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Sample records for auxin transport gravity

  1. Gravity-regulated differential auxin transport from columella to lateral root cap cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenschlager, Iris; Wolff, Patricia; Wolverton, Chris; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Sandberg, Goran; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Mike; Palme, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Gravity-induced root curvature has long been considered to be regulated by differential distribution of the plant hormone auxin. However, the cells establishing these gradients, and the transport mechanisms involved, remain to be identified. Here, we describe a GFP-based auxin biosensor to monitor auxin during Arabidopsis root gravitropism at cellular resolution. We identify elevated auxin levels at the root apex in columella cells, the site of gravity perception, and an asymmetric auxin flux from these cells to the lateral root cap (LRC) and toward the elongation zone after gravistimulation. We differentiate between an efflux-dependent lateral auxin transport from columella to LRC cells, and an efflux- and influx-dependent basipetal transport from the LRC to the elongation zone. We further demonstrate that endogenous gravitropic auxin gradients develop even in the presence of an exogenous source of auxin. Live-cell auxin imaging provides unprecedented insights into gravity-regulated auxin flux at cellular resolution, and strongly suggests that this flux is a prerequisite for root gravitropism.

  2. Fucus as a Model System to Study the Role of Auxin Transport and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Gravity Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, Gloria K.

    2003-01-01

    The overarching goal of this proposal was to examine the mechanisms for the cellular asymmetry in auxin transport proteins. As auxin transport polarity changes in response to reorientation of algal and plant cells relative to the gravity vector, it was critical to ask how auxin transport polarity is established and how this transport polarity may change in response to gravity stimulation. The experiments conducted with this NASA grant fell into two categories. The first area of experimentation was to explore the biochemical interactions between an auxin transport protein and the actin cytoskeleton. These experiments used biochemical techniques, including actin affinity chromatography, to demonstrate that one auxin transport protein interacts with the actin cytoskeleton. The second line of experiments examined whether in the initially symmetrical single celled embryos of Fucus distichus, whether auxin regulates development and whether gravity is a cue to control the morphogenesis of these embryos and whether gravi-morphogenesis is auxin dependent. Results in these two areas are summarized separately below. As a result of this funding, in combination with results from other investigators, we have strong evidence for an important role for the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and change auxin transport polarity. It is also clear that Fucus distichus embryos are auxin responsive and gravity controls their morphogenesis.

  3. Regulation of auxin transport during gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, A.; Brady, S.; Kirpalani, N.; Buer, C.; Muday, G.

    Plants respond to changes in the gravity vector by differential growth across the gravity-stimulated organ. The plant hormone auxin, which is normally basipetally transported, changes in direction and auxin redistribution has been suggested to drive this differential growth or gravitropism. The mechanisms by which auxin transport directionality changes in response to a change in gravity vector are largely unknown. Using the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, we have been exploring several regulatory mechanisms that may control auxin transport. Mutations that alter protein phosphorylation suggest that auxin transport in arabidopsis roots may be controlled via phosphorylation and this signal may facilitate gravitropic bending. The protein kinase mutant pinoid (pid9) has reduced auxin transport; whereas the protein phosphatase mutant, rcn1, has elevated transport, suggesting reciprocal regulation of auxin transport by reversible protein phosphorylation. In both of these mutants, the auxin transport defects are accompanied by gravitropic defects, linking phosphorylation signaling to gravity-induced changes in auxin transport. Additionally, auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by changes in an endogenous auxin efflux inhibitor. Flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol, have been implicated in regulation of auxin transport in vivo and in vitro. Mutants that make no flavonoids have reduced root gravitropic bending. Furthermore, changes in auxin-induced gene expression and flavonoid accumulation patterns have been observed during gravity stimulation. Current studies are examining whether there are spatial and temporal changes in flavonoid accumulation that precede gravitropic bending and whether the absence of these changes are the cause of the altered gravity response in plants with mutations that block flavonoid synthesis. These results support the idea that auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by several mechanisms including

  4. The auxin-resistant diageotropica mutant of tomato responds to gravity via an auxin-mediated pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    Hypocotyls of the diageotropica (dgt) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) do not elongate in response to exogenous auxin, but can respond to gravity. This appears paradoxical in light of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis, which states that shoot gravicurvature results from asymmetric stimulation of elongation by auxin. While light-grown dgt seedlings can achieve correct gravitropic reorientation, the response is slow compared to wild-type seedlings. The sensitivity of dgt seedlings to inhibition of gravicurvature by immersion in auxin or auxin-transport inhibitors is similar to that of wild-type plants, indicating that both an auxin gradient and auxin transport are required for the gravitropic response and that auxin uptake, efflux, and at least one auxin receptor are functional in dgt. Furthermore, dgt gravicurvature is the result of asymmetrically increased elongation as would be expected for an auxin-mediated response. Our results suggest differences between elongation in response to exogenous auxin (absent in dgt) and elongation in response to gravistimulation (present but attenuated in dgt) and confirm the presence of two phases during the gravitropic response, both of which are dependent on functional auxin transport.

  5. Auxin Transporters - Why So Many?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zažímalová, Eva; Murphy, A. S.; Yang, H.; Hoyerová, Klára; Hošek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-14 ISSN 1943-0264 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin transporters * auxin carriers * plant development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.371, year: 2010

  6. Auxin transport sites are visualized in planta using fluorescent auxin analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura, Shouichi; Fukunaga, Shiho; Nishimura, Takeshi; Jenness, Mark K.; Murphy, Angus S.; Motose, Hiroyasu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Furutani, Masahiko; Aoyama, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a key morphogenetic signal that controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Cellular auxin levels are coordinately regulated by multiple processes, including auxin biosynthesis and the polar transport and metabolic pathways. The auxin concentration gradient determines plant organ positioning and growth responses to environmental cues. Auxin transport systems play crucial roles in the spatiotemporal regulation of the auxin gradient. This auxin gradient has been analyzed using SCF-type E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex-based auxin biosensors in synthetic auxin-responsive reporter lines. However, the contributions of auxin biosynthesis and metabolism to the auxin gradient have been largely elusive. Additionally, the available information on subcellular auxin localization is still limited. Here we designed fluorescently labeled auxin analogs that remain active for auxin transport but are inactive for auxin signaling and metabolism. Fluorescent auxin analogs enable the selective visualization of the distribution of auxin by the auxin transport system. Together with auxin biosynthesis inhibitors and an auxin biosensor, these analogs indicated a substantial contribution of local auxin biosynthesis to the formation of auxin maxima at the root apex. Moreover, fluorescent auxin analogs mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in cultured cells and roots, implying the presence of a subcellular auxin gradient in the cells. Our work not only provides a useful tool for the plant chemical biology field but also demonstrates a new strategy for imaging the distribution of small-molecule hormones. PMID:25049419

  7. ER-localized auxin transporter PIN8 regulates auxin homeostasis and male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaojun; Wang, Bangjun; Moreno, Ignacio; Dupláková, Nikoleta; Simon, Sibu; Carraro, Nicola; Reemmer, Jesica; Pěnčík, Aleš; Chen, Xu; Tejos, Ricardo; Skůpa, Petr; Pollmann, Stephan; Mravec, Jozef; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Honys, David; Rolčík, Jakub; Murphy, Angus; Orellana, Ariel; Geisler, Markus; Friml, Jiří

    2012-07-03

    Auxin is a key coordinative signal required for many aspects of plant development and its levels are controlled by auxin metabolism and intercellular auxin transport. Here we find that a member of PIN auxin transporter family, PIN8 is expressed in male gametophyte of Arabidopsis thaliana and has a crucial role in pollen development and functionality. Ectopic expression in sporophytic tissues establishes a role of PIN8 in regulating auxin homoeostasis and metabolism. PIN8 co-localizes with PIN5 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it acts as an auxin transporter. Genetic analyses reveal an antagonistic action of PIN5 and PIN8 in the regulation of intracellular auxin homoeostasis and gametophyte as well as sporophyte development. Our results reveal a role of the auxin transport in male gametophyte development in which the distinct actions of ER-localized PIN transporters regulate cellular auxin homoeostasis and maintain the auxin levels optimal for pollen development and pollen tube growth.

  8. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  9. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  10. Maintenance of asymmetric cellular localization of an auxin transport protein through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein complex is controlled and the significance of this polar distribution. Experimental evidence suggests that asymmetries in the auxin efflux carrier may be established through localized secretion of Golgi vesicles, whereas an attachment of a subunit of the efflux carrier to the actin cytoskeleton may maintain this localization. In addition, the idea that this localization of the efflux carrier may control both the polarity of auxin movement and more globally regulate developmental polarity is explored. Finally, evidence indicating that the gravity vector controls auxin transport polarity is summarized and possible mechanisms for the environmentally induced changes in auxin transport polarity are discussed.

  11. Polar auxin transport: controlling where and how much

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; DeLong, A.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin is transported through plant tissues, moving from cell to cell in a unique polar manner. Polar auxin transport controls important growth and developmental processes in higher plants. Recent studies have identified several proteins that mediate polar auxin transport and have shown that some of these proteins are asymmetrically localized, paving the way for studies of the mechanisms that regulate auxin transport. New data indicate that reversible protein phosphorylation can control the amount of auxin transport, whereas protein secretion through Golgi-derived vesicles and interactions with the actin cytoskeleton might regulate the localization of auxin efflux complexes.

  12. Tomato root growth, gravitropism, and lateral development: correlation with auxin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Haworth, P.

    1994-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) roots were analyzed during growth on agar plates. Growth of these roots was inhibited by the auxin transport inhibitors naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and semicarbazone derivative I (SCB-1). The effect of auxin transport inhibitors on root gravitropism was analyzed by measurement of the angle of gravitropic curvature after the roots were reoriented 90 degrees from the vertical. NPA and SCB-1 abolished both the response of these roots to gravity and the formation of lateral roots, with SCB-1 being the more effective at inhibition. Auxins also inhibited root growth. Both auxins tested has a slight effect on the gravity response, but this effect is probably indirect, since auxins reduced the growth rate. Auxins also stimulated lateral root growth at concentration where primary root growth was inhibited. When roots were treated with both IAA and NPA simultaneously, a cumulative inhibition of root growth was found. When both compounds were applied together, analysis of gravitropism and lateral root formation indicated that the dominant effect was exerted by auxin transport inhibitors. Together, these data suggest a model for the role of auxin transport in controlling both primary and lateral root growth.

  13. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  14. Regulation of Auxin Transport by Phosphorylation and Flavonoids during Gravitropism in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, Gloria K.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research includes: 1) Regulation of Axin transport by flavonoids during gravitropism; 2) Phosphorylation control of auxin transport during gravity response; 3) Ethylene regulation of gravitropic curvature; 4) IBA transport and gravitropic response; and 5) Other collaborative projects.

  15. Basipetal auxin transport is required for gravitropism in roots of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, A. M.; Brady, S. R.; Reed, R. C.; Ante, S. J.; Muday, G. K.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Auxin transport has been reported to occur in two distinct polarities, acropetally and basipetally, in two different root tissues. The goals of this study were to determine whether both polarities of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport occur in roots of Arabidopsis and to determine which polarity controls the gravity response. Global application of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) to roots blocked the gravity response, root waving, and root elongation. Immediately after the application of NPA, the root gravity response was completely blocked, as measured by an automated video digitizer. Basipetal [(3)H]IAA transport in Arabidopsis roots was inhibited by NPA, whereas the movement of [(14)C]benzoic acid was not affected. Inhibition of basipetal IAA transport by local application of NPA blocked the gravity response. Inhibition of acropetal IAA transport by application of NPA at the root-shoot junction only partially reduced the gravity response at high NPA concentrations. Excised root tips, which do not receive auxin from the shoot, exhibited a normal response to gravity. The Arabidopsis mutant eir1, which has agravitropic roots, exhibited reduced basipetal IAA transport but wild-type levels of acropetal IAA transport. These results support the hypothesis that basipetally transported IAA controls root gravitropism in Arabidopsis.

  16. Molecular modeling of auxin transport inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, G.; Black-Schaefer, C.; Bures, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular modeling techniques have been used to study the chemical and steric properties of auxin transport inhibitors. These bind to a specific site on the plant plasma membrane characterized by its affinity for N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A three-dimensional model was derived from critical features of ligands for the NPA receptor, and a suggested binding conformation is proposed. This model, along with three-dimensional structural searching techniques, was then used to search the Abbott corporate database of chemical structures. Of the 467 compounds that satisfied the search criteria, 77 representative molecules were evaluated for their ability to compete for [ 3 H]NPA binding to corn microsomal membranes. Nineteen showed activity that ranged from 16 to 85% of the maximum NPA binding. Four of the most active of these, from chemical classes not included in the original compound set, also inhibited polar auxin transport through corn coleoptile sections

  17. Auxins and tropisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Differential growth of plants in response to the changes in the light and gravity vectors requires a complex signal transduction cascade. Although many of the details of the mechanisms by which these differential growth responses are induced are as yet unknown, auxin has been implicated in both gravitropism and phototropism. Specifically, the redistribution of auxin across gravity or light-stimulated tissues has been detected and shown to be required for this process. The approaches by which auxin has been implicated in tropisms include isolation of mutants altered in auxin transport or response with altered gravitropic or phototropic response, identification of auxin gradients with radiolabeled auxin and auxin-inducible gene reporter systems, and by use of inhibitors of auxin transport that block gravitropism and phototropism. Proteins that transport auxin have been identified and the mechanisms which determine auxin transport polarity have been explored. In addition, recent evidence that reversible protein phosphorylation controls this process is summarized. Finally, the data in support of several hypotheses for mechanisms by which auxin transport could be differentially regulated during gravitropism are examined. Although many details of the mechanisms by which plants respond to gravity and light are not yet clear, numerous recent studies demonstrate the role of auxin in these processes.

  18. A mutation in protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A affects auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, C.; DeLong, A.; Deruere, J.; Bernasconi, P.; Soll, D.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecular mechanism of auxin transport is not well understood. Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and other inhibitors of auxin transport block tropic curvature responses and inhibit root and shoot elongation. We have isolated a novel Arabidopsis thaliana mutant designated roots curl in NPA (rcn1). Mutant seedlings exhibit altered responses to NPA in root curling and hypocotyl elongation. Auxin efflux in mutant seedlings displays increased sensitivity to NPA. The rcn1 mutation was transferred-DNA (T-DNA) tagged and sequences flanking the T-DNA insert were cloned. Analysis of the RCN1 cDNA reveals that the T-DNA insertion disrupts a gene for the regulatory A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-A). The RCN1 gene rescues the rcn1 mutant phenotype and also complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PP2A-A mutation, tpd3-1. These data implicate protein phosphatase 2A in the regulation of auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

  19. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  20. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe, P.; Grigoriev, I.; Fischer, R.; Tominaga, M.; Robinson, D.G.; Hašek, J.; Paciorek, T.; Petrášek, J.; Seifertová, D.; Tejos, R.; Meisel, L.A.; Zažímalová, E.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Stierhof, Y.-D.; Ueda, T.; Oiwa, K.; Akhmanova, A.; Brock, R.; Spang, A.; Friml, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this

  1. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Dhonukshe (Pankaj); I. Grigoriev (Ilya); R. Fischer (Rainer); M. Tominaga (Motoki); D.G. Robinson (David); J. Hašek (Jiří); T. Paciorek (Tomasz); J. Petrášek (Jan); D. Seifertová (Daniela); R. Tejos (Ricardo); L.A. Meisel (Lee); E. Zažímalová (Eva); T.W.J. Gadella (Theodorus); Y.D. Stierhof; T. Ueda (Takashi); K. Oiwa (Kazuhiro); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); R. Brock (Roland); A. Spang (Anne); J. Friml (Jiří)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMany aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating

  2. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe, P.; Grigoriev, I.; Fischer, R.; Tominaga, M.; Robinson, D.G.; Hasek, J.; Paciorek, T.; Petrasek, J.; Seifertova, D.; Tejos, R.; Meisel, L.A.; Zazimalova, E.; Gadella, T.W.; Stierhof, Y.D.; Ueda, T.; Oiwa, K.; Akhmanova, A.; Brock, R.E.; Spang, A.; Friml, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this

  3. Extracellular ATP inhibits root gravitropism at concentrations that inhibit polar auxin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenqiang; Brady, Shari R.; Sun, Yu; Muday, Gloria K.; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Raising the level of extracellular ATP to mM concentrations similar to those found inside cells can block gravitropism of Arabidopsis roots. When plants are grown in Murashige and Skoog medium supplied with 1 mM ATP, their roots grow horizontally instead of growing straight down. Medium with 2 mM ATP induces root curling, and 3 mM ATP stimulates lateral root growth. When plants are transferred to medium containing exogenous ATP, the gravity response is reduced or in some cases completely blocked by ATP. Equivalent concentrations of ADP or inorganic phosphate have slight but usually statistically insignificant effects, suggesting the specificity of ATP in these responses. The ATP effects may be attributable to the disturbance of auxin distribution in roots by exogenously applied ATP, because extracellular ATP can alter the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression in DR5-beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants and increase the response sensitivity of plant roots to exogenously added auxin. The presence of extracellular ATP also decreases basipetal auxin transport in a dose-dependent fashion in both maize (Zea mays) and Arabidopsis roots and increases the retention of [(3)H]indole-3-acetic acid in root tips of maize. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibitory effects of extracellular ATP on auxin distribution may happen at the level of auxin export. The potential role of the trans-plasma membrane ATP gradient in auxin export and plant root gravitropism is discussed.

  4. PIN6 auxin transporter at endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane mediates auxin homeostasis and organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sibu; Skůpa, Petr; Viaene, Tom; Zwiewka, Marta; Tejos, Ricardo; Klíma, Petr; Čarná, Mária; Rolčík, Jakub; De Rycke, Riet; Moreno, Ignacio; Dobrev, Petre I; Orellana, Ariel; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, Jiří

    2016-07-01

    Plant development mediated by the phytohormone auxin depends on tightly controlled cellular auxin levels at its target tissue that are largely established by intercellular and intracellular auxin transport mediated by PIN auxin transporters. Among the eight members of the Arabidopsis PIN family, PIN6 is the least characterized candidate. In this study we generated functional, fluorescent protein-tagged PIN6 proteins and performed comprehensive analysis of their subcellular localization and also performed a detailed functional characterization of PIN6 and its developmental roles. The localization study of PIN6 revealed a dual localization at the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transport and metabolic profiling assays in cultured cells and Arabidopsis strongly suggest that PIN6 mediates both auxin transport across the PM and intracellular auxin homeostasis, including the regulation of free auxin and auxin conjugates levels. As evidenced by the loss- and gain-of-function analysis, the complex function of PIN6 in auxin transport and homeostasis is required for auxin distribution during lateral and adventitious root organogenesis and for progression of these developmental processes. These results illustrate a unique position of PIN6 within the family of PIN auxin transporters and further add complexity to the developmentally crucial process of auxin transport. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Auxin effects on ion transport in Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; de Boer, Albertus H; van Duijn, Bert

    2016-04-01

    The plant hormone auxin has been widely studied with regard to synthesis, transport, signaling and functions among the land plants while there is still a lack of knowledge about the possible role for auxin regulation mechanisms in algae with "plant-like" structures. Here we use the alga Chara corallina as a model to study aspects of auxin signaling. In this respect we measured auxin on membrane potential changes and different ion fluxes (K(+), H(+)) through the plasma membrane. Results showed that auxin, mainly IAA, could hyperpolarize the membrane potential of C. corallina internodal cells. Ion flux measurements showed that the auxin-induced membrane potential change may be based on the change of K(+) permeability and/or channel activity rather than through the activation of proton pumps as known in land plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying auxin transport of auxin: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin regulating growth, is transported polarly in plants. IAA stimulates a rapid increase in the rate of electrogenic proton secretion by the plasma membrane. This not only increases the magnitude of the pH and electrical gradients providing the driving force for polar auxin transport and uptake of sugars, amino acids and inorganic ions, but, by acidifying the cell wall, also leads to growth. We find that auxin uptake by membrane vesicles isolated from actively growing plant tissues exhibits some of the same properties as by cells: the accumulation depends on the pH gradient, is saturable and specific for auxin, and enhanced by herbicides that inhibit polar auxin transport. We are using accumulation of a radioactive weak acid to quantify the pH gradient and distribution of fluorescent cyanine dyes to monitor the membrane potential. The magnitude of IAA accumulation exceeds that predicted from the pH gradient, and in the absence of a pH gradient, a membrane potential fails to support any auxin accumulation, leading to the conclusion that the transmembrane potential is not a significant driving force for auxin accumulation in this system. Since increasing the external ionic strength decreases saturable auxin accumulation, we are investigating how modifying the surface potential of the vesicles affects the interaction of the amphipathic IAA molecules with the membranes and whether protein modifying reagents affect the saturability and stimulation by NPA. These studies should provide information on the location and function of the auxin binding site and may enable us to identify the solubilized protein. 5 refs

  7. Uptake of auxins into membrane vesicles isolated from pea stems: an in vitro auxin transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slone, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test the applicability of the chemiosmotic theory of auxin transport to a subcellular system. Membrane vesicles were isolated from the basal portion of the third internode of etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska) by differential centrifugation. Uptake of auxin was determined by adding 14 C-labeled indoleacetic acid (IAA) to vesicles. Nigericin, a monovalent cation ionophore, and the electrogenic protonophore, carbonyl-cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), at micromolar concentrations abolished saturable uptake. Bursting vesicles by sonication, osmotic shock and freeze/thawing also eliminated saturable uptake. As the temperature increased from 0 to 30 0 C, saturable uptake decreased markedly. Nonsaturable auxin uptake was less affected by these treatments. The pH gradient-dependent uptake of auxin appeared to be a transmembrane uptake of auxin into the vesicles rather than surface binding. Unlabeled IAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at low concentrations reduced the saturable accumulation of [ 14 C]IAA in vesicles, while phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, and 1-NAA were effective only at high concentrations. Kinetic analysis revealed two types of sites: a high affinity site with an uptake capacity of 25 to 40 pmoles/g tissue, and a low affinity site with an uptake capacity of 260 to 600 pmole/g tissue, fresh wt. In conclusion, several principal elements of an auxin transport system, as specific by the chemiosmotic theory of polar auxin transport, were present in membrane vesicles isolated from relatively mature pea stem tissue. However, one important aspect of the theory was not demonstrated in this in vitro system - a TIBA/NPA-sensitive auxin efflux. The kinetics and specificity of auxin uptake strongly suggested that this system was physiologically significant

  8. The Dynamics of Auxin Transport in Tobacco Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Morris, David

    special issue, - (2003), s. 207-224 ISSN 1310-4586 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Grant - others:INCO Copernicus(XE) ERBIC 15 CT98 0118 (to E.Z.) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Auxin carrier * Auxin transport * Brefeldin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  9. Gravity-stimulated changes in auxin and invertase gene expression in maize pulvinal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joanne C.; Zhao, Wei; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Muday, Gloria K.; Huber, Steven C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) stem gravitropism involves differential elongation of cells within a highly specialized region, the stem internodal pulvinus. In the present study, we investigated factors that control gravitropic responses in this system. In the graviresponding pulvinus, hexose sugars (D-Glc and D-Fru) accumulated asymmetrically across the pulvinus. This correlated well with an asymmetric increase in acid invertase activity across the pulvinus. Northern analyses revealed asymmetric induction of one maize acid invertase gene, Ivr2, consistent with transcriptional regulation by gravistimulation. Several lines of evidence indicated that auxin redistribution, as a result of polar auxin transport, is necessary for gravity-stimulated Ivr2 transcript accumulation and differential cell elongation across the maize pulvinus. First, the auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, inhibited gravistimulated curvature and Ivr2 transcript accumulation. Second, a transient gradient of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) across the pulvinus was apparent shortly after initiation of gravistimulation. This temporarily free IAA gradient appears to be important for differential cell elongation and Ivr2 transcript accumulation. This is based on the observation that N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid will not inhibit gravitropic responses when applied to pulvinus tissue after the free IAA gradient peak has occurred. Third, IAA alone can stimulate Ivr2 transcript accumulation in non-gravistimulated pulvini. The gravity- and IAA-stimulated increase in Ivr2 transcripts was sensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Based on these results, a two-phase model describing possible relationships between gravitropic curvature, IAA redistribution, and Ivr2 expression is presented.

  10. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, Pavel; Skupa, Petr; Libus, Jirí; Naramoto, Satoshi; Tejos, Ricardo; Friml, Jirí; Zazímalová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies.

  11. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Contents 545 I. 545 II. 546 III. 546 IV. 548 V. 548 VI. 549 VII. 549 Acknowledgements 549 References 549 SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Protein ubiquitination in auxin signaling and transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Maraschin, Felipe dos

    2009-01-01

    What makes plant shoots grow towards the light, and plant roots grow down into the soil? This was a question that Charles Darwin asked himself, and his experiments more than a century ago to find the answer laid the basis for the identification of the growth hormone auxin. Auxin, or indole-3-acetic

  13. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křeček, Pavel; Skůpa, Petr; Libus, Jiří; Naramoto, S.; Tejos, R.; Friml, J.; Zažímalová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2009), s. 249.1-249.11 ISSN 1474-760X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB600380904; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601630703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PIN protein family * auxin efflux carriers * auxin transport Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.626, year: 2009

  14. Polar transport in plants mediated by membrane transporters: focus on mechanisms of polar auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naramoto, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    Directional cell-to-cell transport of functional molecules, called polar transport, enables plants to sense and respond to developmental and environmental signals. Transporters that localize to plasma membranes (PMs) in a polar manner are key components of these systems. PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers, which are the most studied polar-localized PM proteins, are implicated in the polar transport of auxin that in turn regulates plant development and tropic growth. In this review, the regulatory mechanisms underlying polar localization of PINs, control of auxin efflux activity, and PIN abundance at PMs are considered. Up to date information on polar-localized nutrient transporters that regulate directional nutrient movement from soil into the root vasculature is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of auxin transport inhibitors on gibberellins in pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA), and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on gibberellins (GAs) in the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied. Application of these compounds to elongating internodes of intact wild type plants reduced markedly the endogenous level of the bioactive gibberellin A1. (GA1) below the application site. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were also reduced, as was internode elongation. The auxin transport inhibitors did not affect the level of endogenous GA1 above the application site markedly, nor that of GA1 precursors above or below it. When plants were treated with [13C,3H]GA20, TIBA reduced dramatically the level of [13C,3H]GA1 recovered below the TIBA application site. The internodes treated with auxin transport inhibitors appeared to be still in the phase where endogenous GA1 affects elongation, as indicated by the strong response to applied GA1 by internodes of a GA1-deficient line at the same stage of expansion. On the basis of the present results it is suggested that caution be exercised when attributing the developmental effects of auxin transport inhibitors to changes in IAA level alone

  16. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  17. GA(3) enhances root responsiveness to exogenous IAA by modulating auxin transport and signalling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijun; Zhu, Changhua; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2015-03-01

    We used auxin-signalling mutants, auxin transport mutants, and auxin-related marker lines to show that exogenously applied GA enhances auxin-induced root inhibition by affecting auxin signalling and transport. Variation in root elongation is valuable when studying the interactions of phytohormones. Auxins influence the biosynthesis and signalling of gibberellins (GAs), but the influence of GAs on auxins in root elongation is poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GA3 on Arabidopsis root elongation in the presence of auxin. Root elongation was inhibited in roots treated with both IAA and GA3, compared to IAA alone, and the effect was dose dependent. Further experiments showed that GA3 could modulate auxin signalling based on root elongation in auxin-signalling mutants and the expression of auxin-responsive reporters. The GA3-enhanced inhibition of root elongation observed in the wild type was not found in the auxin-signalling mutants tir1-1 and axr1-3. GA3 increased DR5::GUS expression in the root meristem and elongation zones, and IAA2::GUS in the columella. The DR5rev::GFP signal was enhanced in columella cells of the root caps and in the elongation zone in GA3-treated seedling roots. A reduction was observed in the stele of PAC-treated roots. We also examined the effect of GA3 on auxin transport. The enhanced responsiveness caused by GA3 was not observed in the auxin influx mutant aux1-7 or the efflux mutant eir1-1. Additional molecular data demonstrated that GA3 could promote auxin transport via AUX1 and PIN proteins. However, GA3-induced PIN gene expression did not fully explain GA-enhanced PIN protein accumulation. These results suggest that GA3 is involved in auxin-mediated primary root elongation by modulating auxin signalling and transport, and thus enhances root responsiveness to exogenous IAA.

  18. Strigolactone Inhibition of Branching Independent of Polar Auxin Transport1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael G.; Beveridge, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    The outgrowth of axillary buds into branches is regulated systemically via plant hormones and the demand of growing shoot tips for sugars. The plant hormone auxin is thought to act via two mechanisms. One mechanism involves auxin regulation of systemic signals, cytokinins and strigolactones, which can move into axillary buds. The other involves suppression of auxin transport/canalization from axillary buds into the main stem and is enhanced by a low sink for auxin in the stem. In this theory, the relative ability of the buds and stem to transport auxin controls bud outgrowth. Here, we evaluate whether auxin transport is required or regulated during bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum). The profound, systemic, and long-term effects of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid had very little inhibitory effect on bud outgrowth in strigolactone-deficient mutants. Strigolactones can also inhibit bud outgrowth in N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid-treated shoots that have greatly diminished auxin transport. Moreover, strigolactones can inhibit bud outgrowth despite a much diminished auxin supply in in vitro or decapitated plants. These findings demonstrate that auxin sink strength in the stem is not important for bud outgrowth in pea. Consistent with alternative mechanisms of auxin regulation of systemic signals, enhanced auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can suppress branching in yucca1D plants compared with wild-type plants, but has no effect on bud outgrowth in a strigolactone-deficient mutant background. PMID:26111543

  19. The exocyst complex contributes to PIN auxin efflux carrier recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdová, Edita; Synek, Lukáš; Pečenková, Tamara; Hála, Michal; Kulich, I.; Fowler, J.E.; Murphy, A.S.; Žárský, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2013), s. 709-719 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P853; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/1629; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB600380802 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME10033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : exocyst * polar auxin transport * PIN recycling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.815, year: 2013

  20. GNOM regulates root hydrotropism and phototropism independently of PIN-mediated auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Teppei; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Fujii, Nobuharu; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2014-02-01

    Plant roots exhibit tropisms in response to gravity, unilateral light and moisture gradients. During gravitropism, an auxin gradient is established by PIN auxin transporters, leading to asymmetric growth. GNOM, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of ARF GTPase (ARF-GEF), regulates PIN localization by regulating subcellular trafficking of PINs. Therefore, GNOM is important for gravitropism. We previously isolated mizu-kussei2 (miz2), which lacks hydrotropic responses; MIZ2 is allelic to GNOM. Since PIN proteins are not required for root hydrotropism in Arabidopsis, the role of GNOM in root hydrotropism should differ from that in gravitropism. To examine this possibility, we conducted genetic analysis of gnom(miz2) and gnom trans-heterozygotes. The mutant gnom(miz2), which lacks hydrotropic responses, was partially recovered by gnom(emb30-1), which lacks GEF activity, but not by gnom(B4049), which lacks heterotypic domain interactions. Furthermore, the phototropic response of gnom trans-heterozygotes differed from that of the pin2 mutant allele eir1-1. Moreover, defects in the polarities of PIN2 and auxin distribution in a severe gnom mutant were recovered by gnom(miz2). Therefore, an unknown GNOM-mediated vesicle trafficking system may mediate root hydrotropism and phototropism independently of PIN trafficking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Auxin transport at cellular level: new insights supported by mathematical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hošek, Petr; Kubeš, Martin; Laňková, Martina; Dobrev, Petre I.; Klíma, Petr; Kohoutová, Milada; Petrášek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára; Jiřina, Marcel; Zažímalová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis of cellular auxin transport is still not fully understood. Although a number of carriers have been identified and proved to be involved in auxin transport, their regulation and possible activity of as yet unknown transporters remain unclear. Nevertheless, using single-cell-based systems it is possible to track the course of auxin accumulation inside cells and to specify and quantify some auxin transport parameters. The synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA) are generally considered to be suitable tools for auxin transport studies because they are transported specifically via either auxin influx or efflux carriers, respectively. Our results indicate that NAA can be metabolized rapidly in tobacco BY-2 cells. The predominant metabolite has been identified as NAA glucosyl ester and it is shown that all NAA metabolites were retained inside the cells. This implies that the transport efficiency of auxin efflux transporters is higher than previously assumed. By contrast, the metabolism of 2,4-D remained fairly weak. Moreover, using data on the accumulation of 2,4-D measured in the presence of auxin transport inhibitors, it is shown that 2,4-D is also transported by efflux carriers. These results suggest that 2,4-D is a promising tool for determining both auxin influx and efflux activities. Based on the accumulation data, a mathematical model of 2,4-D transport at a single-cell level is proposed. Optimization of the model provides estimates of crucial transport parameters and, together with its validation by successfully predicting the course of 2,4-D accumulation, it confirms the consistency of the present concept of cellular auxin transport. PMID:22438304

  2. Auxin transport at cellular level: new insights supported by mathematical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Petr; Kubes, Martin; Lanková, Martina; Dobrev, Petre I; Klíma, Petr; Kohoutová, Milada; Petrásek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára; Jirina, Marcel; Zazímalová, Eva

    2012-06-01

    The molecular basis of cellular auxin transport is still not fully understood. Although a number of carriers have been identified and proved to be involved in auxin transport, their regulation and possible activity of as yet unknown transporters remain unclear. Nevertheless, using single-cell-based systems it is possible to track the course of auxin accumulation inside cells and to specify and quantify some auxin transport parameters. The synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA) are generally considered to be suitable tools for auxin transport studies because they are transported specifically via either auxin influx or efflux carriers, respectively. Our results indicate that NAA can be metabolized rapidly in tobacco BY-2 cells. The predominant metabolite has been identified as NAA glucosyl ester and it is shown that all NAA metabolites were retained inside the cells. This implies that the transport efficiency of auxin efflux transporters is higher than previously assumed. By contrast, the metabolism of 2,4-D remained fairly weak. Moreover, using data on the accumulation of 2,4-D measured in the presence of auxin transport inhibitors, it is shown that 2,4-D is also transported by efflux carriers. These results suggest that 2,4-D is a promising tool for determining both auxin influx and efflux activities. Based on the accumulation data, a mathematical model of 2,4-D transport at a single-cell level is proposed. Optimization of the model provides estimates of crucial transport parameters and, together with its validation by successfully predicting the course of 2,4-D accumulation, it confirms the consistency of the present concept of cellular auxin transport.

  3. Auxin transport at cellular level: new insights supported by mathematical modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Petr; Kubeš, Martin; Laňková, Martina; Dobrev, Petre; Klíma, Petr; Kohoutová, M.; Petrášek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára; Jiřina, M.; Zažímalová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2012), s. 3815-3827 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin metabolism * auxin transport * auxin transport inhibitors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.242, year: 2012

  4. Acropetal Auxin Transport Inhibition Is Involved in Indeterminate But Not Determinate Nodule Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. P. Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes enter into a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, leading to nodule development. Two main types of nodules have been widely studied, indeterminate and determinate, which differ in the location of the first cell division in the root cortex, and persistency of the nodule meristem. Here, we compared the control of auxin transport, content, and response during the early stages of indeterminate and determinate nodule development in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, respectively, to investigate whether differences in auxin transport control could explain the differences in the location of cortical cell divisions. While auxin responses were activated in dividing cortical cells during nodulation of both nodule types, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid content at the nodule initiation site was transiently increased in M. truncatula, but transiently reduced in L. japonicus. Root acropetal auxin transport was reduced in M. truncatula at the very start of nodule initiation, in contrast to a prolonged increase in acropetal auxin transport in L. japonicus. The auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA only induced pseudonodules in legume species forming indeterminate nodules, but failed to elicit such structures in a range of species forming determinate nodules. The development of these pseudonodules in M. truncatula exhibited increased auxin responses in a small primordium formed from the pericycle, endodermis, and inner cortex, similar to rhizobia-induced nodule primordia. In contrast, a diffuse cortical auxin response and no associated cortical cell divisions were found in L. japonicus. Collectively, we hypothesize that a step of acropetal auxin transport inhibition is unique to the process of indeterminate nodule development, leading to auxin responses in pericycle, endodermis, and inner cortex cells, while increased auxin responses in outer cortex cells likely

  5. Convergent evolution of shoots in land plants: lack of auxin polar transport in moss shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tomomichi; Sakaguchi, Hisako; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Wagstaff, Steven J; Ito, Motomi; Deguchi, Hironori; Sato, Toshiyuki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2008-01-01

    The shoot is a repeated structure made up of stems and leaves and is the basic body plan in land plants. Vascular plants form a shoot in the diploid generation, whereas nonvascular plants such as mosses form a shoot in the haploid generation. It is not clear whether all land plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development or how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved. The control of auxin distribution, especially by polar auxin transport, is essential for shoot development in flowering plants. We did not detect polar auxin transport in the gametophytic shoots of several mosses, but did detect it in the sporophytes of mosses without shoot structure. Treatment with auxin transport inhibitors resulted in abnormal embryo development, as in flowering plants, but did not cause any morphological changes in the haploid shoots. We fused the soybean auxin-inducible promoter GH3 with a GUS reporter gene and used it to indirectly detect auxin distribution in the moss Physcomitrella patens. An auxin transport inhibitor NPA did not cause any changes in the putative distribution of auxin in the haploid shoot. These results indicate that polar auxin transport is not involved in haploid shoot development in mosses and that shoots in vascular plants and mosses are most likely regulated differently during development.

