein expressed specifically in the dorsal gland cell during nematode parasitism. Here, we describe its ortholog in the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), Hs19C07. We demonstrate that Hs19C07 interacts with the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) auxin influx transporter LAX3. LAX3 is expressed in cells overlying lateral root primordia, providing auxin signaling that triggers the expression of cell wall-modifying enzymes, allowing lateral roots to emerge. We found that LAX3 and polygalacturonase, a LAX3-induced cell wall-modifying enzyme, are expressed in the developing syncytium and in cells to be incorporated into the syncytium. We observed no decrease in H. schachtii infectivity in aux1 and lax3 single mutants. However, a decrease was observed in both the aux1lax3 double mutant and the aux1lax1lax2lax3 quadruple mutant. In addition, ectopic expression of 19C07 was found to speed up lateral root emergence. We propose that Hs19C07 most likely increases LAX3-mediated auxin influx and may provide a mechanism for cyst nematodes to modulate auxin flow into root cells, stimulating cell wall hydrolysis for syncytium development.

  4. PIN6 auxin transporter at endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane mediates auxin homeostasis and organogenesis in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simon, S.; Skůpa, Petr; Viaene, T.; Zwiewka, M.; Tejos, R.; Klíma, Petr; Čarná, Mária; Rolčík, J.; De Rycke, R.; Moreno, I.; Dobrev, Petre; Orellana, A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 1 (2016), s. 65-74 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-10948S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * endoplasmic reticulum (ER) * lateral root Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  5. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-07-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Functional Characterization of PaLAX1, a Putative Auxin Permease, in Heterologous Plant Systems1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyerová, Klára; Perry, Lucie; Hand, Paul; Laňková, Martina; Kocábek, Tomáš; May, Sean; Kottová, Jana; Pačes, Jan; Napier, Richard; Zažímalová, Eva

    2008-01-01

    We have isolated the cDNA of the gene PaLAX1 from a wild cherry tree (Prunus avium). The gene and its product are highly similar in sequences to both the cDNAs and the corresponding protein products of AUX/LAX-type genes, coding for putative auxin influx carriers. We have prepared and characterized transformed Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying the gene PaLAX1. We have proved that constitutive overexpression of PaLAX1 is accompanied by changes in the content and distribution of free indole-3-acetic acid, the major endogenous auxin. The increase in free indole-3-acetic acid content in transgenic plants resulted in various phenotype changes, typical for the auxin-overproducing plants. The uptake of synthetic auxin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, was 3 times higher in transgenic lines compared to the wild-type lines and the treatment with the auxin uptake inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid reverted the changes caused by the expression of PaLAX1. Moreover, the agravitropic response could be restored by expression of PaLAX1 in the mutant aux1 plants, which are deficient in auxin influx carrier activity. Based on our data, we have concluded that the product of the gene PaLAX1 promotes the uptake of auxin into cells, and, as a putative auxin influx carrier, it affects the content and distribution of free endogenous auxin in transgenic plants. PMID:18184737

  7. Auxin Response Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, Mark; Paque, Sébastien; Weijers, Dolf

    2018-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is involved in almost all developmental processes in land plants. Most, if not all, of these processes are mediated by changes in gene expression. Auxin acts on gene expression through a short nuclear pathway that converges upon the activation of a family of DNA-binding

  8. ACCERBATIN, a small molecule at the intersection of auxin and reactive oxygen species homeostasis with herbicidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuming; Depaepe, Thomas; Smet, Dajo; Hoyerova, Klara; Klíma, Petr; Cuypers, Ann; Cutler, Sean; Buyst, Dieter; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Martins, José; Petrášek, Jan; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-07-10

    The volatile two-carbon hormone ethylene acts in concert with an array of signals to affect etiolated seedling development. From a chemical screen, we isolated a quinoline carboxamide designated ACCERBATIN (AEX) that exacerbates the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-induced triple response, typical for ethylene-treated seedlings in darkness. Phenotypic analyses revealed distinct AEX effects including inhibition of root hair development and shortening of the root meristem. Mutant analysis and reporter studies further suggested that AEX most probably acts in parallel to ethylene signaling. We demonstrated that AEX functions at the intersection of auxin metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. AEX inhibited auxin efflux in BY-2 cells and promoted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidation in the shoot apical meristem and cotyledons of etiolated seedlings. Gene expression studies and superoxide/hydrogen peroxide staining further revealed that the disrupted auxin homeostasis was accompanied by oxidative stress. Interestingly, in light conditions, AEX exhibited properties reminiscent of the quinoline carboxylate-type auxin-like herbicides. We propose that AEX interferes with auxin transport from its major biosynthesis sites, either as a direct consequence of poor basipetal transport from the shoot meristematic region, or indirectly, through excessive IAA oxidation and ROS accumulation. Further investigation of AEX can provide new insights into the mechanisms connecting auxin and ROS homeostasis in plant development and provide useful tools to study auxin-type herbicides. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Sequential induction of auxin efflux and influx carriers regulates lateral root emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péret, Benjamin; Middleton, Alistair M; French, Andrew P; Larrieu, Antoine; Bishopp, Anthony; Njo, Maria; Wells, Darren M; Porco, Silvana; Mellor, Nathan; Band, Leah R; Casimiro, Ilda; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Sairanen, Ilkka; Mallet, Romain; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin; Beeckman, Tom; Benkova, Eva; Friml, Jiří; Kramer, Eric; King, John R; De Smet, Ive; Pridmore, Tony; Owen, Markus; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2013-10-22

    In Arabidopsis, lateral roots originate from pericycle cells deep within the primary root. New lateral root primordia (LRP) have to emerge through several overlaying tissues. Here, we report that auxin produced in new LRP is transported towards the outer tissues where it triggers cell separation by inducing both the auxin influx carrier LAX3 and cell-wall enzymes. LAX3 is expressed in just two cell files overlaying new LRP. To understand how this striking pattern of LAX3 expression is regulated, we developed a mathematical model that captures the network regulating its expression and auxin transport within realistic three-dimensional cell and tissue geometries. Our model revealed that, for the LAX3 spatial expression to be robust to natural variations in root tissue geometry, an efflux carrier is required--later identified to be PIN3. To prevent LAX3 from being transiently expressed in multiple cell files, PIN3 and LAX3 must be induced consecutively, which we later demonstrated to be the case. Our study exemplifies how mathematical models can be used to direct experiments to elucidate complex developmental processes.

  10. PIN proteins perform a rate-limiting function in cellular auxin efflux

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Mravec, J.; Bouchard, R.; Blakeslee, J.J.; Abas, M.; Seifertová, Daniela; Wisniewska, J.; Tadele, Z.; Kubeš, Martin; Čovanová, Milada; Dhonukshe, P.; Skůpa, Petr; Benková, E.; Perry, Lucie; Křeček, Pavel; Lee, O.R.; Fink, G.R.; Geisler, M.; Murphy, A.S.; Luschnig, C.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 312, č. 5775 (2006), s. 914-918 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038303; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin transport * PIN proteins * PGP transporters * MDR Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006

  11. Reduced expression of AtNUP62 nucleoporin gene affects auxin response in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeglin, Martin; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Luu, Doan Trung

    2016-01-01

    seedlings and at the adult stage in stipules of cauline leaves. The atnup62-1 mutant, harbouring a T-DNA insertion in intron 5, was identified as a knock-down mutant. It displayed developmental phenotypes that suggested defects in auxin transport or responsiveness. Atnup62 mutant plantlets were found...... to be hypersensitive to auxin, at the cotyledon and root levels. The phenotype of the AtNUP62-GFP overexpressing line further supported the existence of a link between AtNUP62 and auxin signalling. Furthermore, the atnup62 mutation led to an increase in the activity of the DR5 auxin-responsive promoter, and suppressed...

  12. A role for auxin redistribution in the responses of the root system architecture to phosphate starvation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacry, Philippe; Canivenc, Geneviève; Muller, Bertrand; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Van Onckelen, Harry; Rossignol, Michel; Doumas, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    primordia emergence through increased accumulation of auxin or change in sensitivity to auxin in the primordia. Both the strong effect of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and the phenotype of the auxin-transport mutants (aux1, eir1) suggest that low P availability modifies local auxin concentrations within the root system through changes in auxin transport rather than auxin synthesis.

  13. A novel cell division factor from tobacco 2B-13 cells that induced cell division in auxin-starved tobacco BY-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Eguchi, Kentaro; Nishida, Ikuo; Laukens, Kris; Witters, Erwin; van Onckelen, Harry; Nagata, Toshiyuki

    2006-06-01

    Effects of auxin as plant hormones are widespread; in fact in almost all aspects of plant growth and development auxin plays a pivotal role. Although auxin is required for propagating cell division in plant cells, its effect upon cell division is least understood. If auxin is depleted from the culture medium, cultured cells cease to divide. It has been demonstrated in this context that the addition of auxin to auxin-starved nondividing tobacco BY-2 cells induced semisynchronous cell division. On the other hand, there are some cell lines, named habituated cells, that can grow without auxin. The cause and reason for the habituated cells have not been clarified. A habituated cell line named 2B-13 is derived from the tobacco BY-2 cell line, which has been most intensively studied among plant cell lines. When we tried to find the difference between two cell lines of BY-2 and 2B-13 cells, we found that the addition of culture filtrated from the auxin-habituated 2B-13 cells induced semisynchronous cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells. The cell division factor (CDF) that is responsible for inducing cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells was purified to near-homogeneity by sequential passage through a hydroxyapatite column, a ConA Sepharose column and a Sephadex gel filtration column. The resulting purified fraction appeared as a single band of high molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels by silver staining and was able to induce cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells. Identification of the protein by MALD-TOF-MS/MS revealed that it is structurally related to P-glycoprotein from Gossypioides kirkii, which belongs to ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters. The significance of CDF as a possible ABC-transporter is discussed in relationship to auxin-autotrophic growth and auxin-signaling pathway.

  14. Abscisic acid regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating root development under drought conditions is an important question for plant biology and world agriculture. We examine the effect of osmotic stress on abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin and ethylene responses and how they mediate auxin transport, distribution and root growth through effects on PIN proteins. We integrate experimental data to construct hormonal crosstalk networks to formulate a systems view of root growth regulation by multiple hormones. Experimental analysis shows: that ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress responses increase under osmotic stress, but cytokinin responses are only slightly reduced; inhibition of root growth under osmotic stress does not require ethylene signalling, but auxin can rescue root growth and meristem size; osmotic stress modulates auxin transporter levels and localization, reducing root auxin concentrations; PIN1 levels are reduced under stress in an ABA-dependent manner, overriding ethylene effects; and the interplay among ABA, ethylene, cytokinin and auxin is tissue-specific, as evidenced by differential responses of PIN1 and PIN2 to osmotic stress. Combining experimental analysis with network construction reveals that ABA regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. The Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 transcription factor affects auxin homeostasis in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Que; Ma, Wei; Yang, Haibing; Ma, Guojie; Mantyla, Jenny J; Benning, Christoph

    2017-07-20

    WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a key transcriptional regulator of fatty acid biosynthesis genes in diverse oil-containing tissues. Loss of function of Arabidopsis WRI1 leads to a reduction in the expression of genes for fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis, and concomitant strong reduction of seed oil content. The wri1-1 loss-of-function mutant shows reduced primary root growth and decreased acidification of the growth medium. The content of a conjugated form of the plant growth hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-Asp, was higher in wri1-1 plants compared with the wild-type. GH3.3, a gene encoding an enzyme involved in auxin degradation, displayed higher expression in the wri1-1 mutant. EMSAs demonstrated that AtWRI1 bound to the promoter of GH3.3. Specific AtWRI1-binding motifs were identified in the promoter of GH3.3. In addition, wri1-1 displayed decreased auxin transport. Expression of some PIN genes, which encode IAA carrier proteins, was reduced in wri1-1 plants as well. Correspondingly, AtWRI1 bound to the promoter regions of some PIN genes. It is well known that auxin exerts its maximum effects at a specific, optimal concentration in roots requiring a finely balanced auxin homeostasis. This process appears to be disrupted when the expression of WRI1 and in turn a subset of its target genes are misregulated, highlighting a role for WRI1 in root auxin homeostasis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Is auxin involved in the induction of genetic instability in barley homeotic double mutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2018-02-01

    The triggers of genetic instability in barley homeotic double mutants are tweaky spike -type mutations associated with an auxin imbalance in separate spike phytomeres. Barley homeotic tweaky spike;Hooded (tw;Hd) double mutants are characterized by an inherited instability of spike and flower development, which is absent in the single parental constituents. The aim of the present study was to show that the trigger of genetic instability in the double mutants is the tw mutations, which are associated with an auxin imbalance in the developing spikes. Their pleiotropic effects on genes related to spike/flower development may cause the genetic instability of double mutants. The study of four double-mutant groups composed of different mutant alleles showed that the instability arose only if the mutant allele tw was a constituent of the double mutants. Application of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) demonstrated the relationship of the instability of the double mutants and the phenotype of the tw mutants to auxin imbalance. 2,4-D induced phenocopies of the tw mutation in wild-type plants and rescued the phenotypes of three allelic tw mutants. The differential display (dd-PCR) method allowed the identification of several putative candidate genes in tw that may be responsible for the initiation of instability in the double mutants by pleiotropic variations of their expression in the tw mutant associated with auxin imbalance in the developing spikes. The results of the present study linked the genetic instability of homeotic double mutants with an auxin imbalance caused by one of the constituents (tw). The genetic instability of the double mutants in relation to auxin imbalance was studied for the first time. A matrocliny on instability expression was also observed.

  17. The Clubroot Pathogen (Plasmodiophora brassicae Influences Auxin Signaling to Regulate Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jahn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot disease, caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae, affects cruciferous crops worldwide. It is characterized by root swellings as symptoms, which are dependent on the alteration of auxin and cytokinin metabolism. Here, we describe that two different classes of auxin receptors, the TIR family and the auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated upon gall formation. Mutations in the TIR family resulted in more susceptible reactions to the root pathogen. As target genes for the different pathways we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of selected transcriptional repressors (Aux/IAA and transcription factors (ARF. As the TIR pathway controls auxin homeostasis via the upregulation of some auxin conjugate synthetases (GH3, the expression of selected GH3 genes was also investigated, showing in most cases upregulation. A double gh3 mutant showed also slightly higher susceptibility to P. brassicae infection, while all tested single mutants did not show any alteration in the clubroot phenotype. As targets for the ABP1-induced cell elongation the effect of potassium channel blockers on clubroot formation was investigated. Treatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA resulted in less severe clubroot symptoms. This research provides evidence for the involvement of two auxin signaling pathways in Arabidopsis needed for the establishment of the root galls by P. brassicae.

  18. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  19. Characterization of auxin-binding proteins from zucchini plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified two auxin-binding polypeptides in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Hicks et al. 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4948-4952). These polypeptides have molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa and label specifically with the photoaffinity auxin analog 5-N3-7-3H-IAA (azido-IAA). Azido-IAA permits both the covalent and radioactive tagging of auxin-binding proteins and has allowed us to characterize further the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, including the nature of their attachment to the PM, their relationship to each other, and their potential function. The azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides remain in the pelleted membrane fraction following high-salt and detergent washes, which indicates a tight and possibly integral association with the PM. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of partially purified azido-IAA-labeled protein demonstrates that, in addition to the major isoforms of the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, which possess isoelectric points (pIs) of 8.2 and 7.2, respectively, several less abundant isoforms that display unique pIs are apparent at both molecular masses. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the auxin-binding proteins indicates that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are closely related or are modifications of the same polypeptide. Phase extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 results in partitioning of the azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides into the aqueous (hydrophilic) phase. This apparently paradoxical behavior is also exhibited by certain integral membrane proteins that aggregate to form channels. The results of gel filtration indicate that the auxin-binding proteins do indeed aggregate strongly and that the polypeptides associate to form a dimer or multimeric complex in vivo. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are subunits of a multimeric integral membrane protein which has an auxin-binding site, and which may

  20. Maize AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN 1 and AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN 4 impact on leaf growth, elongation, and seedling responsiveness to auxin and light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurišić-Knežev, Dejana; Čudejková, Mária; Zalabák, David; Hlobilová, Marta; Rolčík, Jakub; Pěnčík, Aleš; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Fellner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2012), s. 990-1006 ISSN 1916-2790 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin * auxin-binding protein * growth Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2012

  1. Auxin inhibits endocytosis and promotes its own efflux from cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paciorek, T.; Zažímalová, Eva; Ruthardt, N.; Petrášek, Jan; Stierhof, Y. D.; Kleine-Vehn, J.; Morris, David; Emans, N.; Jürgens, G.; Geldner, N.; Friml, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 7046 (2005), s. 1251-1256 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phytohormones * polar auxin transport * plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.273, year: 2005

  2. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  3. A novel putative auxin carrier family regulates intracellular auxin homeostasis in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barbez, E.; Kubeš, Martin; Rolčík, Jakub; Béziat, Ch.; Pěnčík, Aleš; Wang, B.; Rosquete, M. R.; Zhu, J.; Dobrev, Petre; Lee, Y.; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Geisler, M.; Friml, J.; Kleine-Vehn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 485, č. 7396 (2012), s. 119-124 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin * auxin homeostasis * PILS (PIN-likes) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 38.597, year: 2012

  4. The Interaction between Auxin and Nitric Oxide Regulates Root Growth in Response to Iron Deficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huwei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fe deficiency (-Fe is a common abiotic stress that affects the root development of plants. Auxin and nitric oxide (NO are key regulator of root growth under -Fe. However, the interactions between auxin and NO regulate root growth in response to Fe deficiency are complex and unclear. In this study, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and NO levels in roots, and the responses of root growth in rice to different levels of Fe supply were investigated using wild type (WT, ospin1b and osnia2 mutants. -Fe promoted LR formation but inhibited seminal root elongation. IAA levels, [3H] IAA transport, and expression levels of PIN1a-c genes in roots were reduced under -Fe, suggesting that polar auxin transport from shoots to roots was decreased. Application of IAA to -Fe seedlings restored seminal root length, but not LR density, to levels similar to those under normal Fe (+Fe, and the seminal root length was shorter in two ospin1b mutants relative to WT under +Fe, but not under -Fe, confirming that auxin transport participates in -Fe-inhibited seminal root elongation. Moreover, -Fe-induced LR density and -Fe-inhibited seminal root elongation paralleled NO production in roots. Interestingly, similar NO accumulation and responses of LR density and root elongation were observed in osnia2 mutants compared to WT, and the higher expression of NOA gene under -Fe, suggesting that -Fe-induced NO was generated via the NO synthase-like pathway rather than the nitrate reductase pathway. However, IAA could restore the functions of NO in inhibiting seminal root elongation, but did not replace the role of NO-induced LR formation under -Fe. Overall, our findings suggested that NO functions downstream of auxin in regulating LR formation; NO-inhibited seminal root elongation by decreasing meristem activity in root tips under -Fe, with the involvement of auxin.

  5. Cytokinins and auxins control the expression of a gene in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells by feedback regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominov, J A; Stenzler, L; Lee, S; Schwarz, J J; Leisner, S; Howell, S H

    1992-01-01

    Both cytokinin (N6-benzyladenine [BA]) and auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]) stimulate the accumulation of an mRNA, represented by the cDNA pLS216, in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia suspension culture cells. The kinetics of RNA accumulation were different for the two hormones; however, the response to both was transient, and the magnitude of the response was dose dependent. Runoff transcription experiments demonstrated that the transient appearance of the RNA could be accounted for by feedback regulation of transcription and not by the induction of an RNA degradation system. The feedback mechanism appeared to desensitize the cells to further exposure of the hormone. In particular, cells became refractory to the subsequent addition of 2,4-D after the initial RNA accumulation response subsided. A very different response was observed when the second hormone was added to cells that had been desensitized to the first hormone. Under such conditions, BA produced a heightened response in cells desensitized to 2,4-D and vice versa. These findings support a model in which cytokinin further enhances the auxin response or prevents its feedback inhibition. The hormone-induced RNA accumulation was blocked by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporin. On the other hand, the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid stimulated expression, and, in particular, okadaic acid was able to stimulate RNA accumulation in cells desensitized to auxin. This suggests that hormone activation involves phosphorylation of critical proteins on the hormone signaling pathway, whereas feedback inhibition may involve dephosphorylation of these proteins. The sequence of pLS216 is similar to genes in other plants that are stimulated by multiple agonists such as auxins, elicitors, and heavy metals, and to the gene encoding the stringent starvation protein in Escherichia coli. It is proposed that this gene family in various plants be called multiple stimulus response (msr) genes. PMID:1498603

  6. Effects of cations on hormone transport in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the influence of aluminum and calcium (and certain other cations) on hormone transport in corn roots. When aluminum was applied unilaterally to the caps of 15 mm apical root sections the roots curved strongly away from the aluminum. When aluminum was applied unilaterally to the cap and 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was applied to the basal cut surface twice as much radioactivity (assumed to be IAA) accumulated on the concave side of the curved root as on the convex side. Auxin transport in the apical region of intact roots was preferentially basipetal, with a polarity (basipetal transport divided by acropetal transport) of 6.3. In decapped 5 mm apical root segments, auxin transport was acropetally polar (polarity = 0.63). Application of aluminum to the root cap strongly promoted acropetal transport of auxin reducing polarity from 6.3 to 2.1. Application of calcium to the root cap enhanced basipetal movement of auxin, increasing polarity from 6.3 to 7.6. Application of the calcium chelator, ethylene-glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, greatly decreased basipetal auxin movement, reducing polarity from 6.3 to 3.7. Transport of label after application of tritiated abscisic acid showed no polarity and was not affected by calcium or aluminum. The results indicate that the root cap is particularly important in maintaining basipetal polarity of auxin transport in primary roots of corn. The induction of root curvature by unilateral application of aluminum or calcium to root caps is likely to result from localized effects of these ions on auxin transport. The findings are discussed relative to the possible role of calcium redistribution in the gravitropic curvature of roots and the possibility of calmodulin involvement in the action of calcium and aluminum on auxin transport.

  7. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2013-12-23

    Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the

  8. L-Cysteine inhibits root elongation through auxin/PLETHORA and SCR/SHR pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Mao, Jie-Li; Zhao, Ying-Jun; Li, Chuan-You; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2015-02-01

    L-Cysteine plays a prominent role in sulfur metabolism of plants. However, its role in root development is largely unknown. Here, we report that L-cysteine reduces primary root growth in a dosage-dependent manner. Elevating cellular L-cysteine level by exposing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to high L-cysteine, buthionine sulphoximine, or O-acetylserine leads to altered auxin maximum in root tips, the expression of quiescent center cell marker as well as the decrease of the auxin carriers PIN1, PIN2, PIN3, and PIN7 of primary roots. We also show that high L-cysteine significantly reduces the protein level of two sets of stem cell specific transcription factors PLETHORA1/2 and SCR/SHR. However, L-cysteine does not downregulate the transcript level of PINs, PLTs, or SCR/SHR, suggesting that an uncharacterized post-transcriptional mechanism may regulate the accumulation of PIN, PLT, and SCR/SHR proteins and auxin transport in the root tips. These results suggest that endogenous L-cysteine level acts to maintain root stem cell niche by regulating basal- and auxin-induced expression of PLT1/2 and SCR/SHR. L-Cysteine may serve as a link between sulfate assimilation and auxin in regulating root growth. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Agrobacterium T-DNA-encoded protein Atu6002 interferes with the host auxin response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Benoît; Gizatullina, Diana I.; Babst, Benjamin A.; Gifford, Andrew N.; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several genes in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens transferred (T) DNA encode proteins that are involved in developmental alterations leading to the formation of tumors in infected plants. We investigated the role of the protein encoded by the Atu6002 gene, the function of which is completely unknown. The Atu6002 expression occurs in Agrobacterium-induced tumors, and is also activated upon activation of plant cell division by growth hormones. Within the expressing plant cells, the Atu6002 protein is targeted to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, constitutive ectopic expression of Atu6002 in transgenic tobacco plants lead to a severe developmental phenotype characterized by stunted growth, shorter internodes, lanceolate leaves, increased branching, and modified flower morphology. These Atu6002-expressing plants also displayed impaired response to auxin. However, auxin cellular uptake and polar transport were not significantly inhibited in these plants, suggesting that Atu6002 interferes with auxin perception or signaling pathways. PMID:24128370

  10. Noncoding transcription by alternative rna polymerases dynamically regulates an auxin-driven chromatin loop

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico D.; Jé gu, Teddy; Latrasse, David; Romero-Barrios, Natali; Christ, Auré lie; Benhamed, Moussa; Crespi, Martí n D.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Noncoding transcription by alternative rna polymerases dynamically regulates an auxin-driven chromatin loop

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico D.

    2014-08-01

    The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  13. Cytoplasm localization of aminopeptidase M1 and its functional activity in root hair cells and BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Ran; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2012-12-01

    Aminopeptidase M1 (APM1) was the first M1 metallopeptidase family member identified in Arabidopsis, isolated by its affinity for the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A loss-of-function mutation showed various developmental defects in cell division and auxin transport. APM1 was shown to be localized in endomembrane structures, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. These previous results suggested that APM1 has diverse functional roles in different cell and tissue types. Here we report that APM1 localized to the cytoplasm, and its over-expression in the root hair cell caused longer root hair phenotypes. Treatment of aminopeptidase inhibitors caused internalization of auxin efflux PIN-FORMED proteins in root hair cells and suppressed short root hair phenotype of PIN3 overexpression line (PIN3ox). APM1 also localized to the cytoplasm in tobacco BY-2 cells, its over-expression had little effect on auxin transport in these cells.

  14. A physico-genetic module for the polarisation of auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Barrio, Rafael A.; Benítez, Mariana; Nakayama, Naomi; Romero-Arias, José Roberto; Villarreal, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    Intracellular polarisation of auxin efflux carriers is crucial for understanding how auxin gradients form in plants. The polarisation dynamics of auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN) depends on both biomechanical forces as well as chemical, molecular and genetic factors. Biomechanical forces have shown to affect the localisation of PIN transporters to the plasma membrane. We propose a physico-genetic module of PIN polarisation that integrates biomechanical, molecular, and cellular processes as well as their non-linear interactions. The module was implemented as a discrete Boolean model and then approximated to a continuous dynamic system, in order to explore the relative contribution of the factors mediating PIN polarisation at the scale of single cell. Our models recovered qualitative behaviours that have been experimentally observed and enable us to predict that, in the context of PIN polarisation, the effects of the mechanical forces can predominate over the activity of molecular factors such as the GTPase ROP6 and the ROP-INTERACTIVE CRIB MOTIF-CONTAINING PROTEIN RIC1.

  15. Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Leishmania Glucose Transporters PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Scott M. Landfear, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oregon Health & Science...COVERED 1 July 2009- 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Screening for Inhibitors of Essential Leishmania Glucose Transporters 5b...The objective of this project was to identify compounds that selectively inhibit the essential Leishmania glucose transporters and could hence serve

  16. Sites and regulation of auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Karin; Hull, Anna K; Celenza, John; Yamada, Masashi; Estelle, Mark; Normanly, Jennifer; Sandberg, Göran

    2005-04-01

    Auxin has been shown to be important for many aspects of root development, including initiation and emergence of lateral roots, patterning of the root apical meristem, gravitropism, and root elongation. Auxin biosynthesis occurs in both aerial portions of the plant and in roots; thus, the auxin required for root development could come from either source, or both. To monitor putative internal sites of auxin synthesis in the root, a method for measuring indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis with tissue resolution was developed. We monitored IAA synthesis in 0.5- to 2-mm sections of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and were able to identify an important auxin source in the meristematic region of the primary root tip as well as in the tips of emerged lateral roots. Lower but significant synthesis capacity was observed in tissues upward from the tip, showing that the root contains multiple auxin sources. Root-localized IAA synthesis was diminished in a cyp79B2 cyp79B3 double knockout, suggesting an important role for Trp-dependent IAA synthesis pathways in the root. We present a model for how the primary root is supplied with auxin during early seedling development.

  17. Inhibition of primary roots and stimulation of lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by the rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens 90-166 is through both auxin-dependent and -independent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-Lin; Park, Hyo-Bee; Lee, Jong Suk; Ryu, Sangryeol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2010-03-01

    The rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens strain 90-166 was previously reported to promote plant growth and induce resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the influence of strain 90-166 on root development was studied in vitro. We observed inhibition of primary root elongation, enhanced lateral root emergence, and early emergence of second order lateral roots after inoculation with strain 90-166 at a certain distance from the root. Using the DR5::GUS transgenic A. thaliana plant and an auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, the altered root development was still elicited by strain 90-166, indicating that this was not a result of changes in plant auxin levels. Intriguingly, indole-3-acetic acid, a major auxin chemical, was only identified just above the detection limit in liquid culture of strain 90-166 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Focusing on bacterial determinants of the root alterations, we found that primary root elongation was inhibited in seedlings treated with cell supernatant (secreted compounds), while lateral root formation was induced in seedlings treated with lysate supernatant (intracellular compounds). Further study revealed that the alteration of root development elicited by strain 90-166 involved the jasmonate, ethylene, and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Collectively, our results suggest that strain 90-166 can contribute to plant root development via multiple signaling pathways.

  18. The Role of Auxin in Cell Wall Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Mateusz; Robert, Stéphanie

    2018-03-22

    Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls, which are dynamic structures displaying a strictly regulated balance between rigidity and flexibility. Walls are fairly rigid to provide support and protection, but also extensible, to allow cell growth, which is triggered by a high intracellular turgor pressure. Wall properties regulate the differential growth of the cell, resulting in a diversity of cell sizes and shapes. The plant hormone auxin is well known to stimulate cell elongation via increasing wall extensibility. Auxin participates in the regulation of cell wall properties by inducing wall loosening. Here, we review what is known on cell wall property regulation by auxin. We focus particularly on the auxin role during cell expansion linked directly to cell wall modifications. We also analyze downstream targets of transcriptional auxin signaling, which are related to the cell wall and could be linked to acid growth and the action of wall-loosening proteins. All together, this update elucidates the connection between hormonal signaling and cell wall synthesis and deposition.

  19. An Arabidopsis kinase cascade influences auxin-responsive cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Tara A; Frick, Elizabeth M; Strader, Lucia C

    2017-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades are conserved mechanisms of signal transduction across eukaryotes. Despite the importance of MPK proteins in signaling events, specific roles for many Arabidopsis MPK proteins remain unknown. Multiple studies have suggested roles for MPK signaling in a variety of auxin-related processes. To identify MPK proteins with roles in auxin response, we screened mpk insertional alleles and identified mpk1-1 as a mutant that displays hypersensitivity in auxin-responsive cell expansion assays. Further, mutants defective in the upstream MAP kinase kinase MKK3 also display hypersensitivity in auxin-responsive cell expansion assays, suggesting that this MPK cascade affects auxin-influenced cell expansion. We found that MPK1 interacts with and phosphorylates ROP BINDING PROTEIN KINASE 1 (RBK1), a protein kinase that interacts with members of the Rho-like GTPases from Plants (ROP) small GTPase family. Similar to mpk1-1 and mkk3-1 mutants, rbk1 insertional mutants display auxin hypersensitivity, consistent with a possible role for RBK1 downstream of MPK1 in influencing auxin-responsive cell expansion. We found that RBK1 directly phosphorylates ROP4 and ROP6, supporting the possibility that RBK1 effects on auxin-responsive cell expansion are mediated through phosphorylation-dependent modulation of ROP activity. Our data suggest a MKK3 • MPK1 • RBK1 phosphorylation cascade that may provide a dynamic module for altering cell expansion. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Arabidopsis TWISTED DWARF1 functionally interacts with Auxin Exporter ABCB1 on the root plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Bangjun; Bailly, Aurélien; Zwiewka, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Plant architecture is influenced by the polar, cell-to-cell transport of auxin that is primarily provided and regulated by plasma membrane efflux catalysts of the PIN-FORMED and B family of ABC transporter (ABCB) classes. The latter were shown to require the functionality of the FK506 binding pro...

  1. Onset of cell division in maize germination: action of auxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Jimenez, E.S.; Baiza, A.; Aguilar, R.

    1987-01-01

    Seed germination implies metabolic reactivation, synthesis of macromolecules and onset of cell division. During maize germination, meristematic tissues of embryos re-initiate cell division asynchronically. Since auxins are known to stimulate cell division, they asked how auxins might regulate cell cycle re-initiation. Embryonic tissues were incubated with and without auxins. A pulse of either 3 H-thymidine or 32 P-ortophosphate was given to the tissues. Mitotic indexes were determined and % of labeled mitotic cells recorded. Results indicated that meristematic cells re-initiate cell division either from G 1 or G 2 phases. Auxin stimulated differentially the cell division process of these cells. 32 P incorporation into cytoplasmic or nucleic histones was measured. Auxins stimulated this incorporation. Active turnover of histone phosphorylation occurred simultaneously to the cell division process. It is suggested that auxins might regulate the cell cycle by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of histones

  2. Nitric oxide mediates strigolactone signaling in auxin and ethylene-sensitive lateral root formation in sunflower seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, Niharika; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The...

  3. Phloem development in nematode-induced feeding sites: The implications of auxin and cytokinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eAbsmanner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary plant parasitic nematodes such as root-knot nematodes and cyst nematodes induce giant cells or syncytia, respectively, in their host plant’s roots. These highly specialized structures serve as feeding sites from which exclusively the nematodes withdraw nutrients. While giant cells are symplastically isolated and obtain assimilates by transporter-mediated processes syncytia are massively connected to the phloem by plasmodesmata. To support the feeding sites and the nematode during their development, phloem is induced around syncytia and giant cells. In the case of syncytia the unloading phloem consists of sieve elements and companion cells and in the case of root knots it consists exclusively of sieve elements. We applied immunohistochemistry to identify the cells within the developing phloem that responded to auxin and cytokinin. Both feeding sites themselves did not respond to either hormone. We were able to show that in root knots an auxin response precedes the differentiation of these auxin responsive cells into phloem elements. This process appears to be independent of B-type Arabidopsis response regulators. Using additional markers for tissue identity we provide evidence that around giant cells protophloem is formed and proliferates dramatically. In contrast, the phloem around syncytia responded to both hormones. The presence of companion cells as well as hormone-responsive sieve elements suggests that metaphloem development occurs. The implication of auxin and cytokinin in the further development of the metaphloem is discussed.

  4. The role of auxin and cytokinin signalling in specifying the root architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Auxin and cytokinin are key hormonal signals that control the cellular architecture of the primary root and the initiation of new lateral root organs in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both developmental processes are regulated by cross-talk between these hormones and their signalling pathways. In this paper, sub-cellular and multi-cellular mathematical models are developed to investigate how interactions between auxin and cytokinin influence the size and location of regions of division and differentiation within the primary root, and describe how their cross-regulation may cause periodic branching of lateral roots. We show how their joint activity may influence tissue-specific oscillations in gene expression, as shown in Moreno-Risueno et al. (2010) and commented upon in Traas and Vernoux (2010), and we propose mechanisms that may generate synchronisation of such periodic behaviours inside a cell and with its neighbours. Using a multi-cellular model, we also analyse the roles of cytokinin and auxin in specifying the three main regions of the primary root (elongation, transition and division zones), our simulation results being in good agreement with independent experimental observations. We then use our model to generate testable predictions concerning the effect of varying the concentrations of the auxin efflux transporters on the sizes of the different root regions. In particular, we predict that over-expression of the transporters will generate a longer root with a longer elongation zone and a smaller division zone than that of a wild type root. This root will contain fewer cells than its wild type counterpart. We conclude that our model can provide a useful tool for investigating the response of cell division and elongation to perturbations in hormonal signalling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. GTPase ROP2 binds and promotes activation of target of rapamycin, TOR, in response to auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Makarian, Joelle; Srour, Ola; Geldreich, Angèle; Yang, Zhenbiao; Chicher, Johana; Hammann, Philippe; Ryabova, Lyubov A

    2017-04-03

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) promotes reinitiation at upstream ORFs (uORFs) in genes that play important roles in stem cell regulation and organogenesis in plants. Here, we report that the small GTPase ROP2, if activated by the phytohormone auxin, promotes activation of TOR, and thus translation reinitiation of uORF-containing mRNAs. Plants with high levels of active ROP2, including those expressing constitutively active ROP2 (CA-ROP2), contain high levels of active TOR ROP2 physically interacts with and, when GTP-bound, activates TOR in vitro TOR activation in response to auxin is abolished in ROP-deficient rop2 rop6 ROP4 RNAi plants. GFP-TOR can associate with endosome-like structures in ROP2-overexpressing plants, indicating that endosomes mediate ROP2 effects on TOR activation. CA-ROP2 is efficient in loading uORF-containing mRNAs onto polysomes and stimulates translation in protoplasts, and both processes are sensitive to TOR inhibitor AZD-8055. TOR inactivation abolishes ROP2 regulation of translation reinitiation, but not its effects on cytoskeleton or intracellular trafficking. These findings imply a mode of translation control whereby, as an upstream effector of TOR, ROP2 coordinates TOR function in translation reinitiation pathways in response to auxin. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Analysis on the Regulation of Tomato Ripening by Exogenous Auxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Li

    Full Text Available Auxin has been shown to modulate the fruit ripening process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying auxin regulation of fruit ripening are still not clear. Illumina RNA sequencing was performed on mature green cherry tomato fruit 1 and 7 days after auxin treatment, with untreated fruit as a control. The results showed that exogenous auxin maintained system 1 ethylene synthesis and delayed the onset of system 2 ethylene synthesis and the ripening process. At the molecular level, genes associated with stress resistance were significantly up-regulated, but genes related to carotenoid metabolism, cell degradation and energy metabolism were strongly down-regulated by exogenous auxin. Furthermore, genes encoding DNA demethylases were inhibited by auxin, whereas genes encoding cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases were induced, which contributed to the maintenance of high methylation levels in the nucleus and thus inhibited the ripening process. Additionally, exogenous auxin altered the expression patterns of ethylene and auxin signaling-related genes that were induced or repressed in the normal ripening process, suggesting significant crosstalk between these two hormones during tomato ripening. The present work is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of auxin-treated tomato fruit during ripening. Our results provide comprehensive insights into the effects of auxin on the tomato ripening process and the mechanism of crosstalk between auxin and ethylene.

  7. Correlations between gravitropic curvature and auxin movement across gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.; Hertel, R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the kinetics of auxin redistribution across the caps of primary roots of 2-day-old maize (Zea mays, cv Merit) seedlings with the time course of gravitropic curvature. [3H] indoleacetic acid was applied to one side of the cap in an agar donor and radioactivity moving across the cap was collected in an agar receiver applied to the opposite side. Upon gravistimulation the roots first curved upward slightly, then returned to the horizontal and began curving downward, reaching a final angle of about 67 degrees. Movement of label across the caps of gravistimulated roots was asymmetric with preferential downward movement (ratio downward/upward = ca. 1.6, radioactivity collected during the 90 min following beginning of gravistimulation). There was a close correlation between the development of asymmetric auxin movement across the root cap and the rate of curvature, with both values increasing to a maximum and then declining as the roots approached the final angle of curvature. In roots preadapted to gravity (alternate brief stimulation on opposite flanks over a period of 1 hour) the initial phase of upward curvature was eliminated and downward bending began earlier than for controls. The correlation between asymmetric auxin movement and the kinetics of curvature also held in comparisons between control and preadapted roots. Both downward auxin transport asymmetry and downward curvature occurred earlier in preadapted roots than in controls. These findings are consistent with suggestions that the root cap is not only the site of perception but also the location of the initial redistribution of effectors that ultimately leads to curvature.