  6. Auxin response, but not its polar transport, plays a role in hydrotropism of Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyasu, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Akie; Nakayama, Mayumi; Fujii, Nobuharu; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Miyazawa, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Plants are sessile in nature, and need to detect and respond to many environmental cues in order to regulate their growth and orientation. Indeed, plants sense numerous environmental cues and respond via appropriate tropisms, and it is widely accepted that auxin plays an important role in these responses. Recent analyses using Arabidopsis have emphasized the importance of polar auxin transport and differential auxin responses to gravitropism. Even so, the involvement of auxin in hydrotropism remains unclear. To clarify whether or not auxin is involved in the hydrotropic response, Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with inhibitors of auxin influx (3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid), efflux (1-naphthylphthalemic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid), and response (p-chlorophenoxyisobutylacetic acid), and their effects were examined on both hydrotropic and gravitropic responses. In agreement with previous reports, gravitropism was inhibited by all the chemicals tested. By contrast, only an inhibitor of the auxin response (p-chlorophenoxyisobutylacetic acid) reduced hydrotropism, whereas inhibitors for influx or efflux of auxin had no effect. These results suggest that auxin response, apart from its polar transport, plays a definite role in hydrotropic response, and will evoke a new concept for the auxin-mediated regulation of tropisms.

  7. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Ge, Pei; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  8. Systems Analysis of Auxin Transport in the Arabidopsis Root Apex[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Leah R.; Wells, Darren M.; Fozard, John A.; Ghetiu, Teodor; French, Andrew P.; Pound, Michael P.; Wilson, Michael H.; Yu, Lei; Li, Wenda; Hijazi, Hussein I.; Oh, Jaesung; Pearce, Simon P.; Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Yun, Jeonga; Kramer, Eric; Alonso, Jose M.; Godin, Christophe; Vernoux, Teva; Hodgman, T. Charlie; Pridmore, Tony P.; Swarup, Ranjan; King, John R.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Within the root tip, auxin distribution plays a crucial role specifying developmental zones and coordinating tropic responses. Determining how the organ-scale auxin pattern is regulated at the cellular scale is essential to understanding how these processes are controlled. In this study, we developed an auxin transport model based on actual root cell geometries and carrier subcellular localizations. We tested model predictions using the DII-VENUS auxin sensor in conjunction with state-of-the-art segmentation tools. Our study revealed that auxin efflux carriers alone cannot create the pattern of auxin distribution at the root tip and that AUX1/LAX influx carriers are also required. We observed that AUX1 in lateral root cap (LRC) and elongating epidermal cells greatly enhance auxin’s shootward flux, with this flux being predominantly through the LRC, entering the epidermal cells only as they enter the elongation zone. We conclude that the nonpolar AUX1/LAX influx carriers control which tissues have high auxin levels, whereas the polar PIN carriers control the direction of auxin transport within these tissues. PMID:24632533

  9. Calcium- and BTB domain protein-modulated PINOID kinase directs polar auxin transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert-Boisivon, Hélène S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant architecture is determined by tightly regulated developmental processes that largely depend on the action of the plant hormone auxin. A major determinant in auxin action, besides its signaling pathway, is its polar cell-to-cell transport (PAT) throughout the plant. The direction on this

  10. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G; Hasek, Jirí; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrásek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A; Zazímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jirí

    2008-03-18

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role.

  11. The microtubule cytoskeleton does not integrate auxin transport and gravitropism in maize roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Lee, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Cholodny-Went hypothesis of gravitropism suggests that the graviresponse is controlled by the distribution of auxin. However, the mechanism of auxin transport during the graviresponse of roots is still unresolved. To determine whether the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is participating in auxin transport, the cytoskeleton was examined and the movement of 3H-IAA measured in intact and excised taxol, oryzalin, and naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-treated roots of Zea mays cv. Merit. Taxol and oryzalin did not inhibit the graviresponse of roots but the auxin transport inhibitor NPA greatly inhibited both auxin transport and graviresponse. NPA had no effect on MT organization in vertical roots, but caused MT reorientation in horizontally placed roots. Regardless of treatment, the organization of MTs in intact roots differed from that in root segments. The MT inhibitors, taxol and oryzalin had opposite effects on the MTs, namely, depolymerization (oryzalin) and stabilization and thickening (taxol), but both treatments caused swelling of the roots. The data indicate that the MT cytoskeleton does not directly interfere with auxin transport or auxin-mediated growth responses in maize roots.

  12. Identification of the cells involved in auxin transport in maize mesocotyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify by a direct method the cells involved in auxin transport through maize mesocotyl tissue. The auxin photoaffinity labeling agent, 7-[ 3 H], 5-azidoindole 3-acetic acid (N 3 IAA), was loaded into excised stem tissue from a cut end. Polar transport of this analog was demonstrated over 4 hours by comparing uptake into tissue loaded with N 3 IAA from the apical vs. the basal end. Triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, inhibited N 3 IAA uptake into tissue. Tissue which had taken up the photoaffinity labeling agent was photolyzed to covalently fix the radioisotope within cells. This tissue was sectioned and subjected to in situ autoradiography. The outermost cell of epidermal tissue and certain files of cells in vascular tissue were densely labeled indicating that on a per cell basis these two cell types are most actively transporting auxin

  13. OsABCB14 functions in auxin transport and iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanxia; Zhang, Saina; Guo, Haipeng; Wang, Suikang; Xu, Ligen; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Chen, Fan; Geisler, Markus; Qi, Yanhua; Jiang, De An

    2014-07-01

    Members of the ATP Binding Cassette B/Multidrug-Resistance/P-glyco-protein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) subfamily were shown to function primarily in Oryza sativa (rice) auxin transport; however, none of the rice ABCB transporters have been functionally characterized. Here, we describe that a knock-down of OsABCB14 confers decreased auxin concentrations and polar auxin transport rates, conferring insensitivity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). OsABCB14 displays enhanced specific auxin influx activity in yeast and protoplasts prepared from rice knock-down alleles. OsABCB14 is localized at the plasma membrane, pointing to an important directionality under physiological conditions. osabcb14 mutants were surprisingly found to be insensitive to iron deficiency treatment (-Fe). Their Fe concentration is higher and upregulation of Fe deficiency-responsive genes is lower in osabcb14 mutants than in wild-type rice (Nipponbare, NIP). Taken together, our results strongly support the role of OsABCB14 as an auxin influx transporter involved in Fe homeostasis. The functional characterization of OsABCB14 provides insights in monocot auxin transport and its relationship to Fe nutrition. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T.; Hocart, Charles H.; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation. PMID:26253705

  15. Overexpression of the Auxin Binding PROTEIN1 Modulates PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport in Tobacco Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čovanová, Milada; Sauer, M.; Rychtář, J.; Friml, J.; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797; GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/12/P951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ZEA-MAYS-L * PLANT HORMONE AUXIN * MEMBRANE H+- ATPASE Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  16. Brassinosteroids stimulate plant tropisms through modulation of polar auxin transport in Brassica and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2005-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important plant growth regulators in multiple developmental processes. Previous studies have indicated that BR treatment enhanced auxin-related responses, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using (14)C-labeled indole-3-acetic acid and Arabidopsis thaliana plants harboring an auxin-responsive reporter construct, we show that the BR brassinolide (BL) stimulates polar auxin transport capacities and modifies the distribution of endogenous auxin. In plants treated with BL or defective in BR biosynthesis or signaling, the transcription of PIN genes, which facilitate functional auxin transport in plants, was differentially regulated. In addition, BL enhanced plant tropistic responses by promoting the accumulation of the PIN2 protein from the root tip to the elongation zone and stimulating the expression and dispersed localization of ROP2 during tropistic responses. Constitutive overexpression of ROP2 results in enhanced polar accumulation of PIN2 protein in the root elongation region and increased gravitropism, which is significantly affected by latrunculin B, an inhibitor of F-actin assembly. The ROP2 dominant negative mutants (35S-ROP2-DA/DN) show delayed tropistic responses, and this delay cannot be reversed by BL addition, strongly supporting the idea that ROP2 modulates the functional localization of PIN2 through regulation of the assembly/reassembly of F-actins, thereby mediating the BR effects on polar auxin transport and tropistic responses.

  17. A Critical View on ABC Transporters and Their Interacting Partners in Auxin Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Markus; Aryal, Bibek; di Donato, Martin; Hao, Pengchao

    2017-10-01

    Different subclasses of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been implicated in the transport of native variants of the phytohormone auxin. Here, the putative, individual roles of key members belonging to the ABCB, ABCD and ABCG families, respectively, are highlighted and the knowledge of their assumed expression and transport routes is reviewed and compared with their mutant phenotypes. Protein-protein interactions between ABC transporters and regulatory components during auxin transport are summarized and their importance is critically discussed. There is a focus on the functional interaction between members of the ABCB family and the FKBP42, TWISTED DWARF1, acting as a chaperone during plasma membrane trafficking of ABCBs. Further, the mode and relevance of functional ABCB-PIN interactions is diagnostically re-evaluated. A new nomenclature describing precisely the most likely ABCB-PIN interaction scenarios is suggested. Finally, available tools for the detection and prediction of ABC transporter interactomes are summarized and the potential of future ABC transporter interactome maps is highlighted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of the soybean (Glycine max GmLAX auxin transporter gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin eChai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in regulation of plant growth and development as well as plant responses to abiotic stresses. This is mainly achieved through its uneven distribution in plants via a polar auxin transport process. Auxin transporters are major players in polar auxin transport. The AUXIN RESISTANT 1 ⁄ LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX auxin influx carriers belong to the amino acid permease family of proton-driven transporters and function in the uptake of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. In this study, genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the soybean AUX⁄LAX (GmLAX gene family, including phylogenic relationships, chromosome localization, and gene structure, were carried out. A total of 15 GmLAX genes, including seven duplicated gene pairs, were identified in the soybean genome. They were distributed on 10 chromosomes. Despite their higher percentage identities at the protein level, GmLAXs exhibited versatile tissue-specific expression patterns, indicating coordinated functioning during plant growth and development. Most GmLAXs were responsive to drought and dehydration stresses and auxin and abscisic acid (ABA stimuli, in a tissue- and/or time point- sensitive mode. Several GmLAX members were involved in responding to salt stress. Sequence analysis revealed that promoters of GmLAXs contained different combinations of stress-related cis-regulatory elements. These studies suggest that the soybean GmLAXs were under control of a very complex regulatory network, responding to various internal and external signals. This study helps to identity candidate GmLAXs for further analysis of their roles in soybean development and adaption to adverse environments.

  19. Action of Abscisic Acid on Auxin Transport and its Relation to Phototropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqvi, S. M.; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    The action of abscisic acid on the kinetics of auxin transport through Zea mays L. (cv. Goudster) coleoptiles has been investigated. Abscisic acid applied simultaneously with indoleacetic acid-2-14C in the donor block reduced the transport intensity without materially affecting the basipetal...

  20. Excessive Cellular S-nitrosothiol Impairs Endocytosis of Auxin Efflux Transporter PIN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1 is the key enzyme that regulates cellular levels of S-nitrosylation across kingdoms. We have previously reported that loss of GSNOR1 resulted in impaired auxin signaling and compromised auxin transport in Arabidopsis, leading to the auxin-related morphological phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the compromised auxin transport in gsnor1-3 mutant is still unknown. Endocytosis of plasma-membrane (PM-localized efflux PIN proteins play critical roles in auxin transport. Therefore, we investigate whether loss of GSNOR1 function has any effects on the endocytosis of PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins. It was found that the endocytosis of either the endogenous PIN2 or the transgenically expressed PIN2-GFP was compromised in the root cells of gsnor1-3 seedlings relative to Col-0. The internalization of PM-associated PIN2 or PIN2-GFP into Brefeldin A (BFA bodies was significantly reduced in gsnor1-3 upon BFA treatment in a manner independent of de novo protein synthesis. In addition, the exogenously applied GSNO not only compromised the endocytosis of PIN2-GFP but also inhibited the root elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that, besides the reduced PIN2 level, one or more compromised components in the endocytosis pathway could account for the reduced endocytosis of PIN2 in gsnor1-3.

  1. Transport of the Two Natural Auxins, Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid, in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins. PMID:14526119

  2. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  3. Model of polar auxin transport coupled to mechanical forces retrieves robust morphogenesis along the Arabidopsis root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Arias, J. Roberto; Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Benítez, Mariana; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2017-03-01

    Stem cells are identical in many scales, they share the same molecular composition, DNA, genes, and genetic networks, yet they should acquire different properties to form a functional tissue. Therefore, they must interact and get some external information from their environment, either spatial (dynamical fields) or temporal (lineage). In this paper we test to what extent coupled chemical and physical fields can underlie the cell's positional information during development. We choose the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana to model the emergence of cellular patterns. We built a model to study the dynamics and interactions between the cell divisions, the local auxin concentration, and physical elastic fields. Our model recovers important aspects of the self-organized and resilient behavior of the observed cellular patterns in the Arabidopsis root, in particular, the reverse fountain pattern observed in the auxin transport, the PIN-FORMED (protein family of auxin transporters) polarization pattern and the accumulation of auxin near the region of maximum curvature in a bent root. Our model may be extended to predict altered cellular patterns that are expected under various applied auxin treatments or modified physical growth conditions.

  4. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  5. Interaction of PIN and PGP transport mechanisms in auxin distribution-dependent development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mravec, J.; Kubeš, Martin; Bielach, A.; Gaykova, V.; Petrášek, Jan; Skůpa, Petr; Chand, S.; Benková, E.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 20 (2008), s. 3345-3354 ISSN 0950-1991 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB600380604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PGP * PIN * Auxin transport * Embryogenesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 6.812, year: 2008

  6. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  7. Auxin uptake, transport and accumulation in relation to rooting and ageing of mung bean cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, B.C.; Shaheed, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The rooting response of mung bean cuttings (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. cv. Berkin) to indoleacetic acid (IAA) progressively declined when they were aged in water prior to auxin treatment. With increased duration of the ageing period the uptake of basally-supplied auxin by cuttings decreased. This correlated with diminished transpiration. Notwithstanding this decline in the uptake of IAA, a decreasing proportion of the acquired auxin was transported acropetally out of the hypocotyl with increasing age of the cuttings. Recovery of 14 C from cuttings 24 h after the foliar application of 14 C-IAA declined with increasing age of the cuttings. Furthermore, the total amount of radioactivity recovered in the hypocotyl diminished as a function of the increasing age of cuttings, as did the proportion of radioactivity located in the hypocotyl. (author)

  8. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Lucia C.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development. PMID:23580748

  9. Evidence for regulation of polar auxin transport at the efflux carrier in maize coleoptile sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Previously we have shown that conditions which result in an increased auxin-induced growth response in maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile sections also result in a decrease in the velocity of polar auxin transport. Coleoptile sections given conditions which result in slower transport of IAA have different kinetics for net IAA accumulation compared to sections given conditions which result in faster transport. In further experiments, sections were loaded with 30 nM ( 3 H)IAA in the presence of increasing unlabeled IAA at low pH. Efflux of ( 3 H)IAA was then followed as a function of unlabeled IAA. Saturation of efflux appears to occur at a lower conc. of IAA in sections showing slower transport

  10. The Shape of an Auxin Pulse, and What It Tells Us about the Transport Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Mitchison

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Auxin underlies many processes in plant development and physiology, and this makes it of prime importance to understand its movements through plant tissues. In stems and coleoptiles, classic experiments showed that the peak region of a pulse of radio-labelled auxin moves at a roughly constant velocity down a stem or coleoptile segment. As the pulse moves it becomes broader, at a roughly constant rate. It is shown here that this 'spreading rate' is larger than can be accounted for by a single channel model, but can be explained by coupling of channels with differing polar transport rates. An extreme case is where strongly polar channels are coupled to completely apolar channels, in which case auxin in the apolar part is 'dragged along' by the polar part in a somewhat diffuse distribution. The behaviour of this model is explored, together with others that can account for the experimentally observed spreading rates. It is also shown that saturation of carriers involved in lateral transport can explain the characteristic shape of pulses that result from uptake of large amounts of auxin.

  11. Arabidopsis WAT1 is a vacuolar auxin transport facilitator required for auxin homoeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ranocha, P.; Dima, O.; Nagy, R.; Novák, Ondřej; Goffner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2013 (2013) ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BINDING PROTEIN-1 * POLAR TRANSPORT * PLANTS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 10.742, year: 2013

  12. Disruption of the polar auxin transport system in cotton seedlings following treatment with the defoliant thidiazuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttle, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (TDZ) on basipetal auxin transport in petiole segments isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102) seedlings was examined using the donor/receiver agar block technique. Treatment of intact seedlings with TDZ at concentrations of 1 micromolar or greater resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of 14 C-IAA transport in petiole segment isolated 1 or 2 days after treatment. Using 100 micromolar TDZ, the inhibition was detectable 19 hours after treatment and was complete by 27 hours. Both leaves and petiole segments exhibited a marked increase in ethylene production following treatment with TDZ at concentrations of 0.1 micromolar or greater. The involvement of ethylene in this TDA response was evaluated by examining the effects of two inhibitors of ethylene action: silver thiosulfate, 2,5-norbornadiene. One day after treatment, both inhibitors effectively antagonized the TDZ-induced inhibition of auxin transport. Two days after TDZ treatment both inhibitors were ineffective. The decrease in IAA transport in TDZ treated tissues was associated with increased metabolism of IAA. The transport of 14 C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was also inhibited by TDZ treatment. This inhibition was not accompanied by increased metabolism. Incorporation of TDZ into the receiver blocks had no effect on auxin transport. The ability of the phytotropin N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to stimulate IAA uptake from a bathing medium was reduced in TDZ-treated tissues. This reduction is thought to reflect a decline in the auxin efflux system following TDZ treatment

  13. Convergences and divergences in polar auxin transport and shoot development in land plant evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Tomomichi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2009-01-01

    A shoot is a reiterated structure consisting of stems and leaves and is the prevailing body plan in most land plant lineages. Vascular plants form shoots in the diploid generation, whereas mosses do so in the haploid generation.1 However, whether these plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development and how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved is not clear. In our recent paper,2 we examined polar auxin transport in several mosses, which is essential for shoot develo...

  14. Enquiry into the Topology of Plasma Membrane-Localized PIN Auxin Transport Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodzyński, Tomasz; Vanneste, Steffen; Zwiewka, Marta; Pernisová, Markéta; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří

    2016-11-07

    Auxin directs plant ontogenesis via differential accumulation within tissues depending largely on the activity of PIN proteins that mediate auxin efflux from cells and its directional cell-to-cell transport. Regardless of the developmental importance of PINs, the structure of these transporters is poorly characterized. Here, we present experimental data concerning protein topology of plasma membrane-localized PINs. Utilizing approaches based on pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent reporters combined with immunolocalization techniques, we mapped the membrane topology of PINs and further cross-validated our results using available topology modeling software. We delineated the topology of PIN1 with two transmembrane (TM) bundles of five α-helices linked by a large intracellular loop and a C-terminus positioned outside the cytoplasm. Using constraints derived from our experimental data, we also provide an updated position of helical regions generating a verisimilitude model of PIN1. Since the canonical long PINs show a high degree of conservation in TM domains and auxin transport capacity has been demonstrated for Arabidopsis representatives of this group, this empirically enhanced topological model of PIN1 will be an important starting point for further studies on PIN structure-function relationships. In addition, we have established protocols that can be used to probe the topology of other plasma membrane proteins in plants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Action of Abscisic Acid on Auxin Transport and its Relation to Phototropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqvi, S. M.; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    The action of abscisic acid on the kinetics of auxin transport through Zea mays L. (cv. Goudster) coleoptiles has been investigated. Abscisic acid applied simultaneously with indoleacetic acid-2-14C in the donor block reduced the transport intensity without materially affecting the basipetal...... velocity or the uptake. No effect on acropetal transport was observed. The data have been used to discuss the similarities in effects of abscisic acid and visible radiation and a hypothesis is proposed to explain the phenomena of phototropism....

  16. Perturbation of auxin homeostasis by overexpression of wild-type IAA15 results in impaired stem cell differentiation and gravitropism in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Da-Wei; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Hong, Li-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Aux/IAAs interact with auxin response factors (ARFs) to repress their transcriptional activity in the auxin signaling pathway. Previous studies have focused on gain-of-function mutations of domain II and little is known about whether the expression level of wild-type Aux/IAAs can modulate auxin homeostasis. Here we examined the perturbation of auxin homeostasis by ectopic expression of wild-type IAA15. Root gravitropism and stem cell differentiation were also analyzed. The transgenic lines were less sensitive to exogenous auxin and exhibited low-auxin phenotypes including failures in gravity response and defects in stem cell differentiation. Overexpression lines also showed an increase in auxin concentration and reduced polar auxin transport. These results demonstrate that an alteration in the expression of wild-type IAA15 can disrupt auxin homeostasis.

  17. Perturbation of auxin homeostasis by overexpression of wild-type IAA15 results in impaired stem cell differentiation and gravitropism in roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Yan

    Full Text Available Aux/IAAs interact with auxin response factors (ARFs to repress their transcriptional activity in the auxin signaling pathway. Previous studies have focused on gain-of-function mutations of domain II and little is known about whether the expression level of wild-type Aux/IAAs can modulate auxin homeostasis. Here we examined the perturbation of auxin homeostasis by ectopic expression of wild-type IAA15. Root gravitropism and stem cell differentiation were also analyzed. The transgenic lines were less sensitive to exogenous auxin and exhibited low-auxin phenotypes including failures in gravity response and defects in stem cell differentiation. Overexpression lines also showed an increase in auxin concentration and reduced polar auxin transport. These results demonstrate that an alteration in the expression of wild-type IAA15 can disrupt auxin homeostasis.

  18. Differential effects of auxin polar transport inhibitors on rooting in some Crassulaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of auxin polar transport inhibitors, 2,3,5-triio-dobenzoic acid (TIBA, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA and methyl 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (morphactin IT 3456, as a lanolin paste, on root formation in cuttings of some species of Crassulaceae, such as Bryophyllum daigremontianum, B. calycinum, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and K. tubiflora, were studied. Cuttings of these plants were easily rooted in water without any treatment. TIBA and morphactin IT 3456 completely inhibited root formation in the cuttings of these plants but NPA did not when these inhibitors were applied around the stem below the leaves. When TIBA and morphactin were applied around the stem near the top, but leaves were present below the treatment, the root formation was observed in B. calycinum and K. blossfeldiana but in a smaller degree than in control cuttings. These results strongly suggest that endogenous auxin is required for root formation in cuttings of Crassulaceae plants. The differential mode of action of NPA is discussed together with its effect on auxin polar transport.

  19. The Arabidopsis concentration-dependent influx/efflux transporter ABCB4 regulates cellular auxin levels in the root epidermis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubeš, Martin; Yang, H.; Richter, G.L.; Cheng, Y.; Młodzińska, E.; Wang, X.; Blakeslee, J.J.; Carraro, N.; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Hoyerová, Klára; Ann Peer, W.; Murphy, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2012), s. 640-654 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin * auxin transporters * ATP-binding cassette B4 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.582, year: 2012

  20. The Arabidopsis concentration-dependent influx/efflux transporter ABCB4 regulates cellular auxin levels in the root epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubeš, Martin; Yang, Haibing; Richter, Gregory L; Cheng, Yan; Młodzińska, Ewa; Wang, Xia; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Carraro, Nicola; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Hoyerová, Klára; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S

    2012-02-01

    Arabidopsis ATP-binding cassette B4 (ABCB4) is a root-localised auxin efflux transporter with reported auxin uptake activity in low auxin concentrations. Results reported here demonstrate that ABCB4 is a substrate-activated regulator of cellular auxin levels. The contribution of ABCB4 to shootward auxin movement at the root apex increases with auxin concentration, but in root hair elongation assays ABCB4-mediated uptake is evident at low concentrations as well. Uptake kinetics of ABCB4 heterologously expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe differed from the saturation kinetics of AUX1 as uptake converted to efflux at threshold indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations. The concentration dependence of ABCB4 appears to be a direct effect on transporter activity, as ABCB4 expression and ABCB4 plasma membrane (PM) localisation at the root apex are relatively insensitive to changes in auxin concentration. However, PM localization of ABCB4 decreases with 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment. Unlike other plant ABCBs studied to date, and consistent with decreased detergent solubility, ABCB4(pro) :ABCB4-GFP is partially internalised in all cell types by 0.05% DMSO, but not 0.1% ethanol. In trichoblasts, ABCB4(pro) :ABCB4-GFP PM signals are reduced by >200 nm IAA and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). In heterologous systems and in planta, ABCB4 transports benzoic acid with weak affinity, but not the oxidative catabolism products 2-oxindole-3-acetic-acid and 2-oxindole-3-acetyl-β-D-glucose. ABCB4 mediates uptake, but not efflux, of the synthetic auxin 2,4-D in cells lacking AUX1 activity. Results presented here suggest that 2,4-D is a non-competitive inhibitor of IAA transport by ABCB4 and indicate that ABCB4 is a target of 2,4-D herbicidal activity. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Auxin transport and growth in intact roots of Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwaki, Yoriko; Tsurumi, Seiji

    1976-01-01

    Transport of IAA applied to the intact root of Vicia seedlings was investigated in relation to root growth. The root was treated at 3-4,4-5 or 7-8mm from the tip with a narrow ring of lanolin paste containing IAA or IAA-2- 14 C in growth or transport experiments, repectively. The growth process along the root axis was examined in every 1-mm part from the tip at 30 min, 1 or 4 hr intervals. The elongation zone of the control root was 1-9mm from the tip. IAA treatment brought about no significant change in the growth of the region apical to the treated site, whereas distinct inhibition of growth occurred in the region basal to the treated site within 1 hr. The transport of radioactivity was observed in both acropetal and basipetal directions within 1 hr, but the later predominated for 8 hr or more; the nearer to the tip the treatment site, the longer the predominance lasted. The velocities of acropetal and basipetal transport were estimated at about 4 and 8 mm/hr, respectively. Autoradiographs of transverse section of roots showed that basipetal transport occurred mainly through the outer part of the root, whereas acropetal transport occurred mainly through the inner part, the central cylinder. It may be concluded that the basipetally transported IAA which passed cylinder. It may be concluded that the basipetally transported IAA which passed through the outer part of the root inhibited the elongation of the intact root. (auth.)

  2. Differential auxin transport and accumulation in the stem base lead to profuse adventitious root primordia formation in the aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignolli, F; Mariotti, L; Picciarelli, P; Vidoz, M L

    2017-06-01

    The aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato is characterized by a profuse and precocious formation of adventitious root primordia along the stem. We demonstrated that auxin is involved in the aer phenotype but ruled out higher auxin sensitivity of mutant plants. Interestingly, polar auxin transport was altered in aer, as young seedlings showed a reduced response to an auxin transport inhibitor and higher expression of auxin export carriers SlPIN1 and SlPIN3. An abrupt reduction in transcripts of auxin efflux and influx genes in older aer hypocotyls caused a marked deceleration of auxin transport in more mature tissues. Indeed, in 20days old aer plants, the transport of labeled IAA was faster in apices than in hypocotyls, displaying an opposite trend in comparison to a wild type. In addition, auxin transport facilitators (SlPIN1, SlPIN4, SlLAX5) were more expressed in aer apices than in hypocotyls, suggesting that auxin moves faster from the upper to the lower part of the stem. Consequently, a significantly higher level of free and conjugated IAA was found at the base of aer stems with respect to their apices. This auxin accumulation is likely the cause of the aer phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of ABCB1/PGP1-catalysed auxin transport by linker phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, Sina; Wang, Bangjun; Fukao, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin is controlled by PIN-and ABCB/PGP-efflux catalysts. PIN polarity is regulated by the AGC protein kinase, PINOID (PID), while ABCB activity was shown to be dependent on interaction with the FKBP42, TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). Using co-immunoprecipitation (co......-IP) and shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified PID as a valid partner in the interaction with TWD1. In-vitro and yeast expression analyses indicated that PID specifically modulates ABCB1-mediated auxin efflux in an action that is dependent on its kinase activity and that is reverted by quercetin binding...... and thus inhibition of PID autophosphorylation. Triple ABCB1/PID/TWD1 co-transfection in tobacco revealed that PID enhances ABCB1-mediated auxin efflux but blocks ABCB1 in the presence of TWD1. Phospho-proteomic analyses identified S634 as a key residue of the regulatory ABCB1 linker and a very likely...

  4. PIN6 auxin transporter at endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane mediates auxin homeostasis and organogenesis in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simon, S.; Skůpa, Petr; Viaene, T.; Zwiewka, M.; Tejos, R.; Klíma, Petr; Čarná, Mária; Rolčík, J.; De Rycke, R.; Moreno, I.; Dobrev, Petre; Orellana, A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 1 (2016), s. 65-74 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-10948S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * endoplasmic reticulum (ER) * lateral root Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  5. Adaptation of root growth to increased ambient temperature requires auxin and ethylene coordination in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Qionghui; Wei, Shaodong; Zhou, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A fresh look at the roles of auxin, ethylene, and polar auxin transport during the plant root growth response to warmer ambient temperature (AT). Abstract: The ambient temperature (AT) affects plant growth and development. Plants can sense changes in the AT, but how this change......-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). AUX1, PIN1, and PIN2 are involved in the ckrc1-1 root gravity response under increased AT. Furthermore, CKRC1-dependent auxin biosynthesis was critical for maintaining PIN1, PIN2, and AUX1 expression at elevated temperatures. Ethylene was also involved...... in this regulation through the ETR1 pathway. Higher AT can promote CKRC1-dependent auxin biosynthesis by enhancing ETR1-mediated ethylene signaling. Our research suggested that the interaction between auxin and ethylene and that the interaction-mediated polar auxin transport play important roles during the plant...

  6. Stochastic and deterministic multiscale models for systems biology: an auxin-transport case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King John R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stochastic and asymptotic methods are powerful tools in developing multiscale systems biology models; however, little has been done in this context to compare the efficacy of these methods. The majority of current systems biology modelling research, including that of auxin transport, uses numerical simulations to study the behaviour of large systems of deterministic ordinary differential equations, with little consideration of alternative modelling frameworks. Results In this case study, we solve an auxin-transport model using analytical methods, deterministic numerical simulations and stochastic numerical simulations. Although the three approaches in general predict the same behaviour, the approaches provide different information that we use to gain distinct insights into the modelled biological system. We show in particular that the analytical approach readily provides straightforward mathematical expressions for the concentrations and transport speeds, while the stochastic simulations naturally provide information on the variability of the system. Conclusions Our study provides a constructive comparison which highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each of the considered modelling approaches. This will prove helpful to researchers when weighing up which modelling approach to select. In addition, the paper goes some way to bridging the gap between these approaches, which in the future we hope will lead to integrative hybrid models.

  7. Polar auxin transport is essential for gall formation by Pantoea agglomerans on Gypsophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupowicz, Laura; Weinthal, Dan; Gaba, Victor; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2013-02-01

    The virulence of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) on Gypsophila paniculata depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors. The hypothesis that plant-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a major role in gall formation was examined by disrupting basipetal polar auxin transport with the specific inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). On inoculation with Pag, galls developed in gypsophila stems above but not below lanolin rings containing TIBA or NPA, whereas, in controls, galls developed above and below the rings. In contrast, TIBA and NPA could not inhibit tumour formation in tomato caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The colonization of gypsophila stems by Pag was reduced below, but not above, the lanolin-TIBA ring. Following Pag inoculation and TIBA treatment, the expression of hrpL (a T3SS regulator) and pagR (a quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator) decreased four-fold and that of pthG (a T3SS effector) two-fold after 24 h. Expression of PIN2 (a putative auxin efflux carrier) increased 35-fold, 24 h after Pag inoculation. However, inoculation with a mutant in the T3SS effector pthG reduced the expression of PIN2 by two-fold compared with wild-type infection. The results suggest that pthG might govern the elevation of PIN2 expression during infection, and that polar auxin transport-derived IAA is essential for gall initiation. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  8. Characterization of transmembrane auxin transport in Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seifertová, Daniela; Skůpa, Petr; Rychtář, J.; Laňková, Martina; Pařezová, Markéta; Dobrev, Petre; Hoyerová, Klára; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 6 (2014), s. 429-437 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin influx * Auxin efflux * Auxin metabolic profiling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  9. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the PIN auxin transporter gene family in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqin; Chai, Chenglin; Valliyodan, Babu; Maupin, Christine; Annen, Brad; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-11-16

    The plant phytohormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, which largely depends on its uneven distribution in plant tissues. Transmembrane proteins of the PIN family are auxin efflux facilitators. They play a key role in polar auxin transport and are associated with auxin asymmetrical distribution in plants. PIN genes have been characterized in several plant species, while comprehensive analysis of this gene family in soybean has not been reported yet. In this study, twenty-three members of the PIN gene family were identified in the soybean genome through homology searches. Analysis of chromosome distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the soybean PIN genes indicated nine pairs of duplicated genes and a legume specific subfamily. Organ/tissue expression patterns and promoter activity assays of the soybean PINs suggested redundant functions for most duplicated genes and complementary and tissue-specific functions during development for non-duplicated genes. The soybean PIN genes were differentially regulated by various abiotic stresses and phytohormone stimuli, implying crosstalk between auxin and abiotic stress signaling pathways. This was further supported by the altered auxin distribution under these conditions as revealed by DR5::GUS transgenic soybean hairy root. Our data indicates that GmPIN9, a legume-specific PIN gene, which was responsive to several abiotic stresses, might play a role in auxin re-distribution in soybean root under abiotic stress conditions. This study provided the first comprehensive analysis of the soybean PIN gene family. Information on phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, protein profiles and expression profiles of the soybean PIN genes in different tissues and under various abiotic stress treatments helps to identity candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes and/or environmental stress conditions. Our study advances our understanding of plant responses to abiotic stresses

  10. myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is required for polar auxin transport and organ development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-06-01

    myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is a conserved enzyme that catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in inositol biosynthesis. Despite its wide occurrence in all eukaryotes, the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase and de novo inositol biosynthesis in cell signaling and organism development has been unclear. In this study, we isolated loss-of-function mutants in the Arabidopsis MIPS1 gene from different ecotypes. It was found that all mips1 mutants are defective in embryogenesis, cotyledon venation patterning, root growth, and root cap development. The mutant roots are also agravitropic and have reduced basipetal auxin transport. mips1 mutants have significantly reduced levels of major phosphatidylinositols and exhibit much slower rates of endocytosis. Treatment with brefeldin A induces slower PIN2 protein aggregation in mips1, indicating altered PIN2 trafficking. Our results demonstrate that MIPS1 is critical for maintaining phosphatidylinositol levels and affects pattern formation in plants likely through regulation of auxin distribution. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Diversification and expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX and ABCB families of putative auxin transporters in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eCarraro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively, and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also evidence for differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of proteins involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ

  12. Auxin Activity: Past, present, and Future1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Tara A.; Strader, Lucia C.

    2016-01-01

    Long before its chemical identity was known, the phytohormone auxin was postulated to regulate plant growth. In the late 1800s, Sachs hypothesized that plant growth regulators, present in small amounts, move differentially throughout the plant to regulate growth. Concurrently, Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin were discovering that light and gravity were perceived by the tips of shoots and roots and that the stimulus was transmitted to other tissues, which underwent a growth response. These ideas were improved upon by Boysen-Jensen and Paál and were later developed into the Cholodny–Went hypothesis that tropisms were caused by the asymmetric distribution of a growth-promoting substance. These observations led to many efforts to identify this elusive growth-promoting substance, which we now know as auxin. In this review of auxin field advances over the past century, we start with a seminal paper by Kenneth Thimann and Charles Schneider titled “The relative activities of different auxins” from the American Journal of Botany, in which they compare the growth altering properties of several auxinic compounds. From this point, we explore the modern molecular understanding of auxin—including its biosynthesis, transport, and perception. Finally, we end this review with a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions in the auxin field. Over the past 100 yr, much of our progress in understanding auxin biology has relied on the steady and collective advance of the field of auxin researchers; we expect that the next 100 yr of auxin research will likewise make many exciting advances. PMID:25667071

  13. Partial loss-of-function alleles reveal a role for GNOM in auxin transport-related, post-embryonic development of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldner, Niko; Richter, Sandra; Vieten, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis GNOM gene encodes an ARF GDP/GTP exchange factor involved in embryonic axis formation and polar localisation of the auxin efflux regulator PIN1. To examine whether GNOM also plays a role in post-embryonic development and to clarify its involvement in auxin transport, we have...