  8. Patterns of auxin and abscisic acid movement in the tips of gravistimulated primary roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Because both abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) have been suggested as possible chemical mediators of differential growth during root gravitropism, we compared with redistribution of label from applied 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA during maize root gravitropism and examined the relative basipetal movement of 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA applied to the caps of vertical roots. Lateral movement of 3H-ABA across the tips of vertical roots was non-polar and about 2-fold greater than lateral movement of 3H-IAA (also non-polar). The greater movement of ABA was not due to enhanced uptake since the uptake of 3H-IAA was greater than that of 3H-ABA. Basipetal movement of label from 3H-IAA or 3H-ABA applied to the root cap was determined by measuring radioactivity in successive 1 mm sections behind the tip 90 minutes after application. ABA remained largely in the first mm (point of application) whereas IAA was concentrated in the region 2-4 mm from the tip with substantial levels found 7-8 mm from the tip. Pretreatment with inhibitors of polar auxin transport decreased both gravicurvature and the basipetal movement of IAA. When roots were placed horizontally, the movement of 3H-IAA from top to bottom across the cap was enhanced relative to movement from bottom to top whereas the pattern of movement of label from 3H-ABA was unaffected. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in root gravitropism but contrary to the idea that gravi-induced asymmetric distribution of ABA contributes to the response.

  9. The acropetal effects of indole-3-acetic acid in isolated shoot segments of Acer pseudoplatanus L. II. Possible regulation by a vectorial fieid of auxin waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek A. Adamczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acropetal effects of auxin on elongation of axillary buds and on modulation of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin to agar from Acer pseudoplatanus L. shoots were studied. When synthetic IAA was applied to cut surfaces of one of two branches the elongation growth of buds situated on the opposite branch was retarded, suggesting regulation independent of the direct action of the molecules of the applied IAA. Oscillations in basipetal transport of natural auxin along the stem segments were observed corroborating the results of other authors using different tree species. Apical application of synthetic IAA for 1 hour to the lateral branch caused a phase shift of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin, when the stem segment above the treated branch was sectioned. The same effect was observed evoked by the laterally growing branch which is interpreted as an effect of natural auxin produced by the actively growing shoot. These modulations could be propagated acropetally at a rate excluding direct action of auxin molecules at the sites of measurement. The results seem to corroborate the hypothesis suggesting that auxin is involved in acropetal regulation of shoot apex growth through its effect upon modulation of the vectorial field which arises when the auxin-waves translocate in cambium.

  10. UGT74D1 is a novel auxin glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Hui Jin

    Full Text Available Auxin is one type of phytohormones that plays important roles in nearly all aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. The glycosylation of auxins is considered to be an essential mechanism to control the level of active auxins. Thus, the identification of auxin glycosyltransferases is of great significance for further understanding the auxin regulation. In this study, we biochemically screened the group L of Arabidopsis thaliana glycosyltransferase superfamily for enzymatic activity toward auxins. UGT74D1 was identified to be a novel auxin glycosyltransferase. Through HPLC and LC-MS analysis of reaction products in vitro by testing eight substrates including auxins and other compounds, we found that UGT74D1 had a strong glucosylating activity toward indole-3-butyric acid [IBA], indole-3-propionic acid [IPA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA], catalyzing them to form corresponding glucose esters. Biochemical characterization showed that this enzyme had a maximum activity in HEPES buffer at pH 6.0 and 37°C. In addition, the enzymatic activity analysis of crude protein and the IBA metabolite analysis from transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing UGT74D1 gene were also carried out. Experimental results indicated that over-production of the UGT74D1 in plants indeed led to increased level of the glucose conjugate of IBA. Moreover, UGT74D1 overexpression lines displayed curling leaf phenotype, suggesting a physiological role of UGT74D1 in affecting the activity of auxins. Our current data provide a new target gene for further genetic studies to understand the auxin regulation by glycosylation in plants.

  11. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.; Aguilar, R.; Mendez, A.P.; de Jimenez, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of [ 32 P] ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of 32 P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on 32 P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent K m values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins

  12. Aquaglyceroporin-null trypanosomes display glycerol transport defects and respiratory-inhibitor sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jeacock

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs transport water and glycerol and play important roles in drug-uptake in pathogenic trypanosomatids. For example, AQP2 in the human-infectious African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is responsible for melarsoprol and pentamidine-uptake, and melarsoprol treatment-failure has been found to be due to AQP2-defects in these parasites. To further probe the roles of these transporters, we assembled a T. b. brucei strain lacking all three AQP-genes. Triple-null aqp1-2-3 T. b. brucei displayed only a very moderate growth defect in vitro, established infections in mice and recovered effectively from hypotonic-shock. The aqp1-2-3 trypanosomes did, however, display glycerol uptake and efflux defects. They failed to accumulate glycerol or to utilise glycerol as a carbon-source and displayed increased sensitivity to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, octyl gallate or propyl gallate; these inhibitors of trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO can increase intracellular glycerol to toxic levels. Notably, disruption of AQP2 alone generated cells with glycerol transport defects. Consistent with these findings, AQP2-defective, melarsoprol-resistant clinical isolates were sensitive to the TAO inhibitors, SHAM, propyl gallate and ascofuranone, relative to melarsoprol-sensitive reference strains. We conclude that African trypanosome AQPs are dispensable for viability and osmoregulation but they make important contributions to drug-uptake, glycerol-transport and respiratory-inhibitor sensitivity. We also discuss how the AQP-dependent inverse sensitivity to melarsoprol and respiratory inhibitors described here might be exploited.

  13. Flavonoids modify root growth and modulate expression of SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Danilo Miralha; Silva, Eder Marques; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Adachi, Sérgio Akira; Schley, Thayssa Rabelo; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Flavonoids are a class of distinct compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism that inhibit or promote plant development and have a relationship with auxin transport. We showed that, in terms of root development, Copaifera langsdorffii leaf extracts has an inhibitory effect on most flavonoid components compared with the application of exogenous flavonoids (glycosides and aglycones). These compounds alter the pattern of expression of the SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III transcription factor gene family and cause morpho-physiological alterations in sorghum roots. In addition, to examine the flavonoid auxin interaction in stress, we correlated the responses with the effects of exogenous application of auxin and an auxin transport inhibitor. The results show that exogenous flavonoids inhibit primary root growth and increase the development of lateral roots. Exogenous flavonoids also change the pattern of expression of specific genes associated with root tissue differentiation. These findings indicate that flavonoid glycosides can influence the polar transport of auxin, leading to stress responses that depend on auxin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. VI. Changing sensitivity to auxin in gravistimulated soybean hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, P. A.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Cholodny-Went model of auxin redistribution has been used to explain the transduction phase of gravitropism for over 60 years, problems are apparent, especially with dicot stems. An alternative to an auxin gradient is a physiological gradient in which lower tissues of a horizontal stem become more sensitive than upper tissues to auxin already present. Changes in tissue sensitivity to auxin were tested by immersing marked Glycine max Merrill (soybean) hypocotyl sections in buffered auxin solutions (0, 10(-8) to 10(-2) molar indoleacetic acid) and observing bending and growth of upper and lower surfaces. The two surfaces of horizontal hypocotyl sections responded differently to the same applied auxin stimulus; hypocotyls bent up (lower half grew more) in buffer alone or in low auxin levels, but bent down (upper half grew more) in high auxin. Dose-response curves were evaluated with Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with auxin-receptor binding analogous to enzyme-substrate binding. Vmax for the lower half was usually greater than that for the upper half, which could indicate more binding sites in the lower half. Km of the upper half was always greater than that of the lower half (unmeasurably low), which could indicate that upper-half binding sites had a much lower affinity for auxin than lower-half sites. Dose-response curves were also obtained for sections scrubbed' (cuticle abraded) on top or bottom before immersion in auxin, and gravitropic memory' experiments of L. Brauner and A. Hagar (1958 Planta 51: 115-147) were duplicated. [1-14C]Indoleacetic acid penetration was equal into the two halves, and endogenous plus exogenously supplied (not radiolabeled) free auxin in the two halves (by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry) was also equal. Thus, differential growth occurred without free auxin redistribution, contrary to Cholodny-Went but in agreement with a sensitivity model.

  15. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Cibele T; de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Schwambach, Joseli; Maraschin, Felipe S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: (a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; (b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 (transport inhibitor response 1) and ABP1 (Auxin-Binding Protein 1). A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins

  16. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs are potential mediators of auxin action in tomato response to biotic and abiotic stress (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bouzroud

    Full Text Available Survival biomass production and crop yield are heavily constrained by a wide range of environmental stresses. Several phytohormones among which abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene and salicylic acid (SA are known to mediate plant responses to these stresses. By contrast, the role of the plant hormone auxin in stress responses remains so far poorly studied. Auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, and Auxin Response Factors play a key role in the transcriptional activation or repression of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. As a mean to gain more insight on auxin involvement in a set of biotic and abiotic stress responses in tomato, the present study uncovers the expression pattern of SlARF genes in tomato plants subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses. In silico mining of the RNAseq data available through the public TomExpress web platform, identified several SlARFs as responsive to various pathogen infections induced by bacteria and viruses. Accordingly, sequence analysis revealed that 5' regulatory regions of these SlARFs are enriched in biotic and abiotic stress-responsive cis-elements. Moreover, quantitative qPCR expression analysis revealed that many SlARFs were differentially expressed in tomato leaves and roots under salt, drought and flooding stress conditions. Further pointing to the putative role of SlARFs in stress responses, quantitative qPCR expression studies identified some miRNA precursors as potentially involved in the regulation of their SlARF target genes in roots exposed to salt and drought stresses. These data suggest an active regulation of SlARFs at the post-transcriptional level under stress conditions. Based on the substantial change in the transcript accumulation of several SlARF genes, the data presented in this work strongly support the involvement of auxin in stress responses thus enabling to identify a set of candidate SlARFs as potential mediators of biotic and abiotic

  17. Auxinic herbicides, mechanisms of action, and weed resistance: A look into recent plant science advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Auxin governs dynamic cellular processes involved at several stages of plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms employed by auxin in light of recent scientific advances, with a focus on synthetic auxins as herbicides and synthetic auxin resistance mechanisms. Two auxin receptors were reported. The plasma membrane receptor ABP1 (Auxin Binding Protein 1 alters the structure and arrangement of actin filaments and microtubules, leading to plant epinasty and reducing peroxisomes and mitochondria mobility in the cell environment. The second auxin receptor is the gene transcription pathway regulated by the SCFTir/AFB ubiquitination complex, which destroys transcription repressor proteins that interrupt Auxin Response Factor (ARF activation. As a result mRNA related with Abscisic Acid (ABA and ethylene are transcribed, producing high quantities of theses hormones. Their associated action leads to high production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, leading to tissue and plant death. Recently, another ubiquitination pathway which is described as a new auxin signaling route is the F-box protein S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2A (SKP2A. It is active in cell division regulation and there is evidence that auxin herbicides can deregulate the SKP2A pathway, which leads to severe defects in plant development. In this discussion, we propose that SFCSKP2A auxin binding site alteration could be a new auxinic herbicide resistance mechanism, a concept which may contribute to the current progress in plant biology in its quest to clarify the many questions that still surround auxin herbicide mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of weed resistance.

  18. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represse...

  19. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  20. Ethylene-auxin interactions regulate lateral root initiation and emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2008-07-01

    Plant root systems display considerable plasticity in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Auxin stimulates pericycle cells within elongating primary roots to enter de novo organogenesis, leading to the establishment of new lateral root meristems. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in root branching are not well characterized. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis, resulting from the application of low concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), promotes the initiation of lateral root primordia. Treatment with higher doses of ACC strongly inhibits the ability of pericycle cells to initiate new lateral root primordia, but promotes the emergence of existing lateral root primordia: behaviour that is also seen in the eto1 mutation. These effects are correlated with decreased pericycle cell length and increased lateral root primordia cell width. When auxin is applied simultaneously with ACC, ACC is unable to prevent the auxin stimulation of lateral root formation in the root tissues formed prior to ACC exposure. However, in root tissues formed after transfer to ACC, in which elongation is reduced, auxin does not rescue the ethylene inhibition of primordia initiation, but instead increases it by several fold. Mutations that block auxin responses, slr1 and arf7 arf19, render initiation of lateral root primordia insensitive to the promoting effect of low ethylene levels, and mutations that inhibit ethylene-stimulated auxin biosynthesis, wei2 and wei7, reduce the inhibitory effect of higher ethylene levels, consistent with ethylene regulating root branching through interactions with auxin.

  1. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-15

    Apr 15, 2013 ... 2SKA Institution for Research, Education and Development (SKAIRED), 4/11 Sarv Priya Vihar, ... ing plants (angiosperms), born orderly on their stem nodes. ..... First-strand cDNAs were generated by using the oligo.

  2. Crystal Structure and Regulation of the Citrus Pol III Repressor MAF1 by Auxin and Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprano, Adriana Santos; Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira de; Shimo, Hugo Massayoshi; Lima, Tatiani Brenelli; Batista, Fernanda Aparecida Heleno; Righetto, Germanna Lima; Pereira, José Geraldo de Carvalho; Granato, Daniela Campos; Nascimento, Andrey Fabricio Ziem; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Figueira, Ana Carolina Migliorini; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2017-09-05

    MAF1 is the main RNA polymerase (Pol) III repressor that controls cell growth in eukaryotes. The Citrus ortholog, CsMAF1, was shown to restrict cell growth in citrus canker disease but its role in plant development and disease is still unclear. We solved the crystal structure of the globular core of CsMAF1, which reveals additional structural elements compared with the previously available structure of hMAF1, and explored the dynamics of its flexible regions not present in the structure. CsMAF1 accumulated in the nucleolus upon leaf excision, and this translocation was inhibited by auxin and by mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site, S45, to aspartate. Additionally, mTOR phosphorylated recombinant CsMAF1 and the mTOR inhibitor AZD8055 blocked canker formation in normal but not CsMAF1-silenced plants. These results indicate that the role of TOR on cell growth induced by Xanthomonas citri depends on CsMAF1 and that auxin controls CsMAF1 interaction with Pol III in citrus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. UV-B Radiation Induces Root Bending Through the Flavonoid-Mediated Auxin Pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ruling; Sun, Liangliang; Wang, Wenying; Zhou, Huakun; Xu, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation-induced root bending has been reported; however, the underlying mechanisms largely remain unclear. Here, we investigate whether and how auxin and flavonoids are involved in UV-B radiation-induced root bending in Arabidopsis using physiological, pharmacological, and genetic approaches. UV-B radiation modulated the direction of root growth by decreasing IAA biosynthesis and affecting auxin distribution in the root tips, where reduced auxin accumulation and asymmetric auxin distribution were observed. UV-B radiation increased the distribution of auxin on the nonradiated side of the root tips, promoting growth and causing root bending. Further analysis indicated that UV-B induced an asymmetric accumulation of flavonoids; this pathway is involved in modulating the accumulation and asymmetric distribution of auxin in root tips and the subsequent redirection of root growth by altering the distribution of auxin carriers in response to UV-B radiation. Taken together, our results indicate that UV-B radiation-induced root bending occurred through a flavonoid-mediated phototropic response to UV-B radiation.

  4. Influence of time of auxin application on wheat haploid embrio formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Slaven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid interspecies zygote appears after crosses between wheat and maize Zygote derived after usual self-fertilization in wheat is dividing by mitotic divisions into embryo. However, interspecies zygote aborts soon. Auxin treatment is widely used to promote its development. Growth hormones auxins have stimulative ortoxic effects on plant tissue sin relation to its concentration and the time of application. In this paper the effect of time of auxin dicamba application on embryo in wheat x maize crosses was investigated. Chromosomes of pollen donor parent are eliminated quickly in cells of such embryos and they become haploid. It was concluded that for the production of haploid embryos the best time for auxin application is one day after pollination with maize.

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking the ARP2/3 complex show defects in cell wall assembly and auxin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap Sahi, Vaidurya; Cifrová, Petra; García-González, Judith; Kotannal Baby, Innu; Mouillé, Gregory; Gineau, Emilie; Müller, Karel; Baluška, František; Soukup, Aleš; Petrášek, Jan; Schwarzerová, Katerina

    2017-12-25

    The cytoskeleton plays an important role in the synthesis of plant cell walls. Both microtubules and actin cytoskeleton are known to be involved in the morphogenesis of plant cells through their role in cell wall building. The role of ARP2/3-nucleated actin cytoskeleton in the morphogenesis of cotyledon pavement cells has been described before. Seedlings of Arabidopsis mutants lacking a functional ARP2/3 complex display specific cell wall-associated defects. In three independent Arabidopsis mutant lines lacking subunits of the ARP2/3 complex, phenotypes associated with the loss of the complex were analysed throughout plant development. Organ size and anatomy, cell wall composition, and auxin distribution were investigated. ARP2/3-related phenotype is associated with changes in cell wall composition, and the phenotype is manifested especially in mature tissues. Cell walls of mature plants contain less cellulose and a higher amount of homogalacturonan, and display changes in cell wall lignification. Vascular bundles of mutant inflorescence stems show a changed pattern of AUX1-YFP expression. Plants lacking a functional ARP2/3 complex have decreased basipetal auxin transport. The results suggest that the ARP2/3 complex has a morphogenetic function related to cell wall synthesis and auxin transport. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Investigating a Potential Auxin-Related Mode of Hormetic/Inhibitory Action of the Phytotoxin Parthenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G

    2016-01-01

    Parthenin is a metabolite of Parthenium hysterophorus and is believed to contribute to the weed's invasiveness via allelopathy. Despite the potential of parthenin to suppress competitors, low doses stimulate plant growth. This biphasic action was hypothesized to be auxin-like and, therefore, an auxin-related mode of parthenin action was investigated using two approaches: joint action experiments with Lactuca sativa, and dose-response experiments with auxin/antiauxin-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. The joint action approach comprised binary mixtures of subinhibitory doses of the auxin 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) mixed with parthenin or one of three reference compounds [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB)]. The reference compounds significantly interacted with IAA at all doses, but parthenin interacted only at low doses indicating that parthenin hormesis may be auxin-related, in contrast to its inhibitory action. The genetic approach investigated the response of four auxin/antiauxin-resistant mutants and a wildtype to parthenin or two reference compounds (IAA, PCIB). The responses of mutant plants to the reference compounds confirmed previous reports, but differed from the responses observed for parthenin. Parthenin stimulated and inhibited all mutants independent of resistance. This provided no indication for an auxin-related action of parthenin. Therefore, the hypothesis of an auxin-related inhibitory action of parthenin was rejected in two independent experimental approaches, while the hypothesis of an auxin-related stimulatory effect could not be rejected.

  7. Sterol Methyl Oxidases Affect Embryo Development via Auxin-Associated Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Sun, Shuangli; Nie, Xiang; Boutté, Yohann; Grison, Magali; Li, Panpan; Kuang, Susu; Men, Shuzhen

    2016-05-01

    Sterols are essential molecules for multiple biological processes, including embryogenesis, cell elongation, and endocytosis. The plant sterol biosynthetic pathway is unique in the involvement of two distinct sterol 4α-methyl oxidase (SMO) families, SMO1 and SMO2, which contain three and two isoforms, respectively, and are involved in sequential removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. In this study, we characterized the biological functions of members of the SMO2 gene family. SMO2-1 was strongly expressed in most tissues during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) development, whereas SMO2-2 showed a more specific expression pattern. Although single smo2 mutants displayed no obvious phenotype, the smo2-1 smo2-2 double mutant was embryonic lethal, and the smo2-1 smo2-2/+ mutant was dwarf, whereas the smo2-1/+ smo2-2 mutant exhibited a moderate phenotype. The phenotypes of the smo2 mutants resembled those of auxin-defective mutants. Indeed, the expression of DR5rev:GFP, an auxin-responsive reporter, was reduced and abnormal in smo2-1 smo2-2 embryos. Furthermore, the expression and subcellular localization of the PIN1 auxin efflux facilitator also were altered. Consistent with these observations, either the exogenous application of auxin or endogenous auxin overproduction (YUCCA9 overexpression) partially rescued the smo2-1 smo2-2 embryonic lethality. Surprisingly, the dwarf phenotype of smo2-1 smo2-2/+ was completely rescued by YUCCA9 overexpression. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed a substantial accumulation of 4α-methylsterols, substrates of SMO2, in smo2 heterozygous double mutants. Together, our data suggest that SMO2s are important for correct sterol composition and function partially through effects on auxin accumulation, auxin response, and PIN1 expression to regulate Arabidopsis embryogenesis and postembryonic development. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    organogenesis. Coordination of these two interdependent processes results in formation of nodules - bacterial accommodating structures where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin play important roles in nodulation. In some legumes the infection process...... of auxin transport inhibitors or cytokinin alone was shown to induce cortical cell divisions in the absence of rhizobia in certain legume species. While the roles of auxin and cytokinin in nodulation have been studied extensively, the precise timing, location and means of molecular crosstalk between...

  9. Dynamic Modeling of Indole Glucosinolate Hydrolysis and Its Impact on Auxin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants release chemicals to deter attackers. Arabidopsis thaliana relies on multiple defense compounds, including indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate (I3G, which upon hydrolysis initiated by myrosinase enzymes releases a multitude of bioactive compounds, among others, indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-acetoisothiocyanate. The highly unstable isothiocyanate rapidly reacts with other molecules. One of the products, indole-3-carbinol, was reported to inhibit auxin signaling through binding to the TIR1 auxin receptor. On the contrary, the nitrile product of I3G hydrolysis can be converted by nitrilase enzymes to form the primary auxin molecule, indole-3-acetic acid, which activates TIR1. This suggests that auxin signaling is subject to both antagonistic and protagonistic effects of I3G hydrolysis upon attack. We hypothesize that I3G hydrolysis and auxin signaling form an incoherent feedforward loop and we build a mathematical model to examine the regulatory network dynamics. We use molecular docking to investigate the possible antagonistic properties of different I3G hydrolysis products by competitive binding to the TIR1 receptor. Our simulations reveal an uncoupling of auxin concentration and signaling, and we determine that enzyme activity and antagonist binding affinity are key parameters for this uncoupling. The molecular docking predicts that several I3G hydrolysis products strongly antagonize auxin signaling. By comparing a tissue disrupting attack – e.g., by chewing insects or necrotrophic pathogens that causes rapid release of I3G hydrolysis products – to sustained cell-autonomous I3G hydrolysis, e.g., upon infection by biotrophic pathogens, we find that each scenario gives rise to distinct auxin signaling dynamics. This suggests that plants have different defense versus growth strategies depending on the nature of the attack.

  10. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  11. Sterol Methyl Oxidases Affect Embryo Development via Auxin-Associated Mechanisms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Sun, Shuangli; Nie, Xiang; Boutté, Yohann; Grison, Magali; Li, Panpan; Kuang, Susu

    2016-01-01

    Sterols are essential molecules for multiple biological processes, including embryogenesis, cell elongation, and endocytosis. The plant sterol biosynthetic pathway is unique in the involvement of two distinct sterol 4α-methyl oxidase (SMO) families, SMO1 and SMO2, which contain three and two isoforms, respectively, and are involved in sequential removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. In this study, we characterized the biological functions of members of the SMO2 gene family. SMO2-1 was strongly expressed in most tissues during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) development, whereas SMO2-2 showed a more specific expression pattern. Although single smo2 mutants displayed no obvious phenotype, the smo2-1 smo2-2 double mutant was embryonic lethal, and the smo2-1 smo2-2/+ mutant was dwarf, whereas the smo2-1/+ smo2-2 mutant exhibited a moderate phenotype. The phenotypes of the smo2 mutants resembled those of auxin-defective mutants. Indeed, the expression of DR5rev:GFP, an auxin-responsive reporter, was reduced and abnormal in smo2-1 smo2-2 embryos. Furthermore, the expression and subcellular localization of the PIN1 auxin efflux facilitator also were altered. Consistent with these observations, either the exogenous application of auxin or endogenous auxin overproduction (YUCCA9 overexpression) partially rescued the smo2-1 smo2-2 embryonic lethality. Surprisingly, the dwarf phenotype of smo2-1 smo2-2/+ was completely rescued by YUCCA9 overexpression. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed a substantial accumulation of 4α-methylsterols, substrates of SMO2, in smo2 heterozygous double mutants. Together, our data suggest that SMO2s are important for correct sterol composition and function partially through effects on auxin accumulation, auxin response, and PIN1 expression to regulate Arabidopsis embryogenesis and postembryonic development. PMID:27006488

  12. Nitric oxide mediates strigolactone signaling in auxin and ethylene-sensitive lateral root formation in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Niharika; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The diffusive distribution of PIN1 in the provascular cells in the differentiating zone of the roots in response to GR24, fluridone or NPA treatments further indicates the involvement of localized auxin accumulation in LR development responses. Inhibition of LR formation by GR24 treatment coincides with inhibition of ACC synthase activity. Profuse LR development by fluridone and NPA treatments correlates with enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt in the apical region and differentiating zones of LR, indicating a critical role of [Ca(2+)] in LR development in response to the coordinated action of auxins, ethylene and SLs. Significant enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) activity (enzyme responsible for SL biosynthesis) in tissue homogenates in presence of cPTIO (NO scavenger) indicates the role of endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCD activity. Differences in the spatial distribution of NO in the primary and lateral roots further highlight the involvement of NO in SL-modulated root morphogenesis in sunflower seedlings. Present work provides new report on the negative modulation of SL biosynthesis through modulation of CCD activity by endogenous nitric oxide during SL-modulated LR development.

  13. Role of gemfibrozil as an inhibitor of CYP2C8 and membrane transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornio, Aleksi; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 is a drug metabolizing enzyme of major importance. The lipid-lowering drug gemfibrozil has been identified as a strong inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vivo. This effect is due to mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide. In vivo, gemfibrozil is a fairly selective CYP2C8 inhibitor, which lacks significant inhibitory effect on other CYP enzymes. Gemfibrozil can, however, have a smaller but clinically meaningful inhibitory effect on membrane transporters, such as organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 and organic anion transporter 3. Areas covered: This review describes the inhibitory effects of gemfibrozil on CYP enzymes and membrane transporters. The clinical drug interactions caused by gemfibrozil and the different mechanisms contributing to the interactions are reviewed in detail. Expert opinion: Gemfibrozil is a useful probe inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vivo, but its effect on membrane transporters has to be taken into account in study design and interpretation. Moreover, gemfibrozil could be used to boost the pharmacokinetics of CYP2C8 substrate drugs. Identification of gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide as a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C8 has led to recognition of glucuronide metabolites as perpetrators of drug-drug interactions. Recently, also acyl glucuronide metabolites of clopidogrel and deleobuvir have been shown to strongly inhibit CYP2C8.

  14. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-01-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stre...

  15. A genomics approach to understanding the role of auxin in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoghalaere, Fanny; Doucen, Thomas; Guitton, Baptiste; Keeling, Jeannette; Payne, Wendy; Ling, Toby John; Ross, John James; Hallett, Ian Charles; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Dayatilake, G A; Diak, Robert; Breen, Ken C; Tustin, D Stuart; Costes, Evelyne; Chagné, David; Schaffer, Robert James; David, Karine Myriam

    2012-01-13

    Auxin is an important phytohormone for fleshy fruit development, having been shown to be involved in the initial signal for fertilisation, fruit size through the control of cell division and cell expansion, and ripening related events. There is considerable knowledge of auxin-related genes, mostly from work in model species. With the apple genome now available, it is possible to carry out genomics studies on auxin-related genes to identify genes that may play roles in specific stages of apple fruit development. High amounts of auxin in the seed compared with the fruit cortex were observed in 'Royal Gala' apples, with amounts increasing through fruit development. Injection of exogenous auxin into developing apples at the start of cell expansion caused an increase in cell size. An expression analysis screen of auxin-related genes involved in auxin reception, homeostasis, and transcriptional regulation showed complex patterns of expression in each class of gene. Two mapping populations were phenotyped for fruit size over multiple seasons, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were observed. One QTL mapped to a region containing an Auxin Response Factor (ARF106). This gene is expressed during cell division and cell expansion stages, consistent with a potential role in the control of fruit size. The application of exogenous auxin to apples increased cell expansion, suggesting that endogenous auxin concentrations are at least one of the limiting factors controlling fruit size. The expression analysis of ARF106 linked to a strong QTL for fruit weight suggests that the auxin signal regulating fruit size could partially be modulated through the function of this gene. One class of gene (GH3) removes free auxin by conjugation to amino acids. The lower expression of these GH3 genes during rapid fruit expansion is consistent with the apple maximising auxin concentrations at this point.

  16. A complex molecular interplay of auxin and ethylene signaling pathways is involved in Arabidopsis growth promotion by Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Poupin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of phytohormones homeostasis is one of the proposed mechanisms to explain plant growth promotion induced by beneficial rhizobacteria (PGPR. However, there is still limited knowledge about the molecular signals and pathways underlying these beneficial interactions. Even less is known concerning the interplay between phytohormones in plants inoculated with PGPR. Auxin and ethylene are crucial hormones in the control of plant growth and development, and recent studies report an important and complex crosstalk between them in the regulation of different plant developmental processes. The objective of this work was to study the role of both hormones in the growth promotion of Arabidopsis thaliana plants induced by the well-known PGPR Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. For this, the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several genes related to auxin biosynthesis, perception and response and ethylene biosynthesis were studied, finding that most of these genes showed specific transcriptional regulations after inoculation in roots and shoots. PsJN-growth promotion was not observed in Arabidopsis mutants with an impaired ethylene (ein2-1 or auxin (axr1-5 signaling. Even, PsJN did not promote growth in an ethylene overproducer (eto2, indicating that a fine regulation of both hormones signaling and homeostasis is necessary to induce growth of the aerial and root tissues. Auxin polar transport is also involved in growth promotion, since PsJN did not promote primary root growth in the pin2 mutant or under chemical inhibition of transport in wild type plants. Finally, a key role for ethylene biosynthesis was found in the PsJN-mediated increase in root hair number. These results not only give new insights of PGPR regulation of plant growth but also are also useful to understand key aspects of Arabidopsis growth control.

  17. Transcriptomic and Hormonal Analyses Reveal that YUC-Mediated Auxin Biogenesis Is Involved in Shoot Regeneration from Rhizome in Cymbidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Guo, He-Rong; Xie, Li; Zeng, Rui-Zhen; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Cymbidium , one of the most important orchid genera in horticulture, can be classified into epiphytic and terrestrial species. Generally, epiphytic Cymbidium seedlings can be easily propagated by tissue culture, but terrestrial seedlings are difficult to propagate. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in the ease with which terrestrial and epiphytic cymbidiums can be propagated are largely unknown. Using RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Cymbidium 'Xiaofeng' (CXF), which can be efficiently micropropagated, and terrestrial Cymbidium sinense 'Qijianbaimo' (CSQ), which has a low regeneration ability, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the micropropagation ability of Cymbidium species. To this end, 447 million clean short reads were generated, and 31,264 annotated unigenes were obtained from 10 cDNA libraries. A total of 1,290 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between CXF and CSQ during shoot induction. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in auxin pathway-related GO terms. Further analysis demonstrated that YUC and GH3 family genes, which play crucial roles in the regulation of auxin/IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) metabolism, acted quickly in response to shoot induction culture in vitro and were closely correlated with variation in shoot regeneration between CXF and CSQ. In addition, the study showed that IAA accumulated rapidly and significantly during shoot induction in CXF compared to that in CSQ; in contrast, no significant changes in other hormones were observed between CXF and CSQ. Furthermore, shoot regeneration in CXF was inhibited by a yucasin-auxin biosynthesis inhibitor, indicating that increased IAA level is required for high-frequency shoot regeneration in CXF. In conclusion, our study revealed that YUC-mediated auxin biogenesis is involved in shoot regeneration from rhizome in

  18. Transcriptomic and Hormonal Analyses Reveal that YUC-Mediated Auxin Biogenesis Is Involved in Shoot Regeneration from Rhizome in Cymbidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium, one of the most important orchid genera in horticulture, can be classified into epiphytic and terrestrial species. Generally, epiphytic Cymbidium seedlings can be easily propagated by tissue culture, but terrestrial seedlings are difficult to propagate. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in the ease with which terrestrial and epiphytic cymbidiums can be propagated are largely unknown. Using RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Cymbidium ‘Xiaofeng’ (CXF, which can be efficiently micropropagated, and terrestrial Cymbidium sinense ‘Qijianbaimo’ (CSQ, which has a low regeneration ability, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the micropropagation ability of Cymbidium species. To this end, 447 million clean short reads were generated, and 31,264 annotated unigenes were obtained from 10 cDNA libraries. A total of 1,290 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between CXF and CSQ during shoot induction. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in auxin pathway-related GO terms. Further analysis demonstrated that YUC and GH3 family genes, which play crucial roles in the regulation of auxin/IAA (indole-3-acetic acid metabolism, acted quickly in response to shoot induction culture in vitro and were closely correlated with variation in shoot regeneration between CXF and CSQ. In addition, the study showed that IAA accumulated rapidly and significantly during shoot induction in CXF compared to that in CSQ; in contrast, no significant changes in other hormones were observed between CXF and CSQ. Furthermore, shoot regeneration in CXF was inhibited by a yucasin-auxin biosynthesis inhibitor, indicating that increased IAA level is required for high-frequency shoot regeneration in CXF. In conclusion, our study revealed that YUC-mediated auxin biogenesis is involved in shoot

  19. Auxin: Harnessing a loose cannon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, D.

    2015-01-01

    The auxin receptor TIR1 is an F-box protein functioning in a ubiquitin ligase complex to target repressors for degradation. It is itself an unstable protein, but newly identified mutations protect both TIR1 and its substrates from degradation. These mutations could help in identifying the substrates

  20. [Aerobic methylobacteria are capable of synthesizing auxins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E G; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2001-01-01

    Obligately and facultatively methylotrophic bacteria with different pathways of C1 metabolism were found to be able to produce auxins, particularly indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in amounts of 3-100 micrograms/ml. Indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetamide were detected only in methylobacteria with the serine pathway of C1 metabolism, Methylobacterium mesophilicum and Aminobacter aminovorans. The production of auxins by methylobacteria was stimulated by the addition of tryptophan to the growth medium and was inhibited by ammonium ions. The methylobacteria under study lacked tryptophan decarboxylase and tryptophan side-chain oxidase. At the same time, they were found to contain several aminotransferases. IAA is presumably synthesized by methylobacteria through indole-3-pyruvic acid.

  1. Single-cell-based system to monitor carrier driven cellular auxin homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barbez, E.; Laňková, Martina; Pařezová, Markéta; Maizel, A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Friml, J.; Kleine-Vehn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, FEB 4 (2013) ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin homeostasis * DR5 * Auxin carrier Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.942, year: 2013

  2. Possible Interactions between the Biosynthetic Pathways of Indole Glucosinolate and Auxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva K. Malka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates (GLS are a group of plant secondary metabolites mainly found in Cruciferous plants, share a core structure consisting of a β-thioglucose moiety and a sulfonated oxime, but differ by a variable side chain derived from one of the several amino acids. These compounds are hydrolyzed upon cell damage by thioglucosidase (myrosinase, and the resulting degradation products are toxic to many pathogens and herbivores. Human beings use these compounds as flavor compounds, anti-carcinogens, and bio-pesticides. GLS metabolism is complexly linked to auxin homeostasis. Indole GLS contributes to auxin biosynthesis via metabolic intermediates indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN. IAOx is proposed to be a metabolic branch point for biosynthesis of indole GLS, IAA, and camalexin. Interruption of metabolic channeling of IAOx into indole GLS leads to high-auxin production in GLS mutants. IAN is also produced as a hydrolyzed product of indole GLS and metabolized to IAA by nitrilases. In this review, we will discuss current knowledge on involvement of GLS in auxin homeostasis.

  3. A noncanonical auxin-sensing mechanism is required for organ morphogenesis in arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonini, Sara; Deb, Joyita; Moubayidin, Laila; Stephenson, Pauline; Valluru, Manoj; Freire-Rios, Alejandra; Sorefan, Karim; Weijers, Dolf; Friml, Jiří; Østergaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Tissue patterning in multicellular organisms is the output of precise spatio–temporal regulation of gene expression coupled with changes in hormone dynamics. In plants, the hormone auxin regulates growth and development at every stage of a plant’s life cycle. Auxin signaling occurs through

  4. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan

    2015-08-13

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  5. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan; Lü , Shiyou; Li, Ruixi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Liu, Pei; Wang, Guangchao; Xia, Yiji; Running, Mark P.; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  6. Morphophysiology, Phenotypic and Molecular Diversity of Auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Juliany M; Venial, Lucimara R; Costa, Eloá B; Schmildt, Edilson R; Schmildt, Omar; Bernardes, Paula M; Tatagiba, Sandro D; Lopes, José C; Ferreira, Marcia F S; Alexandre, Rodrigo S

    2018-01-01

    Genetic diversity allows identification of potential intraspecific genotypes in the genus Passiflora. The objective of this study was to examine the morphological and genetic diversity of auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata. The experiments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with a 9 x 2 factorial arrangement (nine genotypes x presence and absence of auxin, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)), with four replicates of 16 cuttings. The rooting and vegetative growth responses were variable. Genotype 5 was more responsive in the absence of IBA and genotypes 3, 8 and 9 were more responsive in the presence of IBA. Auxin increased rooting rate and percentage, reducing the average time of root protrusion in eight days. IBA also contributed to increase photosynthesis and dry root and shoot mass in 55.55 and 44.44% of the genotypes, respectively. The highest relative contribution to phenotypic diversity in the absence of auxin was rate (38.75%) and percentage (20.27%) of rooting, whereas in the presence of auxin was stomatal conductance (23.19%) and root dry mass (20.91%). Similarity was found for phenotypic and molecular divergence in the presence of IBA, in which genotypes 1 and 6; genotypes 5, 8 and 9; and genotype 3 were clustered in distinct groups.