  14. ROTUNDA3 function in plant development by phosphatase 2A-mediated regulation of auxin transporter recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelias, Michael; Neyt, Pia; De Groeve, Steven; Aesaert, Stijn; Coussens, Griet; Rolčík, Jakub; Bruno, Leonardo; De Winne, Nancy; Van Minnebruggen, Annemie; Van Montagu, Marc; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis; Friml, Jiří; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2016-03-08

    The shaping of organs in plants depends on the intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin, of which the directional signaling is determined by the polar subcellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins. Phosphorylation dynamics of PIN proteins are affected by the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and the PINOID kinase, which act antagonistically to mediate their apical-basal polar delivery. Here, we identified the ROTUNDA3 (RON3) protein as a regulator of the PP2A phosphatase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The RON3 gene was map-based cloned starting from the ron3-1 leaf mutant and found to be a unique, plant-specific gene coding for a protein with high and dispersed proline content. The ron3-1 and ron3-2 mutant phenotypes [i.e., reduced apical dominance, primary root length, lateral root emergence, and growth; increased ectopic stages II, IV, and V lateral root primordia; decreased auxin maxima in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-treated root apical meristems; hypergravitropic root growth and response; increased IAA levels in shoot apices; and reduced auxin accumulation in root meristems] support a role for RON3 in auxin biology. The affinity-purified PP2A complex with RON3 as bait suggested that RON3 might act in PIN transporter trafficking. Indeed, pharmacological interference with vesicle trafficking processes revealed that single ron3-2 and double ron3-2 rcn1 mutants have altered PIN polarity and endocytosis in specific cells. Our data indicate that RON3 contributes to auxin-mediated development by playing a role in PIN recycling and polarity establishment through regulation of the PP2A complex activity.

  15. OsPIN5b modulates rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and yield by changing auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Coneva, Viktoriya; Casaretto, José A; Ying, Shan; Mahmood, Kashif; Liu, Fang; Nambara, Eiji; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    Plant architecture attributes such as tillering, plant height and panicle size are important agronomic traits that determine rice (Oryza sativa) productivity. Here, we report that altered auxin content, transport and distribution affect these traits, and hence rice yield. Overexpression of the auxin efflux carrier-like gene OsPIN5b causes pleiotropic effects, mainly reducing plant height, leaf and tiller number, shoot and root biomass, seed-setting rate, panicle length and yield parameters. Conversely, reduced expression of OsPIN5b results in higher tiller number, more vigorous root system, longer panicles and increased yield. We show that OsPIN5b is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -localized protein that participates in auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution in vivo. This work describes an example of an auxin-related gene where modulating its expression can simultaneously improve plant architecture and yield potential in rice, and reveals an important effect of hormonal signaling on these traits. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism.

  17. Inhibition of auxin transport and auxin signaling and treatment with far red light induces root coiling in the phospholipase-A mutant ppla-I-1. Significance for surface penetration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, F; Wimalasekera, R; Effendi, Y; Scherer, G F E

    2016-06-01

    When grown on a non-penetretable at a surface angle of 45°, Arabidopsis roots form wave-like structures and, in wild type rarely, but in certain mutants the tip root even may form circles. These circles are called coils. The formation of coils depends on the complex interaction of circumnutation, gravitropism and negative thigmotropism where - at least - gravitropism is intimately linked to auxin transport and signaling. The knockout mutant of patatin-related phospholipase-AI-1 (pplaI-1) is an auxin-signaling mutant which forms moderately increased numbers of coils on tilted agar plates. We tested the effects of the auxin efflux transport inhibitor NPA (1-naphthylphtalamic acid) and of the influx transport inhibitor 1-NOA (1-naphthoxyacetic acid) which both further increased root coil formation. The pPLAI-1 inhibitors HELSS (haloenol lactone suicide substrate=E-6-(bromomethylene)tetrahydro-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one) and ETYA (eicosatetraynoic acid) which are auxin signaling inhibitors also increased coil formation. In addition, far red light treatment increased coil formation. The results point out that a disturbance of auxin transport and signaling is one potential cause for root coils. As we show that the mutant pplaI-1 penetrates horizontal agar plates better than wild type plants root movements may help penetrating the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. An auxin transport independent pathway is involved in phosphate stress-induced root architectural alterations in Arabidopsis. Identification of BIG as a mediator of auxin in pericycle cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bucio, José; Hernández-Abreu, Esmeralda; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Pérez-Torres, Anahí; Rampey, Rebekah A; Bartel, Bonnie; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2005-02-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants display a number of root developmental responses to low phosphate availability, including primary root growth inhibition, greater formation of lateral roots, and increased root hair elongation. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms by which phosphorus (P) availability alters postembryonic root development, we performed a mutant screen to identify genetic determinants involved in the response to P deprivation. Three low phosphate-resistant root lines (lpr1-1 to lpr1-3) were isolated because of their reduced lateral root formation in low P conditions. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that all lpr1 mutants were allelic to BIG, which is required for normal auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Detailed characterization of lateral root primordia (LRP) development in wild-type and lpr1 mutants revealed that BIG is required for pericycle cell activation to form LRP in both high (1 mm) and low (1 microm) P conditions, but not for the low P-induced alterations in primary root growth, lateral root emergence, and root hair elongation. Exogenously supplied auxin restored normal lateral root formation in lpr1 mutants in the two P treatments. Treatment of wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings with brefeldin A, a fungal metabolite that blocks auxin transport, phenocopies the root developmental alterations observed in lpr1 mutants in both high and low P conditions, suggesting that BIG participates in vesicular targeting of auxin transporters. Taken together, our results show that auxin transport and BIG function have fundamental roles in pericycle cell activation to form LRP and promote root hair elongation. The mechanism that activates root system architectural alterations in response to P deprivation, however, seems to be independent of auxin transport and BIG.

  19. Manipulation of intracellular auxin in a single cell by light with esterase-resistant caged auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Naoyuki; Maisch, Jan; Nick, Peter; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2009-09-04

    Auxin, a plant hormone, is polar transported from its site of production. This auxin polar transport system establishes an auxin gradient in plant tissue that is necessary for proper plant development. Therefore, the spatial effect of the auxin gradient on plant development is highly important for the understanding of plant auxin responses. Herein we report the design, syntheses and biological properties of esterase-resistant caged auxins. The conventional caging group, 2-nitrobenzyl ester, was found to be enzymatically hydrolyzed in plant cells and released original auxin without photolysis. The esterase-resistant caging group, (2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)(2-nitrobenzyl) ester, (DMPNB) was designed to improve the stability of caged auxins. Three auxins, indole 3-acetic acid, naphthalene 1-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid were caged with the DMPNB caging group. DMPNB-caged auxins were inactive within a plant cell until photolysis, but they release auxins with photoirradiation to activate auxin-responsive gene expression. We demonstrated spatial and temporal control of intracellular auxin levels with photoirradiation by using this caged auxin system and were able to photocontrol the physiological auxin response in Arabidopsis plants. Additionally, the photoirradiation of DMPNB-caged auxin within a single cell can manipulate the intracellular auxin level and triggers auxin response.

  20. Coevolving MAPK and PID phosphosites indicate an ancient environmental control of PIN auxin transporters in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Magdalena; Hatzimasoura, Elizabeth; Kállai, Brigitta M; Nagy, Szilvia K; Jäger, Katalin; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Nádai, Tímea V; Mészáros, Tamás; López-Juez, Enrique; Barnabás, Beáta; Palme, Klaus; Bögre, László; Ditengou, Franck A; Dóczi, Róbert

    2018-01-01

    Plant growth flexibly adapts to environmental conditions, implying cross-talk between environmental signalling and developmental regulation. Here, we show that the PIN auxin efflux carrier family possesses three highly conserved putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) sites adjacent to the phosphorylation sites of the well-characterised AGC kinase PINOID, which regulates the polar localisation of PINs and directional auxin transport, thereby underpinning organ growth. The conserved sites of PIN1 are phosphorylated in vitro by two environmentally activated MAPKs, MPK4 and MPK6. In contrast to AGC kinases, MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of PIN1 at adjacent sites leads to a partial loss of the plasma membrane localisation of PIN1. MAPK-mediated modulation of PIN trafficking may participate in environmental adjustment of plant growth. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Comprehensive Analysis and Expression Profiling of the OsLAX and OsABCB Auxin Transporter Gene Families in Rice (Oryza sativa under Phytohormone Stimuli and Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin eChai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin gradient is formed in plant as a result of polar auxin transportation by three types of auxin transporters such as OsLAX, OsPIN, and OsABCB. We report here the analysis of two rice auxin transporter gene families, OsLAX and OsABCB, using bioinformatics tools, publicly accessible microarray data, and quantitative RT-PCR. There are 5 putative OsLAXs and 22 putative OsABCBs in rice genome, which were mapped on 8 chromosomes. The exon-intron structure of OsLAX genes and properties of deduced proteins were relatively conserved within grass family, while that of OsABCB genes varied greatly. Both constitutive and organ/tissue specific expression patterns were observed in OsLAXs and OsABCBs. Analysis of evolutionarily closely related gene pairs together with organ/tissue specific expression revealed possible function gaining and function losing events during rice evolution. Most OsLAX and OsABCB genes were regulated by drought and salt stress, as well as hormonal stimuli [auxin and Abscisic Acid (ABA], which suggests extensive crosstalk between abiotic stresses and hormone signaling pathways. The existence of large number of auxin and stress related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions might account for their massive responsiveness of these genes to these environmental stimuli, indicating complexity of regulatory networks involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The comprehensive analysis of OsLAX and OsABCB auxin transporter genes in this study would be helpful for understanding the biological significance of these gene families in hormone signaling and adaptation of rice plants to unfavorable environments.

  2. Microscopic and Biochemical Visualization of Auxins in Plant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Joshua J; Murphy, Angus S

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are a particularly notable class of phytohormones in that they regulate plant growth and development at sites of synthesis, and via a regulated polar transport system comprising PIN, ABCB, and AUX/LAX transport proteins. In order to fully understand auxin-regulated physiological processes, it is therefore essential to be able to determine where indole-3-acetic acid and related compounds are being synthesized, where they are transported to, and how much IAA is accumulating in any given tissue. Auxin may be visualized either indirectly, through the use of auxin responsive promoters; directly, through the use of radiolabelled auxin or fluorescent auxin analogs; or biochemically through extraction and mass-spectrometric quantification of auxin and auxin metabolites from target cells or tissues. Here we focus on the use of the DR5::GUS synthetic auxin promoter reporter construct, fluorescent auxin analogs, and confirmatory biochemical (high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry) visualization of auxin and auxin metabolites.

  3. VLN2 Regulates Plant Architecture by Affecting Microfilament Dynamics and Polar Auxin Transport in Rice[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyang; Xie, Yurong; Guo, Xiuping; Sheng, Peike; Wang, Juan; Wu, Chuanyin; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental and dynamic cytoskeleton network, microfilaments (MFs) are regulated by diverse actin binding proteins (ABPs). Villins are one type of ABPs belonging to the villin/gelsolin superfamily, and their function is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant defective in VILLIN2 (VLN2), which exhibits malformed organs, including twisted roots and shoots at the seedling stage. Cellular examination revealed that the twisted phenotype of the vln2 mutant is mainly caused by asymmetrical expansion of cells on the opposite sides of an organ. VLN2 is preferentially expressed in growing tissues, consistent with a role in regulating cell expansion in developing organs. Biochemically, VLN2 exhibits conserved actin filament bundling, severing and capping activities in vitro, with bundling and stabilizing activity being confirmed in vivo. In line with these findings, the vln2 mutant plants exhibit a more dynamic actin cytoskeleton network than the wild type. We show that vln2 mutant plants exhibit a hypersensitive gravitropic response, faster recycling of PIN2 (an auxin efflux carrier), and altered auxin distribution. Together, our results demonstrate that VLN2 plays an important role in regulating plant architecture by modulating MF dynamics, recycling of PIN2, and polar auxin transport. PMID:26486445

  4. Inositol Trisphosphate-Induced Ca2+ Signaling Modulates Auxin Transport and PIN Polarity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, J.; Vanneste, S.; Brewer, P. B.; Michniewicz, M.; Grones, P.; Kleine-Vehn, J.; Löfke, Ch.; Teichmann, T.; Bielach, A.; Cannoot, B.; Hoyerová, Klára; Chen, X.; Xue, H. W.; Benková, E.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2011), s. 855-866 ISSN 1534-5807 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PIN polarity * auxin distribution * Inositol trisphosphate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 14.030, year: 2011

  5. Plant AGC protein kinases orient auxin-mediated differential growth and organogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galván Ampudia, Carlos Samuel

    2009-01-01

    In view of their predominant sessile lifestyle, plants need to be able to adapt to changes in their environment. Environmental signals such as light and gravity modulate plant growth and architecture by redirecting polar cell-to-cell transport of auxin, thus causing changes in the distribution of

  6. Fluid/Gravity Correspondence, Second Order Transport and Gravitational Anomaly*,**

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megías Eugenio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the transport properties of a relativistic fluid affected by chiral and gauge-gravitational anomalies. The computation is performed in the framework of the fluid/gravity correspondence for a 5 dim holographic model with Chern-Simons terms in the action. We find new anomalous and non anomalous transport coefficients, as well as new contributions to the existing ones coming from the mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. Consequences for the shear waves dispersion relation are analyzed.

  7. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegger, M.; Dewey, E.; Hobbie, L.; Brown, D.; Bernasconi, P.; Turner, J.; Muday, G.; Estelle, M.

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development.

  8. Subcellular homeostasis of phytohormone auxin is mediated by the ER-localized PIN5 transporter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mravec, J.; Skůpa, Petr; Bailly, A.; Hoyerová, Klára; Křeček, Pavel; Bielach, A.; Petrášek, Jan; Zhang, J.; Gaykova, V.; Stierhof, Y. D.; Dobrev, Petre; Schwarzerová, K.; Rolčík, Jakub; Seifertová, Daniela; Luschnig, Ch.; Benková, E.; Zažímalová, Eva; Geisler, M.; Friml, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 459, č. 7250 (2009), s. 1136-1140 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601630703; GA AV ČR KJB600380604; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : AtPIN5 * auxin efflux carrier * endoplasmic reticulum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 34.480, year: 2009

  9. Fusarium oxysporum volatiles enhance plant growth via affecting auxin transport and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios eBitas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption.

  10. Defining the selectivity of processes along the auxin response chain: a study using auxin analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simon, Sibu; Kubeš, Martin; Baster, P.; Robert, S.; Dobrev, Petre; Friml, J.; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 4 (2013), s. 1034-1048 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin analogues * auxin signalling * auxin transport Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  11. A Transportable Gravity Gradiometer Based on Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Thompson, Robert J.; Kellogg, James R.; Aveline, David C.; Maleki, Lute; Kohel, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A transportable atom interferometer-based gravity gradiometer has been developed at JPL to carry out measurements of Earth's gravity field at ever finer spatial resolutions, and to facilitate high-resolution monitoring of temporal variations in the gravity field from ground- and flight-based platforms. Existing satellite-based gravity missions such as CHAMP and GRACE measure the gravity field via precise monitoring of the motion of the satellites; i.e. the satellites themselves function as test masses. JPL's quantum gravity gradiometer employs a quantum phase measurement technique, similar to that employed in atomic clocks, made possible by recent advances in laser cooling and manipulation of atoms. This measurement technique is based on atomwave interferometry, and individual laser-cooled atoms are used as drag-free test masses. The quantum gravity gradiometer employs two identical atom interferometers as precision accelerometers to measure the difference in gravitational acceleration between two points (Figure 1). By using the same lasers for the manipulation of atoms in both interferometers, the accelerometers have a common reference frame and non-inertial accelerations are effectively rejected as common mode noise in the differential measurement of the gravity gradient. As a result, the dual atom interferometer-based gravity gradiometer allows gravity measurements on a moving platform, while achieving the same long-term stability of the best atomic clocks. In the laboratory-based prototype (Figure 2), the cesium atoms used in each atom interferometer are initially collected and cooled in two separate magneto-optic traps (MOTs). Each MOT, consisting of three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating laser beams centered on a quadrupole magnetic field, collects up to 10(exp 9) atoms. These atoms are then launched vertically as in an atom fountain by switching off the magnetic field and introducing a slight frequency shift between pairs of lasers to create a moving

  12. Irrepressible, truncated Auxin Response Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Krogan, Naden T.; Marcos, Danielle; Caragea, Adriana E.; Berleth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The molecularly well-characterized auxin signal transduction pathway involves two evolutionarily conserved families interacting through their C-terminal domains III and IV: the Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) and their repressors the Aux/IAAs, to control auxin-responsive genes, among them genes involved in auxin transport.1,2 We have developed a new genetic tool to study ARF function. Using MONOPTEROS (MP)/ARF5, we have generated a truncated version of MP (MPΔ),3 which has lost the target domains for repression by Aux/IAA proteins. Besides exploring genetic interactions between MP and Aux/IAAs, we used this construct to trace MP’s role in vascular patterning, a previously characterized auxin dependent process.4,5 Here we summarize examples of naturally occurring truncated ARFs and summarize potential applications of truncated ARFs as analytical tools. PMID:22827953

  13. Auxin transport in leafy pea stem cuttings is partially driven by photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpula, C.L.; Potter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    When 14 C-IAA was applied to the apex of disbudded leafy pea stem cuttings (15 cm long), the movement of 14 C-IAA to the base of the cuttings after 24 h was influenced by the photosynthetic rate. In the absence of photosynthesis, light did not influence 14 C-IAA movement. Photosynthesis was altered by varying light, CO 2 concentration, or stomatal aperature (blocked with an antitranspirant). Radioactivity (identified by co-chromatography) was 25, 60, and 5% IAA, IAA-aspartate, and indolealdehyde respectively regardless of treatment. Adventitious root formation was reduced 50 to 95% and movement of IAA was inhibited 50 to 70% by decreasing gross photosynthesis 90 to 100%. Apparently, photosynthesis partially drives the movement of IAA from the apex to the base where roots arise. This gives a probably role of photosynthesis in rooting, because in this system virtually no rooting will take place without exogenous auxin and at least a low level of gross photosynthesis

  14. The bHLH transcription factor SPATULA enables cytokinin signaling, and both activate auxin biosynthesis and transport genes at the medial domain of the gynoecium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Irepan Reyes-Olalde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and seeds are the major food source on earth. Both derive from the gynoecium and, therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms that guide the development of this organ of angiosperm species. In Arabidopsis, the gynoecium is composed of two congenitally fused carpels, where two domains: medial and lateral, can be distinguished. The medial domain includes the carpel margin meristem (CMM that is key for the production of the internal tissues involved in fertilization, such as septum, ovules, and transmitting tract. Interestingly, the medial domain shows a high cytokinin signaling output, in contrast to the lateral domain, where it is hardly detected. While it is known that cytokinin provides meristematic properties, understanding on the mechanisms that underlie the cytokinin signaling pattern in the young gynoecium is lacking. Moreover, in other tissues, the cytokinin pathway is often connected to the auxin pathway, but we also lack knowledge about these connections in the young gynoecium. Our results reveal that cytokinin signaling, that can provide meristematic properties required for CMM activity and growth, is enabled by the transcription factor SPATULA (SPT in the medial domain. Meanwhile, cytokinin signaling is confined to the medial domain by the cytokinin response repressor ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE 6 (AHP6, and perhaps by ARR16 (a type-A ARR as well, both present in the lateral domains (presumptive valves of the developing gynoecia. Moreover, SPT and cytokinin, probably together, promote the expression of the auxin biosynthetic gene TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 (TAA1 and the gene encoding the auxin efflux transporter PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3, likely creating auxin drainage important for gynoecium growth. This study provides novel insights in the spatiotemporal determination of the cytokinin signaling pattern and its connection to the auxin pathway in the young gynoecium.

  15. Analyzing the in vivo status of exogenously applied auxins: a HPLC-based method to characterize the intracellularly localized auxin transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sibu; Skůpa, Petr; Dobrev, Petre I; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous application of biologically important molecules for plant growth promotion and/or regulation is very common both in plant research and horticulture. Plant hormones such as auxins and cytokinins are classes of compounds which are often applied exogenously. Nevertheless, plants possess a well-established machinery to regulate the active pool of exogenously applied compounds by converting them to metabolites and conjugates. Consequently, it is often very useful to know the in vivo status of applied compounds to connect them with some of the regulatory events in plant developmental processes. The in vivo status of applied compounds can be measured by incubating plants with radiolabeled compounds, followed by extraction, purification, and HPLC metabolic profiling of plant extracts. Recently we have used this method to characterize the intracellularly localized PIN protein, PIN5. Here we explain the method in detail, with a focus on general application.

  16. Development of 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins which are extremely stable in planta

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Yamasaki, Soma; Zhao, Yunde; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormone auxin is a master regulator in plant growth and development. Regulation of cellular auxin level plays a central role in plant development. Auxin polar transport system modulates an auxin gradient that determines plant developmental process in response to environmental conditions and developmental programs. Photolabile caged auxins allow optical control of artificial auxin gradients at cellular resolution. Especially, two-photon uncaging system achieves high spatiotemporal control...

  17. GOLVEN secretory peptides regulate auxin carrier turnover during plant gravitropic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fernandez, Ana; Tejos, Ricardo; Pérez, Amparo Cuéllar; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Drozdzecki, Andrzej; Leitner, Johannes; Abas, Lindy; Aerts, Maarten; Hoogewijs, Kurt; Baster, Pawel; De Groodt, Ruth; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Storme, Véronique; Van de Peer, Yves; Beeckman, Tom; Madder, Annemieke; Devreese, Bart; Luschnig, Christian; Friml, Jiří; Hilson, Pierre

    2012-03-13

    Growth and development are coordinated by an array of intercellular communications. Known plant signaling molecules include phytohormones and hormone peptides. Although both classes can be implicated in the same developmental processes, little is known about the interplay between phytohormone action and peptide signaling within the cellular microenvironment. We show that genes coding for small secretory peptides, designated GOLVEN (GLV), modulate the distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The deregulation of the GLV function impairs the formation of auxin gradients and alters the reorientation of shoots and roots after a gravity stimulus. Specifically, the GLV signal modulates the trafficking dynamics of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 involved in root tropic responses and meristem organization. Our work links the local action of secretory peptides with phytohormone transport. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interactions of Oryza sativa OsCONTINUOUS VASCULAR RING-LIKE 1 (OsCOLE1) and OsCOLE1-INTERACTING PROTEIN reveal a novel intracellular auxin transport mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Lan; Luo, Yanzhong; Xu, Miaoyun; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the transport mechanism of intracellular auxin. Here, we report two vacuole-localized proteins, Oryza sativa OsCONTINUOUS VASCULAR RING-LIKE 1 (OsCOLE1) and OsCOLE1-INTERACTING PROTEIN (OsCLIP), that regulate intracellular auxin transport and homoeostasis. Overexpression of OsCOLE1 markedly increased the internode length and auxin content of the stem base, whereas these parameters were decreased in RNA interference (RNAi) plants. OsCOLE1 was localized on the tonoplast and preferentially expressed in mature tissues. We further identified its interacting protein OsCLIP, which was co-localized on the tonoplast. Protein-protein binding assays demonstrated that the N-terminus of OsCOLE1 directly interacted with OsCLIP in yeast cells and the rice protoplast. Furthermore, (3) H-indole-3-acetic acid ((3) H-IAA) transport assays revealed that OsCLIP transported IAA into yeast cells, which was promoted by OsCOLE1. The results indicate that OsCOLE1 affects rice development by regulating intracellular auxin transport through interaction with OsCLIP, which provides a new insight into the regulatory mechanism of intracellular transport of auxin and the roles of vacuoles in plant development. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Development of 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins which are extremely stable in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Yamasaki, Soma; Zhao, Yunde; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-15

    Phytohormone auxin is a master regulator in plant growth and development. Regulation of cellular auxin level plays a central role in plant development. Auxin polar transport system modulates an auxin gradient that determines plant developmental process in response to environmental conditions and developmental programs. Photolabile caged auxins allow optical control of artificial auxin gradients at cellular resolution. Especially, two-photon uncaging system achieves high spatiotemporal control of photolysis reaction at two-photon cross-section. However, the development of caged versions of auxin has been limited by the instability of the caged auxins to higher plant metabolic activities. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of highly stable caged auxins, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins. Natural auxin, indole 3-acetic acid, and two synthetic auxins, 1-NAA and 2,4-D were caged by MNI caging group. MNI-caged auxins showed a high stability in planta and a rapid release the original auxin when photolyzed. We demonstrated that optical control of auxin-responsive gene expression and auxin-related physiological responses by using MNI-caged auxins. We anticipate that MNI-caged auxins will be an effective tool for high-resolution control of endogenous auxin level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of ethylene on the kinetics of curvature and auxin redistribution in gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus.

  1. Auxin and Cellular Elongation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Barbez, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is a crucial growth regulator in plants. However, a comprehensive understanding of how auxin induces cell expansion is perplexing, because auxin acts in a concentration- and cell type-dependent manner. Consequently, it is desirable to focus on certain cell types to exemplify the underlying growth mechanisms. On the other hand, plant tissues display supracellular growth (beyond the level of single cells); hence, other cell types might compromise the growth of a certain tissue. Tip-growing cells do not display neighbor-induced growth constraints and, therefore, are a valuable source of information for growth-controlling mechanisms. Here, we focus on auxin-induced cellular elongation in root hairs, exposing a mechanistic view of plant growth regulation. We highlight a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and transport, steering root hair development in response to internal and external triggers. Auxin signaling modules and downstream cascades of transcription factors define a developmental program that appears rate limiting for cellular growth. With this knowledge in mind, the root hair cell is a very suitable model system in which to dissect cellular effectors required for cellular expansion. PMID:26787325

  2. Gravity sensing and signal transduction in vascular plant primary roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Katherine L; Strohm, Allison K; Masson, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    During gravitropism, the potential energy of gravity is converted into a biochemical signal. How this transfer occurs remains one of the most exciting mysteries in plant cell biology. New experiments are filling in pieces of the puzzle. In this review, we introduce gravitropism and give an overview of what we know about gravity sensing in roots of vascular plants, with special highlight on recent papers. When plant roots are reoriented sideways, amyloplast resedimentation in the columella cells is a key initial step in gravity sensing. This process somehow leads to cytoplasmic alkalinization of these cells followed by relocalization of auxin efflux carriers (PINs). This changes auxin flow throughout the root, generating a lateral gradient of auxin across the cap that upon transmission to the elongation zone leads to differential cell elongation and gravibending. We will present the evidence for and against the following players having a role in transferring the signal from the amyloplast sedimentation into the auxin signaling cascade: mechanosensitive ion channels, actin, calcium ions, inositol trisphosphate, receptors/ligands, ARG1/ARL2, spermine, and the TOC complex. We also outline auxin transport and signaling during gravitropism.

  3. Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamow, George

    2003-01-01

    A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw

  4. Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gravity is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind gravity, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  5. Transport and distribution of labelled auxin in geotropically stimulated fruit-bearing shoots of royal delicious apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.

    1991-01-01

    14 C-IAA was fed to mid-leaf of 30 cm shoot of apple trees planted at 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg angles from horizontal. Shoots were detached after 2 days and radioactivity of acidic auxin in upper and under side shoot and spurs and fruit was assayed. In non-vertical trees, significantly higher 14 C-IAA was detected from under side shoots and spurs compared to upper side. 14 C-IAA activity in two sides of shoot of vertical plantation was at par. Among fruit portions, means 14 C-IAA (cpm/100 mg) was more in seed than in skin and pulp. Auxin moved predominantly basipetally. Acropetal movement was higher in non-vertical trees. Recovery of 14 C-IAA was highest in 30deg and least in 90deg plantation. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 1 figs

  6. N-glycan containing a core α1,3-fucose residue is required for basipetal auxin transport and gravitropic response in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmoko, Rikno; Yoo, Jae Yong; Ko, Ki Seong; Ramasamy, Nirmal Kumar; Hwang, Bo Young; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Ho Soo; Lee, Kyung Jin; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Kim, Dool-Yi; Lee, Sanghun; Li, Yang; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyun Oh

    2016-10-01

    In plants, α1,3-fucosyltransferase (FucT) catalyzes the transfer of fucose from GDP-fucose to asparagine-linked GlcNAc of the N-glycan core in the medial Golgi. To explore the physiological significance of this processing, we isolated two Oryza sativa (rice) mutants (fuct-1 and fuct-2) with loss of FucT function. Biochemical analyses of the N-glycan structure confirmed that α1,3-fucose is missing from the N-glycans of allelic fuct-1 and fuct-2. Compared with the wild-type cv Kitaake, fuct-1 displayed a larger tiller angle, shorter internode and panicle lengths, and decreased grain filling as well as an increase in chalky grains with abnormal shape. The mutant allele fuct-2 gave rise to similar developmental abnormalities, although they were milder than those of fuct-1. Restoration of a normal tiller angle in fuct-1 by complementation demonstrated that the phenotype is caused by the loss of FucT function. Both fuct-1 and fuct-2 plants exhibited reduced gravitropic responses. Expression of the genes involved in tiller and leaf angle control was also affected in the mutants. We demonstrate that reduced basipetal auxin transport and low auxin accumulation at the base of the shoot in fuct-1 account for both the reduced gravitropic response and the increased tiller angle. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...

  8. Auxin metabolism rates and implications for plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Kramer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auxin metabolism rarely express their results as a metabolic rate, although the data obtained would often permit such a calculation to be made. We analyze data from 31 previously published papers to quantify the rates of auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, conjugate hydrolysis, and catabolism in seed plants. Most metabolic pathways have rates in the range 10 nM/h to 1 μM/h, with the exception of auxin conjugation, which has rates as high as ~100 μM/h. The highest rates of auxin conjugation suggests that auxin metabolic sinks may be very small, perhaps as small as a single cell. By contrast, the relatively low rate of auxin biosynthesis requires plants to conserve and recycle auxin during long-distance transport. The consequences for plant development are discussed.

  9. Dynamic regulation of auxin oxidase and conjugating enzymes AtDAO1 and GH3 modulates auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Band, Leah R; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Rashed, Afaf; Holman, Tara; Wilson, Michael H; Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; King, John R; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm J; Owen, Markus R

    2016-09-27

    The hormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development, and great progress has been made understanding auxin transport and signaling. Here, we show that auxin metabolism and homeostasis are also regulated in a complex manner. The principal auxin degradation pathways in Arabidopsis include oxidation by Arabidopsis thaliana gene DIOXYGENASE FOR AUXIN OXIDATION 1/2 (AtDAO1/2) and conjugation by Gretchen Hagen3s (GH3s). Metabolic profiling of dao1-1 root tissues revealed a 50% decrease in the oxidation product 2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) and increases in the conjugated forms indole-3-acetic acid aspartic acid (IAA-Asp) and indole-3-acetic acid glutamic acid (IAA-Glu) of 438- and 240-fold, respectively, whereas auxin remains close to the WT. By fitting parameter values to a mathematical model of these metabolic pathways, we show that, in addition to reduced oxidation, both auxin biosynthesis and conjugation are increased in dao1-1 Transcripts of AtDAO1 and GH3 genes increase in response to auxin over different timescales and concentration ranges. Including this regulation of AtDAO1 and GH3 in an extended model reveals that auxin oxidation is more important for auxin homoeostasis at lower hormone concentrations, whereas auxin conjugation is most significant at high auxin levels. Finally, embedding our homeostasis model in a multicellular simulation to assess the spatial effect of the dao1-1 mutant shows that auxin increases in outer root tissues in agreement with the dao1-1 mutant root hair phenotype. We conclude that auxin homeostasis is dependent on AtDAO1, acting in concert with GH3, to maintain auxin at optimal levels for plant growth and development.

  10. Influence of gravity on transport and retention of representative engineered nanoparticles in quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Zhu, Jinghan; Hou, Yanglong; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-10-01

    Four types of NPs: carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide (carbon-based NPs), titanium dioxide and zinc oxide metal-oxide NPs, were utilized to systematically determine the influence of gravity on the transport of NPs in porous media. Packed column experiments for two types of carbon-based NPs were performed under unfavorable conditions in both up-flow (gravity-negative) and down-flow (gravity-positive) orientations, while for two types of metal-oxide NPs, experiments were performed under both unfavorable and favorable conditions in both up-flow and down-flow orientations. Both breakthrough curves and retained profiles of two types of carbon-based NPs in up-flow orientation were equivalent to those in down-flow orientation, indicating that gravity had negligible effect on the transport and retention of carbon-based NPs under unfavorable conditions. In contrast, under both unfavorable and favorable conditions, the breakthrough curves for two types of metal-oxide NPs in down-flow orientation were lower relative to those in up-flow orientation, indicating that gravity could decrease the transport of metal-oxide NPs in porous media. The distinct effect of gravity on the transport and retention of carbon-based and metal-oxide NPs was mainly attributed to the contribution of gravity to the force balance on the NPs in quartz sand. The contribution of gravity was determined by the interplay of the density and sizes of NP aggregates under examined solution conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Irrepressible, truncated auxin response factors: natural roles and applications in dissecting auxin gene regulation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Krogan, Naden T; Marcos, Danielle; Caragea, Adriana E; Berleth, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The molecularly well-characterized auxin signal transduction pathway involves two evolutionarily conserved families interacting through their C-terminal domains III and IV: the Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) and their repressors the Aux/IAAs, to control auxin-responsive genes, among them genes involved in auxin transport. ( 1) (,) ( 2) We have developed a new genetic tool to study ARF function. Using MONOPTEROS (MP)/ARF5, we have generated a truncated version of MP (MPΔ), ( 3) which has lost the target domains for repression by Aux/IAA proteins. Besides exploring genetic interactions between MP and Aux/IAAs, we used this construct to trace MP's role in vascular patterning, a previously characterized auxin dependent process. ( 4) (,) ( 5) Here we summarize examples of naturally occurring truncated ARFs and summarize potential applications of truncated ARFs as analytical tools.

  12. Center for low-gravity fluid mechanics and transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassoy, D. R.; Sani, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Research projects in several areas are discussed. Mass transport in vapor phase systems, droplet collisions and coalescence in microgravity, and rapid solidification of undercooled melts are discussed.

  13. Phyllotaxis involves auxin drainage through leaf primordia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Yamini; Marti, Dominik; Frenz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of leaves and flowers around the stem, known as phyllotaxis, is controlled by an auxin-dependent reiterative mechanism that leads to regular spacing of the organs and thereby to remarkably precise phyllotactic patterns. The mechanism is based on the active cellular transport...... of the phytohormone auxin by cellular influx and efflux carriers, such as AUX1 and PIN1. Their important role in phyllotaxis is evident from mutant phenotypes, but their exact roles in space and time are difficult to address due to the strong pleiotropic phenotypes of most mutants in phyllotaxis. Models...... of phyllotaxis invoke the accumulation of auxin at leaf initials and removal of auxin through their developing vascular strand, the midvein. We have developed a precise microsurgical tool to ablate the midvein at high spatial and temporal resolution in order to test its function in leaf formation and phyllotaxis...

  14. Auxin homeostasis: the DAO of catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Peer, Wendy Ann

    2017-06-01

    Nearly all programmed and plastic plant growth responses are at least partially regulated by auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Although vectorial, long distance auxin transport is essential to its regulatory function, all auxin responses are ultimately localized in individual target cells. As a consequence, cellular auxin concentrations are tightly regulated via coordinated biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, and oxidation. The primary auxin oxidative product across species is 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA), followed by glucose and amino acid conjugation to oxIAA. Recently, the enzymes catalyzing the oxidative reaction were characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. DIOXYGENASE OF AUXIN OXIDATION (DAO) comprises a small subfamily of the 2-oxoglutarate and Fe(II) [2-OG Fe(II)] dependent dioxygenase superfamily. Biochemical and genetic studies have revealed critical physiological functions of DAO during plant growth and development. Thus far, DAO has been identified in three species by homology. Here, we review historical and recent studies and discuss future perspectives regarding DAO and IAA oxidation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Forward genetic screen for auxin-deficient mutants by cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Luo, Pan; Di, Dong-Wei; Wang, Li; Wang, Ming; Lu, Cheng-Kai; Wei, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tian-Zi; Amakorová, Petra; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, Guang-Qin

    2015-07-06

    Identification of mutants with impairments in auxin biosynthesis and dynamics by forward genetic screening is hindered by the complexity, redundancy and necessity of the pathways involved. Furthermore, although a few auxin-deficient mutants have been recently identified by screening for altered responses to shade, ethylene, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) or cytokinin (CK), there is still a lack of robust markers for systematically isolating such mutants. We hypothesized that a potentially suitable phenotypic marker is root curling induced by CK, as observed in the auxin biosynthesis mutant CK-induced root curling 1 / tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 (ckrc1/taa1). Phenotypic observations, genetic analyses and biochemical complementation tests of Arabidopsis seedlings displaying the trait in large-scale genetic screens showed that it can facilitate isolation of mutants with perturbations in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. However, unlike transport/signaling mutants, the curled (or wavy) root phenotypes of auxin-deficient mutants were significantly induced by CKs and could be rescued by exogenous auxins. Mutants allelic to several known auxin biosynthesis mutants were re-isolated, but several new classes of auxin-deficient mutants were also isolated. The findings show that CK-induced root curling provides an effective marker for discovering genes involved in auxin biosynthesis or homeostasis.

  16. What has been seen cannot be unseen-detecting auxin in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pařízková, Barbora; Pernisová, M.; Novák, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 2736. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA16-01137S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * Auxin distribution * Auxin signalling * Auxin transport * Direct visualization * Indirect visualization * Receptor * Sensor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  17. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  18. Momentum and charge transport in non-relativistic holographic fluids from Hořava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, Richard A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Grozdanov, Sašo [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Janiszewski, Stefan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Kaminski, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We study the linearized transport of transverse momentum and charge in a conjectured field theory dual to a black brane solution of Hořava gravity with Lifshitz exponent z=1. As expected from general hydrodynamic reasoning, we find that both of these quantities are diffusive over distance and time scales larger than the inverse temperature. We compute the diffusion constants and conductivities of transverse momentum and charge, as well the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, and find that they differ from their relativistic counterparts. To derive these results, we propose how the holographic dictionary should be modified to deal with the multiple horizons and differing propagation speeds of bulk excitations in Hořava gravity. When possible, as a check on our methods and results, we use the covariant Einstein-Aether formulation of Hořava gravity, along with field redefinitions, to re-derive our results from a relativistic bulk theory.

  19. Modeling gravity effects on water retention and gas transport characteristics in plant growth substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions....... Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air...... permeability characteristics of six plant growth substrates for potential applications in space, including two terrestrial analogs for lunar and Martian soils and four particulate substrates widely used in reduced gravity experiments. To simulate reduced gravity water characteristics, the predictions...

  20. Auxin Response Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, Mark; Paque, Sébastien; Weijers, Dolf

    2018-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is involved in almost all developmental processes in land plants. Most, if not all, of these processes are mediated by changes in gene expression. Auxin acts on gene expression through a short nuclear pathway that converges upon the activation of a family of DNA-binding

  1. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  3. Interfacial area transport for reduced-gravity two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Shilp

    An extensive experimental and theoretical study of two-phase flow behavior in reduced-gravity conditions has been performed as part of the current research and the results of the same are presented in this thesis. The research was undertaken to understand the behavior of two-phase flows in an environment where the gravity field is reduced as compared to that on earth. The goal of the study was to develop a model capable of predicting the flow behavior. An experimental program was developed and accomplished which simulated reduced-gravity conditions on earth by using two liquids of similar density, thereby decreasing the body force effect akin to actual reduced-gravity conditions. The justification and validation of this approach has been provided based on physical arguments as well as comparison of acquired data with that obtained aboard parabolic flights by previous researchers. The experimental program produced an extensive dataset of local and averaged two-phase flow parameters using state-of-the-art instrumentation. Such data were acquired for a wide range of flow conditions at different radial and axial locations in a 25 mm inner diameter test facility. The current dataset is, in the author's opinion, the most extensive and detailed dataset available for such conditions at present. Analysis of the data revealed important differences between two-phase flows in normal and reduced-gravity conditions. The data analysis also highlighted key interaction mechanisms between the fluid particles and physical phenomena occurring in two-phase flows under reduced-gravity conditions. The interfacial area transport equation (IATE) for reduced-gravity conditions has been developed by considering two groups of bubbles/drops and mechanistically modeling the interaction mechanisms. The developed model has been benchmarked against the acquired data and the predictions of the model compared favorably against the experimental data. This signifies the success achieved in modeling

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE, TRANSPORT COSTS, AND BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA'S TRADE: A GRAVITY MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Fejzić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of transport infrastructure, as an important determinant of transport costs, on trade between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bosnia and Herzegovina’s fifteen largest trading partners. The estimation is based on a gravity model and panel data for the years 2005 to 2014. Transport costs have been estimated on the basis of distance, geography and quality of transport infrastructure, as well as on sets of "dummy" variables, such as the impact of borders, language or "dummy" variables for identifying whether a country is surrounded by land or sea. The results can be summarized as follows: (i the quality of infrastructure and logistics is an important determinant of trade performance; (ii the importance of distance is not diminished when the quality of infrastructure is included; (iii Bosnia and Herzegovina trades with countries with which it shares a common language – ceteris paribus – twice as much as with others.

  5. Mutations in the TIR1 auxin receptor that increase affinity for auxin/indole-3-acetic acid proteins result in auxin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Moss, Britney L; Jang, Seunghee S; Prigge, Michael; Klavins, Eric; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Estelle, Mark

    2013-05-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates virtually every aspect of plant development. The hormone directly mediates the interaction between the two members of the auxin coreceptor complex, a TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR1)/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX protein and an AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressor. To learn more about the interaction between these proteins, a mutant screen was performed using the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid system in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Two tir1 mutations were identified that increased interaction with Aux/IAAs. The D170E and M473L mutations increase affinity between TIR1 and the degron motif of Aux/IAAs and enhance the activity of the SCF(TIR1) complex. This resulted in faster degradation of Aux/IAAs and increased transcription of auxin-responsive genes in the plant. Plants carrying the pTIR1:tir1 D170E/M473L-Myc transgene exhibit diverse developmental defects during plant growth and display an auxin-hypersensitive phenotype. This work demonstrates that changes in the leucine-rich repeat domain of the TIR1 auxin coreceptor can alter the properties of SCF(TIR1).

  6. Correlations between gravitropic curvature and auxin movement across gravistimulated roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.; Hertel, R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the kinetics of auxin redistribution across the caps of primary roots of 2-day-old maize (Zea mays, cv Merit) seedlings with the time course of gravitropic curvature. [3H] indoleacetic acid was applied to one side of the cap in an agar donor and radioactivity moving across the cap was collected in an agar receiver applied to the opposite side. Upon gravistimulation the roots first curved upward slightly, then returned to the horizontal and began curving downward, reaching a final angle of about 67 degrees. Movement of label across the caps of gravistimulated roots was asymmetric with preferential downward movement (ratio downward/upward = ca. 1.6, radioactivity collected during the 90 min following beginning of gravistimulation). There was a close correlation between the development of asymmetric auxin movement across the root cap and the rate of curvature, with both values increasing to a maximum and then declining as the roots approached the final angle of curvature. In roots preadapted to gravity (alternate brief stimulation on opposite flanks over a period of 1 hour) the initial phase of upward curvature was eliminated and downward bending began earlier than for controls. The correlation between asymmetric auxin movement and the kinetics of curvature also held in comparisons between control and preadapted roots. Both downward auxin transport asymmetry and downward curvature occurred earlier in preadapted roots than in controls. These findings are consistent with suggestions that the root cap is not only the site of perception but also the location of the initial redistribution of effectors that ultimately leads to curvature.

  7. Early embryo development in Fucus distichus is auxin sensitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Swati; Sun, Haiguo; Brian, Leigh; Quatrano, Ralph L.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2002-01-01

    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo development in land plants. The goal of these studies was to determine if auxin and auxin transport are also important during the earliest stages of development in embryos of the brown alga Fucus distichus. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified in F. distichus embryos and mature tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. F. distichus embryos accumulate [(3)H]IAA and an inhibitor of IAA efflux, naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), elevates IAA accumulation, suggesting the presence of an auxin efflux protein complex similar to that found in land plants. F. distichus embryos normally develop with a single unbranched rhizoid, but growth on IAA leads to formation of multiple rhizoids and growth on NPA leads to formation of embryos with branched rhizoids, at concentrations that are active in auxin accumulation assays. The effects of IAA and NPA are complete before 6 h after fertilization (AF), which is before rhizoid germination and cell division. The maximal effects of IAA and NPA are between 3.5 and 5 h AF and 4 and 5.5 h AF, respectively. Although, the location of the planes of cell division was significantly altered in NPA- and IAA-treated embryos, these abnormal divisions occurred after abnormal rhizoid initiation and branching was observed. The results of this study suggest that auxin acts in the formation of apical basal patterns in F. distichus embryo development.

  8. Effect of gravity on colloid transport through water-saturated columns packed with glass beads: modeling and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Syngouna, Vasiliki I

    2014-06-17

    The role of gravitational force on colloid transport in water-saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Transport experiments were performed with colloids (clays: kaolinite KGa-1b, montmorillonite STx-1b). The packed columns were placed in various orientations (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal) and a steady flow rate of Q = 1.5 mL/min was applied in both up-flow and down-flow modes. All experiments were conducted under electrostatically unfavorable conditions. The experimental data were fitted with a newly developed, analytical, one-dimensional, colloid transport model. The effect of gravity is incorporated in the mathematical model by combining the interstitial velocity (advection) with the settling velocity (gravity effect). The results revealed that flow direction influences colloid transport in porous media. The rate of particle deposition was shown to be greater for up-flow than for down-flow direction, suggesting that gravity was a significant driving force for colloid deposition.

  9. Transcriptional feedback regulation of YUCCA genes in response to auxin levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Mitsui, Marie; Kakei, Yusuke; Mitani, Yuka; Nakamura, Ayako; Ishii, Takahiro; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2015-08-01

    The IPyA pathway, the major auxin biosynthesis pathway, is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels. The phytohormone auxin plays an important role in plant growth and development, and levels of active free auxin are determined by biosynthesis, conjugation, and polar transport. Unlike conjugation and polar transport, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanism of auxin biosynthesis. We discovered that expression of genes encoding indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway enzymes is regulated by elevated or reduced active auxin levels. Expression levels of TAR2, YUC1, YUC2, YUC4, and YUC6 were downregulated in response to synthetic auxins [1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] exogenously applied to Arabidopsis thaliana L. seedlings. Concomitantly, reduced levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were observed. Alternatively, expression of these YUCCA genes was upregulated by the auxin biosynthetic inhibitor kynurenine in Arabidopsis seedlings, accompanied by reduced IAA levels. These results indicate that expression of YUCCA genes is regulated by active auxin levels. Similar results were also observed in auxin-overproduction and auxin-deficient mutants. Exogenous application of IPyA to Arabidopsis seedlings preincubated with kynurenine increased endogenous IAA levels, while preincubation with 2,4-D reduced endogenous IAA levels compared to seedlings exposed only to IPyA. These results suggest that in vivo conversion of IPyA to IAA was enhanced under reduced auxin levels, while IPyA to IAA conversion was depressed in the presence of excess auxin. Based on these results, we propose that the IPyA pathway is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels.

  10. Lifshitz black branes and DC transport coefficients in massive Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiao-Mei; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Wu, Jian-Pin; Zhou, Zhenhua

    2018-03-01

    We construct analytical Lifshitz massive black brane solutions in massive Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory. We also study the thermodynamics of these black brane solutions and obtain the thermodynamical stability conditions. On the dual nonrelativistic boundary field theory with Lifshitz symmetry, we analytically compute the DC transport coefficients, including the electric conductivity, thermoelectric conductivity, and thermal conductivity. The novel property of our model is that the massive term supports the Lifshitz black brane solutions with z ≠1 in such a way that the DC transport coefficients in the dual field theory are finite. We also find that the Wiedemann-Franz law in this dual boundary field theory is violated, which indicates that it may involve strong interactions.

  11. The role of pre-symbiotic auxin signaling in ectendomycorrhiza formation between the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri and Helianthemum sessiliflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Lubinsky, Olga; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit; Zaady, Eli; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Guy, Ofer; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Sitrit, Yaron

    2016-05-01

    The ectendomycorrhizal fungus Terfezia boudieri is known to secrete auxin. While some of the effects of fungal auxin on the plant root system have been described, a comprehensive understanding is still lacking. A dual culture system to study pre mycorrhizal signal exchange revealed previously unrecognized root-fungus interaction mediated by the fungal auxin. The secreted fungal auxin induced negative taproot gravitropism, attenuated taproot growth rate, and inhibited initial host development. Auxin also induced expression of Arabidopsis carriers AUX1 and PIN1, both of which are involved in the gravitropic response. Exogenous application of auxin led to a root phenotype, which fully mimicked that induced by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Co-cultivation of Arabidopsis auxin receptor mutants tir1-1, tir1-1 afb2-3, tir1-1 afb1-3 afb2-3, and tir1-1 afb2-3 afb3-4 with Terfezia confirmed that auxin induces the observed root phenotype. The finding that auxin both induces taproot deviation from the gravity axis and coordinates growth rate is new. We propose a model in which the fungal auxin induces horizontal root development, as well as the coordination of growth rates between partners, along with the known auxin effect on lateral root induction that increases the availability of accessible sites for colonization at the soil plane of fungal spore abundance. Thus, the newly observed responses described here of the root to Terfezia contribute to a successful encounter between symbionts.

  12. WRKY23 is a component of the transcriptional network mediating auxin feedback on PIN polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prát, Tomáš; Hajný, Jakub; Grunewald, Wim; Vasileva, Mina; Molnár, Gergely; Tejos, Ricardo; Schmid, Markus; Sauer, Michael; Friml, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Auxin is unique among plant hormones due to its directional transport that is mediated by the polarly distributed PIN auxin transporters at the plasma membrane. The canalization hypothesis proposes that the auxin feedback on its polar flow is a crucial, plant-specific mechanism mediating multiple self-organizing developmental processes. Here, we used the auxin effect on the PIN polar localization in Arabidopsis thaliana roots as a proxy for the auxin feedback on the PIN polarity during canalization. We performed microarray experiments to find regulators of this process that act downstream of auxin. We identified genes that were transcriptionally regulated by auxin in an AXR3/IAA17- and ARF7/ARF19-dependent manner. Besides the known components of the PIN polarity, such as PID and PIP5K kinases, a number of potential new regulators were detected, among which the WRKY23 transcription factor, which was characterized in more detail. Gain- and loss-of-function mutants confirmed a role for WRKY23 in mediating the auxin effect on the PIN polarity. Accordingly, processes requiring auxin-mediated PIN polarity rearrangements, such as vascular tissue development during leaf venation, showed a higher WRKY23 expression and required the WRKY23 activity. Our results provide initial insights into the auxin transcriptional network acting upstream of PIN polarization and, potentially, canalization-mediated plant development.

  13. WRKY23 is a component of the transcriptional network mediating auxin feedback on PIN polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Prát

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxin is unique among plant hormones due to its directional transport that is mediated by the polarly distributed PIN auxin transporters at the plasma membrane. The canalization hypothesis proposes that the auxin feedback on its polar flow is a crucial, plant-specific mechanism mediating multiple self-organizing developmental processes. Here, we used the auxin effect on the PIN polar localization in Arabidopsis thaliana roots as a proxy for the auxin feedback on the PIN polarity during canalization. We performed microarray experiments to find regulators of this process that act downstream of auxin. We identified genes that were transcriptionally regulated by auxin in an AXR3/IAA17- and ARF7/ARF19-dependent manner. Besides the known components of the PIN polarity, such as PID and PIP5K kinases, a number of potential new regulators were detected, among which the WRKY23 transcription factor, which was characterized in more detail. Gain- and loss-of-function mutants confirmed a role for WRKY23 in mediating the auxin effect on the PIN polarity. Accordingly, processes requiring auxin-mediated PIN polarity rearrangements, such as vascular tissue development during leaf venation, showed a higher WRKY23 expression and required the WRKY23 activity. Our results provide initial insights into the auxin transcriptional network acting upstream of PIN polarization and, potentially, canalization-mediated plant development.

  14. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  15. Auxin influx inhibitors 1-NOA, 2-NOA, and CHPAA interfere with membrane dynamics in tobacco cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laňková, Martina; Smith, R. S.; Pešek, Bedřich; Kubeš, Martin; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 13 (2010), s. 3589-3598 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600380702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Grant - others:_(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin efflux carrier * auxin influx carrier * auxin transport Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.818, year: 2010

  16. SELF-GRAVITY AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT IN EXTENDED GALACTIC DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, C. P.; Wadsley, J.; Couchman, H. M. P.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a significant difference in the angular momentum transport properties of galactic disks between regions in which the interstellar medium is single phase or two phase. Our study is motivated by observations of H I in extended galactic disks which indicate velocity dispersions of nonthermal origin, suggesting that turbulence in the gas may be contributing significantly to the observed dispersion. To address this, we have implemented a shearing-box framework within the FLASH code. The new code was used to perform local simulations of galactic disks that incorporate differential rotation, self-gravity, vertical stratification, hydrodynamics, and cooling. These simulations explore plausible mechanisms for driving turbulent motions via the thermal and self-gravitational instabilities coupling to differential rotation. Where a two-phase medium develops, gravitational angular momentum transporting stresses are much greater, creating a possible mechanism for transferring energy from galactic rotation to turbulence. In simulations where the disk conditions do not trigger the formation of a two-phase medium, it is found that perturbations to the flow damp without leading to a sustained mechanism for driving turbulence. The differing angular momentum transport properties of the single- and two-phase regimes of the disk suggest that a significant, dynamically motivated division can be drawn between the two, even when this division occurs far outside the star formation cutoff in a galactic disk.

  17. What Has Been Seen Cannot Be Unseen—Detecting Auxin In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Pařízková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxins mediate various processes that are involved in plant growth and development in response to specific environmental conditions. Its proper spatio-temporal distribution that is driven by polar auxin transport machinery plays a crucial role in the wide range of auxins physiological effects. Numbers of approaches have been developed to either directly or indirectly monitor auxin distribution in vivo in order to elucidate the basis of its precise regulation. Herein, we provide an updated list of valuable techniques used for monitoring auxins in plants, with their utilities and limitations. Because the spatial and temporal resolutions of the presented approaches are different, their combination may provide a comprehensive outcome of auxin distribution in diverse developmental processes.

  18. ARG1 and ARL2 contribute to gravity signal transduction in the statocytes of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Patrick; Harrison, Benjamin; Stanga, John; Otegui, Marisa; Sedbrook, John

    Gravity is an important cue that plant organs use to guide their growth. Each organ is characterized by a defined gravity set point angle that dictates its optimal orientation within the gravity field. Specialized cells, named statocytes, enable this directional growth response by perceiving gravity via the sedimentation of, and/or tension/pressure exerted by, starch-filled plastids within their cytoplasm. Located in the columella region of the cap in roots and in the endodermis of hypocotyls and stems, these cells modulate the lateral transport of auxin across the corresponding organ in a gravistimulus-dependent manner. Upon plant reorientation within the gravity field, a gravity signal transduction pathway is activated within those cells, which in roots leads to a relocalization of the PIN3 auxin efflux carrier toward the lower membrane and an alkalinization of the cytoplasm. In turn, these events appear to promote a lateral transport of auxin toward the bottom side of the stimulated organ, which promotes a curvature. We previously uncovered ARG1 and ARL2 as essential contributors to these cellular processes. Mutations in these genes result in altered root and hypocotyl gravitropism. In roots, this abnormal growth behavior is associated with a lack of PIN3 relocalization within the statocytes and an absence of preferential downward auxin transport upon gravistimulation. These two genes encode paralogous J-domain proteins that are associated with the plasma membrane and other membranes of the vesicular trafficking pathway, and appear to modulate protein trafficking within the statocytes. An analysis of the root gravitropic phenotypes associated with different double mutant configurations affecting ARG1, ARL2 and PIN3 suggest that all three proteins function in a common gravity-signaling pathway. Surprisingly, when a mutation that affects starch biosynthesis (pgm) is introgressed into an arg1-2 mutant, the gravitropic defects are dramatically enhanced relative to

  19. Effects of Auxins on PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) Dynamics Are Not Mediated by Inhibiting PIN2 Endocytosis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jásik, Ján; Bokor, Boris; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Mičieta, Karol; Turňa, Ján; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2016-01-01

    By using the photoconvertible fluorescence protein Dendra2 as a tag we demonstrated that neither the naturally occurring auxins indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, nor the synthetic auxin analogs 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid nor compounds inhibiting polar auxin transport such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, were able to inhibit endocytosis of the putative auxin transporter PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermis cells. All compounds, except Indole-3-butyric acid, repressed the recovery of the PIN2-Dendra2 plasma membrane pool after photoconversion when they were used in high concentrations. The synthetic auxin analogs 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid showed the strongest inhibition. Auxins and auxin transport inhibitors suppressed also the accumulation of both newly synthesized and endocytotic PIN2 pools in Brefeldin A compartments (BFACs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that all compounds are also interfering with BFAC formation. The synthetic auxin analogs caused the highest reduction in the number and size of BFACs. We concluded that auxins and inhibitors of auxin transport do affect PIN2 turnover in the cells, but it is through the synthetic rather than the endocytotic pathway. The study also confirmed inappropriateness of the BFA-based approach to study PIN2 endocytosis because the majority of PIN2 accumulating in BFACs is newly synthesized and not derived from the plasma membrane. PMID:27506239

  20. Effects of Auxins on PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) Dynamics Are Not Mediated by Inhibiting PIN2 Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jásik, Ján; Bokor, Boris; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Mičieta, Karol; Turňa, Ján; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2016-10-01

    By using the photoconvertible fluorescence protein Dendra2 as a tag we demonstrated that neither the naturally occurring auxins indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, nor the synthetic auxin analogs 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid nor compounds inhibiting polar auxin transport such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, were able to inhibit endocytosis of the putative auxin transporter PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermis cells. All compounds, except Indole-3-butyric acid, repressed the recovery of the PIN2-Dendra2 plasma membrane pool after photoconversion when they were used in high concentrations. The synthetic auxin analogs 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid showed the strongest inhibition. Auxins and auxin transport inhibitors suppressed also the accumulation of both newly synthesized and endocytotic PIN2 pools in Brefeldin A compartments (BFACs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that all compounds are also interfering with BFAC formation. The synthetic auxin analogs caused the highest reduction in the number and size of BFACs. We concluded that auxins and inhibitors of auxin transport do affect PIN2 turnover in the cells, but it is through the synthetic rather than the endocytotic pathway. The study also confirmed inappropriateness of the BFA-based approach to study PIN2 endocytosis because the majority of PIN2 accumulating in BFACs is newly synthesized and not derived from the plasma membrane. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Transport and distribution of basally applied indoleaceticacid-2-14C in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings in relation to interaction of auxin and indole in adventitious root formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Choudhary, K.; Basu, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    Negative interaction or antagonism between IAA and high concentration of indole in rooting of bean cuttings was associated with significant increase in upward movement and accumulation of radiocarbon of IAA-2- 14 C in upper parts of the cuttings. Positive interaction or synergism observed with lower concentrations of indole was not associated with such increased acropetal transport. There was also no significant difference in total radioactivity per cutting among the different concentrations of indole. The results suggest that non-promotion of upward movement of basally applied auxin from the root forming region or its increased upward movement out of the root forming region may be an important factor in the mechanism of synergism or antagonism respectively. (author)

  2. Gravity regulated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (GENARA experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Carnero-D&íaz, Eugénie; Medina, Francisco Javier; Gasset, Gilbert; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Graziana, Annick; Mazars, Christian; Le Disquet, Isabelle; Eche, Brigitte; Grat, Sabine; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette

    2012-07-01

    In higher plants, post-embryonic development is possible through the expression of a set of genes constituting the morphogenetic program that contribute to the production of tissues and organs during the whole plant life cycle. Plant development is mainly controlled by internal factors such as phytohormones, as well as by environmental factors, among which gravity plays a key role (gravi-morphogenetic program). The GENARA space experiment has been designed with the goal of contributing to a better understanding of this gravi-morphogenetic program through the identification and characterization of some gravity regulated proteins (GR proteins) by using quantitative proteomic methods, and through the study of the impact of plant hormones on the expression of this program. Among plant hormones, auxin is the major regulator of organogenesis. In fact, it affects numerous plant developmental processes, e.g. cell division and elongation, autumnal loss of leaves, and the formation of buds, roots, flowers and fruits. Furthermore, it also plays a key role in the mechanisms of different tropisms (including gravitropism) that modulate fundamental features of plant growth. The expression of significant genes involved in auxin transport and in auxin signal perception in root cells is being studied in space-grown seedlings and compared with the corresponding ground controls. This experiment was scheduled to be performed in The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), a new facility for plant cultivation and Plant Molecular Biology studies, at ISS. However only one aspect of this experiment was flown and concerns the qualitative and quantitative changes in membrane proteins supposed to be mainly associated with cell signaling and has been called GENARA A. The second part dealing with the function of auxin in the gravi-morphogenetic program and the alterations induced by microgravity will be studied through mutants affected on biosynthesis, transport or perception of auxin in a

  3. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2011-03-24

    Deposition of ammonium (NH4 +) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH4 + is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Abscisic Acid Regulates Auxin Homeostasis in Rice Root Tips to Promote Root Hair Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10 had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2 had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module. Treatment of the DR5-GUS and OsPIN-GUS lines with ABA and an auxin efflux inhibitor showed that ABA-induced root hair elongation depends on polar auxin transport. To examine the transcriptional response to ABA, we divided rice root tips into three regions: short root hair, long root hair and root tip zones; and conducted RNA-seq analysis with or without ABA treatment. Examination of genes involved in auxin transport, biosynthesis and metabolism indicated that ABA promotes auxin biosynthesis and polar auxin transport in the root tip, which may lead to auxin accumulation in the long root hair zone. Our findings shed light on how ABA regulates root hair elongation through crosstalk with auxin biosynthesis and transport to orchestrate plant development.

  5. Auxin inhibits endocytosis and promotes its own efflux from cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paciorek, T.; Zažímalová, Eva; Ruthardt, N.; Petrášek, Jan; Stierhof, Y. D.; Kleine-Vehn, J.; Morris, David; Emans, N.; Jürgens, G.; Geldner, N.; Friml, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 7046 (2005), s. 1251-1256 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phytohormones * polar auxin transport * plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.273, year: 2005

  6. Effects of auxins on in vitro reserve compounds of Phalaenopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... The effects of auxin and the endogenous levels of reserve compounds of Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) ..... mechanisms, and the physiological process of sugar transport, and their cellular and temporal expression patterns must be defined. Our results demonstrate the presence of high metabolic ...

  7. A chemical pollen suppressant inhibits auxin-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, M.J.; Cross, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical inhibitors of pollen development having a phenylcinnoline carboxylate structure were found to inhibit IAA- and 1-NAA-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections. The inhibitor (100 μM) used in these experiments caused approx. 35% reduction in auxin-induced growth over the auxin concentration range of 0.3 to 100 μM. Growth inhibition was noted as a lengthening of the latent period and a decrease in the rate of an auxin-induced growth response. An acid growth response to pH 5 buffer in abraded sections was not impaired. The velocity of basipetal transport of [ 3 H]IAA through the coleoptile sections also was not inhibited by the compound, nor was uptake of [ 3 H]IAA. Similarly, the inhibitor does not appear to alter auxin-induced H + secretion. We suggest that the agent targets some other process necessary for auxin-dependent growth

  8. The role of CORYMBOSA1/BIG and auxin in the growth of Arabidopsis pedicel and internode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Komeda, Yoshibumi

    2013-08-01

    The developmental regulation of pedicel and internode ensures that plants of the same species have similar inflorescence architecture. In Arabidopsis, the elongation of pedicels and internodes must be temporally and spatially regulated. We previously isolated the corymbosa1 (crm1) mutant, which has a corymb-like inflorescence because of shortened pedicels and internodes. CRM1/BIG encodes a membrane-associated protein and is required for auxin transport. Although CRM1/BIG and auxin have important roles in the development of pedicels and internodes, the developmental changes in cell growth in pedicels and internodes have not been examined. Here, we investigated the role of auxin in the cell growth of pedicels and internodes. Wild-type plants had rapid pedicel and internodal elongation that resulted from the temporal control of cell division and elongation. The crm1 mutants had defects in cell division and elongation. Auxin signaling and cell cycle gene expression in crm1 inflorescences were lower than those in the wild type. Moreover, wild-type plants treated with an auxin transport inhibitor and mutants defective in auxin signaling had shorter pedicels and internodes, with fewer and smaller cells. Our results suggest that auxin transport and signaling have important roles in controlling the proliferation and elongation of pedicel and internodal cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Auxin-Ethylene Crosstalk in Orchestrating Primary Root Elongation in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abts, Willem; Vandenbussche, Bert; De Proft, Maurice P.; Van de Poel, Bram

    2017-01-01

    It is well-established in Arabidopsis and other species that ethylene inhibits root elongation through the action of auxin. In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) ethylene promotes root elongation in a concentration dependent manner. However, the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin remains unknown during sugar beet seedling development. Our experiments have shown that exogenously applied auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) also stimulates root elongation. We also show that auxin promotes ethylene biosynthesis leading to longer roots. We have further demonstrated that the auxin treatment stimulates ethylene production by redirecting the pool of available 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) toward ethylene instead of malonyl-ACC (MACC) resulting in a prolonged period of high rates of ethylene production and subsequently a longer root. On the other hand we have also shown that endogenous IAA levels were not affected by an ACC treatment during germination. All together our findings suggest that the general model for auxin-ethylene crosstalk during early root development, where ethylene controls auxin biosynthesis and transport, does not occur in sugar beet. On the contrary, we have shown that the opposite, where auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis, is true for sugar beet root development. PMID:28424722

  10. The effect of NGATHA altered activity in auxin signaling pathways within the Arabidopsis gynoecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMartinez-Fernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The four NGATHA genes (NGA form a small subfamily within the large family of B3-domain transcription factors of Arabidopsis thaliana. NGA genes act redundantly to direct the development of the apical tissues of the gynoecium, the style and the stigma. Previous studies indicate that NGA genes could exert this function at least partially by directing the synthesis of auxin at the distal end of the developing gynoecium through the upregulation of two different YUCCA genes, which encode flavin monooxygenases involved in auxin biosynthesis. We have compared three developing pistil transcriptome data sets from wildtype, nga quadruple mutants and a 35S::NGA3 line. The differentially expressed genes showed a significant enrichment for auxin-related genes, supporting the idea of NGA genes as major regulators of auxin accumulation and distribution within the developing gynoecium.We have introduced reporter lines for several of these differentially expressed genes involved in synthesis, transport and response to auxin in NGA gain- and loss-of-function backgrounds. We present here a detailed map of the response of these reporters to NGA misregulation that could help to clarify the role of NGA in auxin-mediated gynoecium morphogenesis. Our data point to a very reduced auxin synthesis in the developing apical gynoecium of nga mutants, likely responsible for the lack of DR5rev::GFP reporter activity observed in these mutants. In addition, NGA altered activity affects the expression of protein kinases that regulate the cellular localization of auxin efflux regulators, and thus likely impact auxin transport. Finally, protein accumulation in pistils of several ARFs was differentially affected by nga mutations or NGA overexpression, suggesting that these accumulation patterns depend not only on auxin distribution but could be also regulated by transcriptional networks involving NGA factors.

  11. Suppression of the auxin response pathway enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi while phosphite-mediated resistance stimulates the auxin signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora cinnamomi is a devastating pathogen worldwide and phosphite (Phi), an analogue of phosphate (Pi) is highly effective in the control of this pathogen. Phi also interferes with Pi starvation responses (PSR), of which auxin signalling is an integral component. In the current study, the involvement of Pi and the auxin signalling pathways in host and Phi-mediated resistance to P. cinnamomi was investigated by screening the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 and several mutants defective in PSR and the auxin response pathway for their susceptibility to this pathogen. The response to Phi treatment was also studied by monitoring its effect on Pi- and the auxin response pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that phr1-1 (phosphate starvation response 1), a mutant defective in response to Pi starvation was highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi compared to the parental background Col-0. Furthermore, the analysis of the Arabidopsis tir1-1 (transport inhibitor response 1) mutant, deficient in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skp1 − Cullin − F-Box) ubiquitination pathway was also highly susceptible to P. cinnamomi and the susceptibility of the mutants rpn10 and pbe1 further supported a role for the 26S proteasome in resistance to P. cinnamomi. The role of auxin was also supported by a significant (P < 0.001) increase in susceptibility of blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) to P. cinnamomi following treatment with the inhibitor of auxin transport, TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Given the apparent involvement of auxin and PSR signalling in the resistance to P. cinnamomi, the possible involvement of these pathways in Phi mediated resistance was also investigated. Phi (especially at high concentrations) attenuates the response of some Pi starvation inducible genes such as AT4, AtACP5 and AtPT2 in Pi starved plants. However, Phi enhanced the transcript levels of PHR1 and the auxin responsive genes (AUX1, AXR1and AXR2), suppressed the primary root

  12. Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Li Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1 and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns. Hydropathy analysis revealed that both polypeptides have two hydrophobic regions with five transmembrane segments and a predominantly hydrophilic core. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that McPIN1 shared the highest homology to the group of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato PIN1, while McPIN3 belonged to another group, including Arabidopsis and tomato PIN3 as well as PIN4. This suggests different roles for McPIN1 and McPIN3 in auxin transport involved in the fruit development of bitter gourd. Maximum mRNA levels for both genes were detected in staminate and pistillate flowers. McPIN1 is expressed in a particular period of early fruit development but McPIN3 continues to be expressed until the last stage of fruit ripening. Moreover, these two genes are auxin-inducible and qualified as early auxin-response genes. Their expression patterns suggest that these two auxin transporter genes play a pivotal role in fruit setting and development.

  13. Influence of internal waves on the dispersion and transport of inclined gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, C. A. R.; Pietrasz, V. B.; Ouellette, N. T.; Koseff, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Brine discharge from desalination facilities presents environmental risks, particularly to benthic organisms. High concentrations of salt and chemical additives, which can be toxic to local ecosystems, are typically mitigated by dilution close to the source. Our laboratory experiments investigate how breaking internal tides can help to dilute gravity currents caused by desalination effluents and direct them away from the benthic layer. In laboratory experiments, internal waves at the pycnocline of an ambient stratification were directed towards a sloping shelf, down which ran a gravity current. The breaking internal waves were seen to increase the proportion of the fluid from the gravity current diverted away from the slope into an intrusion along the pycnocline. In a parametric study, increasing the amplitude of the internal wave was seen to increase the amount of dense fluid in the pycnocline intrusion. The amplitude required to divert the gravity current into the intrusion compares well with an analytical theory that equates the incident energy in the internal wave to the potential energy required to dilute the gravity current. These experimental results suggest that sites of breaking internal waves may be good sites for effluent disposal. Effluent diverted into the intrusion avoids the ecologically sensitive benthic layer.

  14. Vertical Transport of Momentum by the Inertial-Gravity Internal Waves in a Baroclinic Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Slepyshev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When the internal waves break, they are one of the sources of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence causes the vertical exchange in the ocean. However, internal waves with regard to the Earth rotation in the presence of vertically inhomogeneous two-dimensional current are able to contribute to the vertical transport. Free inertial-gravity internal waves in a baroclinic current in a boundless basin of a constant depth are considered in the Bussinesq approximation. Boundary value problem of linear approximation for the vertical velocity amplitude of internal waves has complex coefficients when current velocity component, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, depends on the vertical coordinate (taking into account the rotation of the Earth. Eigenfunction and wave frequency are complex, and it is shown that a weak wave damping takes place. Dispersive relation and wave damping decrement are calculated in the linear approximation. At a fixed wave number damping decrement of the second mode is larger (in the absolute value than the one of the first mode. The equation for vertical velocity amplitude for real profiles of the Brunt – Vaisala frequency and current velocity are numerically solved according to implicit Adams scheme of the third order of accuracy. The dispersive curves of the first two modes do not reach inertial frequency in the low-frequency area due to the effect of critical layers in which wave frequency of the Doppler shift is equal to the inertial one. Termination of the second mode dispersive curves takes place at higher frequency than the one of the first mode. In the second order of the wave amplitude the Stokes drift speed is determined. It is shown that the Stokes drift speed, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, differs from zero if the transversal component of current velocity depends on the vertical coordinate. In this case, the Stokes drift speed in the second mode is lower than

  15. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesh Panoli

    Full Text Available The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2 are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development.