  7. Generation and Characterization of Anti-VGLUT Nanobodies Acting as Inhibitors of Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Stephan; Kunz, Laura; Sahlender, Daniela; Pardon, Els; Geertsma, Eric R; Savtchouk, Iaroslav; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Neldner, Yvonne; Štefanić, Saša; Steyaert, Jan; Volterra, Andrea; Dutzler, Raimund

    2017-08-01

    The uptake of glutamate by synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The central role of these transporters in excitatory neurotransmission underpins their importance as pharmacological targets. Although several compounds inhibit VGLUTs, highly specific inhibitors were so far unavailable, thus limiting applications to in vitro experiments. Besides their potential in pharmacology, specific inhibitors would also be beneficial for the elucidation of transport mechanisms. To overcome this shortage, we generated nanobodies (Nbs) by immunization of a llama with purified rat VGLUT1 and subsequent selection of binders from a phage display library. All identified Nbs recognize cytosolic epitopes, and two of the binders greatly reduced the rate of uptake of glutamate by reconstituted liposomes and subcellular fractions enriched with synaptic vesicles. These Nbs can be expressed as functional green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in the cytosol of HEK cells for intracellular applications as immunocytochemical and biochemical agents. The selected binders thus provide valuable tools for cell biology and neuroscience.

  8. Complete disintegration of the microtubular cytoskeleton precedes its auxin-mediated reconstruction in postmitotic maize root cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, F.; Barlow, P. W.; Volkmann, D.

    1996-01-01

    The inhibitory action of 0.1 microM auxin (IAA) on maize root growth was closely associated with a rapid and complete disintegration of the microtubular (MT) cytoskeleton, as visualized by indirect immunofluorescence of tubulin, throughout the growth region. After 30 min of this treatment, only fluorescent spots were present in root cells, accumulating either around nuclei or along cell walls. Six h later, in addition to some background fluorescence, dense but partially oriented oblique or longitudinal arrays of cortical MTs (CMTs) were found in most growing cells of the root apex. After 24 h of treatment, maize roots had adapted to the auxin, as inferred from the slowly recovering elongation rate and from the reassembly of a dense and well-ordered MT cytoskeleton which showed only slight deviations from that of the control root cells. Taxol pretreatment (100 microM, 24 h) prevented not only the rapid auxin-mediated disintegration of the MT cytoskeleton but also a reorientation of the CMT arrays, from transversal to longitudinal. The only tissue to show MTs in their cells throughout the auxin treatment was the epidermis. Significant resistance of transverse CMT arrays in these cells towards auxin was confirmed using a higher auxin concentration (100 microM, 24 h). The latter auxin dose also revealed inter-tissue-specific responses to auxin: outer cortical cell files reoriented their CMTs from the transversal to longitudinal orientation, whereas inner cortical cell files lost their MTs. This high auxin-mediated response, associated with the swelling of root apices, was abolished with the pretreatment of maize root with taxol.

  9. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-03-25

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport.

  10. Relative contributions of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters to antinociceptive synergy between monoamine reuptake inhibitors and morphine in the rat formalin model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shen

    Full Text Available Multimodal analgesia is designed to optimize pain relief by coadministering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action or by combining multiple pharmacologies within a single molecule. In clinical settings, combinations of monoamine reuptake inhibitors and opioid receptor agonists have been explored and one currently available analgesic, tapentadol, functions as both a µ-opioid receptor agonist and a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. However, it is unclear whether the combination of selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition and µ-receptor agonism achieves an optimal antinociceptive synergy. In this study, we assessed the pharmacodynamic interactions between morphine and monoamine reuptake inhibitors that possess different affinities and selectivities for norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. Using the rat formalin model, in conjunction with measurements of ex vivo transporter occupancy, we show that neither the norepinephrine-selective inhibitor, esreboxetine, nor the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, produce antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Atomoxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher levels of norepinephrine than serotonin transporter occupancy, exhibited robust antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Similarly, a fixed-dose combination of esreboxetine and fluoxetine which achieves comparable levels of transporter occupancy potentiated the antinociceptive response to morphine. By contrast, duloxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher serotonin than norepinephrine transporter occupancy, failed to potentiate the antinociceptive response to morphine. However, when duloxetine was coadministered with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, potentiation of the antinociceptive response to morphine was revealed. These results support the notion that inhibition of both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters is required for monoamine reuptake inhibitor and opioid

  11. Assaying Auxin Receptor Activity Using SPR Assays with F-Box Proteins and Aux/IAA Degrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quareshy, Mussa; Uzunova, Veselina; Prusinska, Justyna M; Napier, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    The identification of TIR1 as an auxin receptor combined with advanced biophysical instrumentation has led to the development of real-time activity assays for auxins. Traditionally, molecules have been assessed for auxinic activity using bioassays, and agrochemical compound discovery continues to be based on "spray and pray" technologies. Here, we describe the methodology behind an SPR-based assay that uses TIR1 and related F-box proteins with surface plasmon resonance spectrometry for rapid compound screening. In addition, methods for collecting kinetic binding data and data processing are given so that they may support programs for rational design of novel auxin ligands.

  12. Auxin regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana: A factor of potential importance for auxin-cytokinin-regulated development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nordström, A.; Tarkowski, Petr; Tarkowská, Danuše; Norbaek, R.; Astot, C.; Doležal, Karel; Sandberg, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 21 (2004), s. 8039-8044 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Arabidopsis * auxin * cytokinin * biosynthesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 10.452, year: 2004

  13. YUCCA6 over-expression demonstrates auxin function in delaying leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jeong Im

    2011-04-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana YUCCA family of flavin monooxygenase proteins catalyses a rate-limiting step in de novo auxin biosynthesis. A YUCCA6 activation mutant, yuc6-1D, has been shown to contain an elevated free IAA level and to display typical high-auxin phenotypes. It is reported here that Arabidopsis plants over-expressing YUCCA6, such as the yuc6-1D activation mutant and 35S:YUC6 transgenic plants, displayed dramatic longevity. In addition, plants over-expressing YUCCA6 exhibited classical, delayed dark-induced and hormone-induced senescence in assays using detached rosette leaves. However, plants over-expressing an allele of YUCCA6, that carries mutations in the NADPH cofactor binding site, exhibited neither delayed leaf senescence phenotypes nor phenotypes typical of auxin overproduction. When the level of free IAA was reduced in yuc6-1D by conjugation to lysine, yuc6-1D leaves senesced at a rate similar to the wild-type leaves. Dark-induced senescence in detached leaves was accompanied by a decrease in their free IAA content, by the reduced expression of auxin biosynthesis enzymes such as YUCCA1 and YUCCA6 that increase cellular free IAA levels, and by the increased expression of auxin-conjugating enzymes encoded by the GH3 genes that reduce the cellular free auxin levels. Reduced transcript abundances of SAG12, NAC1, and NAC6 during senescence in yuc6-1D compared with the wild type suggested that auxin delays senescence by directly or indirectly regulating the expression of senescence-associated genes. 2011 The Author(s).

  14. Auxin transport in leafy pea stem cuttings is partially driven by photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpula, C.L.; Potter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    When 14 C-IAA was applied to the apex of disbudded leafy pea stem cuttings (15 cm long), the movement of 14 C-IAA to the base of the cuttings after 24 h was influenced by the photosynthetic rate. In the absence of photosynthesis, light did not influence 14 C-IAA movement. Photosynthesis was altered by varying light, CO 2 concentration, or stomatal aperature (blocked with an antitranspirant). Radioactivity (identified by co-chromatography) was 25, 60, and 5% IAA, IAA-aspartate, and indolealdehyde respectively regardless of treatment. Adventitious root formation was reduced 50 to 95% and movement of IAA was inhibited 50 to 70% by decreasing gross photosynthesis 90 to 100%. Apparently, photosynthesis partially drives the movement of IAA from the apex to the base where roots arise. This gives a probably role of photosynthesis in rooting, because in this system virtually no rooting will take place without exogenous auxin and at least a low level of gross photosynthesis

  15. SEPALLATA1/2-suppressed mature apples have low ethylene, high auxin and reduced transcription of ripening-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Ross, John J.; Ling, Toby J.; David, Karine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening is an important developmental trait in fleshy fruits, making the fruit palatable for seed dispersers. In some fruit species, there is a strong association between auxin concentrations and fruit ripening. We investigated the relationship between auxin concentrations and the onset of ethylene-related ripening in Malus × domestica (apples) at both the hormone and transcriptome levels. Methodology Transgenic apples suppressed for the SEPALLATA1/2 (SEP1/2) class of gene (MADS8/9) that showed severely reduced ripening were compared with untransformed control apples. In each apple type, free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations were measured during early ripening. The changes observed in auxin were assessed in light of global changes in gene expression. Principal results It was found that mature MADS8/9-suppressed apples had a higher concentration of free IAA. This was associated with increased expression of the auxin biosynthetic genes in the indole-3-acetamide pathway. Additionally, in the MADS8/9-suppressed apples, there was less expression of the GH3 auxin-conjugating enzymes. A number of genes involved in the auxin-regulated transcription (AUX/IAA and ARF classes of genes) were also observed to change in expression, suggesting a mechanism for signal transduction at the start of ripening. Conclusions The delay in ripening observed in MADS8/9-suppressed apples may be partly due to high auxin concentrations. We propose that, to achieve low auxin associated with fruit maturation, the auxin homeostasis is controlled in a two-pronged manner: (i) by the reduction in biosynthesis and (ii) by an increase in auxin conjugation. This is associated with the change in expression of auxin-signalling genes and the up-regulation of ripening-related genes. PMID:23346344

  16. Auxin-induced modifications of cell wall polysaccharides in cat coleoptile segments. Effect of galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Masuda, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced cell elongation in oat coleoptile segments. Cell elongation induced by exogenously applied auxin is controlled by factors such as auxin uptake, cell wall loosening, osmotic concentration of sap and hydraulic conductivity. However, galactose does not have any effect on these factors. The results discussed in this paper led to the conclusion that galactose does not affect cell wall loosening which controls rapid growth, but inhibits cell wall synthesis which is required to maintain long-term growth

  17. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  18. A 96-well automated method to study inhibitors of human sodium-dependent D-glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Francisco; Kinne, Rolf K-H

    2005-12-01

    The sodium-dependent D-glucose transporter (SGLT) family is involved in glucose uptake via intestinal absorption (SGLT1) or renal reabsorption (SGLT1 and SGLT2). Current methods for the screening of inhibitors of SGLT transporters are complex, expensive and very labor intensive, and have not been applied to human SGLT transporters. The purpose of the present study was to develop an alternative 96-well automated method to study the activity of human SGLT1 and SGLT2. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Flp-In cells were stably transfected with pcDNA5-SGLT1 or pcDNA5-SGLT2 plasmid and maintained in hygromycin-selection Ham's F12 culture medium until hygromycin-resistant clones were developed. SGLT1 and SGLT2 gene expression was evaluated by relative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) quantification, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical analysis. The clones with higher expression of SGLT1 and SGLT2 were used for transport studies using [14C]-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside ([14C]AMG). The advantage of using the 96-well format is the low amount of radioactive compounds and inhibitory substances required, and its ability to establish reproducibility because repetition into the assay. This method represents an initial approach in the development of transport-based high-throughput screening in the search for inhibitors of glucose transport. The proposed method can easily be performed to yield quantitative data regarding key aspects of glucose membrane transport and kinetic studies of potential inhibitors of human SGLT1 and SGLT2.

  19. Effects of auxins and cytokinins on tomato callus from anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina H. Rogozińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on growth substance requirements of tomato callus derived from anthers for culture in vitro. Linsmaier and Skoog (1965 medium was used with various levels of auxins (IAA and NAA and cytokinins (K and BAP. The results show that cytokinin is an absolute requirement for callus growth irrespective of the auxin level. The optimum concentration of auxin in combination with cytokinin was found to be 5 μM of NAA or 25 μM of IAA, with 5 μM of K or BAP. Callus growth on media with NAA and cytokinin was superior to that on IAA, amounting to 6.05 g per piece on medium with 5 μM of NAA and BAP. Tissues grown on this medium have the highest water content. At the onset of culture the tissue is characterized by weak growth and attains its maximal increase in fresh weight after 6 weeks.

  20. Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Jun; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Onoda, Makoto; Li, Lin; Li, Chuanyou; Tasaka, Masao; Furutani, Masahiko

    2016-06-07

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin.

  1. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, James V.

    2012-05-13

    Abstract Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ∼65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ∼2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth. ©Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012.

  2. The diageotropica mutant of tomato lacks high specific activity auxin sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, G.R.; Lomax, T.L.; Rayle, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill) plants homozygous for the single gene diageotropica (dgt) mutation have reduced shoot growth, abnormal vascular tissue, altered leaf morphology, and lack of lateral root branching. These and other morphological and physiological abnormalities suggest that dgt plants are unable to respond to the plant growth hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). The photoaffinity auxin analogue 3 H-5N 3 -IAA specifically labels a polypeptide doublet of 40 ad 42 kD in membrane preparations from stems of the parental variety VFN8, but not from stems of dgt. In elongation tests, excised dgt roots respond in the same manner to IAA an VFN8 roots. These data suggest that the two polypeptides are part of a physiologically important auxin receptor system which is altered in a tissue-specific manner in the mutant

  3. Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, P L; Wilkinson, C; Franssen, H M; Balk, P A; van der Plas, L H; Weisbeek, P J; Douwe de Boer, A

    2000-03-01

    Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is a bulbous plant species that requires a period of low temperature for proper growth and flowering. The mechanism of sensing the low temperature period is unknown. The study presented in this paper shows that the essential developmental change in tulip bulbs during cold treatment is an increase in sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin. This is demonstrated using a model system consisting of isolated internodes grown on tissue culture medium containing different combinations of the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. Using mathematical modelling, equations taken from the field of enzyme kinetics were fitted through the data. By doing so it became apparent that longer periods of low temperature resulted in an increased maximum response at a lower auxin concentration. Besides the cold treatment, gibberellin also enhances the response to auxin in the internodes in this in vitro system. A working model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, gibberellin action and auxin sensitivity is put forward. Possible analogies with other cold-requiring processes such as vernalization and stratification, and the interaction of auxin and gibberellin in the stalk elongation process in other plant species are discussed.

  4. Comparison of auxin activty in tumourous and normal callus cultures from sunflower and tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal and tumourous calluses of sunflower and tobacco the level of extractable auxins was determined by Avena coleoptile straight growth test. Auxin activity was detected practically in two zones: I - at position with Rf 0.2-0.4 and II - at position with Rf 0.6-0.9. The tumour tissues of sunflower and tobacco plants, representing different types of neoplastic growth exhibit a 3 times higher auxin activity as compared with that of the corresponding normal tissues. Tobacco tissues, on the other hand, had a higher auxin level than the corresponding sunflower tissues and they exhibited different proportions in the activity of zones I and II, which points to a dominance of genetic regulation of hormone metabolism in these plants.

  5. The cannabinoid transporter inhibitor OMDM-2 reduces social interaction: Further evidence for transporter-mediated endocannabinoid release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the transport of endocannabinoids might work bi-directionally. Accordingly, it is possible that pharmacological blockade of the latter affects not only the re-uptake, but also the release of endocannabinoids, thus preventing them from stimulating CB 1 receptors. We used biochemical, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches to investigate the effects of the transporter inhibitor OMDM-2 on social interaction, a behavioral assay that requires activation of CB 1 receptors. The underlying mechanisms of OMDM-2 were compared with those of the Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597. Systemic administration of OMDM-2 reduced social interaction, but in contrast to URB597-induced social deficit, this effect was not reversed by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. The CB 1 antagonist AM251, which did not affect URB597-induced social withdrawal, exacerbated OMDM-2 effect. In addition, the potent CB 1 agonist CP55,940 reversed OMDM-2-, but not URB597-, induced social withdrawal. Blockade of CB 1 receptor by AM251 reduced social interaction and the cholecystokinin CCK2 antagonist LY225910 reversed this effect. Similarly, OMDM-2-induced social withdrawal was reversed by LY225910, whereas URB597 effect was not. Elevation of endocannabinoid levels by URB597 or JZL184, an inhibitor of 2-AG degradation, failed to reverse OMDM-2-induced social withdrawal, and did not show additive effects on cannabinoid measurements when co-administered with OMDM-2. Taken together, these findings indicate that OMDM-2 impaired social interaction in a manner that is consistent with reduced activation of presynaptic CB 1 receptors. As cannabinoid reuptake inhibitors may impair endocannabinoid release, caution should be taken when using these drugs to enhance endocannabinoid tone in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Manipulation of Auxin Response Factor 19 affects seed size in the woody perennial Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Xiyuan; Mao, Huizhu; Zhu, Changxiang; Wen, Fujiang; Wang, Xianghua; Lu, Zhijun; Yue, Genhua; Xu, Zengfu; Ye, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J. curcas. Importantly, transgenic overexpression of JcARF19 significantly increased seed size and seed yield in plants Arabidopsis thaliana and J. curcas, indicating the importance of auxin pathway in seed yield controlling in dicot plants. Transcripts analysis indicated that ectopic expression of JcARF19 in J. curcas upregulated auxin responsive genes encoding essential regulators in cell differentiation and cytoskeletal dynamics of seed development. Our data suggested the potential of improving seed traits by precisely engineering auxin signaling in woody perennial plants. PMID:28102350

  7. Changes in auxin level in the course of growth of a sunflower crown-gall suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Chirek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The auxin level in the cell mass and culture medium was determined by means of the Avena straight caleoptile test in various periods of the suspension culture cycle of the sunflower crown-gall tumour. The investigations were performed in the course of the zero passage (PO and first one (Pl, differing in their time of duration of maximum growth and its intensity. In both passages the intra- and extra-cellular auxin levels reach values of the same order. At the beginning of the maximal growth phase the activity corresponding to IAA in the cells prevails over that of the other auxin-like compounds. This disproportion diminishes with further development of the culture, and with the beginning of the stationary phase the cellular IAA level is lower than that of the remaining auxin-like compounds. The short phase of maximal growth (PO occurs with an auxin level decreasing in the cell mass and increasing in the medium, and towards the end of the cycle these levels become equal. During the long phase of maximal growth (Pl the total amount of auxins in the cells increases and is 2-3 times higher than in the medium, whereas IAA in the cells remains at a constant level. These results suggest that the participation of IAA in the intracellular pool of auxin-like substances is decisive for the mitotic activity of the cells and maintenance of growth in the culture.

  8. A novel tool for studying auxin-metabolism: the inhibition of grapevine indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetases by a reaction intermediate analogue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Böttcher

    Full Text Available An important process for the regulation of auxin levels in plants is the inactivation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA by conjugation to amino acids. The conjugation reaction is catalysed by IAA-amido synthetases belonging to the family of GH3 proteins. Genetic approaches to study the biological significance of these enzymes have been hampered by large gene numbers and a high degree of functional redundancy. To overcome these difficulties a chemical approach based on the reaction mechanism of GH3 proteins was employed to design a small molecule inhibitor of IAA-amido synthetase activity. Adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-ylethyl]phosphate (AIEP mimics the adenylated intermediate of the IAA-conjugation reaction and was therefore proposed to compete with the binding of MgATP and IAA in the initial stages of catalysis. Two grapevine IAA-amido synthetases with different catalytic properties were chosen to test the inhibitory effects of AIEP in vitro. GH3-1 has previously been implicated in the grape berry ripening process and is restricted to two amino acid substrates, whereas GH3-6 conjugated IAA to 13 amino acids. AIEP is the most potent inhibitor of GH3 enzymes so far described and was shown to be competitive against MgATP and IAA binding to both enzymes with K(i-values 17-68-fold lower than the respective K(m-values. AIEP also exhibited in vivo activity in an ex planta test system using young grape berries. Exposure to 5-20 µM of the inhibitor led to decreased levels of the common conjugate IAA-Asp and reduced the accumulation of the corresponding Asp-conjugate upon treatment with a synthetic auxin. AIEP therefore represents a novel chemical probe with which to study IAA-amido synthetase function.

  9. Molecular dynamics of conformation-specific dopamine transporter-inhibitor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Bernandie; Surratt, Christopher K; Madura, Jeffry D

    2017-09-01

    The recreational psychostimulant cocaine inhibits dopamine reuptake from the synapse, resulting in excessive stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in brain areas associated with reward and addiction. Cocaine binds to and stabilizes the outward- (extracellular-) facing conformation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, while the low abuse potential DAT inhibitor benztropine prefers the inward- (cytoplasmic-) facing conformation. A correlation has been previously postulated between psychostimulant abuse potential and preference for the outward-facing DAT conformation. The 3β-aryltropane cocaine analogs LX10 and LX11, however, differ only in stereochemistry and share a preference for the outward-facing DAT, yet are reported to vary widely in abuse potential in an animal model. In search of the molecular basis for DAT conformation preference, complexes of cocaine, benztropine, LX10 or LX11 bound to each DAT conformation were subjected to 100ns of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation. Results were consistent with previous findings from cysteine accessibility assays used to assess an inhibitor's DAT conformation preference. The respective 2β- and 2α-substituted phenyltropanes of LX10 and LX11 interacted with hydrophobic regions of the DAT S1 binding site that were inaccessible to cocaine. Solvent accessibility measurements also revealed subtle differences in inhibitor positioning within a given DAT conformation. This work serves to advance our understanding of the conformational selectivity of DAT inhibitors and suggests that MD may be useful in antipsychostimulant therapeutic design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression profiling of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR genes during somatic embryogenesis induction in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcikowska, Barbara; Gaj, Małgorzata D

    2017-06-01

    Extensive modulation of numerous ARF transcripts in the embryogenic culture of Arabidopsis indicates a substantial role of auxin signaling in the mechanism of somatic embryogenesis induction. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is induced by auxin in plants and auxin signaling is considered to play a key role in the molecular mechanism that controls the embryogenic transition of plant somatic cells. Accordingly, the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes in embryogenic culture of Arabidopsis was analyzed. The study revealed that 14 of the 22 ARFs were transcribed during SE in Arabidopsis. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that the expression of six ARFs (ARF5, ARF6, ARF8, ARF10, ARF16, and ARF17) was significantly up-regulated, whereas five other genes (ARF1, ARF2, ARF3, ARF11, and ARF18) were substantially down-regulated in the SE-induced explants. The activity of ARFs during SE was also monitored with GFP reporter lines and the ARFs that were expressed in areas of the explants engaged in SE induction were detected. A functional test of ARFs transcribed during SE was performed and the embryogenic potential of the arf mutants and overexpressor lines was evaluated. ARFs with a significantly modulated expression during SE coupled with an impaired embryogenic response of the relevant mutant and/or overexpressor line, including ARF1, ARF2, ARF3, ARF5, ARF6, ARF8, and ARF11 were indicated as possibly being involved in SE induction. The study provides evidence that embryogenic induction strongly depends on ARFs, which are key regulators of the auxin signaling. Some clues on the possible functions of the candidate ARFs, especially ARF5, in the mechanism of embryogenic transition are discussed. The results provide guidelines for further research on the auxin-related functional genomics of SE and the developmental plasticity of somatic cells.

  11. Perturbation of Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by PINOID Overexpression Induces Stress Responses in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud Saini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Under normal and stress conditions plant growth require a complex interplay between phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, details of the nature of this crosstalk remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that PINOID (PID, a serine threonine kinase of the AGC kinase family, perturbs auxin homeostasis, which in turn modulates rosette growth and induces stress responses in Arabidopsis plants. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered PID expression were used to study the effect on auxin levels and stress-related responses. In the leaves of plants with ectopic PID expression an accumulation of auxin, oxidative burst and disruption of hormonal balance was apparent. Furthermore, PID overexpression led to the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites, while pid knockout mutants showed only moderate changes in stress-related metabolites. These physiological changes in the plants overexpressing PID modulated their response toward external drought and osmotic stress treatments when compared to the wild type. Based on the morphological, transcriptome, and metabolite results, we propose that perturbations in the auxin hormone levels caused by PID overexpression, along with other hormones and ROS downstream, cause antioxidant accumulation and modify growth and stress responses in Arabidopsis. Our data provide further proof for a strong correlation between auxin and stress biology.

  12. Pengaruh penambahan auxin terhadap pertunasan dan perakaran kopi arabika perbanyakan Somatic Embryogenesis (The effects of shooting and rooting of arabica coffee propagation through Embryogenesis Somatic auxin uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Arimarsetiowati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plantlet that has developed shoots and roots will have a high level adaptation in the field. The objective of this experiment was to improve the ability of planlet in shooting and rooting so that it is ready for acclimatization in the field. The increase ability in shooting and rooting of the planlet were conducted by adding various types of auxin in the media. The arabica coffee embryo of clone AS 2K which has entered the phase of the cotyledons was transfered into the treatment media containing half-strength of MS (Murashige & Skoog macro and micro nutrient, vitamin B5, 30 g/L glucose, 100 ml/L coconut water, 50 mg/L AgNO3 added with the combination of IAA, IBA and NAA. The research was conducted by using completely randomized design with seven combined treatment i.e. 0.1 mg/L IBA, 0.1 mg/L NAA, 0.1 mg/L IAA; 0 , 1 mg/L IBA + 0.1 mg/L NAA, 0.1 mg/L IBA + 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.1 mg/L NAA + 0.1 mg/L IAA; without auxin. There were 12 replications in every treatment and each replication consisted of five cotyledonary embryos. The parameters of observation were the root length, leaf number, leaf area, stem diameter, and height of plantlets. The observations were conducted in eighth weeks after cotyledonary embryo had shoots. The results showed that in the number of leaves and height of planlet parameters, the treatment without auxin was the best result compared to planlet with auxin addition. The addition of auxin varians and their combination did not significantly influent leaf area, root length and stem diameter parameters. The medium tested was optimum for the growth of shoots and roots of AS 2K arabica coffee.

  13. Transport of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls Using Stable Isotope Labeling1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Barkawi, Lana; Gardner, Gary; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2012-01-01

    The polar transport of the natural auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls using radioactive tracers. Because radioactive assays alone cannot distinguish IBA from its metabolites, the detected transport from applied [3H]IBA may have resulted from the transport of IBA metabolites, including IAA. To test this hypothesis, we used a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the transport of IBA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by following the movement of [13C1]IBA and the [13C1]IAA derived from [13C1]IBA. We also assayed [13C6]IAA transport in a parallel control experiment. We found that the amount of transported [13C1]IBA was dramatically lower than [13C6]IAA, and the IBA transport was not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Significant amounts of the applied [13C1]IBA were converted to [13C1]IAA during transport, but [13C1]IBA transport was independent of IBA-to-IAA conversion. We also found that most of the [13C1]IBA was converted to ester-linked [13C1]IBA at the apical end of hypocotyls, and ester-linked [13C1]IBA was also found in the basal end at a level higher than free [13C1]IBA. In contrast, most of the [13C6]IAA was converted to amide-linked [13C6]IAA at the apical end of hypocotyls, but very little conjugated [13C6]IAA was found in the basal end. Our results demonstrate that the polar transport of IBA is much lower than IAA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the transport mechanism is distinct from IAA transport. These experiments also establish a method for quantifying the movement of small molecules in plants using stable isotope labeling. PMID:22323783

  14. Points of regulation for auxin action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zažímalová, Eva; Napier, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2003), s. 625-634 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Grant - others:EU INCO COPERNICUS(XE) ERBIC15 CT98 0118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Plant hormone * Homeostasis * Auxin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.423, year: 2003

  15. A cell-based fluorescent glucose transporter assay for SGLT2 inhibitor discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption in the kidney, and currently, SGLT2 inhibitors are considered as promising hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. By constructing CHO cell lines that stably express the human SGLT2 transmembrane protein, along with a fluorescent glucose transporter assay that uses 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG as a glucose analog, we have developed a nonradioactive, cell-based assay for the discovery and characterization of SGLT2 inhibitors.

  16. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: novel antidiabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, William N

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of glucose homeostasis in healthy individuals involves SGLT2 (sodium glucose co-transporter 2)-mediated recovery of glucose from the glomerular filtrate which otherwise would be excreted in urine. Clinical studies indicate that SGLT2 inhibitors provide an insulin-independent means to reduce the hyperglycemia that is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. The pharmacophore common to the SGLT2 inhibitors currently in development is a diarylmethane C-glucoside which is discussed in this review. The focus is how this pharmacophore was further modified as inferred from the patents publishing from 2009 to 2011. The emphasis is on the strategy that each group employed to circumvent the constraints imposed by prior art and how the resulting SGLT2 potency and selectivity versus SGLT1 compared with that of the lead clinical compound dapagliflozin. SGLT2 inhibitors offer a new fundamentally different approach for treatment of diabetes. To date, the clinical results suggest that for non-renally impaired patients this class of inhibitors could be safely used at any stage of T2DM either alone or in combination with other marketed antidiabetic medications.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Zou, Ming-Hong; Feng, Bi-Hong; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as MiPIN1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as MiAUX1, MiAUX2, MiAUX3 and MiAUX4). The results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs belong to plant PIN and AUXs/LAXs groups. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs was lowest at 0 days but sharply increased on and after day 4. During the root formation in the mango cotyledon segments, the MiPIN1 expression in the distal cut surface (DCS) was always higher than the expression in the proximal cut surface (PCS) whereas the expression of the MiAUXs in the PCS was usually higher than in the DCS. This expression pattern might be result in the PAT from the DCS to the PCS, which is essential for the adventitious root formation in the PCS. Our previous study indicated that a pre-treatment of embryos with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly promoted adventitious rooting in PCS whereas a pre-treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) completely inhibited this rooting. In this study, however, IBA and TIBA pre-treatments slightly changed the expression of MiPIN1. In contrast, while the MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by the IBA pre-treatment, the expression levels were down-regulated by the TIBA pre-treatment. These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-09

    Dec 9, 2013 ... Previous research has demonstrated that auxin induces and regulates the .... three main-stem nodes stage seedlings were prepared for the. IAA treatment ... For semi- quantitative RT-PCR analysis, first-strand cDNA was syn-.

  19. Integration of Auxin and Salt Signals by the NAC Transcription Factor NTM2 during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmin; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Je-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Seed germination is regulated through elaborately interacting signaling networks that integrate diverse environmental cues into hormonal signaling pathways. Roles of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid in germination have been studied extensively using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants having alterations in seed germination. Auxin has also been implicated in seed germination. However, how auxin influences germination is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that auxin is linked via the IAA30 gene with a salt signaling cascade mediated by the NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 transcription factor NTM2/Arabidopsis NAC domain-containing protein 69 (for NAC with Transmembrane Motif1) during seed germination. Germination of the NTM2-deficient ntm2-1 mutant seeds exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity. However, the salt resistance disappeared in the ntm2-1 mutant overexpressing the IAA30 gene, which was induced by salt in a NTM2-dependent manner. Auxin exhibited no discernible effects on germination under normal growth conditions. Under high salinity, however, whereas exogenous application of auxin further suppressed the germination of control seeds, the auxin effects were reduced in the ntm2-1 mutant. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of auxin on germination, germination of YUCCA 3-overexpressing plants containing elevated levels of active auxin was more severely influenced by salt. These observations indicate that auxin delays seed germination under high salinity through cross talk with the NTM2-mediated salt signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:21450938

  20. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and characterization of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase gene of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, D.A.M. van der; Schuyer, M.; Scheres, B.J.G.; Zaal, B.J. van der; Hooykaas, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Genes homologous to the auxin-inducible Nt103 glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene of tobacco, were isolated from a genomic library of Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated a λ clone containing an auxin-inducible gene, At103-1a, and part of a constitutively expressed gene, At103-1b. The coding regions

  2. The Acid Growth Theory of auxin-induced cell elongation is alive and well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cells elongate irreversibly only when load-bearing bonds in the walls are cleaved. Auxin causes the elongation of stem and coleoptile cells by promoting wall loosening via cleavage of these bonds. This process may be coupled with the intercalation of new cell wall polymers. Because the primary site of auxin action appears to be the plasma membrane or some intracellular site, and wall loosening is extracellular, there must be communication between the protoplast and the wall. Some "wall-loosening factor" must be exported from auxin-impacted cells, which sets into motion the wall loosening events. About 20 years ago, it was suggested that the wall-loosening factor is hydrogen ions. This idea and subsequent supporting data gave rise to the Acid Growth Theory, which states that when exposed to auxin, susceptible cells excrete protons into the wall (apoplast) at an enhanced rate, resulting in a decrease in apoplastic pH. The lowered wall pH then activates wall-loosening processes, the precise nature of which is unknown. Because exogenous acid causes a transient (1-4 h) increase in growth rate, auxin must also mediate events in addition to wall acidification for growth to continue for an extended period of time. These events may include osmoregulation, cell wall synthesis, and maintenance of the capacity of walls to undergo acid-induced wall loosening. At present, we do not know if these phenomena are tightly coupled to wall acidification or if they are the products of multiple independent signal transduction pathways.

  3. The chloroindole auxins of pea, strong plant growth hormones or endogenous herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1994-02-01

    In this work the three theses below are discussed: 1) Identification and quantitative determination of the very strong plant hormone, the auxin 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester, in immature seeds of Pisum, Vicia, Lathyrus, and Lens spp. by incorporation of radioactive 36 Cl, thin layer chromatography, autoradiography, colour reactions, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2) The strong biological activity of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and its analogues and its ability to induce strong, almost irreversible, ethylene evolution. 3) The possible role of chloroindole auxin in plants, particularly if it might be the hypothetical death hormone, secreted from developing seeds, which induces senescence and kills the mother plant at maturity; if plants generally have several auxin types, growth promoters and endogenous herbicides; and if other chlorine-containing plant hormones occur in developing seeds of other crop species. (au) (7 tabs., 8 ills., 144 refs.)

  4. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    The use of (35)S-labeled calmodulin (CaM) to screen a corn root cDNA expression library has led to the isolation of a CaM-binding protein, encoded by a cDNA with sequence similarity to small auxin up RNAs (SAURs), a class of early auxin-responsive genes. The cDNA designated as ZmSAUR1 (Zea mays SAURs) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by CaM affinity chromatography. The CaM binding assay revealed that the recombinant protein binds to CaM in a calcium-dependent manner. Deletion analysis revealed that the CaM binding site was located at the NH(2)-terminal domain. A synthetic peptide of amino acids 20-45, corresponding to the potential CaM binding region, was used for calcium-dependent mobility shift assays. The synthetic peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of calcium. The CaM affinity assay indicated that ZmSAUR1 binds to CaM with high affinity (K(d) approximately 15 nM) in a calcium-dependent manner. Comparison of the NH(2)-terminal portions of all of the characterized SAURs revealed that they all contain a stretch of the basic alpha-amphiphilic helix similar to the CaM binding region of ZmSAUR1. CaM binds to the two synthetic peptides from the NH(2)-terminal regions of Arabidopsis SAUR-AC1 and soybean 10A5, suggesting that this is a general phenomenon for all SAURs. Northern analysis was carried out using the total RNA isolated from auxin-treated corn coleoptile segments. ZmSAUR1 gene expression began within 10 min, increased rapidly between 10 and 60 min, and peaked around 60 min after 10 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid treatment. These results indicate that ZmSAUR1 is an early auxin-responsive gene. The CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride inhibited the auxin-induced cell elongation but not the auxin-induced expression of ZmSAUR1. This suggests that calcium/CaM do not regulate ZmSAUR1 at the transcriptional level. CaM binding to ZmSAUR1 in a calcium

  5. Assay for inhibitors of nucleoside transport based upon the use of 5-125I]Iodo-2-deoxyuridine as permeant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, W.B.; Zimmerman, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    5[ 125 I]Iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IdUrd) has been shown to serve as a permeant for the nucleoside transport system of human erythrocytes and to be metabolically inert in these cells. Linear initial velocities were obtained at 20 0 C for 125 IdUrd transport, yielding a K/sub m/ of 73 +/- 18 μM (n = 6). Low-affinity inhibitors of 125 IdUrd transport, such as adenosine (K/sub i/ = 32 +/- 2 μM, n = 2), could be characterized by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. However, high-affinity inhibitors, such as 6-[4-nitrobenzyl)thio]9-β-D-ribofuranosylpurine, caused nonlinear initial velocities when added to the cells simultaneously with 125 IdUrd. Conditions were defined (viz., 20-min pretreatment of cells with test compound followed by 5.0-min incubation with 1.0 μM 125 IdUrd, all at 20 0 C) whereby high-affinity inhibitors of IdUrd transport can be identified and evaluated according to their 50% inhibitory concentrations. The use of 125 IdUrd as permeant greatly expedites the testing of compounds as inhibitors of nucleoside transport by allowing the cell pellets generated in these assays to be monitored directly in a gamma spectrometer, thereby circumventing the solubilization and decolorization of cell pellets required by assays that use 3 H- or 14 C-labeled nucleoside permeants

  6. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  7. Computational Modeling of Auxin: A Foundation for Plant Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Tapia, Alejandro; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of agriculture, humans have relied on the cultivation of plants to satisfy our increasing demand for food, natural products, and other raw materials. As we understand more about plant development, we can better manipulate plants to fulfill our particular needs. Auxins are a class of simple metabolites that coordinate many developmental activities like growth and the appearance of functional structures in plants. Computational modeling of auxin has proven to be an excellent tool in elucidating many mechanisms that underlie these developmental events. Due to the complexity of these mechanisms, current modeling efforts are concerned only with single phenomena focused on narrow spatial and developmental contexts; but a general model of plant development could be assembled by integrating the insights from all of them. In this perspective, we summarize the current collection of auxin-driven computational models, focusing on how they could come together into a single model for plant development. A model of this nature would allow researchers to test hypotheses in silico and yield accurate predictions about the behavior of a plant under a given set of physical and biochemical constraints. It would also provide a solid foundation toward the establishment of plant engineering, a proposed discipline intended to enable the design and production of plants that exhibit an arbitrarily defined set of features.

  8. Auxin-binding pocket of ABP1 is crucial for its gain-of-function cellular and developmental roles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grones, P.; Chen, X.; Simon, S.; Kaufmann, W.A.; De Rycke, R.; Nodzyński, T.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 16 (2015), s. 5055-5065 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * ABP1 * Auxin binding Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  9. WHEN STRESS AND DEVELOPMENT GO HAND IN HAND: MAIN HORMONAL CONTROLS OF ADVENTITIOUS ROOTING IN CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Tesser Da Costa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious rooting (AR is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: a induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; b formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced cytokinin concentration in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 and ABP1. A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins needed for root tissue differentiation.

  10. Autoradiographic studies with the 14C-IAA in relation to synergism between auxin and non-auxin chemicals in the rooting of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, K.G.; Basu, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    Indole and α-naphthol significantly synergized the IAA-induced rooting of P. vulqaris cuttings. The pattern of incorporation of radiocarbon of IAA-I- 14 C and IAA-2- 14 C supplied to the base of the cuttings was, however, not altered by the synergists and the same radioactive metabolites were located on the radioautograms of ethanolic extracts of the hypocotyls of cuttings under the different treatments. The results thereby discount the possibility of formation of bioactive complexes between auxins and synergists as the mechanism of synergism in rooting. The synergists, however, influenced the extent of incorporation of radiocarbon of the labelled auxin molecules into some of the radioactive metabolites. (auth.)