  16. Auxin as an inducer of asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Giannoutsou, Eleni; Apostolakos, Panagiotis; Galatis, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The data presented in this work revealed that in Zea mays the exogenously added auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), promoted the establishment of subsidiary cell mother cell (SMC) polarity and the subsequent subsidiary cell formation, while treatment with auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-napthoxyacetic acid (NOA) specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. Furthermore, in young guard cell mother cells (GMCs) the PIN1 auxin efflux carriers were mainly localized in the transverse GMC faces, while in the advanced GMCs they appeared both in the transverse and the lateral ones adjacent to SMCs. Considering that phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is an active component of auxin signal transduction and that phospholipid signaling contributes in the establishment of polarity, treatments with the specific inhibitor of the PI3K LY294002 were carried out. The presence of LY294002 suppressed polarization of SMCs and prevented their asymmetrical division, whereas combined treatment with exogenously added NAA and LY294002 restricted the promotional auxin influence on subsidiary cell formation. These findings support the view that auxin is involved in Z. mays subsidiary cell formation, probably functioning as inducer of the asymmetrical SMC division. Collectively, the results obtained from treatments with auxin transport inhibitors and the appearance of PIN1 proteins in the lateral GMC faces indicate a local transfer of auxin from GMCs to SMCs. Moreover, auxin signal transduction seems to be mediated by the catalytic function of PI3K.

  17. The Tomato 14-3-3 Protein TFT4 Modulates H+ Efflux, Basipetal Auxin Transport, and the PKS5-J3 Pathway in the Root Growth Response to Alkaline Stress1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Jia, Liguo; Shi, Weiming; Baluška, František; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline stress is a common environmental stress, in particular in salinized soils. Plant roots respond to a variety of soil stresses by regulating their growth, but the nature of the regulatory pathways engaged in the alkaline stress response (ASR) is not yet understood. Previous studies show that PIN-FORMED2, an auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) efflux transporter, PKS5, a protein kinase, and DNAJ HOMOLOG3 (J3), a chaperone, play key roles in root H+ secretion by regulating plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases directly or by targeting 14-3-3 proteins. Here, we investigated the expression of all 14-3-3 gene family members (TOMATO 14-3-3 PROTEIN1 [TFT1]–TFT12) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under ASR, showing the involvement of four of them, TFT1, TFT4, TFT6, and TFT7. When these genes were separately introduced into Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and overexpressed, only the growth of TFT4 overexpressors was significantly enhanced when compared with the wild type under stress. H+ efflux and the activity of PM H+-ATPase were significantly enhanced in the root tips of TFT4 overexpressors. Microarray analysis and pharmacological examination of the overexpressor and mutant plants revealed that overexpression of TFT4 maintains primary root elongation by modulating PM H+-ATPase-mediated H+ efflux and basipetal IAA transport in root tips under alkaline stress. TFT4 further plays important roles in the PKS5-J3 signaling pathway. Our study demonstrates that TFT4 acts as a regulator in the integration of H+ efflux, basipetal IAA transport, and the PKS5-J3 pathway in the ASR of roots and coordinates root apex responses to alkaline stress for the maintenance of primary root elongation. PMID:24134886

  18. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Ramachandran, N.

    2013-01-01

    Crystals of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, will be grown by physical vapor transport in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the crystals grown by vapor transport as results of buoyance-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  19. Glucose and auxin signaling interaction in controlling Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings root growth and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwaneshwar S Mishra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant root growth and development is highly plastic and can adapt to many environmental conditions. Sugar signaling has been shown to affect root growth and development by interacting with phytohormones such as gibberellins, cytokinin and abscisic acid. Auxin signaling and transport has been earlier shown to be controlling plant root length, number of lateral roots, root hair and root growth direction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Increasing concentration of glucose not only controls root length, root hair and number of lateral roots but can also modulate root growth direction. Since root growth and development is also controlled by auxin, whole genome transcript profiling was done to find out the extent of interaction between glucose and auxin response pathways. Glucose alone could transcriptionally regulate 376 (62% genes out of 604 genes affected by IAA. Presence of glucose could also modulate the extent of regulation 2 fold or more of almost 63% genes induced or repressed by IAA. Interestingly, glucose could affect induction or repression of IAA affected genes (35% even if glucose alone had no significant effect on the transcription of these genes itself. Glucose could affect auxin biosynthetic YUCCA genes family members, auxin transporter PIN proteins, receptor TIR1 and members of a number of gene families including AUX/IAA, GH3 and SAUR involved in auxin signaling. Arabidopsis auxin receptor tir1 and response mutants, axr2, axr3 and slr1 not only display a defect in glucose induced change in root length, root hair elongation and lateral root production but also accentuate glucose induced increase in root growth randomization from vertical suggesting glucose effects on plant root growth and development are mediated by auxin signaling components. CONCLUSION: Our findings implicate an important role of the glucose interacting with auxin signaling and transport machinery to control seedling root growth and development in changing nutrient

  20. Mutations in the gravity persistence signal loci in Arabidopsis disrupt the perception and/or signal transduction of gravitropic stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah E.; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Shipp, Matthew J.; Robertson, Dominique; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, yet little is understood about the early events of gravitropism. To identify genes affected in the signal perception and/or transduction phase of the gravity response, a mutant screen was devised using cold treatment to delay the gravity response of inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis. Inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis show no response to gravistimulation at 4 degrees C for up to 3 h. However, when gravistimulated at 4 degrees C and then returned to vertical at room temperature (RT), stems bend in response to the previous, horizontal gravistimulation (H. Fukaki, H. Fujisawa, M. Tasaka [1996] Plant Physiology 110: 933-943). This indicates that gravity perception, but not the gravitropic response, occurs at 4 degrees C. Recessive mutations were identified at three loci using this cold effect on gravitropism to screen for gravity persistence signal (gps) mutants. All three mutants had an altered response after gravistimulation at 4 degrees C, yet had phenotypically normal responses to stimulations at RT. gps1-1 did not bend in response to the 4 degrees C gravity stimulus upon return to RT. gps2-1 responded to the 4 degrees C stimulus but bent in the opposite direction. gps3-1 over-responded after return to RT, continuing to bend to an angle greater than wild-type plants. At 4 degrees C, starch-containing statoliths sedimented normally in both wild-type and the gps mutants, but auxin transport was abolished at 4 degrees C. These results are consistent with GPS loci affecting an aspect of the gravity signal perception/transduction pathway that occurs after statolith sedimentation, but before auxin transport.

  1. PATELLINS are regulators of auxin-mediated PIN1 relocation and plant development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Adamowski, Maciej; Sauer, Michael; Norambuena, Lorena; Friml, Jiří

    2018-01-29

    Coordinated cell polarization in developing tissues is a recurrent theme in multicellular organisms. In plants, a directional distribution of the plant hormone auxin is at the core of many developmental programs. A feedback regulation of auxin on the polarized localization of PIN auxin transporters in individual cells has been proposed as a self-organizing mechanism for coordinated tissue polarization, but the molecular mechanisms linking auxin signalling to PIN-dependent auxin transport remain unknown. We used a microarray-based approach to find regulators of the auxin-induced PIN relocation in Arabidopsis thaliana root, and identified a subset of a family of phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs), the PATELLINs (PATLs). Here, we show that PATLs are expressed in partially overlapping cell types in different tissues going through mitosis or initiating differentiation programs. PATLs are plasma membrane-associated proteins accumulated in Arabidopsis embryos, primary roots, lateral root primordia and developing stomata. Higher order patl mutants display reduced PIN1 repolarization in response to auxin, shorter root apical meristem, and drastic defects in embryo and seedling development. This suggests that PATLs play a redundant and crucial role in polarity and patterning in Arabidopsis . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Role of auxin during intercellular infection of Discaria trinervis by Frankia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Leandro; Perrine-Walker, Francine M.; Ndour, Adama; Vayssières, Alice; Conejero, Genevieve; Lucas, Mikaël; Champion, Antony; Laplaze, Laurent; Wall, Luis; Svistoonoff, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing nodules induced by Frankia in the actinorhizal plant Discaria trinervis result from a primitive intercellular root invasion pathway that does not involve root hair deformation and infection threads. Here, we analyzed the role of auxin in this intercellular infection pathway at the molecular level and compared it with our previous work in the intracellular infected actinorhizal plant Casuarina glauca. Immunolocalisation experiments showed that auxin accumulated in Frankia-infected cells in both systems. We then characterized the expression of auxin transporters in D. trinervis nodules. No activation of the heterologous CgAUX1 promoter was detected in infected cells in D. trinervis. These results were confirmed with the endogenous D. trinervis gene, DtAUX1. However, DtAUX1 was expressed in the nodule meristem. Consistently, transgenic D. trinervis plants containing the auxin response marker DR5:VENUS showed expression of the reporter gene in the meristem. Immunolocalisation experiments using an antibody against the auxin efflux carrier PIN1, revealed the presence of this transporter in the plasma membrane of infected cells. Finally, we used in silico cellular models to analyse auxin fluxes in D. trinervis nodules. Our results point to the existence of divergent roles of auxin in intercellularly- and intracellularly-infected actinorhizal plants, an ancestral infection pathways leading to root nodule symbioses. PMID:25191330

  3. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Thermal Transport in Gravity-Dominated 3D Microchannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odesola, Isaac F.; Ashaju, Abimbola Ayodeji; Ige, Ebenezer O.

    The success recorded by the usage of microchannel in high flux cooling application, has led to several studies aimed at advancement in microchannel fluid flow and heat transfer technology. A recent study area with promising breakthrough is the effects of gravity on microscale flow. Numerical

  4. Phospholipases and the network of auxin signal transduction with ABP1 and TIR1 as two receptors: a comprehensive and provocative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther F. E. Scherer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D (PLD, secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 and patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA are important elements in auxin signal transduction. PLDζ2 has a function in auxin transport. PLD's potential link to upstream receptors ABP1 or TIR1, and to cytosolic calcium as an activator of PLDζ2, is outlined. A link from PLDζ2 to activation of PINOID, a kinase activating PIN proteins, is suggested. The activation mechanism of sPLA2, also involved in auxin transport-related functions, is unknown. New experiments show that not only ABP1 but also pPLA isoforms are tied to rapid activation of early auxin-induced genes, the functional domain of the other auxin receptor TIR1. Post-translational activation mechanisms for pPLAs are suggested to be tied to ABP1. We propose pPLAs and PLDζ2 are mediators in auxin signaling. The downstream targets of regulation by ABP1 as the receptor we propose to be primarily PIN proteins. This coordinates gene expression regulation by TIR1 in the nucleus. A clear separation of cytosolic mechanisms of auxin signalling is suggested with ABP1 as receptor, and phospholipases A and D and PIN proteins as downstream targets on the on hand, and TIR1 and regulation of early auxin-induced genes on the other. At the same time, this separation is coordinated by auxin transport creating the auxin concentration in the nucleus suitable for gene regulation.

  5. Exploring the role of auxin in the androgynophore movement in Passiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Livia C T; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of the species belonging to the genus Passiflorashow a range of features that are thought to have arisen as adaptations to different pollinators. Some Passiflora species belonging to the subgenus Decaloba sect. Xerogona, show touch-sensitive motile androgynophores. We tested the role of auxin polar transport in the modulation of the androgynophore movement by applying auxin (IAA) or an inhibitor of auxin polar transport (NPA) in the flowers. We recorded the movement of the androgynophore during mechano-stimulation and analyzed the duration, speed, and the angle formed by the androgynophore before and after the movement, and found that both IAA and NPA increase the amplitude of the movement in P. sanguinolenta. We hypothesize that auxin might have a role in modulating the fitness of these Decaloba species to different pollination syndromes and demonstrate that an interspecific hybrid between insect- and hummingbird-pollinated Xerogona species present a heterosis effect on the speed of the androgynophore movement.

  6. Exploring the role of auxin in the androgynophore movement in Passiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia C.T. Scorza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of the species belonging to the genus Passiflorashow a range of features that are thought to have arisen as adaptations to different pollinators. Some Passiflora species belonging to the subgenus Decaloba sect. Xerogona, show touch-sensitive motile androgynophores. We tested the role of auxin polar transport in the modulation of the androgynophore movement by applying auxin (IAA or an inhibitor of auxin polar transport (NPA in the flowers. We recorded the movement of the androgynophore during mechano-stimulation and analyzed the duration, speed, and the angle formed by the androgynophore before and after the movement, and found that both IAA and NPA increase the amplitude of the movement in P. sanguinolenta. We hypothesize that auxin might have a role in modulating the fitness of these Decaloba species to different pollination syndromes and demonstrate that an interspecific hybrid between insect- and hummingbird-pollinated Xerogona species present a heterosis effect on the speed of the androgynophore movement.

  7. Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena in a Simulated Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a ground-based apparatus that allows the cancellation of gravity on a fluid using magnetic forces. The present system was designed for liquid oxygen studies over the range 0.001 - 5 g s. This fluid is an essential component of any flight mission using substantial amounts of liquid propellant, especially manned missions. The apparatus has been used to reduce the hydrostatic compression near the oxygen critical point and to demonstrate inverted phase separation. It could also be used to study pool boiling and two-phase heat transfer in Martian, Lunar or near-zero gravity, as well as phenomena such as Marangoni flow and convective instabilities. These studies would contribute directly to the reliability and optimization of the Moon and Mars flight programs.

  8. Dynamics of auxin movement in the gravistimulated leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Thomas C.; Kapen, E. H.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of auxin redistribution in the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat was evaluated using H-3-indole-3-acetic acid (H-3-IAA) preloaded into isolated pulvini. Results obtained reveal that, while lateral transport of auxin occurs following gravistimulation, it is not necessary for a graviresponse. Localized changes in tissue responsiveness or the conversion of conjugated hormone to free hormone may suffice to drive the graviresponse.

  9. Auxin molecular field maps define AUX1 selectivity: many auxin herbicides are not substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoyerová, Klára; Hošek, Petr; Quareshy, M.; Li, J.; Klíma, Petr; Kubeš, Martin; Yemm, A. A.; Neve, P.; Tripathi, A.; Bennett, M.J.; Napier, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 4 (2018), s. 1625-1639 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19557S; GA MŠk LD15137 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin transport * cheminformatics * herbicide * herbicide resistance * molecular field maps * pharmacophore * structure–activity relationship * uptake carrier Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  10. Reduced expression of AtNUP62 nucleoporin gene affects auxin response in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeglin, Martin; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Luu, Doan Trung

    2016-01-01

    , but only a few of them have been characterized. Among these, AtNUP160, AtNUP96, AtNUP58, and AtTPR have been reported to modulate auxin signalling, since corresponding mutants are suppressors of the auxin resistance conferred by the axr1 (auxin-resistant) mutation. The present work is focused on AtNUP62...... seedlings and at the adult stage in stipules of cauline leaves. The atnup62-1 mutant, harbouring a T-DNA insertion in intron 5, was identified as a knock-down mutant. It displayed developmental phenotypes that suggested defects in auxin transport or responsiveness. Atnup62 mutant plantlets were found...... to be hypersensitive to auxin, at the cotyledon and root levels. The phenotype of the AtNUP62-GFP overexpressing line further supported the existence of a link between AtNUP62 and auxin signalling. Furthermore, the atnup62 mutation led to an increase in the activity of the DR5 auxin-responsive promoter, and suppressed...

  11. miRNA-mediated auxin signalling repression during Vat-mediated aphid resistance in Cucumis melo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Sampurna; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Thompson, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Resistance to Aphis gossypii in melon is attributed to the presence of the single dominant R gene virus aphid transmission (Vat), which is biologically expressed as antibiosis, antixenosis and tolerance. However, the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood at the molecular level. Aphid-induced transcriptional changes, including differentially expressed miRNA profiles that correspond to resistance interaction have been reported in melon. The potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in Vat-mediated aphid resistance were further revealed by identifying the specific miRNA degradation targets. A total of 70 miRNA:target pairs, including 28 novel miRNA:target pairs, for the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified: 11 were associated with phytohormone regulation, including six miRNAs that potentially regulate auxin interactions. A model for a redundant regulatory system of miRNA-mediated auxin insensitivity is proposed that incorporates auxin perception, auxin modification and auxin-regulated transcription. Chemically inhibiting the transport inhibitor response-1 (TIR-1) auxin receptor in susceptible melon tissues provides in vivo support for the model of auxin-mediated impacts on A. gossypii resistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  13. Alteration in Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by Overexpression Of PINOID Kinase Causes Leaf Growth Defects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud Saini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In plants many developmental processes are regulated by auxin and its directional transport. PINOID (PID kinase helps to regulate this transport by influencing polar recruitment of PIN efflux proteins on the cellular membranes. We investigated how altered auxin levels affect leaf growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered PID expression levels were used to study the effect on auxin distribution and leaf development. Single knockouts showed small pleiotropic growth defects. Contrastingly, several leaf phenotypes related to changes in auxin concentrations and transcriptional activity were observed in PID overexpression (PIDOE lines. Unlike in the knockout lines, the leaves of PIDOE lines showed an elevation in total indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. Accordingly, enhanced DR5-visualized auxin responses were detected, especially along the leaf margins. Kinematic analysis revealed that ectopic expression of PID negatively affects cell proliferation and expansion rates, yielding reduced cell numbers and small-sized cells in the PIDOE leaves. We used PIDOE lines as a tool to study auxin dose effects on leaf development and demonstrate that auxin, above a certain threshold, has a negative affect on leaf growth. RNA sequencing further showed how subtle PIDOE-related changes in auxin levels lead to transcriptional reprogramming of cellular processes.

  14. Opening of Iris flowers is regulated by endogenous auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Dole, Isabelle; Celikel, Fisun G; Harkema, Harmannus

    2013-01-15

    Flower opening in Iris (Iris×hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of hormones other than ethylene in pedicel and ovary elongation and flower opening. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and the cytokinins benzyladenine (N6-benzyladenine, BA) and zeatin did not affect opening. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were slightly inhibitory, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) was without effect. Flower opening was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA(3)), but two inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis (4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate, AMO-1618; ancymidol) did not change opening. The auxins indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) strongly promoted elongation and opening. An inhibitor of auxin transport (2,3,5-triodobenzoic acid, TIBA) and an inhibitor of auxin effects [α-(p-chlorophenoxy)-isobutyric acid; PCIB] inhibited elongation and opening. The data suggest that endogenous auxins are among the regulators of the pedicel and ovary elongation and thus of flower opening in Iris. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  16. Differing effects of transport inhibitor on glutamate uptake by nerve terminals before and after exposure of rats to artificial gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Subsequent to its release from glutamatergic neurons and activation of receptors, it is removed from extracellular space by high affinity Na^+-dependent glutamate transporters, which utilize the Na^+/K^+ electrochemical gradient as a driving force and located in nerve terminals and astrocytes. The glutamate transporters may modify the time course of synaptic events. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity (e.g. cerebral ischemia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy and schizophrenia). The present study assessed transporter inhibitor for the ability to inhibit glutamate uptake by synaptosomes at the normal and hypergravity conditions (rats were rotated in a long-arm centrifuge at ten-G during one-hour period). DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA) is a newly developed competitive inhibitor of the high-affinity, Na^+-dependent glutamate transporters. As a potent, non- transported inhibitor of glutamate transporters, DL-TBOA promises to be a valuable new compound for the study of glutamatergic mechanisms. We demonstrated that DL-TBOA inhibited glutamate uptake ( 100 μM glutamate, 30 sec incubation period) in dose-dependent manner as in control as in hypergravity. The effect of this transport inhibitor on glutamate uptake by control synaptosomes and synaptosomes prepared of animals exposed to hypergravity was different. IC50 values calculated on the basis of curves of non-linear regression kinetic analysis was 18±2 μM and 11±2 μM ((P≤0,05) before and after exposure to artificial gravity, respectively. Inhibition caused by 10 μM DL-TBOA was significantly increased from 38,0±3,8 % in control group to 51,0±4,1 % in animals, exposed to hypergravity (P≤0,05). Thus, DL-TBOA had complex effect on glutamate uptake process and perhaps, became more potent under

  17. A role for auxin redistribution in the responses of the root system architecture to phosphate starvation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacry, Philippe; Canivenc, Geneviève; Muller, Bertrand; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Van Onckelen, Harry; Rossignol, Michel; Doumas, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    primordia emergence through increased accumulation of auxin or change in sensitivity to auxin in the primordia. Both the strong effect of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and the phenotype of the auxin-transport mutants (aux1, eir1) suggest that low P availability modifies local auxin concentrations within the root system through changes in auxin transport rather than auxin synthesis.

  18. Auxin Chemical and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxins function as key regulators at the intersection between developmental and environmental events and the response pathways that they trigger. Naturally occurring members of this hormone group include indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl...

  19. The effect of carbon monoxide integrating nitric oxide through auxin signal in Arabidopsis to modulate iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO and nitric oxide (NO are essential modulators that regulate the plant response to iron deficiency (-Fe. Auxin is a phytohormone that plays important roles in plant growth and development. We report here that in Arabidopsis –Fe enhanced heme oxygenase-dependent CO generation and auxin transport through redistribution of PIN1 protein, which subsequently increased NO accumulation; NO signaling regulated the activity of ferric chelate reductase (FCR and the expression of Fe-uptake genes including basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (FIT and the ferric reduction oxidase 2 (FRO2. Over-expression of HY1 encoding heme oxygenase, or treatment with CO donor enhanced basipetal auxin transport, FCR activity, and the expressions of FIT and FRO2 under –Fe. Such effects were compromised in the mutant aux1-7 impaired in auxin transport or in the mutant noa1 or nia1/nia2 defective in NO biosynthesis. -Fe failed to promote auxin transport and FCR activity in hy1 mutant; such inability was reversed in the double mutant of hy1/yucca1 with elevated auxin production, or in hy1/cue1 mutant with NO over-accumulation. Taken together, our results suggest that CO modulates NO signaling through auxin to cope with Fe deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  20. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-07-20

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al(3+)-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al(3+)-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L(-1) IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al(3+)-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al(3+) stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al(3+)-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips.

  1. Characterization of contaminant transport by gravity, capillarity and barometric pumping in heterogeneous vadose regimes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, C.R.; Hudson, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    'The intent of this research program is to obtain an improved understanding of vadose zone transport processes and to develop field and modeling techniques required to characterize contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone at DOE sites. For surface spills and near-surface leaks of chemicals, the vadose zone may well become a long-term source of contamination for the underlying water table. Transport of contaminants can occur in both the liquid and gas phases of the unsaturated zone. This transport occurs naturally as a result of diffusion, buoyancy forces (gravity), capillarity and barometric pressure variations. In some cases transport can be enhanced by anisotropies present in hydrologic regimes. This is particularly true for gas-phase transport which may be subject to vertical pumping resulting from atmospheric pressure changes. For liquid-phase flows, heterogeneity may enhance the downward transport of contaminants to the water table depending on soil properties and the scale of the surface spill or near-surface leak. Characterization techniques based upon the dynamics of transport processes are likely to yield a better understanding of the potential for contaminant transport at a specific site than methods depending solely on hydrologic properties derived from a borehole. Such dynamic-characterization techniques can be useful for evaluating sites where contamination presently exists as well as for providing an objective basis to evaluate the efficacy of proposed as well as implemented clean-up technologies. The real-time monitoring of processes that may occur during clean-up of tank waste and the mobility of contaminants beneath the Hanford storage tanks during sluicing operations is one example of how techniques developed in this effort can be applied to current remediation problems. In the future, such dynamic-characterization methods might also be used as part of the site-characterization process for determining suitable locations of new DOE facilities

  2. Multi-Scale Characean Experimental System: From Electrophysiology of Membrane Transporters to Cell-to-Cell Connectivity, Cytoplasmic Streaming and Auxin Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of characean algae could be mistaken for a higher plant: stem-like axes with leaf-like branchlets anchored in the soil by root-like rhizoids. However, all of these structures are made up of giant multinucleate cells separated by multicellular nodal complexes. The excised internodal cells survive long enough for the nodes to give rise to new thallus. The size of the internodes and their thick cytoplasmic layer minimize impalement injury and allow specific micro-electrode placement. The cell structure can be manipulated by centrifugation, perfusion of cell contents or creation of cytoplasmic droplets, allowing access to both vacuolar and cytoplasmic compartments and both sides of the cell membranes. Thousands of electrical measurements on intact or altered cells and cytoplasmic droplets laid down basis to modern plant electrophysiology. Furthermore, the giant internodal cells and whole thalli facilitate research into many other plant properties. As nutrients have to be transported from rhizoids to growing parts of the thallus and hormonal signals need to pass from cell to cell, Characeae possess very fast cytoplasmic streaming. The mechanism was resolved in the characean model. Plasmodesmata between the internodal cells and nodal complexes facilitate transport of ions, nutrients and photosynthates across the nodes. The internal structure was found to be similar to those of higher plants. Recent experiments suggest a strong circadian influence on metabolic pathways producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and serotonin/melatonin. The review will discuss the impact of the characean models arising from fragments of cells, single cells, cell-to-cell transport or whole thalli on understanding of plant evolution and physiology. PMID:27504112

  3. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al3+-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al3+-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100??M AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6?mg L?1 IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress signi...

  4. Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

  5. Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Jin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in regulating myriads of plant growth and developmental processes. Microbe infection can disturb auxin signaling resulting in defects in these processes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Auxin signaling begins with perception of auxin by a transient co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box transport inhibitor response 1/auxin signaling F-box (TIR1/AFB protein and an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the co-receptor triggers ubiquitination and 26S proteasome degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins, leading to subsequent events, including expression of auxin-responsive genes. Here we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV, a devastating pathogen of rice, causes disease symptoms including dwarfing, increased tiller number and short crown roots in infected rice as a result of reduced sensitivity to auxin signaling. The RDV capsid protein P2 binds OsIAA10, blocking the interaction between OsIAA10 and OsTIR1 and inhibiting 26S proteasome-mediated OsIAA10 degradation. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing wild-type or a dominant-negative (degradation-resistant mutant of OsIAA10 phenocopy RDV symptoms are more susceptible to RDV infection; however, knockdown of OsIAA10 enhances the resistance of rice to RDV infection. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral protein reprogramming of a key step in auxin signaling initiation that enhances viral infection and pathogenesis.

  6. Zinc finger of Arabidopsis thaliana 6 is involved in melatonin-mediated auxin signaling through interacting INDETERMINATE DOMAIN15 and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Zhang, Shengmin; Lin, Daozhe; Wei, Yunxie; Yan, Yu; Liu, Guoyin; Reiter, Russel J; Chan, Zhulong

    2018-04-01

    Although accumulating evidence demonstrates the crosstalk between melatonin and auxin as derivatives of tryptophan, the underlying signaling events remain unclear. In this study, we found that melatonin and auxin mediated the transcriptional levels of zinc finger of Arabidopsis thaliana (ZAT6) in a mutually antagonistic manner. ZAT6 negatively modulated the endogenous auxin level, and ZAT6 knockdown plants were less sensitive to melatonin-regulated auxin biosynthesis, indicating its involvement in melatonin-mediated auxin accumulation. Additionally, the identification of INDETERMINATE DOMAIN15 (IDD15) and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID 17 (IAA17) in Arabidopsis that interacted with ZAT6 in vivo provided new insight of ZAT6-mediated auxin signaling. Further investigation showed that ZAT6 repressed the transcription activation of IDD15 on the YUC2 promoter, while ZAT6 inhibited the interaction of TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 (TIR1) and IAA17 through competitively binding to IAA17. Thus, both auxin synthesis and the auxin response were negatively modulated by ZAT6. Taken together, ZAT6 is involved in melatonin-mediated auxin signaling through forming an interacting complex of auxin signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. OsPIN2, which encodes a member of the auxin efflux carrier proteins, is involved in root elongation growth and lateral root formation patterns via the regulation of auxin distribution in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inahashi, Hiroki; Shelley, Israt Jahan; Yamauchi, Takaki; Nishiuchi, Shunsaku; Takahashi-Nosaka, Misuzu; Matsunami, Maya; Ogawa, Atsushi; Noda, Yusaku; Inukai, Yoshiaki

    2018-02-15

    Auxin flow is important for different root developmental processes such as root formation, emergence, elongation and gravitropism. However, the detailed information about the mechanisms regulating the auxin flow is less well understood in rice. We characterized the auxin transport-related mutants, Ospin-formed2-1 (Ospin2-1) and Ospin2-2, which exhibited curly root phenotypes and altered lateral root-formation patterns in rice. The OsPIN2 gene encodes a member of the auxin-efflux carrier proteins that possibly regulates the basipetal auxin flow from the root tip towards the root-elongation zone. According to DR5-driven GUS expression, there is an asymmetric auxin distribution in the mutants that corresponded with the asymmetric cell elongation pattern in the mutant root tip. Auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), and Ospin2-1 Osiaa13 double mutant rescued the curly root phenotype indicating that this phenotype results from a defect in proper auxin distribution. The typical curly root phenotype was not observed when Ospin2-1 was grown in distilled water as an alternative to tap water, although higher auxin levels were found at the root tip region of the mutant than that of the wild type. Therefore, the lateral root formation zone in the mutant was shifted basipetally compared with the wild type. These results reflect that an altered auxin flow in the root tip region is responsible for root elongation growth and lateral root formation patterns in rice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The glucosinolate breakdown product indole-3-carbinol acts as an auxin antagonist in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ella; Nisani, Sophia; Yadav, Brijesh S; Woldemariam, Melkamu G; Shai, Ben; Obolski, Uri; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Shani, Eilon; Jander, Georg; Chamovitz, Daniel A

    2015-05-01

    The glucosinolate breakdown product indole-3-carbinol functions in cruciferous vegetables as a protective agent against foraging insects. While the toxic and deterrent effects of glucosinolate breakdown on herbivores and pathogens have been studied extensively, the secondary responses that are induced in the plant by indole-3-carbinol remain relatively uninvestigated. Here we examined the hypothesis that indole-3-carbinol plays a role in influencing plant growth and development by manipulating auxin signaling. We show that indole-3-carbinol rapidly and reversibly inhibits root elongation in a dose-dependent manner, and that this inhibition is accompanied by a loss of auxin activity in the root meristem. A direct interaction between indole-3-carbinol and the auxin perception machinery was suggested, as application of indole-3-carbinol rescues auxin-induced root phenotypes. In vitro and yeast-based protein interaction studies showed that indole-3-carbinol perturbs the auxin-dependent interaction of Transport Inhibitor Response (TIR1) with auxin/3-indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAAs) proteins, further supporting the possibility that indole-3-carbinol acts as an auxin antagonist. The results indicate that chemicals whose production is induced by herbivory, such as indole-3-carbinol, function not only to repel herbivores, but also as signaling molecules that directly compete with auxin to fine tune plant growth and development. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. New tangles in the auxin signaling web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R. Clay

    2015-01-01

    Plants use auxin to relay critical information that shapes their growth and development. Auxin perception and transcriptional activation are mediated by the degradation of Aux/IAA repressor proteins. Degradation of Aux/IAAs relieves repression on Auxin Response Factors (ARFs), which bind DNA sequences called Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs). In most higher plant genomes, multiple paralogs exist for each part of the auxin nuclear signaling pathway. This potential combinatorial diversity in signaling pathways likely contributes to the myriad of context-specific responses to auxin. Recent structures of several domains from ARF proteins have exposed new modes of ARF dimerization, new models for ARF-AuxRE specificity, and the strong likelihood of larger order complexes formed by ARF and Aux/IAA homo- and heteromultimerization. Preliminary experiments support a role for these novel interactions in planta, further increasing the potential architectural complexity of this seemingly simple pathway. PMID:25750737

  10. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe eDruege

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled

  11. Gene expression profile of zeitlupe/lov kelch protein1 T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana: Downregulation of auxin-inducible genes in hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Aya; Takase, Tomoyuki; Kitaki, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kiyosue, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of hypocotyl cells has been studied as a model for elucidating the contribution of cellular expansion to plant organ growth. ZEITLUPE (ZTL) or LOV KELCH PROTEIN1 (LKP1) is a positive regulator of warmth-induced hypocotyl elongation under white light in Arabidopsis, although the molecular mechanisms by which it promotes hypocotyl cell elongation remain unknown. Microarray analysis showed that 134 genes were upregulated and 204 genes including 15 auxin-inducible genes were downregulated in the seedlings of 2 ztl T-DNA insertion mutants grown under warm conditions with continuous white light. Application of a polar auxin transport inhibitor, an auxin antagonist or an auxin biosynthesis inhibitor inhibited hypocotyl elongation of control seedlings to the level observed with the ztl mutant. Our data suggest the involvement of auxin and auxin-inducible genes in ZTL-mediated hypocotyl elongation.

  12. Target Transportation of Auxin on Mesoporous Au/SiO2 Nanoparticles as a Method for Somaclonal Variation Increasing in Flax (L. usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for direct delivery of different bioactive substances into the cell is a promising and intensively approached area of research. It has become a subject of serious research for multidisciplinary team of scientists working in such areas as physics, biology, and biotechnology. Plant calluses were grown on medium supplemented with different nanoparticles to be used as a model for biotechnological research. Gold nanoparticles with mesoporous silica coating were used as hormone carriers, since they possess many of critical properties required for cellular transportation instrument. Some of those properties are great biocompatibility and controlled release of carried molecules. Significant changes in hormones common impact were detected. The great increase in ploidy numbers, embryogenesis, induction, and methylation level was observed when compared to the “conventional” methods of targeted hormones delivery that embrace usage of Au nanoparticles as a main hormone carrier. The authors suppose the research under consideration can provide a new pathway to the design of a novel targeted plant hormone and bioactive substances carrier.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of root gravity sensing and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Allison K; Baldwin, Katherine L; Masson, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    Plants use gravity as a guide to direct their roots down into the soil to anchor themselves and to find resources needed for growth and development. In higher plants, the columella cells of the root tip form the primary site of gravity sensing, and in these cells the sedimentation of dense, starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) triggers gravity signal transduction. This generates an auxin gradient across the root cap that is transmitted to the elongation zone where it promotes differential cell elongation, allowing the root to direct itself downward. It is still not well understood how amyloplast sedimentation leads to auxin redistribution. Models have been proposed to explain how mechanosensitive ion channels or ligand-receptor interactions could connect these events. Although their roles are still unclear, possible second messengers in this process include protons, Ca(2+), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Upon gravistimulation, the auxin efflux facilitators PIN3 and PIN7 relocalize to the lower side of the columella cells and mediate auxin redistribution. However, evidence for an auxin-independent secondary mechanism of gravity sensing and signal transduction suggests that this physiological process is quite complex. Furthermore, plants must integrate a variety of environmental cues, resulting in multifaceted relationships between gravitropism and other directional growth responses such as hydro-, photo-, and thigmotropism. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effect of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) on the growth rate and tropism of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces blakesleeanus and identification of auxin-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanović, Branka D; Ullrich, Kristian K; Steffens, Bianka; Spasić, Sladjana Z; Galland, Paul

    2018-03-09

    The roles of fungal auxins in the regulation of elongation growth, photo-, and gravitropism are completely unknown. We analyzed the effects of exogenous IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), various synthetic auxins including 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and the auxin transport inhibitor NPA (N-1-naphtylphtalamic acid) on the growth rate and bending of the unicellular sporangiophore of the zygomycete fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Sporangiophores that were submerged in an aqueous buffer responded to IAA with a sustained enhancement of the growth rate, while 1-NAA, 2,4-D, and NPA elicited an inhibition. In contrast, sporangiophores kept in air responded to IAA with a 20 to 40% decrease of the growth rate, while 1-NAA and NPA elicited an enhancement. The unilateral and local application of IAA in the growing zone of the sporangiophore elicited in 30 min a moderate negative tropic bending in wild type C2 and mutant C148madC, which was, however, partially masked by a concomitant avoidance response caused by the aqueous buffer. Auxin transport-related genes ubiquitous in plants were found in a BLAST search of the Phycomyces genome. They included members of the AUX1 (auxin influx carrier protein 1), PILS (PIN-LIKES, auxin transport facilitator protein), and ABCB (plant ATP-binding cassette transporter B) families while members of the PIN family were absent. Our observations imply that IAA represents an intrinsic element of the sensory transduction of Phycomyces and that its mode of action must very likely differ in several respects from that operating in plants.

  15. PIN proteins perform a rate-limiting function in cellular auxin efflux

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Mravec, J.; Bouchard, R.; Blakeslee, J.J.; Abas, M.; Seifertová, Daniela; Wisniewska, J.; Tadele, Z.; Kubeš, Martin; Čovanová, Milada; Dhonukshe, P.; Skůpa, Petr; Benková, E.; Perry, Lucie; Křeček, Pavel; Lee, O.R.; Fink, G.R.; Geisler, M.; Murphy, A.S.; Luschnig, C.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 312, č. 5775 (2006), s. 914-918 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038303; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin transport * PIN proteins * PGP transporters * MDR Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006

  16. Cell plate-restricted association of Arabidopsis dynamin related proteins and PIN auxin efflux carriers is required for PIN endocytic trafficking during cytokinesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mravec, J.; Petrasek, J.; Li, N.; Boeren, J.A.; Karlova, R.B.; Kitakura, S.; Naramoto, S.; Nodzynski, T.; Dhonukshe, P.B.; Vries, de S.C.; Zazimalova, E.; Friml, J.

    2011-01-01

    The polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin [1], which is crucial for the regulation of different stages of plant development [ [2] and [3] ], depends on the asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers [4 A. Vieten, M. Sauer, P.B. Brewer and J. Friml,

  17. Arabidopsis TWISTED DWARF1 functionally interacts with Auxin Exporter ABCB1 on the root plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Bangjun; Bailly, Aurélien; Zwiewka, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Plant architecture is influenced by the polar, cell-to-cell transport of auxin that is primarily provided and regulated by plasma membrane efflux catalysts of the PIN-FORMED and B family of ABC transporter (ABCB) classes. The latter were shown to require the functionality of the FK506 binding...... protein42 TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1), although underlying mechanisms are unclear. By genetic manipulation of TWD1 expression, we show here that TWD1 affects shootward root auxin reflux and, thus, downstream developmental traits, such as epidermal twisting and gravitropism of the root. Using immunological....... In planta bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analysis was used to verify specific ABC transporter B1 (ABCB1)-TWD1 interaction. Our data support a model in which TWD1 promotes lateral ABCB-mediated auxin efflux via protein-protein interaction at the plasma membrane, minimizing reflux from the root...

  18. Observations of Upward Propagating Gravity Waves in the Vertical Transport of Aerosols during Daytime Boundary Layer Evolution over Central Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phani Kumar, D. V.; Kondapalli, N. K.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  19. Mechano-chemical aspects of organ formation in Arabidopsis thaliana: the relationship between auxin and pectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan A Braybrook

    Full Text Available How instructive signals are translated into robust and predictable changes in growth is a central question in developmental biology. Recently, much interest has centered on the feedback between chemical instructions and mechanical changes for pattern formation in development. In plants, the patterned arrangement of aerial organs, or phyllotaxis, is instructed by the phytohormone auxin; however, it still remains to be seen how auxin is linked, at the apex, to the biochemical and mechanical changes of the cell wall required for organ outgrowth. Here, using Atomic Force Microscopy, we demonstrate that auxin reduces tissue rigidity prior to organ outgrowth in the shoot apex of Arabidopsis thaliana, and that the de-methyl-esterification of pectin is necessary for this reduction. We further show that development of functional organs produced by pectin-mediated ectopic wall softening requires auxin signaling. Lastly, we demonstrate that coordinated localization of the auxin transport protein, PIN1, is disrupted in a naked-apex produced by increasing cell wall rigidity. Our data indicates that a feedback loop between the instructive chemical auxin and cell wall mechanics may play a crucial role in phyllotactic patterning.

  20. The MEDIATOR genes MED12 and MED13 control Arabidopsis root system configuration influencing sugar and auxin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya-González, Javier; López-Bucio, Jesús Salvador; Prado-Rodríguez, José Carlos; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Guevara-García, Ángel Arturo; López-Bucio, José

    2017-09-01

    Arabidopsis med12 and med13 mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes related to an altered auxin homeostasis. Sucrose supplementation reactivates both cell division and elongation in primary roots as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression in these mutants. An analysis of primary root growth of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants in response to sucrose and/or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) placed MED12 upstream of auxin transport for the sugar modulation of root growth. The MEDIATOR (MED) complex plays diverse functions in plant development, hormone signaling and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance through coordination of transcription. Here, we performed genetic, developmental, molecular and pharmacological analyses to characterize the role of MED12 and MED13 on the configuration of root architecture and its relationship with auxin and sugar responses. Arabidopsis med12 and med13 single mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes consistent with altered auxin homeostasis including altered primary root growth, lateral root development, and root hair elongation. MED12 and MED13 were required for activation of cell division and elongation in primary roots, as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression. Remarkably, most of these mutant phenotypes were rescued by supplying sucrose to the growth medium. The growth response of primary roots of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants to sucrose and application of auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) revealed the correlation of med12 phenotype with the activity of the auxin intake permease and suggests that MED12 acts upstream of AUX1 in the root growth response to sugar. These data provide compelling evidence that MEDIATOR links sugar sensing to auxin transport and distribution during root morphogenesis.

  1. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  2. Characterization of auxin-binding proteins from zucchini plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified two auxin-binding polypeptides in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Hicks et al. 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4948-4952). These polypeptides have molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa and label specifically with the photoaffinity auxin analog 5-N3-7-3H-IAA (azido-IAA). Azido-IAA permits both the covalent and radioactive tagging of auxin-binding proteins and has allowed us to characterize further the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, including the nature of their attachment to the PM, their relationship to each other, and their potential function. The azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides remain in the pelleted membrane fraction following high-salt and detergent washes, which indicates a tight and possibly integral association with the PM. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of partially purified azido-IAA-labeled protein demonstrates that, in addition to the major isoforms of the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, which possess isoelectric points (pIs) of 8.2 and 7.2, respectively, several less abundant isoforms that display unique pIs are apparent at both molecular masses. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the auxin-binding proteins indicates that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are closely related or are modifications of the same polypeptide. Phase extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 results in partitioning of the azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides into the aqueous (hydrophilic) phase. This apparently paradoxical behavior is also exhibited by certain integral membrane proteins that aggregate to form channels. The results of gel filtration indicate that the auxin-binding proteins do indeed aggregate strongly and that the polypeptides associate to form a dimer or multimeric complex in vivo. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are subunits of a multimeric integral membrane protein which has an auxin-binding site, and which may

  3. Auxin transport routes in plant development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Friml, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 16 (2009), s. 2675-2688 ISSN 0950-1991 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600380604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ROOT- HAIR DEVELOPMENT * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * LATERAL ROOT Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.194, year: 2009

  4. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  5. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-07-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Auxins in the development of an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitze, Dorothee; Wiepning, Anne; Kaldorf, Michael; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2005-11-01

    While the levels of free auxins in maize (Zea mays L.) roots during arbuscular mycorrhiza formation have been previously described in detail, conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with amino acids and sugars were neglected. In this study, we have therefore determined free, ester and amide bound auxins in roots of maize inoculated with Glomus intraradices during early stages of the colonization process. Ester conjugates of IAA and IBA were found only in low amounts and they did not increase in AM colonized roots. The Levels of IAA and IBA amide conjugates increased 20 and 30 days past inoculation (dpi). The formation of free and conjugated IBA but not IAA was systemically induced during AM colonization in leaves of maize plants. This implicated a role for auxin conjugate synthesis and hydrolysis during AM. We have therefore investigated the in vivo metabolism of 3H-labeled IBA by TLC but only slight differences between control and AM-inoculated roots were observed. The activity of auxin conjugate hydrolase activity measured with three different putative substrates showed a decrease in infected roots compared to controls. The fluorinated IBA analog TFIBA inhibited IBA formation in leaves after application to the root system, but was not transported from roots to shoots. AM hyphae were also not able to transport TFIBA. Our results indicate complex control mechanisms to regulate the levels of free and conjugated auxins, which are locally and systemically induced during early stages of the formation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  7. Membrane steroid binding protein 1 (MSBP1) stimulates tropism by regulating vesicle trafficking and auxin redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Song, Li; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2008-11-01

    Overexpression of membrane steroid binding protein 1 (MSBP1) stimulates the root gravitropism and anti-gravitropism of hypocotyl, which is mainly due to the enhanced auxin redistribution in the bending regions of hypocotyls and root tips. The inhibitory effects by 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, are suppressed under the MSBP1 overexpression, suggesting the positive effects of MSBP1 on polar auxin transport. Interestingly, sub-cellular localization studies showed that MSBP1 is also localized in endosomes and observations of the membrane-selective dye FM4-64 revealed the enhanced vesicle trafficking under MSBP1 overexpression. MSBP1-overexpressing seedlings are less sensitive to brefeldin A (BFA) treatment, whereas the vesicle trafficking was evidently reduced by suppressed MSBP1 expression. Enhanced MSBP1 does not affect the polar localization of PIN2, but stimulates the PIN2 cycling and enhances the asymmetric PIN2 redistribution under gravi-stimulation. These results suggest that MSBP1 could enhance the cycling of PIN2-containing vesicles to stimulate the auxin redistribution under gravi-stimulation, providing informative hints on interactions between auxin and steroid binding protein.

  8. Analytical Determination of Auxins and Cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, Petre I; Hoyerová, Klára; Petrášek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Parallel determination of auxin and cytokinin levels within plant organs and tissues represents an invaluable tool for studies of their physiological effects and mutual interactions. Thanks to their different chemical structures, auxins, cytokinins and their metabolites are often determined separately, using specialized procedures of sample purification, extraction, and quantification. However, recent progress in the sensitivity of analytical methods of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) allows parallel analysis of multiple compounds. Here we describe a method that is based on single step purification protocol followed by LC-MS separation and detection for parallel analysis of auxins, cytokinins and their metabolites in various plant tissues and cell cultures.

  9. Massive Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Rham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP, cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alternative and related models of massive gravity such as new massive gravity, Lorentz-violating massive gravity and non-local massive gravity.

  10. Neutron Radiation Affects the Expression of Genes Involved in the Response to Auxin, Senescence and Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, A.; Tassone, P.; Migliaccio, F.

    2008-06-01

    Researches were conducted on the effect of neutron radiation on the expression of genes auxin activated or connected with the process of senescence in Arabidopsis plants. The research was done by applying the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results indicated that the auxin response factors (ARFs) genes are clearly downregulated, whereas the indolacetic acid-induced (Aux/IAAs) genes in some cases were upregulated. By contrast in the mutants for auxin transport aux1 and eir1 the ARFs genes were upregulated. In addition, both in the wildtype and mutants, some already known genes activated by stress and senescence were significantly upregulated. On the basis of these researches we conclude that the process of senescence induced by irradiation is, at least in part, controlled by the physiology of the hormone auxin.

  11. Light can rescue auxin-dependent synchrony of cell division in a tobacco cell line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qiao, F.; Petrášek, Jan; Nick, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2010), s. 503-510 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin transport * cell division * NPA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.818, year: 2010 http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/2/503.abstract

  12. Auxin secretion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both stimulates root exudation and limits phosphorus uptake in Triticum aestivum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of auxin-producing rhizosphere bacteria as agricultural products promises increased root production and therefore greater phosphate (Pi) uptake. Whilst such bacteria promote root production in vitro, the nature of the bacteria-plant interaction in live soil, particularly concerning any effects on nutrient uptake, are not known. This study uses Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, an auxin-producing rhizobacterium, as a dressing on Triticum aestivum seeds. It then examines the effects on root production, Pi uptake, Pi-related gene expression and organic carbon (C) exudation. Results Seed treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 increased root production at low environmental Pi concentrations, but significantly repressed root Pi uptake. This coincided with an auxin-mediated reduction in expression of the Pi transporters TaPHT1.8 and TaPHT1.10. Applied exogenous auxin also triggered an increase in root C exudation. At high external Pi concentrations, root production was promoted by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, but Pi uptake was unaffected. Conclusions We conclude that, alongside promoting root production, auxin biosynthesis by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both re-models Pi transporter expression and elevates organic C exudation. This shows the potential importance of rhizobacterial-derived auxin following colonisation of root surfaces, and the nature of this bacteria-plant interaction in soil. PMID:24558978

  13. Structural basis for oligomerization of auxin transcriptional regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanao, Max H; Vinos-Poyo, Thomas; Brunoud, Géraldine; Thévenon, Emmanuel; Mazzoleni, Meryl; Mast, David; Lainé, Stéphanie; Wang, Shucai; Hagen, Gretchen; Li, Hanbing; Guilfoyle, Thomas J; Parcy, François; Vernoux, Teva; Dumas, Renaud

    2014-04-07

    The plant hormone auxin is a key morphogenetic regulator acting from embryogenesis onwards. Transcriptional events in response to auxin are mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) transcription factors and the Aux/IAA (IAA) transcriptional repressors. At low auxin concentrations, IAA repressors associate with ARF proteins and recruit corepressors that prevent auxin-induced gene expression. At higher auxin concentrations, IAAs are degraded and ARFs become free to regulate auxin-responsive genes. The interaction between ARFs and IAAs is thus central to auxin signalling and occurs through the highly conserved domain III/IV present in both types of proteins. Here, we report the crystal structure of ARF5 domain III/IV and reveal the molecular determinants of ARF-IAA interactions. We further provide evidence that ARFs have the potential to oligomerize, a property that could be important for gene regulation in response to auxin.

  14. AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1: the outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is one of the first characterized proteins that bind auxin and has been implied as a receptor for a number of auxin responses. Early studies characterized its auxin binding properties and focused on rapid electrophysiological and cell expansion responses, while subsequent work indicated a role in cell cycle and cell division control. Very recently, ABP1 has been ascribed a role in modulating endocytic events at the plasma membrane and RHO OF PLANTS-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements during asymmetric cell expansion. The exact molecular function of ABP1 is still unresolved, but its main activity apparently lies in influencing events at the plasma membrane. This review aims to connect the novel findings with the more classical literature on ABP1 and to point out the many open questions that still separate us from a comprehensive model of ABP1 action, almost 40 years after the first reports of its existence.

  15. Agrobacterium T-DNA-encoded protein Atu6002 interferes with the host auxin response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Benoît; Gizatullina, Diana I.; Babst, Benjamin A.; Gifford, Andrew N.; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several genes in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens transferred (T) DNA encode proteins that are involved in developmental alterations leading to the formation of tumors in infected plants. We investigated the role of the protein encoded by the Atu6002 gene, the function of which is completely unknown. The Atu6002 expression occurs in Agrobacterium-induced tumors, and is also activated upon activation of plant cell division by growth hormones. Within the expressing plant cells, the Atu6002 protein is targeted to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, constitutive ectopic expression of Atu6002 in transgenic tobacco plants lead to a severe developmental phenotype characterized by stunted growth, shorter internodes, lanceolate leaves, increased branching, and modified flower morphology. These Atu6002-expressing plants also displayed impaired response to auxin. However, auxin cellular uptake and polar transport were not significantly inhibited in these plants, suggesting that Atu6002 interferes with auxin perception or signaling pathways. PMID:24128370

  16. Gravity persistent signal 1 reveals a novel cytochrome P450 involved in gravitropic signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah

    Understanding gene expression that occurs during gravitopism is important for studying the processes that link the perception of gravity to the growth response. Arabidopsis plants with a mutation in the GRAVITY PERSISTENT SIGNAL (GPS)1 locus show a "no response" phenotype during gravistimulation experiments. Basepital auxin transport in gps1 mutant was unaffected by the mutation, but auxin was not laterally redistributed after gravistimulation. GPS1 encodes CYP705A22, a cytochrome P450 protein (P450) of unknown function. The wild type CYP705A22 gene was transformed into the gps1 mutant background and successfully rescued the mutant phenotype. Data mining of microarray data collected from gravistimulated root tips of Arabidopsis indicated that although CYP705A22 was not expressed in roots, a family member CYP705A5 was up-regulated within 3 minutes after gravistimulation. Expression profiling of CYP705A5, using real-time quantitative PCR, showed that CYP705A5 was up-regulated nearly five fold within minutes of gravity stimulation. And reporter gene fusions that link the CYP705A5 gene to the green fluorescent protein showed that CYP705A5 was expressed in the root zones of elongation and maturation. Computer modeling of the catalytic domain of CYP705A22 and CYP705A5 and in silico substrate docking simulations generated a list of 130 compounds that are potential substrates of the P450s. Many of the compounds are phenylpropanoid derivatives. Heterologous expression of CYP705A5 in baculovirus and Type 1 binding studies indicate the substrate of the P450 may be quercitin or myricetin. A mutation affecting CYP705A5 expression resulted in a delayed gravity response in roots. The mutant phenotype could be chemically complemented, and DPBA staining in the CYP705A5 mutant indicated a 1.5 fold accumulation of quercetin in mutant roots as compared to WT. These data, taken together, may indicate that we have identified a flavonoid pathway that regulates auxin distribution and thus

  17. The acropetal effects of indole-3-acetic acid in isolated shoot segments of Acer pseudoplatanus L. II. Possible regulation by a vectorial fieid of auxin waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek A. Adamczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acropetal effects of auxin on elongation of axillary buds and on modulation of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin to agar from Acer pseudoplatanus L. shoots were studied. When synthetic IAA was applied to cut surfaces of one of two branches the elongation growth of buds situated on the opposite branch was retarded, suggesting regulation independent of the direct action of the molecules of the applied IAA. Oscillations in basipetal transport of natural auxin along the stem segments were observed corroborating the results of other authors using different tree species. Apical application of synthetic IAA for 1 hour to the lateral branch caused a phase shift of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin, when the stem segment above the treated branch was sectioned. The same effect was observed evoked by the laterally growing branch which is interpreted as an effect of natural auxin produced by the actively growing shoot. These modulations could be propagated acropetally at a rate excluding direct action of auxin molecules at the sites of measurement. The results seem to corroborate the hypothesis suggesting that auxin is involved in acropetal regulation of shoot apex growth through its effect upon modulation of the vectorial field which arises when the auxin-waves translocate in cambium.

  18. Increased Sucrose Accumulation Regulates Iron-Deficiency Responses by Promoting Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian Yong; Ye, Yi Quan; Fan, Shi Kai; Jin, Chong Wei; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have identified that auxins acts upstream of nitric oxide in regulating iron deficiency responses in roots, but the upstream signaling molecule of auxins remains unknown. In this study, we showed that Fe deficiency increased sucrose (Suc) level in roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Exogenous application of Suc further stimulated Fe deficiency-induced ferric-chelate-reductase (FCR) activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes FRO2, IRT1, and FIT in roots. The opposite patterns were observed in the dark treatment. In addition, FCR activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes were higher in the Suc high-accumulating transgenic plant 35S::SUC2 but were lower in the Suc low-accumulating mutant suc2-5 compared with wild-type plants under Fe-deficient conditions. Consequently, Fe deficiency tolerance was enhanced in 35S::SUC2 but was compromised in suc2-5. Exogenous Suc also increased root β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in auxin-inducible reporter DR5-GUS transgenic plants under Fe deficiency. However, exogenous Suc failed to increase FCR activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes in the auxin transport-impaired mutants aux1-7 and pin1-1 as well as in the wild-type plants treated with an auxin transport inhibitor under Fe deficiency. In summary, we found that increased Suc accumulation is required for regulating Fe deficiency responses in plants, with auxins acting downstream in transmitting the Fe deficiency signal. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-10-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stresses affect LR formation. We proposed that SSA regulates LR emergence by interrupting AUX1-mediated auxin transport from shoot to root. Here, by analyzing both ABA- and auxin-related mutants, we show that AUX1 is also required for SSA-mediated suppression of primary root growth. Ammonium content in shoots was furthermore shown to increase linearly with shoot-, but not root-supplied, ammonium, suggesting it may represent the internal trigger for SSA inhibition of root development. Taken together, our data identify AUX1-mediated auxin transport as a key transmission step in the sensing of excessive ammonium exposure and its inhibitory effect on root development. 

  20. Characterization of the growth and auxin physiology of roots of the tomato mutant, diageotropica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Lomax, T. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    Roots of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant (diageotropica (dgt) exhibit an altered phenotype. These roots are agravitropic and lack lateral roots. Relative to wild-type (VFN8) roots, dgt roots are less sensitive to growth inhibition by exogenously applied IAA and auxin transport inhibitors (phytotropins), and the roots exhibit a reduction in maximal growth inhibition in response to ethylene. However, IAA transport through roots, binding of the phytotropin, tritiated naphthylphthalamic acid ([3H]NPA), to root microsomal membranes, NPA-sensitive IAA uptake by root segments, and uptake of [3H]NPA into root segments are all similar in mutant and wild-type roots. We speculate that the reduced sensitivity of dgt root growth to auxin-transport inhibitors and ethylene is an indirect result of the reduction in sensitivity to auxin in this single gene, recessive mutant. We conclude that dgt roots, like dgt shoots, exhibit abnormalities indicating they have a defect associated with or affecting a primary site of auxin perception or action.

  1. Small-molecule auxin inhibitors that target YUCCA are powerful tools for studying auxin function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakei, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Suzuki, Masashi; Nakamura, Ayako; Sato, Akiko; Ishida, Yosuke; Kikuchi, Rie; Higashi, Shouichi; Kokudo, Yumiko; Ishii, Takahiro; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2015-11-01

    Auxin is essential for plant growth and development, this makes it difficult to study the biological function of auxin using auxin-deficient mutants. Chemical genetics have the potential to overcome this difficulty by temporally reducing the auxin function using inhibitors. Recently, the indole-3-pyruvate (IPyA) pathway was suggested to be a major biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana L. for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most common member of the auxin family. In this pathway, YUCCA, a flavin-containing monooxygenase (YUC), catalyzes the last step of conversion from IPyA to IAA. In this study, we screened effective inhibitors, 4-biphenylboronic acid (BBo) and 4-phenoxyphenylboronic acid (PPBo), which target YUC. These compounds inhibited the activity of recombinant YUC in vitro, reduced endogenous IAA content, and inhibited primary root elongation and lateral root formation in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings. Co-treatment with IAA reduced the inhibitory effects. Kinetic studies of BBo and PPBo showed that they are competitive inhibitors of the substrate IPyA. Inhibition constants (Ki ) of BBo and PPBo were 67 and 56 nm, respectively. In addition, PPBo did not interfere with the auxin response of auxin-marker genes when it was co-treated with IAA, suggesting that PPBo is not an inhibitor of auxin sensing or signaling. We propose that these compounds are a class of auxin biosynthesis inhibitors that target YUC. These small molecules are powerful tools for the chemical genetic analysis of auxin function. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Defining binding efficiency and specificity of auxins for SCF(TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA co-receptor complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Sundaram, Shanthy; Armitage, Lynne; Evans, John P; Hawkes, Tim; Kepinski, Stefan; Ferro, Noel; Napier, Richard M

    2014-03-21

    Structure-activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure-activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding.

  3. The Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 transcription factor affects auxin homeostasis in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Que; Ma, Wei; Yang, Haibing; Ma, Guojie; Mantyla, Jenny J; Benning, Christoph

    2017-07-20

    WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a key transcriptional regulator of fatty acid biosynthesis genes in diverse oil-containing tissues. Loss of function of Arabidopsis WRI1 leads to a reduction in the expression of genes for fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis, and concomitant strong reduction of seed oil content. The wri1-1 loss-of-function mutant shows reduced primary root growth and decreased acidification of the growth medium. The content of a conjugated form of the plant growth hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-Asp, was higher in wri1-1 plants compared with the wild-type. GH3.3, a gene encoding an enzyme involved in auxin degradation, displayed higher expression in the wri1-1 mutant. EMSAs demonstrated that AtWRI1 bound to the promoter of GH3.3. Specific AtWRI1-binding motifs were identified in the promoter of GH3.3. In addition, wri1-1 displayed decreased auxin transport. Expression of some PIN genes, which encode IAA carrier proteins, was reduced in wri1-1 plants as well. Correspondingly, AtWRI1 bound to the promoter regions of some PIN genes. It is well known that auxin exerts its maximum effects at a specific, optimal concentration in roots requiring a finely balanced auxin homeostasis. This process appears to be disrupted when the expression of WRI1 and in turn a subset of its target genes are misregulated, highlighting a role for WRI1 in root auxin homeostasis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. The mode of action of thidiazuron: auxins, indoleamines, and ion channels in the regeneration of Echinacea purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maxwell P A; Cao, Jin; O'Brien, Rob; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2007-09-01

    The biochemical mechanisms underlying thidiazuron (TDZ)-induced regeneration in plant cells have not been clearly elucidated. Exposure of leaf explants of Echinacea purpurea to a medium containing TDZ results in undifferentiated cell proliferation and differentiated growth as mixed shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The current studies were undertaken to determine the potential roles of auxin, indoleamines, and ion signaling in the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of plant cells. E. purpurea leaf explants were found to contain auxin and the related indoleamine neurotransmitters, melatonin, and serotonin. The levels of these endogenous indoleamines were increased by exposure to TDZ associated with the induction of regeneration. The auxin-transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and auxin action inhibitor, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid decreased the TDZ-induced regeneration but increased concentrations of endogenous serotonin and melatonin. As well, inhibitors of calcium and sodium transport significantly reduced TDZ-induced morphogenesis while increasing endogenous indoleamine content. These data indicate that TDZ-induced regeneration is the manifestation of a metabolic cascade that includes an initial signaling event, accumulation, and transport of endogenous plant signals such as auxin and melatonin, a system of secondary messengers, and a concurrent stress response.

  5. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  6. Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    de Rham, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...

  7. Lateral root initiation and formation within the parental root meristem of Cucurbita pepo: is auxin a key player?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Kiryushkin, Alexey S; Semenova, Victoria A; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2018-04-19

    In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging. The effects of exogenous auxin and auxin transport inhibitors on root branching were analysed. The earliest LRI event involved a group of symmetric anticlinal divisions in pericycle cell files at a distance of 250-350 µm from the initial cells. The visualization of the ARMs enabled the precise detection of cells involved in determining the site of LR primordium formation. A local ARM appeared in sister cells of the pericycle and endodermis files before the first division. Cortical cells contributed to LR development after the anticlinal divisions in the pericycle via the formation of an ARM. Exogenous auxins did not increase the total number of LRs and did not affect the LRI index. Although exogenous auxin transport inhibitors acted in different ways, they all reduced the number of LRs formed. Literature data, as well as results obtained in this study, suggest that the formation of a local ARM before the first anticlinal formative divisions is the common mechanism underlying LRI in flowering plants. We propose that the mechanisms of the regulation of root branching are independent of the position of the LRI site relative to the parental root tip.

  8. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  9. A novel putative auxin carrier family regulates intracellular auxin homeostasis in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barbez, E.; Kubeš, Martin; Rolčík, Jakub; Béziat, Ch.; Pěnčík, Aleš; Wang, B.; Rosquete, M. R.; Zhu, J.; Dobrev, Petre; Lee, Y.; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Geisler, M.; Friml, J.; Kleine-Vehn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 485, č. 7396 (2012), s. 119-124 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin * auxin homeostasis * PILS (PIN-likes) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 38.597, year: 2012

  10. Rational design of an auxin antagonist of the SCF(TIR1) auxin receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Neve, Joshua; Hirose, Masakazu; Kuboki, Atsuhito; Shimada, Yukihisa; Kepinski, Stefan; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-03-16

    The plant hormone auxin is a master regulator of plant growth and development. By regulating rates of cell division and elongation and triggering specific patterning events, indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) regulates almost every aspect of plant development. The perception of auxin involves the formation of a ternary complex consisting of an F-box protein of the TIR1/AFB family of auxin receptors, the auxin molecule, and a member the Aux/IAA family of co-repressor proteins. In this study, we identified a potent auxin antagonist, α-(phenylethyl-2-oxo)-IAA, as a lead compound for TIR1/AFB receptors by in silico virtual screening. This molecule was used as the basis for the development of a more potent TIR1 antagonist, auxinole (α-[2,4-dimethylphenylethyl-2-oxo]-IAA), using a structure-based drug design approach. Auxinole binds TIR1 to block the formation of the TIR1-IAA-Aux/IAA complex and so inhibits auxin-responsive gene expression. Molecular docking analysis indicates that the phenyl ring in auxinole would strongly interact with Phe82 of TIR1, a residue that is crucial for Aux/IAA recognition. Consistent with this predicted mode of action, auxinole competitively inhibits various auxin responses in planta. Additionally, auxinole blocks auxin responses of the moss Physcomitrella patens, suggesting activity over a broad range of species. Our works not only substantiates the utility of chemical tools for plant biology but also demonstrates a new class of small molecule inhibitor of protein-protein interactions common to mechanisms of perception of other plant hormones, such as jasmonate, gibberellin, and abscisic acid.

  11. Hormonal regulation of the gravity s negative control of morphogenesis in cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Kamada, M.; Saito, Y.; Fujii, N.

    Just after germination, seedlings of most cucurbitaceous plants develop a peg to pull the cotyledons and plumule out from the seed coat. The peg usually develops on the concave side of the gravitropically bending transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Because cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone, it was suggested that peg formation was negatively regulated by gravity on Earth. It has also been suggested that auxin is an essential factor responsible for peg formation. To verify this hypothesis and to understand the molecular mechanism of the gravity-regulated peg formation, we measured the distribution of endogenous auxin in the transition zone, examined the expression patterns of an auxininducible genes (CS-IAAs), auxin response factor and auxin carrier genes (CS-ARFs, CS-AUX1, CS-PIN1). Because ethylene modifies peg development, we examined the expression of ACC synthase genes (CS-ACSs) and its relation to the auxin-mediated development of peg. Furthermore, we examined some other factors that might interact with auxin for peg formation. Based on the results of these studies, we propose a model for the mechanism of peg formation in cucumber seedlings.

  12. Interplay of auxin, KANADI and Class III HD-ZIP transcription factors in vascular tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilegems, Michael; Douet, Véronique; Meylan-Bettex, Marlyse; Uyttewaal, Magalie; Brand, Lukas; Bowman, John L; Stieger, Pia A

    2010-03-01

    Class III HD-ZIP and KANADI gene family members have complementary expression patterns in the vasculature and their gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutants have complementary vascular phenotypes. This suggests that members of the two gene families are involved in the establishment of the spatial arrangement of phloem, cambium and xylem. In this study, we have investigated the role of these two gene families in vascular tissue differentiation, in particular their interactions with the plant hormone auxin. We have analyzed the vasculature of plants that have altered expression levels of Class III HD-ZIP and KANADI transcription factors in provascular cells. Removal of either KANADI or Class III HD-ZIP expression in procambium cells led to a wider distribution of auxin in internal tissues, to an excess of procambium cell recruitment and to increased cambium activity. Ectopic expression of KANADI1 in provascular cells inhibited procambium cell recruitment due to negative effects of KANADI1 on expression and polar localization of the auxin efflux-associated protein PIN-FORMED1. Ectopic expression of Class III HD-ZIP genes promoted xylem differentiation. We propose that Class III HD-ZIP and KANADI transcription factors control cambium activity: KANADI proteins by acting on auxin transport, and Class III HD-ZIP proteins by promoting axial cell elongation and xylem differentiation.

  13. Differential regulation of Ku gene expression in etiolated mung bean hypocotyls by auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Chang, Wen-Chi; Wang, Yung-Kai; Munisamy, Suresh-Babu; Hsu, Shen-Hsing; Chang, Hwan-You; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Pan, Rong-Long

    2007-01-01

    Plant Ku genes were identified very recently in Arabidopsis thaliana, and their roles in repair of double-stranded break DNA and maintenance of telomere integrity were scrutinized. In this study, the cDNAs encoding Ku70 (VrKu70) and Ku80 (VrKu80) were isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyls. Both genes were expressed widely among different tissues of mung bean with the highest levels in hypocotyls and leaves. The VrKu gene expression was stimulated by exogenous auxins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The stimulation could be abolished by auxin transport inhibitors, N-(1-naphthyl) phthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid implicating that exogenous auxins triggered the effects following their uptake by the cells. Further analysis using specific inhibitors of auxin signaling showed that the stimulation of VrKu expression by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was suppressed by intracellular Ca(2+) chelators, calmodulin antagonists, and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of calmodulin in the signaling pathway. On the other hand, exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) stimulated VrKu expression through the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Altogether, it is thus proposed that 2,4-D and IAA (or NAA) regulate the expression of VrKu through two distinct pathways.

  14. The Clubroot Pathogen (Plasmodiophora brassicae Influences Auxin Signaling to Regulate Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jahn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot disease, caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae, affects cruciferous crops worldwide. It is characterized by root swellings as symptoms, which are dependent on the alteration of auxin and cytokinin metabolism. Here, we describe that two different classes of auxin receptors, the TIR family and the auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated upon gall formation. Mutations in the TIR family resulted in more susceptible reactions to the root pathogen. As target genes for the different pathways we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of selected transcriptional repressors (Aux/IAA and transcription factors (ARF. As the TIR pathway controls auxin homeostasis via the upregulation of some auxin conjugate synthetases (GH3, the expression of selected GH3 genes was also investigated, showing in most cases upregulation. A double gh3 mutant showed also slightly higher susceptibility to P. brassicae infection, while all tested single mutants did not show any alteration in the clubroot phenotype. As targets for the ABP1-induced cell elongation the effect of potassium channel blockers on clubroot formation was investigated. Treatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA resulted in less severe clubroot symptoms. This research provides evidence for the involvement of two auxin signaling pathways in Arabidopsis needed for the establishment of the root galls by P. brassicae.

  15. Time course and auxin sensitivity of cortical microtubule reorientation in maize roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of MT [microtubule] reorientation in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Merit, were examined 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after horizontal positioning. Confocal microscopy of longitudinal tissue sections showed no change in MT orientation 15 and 30 min after horizontal placement. However, after 45 and 60 min, MTs of the outer 4-5 cortical cell layers along the lower side were reoriented. In order to test whether MT reorientation during graviresponse is caused by an auxin gradient, we examined the organization of MTs in roots that were incubated for 1 h in solutions containing 10(-9) to 10(-6) M IAA. IAA treatment at 10(-8) M or less showed no major or consistent changes but 10(-7) M IAA resulted in MT reorientation in the cortex. The auxin effect does not appear to be acid-induced since benzoic acid (10(-5) M) did not cause MT reorientation. The region closest to the maturation zone was most sensitive to IAA. The data indicate that early stages of gravity induced curvature occur in the absence of MT reorientation but sustained curvature leads to reoriented MTs in the outer cortex. Growth inhibition along the lower side of graviresponding roots appears to result from asymmetric distribution of auxin following gravistimulation.

  16. Auxins and cytokinins in plant development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamínek, Miroslav; Ludwig-Müller, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Zažímalová, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2006), s. 89-97 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/98/1510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinins * Auxins * Plant Development Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2006

  17. Hormonal control of root development on epiphyllous plantlets of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) marnierianum: role of auxin and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Epiphyllous plantlets develop on leaves of Bryophyllum marnierianum when they are excised from the plant. Shortly after leaf excision, plantlet shoots develop from primordia located near the leaf margin. After the shoots have enlarged for several days, roots appear at their base. In this investigation, factors regulating plantlet root development were studied. The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) abolished root formation without markedly affecting shoot growth. This suggested that auxin transport from the plantlet shoot induces root development. Excision of plantlet apical buds inhibits root development. Application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in lanolin at the site of the apical buds restores root outgrowth. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, reverses TIBA inhibition of plantlet root emergence on leaf explants. Both of these observations support the hypothesis that auxin, produced by the plantlet, induces root development. Exogenous ethylene causes precocious root development several days before that of a control without hormone. Ethylene treatment cannot bypass the TIBA block of root formation. Therefore, ethylene does not act downstream of auxin in root induction. However, ethylene amplifies the effects of low concentrations of NAA, which in the absence of ethylene do not induce roots. Ag(2)S(2)O(3), an ethylene blocker, and CoCl(2), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, do not abolish plantlet root development. It is therefore unlikely that ethylene is essential for root formation. Taken together, the experiments suggest that roots develop when auxin transport from the shoot reaches a certain threshold. Ethylene may augment this effect by lowering the threshold and may come into play when the parent leaf senesces.

  18. The Interaction between Auxin and Nitric Oxide Regulates Root Growth in Response to Iron Deficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huwei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fe deficiency (-Fe is a common abiotic stress that affects the root development of plants. Auxin and nitric oxide (NO are key regulator of root growth under -Fe. However, the interactions between auxin and NO regulate root growth in response to Fe deficiency are complex and unclear. In this study, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and NO levels in roots, and the responses of root growth in rice to different levels of Fe supply were investigated using wild type (WT, ospin1b and osnia2 mutants. -Fe promoted LR formation but inhibited seminal root elongation. IAA levels, [3H] IAA transport, and expression levels of PIN1a-c genes in roots were reduced under -Fe, suggesting that polar auxin transport from shoots to roots was decreased. Application of IAA to -Fe seedlings restored seminal root length, but not LR density, to levels similar to those under normal Fe (+Fe, and the seminal root length was shorter in two ospin1b mutants relative to WT under +Fe, but not under -Fe, confirming that auxin transport participates in -Fe-inhibited seminal root elongation. Moreover, -Fe-induced LR density and -Fe-inhibited seminal root elongation paralleled NO production in roots. Interestingly, similar NO accumulation and responses of LR density and root elongation were observed in osnia2 mutants compared to WT, and the higher expression of NOA gene under -Fe, suggesting that -Fe-induced NO was generated via the NO synthase-like pathway rather than the nitrate reductase pathway. However, IAA could restore the functions of NO in inhibiting seminal root elongation, but did not replace the role of NO-induced LR formation under -Fe. Overall, our findings suggested that NO functions downstream of auxin in regulating LR formation; NO-inhibited seminal root elongation by decreasing meristem activity in root tips under -Fe, with the involvement of auxin.