  11. New auxin analogs with growth-promoting effects in intact plants reveal a chemical strategy to improve hormone delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal; Baiga, Thomas J; Pojer, Florence; Dabi, Tsegeye; Butterfield, Cristina; Parry, Geraint; Santner, Aaron; Dharmasiri, Nihal; Tao, Yi; Estelle, Mark; Noel, Joseph P; Chory, Joanne

    2008-09-30

    Plant growth depends on the integration of environmental cues and phytohormone-signaling pathways. During seedling emergence, elongation of the embryonic stem (hypocotyl) serves as a readout for light and hormone-dependent responses. We screened 10,000 chemicals provided exogenously to light-grown seedlings and identified 100 compounds that promote hypocotyl elongation. Notably, one subset of these chemicals shares structural characteristics with the synthetic auxins, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA); however, traditional auxins (e.g., indole-3-acetic acid [IAA], 2,4-D, 1-NAA) have no effect on hypocotyl elongation. We show that the new compounds act as "proauxins" akin to prodrugs. Our data suggest that these compounds diffuse efficiently to the hypocotyls, where they undergo cleavage at varying rates, releasing functional auxins. To investigate this principle, we applied a masking strategy and designed a pro-2,4-D. Unlike 2,4-D alone, this pro-2,4-D enhanced hypocotyl elongation. We further demonstrated the utility of the proauxins by characterizing auxin responses in light-grown hypocotyls of several auxin receptor mutants. These new compounds thus provide experimental access to a tissue previously inaccessible to exogenous application of auxins. Our studies exemplify the combined power of chemical genetics and biochemical analyses for discovering and refining prohormone analogs with selective activity in specific plant tissues. In addition to the utility of these compounds for addressing questions related to auxin and light-signaling interactions, one can envision using these simple principles to study other plant hormone and small molecule responses in temporally and spatially controlled ways.

  12. Effect of auxins and associated biochemical changes during clonal propagation of the biofuel plant - Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Sunita; Singh, S.P.; Kochhar, V.K. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Rooting and sprouting behaviour of stem cuttings of biofuel plant Jatropha curcas and their performance under field conditions have been studied in relation to auxin application. Pretreatment with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) increased both the rooting and sprouting. Sprouting of buds on the cuttings preceded rooting. The rooting and sprouting in J. curcas was more with IBA than NAA. The endogenous auxin contents were found to increase almost 15 days prior to rooting, indicating that mobilization of auxin rather than the absolute contents of auxin may be involved in root initiation. Indole acetic acid oxidase (IAA-oxidase) seems to be involved for triggering and initiating the roots/root primordia, whereas peroxidase is involved in both root initiation and the elongation processes as supported by the peroxidase and IAA-oxidase isoenzyme analysis in the cuttings. The clonally propagated plants (cutting-raised plants) performed better in the field as compared to those raised from the seeds. The plants produced from auxin-treated cuttings produced fruits and seeds in the same year as compared to the plants raised from seeds or from untreated or control cuttings that did not produce any seeds in 1 year of this study. Jatropha plants in general produce seeds after 2-3 years. (author)

  13. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.scaglia@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira [Laboratório de Química Ambiental, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, São Carlos (Brazil); Tambone, Fulvia [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Adani, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100–6000 mg carbon L{sup −1}. {sup 13}C CPMAS-NMR and GC–MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS {sup 13}CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R{sup 2} = − 0.85; p < 0.01, n = 6). - Highlights: • Vermicomposting converts waste into organic fertilizer. • Vermicomposts can have biostimulating effect for the presence of hormone-like molecules. • Auxine-like activity was associated to the vermicompost humic acid fraction (HA). • HA carboxylic acids and amino acids, were reported to act as auxin-like molecules. • A linear regression was found between molecules and auxin-like activity.

  14. Sodium-Glucose linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors--fighting diabetes from a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodoros P; Doupis, John

    2014-06-01

    Sodium-Glucose linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new family of antidiabetic pharmaceutical agents whose action is based on the inhibition of the glucose reabsorption pathway, resulting in glucosuria and a consequent reduction of the blood glucose levels, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Apart from lowering both fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, without causing hypoglycemia, SGLT2 inhibitors have also shown a reduction in body weight and the systolic blood pressure. This review paper explores the renal involvement in glucose homeostasis providing also the latest safety and efficacy data for the European Medicines Agency and U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved SGLT2 inhibitors, looking, finally, into the future of this novel antidiabetic category of pharmaceutical agents.

  15. AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 4 is involved in the Ca2+/auxin-regulated expression of ZCAX3 gene in maize (Zea mays)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurišić-Knežev, Dejana; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Milde, D.; Fellner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 5 (2014), s. 332-339 ISSN 1916-2790 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME792 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin-binding protein * ABP4 * AtCAX1 Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2014

  16. In-silico identification and phylogenetic analysis of auxin efflux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytohormone auxin is crucial for plant growth and development. ... genome, which are similar in number with that of monocotyledonous plant Oryza sativa. ... are much closer to Sorghum bicolor and O. sativa PIN genes of the grass family.

  17. Function of type-2 Arabidopsis hemoglobin in the auxin-mediated formation of embryogenic cells during morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim; Wang, Aiming

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the Arabidopsis GLB2, a type-2 nonsymbiotic hemoglobin, enhances somatic embryogenesis by increasing auxin production. In the glb2 knock-out line (GLB2 -/-) polarization of PIN1 proteins and auxin maxima occurred at the base of the cotyledons of the zygotic explants, which are the ...

  18. An ABC transporter B family protein, ABCB19, is required for cytoplasmic streaming and gravitropism of the inflorescence stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Keishi; Ueda, Haruko; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of plant cells is the extensive motility of organelles and the cytosol, which was originally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. We suggested previously that a three-way interaction between plant-specific motor proteins myosin XIs, actin filaments, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. (1) Currently, however, there are no reports of molecular components for cytoplasmic streaming other than the actin-myosin-cytoskeleton and ER-related proteins. In the present study, we found that elongated cells of inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit vigorous cytoplasmic streaming. Statistical analysis showed that the maximal velocity of plastid movements is 7.26 µm/s, which is much faster than the previously reported velocities of organelles. Surprisingly, the maximal velocity of streaming in the inflorescence stem cells was significantly reduced to 1.11 µm/s in an Arabidopsis mutant, abcb19-101, which lacks ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUBFAMILY B19 (ABCB19) that mediates the polar transport of the phytohormone auxin together with PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Polar auxin transport establishes the auxin concentration gradient essential for plant development and tropisms. Deficiency of ABCB19 activity eventually caused enhanced gravitropic responses of the inflorescence stems and abnormally flexed inflorescence stems. These results suggest that ABCB19-mediated auxin transport plays a role not only in tropism regulation, but also in cytoplasmic streaming.

  19. Auxins differentially regulate root system architecture and cell cycle protein levels in maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Cruz, Enrique; García-Ramírez, Elpidio; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M; Reyes de la Cruz, Homero; López-Bucio, José

    2015-03-15

    Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture has a complex organization, with adventitious and lateral roots determining its overall absorptive capacity. To generate basic information about the earlier stages of root development, we compared the post-embryonic growth of maize seedlings germinated in water-embedded cotton beds with that of plants obtained from embryonic axes cultivated in liquid medium. In addition, the effect of four different auxins, namely indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on root architecture and levels of the heat shock protein HSP101 and the cell cycle proteins CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA1 were analyzed. Our data show that during the first days after germination, maize seedlings develop several root types with a simultaneous and/or continuous growth. The post-embryonic root development started with the formation of the primary root (PR) and seminal scutellar roots (SSR) and then continued with the formation of adventitious crown roots (CR), brace roots (BR) and lateral roots (LR). Auxins affected root architecture in a dose-response fashion; whereas NAA and IBA mostly stimulated crown root formation, 2,4-D showed a strong repressing effect on growth. The levels of HSP101, CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA in root and leaf tissues were differentially affected by auxins and interestingly, HSP101 registered an auxin-inducible and root specific expression pattern. Taken together, our results show the timing of early branching patterns of maize and indicate that auxins regulate root development likely through modulation of the HSP101 and cell cycle proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical activity of auxins in dependence of their structures in Wolffia arrhiza (L. Wimm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Czerpak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolffia arrhiza (L. Wimm. (Lemnaceae as a mixotrophic plant reacts considerably weaker to used auxins with different chemical structures than typical photosynthetic vascular plants and algae especially from Chlorophyta. Among used auxin compounds, the highest stimulative activity on W. arrhiza growth and biochemical parameters which were analysed in biomass, can be attributed to phenylacetic acid (PAA, a somewhat smaller to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and the smallest to 2-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA used in optimal concentration of 10-6 M, in comparison with the control culture, devoid of exogenous auxins. The investigated auxins, especially PAA and IAA, were found to have the most powerful stimulative activity (prevailingly between the 10th and the 15th day of cultivation on the content of reducing sugars between 127 and 169%, chlorophyll a and b from 117 to 125%, total carotenoids from 115 to 132% and net photosynthetic rate from 127 to 144% in comparison with the control culture, which was treated as 100% for reference. However, the content of water-soluble proteins as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA in the biomass of W. arrhiza was less effectively stimulated, hardly from 110 to 116% when compared to the control culture (100%.

  1. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) Gene Family in Eucalyptus grandis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; Mila, Isabelle; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Dunand, Christophe; Paiva, Jorge A. P.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF) are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation. PMID:25269088

  2. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF gene family in Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    Full Text Available Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation.

  3. A Plant Phytosulfokine Peptide Initiates Auxin-Dependent Immunity through Cytosolic Ca2+ Signaling in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Hu, Zhangjian; Lei, Cui; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Jiao; Shao, Shujun; Li, Xin; Xia, Xiaojian; Cai, Xinzhong; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine H; Shi, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that is an important signaling molecule. Although it has recently been implicated in plant defenses to pathogen infection, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Using surface plasmon resonance and gene silencing approaches, we showed that the tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) PSK receptor PSKR1, rather than PSKR2, functioned as the major PSK receptor in immune responses. Silencing of PSK signaling genes rendered tomato more susceptible to infection by the economically important necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea Analysis of tomato mutants defective in either defense hormone biosynthesis or signaling demonstrated that PSK-induced immunity required auxin biosynthesis and associated defense pathways. Here, using aequorin-expressing tomato plants, we provide evidence that PSK perception by tomato PSKR1 elevated cytosolic [Ca 2+ ], leading to auxin-dependent immune responses via enhanced binding activity between calmodulins and the auxin biosynthetic YUCs. Thus, our data demonstrate that PSK acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern and is perceived mainly by PSKR1, which increases cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] and activates auxin-mediated pathways that enhance immunity of tomato plants to B. cinerea . © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Dendrobium officinale under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhehao; Yuan, Ye; Fu, Di; Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-05-04

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental stresses by binding specifically to the auxin response element in the promoters of target genes. Using our latest public Dendrobium transcriptomes, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 14 DnARF genes were performed. Three selected DnARFs , including DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 , were confirmed to be nuclear proteins according to their transient expression in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Furthermore, the transcription activation abilities of DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 were tested in a yeast system. Our data showed that DnARF6 is a transcriptional activator in Dendrobium officinale . To uncover the basic information of DnARF gene responses to abiotic stresses, we analyzed their expression patterns under various hormones and abiotic treatments. Based on our data, several hormones and significant stress responsive DnARF genes have been identified. Since auxin and ARF genes have been identified in many plant species, our data is imperative to reveal the function of ARF mediated auxin signaling in the adaptation to the challenging Dendrobium environment.

  5. Lateral root formation and the multiple roles of auxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Yujuan; Scheres, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Root systems can display variable architectures that contribute to survival strategies of plants. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana possesses a tap root system, in which the primary root and lateral roots (LRs) are major architectural determinants. The phytohormone auxin fulfils multiple roles

  6. In-silico identification and phylogenetic analysis of auxin efflux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... PIN proteins of Arabidopsis viz., PIN1,PIN4 and PIN7 show plasma membrane .... The central hydrophilic loop is dynamic in nature and differs from each other in terms ... research of this plant at the molecular level. Auxin efflux.

  7. Novel and High Affinity 2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (Modafinil) Analogues as Atypical Dopamine Transporter Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Jianjing; Slack, Rachel D.; Bakare, Oluyomi M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of pharmacotherapeutic treatments of psychostimulant abuse has remained a challenge, despite significant efforts made toward relevant mechanistic targets, such as the dopamine transporter (DAT). The atypical DAT inhibitors have received attention due to their promising pharmacolog...

  8. Isolation and screening of rhizobia for auxin biosynthesis and growth promotion of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. seedlings under axenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Ashraf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of screening experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of rhizobia for producing auxins and improvegrowth and nodulation of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. were carried out under axenic conditions. Forty fouriolatess of rhizobia were isolated using standard procedures. Auxin biosynthesis by these rhizobial isolates wasdetermined in the absence and presence of L-Trp, a physiological precursor of auxins. Rhizobial isolates variedwidely in auxins biosynthesis capabilities. On the basis of auxins biosynthesis, a pouch experiment was conductedfor screening thirty four efficient isolates of rhizobia for the growth promotion of mung bean. Results of pouch studyshowed that inoculation with selected rhizobial isolates increased the root /shoot length, fresh, and dry shoot weightof mung bean up to 33, 59, 71, 148, 107 and 188%, respectively, over untreated control. Further studies are neededunder glasshouse and field conditions for confirmation of these results.

  9. Inter-regulation of the unfolded protein response and auxin signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.N.; Aung, K.; Rolčík, Jakub; Walicki, K.; Friml, J.; Brandizzi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2014), s. 97-107 ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : endoplasmic reticulum stress * unfolded protein response * auxin response Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  10. The aux1 gene of the Ri plasmid is sufficient to confer auxin autotrophy in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Keiichirou; Hara, Masamitsu; Goto, Shingo; Kasai, Kouji; Seki, Hikaru; Suzuki, Masashi; Oka, Atsuhiro; Muranaka, Toshiya; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2009-05-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells are rapidly proliferating meristematic cells that require auxin for culture in vitro. We have established several transgenic BY-2 cell lines that carry the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834, which harbors an agropine-type root-inducing (Ri) plasmid. Two of these lines, BYHR-3 and BYHR-7, were used to test the role of auxin in the proliferation of plant cells. The lines grew rapidly in Linsmaier-Skoog (LS) medium lacking auxin and other phytohormones. The TR-DNA, containing the aux1 (tryptophan monooxygenase) and aux2 (indoleacetamide hydrolase) genes, was present in the genomes of both transgenic lines, whereas the TL-DNA, containing the rolA, B, C and D genes, was present in the genome of BYHR-7 but not BYHR-3. Since the introduction of the rolABCD genes alone did not affect the auxin requirement of BY-2 cells, the aux1 and aux2 genes, but not the rolABCD genes, appear to be relevant to the auxin autotrophy of these transgenic lines. Furthermore, the overexpression of aux1 allowed BY-2 cells to grow rapidly in the absence of auxin, suggesting the existence in plant cells of an unidentified gene whose product is functionally equivalent or similar to that of aux2 of the Ri plasmid.

  11. Function of the auxin-responsive gene TaSAUR75 under salt and drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Small auxin-upregulated RNAs (SAURs are genes regulated by auxin and environmental factors. In this study, we identified a SAUR gene in wheat, TaSAUR75. Under salt stress, TaSAUR75 is downregulated in wheat roots. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSAUR75 was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of TaSAUR75 increased drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Transgenic lines showed higher root length and survival rate and higher expression of some stress-responsive genes than control plants under salt and drought stress. Less H2O2 accumulated in transgenic lines than in control plants under drought stress. Our findings reveal a positive regulatory role of the auxin-responsive gene TaSAUR75 in plant responses to drought and salt stress and provide a candidate gene for improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in crop breeding.

  12. Sodium glucose CoTransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: Current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaan, Tushar; Akhtar, Mohd; Najmi, Abul Kalam

    2016-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide and its prevalence is estimated to rise in the future. Billions of dollars are spent each year around the world in health expenditure related to diabetes. There are several anti-diabetic drugs in the market for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In this article, we will be talking about a relatively new class of anti-diabetic drugs called sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. This class of drugs has a unique mechanism of action focusing on inhibition of glucose reabsorption that separates it from other classes. This article covers the mechanism of glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, several SGLT2 inhibitors currently available in the market as well as those in various phases of development, their individual pharmacokinetics as well as the discussion about the future role of SGLT2 inhibitors, not only for the treatment of diabetes, but also for various other diseases like obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of External Nitrogen on Nitrogenase Enzyme Activity and Auxin Production in Herbaspirillum seropedicae (Z78).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tan Tzy; Pin, Ui Li; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    The production of nitrogenase enzyme and auxins by free living diazotrophs has the potential to influence the growth of host plants. In this study, diazotrophs were grown in the presence of various concentrations of nitogen (N) to determine the optimal concentration of N for microbial growth stimulation, promotion of gaseous N (N2) fixation, and phytohormone production. Therefore, we investigate whether different levels of N supplied to Herbaspirillum seropedicae (Z78) have significant effects on nitrogenase activity and auxin production. The highest nitrogenase activity and the lowest auxin production of H. seropedicae (Z78) were both recorded at 0 gL(-1) of NH4Cl. Higher levels of external N caused a significant decrease in the nitrogenase activity and an increased production of auxins. In a subsequent test, two different inoculum sizes of Z78 (10(6) and 10(12) cfu/ml) were used to study the effect of different percentages of acetylene on nitrogenase activity of the inoculum via the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). The results showed that the optimal amount of acetylene required for nitrogenase enzyme activity was 5% for the 10(6) cfu/ml inoculum, whereas the higher inoculum size (10(12) cfu/ml) required at least 10% of acetylene for optimal nitrogenase activity. These findings provide a clearer understanding of the effects of N levels on diazotrophic nitrogenase activity and auxin production, which are important factors influencing plant growth.

  14. Inhibition of histone deacetylation alters Arabidopsis root growth in response to auxin via PIN1 degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Kim, Jun Hyeok; Jeong, Chan Young; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2013-10-01

    Our results showed the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) control root development in Arabidopsis via regulation of PIN1 degradation. Epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in the expression of many genes in response to exogenous or endogenous signals in plants as well as other organisms. One of epigenetic mechanisms is modifications of histone, such as acetylation and deacetylation, are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC), respectively. The Arabidopsis HDACs, HDA6, and HDA19, were reported to function in physiological processes, including embryo development, abiotic stress response, and flowering. In this study, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) inhibit primary root elongation and lateral root emergence. In response to HDIs treatment, the PIN1 protein was almost abolished in the root tip. However, the PIN1 gene did not show decreased expression in the presence of HDIs, whereas IAA genes exhibited increases in transcript levels. In contrast, we observed a stable level of gene expression of stress markers (KIN1 and COR15A) and a cell division marker (CYCB1). Taken together, these results suggest that epigenetic regulation may control auxin-mediated root development through the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PIN1 protein.

  15. Relationship between conformational changes in the dopamine transporter and cocaine-like subjective effects of uptake inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løland, Claus Juul; Desai, Rajeev I; Zou, Mu-Fa

    2007-01-01

    Cocaine exerts its stimulatory effect by inhibiting the dopamine transporter (DAT). However, novel benztropine- and rimcazole-based inhibitors show reduced stimulant effects compared with cocaine, despite higher affinity and selectivity for DAT. To investigate possible mechanisms, we compared...... the extracellular transporter gate is open but inaccessible when it is closed. The data indicated that cocaine analogs bind an open conformation, whereas benztropine and rimcazole analogs bind a closed conformation. Next, we investigated the changes in inhibition potency of [(3)H]dopamine uptake of the compounds...... at a mutant DAT (Y335A) characterized by a global change in the conformational equilibrium. We observed a close relationship between the decrease in potencies of inhibitors at this mutant and cocaine-like responding in rats trained to discriminate cocaine from saline injections. Our data suggest...

  16. Specific photoaffinity labeling of two plasma membrane polypeptides with an azido auxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, G.R.; Rayle, D.L.; Jones, A.M.; Lomax, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) hypocotyl tissue by aqueous phase partitioning and assessed for homogeneity by the use of membrane-specific enzyme assays. The highly pure plasma membrane vesicles maintained a pH differential across the membrane and accumulated a tritiated azido analogue of 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5-azido-[7- 3 H]IAA([ 3 H]N 3 IAA), in a manner similar to the accumulation of [ 3 H]IAA. The association of the [ 3 H]N 3 IAA with membrane vesicles was saturable and subject to competition by IAA and auxin analogues. Auxin-binding proteins were photoaffinity labeled by addition of [ 3 H]N 3 IAA to plasma membrane vesicles prior to exposure to UV light and detected by subsequent NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and fluorography. When the reaction temperature was lowered to -196 degree C, high-specific-activity labeling of a 40-kDa and a 42-kDa polypeptide was observed. Collectively, these results suggest that the radiolabeled polypeptides are auxin receptors. The covalent nature of the label should facilitate purification and further characterization of the receptors

  17. Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis and intracellular transport on the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced functional differentiation of cultured cerebellar granule cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Meier, E

    1990-01-01

    The effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis (actinomycin D, cycloheximide), proteases (leupeptin), and intracellular transport (colchicine, monensin) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist [4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)]-induced changes in morphological...... an intracellular and a plasma membrane localization of the receptors. In all experiments cultures treated with THIP alone served as controls. The inhibitors of protein synthesis totally abolished the ability of THIP to induce low-affinity GABA receptors. In contrast, the inhibitors of intracellular transport...

  18. Why plants need more than one type of auxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simon, Sibu; Petrášek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 3 (2011), s. 454-460 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin * IAA * 4-Cl-IAA * IBA * PAA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2011

  19. Role of chloride ions in the promotion of auxin-induced growth of maize coleoptile segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdach, Zbigniew; Kurtyka, Renata; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Karcz, Waldemar

    2014-10-01

    The mechanism of auxin action on ion transport in growing cells has not been determined in detail. In particular, little is known about the role of chloride in the auxin-induced growth of coleoptile cells. Moreover, the data that do exist in the literature are controversial. This study describes experiments that were carried out with maize (Zea mays) coleoptile segments, this being a classical model system for studies of plant cell elongation growth. Growth kinetics or growth and pH changes were recorded in maize coleoptiles using two independent measuring systems. The growth rate of the segments was measured simultaneously with medium pH changes. Membrane potential changes in parenchymal cells of the segments were also determined for chosen variants. The question of whether anion transport is involved in auxin-induced growth of maize coleoptile segments was primarily studied using anion channel blockers [anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS)]. In addition, experiments in which KCl was replaced by KNO3 were also performed. Both anion channel blockers, added at 0·1 mm, diminished indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-induced elongation growth by ~30 %. Medium pH changes measured simultaneously with growth indicated that while DIDS stopped IAA-induced proton extrusion, A-9-C diminished it by only 50 %. Addition of A-9-C to medium containing 1 mm KCl did not affect the characteristic kinetics of IAA-induced membrane potential changes, while in the presence of 10 mm KCl the channel blocker stopped IAA-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Replacement of KCl with KNO3 significantly decreased IAA-induced growth and inhibited proton extrusion. In contrast to the KCl concentration, the concentration of KNO3 did not affect the growth-stimulatory effect of IAA. For comparison, the effects of the cation channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA-Cl) on IAA-induced growth and proton extrusion were also determined. TEA

  20. Evidence That Chlorinated Auxin Is Restricted to the Fabaceae But Not to the Fabeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hong Kiat; McAdam, Scott A M; McAdam, Erin L; Ross, John J

    2015-07-01

    Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone, usually occurring in the form of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, in maturing pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, the level of the chlorinated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), greatly exceeds that of IAA. A key issue is how plants produce halogenated compounds such as 4-Cl-IAA. To better understand this topic, we investigated the distribution of the chlorinated auxin. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that 4-Cl-IAA is found in the seeds of Medicago truncatula, Melilotus indicus, and three species of Trifolium. Furthermore, we found no evidence that Pinus spp. synthesize 4-Cl-IAA in seeds, contrary to a previous report. The evidence indicates a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA synthesis in the Fabaceae, which may provide an ideal model system to further investigate the action and activity of halogenating enzymes in plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Transport mechanisms and their pathology-induced regulation govern tyrosine kinase inhibitor delivery in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt-Lauber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are effective in treating malignant disorders and were lately suggested to have an impact on non-malignant diseases. However, in some inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis (RA the in vivo effect seemed to be moderate. As most TKIs are taken up actively into cells by cell membrane transporters, this study aimed to evaluate the role of such transporters for the accumulation of the TKI Imatinib mesylates in RA synovial fibroblasts as well as their regulation under inflammatory conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transport and accumulation of Imatinib was investigated in transporter-transfected HEK293 cells and human RA synovial fibroblasts (hRASF. Transporter expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. In transfection experiments, hMATE1 showed the highest apparent affinity for Imatinib among all known Imatinib transporters. Experiments quantifying the Imatinib uptake in the presence of specific transporter inhibitors and after siRNA knockdown of hMATE1 indeed identified hMATE1 to mediate Imatinib transport in hRASF. The anti-proliferative effect of Imatinib on PDGF stimulated hRASF was quantified by cell counting and directly correlated with the uptake activity of hMATE1. Expression of hMATE1 was investigated by Western blot and immuno-fluorescence. Imatinib transport under disease-relevant conditions, such as an altered pH and following stimulation with different cytokines, was also investigated by HPLC. The uptake was significantly reduced by an acidic extracellular pH as well as by the cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, which all decreased the expression of hMATE1-mRNA and protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The regulation of Imatinib uptake via hMATE1 in hRASF and resulting effects on their proliferation may explain moderate in vivo effects on RA. Moreover, our results suggest that investigating transporter mediated drug processing under normal and pathological conditions is important

  2. Diversification, phylogeny and evolution of auxin response factor (ARF) family: insights gained from analyzing maize ARF genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Shi, Yating; Miao, Nan; Bian, Yunlong; Yin, Zhitong

    2012-03-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs), member of the plant-specific B3 DNA binding superfamily, target specifically to auxin response elements (AuxREs) in promoters of primary auxin-responsive genes and heterodimerize with Aux/IAA proteins in auxin signaling transduction cascade. In previous research, we have isolated and characterized maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. Here, we report the comprehensive analysis of ARF genes in maize. A total of 36 ARF genes were identified and validated from the B73 maize genome through an iterative strategy. Thirty-six maize ARF genes are distributed in all maize chromosomes except chromosome 7. Maize ARF genes expansion is mainly due to recent segmental duplications. Maize ARF proteins share one B3 DNA binding domain which consists of seven-stranded β sheets and two short α helixes. Twelve maize ARFs with glutamine-rich middle regions could be as activators in modulating expression of auxin-responsive genes. Eleven maize ARF proteins are lack of homo- and heterodimerization domains. Putative cis-elements involved in phytohormones and light signaling responses, biotic and abiotic stress adaption locate in promoters of maize ARF genes. Expression patterns vary greatly between clades and sister pairs of maize ARF genes. The B3 DNA binding and auxin response factor domains of maize ARF proteins are primarily subjected to negative selection during selective sweep. The mixed selective forces drive the diversification and evolution of genomic regions outside of B3 and ARF domains. Additionally, the dicot-specific proliferation of ARF genes was detected. Comparative genomics analysis indicated that maize, sorghum and rice duplicate chromosomal blocks containing ARF homologs are highly syntenic. This study provides insights into the distribution, phylogeny and evolution of ARF gene family.

  3. Flavonoids Are Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)–Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. As current clinically used OAT1 inhibitors are often associated with safety issues, identifying potent OAT1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OAT1-mediated drug nephrotoxicity. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds with exceptional safety records. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 18 naturally occurring flavonoids, and some of their glycosides, on the uptake of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in both OAT1-expressing and OAT1-negative LLC-PK1 cells. Most flavonoid aglycones produced substantial decreases in PAH uptake in OAT1-expressing cells. Among the flavonoids screened, fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin exhibited the strongest effect and produced complete inhibition of OAT1-mediated PAH uptake at a concentration of 50 μM. Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that both morin and luteolin are potent OAT1 inhibitors, with IC50 values of flavonoid aglycones, all flavonoid glycosides had negligible or small effects on OAT1. In addition, the role of OAT1 in the uptake of fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin was investigated and fisetin was found to be a substrate of OAT1. Taken together, our results indicate that flavonoids are a novel class of OAT1 modulators. Considering the high consumption of flavonoids in the diet and in herbal products, OAT1-mediated flavonoid-drug interactions may be clinically relevant. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the nephroprotective role of flavonoids in relation to drug-induced nephrotoxicity mediated by the OAT1 pathway. PMID:25002746

  4. Enhanced growth and fatty acid accumulation of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by two types of auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Guo-Hua; Wu, Guang-Xue; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhuang, Lin-Lan; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae are potential candidates for the production of valuable products, such as renewable biodiesel, health products and pigments. However, low biomass productivity has restricted their large-scale applications. In this study, the effects of two auxins (one natural type of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the other synthetic type of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on the growth and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production of a freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were investigated. Both auxins showed a "low dosage-promotion and high dosage-inhibition" effect on the growth and FAMEs accumulation. The optimum dosage of IAA and 2,4-D were 1mgL -1 and 0.1mgL -1 , respectively. Moreover, the IAA could increase the monounsaturated fatty acid content. The auxins may promote the growth by enhancing the photosynthetic activity through increasing chlorophyll contents. Therefore, auxin significantly enhanced microalgal growth and FAMEs accumulation, and has a potential for application in developing efficient microalgal cultivation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. SHI/STY Genes Affect Pre- and Post-meiotic Anther Processes in Auxin Sensing Domains in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H. Estornell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, mature sperm cells are enclosed in pollen grains formed in structures called anthers. Several cell layers surrounding the central sporogenous cells of the anther are essential for directing the developmental processes that lead to meiosis, pollen formation, and the subsequent pollen release. The specification and function of these tissues are regulated by a large number of genetic factors. Additionally, the plant hormone auxin has previously been shown to play important roles in the later phases of anther development. Using the R2D2 auxin sensor system we here show that auxin is sensed also in the early phases of anther cell layer development, suggesting that spatiotemporal regulation of auxin levels is important for early anther morphogenesis. Members of the SHI/STY transcription factor family acting as direct regulators of YUC auxin biosynthesis genes have previously been demonstrated to affect early anther patterning. Using reporter constructs we show that SHI/STY genes are dynamically active throughout anther development and their expression overlaps with those of three additional downstream targets, PAO5, EOD3 and PGL1. Characterization of anthers carrying mutations in five SHI/STY genes clearly suggests that SHI/STY transcription factors affect anther organ identity. In addition, their activity is important to repress periclinal cell divisions as well as premature entrance into programmed cell death and cell wall lignification, which directly influences the timing of anther dehiscence and the pollen viability. The SHI/STY proteins also prevent premature pollen germination suggesting that they may play a role in the induction or maintenance of pollen dormancy.

  6. Simple Identification of the Neutral Chlorinated Auxin in Pea by Thin Layer Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1980-01-01

    to small volumes and chromatographed in CHCl3 or CCl4 solvent systems separating the chlorinated auxin from indoleacetonitrile and the methyl or ethyl esters of indoleacetic acid. Colour reaction was carried out with some of the Salkowski FeCl3 sprays of which Ehmann's FeCl3/dimethylaminobenzaldehyde......One of the neutral chlorinated auxins of immature pea seeds was readily identified by thin layer procedures simple enough to serve in student's laboratory courses. 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was extracted from 50 g of commercial, frozen peas by either water or acetone, concentrated...

  7. Identification of a novel topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Walid; Fryknäs, Mårten; Brnjic, Slavica; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Larsson, Rolf; Linder, Stig

    2009-10-02

    Natural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology. A library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set) was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that measures an endogenous caspase-cleavage product. One of the apoptosis-inducing compounds identified in the screen was thaspine (taspine), an alkaloid from the South American tree Croton lechleri. The cortex of this tree is used for medicinal purposes by tribes in the Amazonas basin. Thaspine was found to induce conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in HCT116 cells. Analysis of the gene expression signature of thaspine-treated cells suggested that thaspine is a topoisomerase inhibitor. Inhibition of both topoisomerase I and II was observed using in vitro assays, and thaspine was found to have a reduced cytotoxic effect on a cell line with a mutated topoisomerase II enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, thaspine was cytotoxic to cell lines overexpressing the PgP or MRP drug efflux transporters. We finally show that thaspine induces wide-spread apoptosis in colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids and that apoptosis is induced in two xenograft mouse models in vivo. The alkaloid thaspine from the cortex of Croton lechleri is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters and induces wide-spread apoptosis in multicellular spheroids.

  8. [Identification of an auxin response factor-like protein cDNA from mango cotyledon section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie-Ning; Huang, Xue-Lin; Huang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2004-01-01

    Auxin-responsive elements (AuxRE) interact with a new class of plant-specific transcription factors, auxin response factors (ARFs). Some of ARFs have been shown to repress or activate expression of genes with an AuxRE promotor element. In Arabidopsis, ARFs play important roles in early embryo development and vascular strand formation (ARF5), floral patterning (ARF3) and photo- and gravitropic responses (ARF7). Two cut surfaces (distal and proximal) of mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Zi-Hua) cotyledon showed different patterns of adventitious root formation, with only the proximal cut surface, but not the distal one, could be induced to form the roots. Thus, the mango cotyledon is a good system for studying adventitious root formation. A cDNA fragment homologous to the Arabidopsis auxin response factor-like protein and relates to adventitious root formation from the cut sections were isolated using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). Two cDNA clones, designated as MiARF1 (mango auxin response factor 1 gene, GenBank accession number AY255705) and MiARF2 (mango auxin response factor 2 gene, GenBank accession number is AY300808), were identified by 3'RACE. MiARF1, 3 272bp long, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 523bp, 5'UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 464bp, MiARF2, 1 474bp long, contains an ORF of 981bp, 5' UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 208bp. The deduced MiARF1 and MiARF2 are homologues of auxin response factor (ARF) family of transcriptional regulators, and show high similarity to ARF of Arabidopsis in conserved domains. The motifs of MiARF1 EL-WHACAGPL in DBD (DNA binding domain) and GDDPW in IV domain are identical to that of ARF-like protein of Arabidopsis. MiARF2 is identical to MiARF1 in a large part of DBD, but lacks a carboxyl-terminal domain containing conserved motifs III and IV. Virtual Northern blot showed that the expression of MiARF2 was high in rooting tissue of cultured cotyledon sections but low in non-rooting tissue, and the MiARF1 was

  9. Temporal alteration of spreading depression by the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors NFPS and Org-24461 in chicken retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Szabolcs; Szabo, Geza; Udvari, Szabolcs; Levay, Gyorgy; Matyus, Peter; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2013-01-25

    We used isolated chicken retina to induce spreading depression by the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate. The N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced latency time of spreading depression was extended by the glycine(B) binding site competitive antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid. Addition of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors NFPS and Org-24461 reversed the inhibitory effect of 7-chlorokynurenic acid on N-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked spreading depression. The glycine uptake inhibitory activity of Org-24461, NFPS, and some newly synthesized analogs of NFPS was determined in CHO cells stably expressing human glycine transporter type-1b isoform. Compounds, which failed to inhibit glycine transporter type-1, also did not have effect on retinal spreading depression. These experiments indicate that the spreading depression model in chicken retina is a useful in vitro test to determine activity of glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors. In addition, our data serve further evidence for the role of glycine transporter type-1 in retinal neurotransmission and light processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A specific pharmacophore model of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlei; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Dandan; Zan, Xin; Yang, Baowei; Li, Ying; Du, Xiaoyong; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2012-06-01

    Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining glucose equilibrium in the human body, emerging as one of the most promising targets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pharmacophore models of SGLT2 inhibitors have been generated with a training set of 25 SGLT2 inhibitors using Discovery Studio V2.1. The best hypothesis (Hypo1(SGLT2)) contains one hydrogen bond donor, five excluded volumes, one ring aromatic and three hydrophobic features, and has a correlation coefficient of 0.955, cost difference of 68.76, RMSD of 0.85. This model was validated by test set, Fischer randomization test and decoy set methods. The specificity of Hypo1(SGLT2) was evaluated. The pharmacophore features of Hypo1(SGLT2) were different from the best pharmacophore model (Hypo1(SGLT1)) of SGLT1 inhibitors we developed. Moreover, Hypo1(SGLT2) could effectively distinguish selective inhibitors of SGLT2 from those of SGLT1. These results indicate that a highly predictive and specific pharmacophore model of SGLT2 inhibitors has been successfully obtained. Then Hypo1(SGLT2) was used as a 3D query to screen databases including NCI and Maybridge for identifying new inhibitors of SGLT2. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five. And several compounds selected from the top ranked hits have been suggested for further experimental assay studies.

  11. Plant-plant interactions influence developmental phase transitions, grain productivity and root system architecture in Arabidopsis via auxin and PFT1/MED25 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Parra, Edith; Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; Raya-González, Javier; Salmerón-Barrera, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; López-Bucio, José

    2017-09-01

    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression influences plant growth, environmental interactions and plant-plant communication. Here, we report that population density is a key factor for plant productivity and a major root architectural determinant in Arabidopsis thaliana. When grown in soil at varied densities from 1 to 32 plants, high number of individuals decreased stem growth and accelerated senescence, which negatively correlated with total plant biomass and seed production at the completion of the life cycle. Root morphogenesis was also a major trait modulated by plant density, because an increasing number of individuals grown in vitro showed repression of primary root growth, lateral root formation and root hair development while affecting auxin-regulated gene expression and the levels of auxin transporters PIN1 and PIN2. We also found that mutation of the Mediator complex subunit PFT1/MED25 renders plants insensitive to high density-modulated root traits. Our results suggest that plant density is critical for phase transitions, productivity and root system architecture and reveal a role of Mediator in self-plant recognition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  13. Stimulatory effect of auxins and cytokinins on carotenes, with differential effects on xanthophylls in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Czerpak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research concerning the influence of auxins and cytokinins on the content of carotenoids in Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Chlorophyceae has been conducted. The strongest stimulating effect on carotenoids content in Ch. pyrenoidosa biomass was exerted by cytokinins (N-6-benzylaminopurine and N-6-furfurylaminopurine and allantoin, weaker by auxins and their chemical analogues, and the weakest by tryptamine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid compared to the control. Under the influence of cytokinins the content of α- and β-carotene have been stimulated several times stronger than by auxins, and especially 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and tryptamine. However, oxygen-rich xanthophylls content was most strongly reduced by cytokinins (60-70% in relation to the control in the 20 day lasting of Ch. pyrenoidosa cultivation, similarly to auxins: 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

  14. Effects of auxin and copper on growth of saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Sharifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is known as one of the most common spices and medicinal plant in the world. Little information is available on the effects of copper and growth regulators on morphological characteristics of saffron. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of copper and auxin on morphological properties of root and leaf of saffron. This study was arranged as a factorial experiment in greenhouse condition and in hydroponic system. Copper was used in copper sulfate (CuSO4 form (0, 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L and auxin in naphthalene acetic acid (NAA form (0, 1 and 2 g/L. Results showed that interaction of Naphthalene acetic acid 1 g/L and copper sulfate 0.1 mg/L increased root number, as well as root and leaf dry weight. Furthermore, naphthalene acetic acid 1 and 2 g/L in most treatments reduced the number of buds. Copper concentration of corm was increased in 0.2 mg/L copper sulfate.