  19. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-01-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stre...

  20. Gravity-driven transport of three engineered nanomaterials in unsaturated soils and their effects on soil pH and nutrient release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Jon R; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-07-01

    The gravity-driven transport of TiO2, CeO2, and Cu(OH)2 engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their effects on soil pH and nutrient release were measured in three unsaturated soils. ENM transport was found to be highly limited in natural soils collected from farmland and grasslands, with the majority of particles being retained in the upper 0-3 cm of the soil profile, while greater transport depth was seen in a commercial potting soil. Physical straining appeared to be the primary mechanism of retention in natural soils as ENMs immediately formed micron-scale aggregates, which was exacerbated by coating particles with Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) which promote steric hindrance. Small changes in soil pH were observed in natural soils contaminated with ENMs that were largely independent of ENM type and concentration, but differed from controls. These changes may have been due to enhanced release of naturally present pH-altering ions (Mg(2+), H(+)) in the soil via substitution processes. These results suggest ENMs introduced into soil will likely be highly retained near the source zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic

  2. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel C; Godinho, Cláudia P; Cabrito, Tânia R; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2012-07-27

    The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased ³H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic fermentation performance for sustainable bio

  3. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Miguel C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to

  4. Characterization of contaminant transport by gravity, capilliarity and barometric pumping in heterogeneous vadose regimes. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    'Vadose regimes can be the sites of complex interactions between the atmosphere and groundwater. When a volatile contaminant exists as free product or in dissolved form in the vadose environment, upward transport can occur with the contaminant ultimately being vented as a vapor into the atmosphere. This transport happens naturally and can be enhanced by anisotropy resulting from heterogenities in the vadose regime. Several stages in the transport process are involved in going from a volatile, liquid state contaminant to a contaminant vapor vented at the surface. In a three-year effort, called the Vadose Zone Transport Study, the authors are investigating, with the aid of existing data, new field studies involving dissolved tracer gases and 3-D diagnostic computer simulations that provide a framework to interpret the observations, the detailed nature of each of these stages of transport in several different kinds of vadose regimes. They are emphasizing the impact of features specific to a site, that is, the local geology and hydrology, on each stage of the transport process. In particular they want to better understand how the time scales for (1) partitioning contaminants from the liquid to the vapor states and then (2) transporting the vapor out of the vadose regime are dependent on the specific character of a site. Such time-scale information will be important for evaluating the potential of contaminant sources as well as remediation strategies including natural remediation approaches.'

  5. Coordination of matrix attachment and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling regulate auxin biosynthesis and Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghee Lee

    Full Text Available Hypocotyl elongation is extensively controlled by hormone signaling networks. In particular, auxin metabolism and signaling play key roles in light-dependent hypocotyl growth. The nuclear matrix facilitates organization of DNA within the nucleus, and dynamic interactions between nuclear matrix and DNA are related to gene regulation. Conserved scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs are anchored to the nuclear matrix by the AT-HOOK MOTIF CONTAINING NUCLEAR LOCALIZED (AHL proteins in Arabidopsis. Here, we found that ESCAROLA (ESC/AHL27 and SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B-4 #3 (SOB3/AHL29 redundantly regulate auxin biosynthesis in the control of hypocotyl elongation. The light-inducible AHL proteins bind directly to an S/MAR region of the YUCCA 9 (YUC9 promoter and suppress its expression to inhibit hypocotyl growth in light-grown seedlings. In addition, they recruit the SWI2/SNF2-RELATED 1 (SWR1 complex and promote exchange of H2A with the histone variant H2A.Z at the YUC9 locus to further elaborately control auxin biosynthesis. Consistent with these results, the long hypocotyl phenotypes of light-grown genetic mutants of the AHLs and H2A.Z-exchanging components were suppressed by potent chemical inhibitors of auxin transport and YUC enzymes. These results suggest that the coordination of matrix attachment and chromatin modification underlies auxin biosynthesis in light-dependent hypocotyl growth.

  6. Auxin and physical constraint exerted by the perianth promote androgynophore bending in Passiflora mucronata L. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, D I; Monte Bello, C C; Sobol, S; Samach, A; Dornelas, M C

    2015-05-01

    The androgynophore column, a distinctive floral feature in passion flowers, is strongly crooked or bent in many Passiflora species pollinated by bats. This is a floral feature that facilitates the adaptation to bat pollination. Crooking or bending of plant organs are generally caused by environmental stimulus (e.g. mechanical barriers) and might involve the differential distribution of auxin. Our aim was to study the role of the perianth organs and the effect of auxin in bending of the androgynophore of the bat-pollinated species Passiflora mucronata. Morpho-anatomical characterisation of the androgynophore, including measurements of curvature angles and cell sizes both at the dorsal (convex) and ventral (concave) sides of the androgynophore, was performed on control flowers, flowers from which perianth organs were partially removed and flowers treated either with auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D) or with an inhibitor of auxin polar transport (naphthylphthalamic acid; NPA). Asymmetric growth of the androgynophore column, leading to bending, occurs at a late stage of flower development. Removing the physical constraint exerted by perianth organs or treatment with NPA significantly reduced androgynophore bending. Additionally, the androgynophores of plants treated with 2,4-D were more curved when compared to controls. There was a larger cellular expansion at the dorsal side of the androgynophores of plants treated with 2,4-D and in both sides of the androgynophores of plants treated with NPA. This study suggests that the physical constraint exerted by perianth and auxin redistribution promotes androgynophore bending in P. mucronata and might be related to the evolution of chiropterophily in the genus Passiflora. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Root Bending Is Antagonistically Affected by Hypoxia and ERF-Mediated Transcription via Auxin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysholdt-Derzsó, Emese; Sauter, Margret

    2017-09-01

    When plants encounter soil water logging or flooding, roots are the first organs to be confronted with reduced gas diffusion resulting in limited oxygen supply. Since roots do not generate photosynthetic oxygen, they are rapidly faced with oxygen shortage rendering roots particularly prone to damage. While metabolic adaptations to low oxygen conditions, which ensure basic energy supply, have been well characterized, adaptation of root growth and development have received less attention. In this study, we show that hypoxic conditions cause the primary root to grow sidewise in a low oxygen environment, possibly to escape soil patches with reduced oxygen availability. This growth behavior is reversible in that gravitropic growth resumes when seedlings are returned to normoxic conditions. Hypoxic root bending is inhibited by the group VII ethylene response factor (ERFVII) RAP2.12, as rap2.12-1 seedlings show exaggerated primary root bending. Furthermore, overexpression of the ERFVII member HRE2 inhibits root bending, suggesting that primary root growth direction at hypoxic conditions is antagonistically regulated by hypoxia and hypoxia-activated ERFVIIs. Root bending is preceded by the establishment of an auxin gradient across the root tip as quantified with DII-VENUS and is synergistically enhanced by hypoxia and the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. The protein abundance of the auxin efflux carrier PIN2 is reduced at hypoxic conditions, a response that is suppressed by RAP2.12 overexpression, suggesting antagonistic control of auxin flux by hypoxia and ERFVII. Taken together, we show that hypoxia triggers an escape response of the primary root that is controlled by ERFVII activity and mediated by auxin signaling in the root tip. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Maize AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN 1 and AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN 4 impact on leaf growth, elongation, and seedling responsiveness to auxin and light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurišić-Knežev, Dejana; Čudejková, Mária; Zalabák, David; Hlobilová, Marta; Rolčík, Jakub; Pěnčík, Aleš; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Fellner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2012), s. 990-1006 ISSN 1916-2790 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin * auxin-binding protein * growth Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2012

  9. Auxins reverse plant male sterility caused by high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oshino, Takeshi; Miura, Shinya; Tomabechi, Mari; Tsunaga, Yuta; Higashitani, Nahoko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Masao; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2010-05-11

    With global warming, plant high temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In wheat, barley, and various other commercially important crops, the early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to high temperatures. Activation of auxin biosynthesis with increased temperatures has been reported in certain plant tissues. In contrast, we here found that under high temperature conditions, endogenous auxin levels specifically decreased in the developing anthers of barley and Arabidopsis. In addition, expression of the YUCCA auxin biosynthesis genes was repressed by increasing temperatures. Application of auxin completely reversed male sterility in both plant species. These findings suggest that tissue-specific auxin reduction is the primary cause of high temperature injury, which leads to the abortion of pollen development. Thus, the application of auxin may help sustain steady yields of crops despite future climate change.

  10. Onset of cell division in maize germination: action of auxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Jimenez, E.S.; Baiza, A.; Aguilar, R.

    1987-01-01

    Seed germination implies metabolic reactivation, synthesis of macromolecules and onset of cell division. During maize germination, meristematic tissues of embryos re-initiate cell division asynchronically. Since auxins are known to stimulate cell division, they asked how auxins might regulate cell cycle re-initiation. Embryonic tissues were incubated with and without auxins. A pulse of either 3 H-thymidine or 32 P-ortophosphate was given to the tissues. Mitotic indexes were determined and % of labeled mitotic cells recorded. Results indicated that meristematic cells re-initiate cell division either from G 1 or G 2 phases. Auxin stimulated differentially the cell division process of these cells. 32 P incorporation into cytoplasmic or nucleic histones was measured. Auxins stimulated this incorporation. Active turnover of histone phosphorylation occurred simultaneously to the cell division process. It is suggested that auxins might regulate the cell cycle by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of histones

  11. Presynaptic transporter-mediated release of glutamate evoked by the protonophore FCCP increases under altered gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T. A.; Krisanova, N. V.

    2008-12-01

    High-affinity Na +-dependent glutamate transporters of the plasma membrane mediate the glutamate uptake into neurons, and thus maintain low levels of extracellular glutamate in the synaptic cleft. The study focused on the release of glutamate by reversal of Na +-dependent glutamate transporters from rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) under conditions of centrifuge-induced hypergravity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed similarity in the size and cytoplasmic granularity between synaptosomal preparations obtained from control and G-loaded animals (10 G, 1 h). The release of cytosolic L-[ 14C]glutamate from synaptosomes was evaluated using the protonophore FCCP, which dissipated synaptic vesicle proton gradient, thus synaptic vesicles were not able to keep glutamate inside and the latter enriched cytosol. FCCP per se induced the greater release of L-[ 14C]glutamate in hypergravity as compared to control (4.8 ± 1.0% and 8.0 ± 1.0% of total label). Exocytotic release of L-[ 14C]glutamate evoked by depolarization was reduced down to zero after FCCP application under both conditions studied. Depolarization stimulated release of cytosolic L-[ 14C]glutamate from synaptosomes preliminary treated with FCCP was considerably increased from 27.0 ± 2.2% of total label in control to 35.0 ± 2.3% in hypergravity. Non-transportable inhibitor of glutamate transporter DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate was found to significantly inhibit high-KCl and FCCP-stimulated release of L-[ 14C]glutamate, confirming the release by reversal of glutamate transporters. The enhancement of transporter-mediated release of glutamate in hypergravity was found to result at least partially from the inhibition of the activity of Na/K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. We suggested that hypergravity-induced alteration in transporter-mediated release of glutamate indicated hypoxic injury of neurons.

  12. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  13. Induction, selection and isolation of auxin heterotrophic and auxin-resistant mutants from cultured crown gall cells irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumi, Shigeaki

    1980-01-01

    Cultured crown gall cells were irradiated with gamma rays to induce mutation in indoleacetic acid biosynthesis. The irradiated cells were plated on a selection medium which contained auxin. Mutant cells adapted to selection media were characterized as auxin-heterotrophic and auxin-resistant cell lines. The auxin-heterotrophic mutants contained little auxin, whereas the auxin-resistant and -autotrophic mutants contained large amounts of auxin even when cultured with 0.3 ppm of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Each mutant cell line contained as much octopine as its parental cells. The mutation rate was calculated as in the order of 10 -8 . (author)

  14. The circadian clock regulates auxin signaling and responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Covington

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock plays a pervasive role in the temporal regulation of plant physiology, environmental responsiveness, and development. In contrast, the phytohormone auxin plays a similarly far-reaching role in the spatial regulation of plant growth and development. Went and Thimann noted 70 years ago that plant sensitivity to auxin varied according to the time of day, an observation that they could not explain. Here we present work that explains this puzzle, demonstrating that the circadian clock regulates auxin signal transduction. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling, we found many auxin-induced genes are under clock regulation. We verified that endogenous auxin signaling is clock regulated with a luciferase-based assay. Exogenous auxin has only modest effects on the plant clock, but the clock controls plant sensitivity to applied auxin. Notably, we found both transcriptional and growth responses to exogenous auxin are gated by the clock. Thus the circadian clock regulates some, and perhaps all, auxin responses. Consequently, many aspects of plant physiology not previously thought to be under circadian control may show time-of-day-specific sensitivity, with likely important consequences for plant growth and environmental responses.

  15. Points of regulation for auxin action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zažímalová, Eva; Napier, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2003), s. 625-634 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Grant - others:EU INCO COPERNICUS(XE) ERBIC15 CT98 0118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Plant hormone * Homeostasis * Auxin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.423, year: 2003

  16. Massive gravity from bimetric gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)

  17. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag(+)) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co(2+)) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag(+)/Co(2+)-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Sequential induction of auxin efflux and influx carriers regulates lateral root emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péret, Benjamin; Middleton, Alistair M; French, Andrew P; Larrieu, Antoine; Bishopp, Anthony; Njo, Maria; Wells, Darren M; Porco, Silvana; Mellor, Nathan; Band, Leah R; Casimiro, Ilda; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Sairanen, Ilkka; Mallet, Romain; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin; Beeckman, Tom; Benkova, Eva; Friml, Jiří; Kramer, Eric; King, John R; De Smet, Ive; Pridmore, Tony; Owen, Markus; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2013-10-22

    In Arabidopsis, lateral roots originate from pericycle cells deep within the primary root. New lateral root primordia (LRP) have to emerge through several overlaying tissues. Here, we report that auxin produced in new LRP is transported towards the outer tissues where it triggers cell separation by inducing both the auxin influx carrier LAX3 and cell-wall enzymes. LAX3 is expressed in just two cell files overlaying new LRP. To understand how this striking pattern of LAX3 expression is regulated, we developed a mathematical model that captures the network regulating its expression and auxin transport within realistic three-dimensional cell and tissue geometries. Our model revealed that, for the LAX3 spatial expression to be robust to natural variations in root tissue geometry, an efflux carrier is required--later identified to be PIN3. To prevent LAX3 from being transiently expressed in multiple cell files, PIN3 and LAX3 must be induced consecutively, which we later demonstrated to be the case. Our study exemplifies how mathematical models can be used to direct experiments to elucidate complex developmental processes.

  19. Artificial Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term reduced gravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity, which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by short-radius human centrifuge devices within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient

  20. Leaf expansion in Phaseolus: transient auxin-induced growth increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    Control of leaf expansion by auxin is not well understood. Evidence from short term exogenous applications and from treatment of excised tissues suggests auxin positively influences growth. Manipulations of endogenous leaf auxin content, however, suggests that, long-term, auxin suppresses leaf expansion. This study attempts to clarify the growth effects of auxin on unifoliate (primary) leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by reexamining the response to auxin treatment of both excised leaf strips and attached leaves. Leaf strips, incubated in culture conditions that promoted steady elongation for up to 48 h, treated with 10 μM NAA responded with an initial surge of elongation growth complete within 10 hours followed by insensitivity. A range of NAA concentrations from 0.1 μM to 300 μM induced increased strip elongation after 24 hours and 48 hours. Increased elongation and epinastic curvature of leaf strips was found specific to active auxins. Expanding attached unifoliates treated once with aqueous auxin α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 1.0 mM showed both an initial surge in growth lasting 4–6 hours followed by growth inhibition sustained at least as long as 24 hours post treatment. Auxin-induced inhibition of leaf expansion was associated with smaller epidermal cell area. Together the results suggest increasing leaf auxin first increases growth then slows growth through inhibition of cell expansion. Excised leaf strips, retain only the initial increased growth response to auxin and not the subsequent growth inhibition, either as a consequence of wounding or of isolation from the plant. PMID:29200506

  1. The role of auxin and cytokinin signalling in specifying the root architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Auxin and cytokinin are key hormonal signals that control the cellular architecture of the primary root and the initiation of new lateral root organs in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both developmental processes are regulated by cross-talk between these hormones and their signalling pathways. In this paper, sub-cellular and multi-cellular mathematical models are developed to investigate how interactions between auxin and cytokinin influence the size and location of regions of division and differentiation within the primary root, and describe how their cross-regulation may cause periodic branching of lateral roots. We show how their joint activity may influence tissue-specific oscillations in gene expression, as shown in Moreno-Risueno et al. (2010) and commented upon in Traas and Vernoux (2010), and we propose mechanisms that may generate synchronisation of such periodic behaviours inside a cell and with its neighbours. Using a multi-cellular model, we also analyse the roles of cytokinin and auxin in specifying the three main regions of the primary root (elongation, transition and division zones), our simulation results being in good agreement with independent experimental observations. We then use our model to generate testable predictions concerning the effect of varying the concentrations of the auxin efflux transporters on the sizes of the different root regions. In particular, we predict that over-expression of the transporters will generate a longer root with a longer elongation zone and a smaller division zone than that of a wild type root. This root will contain fewer cells than its wild type counterpart. We conclude that our model can provide a useful tool for investigating the response of cell division and elongation to perturbations in hormonal signalling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  3. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  4. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijie Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi, which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering.

  5. 14 CFR 29.27 - Center of gravity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Center of gravity limits. 29.27 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.27 Center of gravity limits. The extreme forward and aft centers of gravity and, where critical, the extreme lateral centers of gravity...

  6. Effects of different concentarions of auxins on rooting and root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of auxins and their different concentrations on rooting and root characters of air and ground layers of jojoba was assessed at Maxima Estate Private Limited Farm, Hyderabad, India in 1998. Auxins IBA, NAA and their mixture (IBA + NAA) at concentrations of 1000, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm with lanolin paste were ...

  7. The Use of Auxin Quantification for Understanding Clonal Tree Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Stuepp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative hormone analyses have been essential for understanding the metabolic, physiological, and morphological processes that are influenced by plant hormones. Auxins are key hormones in the control of many aspects of plant growth and development and their endogenous levels are considered critical in the process of adventitious root induction. Exogenous auxins are used extensively in the clonal propagation of tree species by cuttings or tissue culture. Understanding of auxin effects has advanced with the development of increasingly accurate methods for auxin quantification. However, auxin analysis has been challenging because auxins typically occur at low concentrations, while compounds that interfere with their detection often occur at high concentrations, in plant tissues. Interference from other compounds has been addressed by extensive purification of plant extracts prior to auxin analysis, although this means that quantification methods have been limited by their expense. This review explores the extraction, purification, and quantification of auxins and the application of these techniques in developing improved methods for the clonal propagation of forestry trees.

  8. Optimization of suitable auxin application in a recalcitrant woody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine and optimize suitable auxin for callus induction in Eurycoma longifolia. The induction of callus cultures using leaf, petiole, rachis, stem, tap root, fibrous root, cotyledon and embryo segments were successfully achieved by using various auxins such as 2,4-D, IAA, NAA, picloram and ...

  9. In-silico identification and phylogenetic analysis of auxin efflux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... 3Departent di Biologia Vegetale, Viale Mattioli, 10125, University of Turin, Italy. 4Istituto Agrario San Michele all'Adige, Research and Innovation Centre, Foundation ..... research of this plant at the molecular level. Auxin efflux carrier genes identified in this report will help to understand the role of auxin ...

  10. Nitric oxide acts downstream of auxin to trigger root ferric-chelate reductase activity in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei Wei; Yang, Jian Li; Qin, Cheng; Jin, Chong Wei; Mo, Ji Hao; Ye, Ting; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2010-10-01

    In response to iron (Fe) deficiency, dicots employ a reduction-based mechanism by inducing ferric-chelate reductase (FCR) at the root plasma membrane to enhance Fe uptake. However, the signal pathway leading to FCR induction is still unclear. Here, we found that the Fe-deficiency-induced increase of auxin and nitric oxide (NO) levels in wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was accompanied by up-regulation of root FCR activity and the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (FIT) and the ferric reduction oxidase 2 (FRO2) genes. This was further stimulated by application of exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid) or NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]), but suppressed by either polar auxin transport inhibition with 1-naphthylphthalamic acid or NO scavenging with 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, tungstate, or N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. On the other hand, the root FCR activity, NO level, and gene expression of FIT and FRO2 were higher in auxin-overproducing mutant yucca under Fe deficiency, which were sharply restrained by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide treatment. The opposite response was observed in a basipetal auxin transport impaired mutant aux1-7, which was slightly rescued by exogenous GSNO application. Furthermore, Fe deficiency or α-naphthaleneacetic acid application failed to induce Fe-deficiency responses in noa1 and nial nia2, two mutants with reduced NO synthesis, but root FCR activities in both mutants could be significantly elevated by GSNO. The inability to induce NO burst and FCR activity was further verified in a double mutant yucca noa1 with elevated auxin production and reduced NO accumulation. Therefore, we presented a novel signaling pathway where NO acts downstream of auxin to activate root FCR activity under Fe deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  11. A modular analysis of the auxin signalling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Farcot

    Full Text Available Auxin is essential for plant development from embryogenesis onwards. Auxin acts in large part through regulation of transcription. The proteins acting in the signalling pathway regulating transcription downstream of auxin have been identified as well as the interactions between these proteins, thus identifying the topology of this network implicating 54 Auxin Response Factor (ARF and Aux/IAA (IAA transcriptional regulators. Here, we study the auxin signalling pathway by means of mathematical modeling at the single cell level. We proceed analytically, by considering the role played by five functional modules into which the auxin pathway can be decomposed: the sequestration of ARF by IAA, the transcriptional repression by IAA, the dimer formation amongst ARFs and IAAs, the feedback loop on IAA and the auxin induced degradation of IAA proteins. Focusing on these modules allows assessing their function within the dynamics of auxin signalling. One key outcome of this analysis is that there are both specific and overlapping functions between all the major modules of the signaling pathway. This suggests a combinatorial function of the modules in optimizing the speed and amplitude of auxin-induced transcription. Our work allows identifying potential functions for homo- and hetero-dimerization of transcriptional regulators, with ARF:IAA, IAA:IAA and ARF:ARF dimerization respectively controlling the amplitude, speed and sensitivity of the response and a synergistic effect of the interaction of IAA with transcriptional repressors on these characteristics of the signaling pathway. Finally, we also suggest experiments which might allow disentangling the structure of the auxin signaling pathway and analysing further its function in plants.

  12. Interactions of auxinic compounds on a Ca2+ signaling and root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxinic-like compounds have been widely used as weed control agents. Over the years, the mode of action of auxinic herbicides have been elucidated, but most studies thus far have focused on their effects on later stages of plant growth. Here, we show that some select auxins and auxinic-like herbicid...

  13. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  14. A novel root gravitropism mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibiting altered auxin physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, C.; Migliaccio, F.; Masson, P.; Caspar, T.; Soll, D.

    1995-01-01

    A root gravitropism mutant was isolated from the DuPont Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertional mutagenesis collection. This mutant has reduced root gravitropism, hence the name rgr1. Roots of rgr1 are shorter than those of wild-type, and they have reduced lateral root formation. In addition, roots of rgr1 coil clockwise on inclined agar plates, unlike wild-type roots which grow in a wavy pattern. The rgr1 mutant has increased resistance, as measured by root elongation, to exogenously applied auxins (6-fold to indole-3-acetic acid, 3-fold to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2-fold to napthyleneacetic acid). It is also resistant to polar auxin transport inhibitors (2-fold to triiodobenzoic acid and 3- to 5-fold to napthylphthalamic acid). The rgr1 mutant does not appear to be resistant to other plant hormone classes. When grown in the presence of 10(-7) M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, rgr1 roots have fewer root hairs than wild type. All these rgr1 phenotypes are Mendelian recessives. Complementation tests indicate that rgr1 is not allelic to previously characterized agravitropic or auxin-resistant mutants. The rgr1 locus was mapped using visible markers to 1.4 +/- 0.6 map units from the CH1 locus at 1-65.4. The rgr1 mutation and the T-DNA cosegregate, suggesting that rgr1 was caused by insertional gene inactivation.

  15. Noncoding transcription by alternative rna polymerases dynamically regulates an auxin-driven chromatin loop

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico D.

    2014-08-01

    The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  16. A study of the transport of nitrogenous substances in plants by local isotopic nitrogen analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazeeva, G.S.; Meshcheryakova, T.Yu.; Turkin, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    A distant acting of auxin on the transport regulation of ammonium ion was studied in pieces of maize coleopteles using labelled 15 N sulphate and nitrate. The evaluation of 15 NH 4 + transport speeed in the object by means of the laser method of local isotope analysis has shown its growth under the influence of auxin to be approximately two times as high

  17. Gravity-dependent differentiation and root coils in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and phospholipase-A-I knockdown mutant grown on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, G F E; Pietrzyk, P

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis roots on 45° tilted agar in 1-g grow in wave-like figures. In addition to waves, formation of root coils is observed in several mutants compromised in gravitropism and/or auxin transport. The knockdown mutant ppla-I-1 of patatin-related phospholipase-A-I is delayed in root gravitropism and forms increased numbers of root coils. Three known factors contribute to waving: circumnutation, gravisensing and negative thigmotropism. In microgravity, deprivation of wild type (WT) and mutant roots of gravisensing and thigmotropism and circumnutation (known to slow down in microgravity, and could potentially lead to fewer waves or increased coiling in both WT and mutant). To resolve this, mutant ppla-I-1 and WT were grown in the BIOLAB facility in the International Space Station. In 1-g, roots of both types only showed waving. In the first experiment in microgravity, the mutant after 9 days formed far more coils than in 1-g but the WT also formed several coils. After 24 days in microgravity, in both types the coils were numerous with slightly more in the mutant. In the second experiment, after 9 days in microgravity only the mutant formed coils and the WT grew arcuated roots. Cell file rotation (CFR) on the mutant root surface in microgravity decreased in comparison to WT, and thus was not important for coiling. Several additional developmental responses (hypocotyl elongation, lateral root formation, cotyledon expansion) were found to be gravity-influenced. We tentatively discuss these in the context of disturbances in auxin transport, which are known to decrease through lack of gravity. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The search for a quantum theory of the gravitational field is one of the great open problems in theoretical physics. This book presents a self-contained discussion of the concepts, methods and applications that can be expected in such a theory. The two main approaches to its construction - the direct quantisation of Einstein's general theory of relativity and string theory - are covered. Whereas the first attempts to construct a viable theory for the gravitational field alone, string theory assumes that a quantum theory of gravity will be achieved only through a unification of all the interactions. However, both employ the general method of quantization of constrained systems, which is described together with illustrative examples relevant for quantum gravity. There is a detailed presentation of the main approaches employed in quantum general relativity: path-integral quantization, the background-field method and canonical quantum gravity in the metric, connection and loop formulations. The discussion of stri...

  19. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  20. Hydrogen Gas Is Involved in Auxin-Induced Lateral Root Formation by Modulating Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2 in bacteria and algae has been widely studied, and it has attracted increasing attention in the context of animals and plants. However, the role of endogenous H2 in lateral root (LR formation is still unclear. Here, our results showed that H2-induced lateral root formation is a universal event. Naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA; the auxin analog was able to trigger endogenous H2 production in tomato seedlings, and a contrasting response was observed in the presence of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid (NPA, an auxin transport inhibitor. NPA-triggered the inhibition of H2 production and thereafter lateral root development was rescued by exogenously applied H2. Detection of endogenous nitric oxide (NO by the specific probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR analyses revealed that the NO level was increased in both NAA- and H2-treated tomato seedlings. Furthermore, NO production and thereafter LR formation induced by auxin and H2 were prevented by 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO; a specific scavenger of NO and the inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR; an important NO synthetic enzyme. Molecular evidence confirmed that some representative NO-targeted cell cycle regulatory genes were also induced by H2, but was impaired by the removal of endogenous NO. Genetic evidence suggested that in the presence of H2, Arabidopsis mutants nia2 (in particular and nia1 (two nitrate reductases (NR-defective mutants exhibited defects in lateral root length. Together, these results demonstrated that auxin-induced H2 production was associated with lateral root formation, at least partially via a NR-dependent NO synthesis.

  1. Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, G E

    2005-01-01

    Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)

  2. Efficient C1-continuous phase-potential upwind (C1-PPU) schemes for coupled multiphase flow and transport with gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiamin; Younis, Rami M.

    2017-10-01

    In the presence of counter-current flow, nonlinear convergence problems may arise in implicit time-stepping when the popular phase-potential upwinding (PPU) scheme is used. The PPU numerical flux is non-differentiable across the co-current/counter-current flow regimes. This may lead to cycles or divergence in the Newton iterations. Recently proposed methods address improved smoothness of the numerical flux. The objective of this work is to devise and analyze an alternative numerical flux scheme called C1-PPU that, in addition to improving smoothness with respect to saturations and phase potentials, also improves the level of scalar nonlinearity and accuracy. C1-PPU involves a novel use of the flux limiter concept from the context of high-resolution methods, and allows a smooth variation between the co-current/counter-current flow regimes. The scheme is general and applies to fully coupled flow and transport formulations with an arbitrary number of phases. We analyze the consistency property of the C1-PPU scheme, and derive saturation and pressure estimates, which are used to prove the solution existence. Several numerical examples for two- and three-phase flows in heterogeneous and multi-dimensional reservoirs are presented. The proposed scheme is compared to the conventional PPU and the recently proposed Hybrid Upwinding schemes. We investigate three properties of these numerical fluxes: smoothness, nonlinearity, and accuracy. The results indicate that in addition to smoothness, nonlinearity may also be critical for convergence behavior and thus needs to be considered in the design of an efficient numerical flux scheme. Moreover, the numerical examples show that the C1-PPU scheme exhibits superior convergence properties for large time steps compared to the other alternatives.

  3. Auxin modulates the enhanced development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under elevated CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Chongwei; Jin, Gulei; Zhou, Qingyan; Lin, Xianyong; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong

    2011-08-01

    Root hairs may play a critical role in nutrient acquisition of plants grown under elevated CO(2) . This study investigated how elevated CO(2) enhanced the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The plants under elevated CO(2) (800 µL L(-1)) had denser and longer root hairs, and more H-positioned cells in root epidermis than those under ambient CO(2) (350 µL L(-1)). The elevated CO(2) increased auxin production in roots. Under elevated CO(2) , application of either 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) blocked the enhanced development of root hairs. The opposite was true when the plants under ambient CO(2) were treated with 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), an auxin analogue. Furthermore, the elevated CO(2) did not enhance the development of root hairs in auxin-response mutants, axr1-3, and auxin-transporter mutants, axr4-1, aux1-7 and pin1-1. Both elevated CO(2) and NAA application increased expressions of caprice, triptychon and rho-related protein from plants 2, and decreased expressions of werewolf, GLABRA2, GLABRA3 and the transparent testa glabra 1, genes related to root-hair development, while 1-NOA and NPA application had an opposite effect. Our study suggests that elevated CO(2) enhanced the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis via the well-characterized auxin signalling and transport that modulate the initiation of root hairs and the expression of its specific genes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Auxins increase expression of the brassinosteroid receptor and brassinosteroid-responsive genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Fujioka, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    Auxins and brassinosteroids are essential phytohormones that synergistically regulate physiological and developmental processes in plants. Previously, we demonstrated that auxins stimulate brassinosteroid perception by regulating the level of brassinosteroid receptor in rice. Here we showed that auxin treatment increased expression of the Arabidopsis brassinosteroid receptor gene BRI1. The promoter of BRI1 has an auxin-response element that is targeted by auxin-response factor transcription f...

  5. ER-localized auxin transporter PIN8 regulates auxin homeostasis and male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ding, Z.; Wang, B.; Moreno, I.; Dupľáková, Nikoleta; Sibu, S.; Carraro, N.; Reemmer, J.; Pěnčík, A.; Chen, X.; Tejos, R.; Skůpa, Petr; Pollmann, S.; Mravec, J.; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Honys, David; Rolčík, J.; Murphy, A.; Orellana, A.; Geisler, M.; Friml, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 941 (2012) ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR GA522/09/0858 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PLANT DEVELOPMENT * ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM * POLLEN GERMINATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.015, year: 2012

  6. Sites and regulation of auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Karin; Hull, Anna K; Celenza, John; Yamada, Masashi; Estelle, Mark; Normanly, Jennifer; Sandberg, Göran

    2005-04-01

    Auxin has been shown to be important for many aspects of root development, including initiation and emergence of lateral roots, patterning of the root apical meristem, gravitropism, and root elongation. Auxin biosynthesis occurs in both aerial portions of the plant and in roots; thus, the auxin required for root development could come from either source, or both. To monitor putative internal sites of auxin synthesis in the root, a method for measuring indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis with tissue resolution was developed. We monitored IAA synthesis in 0.5- to 2-mm sections of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and were able to identify an important auxin source in the meristematic region of the primary root tip as well as in the tips of emerged lateral roots. Lower but significant synthesis capacity was observed in tissues upward from the tip, showing that the root contains multiple auxin sources. Root-localized IAA synthesis was diminished in a cyp79B2 cyp79B3 double knockout, suggesting an important role for Trp-dependent IAA synthesis pathways in the root. We present a model for how the primary root is supplied with auxin during early seedling development.

  7. The role of auxin in temperature regulated hypocotyl elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estelle, Mark [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-10-02

    The major goal of this project was to determine how auxin mediates the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to increased ambient temperature. Previous studies have shown that the response is due, in part, to increased auxin biosynthesis via the IPA auxin biosynthetic pathway. This effect is related to increased transcription of genes that encode enzymes in this pathway. However, during the last year we have shown that transcription of key auxin regulated genes increases within minutes of a shift to elevated temperature. This response is probably to rapid to be explained by changes in the levels of auxin biosynthetic enzymes. Interestingly, we have recently discovered that temperature shift is associated with a rapid increase in the level of the auxin co-receptor TIR1. This change appears is the result of increased stability of the protein. At the same time, we have discovered that stability of TIR1 is dependent on the chaperone HSP9o and its co-chaperone SGT1. By using the specific HSP90 inhibitor GDA, we show that HSP90 is required for the temperature dependent change in TIR1 levels. We have also shown that HSP90 and SGT1 interact directly with TIR1. Our results also lead us to propose a new model in which the plant responds rapidly to changes in ambient temperature by directly regulating the TIR1/AFB receptor system, thus modulating the auxin signaling pathway.

  8. Recapitulation of the forward nuclear auxin response pathway in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Jang, Seunghee S; Havens, Kyle A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Klavins, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Auxin influences nearly every aspect of plant biology through a simple signaling pathway; however, it remains unclear how much of the diversity in auxin effects is explained by variation in the core signaling components and which properties of these components may contribute to diversification in response dynamics. Here, we recapitulated the entire Arabidopsis thaliana forward nuclear auxin signal transduction pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to test whether signaling module composition enables tuning of the dynamic response. Sensitivity analysis guided by a small mathematical model revealed the centrality of auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional corepressors in controlling response dynamics and highlighted the strong influence of natural variation in Aux/IAA degradation rates on circuit performance. When the basic auxin response circuit was expanded to include multiple Aux/IAAs, we found that dominance relationships between coexpressed Aux/IAAs were sufficient to generate distinct response modules similar to those seen during plant development. Our work provides a new method for dissecting auxin signaling and demonstrates the key role of Aux/IAAs in tuning auxin response dynamics.

  9. Simulating Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  10. The interaction between nitrogen availability and auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in the control of shoot branching in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junxu; Zha, Manrong; Li, Ye; Ding, Yanfeng; Chen, Lin; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen availability and cytokinin could promote shoot branching in rice, whereas auxin and strigolactone inhibited it. The interaction between nitrogen availability and the three hormones is discussed. Rice shoot branching is strongly affected by nitrogen availability and the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone; however, the interaction of them in the regulation of rice shoot branching remains a subject of debate. In the present study, nitrogen and the three hormones were used to regulate rice tiller bud growth in the indica rice variety Yangdao 6. Both nitrogen and CK promoted shoot branching in rice, whereas auxin and SL inhibited it. We used HPLC to determine the amounts of endogenous IAA and CK, and we used quantitative real-time PCR analysis to quantify the expression levels of several genes. Nitrogen enhanced the amount of CK by promoting the expression levels of OsIPTs in nodes. In addition, both nitrogen and CK downregulated the expression of genes related to SL synthesis in root and nodes, implying that the inhibition of SL synthesis by nitrogen may occur at least partially through the CK pathway. SL did not significantly reduce the amount of CK or the expression levels of OsIPT genes, but it did significantly reduce the amount of auxin and the auxin transport capacity in nodes. Auxin itself inhibited CK synthesis and promoted SL synthesis in nodes rather than in roots. Furthermore, we found that CK and SL quickly reduced and increased the expression of FC1 in buds, respectively, implying that FC1 might be a common target for the CK and SL pathways. Nitrogen and auxin delayed expression change patterns of FC1, potentially by changing the downstream signals for CK and SL.