  15. Dual DNA binding property of ABA insensitive 3 like factors targeted to promoters responsive to ABA and auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Ronita; Maity, Manas Kanti; Dasgupta, Maitrayee

    2005-11-01

    The ABA responsive ABI3 and the auxin responsive ARF family of transcription factors bind the CATGCATG (Sph) and TGTCTC core motifs in ABA and auxin response elements (ABRE and AuxRE), respectively. Several evidences indicate ABI3s to act downstream to auxin too. Because DNA binding domain of ABI3s shows significant overlap with ARFs we enquired whether auxin responsiveness through ABI3s could be mediated by their binding to canonical AuxREs. Investigations were undertaken through in vitro gel mobility shift assays (GMSA) using the DNA binding domain B3 of PvAlf (Phaseolus vulgaris ABI3 like factor) and upstream regions of auxin responsive gene GH3 (-267 to -141) and ABA responsive gene Em (-316 to -146) harboring AuxRE and ABRE, respectively. We demonstrate that B3 domain of PvAlf could bind AuxRE only when B3 was associated with its flanking domain B2 (B2B3). Such strict requirement of B2 domain was not observed with ABRE, where B3 could bind with or without being associated with B2. This dual specificity in DNA binding of ABI3s was also demonstrated with nuclear extracts of cultured cells of Arachis hypogea. Supershift analysis of ABRE and AuxRE bound nuclear proteins with antibodies raised against B2B3 domains of PvAlf revealed that ABI3 associated complexes were detectable in association with both cis elements. Competition GMSA confirmed the same complexes to bind ABRE and AuxRE. This dual specificity of ABI3 like factors in DNA binding targeted to natural promoters responsive to ABA and auxin suggests them to have a potential role in conferring crosstalk between these two phytohormones.

  16. Changes in auxin activity in tumourous and normal tobacco calluses treated with morphactin IT 3233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of morphactin IT 3233 in 1-40 mg/dm3 concentrations to the medium inhibited the growth in vitro of normal and tumourous tobacco calluses. The auxin activity (estimated by the Avena coleoptile straight growth test of the acid ether extracts from these tissues increased. The activity of zone I (Rf 0.2-0.4, 0.5, solvent system: butanol:water:ammonia 10:10:1 in normal tissues increased more intensively than that of zone II (Rf 0.6-0.8, 0.9. In tumourous tissues, however, these changes were smaller and they concerned merely zone I of auxin activity (Rf 0.0-0.5. It seems that the mechanism of morphactin activity in both kinds of tissue is different. It may be supposed that the excessive accumulation of auxins induces growth inhibition of tissues. A previously found increase in the activity of IAA-oxidase influenced by morphactin might be considered as an adaptation to a higher level of IAA.

  17. Identification of a novel topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Fayad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology. METHOD AND FINDINGS: A library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that measures an endogenous caspase-cleavage product. One of the apoptosis-inducing compounds identified in the screen was thaspine (taspine, an alkaloid from the South American tree Croton lechleri. The cortex of this tree is used for medicinal purposes by tribes in the Amazonas basin. Thaspine was found to induce conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in HCT116 cells. Analysis of the gene expression signature of thaspine-treated cells suggested that thaspine is a topoisomerase inhibitor. Inhibition of both topoisomerase I and II was observed using in vitro assays, and thaspine was found to have a reduced cytotoxic effect on a cell line with a mutated topoisomerase II enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, thaspine was cytotoxic to cell lines overexpressing the PgP or MRP drug efflux transporters. We finally show that thaspine induces wide-spread apoptosis in colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids and that apoptosis is induced in two xenograft mouse models in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The alkaloid thaspine from the cortex of Croton lechleri is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters and induces wide-spread apoptosis in multicellular spheroids.

  18. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C., E-mail: cdirusso2@unl.edu

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC{sub 50} 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC{sub 50} 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of {sup 13}C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata.

  19. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC 50 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC 50 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of 13 C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata

  20. effects of different concentrations of auxins on rooting and root

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The effect of auxins and their different concentrations on rooting and root ... primary root length and the longest primary root was recorded with the ... ceuticals, lubricants, foods, electrical insulators, .... stem cuttings of jojoba treated with IBA and NAA, .... increasing cell division and enlargement at each.

  1. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  2. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  3. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: new among antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H

    2014-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by decreased insulin secretion and sensitivity. The available oral anti-diabetic drugs act on many different molecular sites. The most used of oral anti-diabetic agents is metformin that activates glucose transport vesicles to the cell surface. Others are: the sulphonylureas; agents acting on the incretin system; GLP-1 agonists; dipetidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors; meglinitide analogues; and the thiazolidinediones. Despite these many drugs acting by different mechanisms, glycaemic control often remains elusive. None of these drugs have a primary renal mechanism of action on the kidneys, where almost all glucose excreted is normally reabsorbed. That is where the inhibitors of glucose reuptake (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, SGLT2) have a unique site of action. Promotion of urinary loss of glucose by SGLT2 inhibitors embodies a new principle of control in type 2 diabetes that has several advantages with some urogenital side-effects, both of which are evaluated in this review. Specific approvals include use as monotherapy, when diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control in patients for whom the use of metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance or contraindications, or as add-on therapy with other anti-hyperglycaemic medicinal products including insulin, when these together with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycemic control. The basic mechanisms are improved β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. When compared with sulphonylureas or other oral antidiabetic agents, SGLT2 inhibitors provide greater HbA1c reduction. Urogenital side-effects related to the enhanced glycosuria can be troublesome, yet seldom lead to discontinuation. On this background, studies are analysed that compare SGLT2 inhibitors with other oral antidiabetic agents. Their unique mode of action, unloading the excess glycaemic load, contrasts with other oral agents that all act to counter the effects of diabetic

  4. Effects of auxins on in vitro reserve compounds of Phalaenopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... division rate, which is related to auxin induction of cell proliferation (Hartig and ..... to support plant respiration and growth through the night, and several projects ... Four basic carbon partitioning strategies may occur in CAM species: ME ... their cellular and temporal expression patterns must be defined.

  5. Inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid pathway induce ATP release and ATP-dependent organic cation transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Souza, Hercules Antônio; Lira, Maria Nathalia de; Costa-Junior, Helio Miranda; da Cruz, Cristiane Monteiro; Vasconcellos, Jorge Silvio Silva; Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Pimenta-Reis, Gabriela; Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Schachter, Julieta; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-07-01

    We have previously described that arachidonic acid (AA)-5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism inhibitors such as NDGA and MK886, inhibit cell death by apoptosis, but not by necrosis, induced by extracellular ATP (ATPe) binding to P2X7 receptors in macrophages. ATPe binding to P2X7 also induces large cationic and anionic organic molecules uptake in these cells, a process that involves at least two distinct transport mechanisms: one for cations and another for anions. Here we show that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not inhibit P2X7 receptors, as judged by the maintenance of the ATPe-induced uptake of fluorescent anionic dyes. In addition, we describe two new transport phenomena induced by these inhibitors in macrophages: a cation-selective uptake of fluorescent dyes and the release of ATP. The cation uptake requires secreted ATPe, but, differently from the P2X7/ATPe-induced phenomena, it is also present in macrophages derived from mice deficient in the P2X7 gene. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 and of the AA-cyclooxygenase pathway did not induce the cation uptake. The uptake of non-organic cations was investigated by measuring the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence. NDGA, but not MK886, induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Chelating Ca(2+) ions in the extracellular medium suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) signal without interfering in the uptake of cationic dyes. We conclude that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not block P2X7 receptors, trigger the release of ATP, and induce an ATP-dependent uptake of organic cations by a Ca(2+)- and P2X7-independent transport mechanism in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific promoter alters hormonal status of transgenic potato plants and their responses to exogenous phytohormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolachevskaya, Oksana O; Sergeeva, Lidiya I; Floková, Kristyna; Getman, Irina A; Lomin, Sergey N; Alekseeva, Valeriya V; Rukavtsova, Elena B; Buryanov, Yaroslav I; Romanov, Georgy A

    2017-03-01

    Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to exogenous auxin or cytokinin. Previously, we generated potato transformants expressing Agrobacterium-derived auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific patatin gene promoter (B33-promoter). Here, we studied the endogenous hormonal status and the response to exogenous phytohormones in tms1 transformants cultured in vitro. Adding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or kinetin to culture medium affected differently tuberization of tms1-transformed and control plants, depending also on sucrose content in the medium. Exogenous phytohormones ceased to stimulate the tuber initiation in transformants at high (5-8%) sucrose concentration, while in control plants the stimulation was observed in all experimental settings. Furthermore, exogenous auxin partly inhibited the tuber initiation, and exogenous cytokinin reduced the average tuber weight in most transformants at high sucrose content. The elevated auxin level in tubers of the transformants was accompanied with a decrease in content of cytokinin bases and their ribosides in tubers and most shoots. No concerted changes in contents of abscisic, jasmonic, salicylic acids and gibberellins in tubers were detected. The data on hormonal status indicated that the enhanced productivity of tms1 transformants was due to auxin and not mediated by other phytohormones. In addition, exogenous cytokinin was shown to upregulate the expression of genes encoding orthologs of auxin receptors. Overall, the results showed that tms1 expression and local increase in IAA level in transformants affect both the balance of endogenous cytokinins and the dynamics of tuberization in response to exogenous hormones (auxin, cytokinin), the latter reaction depending also on the carbohydrate supply. We introduce a basic model for the hormonal network

  7. Substrate and Inhibitor-Specific Conformational Changes in the Human Serotonin Transporter Revealed by Voltage-Clamp Fluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderhielm, Pella C; Andersen, Jacob; Munro, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    of TM6, Ala419 in the interface between TM8 and extracellular loop (EL) 4, and Leu481 in EL5. The reporter positions were used for time-resolved measurement of conformational changes during 5-HT transport and binding of cocaine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and escitalopram...... changes overall, which included movements within or around TM1b, EL4, and EL5. Taken together, our data lead us to suggest that competitive inhibitors stabilize hSERT in a state that is different from the apo outward-open conformation as well as inward-facing conformations....

  8. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G.; den Os, Desiree; Monshausen, Gabriele B.; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Bednarova, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-01-01

    The hormone auxin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate root elongation, but the interactions between the two pathways are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how auxin interacts with ROS in regulating root elongation in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Wild-type and

  9. Do Phytotropins Inhibit Auxin Efflux by Impairing Vesicle Traffic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Černá, A.; Schwarzerová, K.; Elčkner, Miroslav; Morris, David; Zažímalová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2003), s. 254-263 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Grant - others:EU INCO COPERNICUS(XE) ERBIC15 CT98 0118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid * BY-2 tobacco * auxin efflux Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.634, year: 2003

  10. The allelochemical MDCA inhibits lignification and affects auxin homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steenackers, W.; Cesarino, I.; Klíma, Petr; Quareshy, M.; Vanholme, R.; Corneillie, S.; Kumpf, R. P.; Van De Wouwer, D.; Ljung, K.; Goeminne, G.; Novák, Ondřej; Zažímalová, Eva; Napier, R.; Boerjan, W.; Vanholme, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, č. 2 (2016), s. 874-888 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-10948S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin biosynthesis * lignification * Asparagus officinalis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  11. Differential effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on cellular drug transporters and their implications for using epigenetic modifiers in combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Benigno C; Li, Yang; Murray, David; Brammer, Jonathan E; Liu, Yan; Hosing, Chitra; Nieto, Yago; Champlin, Richard E; Andersson, Borje S

    2016-09-27

    HDAC inhibitors, DNA alkylators and nucleoside analogs are effective components of combination chemotherapy. To determine a possible mechanism of their synergism, we analyzed the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of drug transporters which export DNA alkylators. Exposure of PEER lymphoma T-cells to 15 nM romidepsin (Rom) resulted in 40%-50% reduction in mRNA for the drug transporter MRP1 and up to ~500-fold increase in the MDR1 mRNA within 32-48 hrs. MRP1 protein levels concomitantly decreased while MDR1 increased. Other HDAC inhibitors - panobinostat, belinostat and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) - had similar effects on these transporters. The protein level of MRP1 correlated with cellular resistance to busulfan and chlorambucil, and Rom exposure sensitized cells to these DNA alkylators. The decrease in MRP1 correlated with decreased cellular drug export activity, and increased level of MDR1 correlated with increased export of daunorubicin. A similar decrease in the level of MRP1 protein, and increase in MDR1, were observed when mononuclear cells derived from patients with T-cell malignancies were exposed to Rom. Decreased MRP1 and increased MDR1 expressions were also observed in blood mononuclear cells from lymphoma patients who received SAHA-containing chemotherapy in a clinical trial. This inhibitory effect of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of MRP1 suggests that their synergism with DNA alkylating agents is partly due to decreased efflux of these alkylators. Our results further imply the possibility of antagonistic effects when HDAC inhibitors are combined with anthracyclines and other MDR1 drug ligands in chemotherapy.

  12. Auxin is required for pollination-induced ovary growth in Dendrobium orchids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketsa, S.; Wisutiamonkul, A.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    In Dendrobium and other orchids the ovule becomes mature long after pollination, whereas the ovary starts growing within two days of pollination. The signalling pathway that induces rapid ovary growth after pollination has remained elusive. We placed the auxin antagonist ¿-(p-chlorophenoxy)

  13. A synthetic auxin (NAA) suppresses secondary wall cellulose synthesis and enhances elongation in cultured cotton fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bir; Cheek, Hannah D; Haigler, Candace H

    2009-07-01

    Use of a synthetic auxin (naphthalene-1-acetic acid, NAA) to start (Gossypium hirsutum) ovule/fiber cultures hindered fiber secondary wall cellulose synthesis compared with natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). In contrast, NAA promoted fiber elongation and ovule weight gain, which resulted in larger ovule/fiber units. To reach these conclusions, fiber and ovule growth parameters were measured and cell wall characteristics were examined microscopically. The differences in fiber from NAA and IAA culture were underpinned by changes in the expression patterns of marker genes for three fiber developmental stages (elongation, the transition stage, and secondary wall deposition), and these gene expression patterns were also analyzed quantitatively in plant-grown fiber. The results demonstrate that secondary wall cellulose synthesis: (1) is under strong transcriptional control that is influenced by auxin; and (2) must be specifically characterized in the cotton ovule/fiber culture system given the many protocol variables employed in different laboratories.

  14. Evidence That Chlorinated Auxin Is Restricted to the Fabaceae But Not to the Fabeae1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; McAdam, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone, usually occurring in the form of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, in maturing pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, the level of the chlorinated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), greatly exceeds that of IAA. A key issue is how plants produce halogenated compounds such as 4-Cl-IAA. To better understand this topic, we investigated the distribution of the chlorinated auxin. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that 4-Cl-IAA is found in the seeds of Medicago truncatula, Melilotus indicus, and three species of Trifolium. Furthermore, we found no evidence that Pinus spp. synthesize 4-Cl-IAA in seeds, contrary to a previous report. The evidence indicates a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA synthesis in the Fabaceae, which may provide an ideal model system to further investigate the action and activity of halogenating enzymes in plants. PMID:25971549

  15. Phenotypical and molecular responses of Arabidopsis thaliana roots as a result of inoculation with the auxin-producing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaepen, Stijn; Bossuyt, Stijn; Engelen, Kristof; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos

    2014-02-01

    The auxin-producing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 can promote the growth of several plant species. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was chosen as host plant to gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern this interaction. The determination of differential gene expression in Arabidopsis roots after inoculation with either A. brasilense wild-type or an auxin biosynthesis mutant was achieved by microarray analysis. Arabidopsis thaliana inoculation with A. brasilense wild-type increases the number of lateral roots and root hairs, and elevates the internal auxin concentration in the plant. The A. thaliana root transcriptome undergoes extensive changes on A. brasilense inoculation, and the effects are more pronounced at later time points. The wild-type bacterial strain induces changes in hormone- and defense-related genes, as well as in plant cell wall-related genes. The A. brasilense mutant, however, does not elicit these transcriptional changes to the same extent. There are qualitative and quantitative differences between A. thaliana responses to the wild-type A. brasilense strain and the auxin biosynthesis mutant strain, based on both phenotypic and transcriptomic data. This illustrates the major role played by auxin in the Azospirillum-Arabidopsis interaction, and possibly also in other bacterium-plant interactions. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Safety of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors during Ramadan Fasting: Evidence, Perceptions and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem A. Beshyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are a new glucose-lowering therapy for T2DM with documented benefits on blood glucose, hypertension, weight reduction and long term cardiovascular benefit. They have an inherent osmotic diuretic effect and lead to some volume loss and possible dehydration. There is some concern about the safety of using SGLT2 inhibitors in Muslim type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients during the fast during Ramadan. Currently, there is a dearth of research data to help guide physicians and reassure patients.  One study confirmed good glycemic control with less risk of hypoglycemia and no marked volume depletion. Data in the elderly and in combination with diuretics are reassuring of their safe to use in Ramadan in general. SGLT2 inhibitor-related diabetic ketoacidosis has not been reported during Ramadan and is unlikely to be relevant. Survey of physicians revealed that the majority felt that SGLT2 inhibitors are generally safe in T2DM patients during Ramadan fasting but should be discontinued in certain high risk patients. Some professional groups with interest in diabetes and Ramadan fasting included SGLT2 inhibitors in their guidelines on management of diabetes during Ramadan. They acknowledged the lack of trial data, recommended caution in high risk groups, advised regular monitoring and emphasized pre-Ramadan patients’ education. In conclusion, currently, knowledge, data and experience with SGLT2 inhibitors in Ramadan are limited. Nonetheless, stable patients with normal kidney function and low risk of dehydration may safely use the SGLT2 inhibitors therapy. Higher risk patients should be observed carefully and managed on individual basis.

  17. Isatin as an auxin source favoring floral and vegetative shoot regeneration from calli produced by thin layer explants of tomato pedicel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, P. B.; K-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Thin layer explants taken from the pedicels and peduncles of flowering tomato plants yielded calli with great organogenetic potential. Of the 15 cultivars tested, 7 regenerated roots, shoots and eventually entire fruit-bearing plants. Calli grown on modified Murashige-Skoog medium responded to varied auxins and cytokinins with different morphogenetic patterns. Thus, naphthaleneacetic acid yielded root-producing calli, while the auxin precursor isatin (indole 2,3-dione) caused the production of calli with vegetative and floral shoots, rarely yielding roots. This may be related to isatin's slow, steady conversion to an active auxin (Plant Physiol 41:1485-1488, 1966) in contrast with naphthaleneacetic acid's immediate presentation of a high level of active auxin. The highest incidence of vegetative shoot (100%) and flower (50%) formation was obtained with 10 micromoles isatin and 3 micromoles zeatin. A few of the flowers developed into ripe fruits. The high frequency of induction of vegetative shoots and flowers before roots with isatin suggests its utility in micropropagation from plant tissue cultures.

  18. Automorphosis of higher plants in space is simulated by using a 3-dimensional clinostat or by application of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K.; Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    In STS-95 space experiments, etiolated pea seedlings grown under microgravity conditions in space have shown to be automorphosis. Epicotyls were almost straight but the most oriented toward the direction far from their cotyledons with ca. 45 degrees from the vertical line as compared with that on earth. In order to know the mechanism of microgravity conditions in space to induce automorphosis, we introduced simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat, resulting in the successful induction of automorphosis-like growth and development. Kinetic studies revealed that epicotyls bent at their basal region or near cotyledonary node toward the direction far from the cotyledons with about 45 degrees in both seedlings grown on 1 g and under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat within 48 hrs after watering. Thereafter epicotyls grew keeping this orientation under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat, whereas those grown on 1 g changed the growth direction to vertical direction by negative gravitropic response. Automorphosis-like growth and development was induced by the application of auxin polar transport inhibitors (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, N-(1-naphtyl)phthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid), but not an anti-auxin, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid. Automorphosis-like epicotyl bending was also phenocopied by the application of inhibitors of stretch-activated channel, LaCl3 and GdCl3, and by the application of an inhibitor of protein kinase, cantharidin. These results suggest that automorphosis-like growth in epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings is due to suppression of negative gravitropic responses on 1 g, and the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings under 1 g conditions requires for normal activities of auxin polar transport and the gravisensing system relating to calcium channels. Possible mechanisms of perception and transduction of gravity signals to induce automorphosis are discussed.

  19. Two seven-transmembrane domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O proteins cofunction in Arabidopsis root thigmomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M

    2009-07-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane-localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gbeta subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism.

  20. Two Seven-Transmembrane Domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O Proteins Cofunction in Arabidopsis Root Thigmomorphogenesis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H. Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane–localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gβ subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism. PMID:19602625

  1. Design and synthesis of dual inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and serotonin transporter targeting potential agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogen, Hiroshi; Toda, Narihiro; Tago, Keiko; Marumoto, Shinji; Takami, Kazuko; Ori, Mayuko; Yamada, Naho; Koyama, Kazuo; Naruto, Shunji; Abe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Reina; Hara, Takao; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Tsugio

    2002-10-03

    Highly efficient acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and serotonin transporter (SERT) dual inhibitors, (S)-4 and (R)-13 were designed and synthesized on the basis of the hypothetical model of AChE active site. Both compounds showed potent inhibitory activities against AChE and SERT. [structure: see text

  2. The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) increase urinary glucose excretion through a reduced renal glucose reabsorption. We plan to perform a systematic review of SGLT-2i for treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review with meta-analyses of r......INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) increase urinary glucose excretion through a reduced renal glucose reabsorption. We plan to perform a systematic review of SGLT-2i for treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review with meta......-analyses of randomised clinical trials on SGLT-2i versus placebo, other oral glucose lowering drugs or insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes will be performed. The primary end point will be the glycated haemoglobin. Secondary end points will include changes in body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose......, plasma cholesterol, kidney and liver blood tests, blood pressure and adverse events. Electronic (the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Science Citation Index) and manual searches will be performed. Meta-analyses will be performed and the results presented as mean differences for continuous...

  3. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and euglycemic ketoacidosis: Wisdom of hindsight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i are newly approved class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which reduces blood glucose through glucouresis via the kidney, independent, and irrespective of available pancreatic beta-cells. Studies conducted across their clinical development program found, a modest reduction in glycated hemoglobin ranging from −0.5 to −0.8%, without any significant hypoglycemia. Moreover, head-to-head studies versus active comparators yielded comparable efficacy. Interestingly, weight and blood pressure reduction were additionally observed, which was not only consistent but significantly superior to active comparators, including metformin, sulfonylureas, and dipeptydylpeptide-4 inhibitors. Indeed, these additional properties makes this class a promising oral anti-diabetic drug. Surprisingly, a potentially fatal unwanted side effect of diabetic ketoacidosis has been noted with its widespread use, albeit rarely. Nevertheless, this has created a passé among the clinicians. This review is an attempt to pool those ketosis data emerging with SGLT-2i, and put a perspective on its implicated mechanism.

  4. Endogenous cytokinins, auxins, and abscisic acid in red algae from Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yokoya, N. S.; Stirk, W. A.; van Staden, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Turečková, Veronika; Pěnčík, Aleš; Strnad, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2010), s. 1198-1205 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ENDOGENOUS * CYTOKININS * AUXINS * ABSCISIC ACID * RED * ALGAE * BRAZIL Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2010

  5. Identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) genes in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Wang, Feiyan; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; Yu, Xiaolin; Lu, Gang

    2011-11-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) encode transcriptional factors that bind specifically to the TGTCTC-containing auxin response elements found in the promoters of primary/early auxin response genes that regulate plant development. In this study, investigation of the tomato genome revealed 21 putative functional ARF genes (SlARFs), a number comparable to that found in Arabidopsis (23) and rice (25). The full cDNA sequences of 15 novel SlARFs were isolated and delineated by sequencing of PCR products. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of this gene family is presented, including the gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogeny, and conserved motifs. In addition, a comparative analysis between ARF family genes in tomato and maize was performed. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the full-length protein sequences of 21 OsARFs, 23 AtARFs, 31 ZmARFs, and 21 SlARFs revealed that these ARFs were clustered into four major groups. However, we could not find homologous genes in rice, maize, or tomato with AtARF12-15 and AtARF20-23. The expression patterns of tomato ARF genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our comparative analysis will help to define possible functions for many of these newly isolated ARF-family genes in plant development.

  6. Biaryls as potent, tunable dual neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Han, Ying; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Bertekap, Robert; Krause, Rudolph; Davis, Carl D; Hu, Joanna; Morgan, Daniel; Taylor, Sarah J; Krause, Kelly; Li, Yu-Wen; Mattson, Gail; Cunningham, Melissa A; Taber, Matthew T; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Gillman, Kevin W; Macor, John E

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a serious illness that affects millions of patients. Current treatments are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have recently been shown to potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a number of animal models. Herein we describe the optimization of a biaryl chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. Through the choice of appropriate substituents, the SERT/NK1R ratio could be tuned to afford a range of target selectivity profiles. This effort culminated in the identification of an analog that demonstrated oral bioavailability, favorable brain uptake, and efficacy in the gerbil foot tap model. Ex vivo occupancy studies with compound 58 demonstrated the ability to maintain NK1 receptor saturation (>88% occupancy) while titrating the desired level of SERT occupancy (11-84%) via dose selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of auxin on xylem tracheids differentiation in decapitated stems of Pinus silvestris L. and its interaction with some vitamins and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several vitamins and substances known as important agents in regulation of cell metabolism upon secondary xylem differentiation were studied in interaction with auxin (IAA as applied in lanoline to decapitated stems of 5-year-old Pinus silvestris trees in early and late-summer. Tested substances were: gibberellic acid, kinetin, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, calcium panthotenate, choline chloride, riboflavin, inositol, ascorbic acid, vitamin, A (alcohol, vitamin A (ester, saponin. None of the effects of these substances appeared significant enough to indicate the involvement in the seasonal variation of the response of cambium or differentiating tracheids to auxin. However, several effects, especially those of inositol, vitamin A and pyridoxine upon cambial xylem production and further stages of tracheid differentiation were observed. Auxin (IAA affected cambial activity and subsequent differentiation of tracheids during the earliest stages of cell ontogenesis. At these stages auxin treatment induced quantitative expression of the developmental processes involving radial growth and secondary wall formation by tracheids. In this respect, auxin did not affect cells advanced in differentiation, however, it proved to be an essential factor in the completion of the full cycle of tracheid ontogenesis.

  8. Targeting Type 2 Diabetes with C-Glucosyl Dihydrochalcones as Selective Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Ana R; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Machuqueiro, Miguel; Marques, Ana P; Dore, Timothy M; Rauter, Amélia P

    2017-01-26

    Inhibiting glucose reabsorption by sodium glucose co-transporter proteins (SGLTs) in the kidneys is a relatively new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes. Selective inhibition of SGLT2 over SGLT1 is critical for minimizing adverse side effects associated with SGLT1 inhibition. A library of C-glucosyl dihydrochalcones and their dihydrochalcone and chalcone precursors was synthesized and tested as SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors using a cell-based fluorescence assay of glucose uptake. The most potent inhibitors of SGLT2 (IC 50 = 9-23 nM) were considerably weaker inhibitors of SGLT1 (IC 50 = 10-19 μM). They showed no effect on the sodium independent GLUT family of glucose transporters, and the most potent ones were not acutely toxic to cultured cells. The interaction of a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone with a POPC membrane was modeled computationally, providing evidence that it is not a pan-assay interference compound. These results point toward the discovery of structures that are potent and highly selective inhibitors of SGLT2.

  9. The impact of auxins used in assisted phytoextraction of metals from the contaminated environment on the alterations caused by lead(II) ions in the organization of model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Sroka, Aleksandra; Jabłońska, Klaudia

    2016-07-01

    Auxins are successfully used to improve phytoextraction efficiency of metal ions from the contaminated environment, however, the mechanism of their activity in this field is not explained. Auxins are known to exert various biochemical alterations in the plant membranes and cells, but their activity involves also direct interactions with lipids leading to changes in membrane organization. Following the suggestion that the auxins-induced modifications in membrane properties alleviate toxic effect of metal ions in this paper we have undertaken the comparative studies on the effect of metal ions and metal ions/auxins mixtures on model membrane systems. The experiments were done on lipid monolayers differing in their composition spread on water subphase and on Pb(2+), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Pb(2+)/IAA and Pb(2+)/NAA water solutions. The analysis of the collected data suggests that metal ions and auxins can change fluidity of the lipid systems and weaken the interactions between monolayer components. This manifested in the increase of the mean area per molecule and the excess area per molecule values for the films on Pb(2+), auxins as well as Pb(2+)/auxin solutions as compared to the values on pure water subphase. However, the presence of auxin in the mixture with lead(II) ions makes the alterations induced by sole metal ions weaker. This effect was more pronounced for the membranes of a higher packing. Thus it was proposed that auxins may enhance phytoextraction of metal ions by weakening their destabilizing effect on membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wall to membrane linkers, stretch activated channels, and the detection of tension, voltage, temperature, auxin, and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1992-01-01

    Introduction. The higher plant is a heterogeneous, mechanically prestressed structure continually subject to shifting forces. When a cell grows in a plant at gravitropic equilibrium, it must create localized maxima of shear in walls of neighboring cells. Such mechanical stress and strain are likely detected in a variety of ways. However, tension-sensitive ion channels are of particular interest because it appears that they are elaborately evolved for sensory function. We hypothesize that 1) the patchy patterns of high shear are focused via wall-to-membrane linkers onto the plasma membrane, where 2) they are translated by mechanosensory cation channels into corresponding patterns of high cytosolic Ca2+, which 3) initiate local enhancement of wall expansion. Further, we hypothesize that the local promotion of enhancement is achieved at least in part by local intensification of auxin transport across the plasma membrane. By implication, when an organ is asymmetrically pressed, rubbed, or bent or when it is displaced in the gravitational field, the net asymmetry of shear stress occurring across the organ would lead to asymmetric redistribution of auxin and corrective asymmetric growth. We shall describe a representative mechanosensitive Ca(2+) -selective cation channel (MCaC) with susceptibilities to xenobiotics implicating it as a force transducer in thigmo- and gravitropism. Then, we shall consider whether a putative wall-to-membrane linker (WML) could be a key feature of the molecular architecture permitting the stress distributed in the wall system to be focused on the channels.

  11. Evolution and structural diversification of PILS putative auxin carriers in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feraru, E.; Vosolsobě, S.; Feraru, M.; Petrášek, Jan; Kleine-Vehn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 227 (2012) ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : PILS proteins * auxin * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3470039/pdf/fpls-03-00227.pdf

  12. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd{sup 2+} concentration and rescued Cd{sup 2+}-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd{sup 2+} stress conditions, NAA increased Cd{sup 2+} retention in the roots and most Cd{sup 2+} in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd{sup 2+}, whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd{sup 2+} or NAA + Cd{sup 2+} treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd{sup 2+} in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd{sup 2+} toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd{sup 2+} fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd{sup 2+} from roots to shoots.

  13. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wang, Zhi Wei; Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd 2+ ) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd 2+ concentration and rescued Cd 2+ -induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd 2+ stress conditions, NAA increased Cd 2+ retention in the roots and most Cd 2+ in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd 2+ , whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd 2+ retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd 2+ concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd 2+ or NAA + Cd 2+ treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd 2+ in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd 2+ toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd 2+ fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd 2+ from roots to shoots

  14. The Monocarboxylate Transporter Inhibitor α-Cyano-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Disrupts Rat Lung Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Granja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The human embryo develops in a hypoxic environment. In this way, cells have to rely on the glycolytic pathway for energy supply, leading to an intracellular accumulation of monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate. These acids have an important role in cell metabolism and their rapid transport across the plasma membrane is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular pH homeostasis. This transport is mediated by a family of transporters, designated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs, namely isoforms 1 and 4. MCT1/4 expression is regulated by the ancillary protein CD147.The general aim of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of MCT1/4, CD147 and the glucose transporter GLUT1 during human fetal lung development and elucidate the role of MCTs in lung development. Methods: The expression pattern of MCT1/4 and GLUT1 was characterized by immunohistochemistry and fetal lung viability and branching were evaluated by exposing rat fetal lung explants to CHC, an inhibitor of MCT activity. Results: Our findings show that all the biomarkers are differently expressed during fetal lung development and that CHC appears to have an inhibitory effect on lung branching and viability, in a dose dependent way. Conclusion: We provide evidence for the role of MCTs in embryo lung development, however to prove the dependence of MCT activity further studies are waranted.

  15. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the transport of [ 3 H]indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration

  16. A conformational restriction approach to the development of dual inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and serotonin transporter as potential agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Narihiro; Tago, Keiko; Marumoto, Shinji; Takami, Kazuko; Ori, Mayuko; Yamada, Naho; Koyama, Kazuo; Naruto, Shunji; Abe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Reina; Hara, Takao; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Tsugio; Kogen, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been treated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors such as donepezil. However, the clinical usefulness of AChE inhibitors is limited mainly due to their adverse peripheral effects. Depression seen in AD patients has been treated with serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. We considered that combining SERT and AChE inhibition could improve the clinical usefulness of AChE inhibitors. In a previous paper, we found a potential dual inhibitor, 1, of AChE (IC50=101 nM) and SERT (IC50=42 nM), but its AChE inhibition activity was less than donepezil (IC50=10 nM). Here, we report the conformationally restricted (R)-18a considerably enhanced inhibitory activity against AChE (IC50=14 nM) and SERT (IC50=6 nM).

  17. Tyrosine and aurora kinase inhibitors diminish transport function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP 4 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon N. Hardwick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine and aurora kinases are important effectors in signal transduction pathways that are often involved in aberrant cancer cell growth. Tyrosine (TKI and aurora (AKI kinase inhibitors are anti-cancer agents specifically designed to target such signaling pathways through TKI/AKI binding to the ATP-binding pocket of kinases thereby leading to diminished kinase activity. Some TKIs have been identified as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, which are commonly upregulated in malignant cells. TKI/AKIs have been investigated as ABC transporter inhibitors in order to facilitate the accumulation of concomitantly administered chemo-therapeutics within cancer cells. However, ABC transporters are prominently expressed in the liver and other eliminating organs, and their inhibition has been linked to intracellular accumulation of drugs, altered disposition, and toxicity. The potential for TKIs/AKIs to inhibit other important hepatic efflux transporters, particularly multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to compare the inhibitory potency of 20 selected TKI/AKIs against MRP4 and BCRP through the use of inverted membrane vesicle assays. Relative IC50 values were estimated by determining TKI/AKI inhibition of MRP4-mediated [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate uptake and BCRP-mediated [3H]-estrone sulfate uptake. To provide insight to the clinical relevance of TKI/AKI inhibition of ABC efflux transporters, the ratio of the steady-state maximum total plasma concentration (Css to the IC50 for each compound was calculated with Css/IC50 ratio >0.1 deemed potentially clinically relevant. Such analysis identified several potentially clinically relevant inhibitors of MRP4: alisertib, danusertib, erlotinib, lapatinib, neratinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and tozasertib. The potentially clinically relevant inhibition of

  18. Sequestration of auxin by the indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3-1 in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) and the proposed role of auxin conjugation during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2010-08-01

    In fleshy fruit, levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant auxin, decline towards the onset of ripening. The application of auxins to immature fruit can delay the ripening processes. However, the mechanisms by which the decrease in endogenous IAA concentrations and the maintenance of low auxin levels in maturing fruit are achieved remain elusive. The transcript of a GH3 gene (GH3-1), encoding for an IAA-amido synthetase which conjugates IAA to amino acids, was detected in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). GH3-1 expression increased at the onset of ripening (veraison), suggesting that it might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of low IAA concentrations in ripening berries. Furthermore, this grapevine GH3 gene, responded positively to the combined application of abscisic acid and sucrose and to ethylene, linking it to the control of ripening processes. Levels of IAA-aspartic acid (IAA-Asp), an in vitro product of recombinant GH3-1, rose after veraison and remained high during the following weeks of the ripening phase when levels of free IAA were low. A similar pattern of changes in free IAA and IAA-Asp levels was detected in developing tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), where low concentrations of IAA and an increase in IAA-Asp concentrations coincided with the onset of ripening in this climacteric fruit. Since IAA-Asp might be involved in IAA degradation, the GH3 catalysed formation of this conjugate at, and after, the onset of ripening could represent a common IAA inactivation mechanism in climacteric and non-climacteric fruit which enables ripening.

  19. Adipocyte glucose transport regulation by eicosanoid precursors and inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by adipocytes are increased by catecholamines. The mechanism of the stimulatory action of catecholamines on glucose uptake may be via eicosanoid production from release fatty acids. Rats were fed iso-nutrient diets with high or low safflower oil. After one month, 5 rats per diet group were fed diets with aspirin or without aspirin for 2 days. Isolated adipocytes from epididymal fat pads were incubated at 37 0 C, gassed with 95% O 2 -5% CO 2 in KRB buffer with 3% bovine serum albumin and with or without eicosanoid modifiers; a stimulator (10 -5 M norepinephrine, N), or inhibitors (167 μl of antiserum to prostaglandin E (AntiE) per 1600 μl or 23mM Asp), or combinations of these. At 2-, 5-, and 10-min incubation, samples of incubation mixtures were taken to measure 2-deoxy glucose transport using 3 H-2-deoxy glucose, 14 C-inulin, and liquid scintillation counter

  20. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors increase Herceptin transport and treatment efficacy in mouse metastatic brain tumor models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Hu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drugs and newly developed therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are adequately delivered to most solid and systemic tumors. However, drug delivery into primary brain tumors and metastases is impeded by the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB, significantly limiting drug use in brain cancer treatment.We examined the effect of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5 inhibitors in nude mice on drug delivery to intracranially implanted human lung and breast tumors as the most common primary tumors forming brain metastases, and studied underlying mechanisms of drug transport. In vitro assays demonstrated that PDE5 inhibitors enhanced the uptake of [(14C]dextran and trastuzumab (Herceptin, a humanized monoclonal antibody against HER2/neu by cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (MBEC. The mechanism of drug delivery was examined using inhibitors for caveolae-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis and coated pit/clathrin endocytosis. Inhibitor analysis strongly implicated caveolae and macropinocytosis endocytic pathways involvement in the PDE5 inhibitor-enhanced Herceptin uptake by MBEC. Oral administration of PDE5 inhibitor, vardenafil, to mice with HER2-positive intracranial lung tumors led to an increased tumor permeability to high molecular weight [(14C]dextran (2.6-fold increase and to Herceptin (2-fold increase. Survival time of intracranial lung cancer-bearing mice treated with Herceptin in combination with vardenafil was significantly increased as compared to the untreated, vardenafil- or Herceptin-treated mice (p0.05.These findings suggest that PDE5 inhibitors may effectively modulate BTB permeability, and enhance delivery and therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies in hard-to-treat brain metastases from different primary tumors that had metastasized to the brain.

  1. The microRNA390/TRANS ACTING SHORT INTERFERING RNA3 module mediates lateral root growth under salt stress via the auxin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fu; Xu, Changzheng; Fu, Xiaokang; Shen, Yun; Guo, Li; Leng, Mi; Luo, Keming

    2018-05-01

    Salt-induced developmental plasticity in a plant root system strongly depends on auxin signaling. However, the molecular events underlying this process are poorly understood. MicroRNA390 (miR390), trans-acting small interference RNAs (tasiRNAs) and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) form a regulatory module involved in controlling lateral root (LR) growth. Here, we found that miR390 expression was strongly induced by exposure to salt during LR formation in poplar (Populus spp.) plants. miR390 overexpression stimulated LR development and increased salt tolerance, whereas miR390 knockdown caused by a short tandem target mimic repressed LR growth and compromised salt resistance. ARF3.1, ARF3.2, and ARF4 expression was significantly inhibited by the presence of salt, and transcript abundance was dramatically decreased in the miR390-overexpressing line but increased in the miR390-knockdown line. Constitutive expression of ARF4m harboring mutated trans-acting small interference ARF-binding sites removed the salt resistance of the miR390 overexpressors. miR390 positively regulated auxin signaling in LRs subjected to salt but ARF4 inhibited auxin signaling. Salinity stabilized the poplar Aux/IAA repressor INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17.1, and overexpression of an auxin/salt resistant form of this repressor suppressed LR growth in miR390-overexpressing and ARF4-RNAi lines in the presence of salt. Thus, the miR390/TAS3/ARFs module is a key regulator, via modulating the auxin pathway, of LR growth in poplar subjected to salt stress. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Auxin binding proteins ABP1 and ABP4 are involved in the light- and auxin-induced down-regulation of phytochrome gene PHYB in maize (Zea mays L.) mesocotyl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bořucká, Jana; Fellner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 3 (2012), s. 503-509 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin binding protein * ABP1 * ABP4 Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2012

  3. Phototropin 1 and dim-blue light modulate the red light de-etiolation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; M Folta, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Light signals regulate seedling morphological changes during de-etiolation through the coordinated actions of multiple light-sensing pathways. Previously we have shown that red-light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition can be reversed by addition of dim blue light through the action of phototropin 1 (phot1). Here we further examine the fluence-rate relationships of this blue light effect in short-term (hours) and long-term (days) hypocotyl growth assays. The red stem-growth inhibition and blue promotion is a low-fluence rate response, and blue light delays or attenuates both the red light and far-red light responses. These de-etiolation responses include blue light reversal of red or far-red induced apical hook opening. This response also requires phot1. Cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) are activated by higher blue light fluence-rates and override phot1's influence on hypocotyl growth promotion. Exogenous application of auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid abolished the blue light stem growth promotion in both hypocotyl growth and hook opening. Results from the genetic tests of this blue light effect in auxin transporter mutants, as well as phytochrome kinase substrate mutants indicated that aux1 may play a role in blue light reversal of red light response. Together, the phot1-mediated adjustment of phytochrome-regulated photomorphogenic events is most robust in dim blue light conditions and is likely modulated by auxin transport through its transporters.

  4. Development of Erect Leaves in a Modern Maize Hybrid is Associated with Reduced Responsiveness to Auxin and Light of Young Seedlings in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fellner, Martin; Ford, E.D.; Van Volkenburgh, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2006), s. 201-211 ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin * auxin-binding protein * growth * leaf angle * light * maize Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Auxin and plant morphogenesis - a model of regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Zajączkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presented model cells of the plant body form a spatial medium in which three-dimensional morphogenic waves of auxin are propagated. Points in the same phase of oscillation form isophasic surfaces and the vectors of wave propagation form a three-dimensional vector field. The vectors in the case of local inhomogeneities of the medium deviate from organ polarity, providing positional information recognized by cells. Models of functioning of such a supracellular oscillatory system in regulation of tissue differentiation, tropic responses and plant form are discussed.

  6. Auxin-BR Interaction Regulates Plant Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huiyu; Lv, Bingsheng; Ding, Tingting; Bai, Mingyi; Ding, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    Plants develop a high flexibility to alter growth, development, and metabolism to adapt to the ever-changing environments. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in these processes and the molecular pathways to transduce various developmental signals are not linear but are interconnected by a complex network and even feedback mutually to achieve the final outcome. This review will focus on two important plant hormones, auxin and brassinosteroid (BR), based on the most recent progresses about these two hormone regulated plant growth and development in Arabidopsis, and highlight the cross-talks between these two phytohormones. PMID:29403511

  7. Influence of the origin of stem cutting, season of collection and auxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of the origin of stem cutting, season of collection and auxin application on the vegetative propagation of African Sandalwood ( Osyris lanceolata ) in Tanzania: scientific paper. ... The high nutrition status and low nitrogen content of basal portions may play a role in enhancing their performance. Thus when raising O.

  8. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors: blocking renal tubular reabsorption of glucose to improve glycaemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, S A; Goldstein, B J

    2008-08-01

    The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of plasma glucose levels, although until recently this has not been widely appreciated or considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) located in the plasma membrane of cells lining the proximal tubule mediates the majority of renal glucose reabsorption from the tubular fluid, which normally prevents the loss of glucose in the urine. Competitive inhibitors of SGLT2 that provoke the renal excretion of glucose have been discovered, thereby providing a unique mechanism to potentially lower the elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. To explore the physiology of SGLT2 action and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors that have entered early clinical development. All publicly available data were identified by searching the internet for 'SGLT2' and 'SGLT2 inhibitor' through 1 November 2007. Published articles, press releases and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibition is a novel treatment option for diabetes, which has been studied in preclinical models and a few potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitors have been reported and are currently in clinical development. These agents appear to be safe and generally well tolerated, and will potentially be a beneficial addition to the growing battery of oral antihyperglycaemic agents.

  9. Blood pressure effects of sodium-glucose co-transport 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Raymond V; Bakris, George L

    2014-05-01

    Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reduction of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. While blood pressure (BP) control has improved over the past two decades, the control rate is still well below 50% in the general population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A new class of oral glucose-lowering agents has recently been approved; the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which act by eliminating large amounts of glucose in the urine. Two agents, dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, are currently approved in the United States and Europe, and empagliflozin and ipragliflozin have reported Phase 3 trials. In addition to glucose lowering, SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with weight loss and act as osmotic diuretics, resulting in a lowering of BP. While not approved for BP-lowering, they may potentially aid BP goal achievement in people within 7-10 mm Hg of goal. It should be noted that the currently approved agents have side effects that include an increased incidence of genital infections, predominantly in women. The approved SGLT2 inhibitors have limited use based on kidney function and should be used only in those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for dapagliflozin and ≥45 mL/min/1.73 m2 for canagliflozin. Cardiovascular outcome trials are ongoing with these agents and will be completed within the next 4-5 years. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Auxin and Microclimate on the Success of Rooted Cuttings of Cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, cocoa reproduction by cuttings is undeveloped yet because the available technology is more expensive than the other clonal reproduction methods. The success of cocoa cuttings is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this research is to study effect of endogenous auxin content, effects of light intensity and exogenous auxin application, on the rooted cuttings. The 2 nd research purpose is to study effects of PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidon and IBA (β-indole-butyric acid, clones, and microclimate. The experiment was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember (45 m a.s.l. and D rainfall type according to Schmidt Ferguson. The design for the 1 st experiment was splitsplit plot, replicated three times. The main plot was light intensity inside the roof, i.e.15%, 30%, and 45% to direct sun radiation. The sub plot was cocoa clones, i.e. DR 2 and ICS 13, and the sub-sub plot was IBA concentration, i.e. 0 ppm, 1500 ppm, 3000 ppm and 4500 ppm. The 2 nd experiment was designed factorial 3 x 3 of CRD, replicated 3 times. Clones of KW 163, KW 162 and KW 165, and IBA at 0, 3000, and 6000 ppm were the factors. In the same time, effect of IBA 6000 ppm, PVP 6000 ppm IBA+PVP 6000 ppm, and control were observed using KW 165 clone, and designed in complete randomized design (CRD, replicated 3 times. The result showed that auxin content of ICS 13 was higher than DR 2 (62.67 ppm vs 40.90 ppm so that gave higher rooted cuttings and more root number. Exogenous application of IBA improved auxin content of the cutting materials and promoted root growth. The optimum IBA concentration for root number was 3500 ppm. Light intensity of 45% improved number of rooted cuttings three times compared to 15%, however compared to the 2 nd research, percentage of rooted cuttings was still very low. Cocoa cutting method to gain rooted cuttings 80—90% has been obtained. The method was using

  11. Detection of inhibitors of Candida albicans Cdr transporters using a diS-C3(3 fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eSzczepaniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major cause of opportunistic and life-threatening, systemic fungal infections. Hence new antifungal agents, as well as new methods to treat fungal infections, are still needed. The application of inhibitors of drug-efflux pumps may increase the susceptibility of C. albicans to drugs. We developed a new fluorescence method that allows the in vivo activity evaluation of compounds inhibiting of C. albicans transporters. We show that the potentiometric dye 3,3′-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide diS-C3(3 is pumped out by both Cdr1 and Cdr2 transporters. The fluorescence labeling with diS-C3(3 enables a real-time observation of the activity of C. albicans Cdr1 and Cdr2 transporters. We demonstrate that enniatin A and beauvericin show different specificities toward these transporters. Enniatin A inhibits diS-C3(3 efflux by Cdr1 while beauvericin inhibits both Cdr1p and Cdr2p.

  12. Comparative effects of auxin and abscisic acid on growth, hydrogen ion efflux and gravitropism in primary roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. L.; Mulkey, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to test the idea that auxin action on root growth may be mediated by H(+) movement, the correlation of auxin action on growth and H(+) movement in roots was examined along with changes in H(+) efflux patterns associated with the asymmetric growth which occurs during gravitropism. The effects of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (AbA) on growth, H(+) secretion, and gravitropism in roots were compared. Results show a close correlation existent between H(+) efflux and growth in maize roots. In intact roots there is strong H(+) efflux from the elongation zone. Growth-promoting concentrations of IAA stimulate H(+) efflux. During gravitropism the H(+) efflux from the elongation zone becomes asymmetric; the evidence indicates that auxin redistribution contributes to the development of acid efflux asymmetry. That AbA stimulates root growth is reflected in its ability to stimulate H(+) efflux from apical root segments.

  13. Lateral root formation and the multiple roles of auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yujuan; Scheres, Ben

    2018-01-04

    Root systems can display variable architectures that contribute to survival strategies of plants. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana possesses a tap root system, in which the primary root and lateral roots (LRs) are major architectural determinants. The phytohormone auxin fulfils multiple roles throughout LR development. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of four aspects of LR formation: (i) LR positioning, which determines the spatial distribution of lateral root primordia (LRP) and LRs along primary roots; (ii) LR initiation, encompassing the activation of nuclear migration in specified lateral root founder cells (LRFCs) up to the first asymmetric cell division; (iii) LR outgrowth, the 'primordium-intrinsic' patterning of de novo organ tissues and a meristem; and (iv) LR emergence, an interaction between LRP and overlaying tissues to allow passage through cell layers. We discuss how auxin signaling, embedded in a changing developmental context, plays important roles in all four phases. In addition, we discuss how rapid progress in gene network identification and analysis, modeling, and four-dimensional imaging techniques have led to an increasingly detailed understanding of the dynamic regulatory networks that control LR development. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Discovery of the first selective inhibitor of excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Nielsen, Christina Wøhlk

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the first class of subtype-selective inhibitors of the human excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) and its rat orthologue GLAST is reported. An opening structure-activity relationship of 25 analogues is presented that addresses the influence of substitutions at the 4......- and 7-positions of the parental skeleton 2-amino-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile. The most potent analogue 1o displays high nanomolar inhibitory activity at EAAT1 and a >400-fold selectivity over EAAT2 and EAAT3, making it a highly valuable pharmacological tool....

  15. Extracellular concentration of homocysteine in human cell lines is influenced by specific inhibitors of cyst(e)ine transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Björn

    2004-04-01

    Despite the growing evidence that plasma homocysteine is a cardiovascular risk factor, the mechanism behind the vascular injuries is still unknown. Studies of the cellular uptake systems for homocysteine are scarce, but membrane transporters of cyst(e)ine seem to be involved. In the present study the cellular uptake of extracellular homocysteine in HeLa and hepatoma cell lines is investigated by using several different transport inhibitors for cellular uptake of cyst(e)ine. It is shown that systems A and Xc- are the main transport systems for homocysteine uptake in HeLa cells. It is also confirmed that the magnitude of homocysteine uptake in hepatoma cells is lower than in HeLa cells. However, in the presence of high amounts of extracellular homocysteine both cell types exhibited a high elimination of homocysteine, which was inhibited by the presence of inhibitors of systems A or Xc-. It is possible that there is normally a high turnover of homocysteine in cell cultures, which is not detected by occasional determinations of homocysteine concentrations. The complex pattern of homocysteine production, release, uptake and distribution between different cells in the body is important to examine further in order to possibly be able to modulate the elimination of homocysteine from circulation and thereby lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  16. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are substrates for the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of diketoacid-containing derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase (IN (IN inhibitors, IINs has played a major role in validating this enzyme as an important target for antiretroviral therapy. Since the in vivo efficacy depends on access of these drugs to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we determined whether the IINs are recognized by the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (P-gp thereby reducing their intracellular accumulation. To address the effect of IINs on drug transport, nine quinolonyl diketo acid (DKA derivatives active on the HIV-1 IN strand transfer (ST step and with EC50 ranging from 1.83 to >50 μm in cell-based assays were tested for their in vitro interaction with P-gp in the CEM-MDR cell system. IINs were investigated for the inhibition and induction of the P-gp function and expression as well as for multidrug resistance (MDR reversing ability. Results The HIV-1 IINs act as genuine P-gp substrates by inhibiting doxorubicin efflux and inducing P-gp functional conformation changes as evaluated by the modulation of UIC2 mAb epitope. Further, IINs chemosensitize MDR cells to vinblastine and induce P-gp expression in drug sensitive revertants of CEM-MDR cells. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HIV-1 IINs are P-gp substrates. This biological property may influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of these novels anti HIV-1 compounds.

  17. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum Hexose Transporter PfHT by Screening Focused Libraries of Anti-Malarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz

    Full Text Available Development of resistance against current antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for novel drugs that interact with different targets and have distinct mechanisms of action. Malaria parasites depend upon high levels of glucose uptake followed by inefficient metabolic utilization via the glycolytic pathway, and the Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT, which mediates uptake of glucose, has thus been recognized as a promising drug target. This transporter is highly divergent from mammalian hexose transporters, and it appears to be a permease that is essential for parasite viability in intra-erythrocytic, mosquito, and liver stages of the parasite life cycle. An assay was developed that is appropriate for high throughput screening against PfHT based upon heterologous expression of PfHT in Leishmania mexicana parasites that are null mutants for their endogenous hexose transporters. Screening of two focused libraries of antimalarial compounds identified two such compounds that are high potency selective inhibitors of PfHT compared to human GLUT1. Additionally, 7 other compounds were identified that are lower potency and lower specificity PfHT inhibitors but might nonetheless serve as starting points for identification of analogs with more selective properties. These results further support the potential of PfHT as a novel drug target.

  18. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizerski Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1, and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2 - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the administration of dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes, is associated with the reduction of HbA1c concentration by 0.45-1.11%. Additional benefits from the treatment with dapagliflozin are the reduction of arterial blood pressure and a permanent reduction of body weight. This outcome is related to the effect of osmotic diuresis and to the considerable loss of the glucose load by way of urine excretion. Dapagliflozin may be successfully applied in type 2 diabetes monotherapy, as well as in combined therapy (including insulin, where it is equally effective as other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Of note: serious adverse effects of dapagliflozin administration are rarely observed. What is more, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia related with the treatment occur only sporadically, most often in the course of diabetes polytherapy. The most frequent effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors are inseparably associated with the mechanism of their action (the glucuretic effect, and cover urogenital infections with a mild clinical course. At present, clinical trials are being continued of the administration of several subsequent drugs from this group, the most advanced of these being the use of canagliflozin and empagliflozin.

  19. Ultra-rapid auxin metabolite profiling for high-throughput mutant screening in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěnčík, Aleš; Casanova-Sáez, R.; Pilařová, V.; Žukauskaitė, Asta; Pinto, R.; Micol, J.L.; Ljung, K.; Novák, Ondřej

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2018), s. 2569-2579 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-21581Y Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * auxin * metabolite profiling * multivariate data analysis * mutant * screening Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi: Transporte de metabolitos esenciales obtenidos del hospedador Trypanosoma cruzi: Transport of essential metabolites acquired from the host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El Trypanosoma cruzi es el agente causal de la enfermedad de Chagas, endémica en Argentina y en toda América Latina. Presenta numerosas características metabólicas diferenciales respecto a sus hospedadores insectos y mamíferos. Algunas de estas diferencias fueron consecuencia de millones de años de adaptación al parasitismo en los cuales estos organismos protozoarios reemplazaron, a lo largo de su evolución, muchas rutas metabólicas de biosíntesis por sistemas de transporte de metabolitos desde el hospedador. En esta revisión se describen los avances en el conocimiento de los sistemas de transporte tanto bioquímicos como también de las moléculas involucradas en dichos procesos. Se aborda con especial énfasis los transportadores de aminoácidos y poliaminas de T. cruzi de la familia AAAP (Amino Acid/Auxin Permeases ya que parece ser exclusiva de los tripanosomátidos. Teniendo en cuenta que estas moléculas se encuentran completamente ausentes en mamíferos podrían ser consideradas como potenciales blancos contra el Trypanosoma cruzi.Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a disease endemic not only in Argentina but also in all of Latinamerica. T. cruzi presents several metabolic characteristics which are completely absent in its insect vectors and in mammalian hosts. Some of these differences were acquired after millions of years of adaptation to parasitism, during which this protozoan replaced many biosynthetic routes for transport systems. In the present review, we describe the advances in the knowledge of T. cruzi transport processes and the molecules involved. In particular, we focus on aminoacid and polyamine transporters from the AAAP family (Amino Acid/Auxin Permeases, because they seem to be exclusive transporters from trypanosomatids. Taking into account that these permeases are completely absent in mammals, they could be considered as a potential target against Trypanosoma cruzi.

  1. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors: a growing class of anti-diabetic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Vivian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM.

  2. Diurnal variation of cytokinin, auxin and abscisic acid levels in tobacco leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Marie; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre; Malbeck, Jiří; Gaudinová, Alena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 421 (2005), s. 2877-2883 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0369; GA MŠk LN00A081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : abscisic acid * auxin * cytokinin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.336, year: 2005

  3. Grape berry ripening delay induced by a pre-véraison NAA treatment is paralleled by a shift in the expression pattern of auxin- and ethylene-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Corso, Massimiliano; Rizzini, Fabio Massimo; Rasori, Angela; Botton, Alessandro; Bonghi, Claudio

    2012-10-09

    Auxins act as repressors of ripening inception in grape (véraison), while ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) play a positive role as inducers of the syndrome. Despite the increasing amount of information made available on this topic, the complex network of interactions among these hormones remains elusive. In order to shed light on these aspects, a holistic approach was adopted to evaluate, at the transcriptomic level, the crosstalk between hormones in grape berries, whose ripening progression was delayed by applying naphtalenacetic acid (NAA) one week before véraison. The NAA treatment caused significant changes in the transcription rate of about 1,500 genes, indicating that auxin delayed grape berry ripening also at the transcriptional level, along with the recovery of a steady state of its intracellular concentration. Hormone indices analysis carried out with the HORMONOMETER tool suggests that biologically active concentrations of auxins were achieved throughout a homeostatic recovery. This occurred within 7 days after the treatment, during which the physiological response was mainly unspecific and due to a likely pharmacological effect of NAA. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the up-regulation of genes involved in auxin conjugation (GH3-like) and action (IAA4- and IAA31-like). A strong antagonistic effect between auxin and ethylene was also observed, along with a substantial 'synergism' between auxins and ABA, although to a lesser extent. This study suggests that, in presence of altered levels of auxins, the crosstalk between hormones involves diverse mechanisms, acting at both the hormone response and biosynthesis levels, creating a complex response network.

  4. CoMFA and CoMSIA 3D-QSAR studies on S(6)-(4-nitrobenzyl)mercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) analogs as inhibitors of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, Amol; Buolamwini, John K

    2009-01-15

    3D-QSAR (CoMFA and CoMSIA) studies were performed on human equlibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) inhibitors displaying K(i) values ranging from 10,000 to 0.7nM. Both CoMFA and CoMSIA analysis gave reliable models with q2 values >0.50 and r2 values >0.92. The models have been validated for their stability and robustness using group validation and bootstrapping techniques and for their predictive abilities using an external test set of nine compounds. The high predictive r2 values of the test set (0.72 for CoMFA model and 0.74 for CoMSIA model) reveals that the models can prove to be a useful tool for activity prediction of newly designed nucleoside transporter inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps identify features important for exhibiting good binding affinities at the transporter, and can thus serve as a useful guide for the design of potential equilibrative nucleoside transporter inhibitors.

  5. The endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 differentially modulates recognition memory in rats depending on environmental aversiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Ratano, Patrizia; Manduca, Antonia; Scattoni, Maria L.; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds may influence both emotional and cognitive processes depending on the level of environmental aversiveness at the time of drug administration. However, the mechanisms responsible for these responses remain to be elucidated. The present experiments investigated the effects induced by the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.5-5 mg/kg, i.p.) on bothemotional and cognitive performances of rats tested in a Spatial Open Field task and subjected to different experimenta...

  6. Pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of most (90 %) of the glucose filtered by the kidneys. The pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 co-transporters reduces hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. The amount of glucose excreted in the urine depends on both the level of hyperglycaemia and the glomerular filtration rate. Results of numerous placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials of 12-104 weeks duration have shown significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), resulting in a significant increase in the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c targets, and a significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose when SGLT2 inhibitors were administered as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering therapies including insulin in patients with T2DM. In head-to-head trials of up to 2 years, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted similar glucose-lowering activity to metformin, sulphonylureas or sitagliptin. The durability of the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors appears to be better; however, this remains to be more extensively investigated. The risk of hypoglycaemia was much lower with SGLT2 inhibitors than with sulphonylureas and was similarly low as that reported with metformin, pioglitazone or sitagliptin

  7. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dhonukshe, P.; Grigoriev, I.; Fischer, R.; Tominaga, M.; Robinson, D.G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, T.; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, R.; Meisel, L.A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, T.W.J.; Stierhof, Y. D.; Ueda, T.; Oiwa, K.; Akhmanova, A.; Brock, R.; Spang, A.; Friml, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 11 (2008), s. 4489-4494 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0838; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601630703; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB600380604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : pin proteins * plant development * vesicle traffic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.380, year: 2008

  8. YUCCA6 over-expression demonstrates auxin function in delaying leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jeong Im; Murphy, Angus S.; Baek, Dongwon; Lee, Shin-Woo; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bressan, Ray A.; Narasimhan, Meena L.

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana YUCCA family of flavin monooxygenase proteins catalyses a rate-limiting step in de novo auxin biosynthesis. A YUCCA6 activation mutant, yuc6-1D, has been shown to contain an elevated free IAA level and to display typical

  9. Sodium-Glucose Linked Transporter-2 Inhibitors in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zanoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SGLT2 inhibitors are new antihyperglycaemic agents whose ability to lower glucose is directly proportional to GFR. Therefore, in chronic kidney disease (CKD the blood glucose lowering effect is reduced. Unlike many current therapies, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is independent of insulin action or beta-cell function. In addition, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is complementary and not alternative to other antidiabetic agents. SGLT2 inhibitors could be potentially effective in attenuating renal hyperfiltration and, consequently, the progression of CKD. Moreover, the reductions in intraglomerular pressure, systemic blood pressure, and uric acid levels induced by SGLT inhibition may potentially be of benefit in CKD subjects without diabetes. However, at present, only few clinical studies were designed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in CKD. Consequently, safety and potential efficacy beyond blood glucose lowering should be better clarified in CKD. In this paper we provide an updated review of the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical practice, with particular attention on subjects with CKD.

  10. Nitric oxide plays a central role in determining lateral root development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Graziano, Magdalena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule that functions in numerous physiological processes in plants, most of them involving cross-talk with traditional phytohormones. Auxin is the main hormone that regulates root system architecture. In this communication we report that NO promotes lateral root (LR) development, an auxin-dependent process. Application of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings induced LR emergence and elongation in a dose-dependent manner, while primary root (PR) growth was diminished. The effect is specific for NO since the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO) blocked the action of SNP. Depletion of endogenous NO with CPTIO resulted in the complete abolition of LR emergence and a 40% increase in PR length, confirming a physiological role for NO in the regulation of root system growth and development. Detection of endogenous NO by the specific probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA) revealed that the NO signal was specifically located in LR primordia during all stages of their development. In another set of experiments, SNP was able to promote LR development in auxin-depleted seedlings treated with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Moreover, it was found that LR formation induced by the synthetic auxin 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) was prevented by CPTIO in a dose-dependent manner. All together, these results suggest a novel role for NO in the regulation of LR development, probably operating in the auxin signaling transduction pathway.

  11. microRNAs involved in auxin signalling modulate male sterility under high-temperature stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuanhao; Ma, Yizan; Liu, Nian; Xu, Jiao; Hu, Qin; Li, Yaoyao; Wu, Yuanlong; Xie, Sai; Zhu, Longfu; Min, Ling; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-09-01

    Male sterility caused by long-term high-temperature (HT) stress occurs widely in crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, play an important role in the plant response to various abiotic stresses. To dissect the working principle of miRNAs in male sterility under HT stress in cotton, a total of 112 known miRNAs, 270 novel miRNAs and 347 target genes were identified from anthers of HT-insensitive (84021) and HT-sensitive (H05) cotton cultivars under normal-temperature and HT conditions through small RNA and degradome sequencing. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 5'-RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments were used to validate the sequencing data. The results show that miR156 was suppressed by HT stress in both 84021 and H05; miR160 was suppressed in 84021 but induced in H05. Correspondingly, SPLs (target genes of miR156) were induced both in 84021 and H05; ARF10 and ARF17 (target genes of miR160) were induced in 84021 but suppressed in H05. Overexpressing miR160 increased cotton sensitivity to HT stress seen as anther indehiscence, associated with the suppression of ARF10 and ARF17 expression, thereby activating the auxin response that leads to anther indehiscence. Supporting this role for auxin, exogenous Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) leads to a stronger male sterility phenotype both in 84021 and H05 under HT stress. Cotton plants overexpressing miR157 suppressed the auxin signal, and also showed enhanced sensitivity to HT stress, with microspore abortion and anther indehiscence. Thus, we propose that the auxin signal, mediated by miRNAs, is essential for cotton anther fertility under HT stress. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The role of auxin and cytokinin signalling in specifying the root architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, Daniele; Byrne, Helen; King, John; Bennett, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    these hormones and their signalling pathways. In this paper, sub-cellular and multi-cellular mathematical models are developed to investigate how interactions between auxin and cytokinin influence the size and location of regions of division and differentiation

  13. 7-Rhamnosylated Flavonols Modulate Homeostasis of the Plant Hormone Auxin and Affect Plant Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuhn, B.M.; Errafi, S.; Bucher, R.; Dobrev, Petre; Geisler, M.; Bigler, L.; Zažímalová, Eva; Ringli, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 10 (2016), s. 5385-5395 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * auxin * flavonoid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  14. Blue light alters miR167 expression and microRNA-targeted auxin response factor genes in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkovskiy, Pavel P; Kartashov, Alexander V; Zlobin, Ilya E; Pogosyan, Sergei I; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-07-01

    The effect of blue LED (450 nm) on the photomorphogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants and the transcript levels of several genes, including miRNAs, photoreceptors and auxin response factors (ARF) was investigated. It was observed that blue light accelerated the generative development, reduced the rosette leaf number, significantly reduced the leaf area, dry biomass and led to the disruption of conductive tissue formation. The blue LED differentially influenced the transcript levels of several phytochromes (PHY a, b, c, d, and e), cryptochromes (CRY 1 and 2) and phototropins (PHOT 1 and 2). At the same time, the blue LED significantly increased miR167 expression compared to a fluorescent lamp or white LEDs. This increase likely resulted in the enhanced transcription of the auxin response factor genes ARF4 and ARF8, which are regulated by this miRNA. These findings support the hypothesis that the effects of blue light on A. thaliana are mediated by auxin signalling pathway involving miRNA-dependent regulation of ARF gene expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Localization of IAA transporting tissue by tissue printing and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee-Rye Cha; Evans, M.L.; Hangarter, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Tissue printing on nitrocellulose membranes provides a useful technique for visualizing anatomical details of tissue morphology of cut ends of stem segments. Basal ends of Coleus stem and corn coleoptile segments that were transporting 14 C-IAA were gently blotted onto DEAE-nitrocellulose for several minutes to allow 14 C-IAA to efflux from the tissue. Because of the anion exchange properties of DEAE-nitrocellulose the 14 C-IAA remains on the membrane at the point it leaves the transporting tissue. Autoradiography of the DEAE membrane allowed indirect visualization of the tissues preferentially involved in auxin transport. The authors observed that polar transport through the stem segments occurred primarily through or in association with vascular tissues. However, in Coleus stems, substantial amounts of the label appeared to move through the tissue by diffusion as well as by active transport

  16. Auxin-dependent microtubule responses and seedling development are affected in a rice mutant resistant to EPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick, P.; Yatou, O.; Furuya, M.; Lambert, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. japonica) were used to study the role of the cytoskeleton in signal-dependent morphogenesis. Mutants obtained by gamma ray irradiation were selected that failed to show inhibition of coleoptile elongation by the anti microtubular drug ethyl-N-phenylcarbamate (EPC). The mutation EPC-Resistant 31 (ER31), isolated from such a screen, caused lethality in putatively homozygous embryos. Heterozygotes exhibited drug resistance, impaired development of crown roots, and characteristic changes in the pattern of cell elongation: cell elongation was enhanced in mesocotyls and leaf sheaths, but inhibited in coleoptiles. The orientation of cortical microtubules changed correspondingly: for etiolated seedlings, compared with the wild-type, they were more transverse with respect to the long cell axis in mesocotyls and leaf sheaths, but more longitudinal in coleoptiles. In mutant coleoptiles, in contrast to wild-type, microtubules did not reorient in response to auxin, and their response to microtubule-eliminating and microtubule-stabilizing drugs was conspicuously reduced. In contrast, they responded normally to other stimuli such as gibberellins or red light. Auxin sensitivity as assayed by the dose-response for callus induction did not show any significant differences between wild-type and mutant. The mutant phenotype is interpreted in terms of an interrupted link between auxin-triggered signal transduction and microtubule reorientation. (author)

  17. Effect of benzyladenine (BA on auxin-induced stem elongation and thickening in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that stem elongation in tulip is induced by the auxin produced in the leaves and gynoecium. Excision of the flower bud and all the leaves in an early stage of tulip growth resulted in almost total inhibition of stem growth, but the inhibition was completely recovered by the exogenous application of auxin to the place from which the flower bud had been removed. Hormonal control of stem thickening in tulip is much less known. Additional application of benzyladenine (BA to the tulip stem by soaking a cotton wick wrapped around all the internodes only slightly inhibited stem growth induced by IAA at a concentration of 0.1 and 2.0%, but substantially stimulated the thickening of all the internodes. The treatment of the tulip stem with benzyladenine enabled direct contact of the cytokinin with the epidermis, which is an important factor in stem elongation. The experiment conducted in field conditions also showed that BA only slightly inhibited the elongation of the fourth internode induced by IAA, but stimulated the thickening of that internode. IAA applied at a concentration of 2.0% stimulated ethylene production to a much higher extent than IAA at a concentration of 0.1%, and BA affected the auxin-induced ethylene production only to a small extent. Metabolic significance of these findings is discussed.

  18. Potent inhibitors of human LAT1 (SLC7A5) transporter based on dithiazole and dithiazine compounds for development of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Lara; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Koyioni, Maria; Koutentis, Panayiotis; Catto, Marco; Eberini, Ivano; Parravicini, Chiara; Palazzolo, Luca; Pisani, Leonardo; Galluccio, Michele; Console, Lara; Carotti, Angelo; Indiveri, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    The LAT1 transporter is acknowledged as a pharmacological target of tumours since it is strongly overexpressed in many human cancers. The purpose of this work was to find novel compounds exhibiting potent and prolonged inhibition of the transporter. To this aim, compounds based on dithiazole and dithiazine scaffold have been screened in the proteoliposome experimental model. Inhibition was tested on the antiport catalysed by hLAT1 as transport of extraliposomal [ 3 H]histidine in exchange with intraliposomal histidine. Out of 59 compounds tested, 8 compounds, showing an inhibition higher than 90% at 100µM concentration, were subjected to dose-response analysis. Two of them exhibited IC 50 lower than 1µM. Inhibition kinetics, performed on the two best inhibitors, indicated a mixed type of inhibition with respect to the substrate. Furthermore, inhibition of the transporter was still present after removal of the compounds from the reaction mixture, but was reversed on addition of dithioerythritol, a S-S reducing agent, indicating the formation of disulfide(s) between the compounds and the protein. Molecular docking of the two best inhibitors on the hLAT1 homology structural model, highlighted interaction with the substrate binding site and formation of a covalent bond with the residue C407. Indeed, the inhibition was impaired in the hLAT1 mutant C407A confirming the involvement of that Cys residue. Treatment of SiHa cells expressing hLAT1 at relatively high level, with the two most potent inhibitors led to cell death which was not observed after treatment with a compound exhibiting very poor inhibitory effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Knocking down expression of the auxin-amidohydrolase IAR3 alters defense responses in Solanaceae family plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Ippolito, S.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Casalongue, C.A.; Fiol, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, DEC (2016), s. 31-39 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * Biotic stress * Cladosporium fulvum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  20. Analgesic effect of GT-0198, a structurally novel glycine transporter 2 inhibitor, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Omori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the characteristic pharmacological features of GT-0198 that is phenoxymethylbenzamide derivatives. GT-0198 inhibited the function of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2 in human GlyT2-expressing HEK293 cells and did not bind various major transporters or receptors of neurotransmitters in a competitive manner. Thus, GT-0198 is considered to be a comparatively selective GlyT2 inhibitor. Intravenous, oral, and intrathecal injections of GT-0198 decreased the pain-related response in a model of neuropathic pain with partial sciatic nerve ligation. This result suggests that GT-0198 has an analgesic effect. The analgesic effect of GT-0198 was abolished by the intrathecal injection of strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist. Therefore, GT-0198 is considered to exhibit its analgesic effect via the activation of a glycine receptor by glycine following presynaptic GlyT2 inhibition in the spinal cord. In summary, GT-0198 is a structurally novel GlyT2 inhibitor bearing a phenoxymethylbenzamide moiety with in vivo efficacy in behavioral models of neuropathic pain.

  1. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a Purported Inhibitor of Chaperone Protein GRP78, as an Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Reyna; Pao, Peng-Wen; Hofman, Florence M.; Chen, Thomas C.; Louie, Stan G.; Pirrung, Michael C.; Schönthal, Axel H.

    2013-01-01

    Verrucosidin (VCD) belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD’s anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose), but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin). However, VCD’s strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin) might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed. PMID:23755268

  2. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a purported inhibitor of chaperone protein GRP78, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmy Thomas

    Full Text Available Verrucosidin (VCD belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78 expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD's anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin. However, VCD's strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed.

  3. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NOXes and DUOXes, is also an iodide-specific transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Massart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases (NOXes and dual oxidases (DUOXes generate O2.− and H2O2. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI inhibits the activity of these enzymes and is often used as a specific inhibitor. It is shown here that DPI, at concentrations similar to those which inhibit the generation of O2 derivatives, activated the efflux of radioiodide but not of its analog 99mTcO4− nor of the K+ cation mimic 86Rb+ in thyroid cells, in the PCCl3 rat thyroid cell line and in COS cell lines expressing the iodide transporter NIS. Effects obtained with DPI, especially in thyroid cells, should therefore be interpreted with caution.

  4. NDR proteins: lessons learned from Arabidopsis and animal cells prompt a testable hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Jones, Alan M

    2010-08-01

    N-myc Down Regulated (NDR) genes were discovered more than fifteen years ago. Indirect evidence support a role in tumor progression and cellular differentiation, but their biochemical function is still unknown. Our detailed analyses on Arabidopsis NDL proteins show their involvement in altering auxin transport, local auxin gradients and expression level of auxin transport proteins. Animal NDL proteins may be involved in membrane recycling of E-cadherin and effector for the small GTPase. In light of these findings, we hypothesize that NDL proteins regulate vesicular trafficking of auxin transport facilitator PIN proteins by biochemically alterating the local lipid environment of PIN proteins.

  5. Auxin Does Not Alter the Permeability of Pea Segments to Tritium-labeled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, M J; Rayle, D L

    1974-02-01

    The possibility of an auxin effect on the permeability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ev. Alaska) segments to tritium-labeled water has been investigated by three separate laboratories, and the combined results are presented. We were unable to obtain any indication of a rapid effect of indoleacetic acid on the efflux of (3)HHO when pea segments previously "loaded" for 90 minutes with (3)HHO were transferred to unlabeled aqueous medium with indoleacetic acid. We were able to confirm that segments pretreated with (3)HHO plus indoleacetic acid for 60 to 90 minutes can show an enhanced (3)HHO release as compared with minus indoleacetic acid controls. However, this phenomenon appears to be due to an increased uptake of (3)HHO during the prolonged indoleacetic acid pretreatment, and therefore we conclude that auxin does not alter the permeability of pea segments to (3)HHO in either short term or long term tests. We confirm previous reports that the uptake of (3)HHO in pea segments proceeds largely through the cut surfaces, and that the cuticle is a potent barrier to (3)HHO flux.

  6. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch; Sinning, Steffen; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by performing reuptake of released serotonin, and SERT is the primary target for antidepressants. SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin through an alternating access mechanism, implying that a central substrate site is connected to both sides of the membrane by permeation pathways, of which only one is accessible at a time. The coordinated conformational changes in SERT associated with substrate translocation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a Leu to Glu mutation at position 406 (L406E) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced by L406E are not simply charge-related effects. Leu406 is located >10 Å from the central inhibitor binding site indicating that the mutation affects inhibitor binding in an indirect manner. We found that L406E decreased accessibility to a residue in the cytoplasmic pathway. The shift in equilibrium to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4 has an important role in controlling the conformational equilibrium of human SERT. PMID:25903124

  7. Amino acid derivatives are substrates or non-transported inhibitors of the amino acid transporter PAT2 (slc36a2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Noel; Anderson, Catriona M H; Gatfield, Kelly M; Jevons, Mark P; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Thwaites, David T

    2011-01-01

    The H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter PAT2 (SLC36A2) transports the amino acids proline, glycine, alanine and hydroxyproline. A physiological role played by PAT2 in amino acid reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule is demonstrated by mutations in SLC36A2 that lead to an iminoglycinuric phenotype (imino acid and glycine uria) in humans. A number of proline, GABA and tryptophan derivatives were examined to determine if they function either as transported substrates or non-transported inhibitors of PAT2. The compounds were investigated following heterologous expression of rat PAT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. PAT2 function was characterised by: radiotracer uptake and competition (cis-inhibition) studies; radiotracer efflux and trans-stimulation; and measurement of substrate-induced positive inward current by two-electrode voltage-clamp. In general, the proline derivatives appeared to be transported substrates and the relative ability to induce current flow was closely related to the inhibitory effects on PAT2-mediated l-[(3)H]proline uptake. In contrast, certain heterocyclic GABA derivatives (e.g. l-pipecolic acid) were translocated only slowly. Finally, the tryptophan derivatives inhibited PAT2 function but did not undergo transport. l-Proline uptake was inhibited by 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (IC(50) 1.6±0.4mM), α-methyl-d,l-tryptophan (3.5±1.5mM), l-tryptophan, 1-methyl-l-tryptophan and indole-3-propionic acid. Although neither 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan nor α-methyl-d,l-tryptophan were able to elicit inward current in PAT2-expressing oocytes both reduced the current evoked by l-proline. 5-Hydroxy-l-tryptophan and α-methyl-d,l-tryptophan were unable to trans-stimulate l-proline efflux from PAT2-expressing oocytes, confirming that the two compounds act as non-transported blockers of PAT2. These two tryptophan derivatives should prove valuable experimental tools in future investigations of the physiological roles of PAT2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Evaluation of Relationship Between Auxin and Cytokinine Hormones on Yield and Yield Components of Maize under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahrokh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is one of the major environmental conditions that adversely affects plant growth and crop yield. In the face of a global scarcity of water resources, water stress has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide. Drought is the major restriction in maize production. The plant growth reduction under drought stress conditions could be an outcome of altered hormonal balance and hence the exogenous application of growth regulators under stress conditions could be the possible means for reversing the effects of abiotic stress. Phytohormones such as auxine and cytokinine are known to be involved in the regulation of plant response to the adverse effects of stress conditions. Previous studies have shown that endogenous hormones are essential regulators for translocation and partitioning of photoassimilates for grain filling in cereal crops, and therefore could be involved in the regulation of grain weight and yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out in three separately environments included non-drought stress environment (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity, drought stress in vegetative stage (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 50% field capacity in V4 to tasseling stage, but irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity in pollination to physiological maturity stage and drought stress in reproductive stage (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity in V4 to tasseling stage and irrigation after soil moisture reached to 50% field capacity in pollination to physiological maturity stage. Cytokinin hormone in three levels (control, spraying in V5 –V6 and V8-V10 stages and auxin hormone in three levels (control, spraying in silk emergence stage and 15 days after that were laid out as a factorial design based on randomized complete block with three replications in each environment at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII

  9. Wet-gas transport in the Mediterranean Sea. Selection of a combined kinetic hydrate/corrosion inhibitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettlitzer, M. [RWE Dea AG, Wietze (Germany); Rozengard, N.; Koeckritz, V. [Technical Univ. Freiberg (Germany); Malt, E. [RWE Dea AG (Egypt)

    2007-09-13

    Raw gas will be collected on a platform in the centre of the field. Due to volume and weight constraints, condensing fluids will not be separated from the gas on the platform so that the raw gas will be transported in three-phase mode (gas, water, and condensate) via a 33 km long pipeline to a gas treatment plant. Under the calculated pipeline pressure of about 100 barg, hydrate formation is - according to the outcome of thermodynamic simulations - to be expected at temperatures of 19 C and below while the pipeline may cool down to about 15 C in winter conditions. Due to logistical, environmental and economic reasons, RWE Dea decided to inhibit hydrate formation with kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHI). As the gas also contains carbon dioxide, certain corrosivity was forecasted and addition of a corrosion inhibitor turned out to be necessary. Laboratory tests were carried out to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to define the required dosage of KHI. Service companies were contacted and several kinetic hydrate and corrosion inhibitors were screened. Experiments with the different chemicals were performed at the University of Freiberg in a high-pressure cell at the pipeline pressure of 100 barg. Hydrate formation was detected by continuous pressure registration during temperature changes and by observation through a glass window. In order to preselect the chemicals, first tests were performed with pure methane. These tests also served for calibration of the equipment with literature data and especially as an indication for the minimum chemical concentration required. A second test series was performed with synthetic gas in a composition close to that of the field gas under consideration in order to verify the results obtained with methane. Finally, the optimum kinetic hydrate inhibitor was identified as well as the required dosage concentration. Compatibility of KHI and corrosion inhibitor was experimentally proven. A further set of kinetic inhibitor tests with

  10. Integrative RNA- and miRNA-Profile Analysis Reveals a Likely Role of BR and Auxin Signaling in Branch Angle Regulation of B. napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is the second largest oilseed crop worldwide and one of the most important oil crops in China. As a component of plant architecture, branch angle plays an important role in yield performance, especially under high-density planting conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of branch angle are still largely not understood. Two oilseed rape lines with significantly different branch angles were used to conduct RNA- and miRNA-profiling at two developmental stages, identifying differential expression of a large number of genes involved in auxin- and brassinosteroid (BR-related pathways. Many auxin response genes, including AUX1, IAA, GH3, and ARF, were enriched in the compact line. However, a number of genes involved in BR signaling transduction and biosynthesis were down-regulated. Differentially expressed miRNAs included those involved in auxin signaling transduction. Expression patterns of most target genes were fine-tuned by related miRNAs, such as miR156, miR172, and miR319. Some miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed at both developmental stages, including three miR827 members. Our results provide insight that auxin- and BR-signaling may play a pivotal role in branch angle regulation.

  11. Endogenous oscillations of electric potential difference in the cambial region of the pine stem. II. Possible involvement of the oscillations in xylogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Kurek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct and indirect interrelations between xylogenic processes and the endogenous electric potential difference (PD oscillations generated in the cambial region of isolated tissue blocks from pine trunks were investigated. The frequency of transient PD changes varied during the season and displayed three minima which were concurrent with periods of initiation and termination of cambial activity and with the time of transition from early- to late-wood production. The oscillations were damped by TIBA - an inhibitor of polar auxin transport and stimulated by IAA, but only when the hormone was supplied to the apical end of the tissue block. This suggests that the polar transport of auxin may be involved in generation of the transient PD changes. Results of 2-channel recordings in one tissue block suggest that a part of the recorded oscillations (10-25 % exhibit coordination in space and time: a wave-like pattern along the trunk axis is created by PD changes. The pattern might be a physical carrier of information coordinating processes of growth and differentiation in distant parts of the tree.

  12. The influence of auxins on the biosynthesis of isoprene derivatives in callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop were optimized for their isoprene derivatives production by supplementing Schenk-Hildebrandt (SH) medium with constant concentration of kinetin (2.32 microM) and two different amounts of selected auxins. Every auxin, except for IBA, used in 10-time higher concentration (2,4D, NAA, IAA, NOA) stimulated biosynthesis of beta-sitosterol and inhibited triterpene synthesis. Quantitative analysis of isoprene derivatives in callus biomass collected on the 25th day of the experiment proved that the analyzed callus of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop synthesized the highest amount of isoprene derivatives after subculturing on SH medium modified with 22.6 microM of 2,4D and 2.32 microM of kinetin.

  13. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UEUA. The increase in UEUA was correlated with an increase in urinary d-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UEUA is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9ΔN, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and d-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [14C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm d-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [14C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm d-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UEUA could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  14. Changes in cytokinin and auxin concentrations in seaweed concentrates when stored at an elevated temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stirk, W. A.; Arthur, G. D.; Lourens, A. F.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; van Staden, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2004), s. 31-39 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : accelerated storage * auxins * cytokinins Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2004

  15. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  16. Overexpression of GbWRKY1 positively regulates the Pi starvation response by alteration of auxin sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Jin, Li; Long, Lu; Liu, Linlin; He, Xin; Gao, Wei; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2012-12-01

    Overexpression of a cotton defense-related gene GbWRKY1 in Arabidopsis resulted in modification of the root system by enhanced auxin sensitivity to positively regulate the Pi starvation response. GbWRKY1 was a cloned WRKY transcription factor from Gossypium barbadense, which was firstly identified as a defense-related gene and showed moderate similarity with AtWRKY75 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of GbWRKY1 in Arabidopsis resulted in attenuated Pi starvation stress symptoms, including reduced accumulation of anthocyanin and impaired density of lateral roots (LR) in low Pi stress. The study also indicated that overexpression of GbWRKY1 caused plants constitutively exhibited Pi starvation response including increased development of LR, relatively high level of total P and Pi, high expression level of some high-affinity Pi transporters and phosphatases as well as enhanced accumulation of acid phosphatases activity during Pi-sufficient. It was speculated that GbWRKY1 may act as a positive regulator in the Pi starvation response as well as AtWRKY75. GbWRKY1 probably involves in the modulation of Pi homeostasis and participates in the Pi allocation and remobilization but do not accumulate more Pi in Pi-deficient condition, which was different from the fact that AtWRKY75 influenced the Pi status of the plant during Pi deprivation by increasing root surface area and accumulation of more Pi. Otherwise, further study suggested that the overexpression plants were more sensitive to auxin than wild-type and GbWRKY1 may partly influence the LPR1-dependent (low phosphate response 1) Pi starvation signaling pathway and was putatively independent of SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 and PHR1 (phosphate starvation response 1) in response to Pi starvation.

  17. Importance of the Extracellular Loop 4 in the Human Serotonin Transporter for Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Wilson, Pamela; Kristensen, Kristina Birch; Sinning, Steffen; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Jacob

    2015-06-05

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by performing reuptake of released serotonin, and SERT is the primary target for antidepressants. SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin through an alternating access mechanism, implying that a central substrate site is connected to both sides of the membrane by permeation pathways, of which only one is accessible at a time. The coordinated conformational changes in SERT associated with substrate translocation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a Leu to Glu mutation at position 406 (L406E) in the extracellular loop 4 (EL4) of human SERT, which induced a remarkable gain-of-potency (up to >40-fold) for a range of SERT inhibitors. The effects were highly specific for L406E relative to six other mutations in the same position, including the closely related L406D mutation, showing that the effects induced by L406E are not simply charge-related effects. Leu(406) is located >10 Å from the central inhibitor binding site indicating that the mutation affects inhibitor binding in an indirect manner. We found that L406E decreased accessibility to a residue in the cytoplasmic pathway. The shift in equilibrium to favor a more outward-facing conformation of SERT can explain the reduced turnover rate and increased association rate of inhibitor binding we found for L406E. Together, our findings show that EL4 allosterically can modulate inhibitor binding within the central binding site, and substantiates that EL4 has an important role in controlling the conformational equilibrium of human SERT. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of auxin and thiamine interaction effect on PAL activity and phenolic compounds content in vegetative growth stage of soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nazi nadernejad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycin max L. is one of the most important oily seeds in the world. This plant is rich in protein and unsaturated fats, and plays a significant role in human health with phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Indole Butyric Acid (IBA is a plant growth regulator that plays a key role in producing phenolic compounds and increasing the antioxidant capacity of the plant. Thiamine is one of the important vitamins in strengthening the immune system and increasing the resistance to environmental stresses in the plant's growth stages. Regarding the effect of hormone auxin and thiamine on the production of phenolic compounds as one of the antioxidant compounds in growth stages, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the two compounds in two stages of soybean growth and compare their effect on phenolic compounds changes in order to Detecting higher antioxidant capacity in environmental stress tolerance. For this purpose, the DPX cultivar of soybean seeds were prepared from Dezful Agriculture Research Center and planted in perlite containing flowers. The plants were planted under factorial design under IBA treatments with three concentrations of 0, 10 and 50 and thiamine with three concentrations of 0, 50 and 200. Extraction and evaluation of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and pigments in leaves were performed. Data were analyzed using Duncan's test at a significant level of 5%. The results showed that the combined use of auxin and thiamine increased the carotenoid content in both phases and caused a significant increase in phenolic content. Application of auxin alone reduced auxin and thiamine the anthocyanin content significantly in both phases, but did not have a significant effect on phenolic content. The results showed that the PAL activity of the phenolic and anthocyanin content increased significantly in the 9-leaf stage compared to 3-leaf. Generally, the results showed that interaction effect between auxin and thiamine on

  19. Carbon monoxide interacts with auxin and nitric oxide to cope with iron deficiency in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    To clarify the roles of CO, NO and auxin in the plant response to iron deficiency and to establish how the signaling molecules interact to enhance Fe acquisition, we conducted physiological, genetic, and molecular analyses that compared the responses of various Arabidopsis mutants, including hy1 (CO...

  20. Cytokinin, auxin and physiological polarity in the aquatic carnivorous plants Aldrovanda vesiculosa and Utricularia australis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimura, Jan; Spíchal, Lukáš; Adamec, Lubomír; Pěnčík, A.; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2016), s. 1037-1044 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : Auxin * Aldrovanda vesiculosa * cytokinin Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  1. The studies on the toxicity mechanism of environmentally hazardous natural (IAA) and synthetic (NAA) auxin--The experiments on model Arabidopsis thaliana and rat liver plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał

    2015-06-01

    This paper concerns the studies towards membrane-damage effect of two auxins: indole-3-acetic acid - IAA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid - NAA on plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) and animal (rat liver) model membranes. The foregoing auxins are plant growth regulators widely used in agriculture to control the quality of the crop. However, their accumulation in the environment makes them hazardous for the living organisms. The aim of our investigations was to compare the effect of natural (IAA) vs. synthetic (NAA) auxin on the organization of plant and animal model membranes and find a possible correlation between membrane-disturbing effect of these compounds and their toxicity. The collected data evidenced that auxins cause destabilization of membranes, decrease their condensation and weakens interactions of molecules. The alterations in the morphology of model systems were also noticed. The foregoing effects of auxins are concentration-dependent and additionally NAA was found to act on animal vs. plant membranes more selectively than IAA. Interestingly, both IAA and NAA induce the strongest disordering in model lipid system at the concentration, which is frequently reported as toxic to animal and plants. Based on the above findings it was proposed that membrane-damage effect induced by IAA and NAA may be important from the point of view of the mechanism of toxicity of these compounds and cannot be ignored in further investigations in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A loss-of-function mutation in the nucleoporin AtNUP160 indicates that normal auxin signalling is required for a proper ethylene response in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Linda M.; Deslauriers, Stephen D.; Alvarez, Ashley A.; Larsen, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to elucidate mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of ethylene signalling, an Arabidopsis mutant with an enhanced ethylene response was identified. Subsequent characterization of this loss-of-function mutant revealed severe hypocotyl shortening in the presence of saturating ethylene along with increased expression in leaves of a subset of ethylene-responsive genes. It was subsequently determined by map-based cloning that the mutant (sar1-7) represents a loss-of-function mutation in the previously described nucleoporin AtNUP160 (At1g33410, SAR1). In support of previously reported results, the sar1-7 mutant partially restored auxin responsiveness to roots of an rce1 loss-of-function mutant, indicating that AtNUP160/SAR1 is required for proper expression of factors responsible for the repression of auxin signalling. Analysis of arf7-1/sar1-7 and arf19-1/sar1-7 double mutants revealed that mutations affecting either ARF7 or ARF19 function almost fully blocked manifestation of the sar1-7-dependent ethylene hypersensitivity phenotype, suggesting that ARF7- and ARF19-mediated auxin signalling is responsible for regulating the magnitude of and/or competence for the ethylene response in Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls. Consistent with this, addition of auxin to ethylene-treated seedlings resulted in severe hypocotyl shortening, reminiscent of that seen for other eer (enhanced ethylene response) mutants, suggesting that auxin functions in part synergistically with ethylene to control hypocotyl elongation and other ethylene-dependent phenomena. PMID:22238449

  3. Persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARNON H.C. ANÉSIO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to determine the persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on tropical pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops. The herbicides were applied in an area of dystrophic red‒yellow latosol with pasture infested of weeds. At 40, 80, and 280 days after application of herbicide, the soil samples were collected at depths of 0 to 20 cm. Soil with residues of 2,4-D, 2,4-D + picloram, triclopyr, and a soil without herbicide application were analyzed with six replicates. Seven crops were cultivated in these soils: cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.], pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.], alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., lablab bean [Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet], corn (Zea mays L., and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench]. The plants of cucumber, pigeon pea, and alfalfa were the most susceptible to the auxinic herbicide residues. However, the lablab bean was the only one among the dicot evaluated that showed tolerance to the 2,4-D + picloram residual when cultivated in soils at 280 days after application of herbicide. Corn and sorghum showed lower chlorophyll content in soils with 2,4-D + picloram residual up to 80 days after application of herbicide.

  4. Potent human uric acid transporter 1 inhibitors: in vitro and in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wempe MF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Wempe,1 Janet W Lightner,2 Bettina Miller,1 Timothy J Iwen,1 Peter J Rice,1 Shin Wakui,3 Naohiko Anzai,4 Promsuk Jutabha,4 Hitoshi Endou51Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA; 3Department of Toxicology, Azabu University School of Veterinary Medicine, Chuo Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, Japan; 5Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Human uric acid transporter 1 (hURAT1; SLC22A12 is a very important urate anion exchanger. Elevated urate levels are known to play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Therefore, the development of potent uric acid transport inhibitors may lead to novel therapeutic agents to combat these human diseases. The current study investigates small molecular weight compounds and their ability to inhibit 14C-urate uptake in oocytes expressing hURAT1. Using the most promising drug candidates generated from our structure–activity relationship findings, we subsequently conducted in vitro hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetic (PK studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds were incubated with rat liver microsomes containing cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid. In vitro metabolism and PK samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods. Independently, six different inhibitors were orally (capsule dosing or intravenously (orbital sinus administered to fasting male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected and analyzed; these data were used to compare in vitro and in vivo metabolism and to

  5. The ratio of red light to far red light alters Arabidopsis axillary bud growth and abscisic acid signalling before stem auxin changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holalu, Srinidhi V; Finlayson, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot branching is inhibited by a low red light to far red light ratio (R:FR, an indicator of competition), and by loss of phytochrome B function. Prior studies have shown that phytochrome B deficiency suppresses bud growth by elevating systemic auxin signalling, and that increasing the R:FR promotes the growth of buds suppressed by low R:FR by inhibiting bud abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation and signalling. Here, systemic auxin signalling and bud ABA signalling were examined in the context of rapid bud responses to an increased R:FR. Increasing the R:FR promoted the growth of buds inhibited by a low R:FR within 6 h. Relative to a low R:FR, bud ABA accumulation and signalling in plants given a high R:FR showed a sustained decline within 3 h, prior to increased growth. Main stem auxin levels and signalling showed a weak, transient response. Systemic effects and those localised to the bud were further examined by decapitating plants maintained either under a low R:FR or provided with a high R:FR. Increasing the R:FR promoted bud growth before decapitation, but decapitated plants eventually formed longer branches. The data suggest that rapid responses to an increased R:FR may be mediated by changes in bud ABA physiology, although systemic auxin signalling is necessary for sustained bud repression under a low R:FR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. 2A and the auxin-based degron system facilitate control of protein levels in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kreidenweiss

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene function in Plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite, is restricted by the lack of robust and simple reverse genetic tools. Approaches to manipulate protein levels post-translationally are powerful tools to study protein-off effects especially in the haploid malaria parasite where genetic knockouts of essential genes are lethal. We investigated if the auxin-inducible degron system is functional in P. falciparum and found that degron-tagged yellow fluorescent protein levels were efficiently reduced upon addition of auxin which otherwise had no effect on parasite viability. The genetic components required in this conditional approach were co-expressed in P. falciparum by applying the small peptide 2A. 2A is a self-processing peptide from Foot-And-Mouth Disease virus that allows the whole conditional system to be accommodated on a single plasmid vector and ensures stoichiometric expression levels.

  7. Endogenous auxin regulates the sensitivity of Dendrobium (cv. Miss Teen) flower pedicel abscission to ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rungruchkanont, K.; Ketsa, S.; Chatchawankanphanich, O.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobium flower buds and flowers have an abscission zone at the base of the pedicel (flower stalk). Ethylene treatment of cv. Miss Teen inflorescences induced high rates of abscission in flower buds but did not affect abscission once the flowers had opened. It is not known if auxin is a regulator

  8. Brachytic2/ZmABCB1 functions in IAA export from intercalary meristems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöller, Anne Sophie; Richards, Elizabeth L.; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S.

    2010-01-01

    Dwarfism traits in Zea mays are regulated by multiple factors including the hormone auxin. Dwarf brachytic2 (br2) mutants harbour lesions in the gene encoding an orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB1 which functions in auxin efflux out of meristematic regions in the shoot and root. br2 mesocotyls and coleoptiles exhibit reduced auxin transport. However, the dwarf stature of br2 derives from shortened lower internodes whilst the upper portion of the plant is completely normal. As such, it is counter-intuitive to attribute br2 dwarfism exclusively to reduced auxin export out of the shoot apex. Arabidopsis abcb1 mutants exhibit only minor reductions in auxin transport and plant height unless combined with mutations in the ABCB19 auxin transporter. Phylogenetic modelling analysis excludes the possibility that BR2 is more closely related to ABCB19 which has three more closely related orthologues in maize. BR2 is expressed in nodal meristems, and analyses of auxin transport and content indicate that BR2 function in these grass-specific tissues is analogous to ABCB1 function in the shoot and root apex of Arabidopsis. These results indicate that ABCB1/BR2 function is conserved between dicots and monocots, but also suggests that this function must be understood in the context of the segmental organization of grass plants. PMID:20581123

  9. [Sodium Glucose Co-transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors in CKD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insalaco, Monica; Zanoli, Luca; Rastelli, Stefania; Lentini, Paolo; Rapisarda, Francesco; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Castellino, Pietro; Granata, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Among the new drugs used for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type 2, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option. Since their ability to lower glucose is proportional to GFR, their effect is reduced in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The antidiabetic mechanism of these drugs is insulin-independent and, therefore, complimentary to that of others antihyperglicaemic agents. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibitors are able to reduce glomerular hyperfiltration, systemic and intraglomerular pressure and uric acid levels, with consequent beneficial effects on the progression of kidney disease in non diabetic patients as well. Only few studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with CKD. Therefore, safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors should be better clarified in the setting of CKD. In this paper, we will review the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic patients, including those with CKD.

  10. Click chemistry-based tracking reveals putative cell wall-located auxin binding sites in expanding cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mravec, J.; Kračun, S. K.; Zemlyanskaya, E.; Rydahl, M. G.; Guo, X.; Pičmanová, M.; Sørensen, K.; Růžička, Kamil; Willats, W.G.T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 22 (2017), č. článku 15988. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : MEMBRANE H+-ATPASE * BIOLOGICAL-ACTIVITY * AZIDO AUXINS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  11. Short-term salt stress in Brassica rapa seedlings causes alterations in auxin metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlović, I.; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Vujčić, V.; Radić Brkanac, S.; Lepeduš, H.; Strnad, Miroslav; Salopek-Sondi, B.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 125, APR (2018), s. 74-84 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06613S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin metabolism * Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis * Growth inhibition * Principal component analysis * Reactive oxygen species * Short-term salinity stress * Stress hormones Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  12. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  13. Distinct modes of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, L da Rocha; Troleis, J; Mastroberti, A A; Mariath, J E A; Fett-Neto, A G

    2012-01-01

    The literature describes different rooting protocols for Arabidopsis thaliana as models to study adventitious rooting, and results are generally perceived as comparable. However, there is a lack of investigations focusing on the distinct features, advantages and limitations of each method in the study of adventitious rooting with both wild-type (WT) ecotypes and their respective mutants. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the adventitious rooting process in three different experimental systems, all using A. thaliana, analysing the same rooting parameters after transient exposure to auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) and control conditions: excised leaves, de-rooted plants and etiolated seedlings. The founding tissues and sites of origin of roots differed depending on the system used, whereas all rooting patterns were of the direct type (i.e., without callus formation). None of the systems had an absolute requirement for exogenous auxin, although rooting was enhanced by this phytohormone, with the exception of de-rooted plants, which had adventitious rooting strongly inhibited by exogenous auxin. Root elongation was much favoured in isolated leaves. Auxin-overproducing mutants could not be used in the detached leaf system due to precocious senescence; in the de-rooted plant system, these mutants had a WT-like rooting response, whereas the expression of the 'rooty' phenotype was only evident in the etiolated seedling system. Adventitious rooting of etiolated WT seedlings in the presence of exogenous auxin was inhibited by exogenous flavonoids, which act as auxin transport inhibitors; surprisingly, the flavonoid-deficient mutant chs had a lower rooting response compared to WT. Although Arabidopsis is an excellent model system to study adventitious rooting, physiological and developmental responses differed significantly, underlining the importance of avoiding data generalisation on rooting responses derived from different experimental systems with this species.

  14. Transcriptomic signatures of transfer cells in early developing nematode feeding cells of Arabidopsis focused on auxin and ethylene signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eCabrera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phyto-endoparasitic nematodes induce specialized feeding cells (NFCs in their hosts, termed syncytia and giant cells (GCs for cyst and root-knot nematodes, respectively. They differ in their ontogeny and global transcriptional signatures, but both develop cell wall ingrowths to facilitate high rates of apoplastic/symplastic solute exchange showing transfer cell (TC characteristics. Regulatory signals for TC differentiation are not still well known. The two-component signalling system (2CS and reactive oxygen species are proposed as inductors of TC identity, while, 2CSs-related genes are not major contributors to differential gene expression in early developing NFCs. Additionally, transcriptomic and functional studies have assigned a major role to auxin and ethylene as regulatory signals on early developing TCs. Genes encoding proteins with similar functions expressed in both early developing NFCs and typical TCs are putatively involved in upstream or downstream responses mediated by auxin and ethylene. Yet, no function directly associated to the TCs identity of NFCs, such as the formation of cell wall ingrowths is described for most of them. Thus we reviewed similarities between transcriptional changes observed during the early stages of NFCs formation and those described during differentiation of TCs to hypothesize about putative signals leading to TC-like differentiation of NFCs with particular emphasis on auxin an ethylene.

  15. The combination effect of auxin and cytokinin on in vitro callus formation of Physalis angulata L. - A medicinal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastuti, Retno; Munawarti, Aminatun; Firdiana, Elok Rifqi

    2017-11-01

    Physalis angulata L. (Ciplukan) is one member of Solanaceae that has a potential as herbal medicine. This plant grows wild in the crop fields, forest edges, etc. However, ciplukan is increasingly difficult to find recently. In vitro callus is an alternative source to produce secondary metabolite production as well as to regenerate plants through indirect organogenesis. This study aims to identify the response of hypocotyl explants on in vitro callus formation induced by a combination of auxin and cytokinins. Two types of cytokinins, Kinetin and BAP (0.5 ppm) were combined with three types of auxin, i.e. 2.4-D, IBA and IAA, at three concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ppm. In all combinations of cytokinin and auxin, 50-100% of hypocotyl explants derived from in vitro seedling were able to produce callus either in a compact or watery friable texture. In MS medium supplemented with 2.4-D, callus FW (fresh weight) began to decline in the fourth week after culture. Callus FW that increased until 5 weeks of culture was obtained in medium IAA 0.5 + Kin 0.5, IBA 1.0 + Kin 0.5 and IBA 1 + BA 0.5. Almost all calli induced on a medium + Kinetin also produced roots. While medium + BAP was able to induce shoots regeneration.

  16. NDR proteins: Lessons learned from Arabidopsis and animal cells prompt a testable hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Jones, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    N-myc downregulated (NDR) genes were discovered more than fifteen years ago. Indirect evidence support a role in tumor progression and cellular differentiation, but their biochemical function is still unknown. Our detailed analyses on Arabidopsis NDR proteins (deisgnated NDR-like, NDL) show their involvement in altering auxin transport, local auxin gradients and expression level of auxin transport proteins. Animal NDL proteins may be involved in membrane recycling of E-cadherin and effector f...

  17. Control of cytokinin and auxin homeostasis in cyanobacteria and algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižková, Eva; Kubeš, Martin; Dobrev, Petre; Přibyl, Pavel; Šimura, J.; Zahajská, Lenka; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Novák, Ondřej; Motyka, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2017), s. 151-166 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14649S; GA ČR GA15-22322S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : solid-phase extraction * performance liquid-chromatography * yucca flavin monooxygenases * tandem mass-spectrometry * abscisic-acid * arabidopsis-thaliana * indole-3-acetic-acid iaa * endogenous cytokinins * chlorella-vulgaris * phenylacetic acid * Cytokinin * auxin * cyanobacteria * algae * metabolism * cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase * cytokinin 2-methylthioderivatives * trans-zeatin * indole-3-acetic acid * tRNA Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  18. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  19. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  20. Clonal Propagation of Khaya senegalensis: The Effects of Stem Length, Leaf Area, Auxins, Smoke Solution, and Stockplant Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ky-Dembele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Khaya senegalensis is a multipurpose African timber species. The development of clonal propagation could improve plantation establishment, which is currently impeded by mahogany shoot borer. To examine its potential for clonal propagation, the effects of cutting length, leaf area, stockplant maturation, auxin, and smoke solution treatments were investigated. Leafy cuttings rooted well (up to 80% compared to leafless cuttings (0%. Cuttings taken from seedlings rooted well (at least 95%, but cuttings obtained from older trees rooted poorly (5% maximum. The rooting ability of cuttings collected from older trees was improved (16% maximum by pollarding. Auxin application enhanced root length and the number of roots while smoke solution did not improve cuttings' rooting ability. These results indicate that juvenile K. senegalensis is amenable to clonal propagation, but further work is required to improve the rooting of cuttings from mature trees.

  1. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1962-01-01

    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the subst......The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing...... with the substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine...... and polyphloretinephosphate. The results of the analysis for these inhibitors indicate a substrate competitive mode of action. The effect of reversing the transport direction by interchanging the substrate concentration has been treated for the case of a non-penetrating substrate competitive inhibitor in the external medium...

  2. A new structural class of subtype-selective inhibitor of cloned excitatory amino acid transporter, EAAT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Hermit, M B; Nielsen, B

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the pharmacological effects of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) and the enantiomers of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2, 5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid (TDPA) on cloned human excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes 1, 2 and 3 (EAAT1......-3) expressed in Cos-7 cells. Whereas AMPA and (R)-TDPA were both inactive as inhibitors of [3H]-(R)-aspartic acid uptake on all three EAAT subtypes, (S)-TDPA was shown to selectively inhibit uptake by EAAT2 with a potency equal to that of the endogenous ligand (S)-glutamic acid. (S)-TDPA thus represents a new...

  3. Identification and Quantitative Assessment of Uremic Solutes as Inhibitors of Renal Organic Anion Transporters, OAT1 and OAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Chia-Hsiang; Yoshida, Kenta; Zhao, Ping; Meyer, Timothy W; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2016-09-06

    One of the characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the accumulation of uremic solutes in the plasma. Less is known about the effects of uremic solutes on transporters that may play critical roles in pharmacokinetics. We evaluated the effect of 72 uremic solutes on organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3) using a fluorescent probe substrate, 6-carboxyfluorescein. A total of 12 and 13 solutes were identified as inhibitors of OAT1 and OAT3, respectively. Several of them inhibited OAT1 or OAT3 at clinically relevant concentrations and reduced the transport of other OAT1/3 substrates in vitro. Review of clinical studies showed that the active secretion of most drugs that are known substrates of OAT1/3 deteriorated faster than the renal filtration in CKD. Collectively, these data suggest that through inhibition of OAT1 and OAT3, uremic solutes contribute to the decline in renal drug clearance in patients with CKD.

  4. In vivo neuronal synthesis and axonal transport of Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI)-containing forms of the amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, K L; Confaloni, A M; Allinquant, B

    1994-11-01

    We have shown previously that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is synthesized in retinal ganglion cells and is rapidly transported down the axons, and that different molecular weight forms of the precursor have different developmental time courses. Some APP isoforms contain a Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain, and APP that lacks the KPI domain is considered the predominant isoform in neurons. We now show that, among the various rapidly transported APPs, a 140-kDa isoform contains the KPI domain. This APP isoform is highly expressed in rapidly growing retinal axons, and it is also prominent in adult axon endings. This 140-kDa KPI-containing APP is highly sulfated compared with other axonally transported isoforms. These results show that APP with the KPI domain is a prominent isoform synthesized in neurons in vivo, and they suggest that the regulation of protease activity may be an important factor during the establishment of neuronal connections.

  5. Arabidopsis SHR and SCR transcription factors and AUX1 auxin influx carrier control the switch between adventitious rooting and xylogenesis in planta and in in vitro cultured thin cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rovere, F; Fattorini, L; D'Angeli, S; Veloccia, A; Del Duca, S; Cai, G; Falasca, G; Altamura, M M

    2015-03-01

    Adventitious roots (ARs) are essential for vegetative propagation. The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) affect primary/lateral root development, but their involvement in AR formation is uncertain. LAX3 and AUX1 auxin influx carriers contribute to primary/lateral root development. LAX3 expression is regulated by SHR, and LAX3 contributes to AR tip auxin maximum. In contrast, AUX1 involvement in AR development is unknown. Xylogenesis is induced by auxin plus cytokinin as is AR formation, but the genes involved are largely unknown. Stem thin cell layers (TCLs) form ARs and undergo xylogenesis under the same auxin plus cytokinin input. The aim of this research was to investigate SHR, SCR, AUX1 and LAX3 involvement in AR formation and xylogenesis in intact hypocotyls and stem TCLs in arabidopsis. Hypocotyls of scr-1, shr-1, lax3, aux1-21 and lax3/aux1-21 Arabidopsis thaliana null mutant seedlings grown with or without auxin plus cytokinin were examined histologically, as were stem TCLs cultured with auxin plus cytokinin. SCR and AUX1 expression was monitored using pSCR::GFP and AUX1::GUS lines, and LAX3 expression and auxin localization during xylogenesis were monitored by using LAX3::GUS and DR5::GUS lines. AR formation was inhibited in all mutants, except lax3. SCR was expressed in pericycle anticlinally derived AR-forming cells of intact hypocotyls, and in cell clumps forming AR meristemoids of TCLs. The apex was anomalous in shr and scr ARs. In all mutant hypocotyls, the pericycle divided periclinally to produce xylogenesis. Xylary element maturation was favoured by auxin plus cytokinin in shr and aux1-21. Xylogenesis was enhanced in TCLs, and in aux1-21 and shr in particular. AUX1 was expressed before LAX3, i.e. in the early derivatives leading to either ARs or xylogenesis. AR formation and xylogenesis are developmental programmes that are inversely related, but they involve fine-tuning by the same proteins, namely SHR

  6. Discovery of Indazoles as Potent, Orally Active Dual Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonists and Serotonin Transporter Inhibitors for the Treatment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Huang, Hong; Conlon, David A; Davis, Carl D; Hanumegowda, Umesh M; Hou, Xiaoping; Hsiao, Yi; Hu, Joanna; Krause, Rudolph; Li, Yu-Wen; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Raybon, Joseph; Rosner, Thorsten; Sun, Jung-Hui; Taber, Matthew T; Taylor, Sarah J; Wong, Michael K; Zhang, Huiping; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Gillman, Kevin W

    2016-12-21

    Combination studies of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists and serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown promise in preclinical models of depression. Such a combination may offer important advantages over the current standard of care. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of an indazole-based chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1 receptor antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors to overcome issues of ion channel blockade. This effort culminated in the identification of compound 9, an analogue that demonstrated favorable oral bioavailability, excellent brain uptake, and robust in vivo efficacy in a validated depression model. Over the course of this work, a novel heterocycle-directed asymmetric hydrogenation was developed to facilitate installation of the key stereogenic center.

  7. Mitochondrial genome-knockout cells demonstrate a dual mechanism of action for the electron transport complex I inhibitor mycothiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kirsten J; Singh, A Jonathan; Cameron, Alanna; Tan, An S; Leahy, Dora C; O'Sullivan, David; Joshi, Praneta; La Flamme, Anne C; Northcote, Peter T; Berridge, Michael V; Miller, John H

    2012-04-01

    Mycothiazole, a polyketide metabolite isolated from the marine sponge Cacospongia mycofijiensis, is a potent inhibitor of metabolic activity and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I in sensitive cells, but other cells are relatively insensitive to the drug. Sensitive cell lines (IC(50) 0.36-13.8 nM) include HeLa, P815, RAW 264.7, MDCK, HeLa S3, 143B, 4T1, B16, and CD4/CD8 T cells. Insensitive cell lines (IC(50) 12.2-26.5 μM) include HL-60, LN18, and Jurkat. Thus, there is a 34,000-fold difference in sensitivity between HeLa and HL-60 cells. Some sensitive cell lines show a biphasic response, suggesting more than one mechanism of action. Mitochondrial genome-knockout ρ(0) cell lines are insensitive to mycothiazole, supporting a conditional mitochondrial site of action. Mycothiazole is cytostatic rather than cytotoxic in sensitive cells, has a long lag period of about 12 h, and unlike the complex I inhibitor, rotenone, does not cause G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. Mycothiazole decreases, rather than increases the levels of reactive oxygen species after 24 h. It is concluded that the cytostatic inhibitory effects of mycothiazole on mitochondrial electron transport function in sensitive cell lines may depend on a pre-activation step that is absent in insensitive cell lines with intact mitochondria, and that a second lower-affinity cytotoxic target may also be involved in the metabolic and growth inhibition of cells.

  8. Transport of the Glucosamine-Derived Browning Product Fructosazine (Polyhydroxyalkylpyrazine) Across the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Monolayer: Role of the Hexose Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Abhishek; Hrynets, Yuliya; Betti, Mirko

    2017-06-14

    The transport mechanism of fructosazine, a glucosamine self-condensation product, was investigated using a Caco-2 cell model. Fructosazine transport was assessed by measuring the bidirectional permeability coefficient across Caco-2 cells. The mechanism of transport was evaluated using phlorizin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (SGLT) 1 and 2, phloretin and quercetin, inhibitors of glucose transporters (GLUT) 1 and 2, transcytosis inhibitor wortmannin, and gap junction disruptor cytochalasin D. The role of hexose transporters was further studied using downregulated or overexpressed cell lines. The apparent permeability (P a,b ) of fructosazine was 1.30 ± 0.02 × 10 -6 cm/s. No significant (p > 0.05) effect was observed in fructosazine transport by adding wortmannin and cytochalasin D. The presence of phlorizin, phloretin, and quercetin decreased fructosazine transport. The downregulated GLUT cells line was unable to transport fructosazine. In human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, GLUT1 or GLUT2 and SGLT are mainly responsible for fructosazine transport.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Acyl-Glycine Inhibitors of GlyT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostyn, Shannon N; Carland, Jane E; Shimmon, Susan; Ryan, Renae M; Rawling, Tristan; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2017-09-20

    It has been demonstrated previously that the endogenous compound N-arachidonyl-glycine inhibits the glycine transporter GlyT2, stimulates glycinergic neurotransmission, and provides analgesia in animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, it is a relatively weak inhibitor with an IC 50 of 9 μM and is subject to oxidation via cyclooxygenase, limiting its therapeutic value. In this paper we describe the synthesis and testing of a novel series of monounsaturated C18 and C16 acyl-glycine molecules as inhibitors of the glycine transporter GlyT2. We demonstrate that they are up to 28 fold more potent that N-arachidonyl-glycine with no activity at the closely related GlyT1 transporter at concentrations up to 30 μM. This novel class of compounds show considerable promise as a first generation of GlyT2 transport inhibitors.

  10. Insights into the molecular mechanism of action of Celastraceae sesquiterpenes as specific, non-transported inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Reyes, Carolina P; Pérez-Lomas, Antonio L; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae have been recently shown to bind to human P-glycoprotein (Pgp), functioning as specific, mixed-type inhibitors of its drug transport activity, as well as multidrug resistance (MDR) modulators in vitro. However, nothing is known about whether such compounds are themselves transported by Pgp, or whether they affect Pgp expression as well as its activity, or about the location of their binding site within the protein. We performed transport experiments with a newly synthesized fluorescent sesquiterpene derivative, which retains the anti-Pgp activity of its natural precursor. This probe was poorly transported by Pgp, MRP1, MRP2 and BCRP transporters, compared with classical MDR substrates. Moreover, Pgp did not confer cross-resistance to the most potent dihydro-beta-agarofurans, which did not affect Pgp expression levels in several MDR cell lines. Finally, we observed competitive and non-competitive interactions between one of such dihydro-beta-agarofurans (Mama12) and classical Pgp modulators such as cyclosporin A, verapamil, progesterone, vinblastine and GF120918. These findings suggest that multidrug ABC transporters do not confer resistance to dihydro-beta-agarofurans and could not affect their absorption and biodistribution in the body. Moreover, we mapped their binding site(s) within Pgp, which may prove useful for the rational design of improved modulators based on the structure of dihydro-beta-agarofurans.

  11. The ABA receptor PYL8 promotes lateral root growth by enhancing MYB77-dependent transcription of auxin-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xing, Lu; Wang, Xingang; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Pengcheng; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-06-03

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is mediated by a group of receptors known as the PYR1/PYL/RCAR family, which includes the pyrabactin resistance 1-like protein PYL8. Under stress conditions, ABA signaling activates SnRK2 protein kinases to inhibit lateral root growth after emergence from the primary root. However, even in the case of persistent stress, lateral root growth eventually recovers from inhibition. We showed that PYL8 is required for the recovery of lateral root growth, following inhibition by ABA. PYL8 directly interacted with the transcription factors MYB77, MYB44, and MYB73. The interaction of PYL8 and MYB77 increased the binding of MYB77 to its target MBSI motif in the promoters of multiple auxin-responsive genes. Compared to wild-type seedlings, the lateral root growth of pyl8 mutant seedlings and myb77 mutant seedlings was more sensitive to inhibition by ABA. The recovery of lateral root growth was delayed in pyl8 mutant seedlings in the presence of ABA, and the defect was rescued by exposing pyl8 mutant seedlings to the auxin IAA (3-indoleacetic acid). Thus, PYL8 promotes lateral root growth independently of the core ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway by enhancing the activities of MYB77 and its paralogs, MYB44 and MYB73, to augment auxin signaling. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. The use of LeuT as a model in elucidating binding sites for substrates and inhibitors in neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løland, Claus Juul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mammalian neurotransmitter transporters are complex proteins playing a central role in synaptic transmission between neurons by rapid reuptake of neurotransmitters. The proteins which transport dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin belong to the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters...... (NSS). Due to their important role, dysfunctions are associated with several psychiatric and neurological diseases and they also serve as targets for a wide range of therapeutic and illicit drugs. Despite the central physiological and pharmacological importance, direct evidence on structure......–function relationships on mammalian NSS proteins has so far been unsuccessful. The crystal structure of the bacterial NSS protein, LeuT, has been a turning point in structural investigations. Scope of review: To provide an update on what is known about the binding sites for substrates and inhibitors in the Leu...

  13. The pleiotropic effects of the seed germination inhibitor germostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yajin; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are the most important adaptive traits of seed plants, which control the germination in a proper space and time. Internal genetic factors together with environmental cues govern seed dormancy and germination. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone induces seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination through its molecular genetic signaling network responding the seed inherent physiological and environmental factors. Recently, auxin has been shown to be another phytohormone that induces seed dormancy. We have recently shown that germonstatin (GS), a small synthetic molecule identified by high through-put chemical genetic screenings, inhibits seed germination through up-regulating auxin signaling and inducing auxin biosynthesis. GERMOSTATIN RESISTANCE LOCUS 1 (GSR1) encodes a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein and is responsible for GS seed germination inhibition. Its knockdown mutant gsr1 displays decreased dormancy. In this report, we show that GS is not an ABA analog and provided 2 other GS-resistant mutants related to the chemical's function in seed germination inhibition other than gsr1, suggesting that GS may have pleiotropic effects through targeting different pathway governing seed germination.

  14. Genes co-regulated with LBD16 in nematode feeding sites inferred from in silico analysis show similarities to regulatory circuits mediated by the auxin/cytokinin balance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Javier; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Plant endoparasitic nematodes, root-knot and cyst nematodes (RKNs and CNs) induce within the root vascular cylinder transfer cells used for nourishing, termed giant cells (GCs) and syncytia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind this process is essential to develop tools for nematode control. Based on the crucial role in gall development of LBD16, also a key component of the auxin pathway leading to the divisions in the xylem pole pericycle during lateral root (LR) formation, we investigated genes co-regulated with LBD16 in different transcriptomes and analyzed their similarities and differences with those of RKNs and CNs feeding sites (FS). This analysis confirmed LBD16 and its co-regulated genes, integrated in signaling cascades mediated by auxins during LR and callus formation, as a particular feature of RKN-FS distinct to CNs. However, LBD16, and its positively co-regulated genes, were repressed in syncytia, suggesting a selective down- regulation of the LBD16 auxin mediated pathways in CNs-FS. Interestingly, cytokinin-induced genes are enriched in syncytia and we encountered similarities between the transcriptome of shoot regeneration from callus, modulated by cytokinins, and that of syncytia. These findings establish differences in the regulatory networks leading to both FS formation, probably modulated by the auxin/cytokinin balance.

  15. Effects of antidiabetic drugs on the incidence of macrovascular complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a new perspective on sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahelić, Dario; Javor, Eugen; Lucijanić, Tomo; Skelin, Marko

    2017-02-01

    Elevated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) values correlate with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Thus, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of developing macrovascular events. Treatment of T2DM should be based on a multifactorial approach because of its evidence regarding reduction of macrovascular complications and mortality in T2DM. It is well known that intensive glucose control reduces the risk of microvascular complications in T2DM, but the effects of antidiabetic drugs on macrovascular complications and mortality in T2DM are less clear. The results of recent trials have demonstrated clear evidence that empagliflozin and liraglutide reduce cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in T2DM, an effect that is absent in other members of antidiabetic drugs. Empagliflozin is a member of a novel class of antidiabetic drugs, the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Two ongoing randomized clinical trials involving other SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, will provide additional evidence of the beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in T2DM population. The aim of this paper is to systematically present the latest evidence regarding the usage of antidiabetic drugs, and the reduction of macrovascular complications and mortality. A special emphasis is put on the novel class of antidiabetic drugs, of SGLT2 inhibitors. Key messages Macrovascular complications and mortality are best clinical trial endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of antidiabetic drugs. The first antidiabetic drug that demonstrated a reduction in mortality in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. SGLT2 inhibitors are novel class of antidiabetic drugs that play a promising role in the treatment of T2DM.

  16. Beyond cellular detoxification: a plethora of physiological roles for MDR transporter homologs in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Estelle; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants possess a multitude of Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) transporter homologs that group into three distinct and ubiquitous families—the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily, the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS), and the Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) family. As in other organisms, such as fungi, mammals, and bacteria, MDR transporters make a primary contribution to cellular detoxification processes in plants, mainly through the extrusion of toxic compounds from the cell or their sequestration in the central vacuole. This review aims at summarizing the currently available information on the in vivo roles of MDR transporters in plant systems. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that the biological functions of ABC, MFS, and MATE carriers are not restricted to xenobiotic and metal detoxification. Importantly, the activity of plant MDR transporters also mediates biotic stress resistance and is instrumental in numerous physiological processes essential for optimal plant growth and development, including the regulation of ion homeostasis and polar transport of the phytohormone auxin. PMID:24910617

  17. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Fang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T2 and T3Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium (CP4. For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV, and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  18. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS) Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Nan, Peng; Gu, Zongying; Ge, Xiaochun; Feng, Yu-Qi; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T 2 and T 3 Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium ( CP4 ). For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV), and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T 2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T 3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum brasilense reveals an extensive auxin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Sandra; Cloots, Lore; Engelen, Kristof; Das, Frederik; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos; Spaepen, Stijn

    2011-05-01

    The rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum brasilense produces the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the indole-3-pyruvate pathway. As we previously demonstrated that transcription of the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (ipdC) gene is positively regulated by IAA, produced by A. brasilense itself or added exogenously, we performed a microarray analysis to study the overall effects of IAA on the transcriptome of A. brasilense. The transcriptomes of A. brasilense wild-type and the ipdC knockout mutant, both cultured in the absence and presence of exogenously added IAA, were compared.Interfering with the IAA biosynthesis/homeostasis in A. brasilense through inactivation of the ipdC gene or IAA addition results in much broader transcriptional changes than anticipated. Based on the multitude of changes observed by comparing the different transcriptomes, we can conclude that IAA is a signaling molecule in A. brasilense. It appears that the bacterium, when exposed to IAA, adapts itself to the plant rhizosphere, by changing its arsenal of transport proteins and cell surface proteins. A striking example of adaptation to IAA exposure, as happens in the rhizosphere, is the upregulation of a type VI secretion system (T6SS) in the presence of IAA. The T6SS is described as specifically involved in bacterium-eukaryotic host interactions. Additionally, many transcription factors show an altered regulation as well, indicating that the regulatory machinery of the bacterium is changing.

  20. Design and synthesis of 4-heteroaryl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines as triple reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Zha, Congxiang; Nacro, Kassoum; Hu, Min; Cui, Wenge; Yang, Yuh-Lin; Bhatt, Ulhas; Sambandam, Aruna; Isherwood, Matthew; Yet, Larry; Herr, Michael T; Ebeltoft, Sarah; Hassler, Carla; Fleming, Linda; Pechulis, Anthony D; Payen-Fornicola, Anne; Holman, Nicholas; Milanowski, Dennis; Cotterill, Ian; Mozhaev, Vadim; Khmelnitsky, Yuri; Guzzo, Peter R; Sargent, Bruce J; Molino, Bruce F; Olson, Richard; King, Dalton; Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Johnson, Kim; Molski, Thaddeus; Orie, Anitra; Ng, Alicia; Haskell, Roy; Clarke, Wendy; Bertekap, Robert; O'Connell, Jonathan; Lodge, Nicholas; Sinz, Michael; Adams, Stephen; Zaczek, Robert; Macor, John E

    2014-07-10

    A series of 4-bicyclic heteroaryl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT) was discovered. The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) will be discussed. Compound 10i (AMR-2), a very potent inhibitor of SERT, NET, and DAT, showed efficacy in the rat forced-swim and mouse tail suspension models with minimum effective doses of 0.3 and 1 mg/kg (po), respectively. At efficacious doses in these assays, 10i exhibited substantial occupancy levels at the three transporters in both rat and mouse brain. The study of the metabolism of 10i revealed the formation of a significant active metabolite, compound 13.

  1. A virtual high-throughput screening approach to the discovery of novel inhibitors of the bacterial leucine transporter, LeuT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Katie J; Gotfryd, Kamil; Billesbølle, Christian B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Membrane proteins are intrinsically involved in both human and pathogen physiology, and are the target of 60% of all marketed drugs. During the past decade, advances in the studies of membrane proteins using X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and NMR-based techniques led to the e...... this is a virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) technique initially developed for soluble proteins. This paper describes application of this technique to the discovery of inhibitors of the leucine transporter (LeuT), a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family....

  2. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor HhAntag691 Is a Potent Inhibitor of ABCG2/BCRP and ABCB1/Pgp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available HhAntag691 (GDC-0449, a low-molecular weight inhibitor of the tumor-promoting hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway, has been used to treat medulloblastoma in animal models and has recently entered clinical trials for a variety of solid tumors. Here, we show that HhAntag691 inhibits multiple ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. ATP-binding cassette transporters are within a family of membrane proteins, the overexpression of which is associated with multidrug resistance, a major impediment to successful cancer treatment. HhAntag691 is a potent inhibitor of two ABC transporters, ABCG2/BCRP and ABCB1/Pgp, and is a mild inhibitor of ABCC1/MRP1. In ABCG2-overexpressing HEK293 cells, HhAntag691 increased retention of the fluorescent ABCG2 substrate BODIPY-prazosin and resensitized these cells to mitoxantrone, an antineoplastic ABCG2 substrate. In Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells engineered to overexpress Pgp or MRP1, HhAntag691 increased the retention of calcein-AM and resensitized them to colchicine. HhAntag691 also resensitized human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells NCI-H460/par and NCI-H460/MX20, which overexpress ABCG2 in response to mitoxantrone, to mitoxantrone, and to topotecan or SN-38. The IC50 values of HhAntag691 for inhibition of ABCG2 and Pgp were ∼1.4 and ∼3.0 µM, respectively. Because ABC transporters are highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and on many tumor cells, they contribute significantly to treatment failure of many types of cancer, particularly of those within the neuraxis. In addition to its effect on Hh signaling, the ability of HhAntag691 and related compounds to inhibit two key ABC transporters could contribute to their effectiveness in treating malignancies.

  3. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-02

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae.

  5. Influence of auxins combinations on accumulation of reserpine in the callus of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, S; Kumari, B D Ranjitha

    2007-11-01

    Reserpine is a monoterpene indole alkaloid used to treat hypertension because of its hypotensive property and psychiatric disorders because of its tranquilizing effect. Protocol has been standardized to enhance the synthesis of reserpine in leaf derived calli of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. by adjusting the auxins combinations in the medium consisting of MS nutrient salts and B5 vitamins. Auxins such as naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were used in 1-5 microM concentration along with 9 microM concentration of 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), which was found suitable for callus induction. The combination of (2,4-D) with NAA had been proved to accumulate maximum amount of reserpine followed by 2,4-D with IBA. The IAA with 2,4-D combination yielded very less amount of reserpine than the other combinations and 9 microM 2,4-D alone. The results suggest that there may be synergetic effect of NAA with 2,4-D and IBA with 2,4-D for increase in the biomass and reserpine accumulation and antagonistic effect of IAA with 2,4-D for the above said factors in the callus.

  6. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of auxin response transcription factors in the syncytium induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewezi, Tarek; Piya, Sarbottam; Richard, Geoffrey; Rice, J Hollis

    2014-09-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of a multinucleated feeding site in the infected root, termed the syncytium. Recent studies point to key roles of the phytohormone auxin in the regulation of gene expression and establishment of the syncytium. Nevertheless, information about the spatiotemporal expression patterns of the transcription factors that mediate auxin transcriptional responses during syncytium formation is limited. Here, we provide a gene expression map of 22 auxin response factors (ARFs) during the initiation, formation and maintenance stages of the syncytium induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. We observed distinct and overlapping expression patterns of ARFs throughout syncytium development phases. We identified a set of ARFs whose expression is predominantly located inside the developing syncytium, whereas others are expressed in the neighbouring cells, presumably to initiate specific transcriptional programmes required for their incorporation within the developing syncytium. Our analyses also point to a role of certain ARFs in determining the maximum size of the syncytium. In addition, several ARFs were found to be highly expressed in fully developed syncytia, suggesting a role in maintaining the functional phenotype of mature syncytia. The dynamic distribution and overlapping expression patterns of various ARFs seem to be essential characteristics of ARF activity during syncytium development. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. A concise flow synthesis of indole-3-carboxylic ester and its derivatisation to an auxin mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Baumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An assembled suite of flow-based transformations have been used to rapidly scale-up the production of a novel auxin mimic-based herbicide which was required for preliminary field trials. The overall synthetic approach and optimisation studies are described along with a full description of the final reactor configurations employed for the synthesis as well as the downstream processing of the reaction streams.

  8. Transcriptional Responses of Escherichia coli to a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of LolCDE, an Essential Component of the Lipoprotein Transport Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christian; Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Gram-negative bacteria, a dedicated machinery consisting of LolABCDE components targets lipoproteins to the outer membrane. We used a previously identified small-molecule inhibitor of the LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli to assess the global transcriptional consequences of interference with lipoprotein transport. Exposure of E. coli to the LolCDE inhibitor at concentrations leading to minimal and significant growth inhibition, followed by transcriptome sequencing, identified a small group of genes whose transcript levels were decreased and a larger group whose mRNA levels increased 10- to 100-fold compared to those of untreated cells. The majority of the genes whose mRNA concentrations were reduced were part of the flagellar assembly pathway, which contains an essential lipoprotein component. Most of the genes whose transcript levels were elevated encode proteins involved in selected cell stress pathways. Many of these genes are involved with envelope stress responses induced by the mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins. Although several of the genes whose RNAs were induced have previously been shown to be associated with the general perturbation of the cell envelope by antibiotics, a small subset was affected only by LolCDE inhibition. Findings from this work suggest that the efficiency of the Lol system function may be coupled to a specific monitoring system, which could be exploited in the development of reporter constructs suitable for use for screening for additional inhibitors of lipoprotein trafficking. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of the lipoprotein transport pathway leads to E. coli death and subsequent lysis. Early significant changes in the levels of RNA for a subset of genes identified to be associated with some periplasmic and envelope stress responses were observed. Together these findings suggest that disruption of this key pathway can have a severe impact on balanced outer membrane synthesis sufficient to affect viability. PMID

  9. Transcriptional Responses of Escherichia coli to a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of LolCDE, an Essential Component of the Lipoprotein Transport Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christian; Dougherty, Thomas J; Lory, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, a dedicated machinery consisting of LolABCDE components targets lipoproteins to the outer membrane. We used a previously identified small-molecule inhibitor of the LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli to assess the global transcriptional consequences of interference with lipoprotein transport. Exposure of E. coli to the LolCDE inhibitor at concentrations leading to minimal and significant growth inhibition, followed by transcriptome sequencing, identified a small group of genes whose transcript levels were decreased and a larger group whose mRNA levels increased 10- to 100-fold compared to those of untreated cells. The majority of the genes whose mRNA concentrations were reduced were part of the flagellar assembly pathway, which contains an essential lipoprotein component. Most of the genes whose transcript levels were elevated encode proteins involved in selected cell stress pathways. Many of these genes are involved with envelope stress responses induced by the mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins. Although several of the genes whose RNAs were induced have previously been shown to be associated with the general perturbation of the cell envelope by antibiotics, a small subset was affected only by LolCDE inhibition. Findings from this work suggest that the efficiency of the Lol system function may be coupled to a specific monitoring system, which could be exploited in the development of reporter constructs suitable for use for screening for additional inhibitors of lipoprotein trafficking. Inhibition of the lipoprotein transport pathway leads to E. coli death and subsequent lysis. Early significant changes in the levels of RNA for a subset of genes identified to be associated with some periplasmic and envelope stress responses were observed. Together these findings suggest that disruption of this key pathway can have a severe impact on balanced outer membrane synthesis sufficient to affect viability. Copyright © 2016 Lorenz et al.

  10. Discrimination of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer cultivar Chunpoong and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius using the auxin repressed protein gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hak Kim

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that great impact to prevent authentication of precise Chunpoong and other cultivars using the auxin repressed protein gene. We therefore present an effective method for the authentication of the Chunpoong cultivar of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius.

  11. In vivo evaluation of carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-based glycine transporter 1 inhibitors in mice and conscious monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Sakata, Muneyuki; Wu, Jin; Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) is an attractive target in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Here, we report the in vivo evaluation of three carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-type GlyT-1 inhibitors - [ 11 C]SA1, [ 11 C]SA2 and [ 11 C]SA3 - as novel PET tracers for GlyT-1. Methods: The regional brain distributions of the three compounds in mice were studied at baseline and under receptor-blockade conditions with co-injection of carrier loading or pretreatment with an excess of selective GlyT-1 inhibitors (ALX-5407 and SSR504734). Metabolic stability was investigated by radio high-performance liquid chromatography. Dynamic PET scans in conscious monkeys were performed with/without selective GlyT-1 inhibitors. Results: The IC 50 values of SA1, SA2 and SA3 were 9.0, 6400 and 39.7 nM, respectively. The regional brain uptakes of [ 11 C]SA1 and [ 11 C]SA3 in mice were heterogeneous and consistent with the known distribution of GlyT-1. [ 11 C]SA2 showed low and homogeneous uptake in the brain. Most radioactivity in the brain was detected in unchanged form, although peripherally these compounds were degraded. Carrier loading decreased the uptake of [ 11 C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. However, similar reductions were not observed with [ 11 C]SA3. Pretreatment with ALX-5407 decreased the uptake of [ 11 C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. In the monkey at baseline, regional brain uptake of [ 11 C]SA1 was heterogeneous and consistent with the known GlyT-1 distribution. Pretreatment with selective GlyT-1 inhibitors significantly decreased the distribution volume ratio of [ 11 C] SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. Conclusions: [ 11 C]SA1 has the most suitable profile among the three carbon-11-labelled GlyT-1 inhibitors. Lead optimization of [ 11 C]SA1 structure will be required to achieve in vivo selective GlyT-1 imaging.

  12. Production of the Plant Hormone Auxin by Salmonella and Its Role in the Interactions with Plants and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Clayton E; Brandl, Maria T; de Moraes, Marcos H; Gunasekera, Sarath; Teplitski, Max

    2017-01-01

    The ability of human enteric pathogens to colonize plants and use them as alternate hosts is now well established. Salmonella , similarly to phytobacteria, appears to be capable of producing the plant hormone auxin via an indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (IpdC), a key enzyme of the IPyA pathway. A deletion of the Salmonella ipdC significantly reduced auxin synthesis in laboratory culture. The Salmonella ipdC gene was expressed on root surfaces of Medicago truncatula . M. truncatula auxin-responsive GH3::GUS reporter was activated by the wild type Salmonella , and not but the ipdC mutant, implying that the bacterially produced IAA (Indole Acetic Acid) was detected by the seedlings. Seedling infections with the wild type Salmonella caused an increase in secondary root formation, which was not observed in the ipdC mutant. The wild type Salmonella cells were detected as aggregates at the sites of lateral root emergence, whereas the ipdC mutant cells were evenly distributed in the rhizosphere. However, both strains appeared to colonize seedlings well in growth pouch experiments. The ipdC mutant was also less virulent in a murine model of infection. When mice were infected by oral gavage, the ipdC mutant was as proficient as the wild type strain in colonization of the intestine, but it was defective in the ability to cross the intestinal barrier. Fewer cells of the ipdC mutant, compared with the wild type strain, were detected in Peyer's patches, spleen and in the liver. Orthologs of ipdC are found in all Salmonella genomes and are distributed among many animal pathogens and plant-associated bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae , suggesting a broad ecological role of the IpdC-catalyzed pathway.

  13. Endogenous Auxin Profile in the Christmas Rose (Helleborus niger L.) Flower and Fruit: Free and Amide Conjugated IAA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brcko, A.; Pěnčík, Aleš; Magnus, V.; Prebeg, T.; Mlinaric, S.; Antunovic, J.; Lepeduš, H.; Cesar, V.; Strnad, Miroslav; Rolčík, Jakub; Salopek-Sondi, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2012), s. 63-78 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Keywords : Auxin * Indole-3-acetic acid * Amide conjugates * Christmas rose * Helleborus niger L. * Flower and fruit development * Perianth greening * Peduncle elongation * Vascular system Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.990, year: 2012

  14. SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavender, Matthew A; Norhammar, Anna; Birkeland, Kåre I

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prior studies found patients treated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) had lower rates of death and heart failure (HF). Whether the benefits of SGLT-2i vary based upon the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought...... to determine the association between initiation of SGLT-2i therapy and HF or death in patients with and without CVD. METHODS: The CVD-REAL (Comparative Effectiveness of Cardiovascular Outcomes in New Users of SGLT-2 Inhibitors) study was a multinational, observational study in which adults with type 2 diabetes...... evidence regarding the benefit of SGLT-2i in patients without established CVD. (Comparative Effectiveness of Cardiovascular Outcomes in New Users of SGLT-2 Inhibitors [CVD-REAL]; NCT02993614)....

  15. The gastrointestinal-brain axis in humans as an evolutionary advance of the root-leaf axis in plants: A hypothesis linking quantum effects of light on serotonin and auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Lucio; Gashi, Bekim; Scuotto, Alessandro; Cappello, Glenda; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common. Plants interact with light and use it for biological energy, whereas, neurons in the central nervous system seem to interact with bio-photons and use them for proper brain function. Further, as auxin drives roots "arborescence" within the soil, similarly serotonin seems to facilitate enteric nervous system connectivity within the human gastro-intestinal tract. This auxin/serotonin parallel suggests the root-branches axis in plants may be an evolutionary precursor to the gastro-intestinal-brain axis in humans. Finally, we hypothesize that light might be an important factor, both in gastro-intestinal dynamics and brain function. Such a comparison may indicate a key role for the interaction of light and serotonin in neuronal physiology (possibly in both the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system), and according to recent work, mind and consciousness.

  16. Distribution of linker histone variants during plant cell differentiation in the developmental zones of the maize root, dedifferentiation in callus culture after auxin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANASTASIOS ALATZAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several linker histone variants have been studied in both animal and plant organisms, little is known about their distribution during processes that involve alterations in chromatin function, such as differentiation, dedifferentiation and hormone treatment. In this study, we identified linker histone variants by using specific anti-histone Hl antibodies. Each variant's ratio to total Hl in the three developmental zones of maize (Zea mays L. root and in callus cultures derived from them was estimated in order to define possible alterations either during plant cell differentiation or during their dedifferentiation. We also evaluated linker histone variants' ratios in the developmental zones of maize roots treated with auxin in order to examine the effects of exogenous applied auxin to linker histone variant distribution. Finally, immunohistochemical detection was used to identify the root tissues containing each variant and correlate them with the physiological status of the plant cells. According to the results presented in this study, linker histone variants' ratios are altered in the developmental zones of maize root, while they are similar to the meristematic zone in samples from callus cultures and to the differentiation zone in samples from roots treated with auxin. We propose that the alterations in linker histone variants' ratios are correlated with plant cell differentiation and dedifferentiation.

  17. cis-Cinnamic Acid Is a Novel, Natural Auxin Efflux Inhibitor That Promotes Lateral Root Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steenackers, W.; Klíma, Petr; Quareshy, M.; Cesarino, I.; Kumpf, R. P.; Corneillie, S.; Araujo, P.; Viaene, T.; Goeminne, G.; Nowack, M.K.; Ljung, K.; Friml, J.; Blakeslee, J.J.; Novák, Ondřej; Zažímalová, Eva; Napier, R.; Boerjan, W.; Vanholme, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, č. 1 (2017), s. 552-565 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-10948S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis-thaliana * plant development * cell-separation * transport * gene * biosynthesis * accumulation * expression * gradients * responses Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  18. Blockade of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET) by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram: an in vivo microdialysis study in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai T; Guiard, Bruno P; Bacq, Alexandre; David, Denis J; David, Indira; Quesseveur, Gaël; Gautron, Sophie; Sanchez, Connie; Gardier, Alain M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Escitalopram, the S(+)-enantiomer of citalopram is the most selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor approved. Although all 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext). some also enhance, to a lesser extent, extracellular levels of noradrenaline ([NA]ext). However, the mechanisms by which SSRIs activate noradrenergic transmission in the brain remain to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH This study examined the effects of escitalopram, on both [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext in the frontal cortex (FCx) of freely moving wild-type (WT) and mutant mice lacking the 5-HT transporter (SERT−/−) by using intracerebral microdialysis. We explored the possibilities that escitalopram enhances [NA]ext, either by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the low- or high-affinity noradrenaline transporters, or by an indirect mechanism promoted by [5-HT]ext elevation. The forced swim test (FST) was used to investigate whether enhancing cortical [5-HT]ext and/or [NA]ext affected the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram. KEY RESULTS In WT mice, a single systemic administration of escitalopram produced a significant increase in cortical [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext. As expected, escitalopram failed to increase cortical [5-HT]ext in SERT−/− mice, whereas its neurochemical effects on [NA]ext persisted in these mutants. In WT mice subjected to the FST, escitalopram increased swimming parameters without affecting climbing behaviour. Finally, escitalopram, at relevant concentrations, failed to inhibit cortical noradrenaline and 5-HT uptake mediated by low-affinity monoamine transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These experiments suggest that escitalopram enhances, although moderately, cortical [NA]extin vivo by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET). PMID:22233336

  19. Study of Cytokinin and Auxin Hormones and Planting Pattern Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Grain Maize (Zea mays L. under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Davani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays L. which belongs to the Poaceae family is the third important cereal crop of the world after wheat and rice. Salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting plant growth and productivity. Maize is sensitive to salinity. Planting method is a crucial factor for improving crop yield. Planting methods in saline and non-saline conditions are different. Kinetin is one of the cytokinins known to significantly improve the growth of crop plants grown under salinity. Indole acetic acid (IAA is also known to play a significant role in plant tolerance to salt stress. However, little information appears to be available on the relationship between salinity tolerance and auxin or cytokinins levels in plants. In this respect, the objective of this study was to study the effects of foliar applications of cytokinin and auxin hormones on yield and yield components of grain maize under different planting patterns in saline conditions. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out at Bushehr Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Dashtestan station with 29° 16´ E latitude and 51° 31´ N, longitude and 70 m above the see surface during the 2013 growing season. Dashtestan region is a warm-arid region with 250 mm precipitation per year. The field plowed by April 2013 and then prepared and sowed by August 2013. There were five rows with 75 cm distance. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot factorial design based on complete randomized blocks with three replications. Planting pattern (ridge planting, double rows of planting on a ridge in zigzag form and furrow planting as the main factor and time of cytokinin (0 as a control, V5- V6 stage and V8- V10 stage and auxin (0 as a control, silking stage, two weeks after silking stage foliar-applied was considered in a factorial. Cytokinin (Benzyl Adenine, Merck and Auxin (Indole-3-Butiric Acid, Merck were sprayed on the entire plant in the evening with

  20. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon...

  1. The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) increase urinary glucose excretion through a reduced renal glucose reabsorption. We plan to perform a systematic review of SGLT-2i for treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review with meta......-analyses of randomised clinical trials on SGLT-2i versus placebo, other oral glucose lowering drugs or insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes will be performed. The primary end point will be the glycated haemoglobin. Secondary end points will include changes in body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose...... to the knowledge regarding the beneficial and harmful effects of SGLT-2i in patients with type 2 diabetes. We plan to publish the study irrespective of the results. RESULTS: The study will be disseminated by peer-review publication and conference presentation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42014008960...

  2. Low glutathione regulates gene expression and the redox potentials of the nucleus and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaubelt, Daniel; Queval, Guillaume; Dong, Yingping; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Makgopa, Matome Eugene; Howell, Gareth; De Simone, Ambra; Bai, Juan; Hannah, Matthew A; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-02-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is considered to exert a strong influence on cellular redox homeostasis and to regulate gene expression, but these processes remain poorly characterized. Severe GSH depletion specifically inhibited root meristem development, while low root GSH levels decreased lateral root densities. The redox potential of the nucleus and cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana roots determined using roGFP probes was between -300 and -320 mV. Growth in the presence of the GSH-synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) increased the nuclear and cytosolic redox potentials to approximately -260 mV. GSH-responsive genes including transcription factors (SPATULA, MYB15, MYB75), proteins involved in cell division, redox regulation (glutaredoxinS17, thioredoxins, ACHT5 and TH8) and auxin signalling (HECATE), were identified in the GSH-deficient root meristemless 1-1 (rml1-1) mutant, and in other GSH-synthesis mutants (rax1-1, cad2-1, pad2-1) as well as in the wild type following the addition of BSO. Inhibition of auxin transport had no effect on organ GSH levels, but exogenous auxin decreased the root GSH pool. We conclude that GSH depletion significantly increases the redox potentials of the nucleus and cytosol, and causes arrest of the cell cycle in roots but not shoots, with accompanying transcript changes linked to altered hormone responses, but not oxidative stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Canine osteosarcoma cells exhibit resistance to aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, C M; Pozniak, J; Scott, M C; Ito, D; Gorden, B H; Graef, A J; Modiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human leukaemia and canine lymphoma cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not because of failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate that canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenstein, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing 3 H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 μ1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 μ1 of sorbitol or the Ca 2+ chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap

  5. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanchenko, M. G.; den Os, D.; Monshausen, G. B.; Dubrovsky, J, G.; Bednářová, Andrea; Krishnan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2013), s. 1107-1116 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 062/2011/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : auxin * ROS * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2013

  6. Functional evidence of multidrug resistance transporters (MDR in rodent olfactory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Molinas

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1 are membrane transporter proteins which function as efflux pumps at cell membranes and are considered to exert a protective function against the entry of xenobiotics. While evidence for Pgp and MRP transporter activity is reported for olfactory tissue, their possible interaction and participation in the olfactory response has not been investigated.Functional activity of putative MDR transporters was assessed by means of the fluorometric calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM accumulation assay on acute rat and mouse olfactory tissue slices. Calcein-AM uptake was measured as fluorescence intensity changes in the presence of Pgp or MRP specific inhibitors. Epifluorescence microscopy measured time course analysis in the olfactory epithelium revealed significant inhibitor-dependent calcein uptake in the presence of each of the selected inhibitors. Furthermore, intracellular calcein accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons was also significantly increased in the presence of either one of the Pgp or MRP inhibitors. The presence of Pgp or MRP1 encoding genes in the olfactory mucosa of rat and mouse was confirmed by RT-PCR with appropriate pairs of species-specific primers. Both transporters were expressed in both newborn and adult olfactory mucosa of both species. To assess a possible involvement of MDR transporters in the olfactory response, we examined the electrophysiological response to odorants in the presence of the selected MDR inhibitors by recording electroolfactograms (EOG. In both animal species, MRPs inhibitors induced a marked reduction of the EOG magnitude, while Pgp inhibitors had only a minor or no measurable effect.The findings suggest that both Pgp and MRP transporters are functional in the olfactory mucosa and in olfactory receptor neurons. Pgp and MRPs may be cellular constituents of olfactory receptor neurons and represent potential mechanisms for modulation

  7. Aminopropyl-modified mesoporous molecular sieves as efficient adsorbents for removal of auxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, Michał, E-mail: michal.moritz@put.poznan.pl [Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata, E-mail: Malgorzata.Geszke-Moritz@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Adsorption of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on aminopropyl-modified mesoporous sieves. - Highlights: • Four types of mesoporous molecular sieves were used as sorbents for removal of auxins. • SBA-15, MCF, PHTS and SBA-16 were grafted with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. • The adsorption capacity of modified materials was higher as compared to pure silicas. • Surface modification and pore volume play important role in adsorption process. - Abstract: In the present study, mesoporous siliceous materials grafted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were examined as sorbents for removal of chosen plant growth factors (auxins) such as 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Four different types of mesoporous molecular sieves including SBA-15, PHTS, SBA-16 and MCF have been prepared via non-ionic surfactant-assisted soft templating method. Silica molecular sieves were thoroughly characterized by nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The maximum adsorption capacity (Q{sub max}) for NAA, IAA and IBA was in the range from 51.0 to 140.8 mg/g and from 4.3 to 7.3 mg/g for aminopropyl-modified adsorbents and pure silicas, respectively. The best adsorption performance was observed for IAA entrapment using both APTES-functionalized SBA-15 and MCF matrices (Q{sub max} of 140.8 and 137.0 mg/g, respectively) which can be ascribed to their larger pore volumes and pore diameters. Moreover, these silicas were characterized by the highest adsorption efficiency exceeding 90% at low pollutant concentration. The experimental points for adsorption of plant growth factors onto aminopropyl-modified mesoporous molecular sieves fitted well to the Langmuir equation.

  8. Aminopropyl-modified mesoporous molecular sieves as efficient adsorbents for removal of auxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, Michał; Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Adsorption of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on aminopropyl-modified mesoporous sieves. - Highlights: • Four types of mesoporous molecular sieves were used as sorbents for removal of auxins. • SBA-15, MCF, PHTS and SBA-16 were grafted with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. • The adsorption capacity of modified materials was higher as compared to pure silicas. • Surface modification and pore volume play important role in adsorption process. - Abstract: In the present study, mesoporous siliceous materials grafted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were examined as sorbents for removal of chosen plant growth factors (auxins) such as 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Four different types of mesoporous molecular sieves including SBA-15, PHTS, SBA-16 and MCF have been prepared via non-ionic surfactant-assisted soft templating method. Silica molecular sieves were thoroughly characterized by nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The maximum adsorption capacity (Q max ) for NAA, IAA and IBA was in the range from 51.0 to 140.8 mg/g and from 4.3 to 7.3 mg/g for aminopropyl-modified adsorbents and pure silicas, respectively. The best adsorption performance was observed for IAA entrapment using both APTES-functionalized SBA-15 and MCF matrices (Q max of 140.8 and 137.0 mg/g, respectively) which can be ascribed to their larger pore volumes and pore diameters. Moreover, these silicas were characterized by the highest adsorption efficiency exceeding 90% at low pollutant concentration. The experimental points for adsorption of plant growth factors onto aminopropyl-modified mesoporous molecular sieves fitted well to the Langmuir equation

  9. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Dapagliflozin, on Renal Renin-Angiotensin System in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seok Joon; Chung, Sungjin; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Young-Hye; Kim, Ji-Won; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Sung-Dae; Kim, Myung-Jun; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is one of the important pathogenic mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on renal RAS in an animal model with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin (1.0 mg/kg, OL-DA) or voglibose (0.6 mg/kg, OL-VO, diabetic control) (n = 10 each) was administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for 12 weeks. We used voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, as a comparable counterpart to SGLT2 inhibitor because of its postprandial glucose-lowering effect without proven renoprotective effects. Control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LT) and OLETF (OL-C) rats received saline (n = 10, each). Changes in blood glucose, urine albumin, creatinine clearance, and oxidative stress were measured. Inflammatory cell infiltration, mesangial widening, and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney were evaluated by histological analysis. The effects of dapagliflozin on renal expression of the RAS components were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR in renal tissue. After treatment, hyperglycemia and urine microalbumin levels were attenuated in both OL-DA and OL-VO rather than in the OL-C group (P renal RAS component expression, oxidative stress and interstitial fibrosis in OLETF rats. We suggest that, in addition to control of hyperglycemia, partial suppression of renal RAS with an SGLT2 inhibitor would be a promising strategy for the prevention of treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Phospholipid composition and a polybasic motif determine D6 PROTEIN KINASE polar association with the plasma membrane and tropic responses.<