  11. The diageotropica mutation and synthetic auxins differentially affect the expression of auxin-regulated genes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mito, N; Bennett, A B

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutation, diageotropica (dgt), on the accumulation of mRNA corresponding to tomato homologs of three auxin-regulated genes, LeAux, LeSAUR, and Lepar, was examined. The dgt mutation inhibited the induction of LeAux and LeSAUR mRNA accumulation by naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) but had no effect on NAA-induced Lepar mRNA accumulation. The effect of two synthetic auxins, NAA and 3,7-dichloro-8-quinoline carboxylic acid (quinclorac), on the accumulation of LeAux, LeSAUR, and Lepar mRNA was also examined. Quinclorac induced the expression of each of the auxin-regulated genes, confirming its proposed mode of herbicidal action as an auxin-type herbicide. Concentrations of quinclorac at least 100-fold higher than NAA were required to induce LeAux and LeSAUR mRNA accumulation to similar levels, whereas Lepar mRNA accumulation was induced by similar concentrations of NAA and quinclorac. Collectively, these data suggest the presence of two auxin-dependent signal transduction pathways: one that regulates LeSAUR and LeAux mRNA accumulation and is interrupted by the dgt mutation and a second that regulates Lepar mRNA accumulation and is not defective in dgt tomato hypocotyls. These two auxin-regulated signal transduction pathways can be further discriminated by the action of two synthetic auxins, NAA and quinclorac. PMID:7480327

  12. Repression by an auxin/indole acetic acid protein connects auxin signaling with heat shock factor-mediated seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranco, Raúl; Espinosa, José Manuel; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Almoguera, Concepción; Jordano, Juan

    2010-12-14

    The plant hormone auxin regulates growth and development by modulating the stability of auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins, which in turn repress auxin response factors (ARFs) transcriptional regulators. In transient assays performed in immature sunflower embryos, we observed that the Aux/IAA protein HaIAA27 represses transcriptional activation by HaHSFA9, a heat shock transcription factor (HSF). We also found that HaIAA27 is stabilized in immature sunflower embryos, where we could show bimolecular fluorescence complementation interaction between native forms of HaIAA27 and HaHSFA9. An auxin-resistant form of HaIAA27 was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco seeds, leading to effects consistent with down-regulation of the ortholog HSFA9 gene, effects not seen with the native HaIAA27 form. Repression of HSFs by HaIAA27 is thus likely alleviated by auxin in maturing seeds. We show that HSFs such as HaHSFA9 are targets of Aux/IAA protein repression. Because HaHSFA9 controls a genetic program involved in seed longevity and embryonic desiccation tolerance, our findings would suggest a mechanism by which these processes can be auxin regulated. Aux/IAA-mediated repression involves transcription factors distinct from ARFs. This finding widens interpretation of auxin responses.

  13. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  14. Auxin efflux carrier activity and auxin accumulation regulate cell division and polarity in tobacco cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Elčkner, Miroslav; Morris, David; Zažímalová, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 216, - (2002), s. 302-308 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/98/1510 Grant - others:INCO Copernicus(BE) IC15-CT98-0118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Auxin carrier * 1,N,Naphthylphthalamic acid * Nicotiana ( cell culture) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.960, year: 2002

  15. Hormonal control of root development on epiphyllous plantlets of Bryophyllum (Kalancho?) marnierianum: role of auxin and ethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Kulka, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Epiphyllous plantlets develop on leaves of Bryophyllum marnierianum when they are excised from the plant. Shortly after leaf excision, plantlet shoots develop from primordia located near the leaf margin. After the shoots have enlarged for several days, roots appear at their base. In this investigation, factors regulating plantlet root development were studied. The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) abolished root formation without markedly affecting shoot growth. This ...

  16. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  17. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981

  18. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)

  19. In-silico identification and phylogenetic analysis of auxin efflux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-silico identification and phylogenetic analysis of auxin efflux carrier gene family in Setaria italica L. Tapan Kumar Mohanta, Mickael Malnoy, Nibedita Mohanta, Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy ...

  20. (photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic) and the auxin indole-butyric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic) and the auxin indole-butyric acid on the in vitro acclimatization of papaya ( Carica papaya L. var. Red Maradol) plants using zeolite as support.

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Novel Auxin Mimic Herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Vargas, Jose J; Thomas, Joseph W; Armel, Gregory R; Best, Michael D

    2016-05-11

    Due to the key roles of auxins as master regulators of plant growth, there is considerable interest in the development of compounds with auxin-like properties for growth management and weed control applications. Herein, we describe the design and multistep synthesis of ten compounds bearing combinations of functional groups commonly associated with auxin-type properties. Following synthesis, these compounds were tested against multiple weed species as well as sweet corn. In general, while these structures were not quite as active as commercial auxin mimic herbicides, multiple compounds exhibited broadleaf weed activity with concurrent selectivity in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharum). In addition, differential results were observed upon subtle changes to structure, providing insights into the structural properties required for activity.

  2. High-temperature injury and auxin biosynthesis in microsporogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eHigashitani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant reproductive development is more sensitive than vegetative growth to many environmental stresses. With global warming, in particular, plant high temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In wheat, barley, and various other commercially important crops, the early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to high temperatures. We recently demonstrated that high temperature causes cell-proliferation arrest and represses auxin signaling in a tissue-specific manner of the anther cells of barley and Arabidopsis. These phenomena were accompanied by comprehensive alterations in transcription including repression of cell-proliferation related genes and YUCCA auxin biosynthesis genes. Moreover, application of auxin completely improved the transcriptional alterations, the production of normal pollen grains, and seed setting rate under increasing temperatures. These denote that auxin, which has been used widely as potent and selective herbicides, is useful for the promotion of plant fertility and maintenance of crop yields under the global warming conditions.

  3. YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are required for Arabidopsis shade avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Müller-Moulé

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to neighbor shade by increasing stem and petiole elongation. Shade, sensed by phytochrome photoreceptors, causes stabilization of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins and subsequent induction of YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes. To investigate the role of YUCCA genes in phytochrome-mediated elongation, we examined auxin signaling kinetics after an end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR light treatment, and found that an auxin responsive reporter is rapidly induced within 2 hours of far-red exposure. YUCCA2, 5, 8, and 9 are all induced with similar kinetics suggesting that they could act redundantly to control shade-mediated elongation. To test this hypothesis we constructed a yucca2, 5, 8, 9 quadruple mutant and found that the hypocotyl and petiole EOD-FR and shade avoidance responses are completely disrupted. This work shows that YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are essential for detectable shade avoidance and that YUCCA genes are important for petiole shade avoidance.

  4. Effects of auxins on in vitro reserve compounds of Phalaenopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orchidaceae). Sandra Sayuri Ori, Edison Paulo Chu, Armando Reis Tavares. Abstract. The effects of auxin and the endogenous levels of reserve compounds of Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume (Orchidaceae) were analyzed in vitro. Rootless plants ...

  5. Characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase containing Methylobacterium oryzae and interactions with auxins and ACC regulation of ethylene in canola (Brassica campestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Sa, Tongmin

    2007-09-01

    The possible interaction of the plant hormones auxin and ethylene and the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase containing bacteria on ethylene production in canola (Brassica campestris) in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of growth regulators were investigated. The effects of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid), auxin transport inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid, ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate and ethylene synthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine hydrochloride on root elongation were concentration dependent. Exogenous addition of growth regulators influences the enzyme activities of ethylene production and we have presented here evidences that support the hypothesis that inhibitory effects of auxin on root elongation are independent of ethylene. Additionally, we have proved that inoculation of ACC deaminase containing Methylobacterium oryzae sequester ACC exuded from roots and hydrolyze them lowering the concentration of ACC in root exudates. However, the inhibitory actions of exogenous additions of auxins could not be ameliorated by bacterial inoculation that reduces ethylene concentration in canola seedlings.

  6. Involvement of nitric oxide and auxin in signal transduction of copper-induced morphological responses in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pető, Andrea; Lehotai, Nóra; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; León, José; Tari, Irma; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are able to adapt to the environment dynamically through regulation of their growth and development. Excess copper (Cu2+), a toxic heavy metal, induces morphological alterations in plant organs; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. With this in mind, the multiple signalling functions of nitric oxide (NO) in plant cells and its possible regulatory role and relationship with auxin were examined during Cu2+-induced morphological responses. Methods Endogenous auxin distribution was determined by microscopic observation of X-Gluc-stained DR5::GUS arabidopsis, and the levels of NO, superoxide and peroxynitrite were detected by fluorescence microscopy. As well as wild-type, NO-overproducer (nox1) and -deficient (nia1nia2 and nia1nia2noa1-2) arabidopsis plants were used. Key Results Cu2+ at a concentration of 50 µm resulted in a large reduction in cotyledon area and hypocotyl and primary root lengths, accompanied by an increase in auxin levels. In cotyledons, a low Cu2+ concentration promoted NO accumulation, which was arrested by nitric oxide synthase or nitrate reductase inhibitors. The 5-μm Cu2+-induced NO synthesis was not detectable in nia1nia2 or nia1nia2noa1-2 plants. In roots, Cu2+ caused a decrease of the NO level which was not associated with superoxide and peroxynitrite formation. Inhibition of auxin transport resulted in an increase in NO levels, while exogenous application of an NO donor reduced DR5::GUS expression. The elongation processes of nox1 were not sensitive to Cu2+, but NO-deficient plants showed diverse growth responses. Conclusions In plant organs, Cu2+ excess results in severe morphological responses during which the endogenous hormonal balance and signal transduction are affected. Auxin and NO negatively regulate each other's level and NO intensifies the metal-induced cotyledon expansion, but mitigates elongation processes under Cu2+ exposure. PMID:21856638

  7. Root Bending Is Antagonistically Affected by Hypoxia and ERF-Mediated Transcription via Auxin Signaling1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysholdt-Derzsó, Emese

    2017-01-01

    When plants encounter soil water logging or flooding, roots are the first organs to be confronted with reduced gas diffusion resulting in limited oxygen supply. Since roots do not generate photosynthetic oxygen, they are rapidly faced with oxygen shortage rendering roots particularly prone to damage. While metabolic adaptations to low oxygen conditions, which ensure basic energy supply, have been well characterized, adaptation of root growth and development have received less attention. In this study, we show that hypoxic conditions cause the primary root to grow sidewise in a low oxygen environment, possibly to escape soil patches with reduced oxygen availability. This growth behavior is reversible in that gravitropic growth resumes when seedlings are returned to normoxic conditions. Hypoxic root bending is inhibited by the group VII ethylene response factor (ERFVII) RAP2.12, as rap2.12-1 seedlings show exaggerated primary root bending. Furthermore, overexpression of the ERFVII member HRE2 inhibits root bending, suggesting that primary root growth direction at hypoxic conditions is antagonistically regulated by hypoxia and hypoxia-activated ERFVIIs. Root bending is preceded by the establishment of an auxin gradient across the root tip as quantified with DII-VENUS and is synergistically enhanced by hypoxia and the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. The protein abundance of the auxin efflux carrier PIN2 is reduced at hypoxic conditions, a response that is suppressed by RAP2.12 overexpression, suggesting antagonistic control of auxin flux by hypoxia and ERFVII. Taken together, we show that hypoxia triggers an escape response of the primary root that is controlled by ERFVII activity and mediated by auxin signaling in the root tip. PMID:28698356

  8. Synthesis of some useful tritium labelled auxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, O.; Pri-Bar, I.; Shimoni, M.; Azran, J.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis of six useful auxins labelled with tritium is described. The following compounds were prepared: 3-indoleacetic acid-5- 3 H (28.9 Ci-1.07 TBq/mmol), 3-indolebutyric acid-5- 3 H (7.3 Ci-270 GBq/mmol), 1-naphthylacetic acid-4- 3 H (27.6 Ci-1.02 TBq/mmol), 2,4-dichloropheno-xyacetic acid-5- 3 H (18.5 Ci-685 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy-5- 3 H) -propionic acid (20.7 Ci-766 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid-3- 3 H (0.39 Ci-14.4 GMq/mmol), and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-2- 3 H (13.3 Ci-492 GBq/mmol). (author)

  9. Synthesis of some useful tritium labelled auxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchman, O.; Pri-Bar, I.; Shimoni, M.; Azran, J. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev)

    1992-06-01

    The synthesis of six useful auxins labelled with tritium is described. The following compounds were prepared: 3-indoleacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (28.9 Ci-1.07 TBq/mmol), 3-indolebutyric acid-5-[sup 3]H (7.3 Ci-270 GBq/mmol), 1-naphthylacetic acid-4-[sup 3]H (27.6 Ci-1.02 TBq/mmol), 2,4-dichloropheno-xyacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (18.5 Ci-685 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy-5-[sup 3]H) -propionic acid (20.7 Ci-766 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid-3-[sup 3]H (0.39 Ci-14.4 GMq/mmol), and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-2-[sup 3]H (13.3 Ci-492 GBq/mmol). (author).

  10. ARG1 (altered response to gravity) encodes a DnaJ-like protein that potentially interacts with the cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedbrook, J. C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    Gravitropism allows plant organs to direct their growth at a specific angle from the gravity vector, promoting upward growth for shoots and downward growth for roots. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying gravitropic signal transduction. We found that mutations in the ARG1 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana alter root and hypocotyl gravitropism without affecting phototropism, root growth responses to phytohormones or inhibitors of auxin transport, or starch accumulation. The positional cloning of ARG1 revealed a DnaJ-like protein containing a coiled-coil region homologous to coiled coils found in cytoskeleton-interacting proteins. These data suggest that ARG1 participates in a gravity-signaling process involving the cytoskeleton. A combination of Northern blot studies and analysis of ARG1-GUS fusion-reporter expression in transgenic plants demonstrated that ARG1 is expressed in all organs. Ubiquitous ARG1 expression in Arabidopsis and the identification of an ortholog in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that ARG1 is involved in other essential processes.

  11. An Arabidopsis kinase cascade influences auxin-responsive cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Tara A; Frick, Elizabeth M; Strader, Lucia C

    2017-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades are conserved mechanisms of signal transduction across eukaryotes. Despite the importance of MPK proteins in signaling events, specific roles for many Arabidopsis MPK proteins remain unknown. Multiple studies have suggested roles for MPK signaling in a variety of auxin-related processes. To identify MPK proteins with roles in auxin response, we screened mpk insertional alleles and identified mpk1-1 as a mutant that displays hypersensitivity in auxin-responsive cell expansion assays. Further, mutants defective in the upstream MAP kinase kinase MKK3 also display hypersensitivity in auxin-responsive cell expansion assays, suggesting that this MPK cascade affects auxin-influenced cell expansion. We found that MPK1 interacts with and phosphorylates ROP BINDING PROTEIN KINASE 1 (RBK1), a protein kinase that interacts with members of the Rho-like GTPases from Plants (ROP) small GTPase family. Similar to mpk1-1 and mkk3-1 mutants, rbk1 insertional mutants display auxin hypersensitivity, consistent with a possible role for RBK1 downstream of MPK1 in influencing auxin-responsive cell expansion. We found that RBK1 directly phosphorylates ROP4 and ROP6, supporting the possibility that RBK1 effects on auxin-responsive cell expansion are mediated through phosphorylation-dependent modulation of ROP activity. Our data suggest a MKK3 • MPK1 • RBK1 phosphorylation cascade that may provide a dynamic module for altering cell expansion. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Current analytical methods for plant auxin quantification--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfírio, Sara; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R; Peixe, Augusto; Cabrita, Maria J; Azadi, Parastoo

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones, and especially auxins, are low molecular weight compounds highly involved in the control of plant growth and development. Auxins are also broadly used in horticulture, as part of vegetative plant propagation protocols, allowing the cloning of genotypes of interest. Over the years, large efforts have been put in the development of more sensitive and precise methods of analysis and quantification of plant hormone levels in plant tissues. Although analytical techniques have evolved, and new methods have been implemented, sample preparation is still the limiting step of auxin analysis. In this review, the current methods of auxin analysis are discussed. Sample preparation procedures, including extraction, purification and derivatization, are reviewed and compared. The different analytical techniques, ranging from chromatographic and mass spectrometry methods to immunoassays and electrokinetic methods, as well as other types of detection are also discussed. Considering that auxin analysis mirrors the evolution in analytical chemistry, the number of publications describing new and/or improved methods is always increasing and we considered appropriate to update the available information. For that reason, this article aims to review the current advances in auxin analysis, and thus only reports from the past 15 years will be covered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Auxin regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana: A factor of potential importance for auxin-cytokinin-regulated development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nordström, A.; Tarkowski, Petr; Tarkowská, Danuše; Norbaek, R.; Astot, C.; Doležal, Karel; Sandberg, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 21 (2004), s. 8039-8044 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Arabidopsis * auxin * cytokinin * biosynthesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 10.452, year: 2004

  14. Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis ran binding protein renders transgenic roots hypersensitive to auxin and alters auxin-induced root growth and development by arresting mitotic progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Arnold, D.; Lloyd, A.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis Ran binding protein, AtRanBP1c, and generated transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the antisense strand of the AtRanBP1c gene to understand the in vivo functions of the Ran/RanBP signal pathway. The transgenic plants showed enhanced primary root growth but suppressed growth of lateral roots. Auxin significantly increased lateral root initiation and inhibited primary root growth in the transformants at 10 pM, several orders of magnitude lower than required to induce these responses in wild-type roots. This induction was followed by a blockage of mitosis in both newly emerged lateral roots and in the primary root, ultimately resulting in the selective death of cells in the tips of both lateral and primary roots. Given the established role of Ran binding proteins in the transport of proteins into the nucleus, these findings are consistent with a model in which AtRanBP1c plays a key role in the nuclear delivery of proteins that suppress auxin action and that regulate mitotic progress in root tips.

  15. Enhancing auxin accumulation in maize root tips improves root growth and dwarfs plant height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Xinrui; Zhao, Yajie; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Guangfeng; Peng, Zhenghua; Zhang, Juren

    2018-01-01

    Maize is a globally important food, feed crop and raw material for the food and energy industry. Plant architecture optimization plays important roles in maize yield improvement. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are important for regulating auxin spatiotemporal asymmetric distribution in multiple plant developmental processes. In this study, ZmPIN1a overexpression in maize increased the number of lateral roots and inhibited their elongation, forming a developed root system with longer seminal roots and denser lateral roots. ZmPIN1a overexpression reduced plant height, internode length and ear height. This modification of the maize phenotype increased the yield under high-density cultivation conditions, and the developed root system improved plant resistance to drought, lodging and a low-phosphate environment. IAA concentration, transport capacity determination and application of external IAA indicated that ZmPIN1a overexpression led to increased IAA transport from shoot to root. The increase in auxin in the root enabled the plant to allocate more carbohydrates to the roots, enhanced the growth of the root and improved plant resistance to environmental stress. These findings demonstrate that maize plant architecture can be improved by root breeding to create an ideal phenotype for further yield increases. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-15

    Apr 15, 2013 ... Keywords. compound leaf; leaf form evolution; 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid; sessile leaf; simple leaf; stipule architecture. ... Natural and/or induced alleles are known in six genes that determine leaf morphology. Both loss of function (uni) and hypomor- phic (uni-tac; lesser in expression) alleles are known ...

  17. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-15

    Apr 15, 2013 ... Moraceae. Moll. (. 1934. ) which encircles the internode stem. Platanus occidentalis. Platanaceae. Moll. (. 1934. ) to some distance. Rheum rhaponticum. Polygonaceae. Moll. (. 1934. ) Galium cruciata. Rubiaceae. Strasburger et al. (. 1976. ) Dentella repens. Rubiaceae. Strasburger et al. (. 1976. ) Calamus.

  18. Cytokinin response factors regulate PIN-FORMED auxin transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimášková, M.; O'Brien, J.A.; Khan, M.; Van Noorden, G.; Ötvös, K.; Vieten, A.; De Clercq, E.; Van Haperen, J.M.A.; Cuesta, C.; Hoyerová, Klára; Vanneste, S.; Marhavý, P.; Wabnik, K.; Van Breusegem, F.; Nowack, M.; Murphy, A.; Friml, J.; Weijers, D.; Beeckman, T.; Benková, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, NOV (2015), s. 8717 ISSN 2041-1723 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ARABIDOPSIS -THALIANA * ROOT-MERISTEM * TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015

  19. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In angiosperms, leaf and stipule architectures are inherited species-specific traits. Variation in leaf and stipule sizes, and forms result from the interaction between abiotic and biotic stimuli, and gene regulatory network(s) that underlie the leaf and stipule developmental programme(s). Here, correspondence between ...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1519 - Weight and center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight and center of gravity. 29.1519 Section 29.1519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 29.1519 Weight and center of gravity. The weight and center of gravity limitations...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1519 - Weight and center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight and center of gravity. 27.1519 Section 27.1519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operating Limitations § 27.1519 Weight and center of gravity. The weight and center of gravity limitations...

  2. 14 CFR 25.27 - Center of gravity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Center of gravity limits. 25.27 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.27 Center of gravity limits. The extreme forward and the extreme aft center of gravity limitations must be established for each practicably...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1519 - Weight and center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight and center of gravity. 23.1519 Section 23.1519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Information § 23.1519 Weight and center of gravity. The weight and center of gravity...

  4. Auxins increase expression of the brassinosteroid receptor and brassinosteroid-responsive genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Fujioka, Shozo

    2013-04-01

    Auxins and brassinosteroids are essential phytohormones that synergistically regulate physiological and developmental processes in plants. Previously, we demonstrated that auxins stimulate brassinosteroid perception by regulating the level of brassinosteroid receptor in rice. Here we showed that auxin treatment increased expression of the Arabidopsis brassinosteroid receptor gene BRI1. The promoter of BRI1 has an auxin-response element that is targeted by auxin-response factor transcription factors. Auxin pretreatment increased the sensitivity to brassinosteroids of brassinosteroid-responsive genes. Although multilevel interactions between auxins and brassinosteroids have previously been reported, our findings suggest a possibility that auxins control the degree of brassinosteroid perception by regulating the expression of gene for brassinosteroid receptor, and this phenomenon is conserved between monocots (rice) and dicots (Arabidopsis).

  5. Synthesis of Plant Auxin Derivatives and Their Effects on Ceratopteris Richardii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilts, Corey E.; Fisher, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    Bioassays are commonly used to test the biological activity of chemicals and other exercises are presented in which students synthesize plant hormones. Lab exercise is conducted using commercially available auxins and auxin regulating compounds.

  6. Southern Africa Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...

  7. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  8. Red light-regulated growth. I. Changes in the abundance of indoleacetic acid and a 22-kilodalton auxin-binding protein in the maize mesocotyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. M.; Cochran, D. S.; Lamerson, P. M.; Evans, M. L.; Cohen, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the changes in the levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA), IAA esters, and a 22-kilodalton subunit auxin-binding protein (ABP1) in apical mesocotyl tissue of maize (Zea mays L.) during continuous red light (R) irradiation. These changes were compared with the kinetics of R-induced growth inhibition in the same tissue. Upon the onset of continuous irradiation, growth decreased in a continuous manner following a brief lag period. The decrease in growth continued for 5 hours, then remained constant at 25% of the dark rate. The abundance of ABP1 and the level of free IAA both decreased in the mesocotyl. Only the kinetics of the decrease in IAA within the apical mesocotyl correlated with the initial change in growth, although growth continued to decrease even after IAA content reached its final level, 50% of the dark control. This decrease in IAA within the mesocotyl probably occurs primarily by a change in its transport within the shoot since auxin applied as a pulse move basipetally in R-irradiated tissue at the same rate but with half the area as dark control tissue. In situ localization of auxin in etiolated maize shoots revealed that R-irradiated shoots contained less auxin in the epidermis than the dark controls. Irradiated mesocotyl grew 50% less than the dark controls even when incubated in an optimal level of auxin. However, irradiated and dark tissue contained essentially the same amount of radioactivity after incubation in [14C]IAA indicating that the light treatment does not affect the uptake into the tissue through the cut end, although it is possible that a small subset of cells within the mesocotyl is affected. These observations support the hypothesis that R causes a decrease in the level of auxin in epidermal cells of the mesocotyl, consequently constraining the growth of the entire mesocotyl.

  9. The roles of auxin in seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Hai-wei; Meng, Yong-jie; Luo, Xiao-feng; Chen, Feng; Qi, Ying; Yang, Wen-yu; Shu, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are attractive topics in the fields of plant molecular biology as they are key stages during plant growth and development. Seed dormancy is intricately regulated by complex networks of phytohormones and numerous key genes, combined with diverse environmental cues. The transition from dormancy to germination is a very important biological process, and extensive studies have demonstrated that phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) are major determinants. Consequently, the precise balance between ABA and GA can ensure that the seeds remain dormant under stress conditions and germinate at optimal times. Here we review the role of auxin in seed dormancy and germination. Auxin is one of the classic phytohormones effective during tropism growth and tissue differentiation. Recent studies, however, show that auxin possesses positive effects on seed dormancy, which suggests that auxin is the second phytohormone that induces seed dormancy, besides ABA. We will focus on the synthetic effects in detail between auxin and ABA pathways on seed dormancy and propose future research directions.

  10. Auxin production by the plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens and auxin homoeostasis in infected tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienne, Susan; Freschi, Luciano; Vidotto, Vanessa F; De Souza, Tiago A; Purgatto, Eduardo; Zingales, Bianca

    2014-09-01

    Previously we have characterized the complete gene encoding a pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC)/indolepyruvate decarboxylase (IPDC) of Phytomonas serpens, a trypanosomatid highly abundant in tomato fruits. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the clade that contains the trypanosomatid protein behaves as a sister group of IPDCs of γ-proteobacteria. Since IPDCs are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the ability for IAA production by P. serpens was investigated. Similar to many microorganisms, the production of IAA and related indolic compounds, quantified by high performance liquid chromatography, increased in P. serpens media in response to amounts of tryptophan. The auxin functionality was confirmed in the hypocotyl elongation assay. In tomato fruits inoculated with P. serpens the concentration of free IAA had no significant variation, whereas increased levels of IAA-amide and IAA-ester conjugates were observed. The data suggest that the auxin produced by the flagellate is converted to IAA conjugates, keeping unaltered the concentration of free IAA. Ethanol also accumulated in P. serpens-conditioned media, as the result of a PDC activity. In the article we discuss the hypothesis of the bifunctionality of P. serpens PDC/IPDC and provide a three-dimensional model of the enzyme.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1158 - Auxins; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxins; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1158 Auxins; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of auxins (specifically: indole-3-acetic acid and...

  12. Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Smolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.

  13. Lysine Residues Are Not Required for Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis of the Auxin/Indole Acidic Acid Protein IAA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Jonathan; Kelley, Dior R; Tam, Raymond; Estelle, Mark; Callis, Judy

    2015-06-01

    Although many ubiquitin-proteasome substrates have been characterized in plants, very little is known about the corresponding ubiquitin attachment(s) underlying regulated proteolysis. Current dogma asserts that ubiquitin is typically covalently attached to a substrate through an isopeptide bond between the ubiquitin carboxy terminus and a substrate lysyl amino group. However, nonlysine (non-Lys) ubiquitin attachment has been observed in other eukaryotes, including the N terminus, cysteine, and serine/threonine modification. Here, we investigate site(s) of ubiquitin attachment on indole-3-acetic acid1 (IAA1), a short-lived Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family member. Most Aux/IAA proteins function as negative regulators of auxin responses and are targeted for degradation after ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1, Cullin, F-box [SCF] with Transport Inhibitor Response1 [TIR1]/Auxin Signaling F-box [AFB]) by an interaction directly facilitated by auxin. Surprisingly, using a Histidine-Hemaglutinin (HIS(6x)-HA(3x)) epitope-tagged version expressed in vivo, Lys-less IAA1 was ubiquitinated and rapidly degraded in vivo. Lys-substituted versions of IAA1 localized to the nucleus as Yellow Fluorescent Protein fusions and interacted with both TIR1 and IAA7 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid experiments, indicating that these proteins were functional. Ubiquitination on both HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1 and Lys-less HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1 proteins was sensitive to sodium hydroxide treatment, indicative of ubiquitin oxyester formation on serine or threonine residues. Additionally, base-resistant forms of ubiquitinated IAA1 were observed for HIS(6x)-HA(3x)-IAA1, suggesting additional lysyl-linked ubiquitin on this protein. Characterization of other Aux/IAA proteins showed that they have diverse degradation rates, adding additional complexity to auxin signaling. Altogether, these data

  14. Identification of auxins by a chemical genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, May; Hannah, William B; Lüthen, Hartwig; Jones, Alan M

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen auxenic compounds were discovered in a screen of 10 000 compounds for auxin-like activity in Arabidopsis roots. One of the most potent substances was 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N-(4-H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)acetamide (WH7) which shares similar structure to the known auxenic herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). A selected set of 20 analogues of WH7 was used to provide detailed information about the structure-activity relationship based on their efficacy at inhibiting and stimulating root and shoot growth, respectively, and at induction of gene expression. It was shown that WH7 acts in a genetically defined auxin pathway. These small molecules will extend the arsenal of substances that can be used to define auxin perception site(s) and to dissect subsequent signalling events.

  15. Control of cytokinin and auxin homeostasis in cyanobacteria and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žižková, Eva; Kubeš, Martin; Dobrev, Petre I; Přibyl, Pavel; Šimura, Jan; Zahajská, Lenka; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Novák, Ondřej; Motyka, Václav

    2017-01-01

    The metabolism of cytokinins (CKs) and auxins in vascular plants is relatively well understood, but data concerning their metabolic pathways in non-vascular plants are still rather rare. With the aim of filling this gap, 20 representatives of taxonomically major lineages of cyanobacteria and algae from Cyanophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Porphyridiophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Klebsormidiophyceae were analysed for endogenous profiles of CKs and auxins and some of them were used for studies of the metabolic fate of exogenously applied radiolabelled CK, [ 3 H]trans-zeatin (transZ) and auxin ([ 3 H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)), and the dynamics of endogenous CK and auxin pools during algal growth and cell division. Quantification of phytohormone levels was performed by high-performance or ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS, UHPLC-MS/MS). The dynamics of exogenously applied [ 3 H]transZ and [ 3 H]IAA in cell cultures were monitored by HPLC with on-line radioactivity detection. The comprehensive screen of selected cyanobacteria and algae for endogenous CKs revealed a predominance of bioactive and phosphate CK forms while O- and N-glucosides evidently did not contribute greatly to the total CK pool. The abundance of cis-zeatin-type CKs and occurrence of CK 2-methylthio derivatives pointed to the tRNA pathway as a substantial source of CKs. The importance of the tRNA biosynthetic pathway was proved by the detection of tRNA-bound CKs during the course of Scenedesmus obliquus growth. Among auxins, free IAA and its oxidation catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid represented the prevailing endogenous forms. After treatment with [ 3 H]IAA, IAA-aspartate and indole-3-acetyl-1-glucosyl ester were detected as major auxin metabolites. Moreover, different dynamics of endogenous CKs and auxin profiles during S. obliquus culture clearly demonstrated diverse roles of both

  16. Exploring the link between auxin receptors, rapid cell elongation and organ tropisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Benjamin; Schenck, Daniel; Lüthen, Hartwig

    2010-05-01

    Auxin receptor F-box proteins of the TIR1/AFB family are known to regulate auxin-induced gene expression. We could demonstrate that rapid auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, the most classical auxin response, is only mildly affected in Arabidopsis plants in which most of the receptor genes have been knocked out, while gene expression is almost completely abolished. Here we test the same receptor mutant plants for their gravitropic and phototropic responsiveness, generally considered to base on auxin gradients across the hypocotyl.

  17. Proteomics in deciphering the auxin commitment in the Arabidopsis thaliana root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Benedetta; Sabatini, Sabrina; Schininà, M Eugenia

    2013-11-01

    The development of plant root systems is characterized by a high plasticity, made possible by the continual propagation of new meristems. Root architecture is fundamental for overall plant growth, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and response to environmental changes. Understanding the function of genes and proteins that control root architecture and stress resistance will contribute to the development of more sustainable systems of intensified crop production. To meet these challenges, proteomics provide the genome-wide scale characterization of protein expression pattern, subcellular localization, post-translational modifications, activity regulation, and molecular interactions. In this review, we describe a variety of proteomic strategies that have been applied to study the proteome of the whole organ and of specific cell types during root development. Each has advantages and limitations, but collectively they are providing important insights into the mechanisms by which auxin structures and patterns the root system and into the interplay between signaling networks, auxin transport and growth. The acquisition of proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data sets of the root apex on the cell scale has revealed the high spatial complexity of regulatory networks and fosters the use of new powerful proteomic tools for a full understanding of the control of root developmental processes and environmental responses.

  18. The ARG1-LIKE2 gene of Arabidopsis functions in a gravity signal transduction pathway that is genetically distinct from the PGM pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Changhui; Rosen, Elizabeth S.; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Poff, Kenneth L.; Masson, Patrick H.

    2003-01-01

    The arl2 mutants of Arabidopsis display altered root and hypocotyl gravitropism, whereas their inflorescence stems are fully gravitropic. Interestingly, mutant roots respond like the wild type to phytohormones and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. Also, their cap columella cells accumulate starch similarly to wild-type cells, and mutant hypocotyls display strong phototropic responses to lateral light stimulation. The ARL2 gene encodes a DnaJ-like protein similar to ARG1, another protein previously implicated in gravity signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings. ARL2 is expressed at low levels in all organs of seedlings and plants. arl2-1 arg1-2 double mutant roots display kinetics of gravitropism similar to those of single mutants. However, double mutants carrying both arl2-1 and pgm-1 (a mutation in the starch-biosynthetic gene PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE) at the homozygous state display a more pronounced root gravitropic defect than the single mutants. On the other hand, seedlings with a null mutation in ARL1, a paralog of ARG1 and ARL2, behave similarly to the wild type in gravitropism and other related assays. Taken together, the results suggest that ARG1 and ARL2 function in the same gravity signal transduction pathway in the hypocotyl and root of Arabidopsis seedlings, distinct from the pathway involving PGM.

  19. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, James V.

    2012-05-13

    Abstract Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ∼65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ∼2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth. ©Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012.

  20. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag+) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co2+) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag+/Co2+-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes. PMID:26109425

  1. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Eins...

  2. Folic acid orchestrates root development linking cell elongation with auxin response and acts independently of the TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Rodríguez, Juan Ángel; Barrera-Ortiz, Salvador; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Bucio, José

    2017-11-01

    Folic acid is a precursor of tetrahydrofolate (vitamin B9), which is an essential cofactor in most organisms, acting as a carrier for one-carbon units in enzymatic reactions. In this work, we employed pharmacological, genetic and confocal imaging strategies to unravel the signaling mechanism by which folic acid modulates root growth and development. Folic acid supplementation inhibits primary root elongation and induces lateral root formation in a concentration-dependent manner. An analysis of the expression of cell cycle genes pCycD6;1:GFP and CycB1:uidA, and cell expansion Exp7:uidA showed that folic acid promotes cell division but prevented cell elongation, and this correlated with altered expression of auxin-responsive DR5:GFP gene, and PIN1:PIN1:GFP, PIN3:PIN3:GFP, and PIN7:PIN7:GFP auxin transporters at the columella and vasculature of primary roots, whereas mutants defective in auxin signaling (tir1/afb1/afb2 [receptors], slr1 [repressor] and arf7/arf19 [transcription factors]) were less sensitive to folic acid induced primary root shortening and lateral root proliferation. Comparison of growth of WT and TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) antisense lines indicates that folic acid acts by an alternative mechanism to this central regulator. Thus, folic acid modulation of root architecture involves auxin and acts independently of the TOR kinase to influence basic cellular programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lateral root formation and the multiple roles of auxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Yujuan; Scheres, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Root systems can display variable architectures that contribute to survival strategies of plants. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana possesses a tap root system, in which the primary root and lateral roots (LRs) are major architectural determinants. The phytohormone auxin fulfils multiple roles

  4. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-09

    Dec 9, 2013 ... sion of VvAux/IAA4 in Vitis vinifera was rapidly induced in response to NAA treatment, but was decreased by salt, drought and salicylic acid (SA) treatments which provide evidence of crosstalk between phytohormone and abiotic stresses, and support a role for auxin in stress responses. (Cakir et al. 2013).

  5. Auxins and Shoot Tropisms--A Tenuous Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the Cholodny-Went hypothesis which explains geo- and phototropic curvature in shoots in terms of a perception phase at the apex with a response at some remote site. Hormonal messages, lateral transmission of a stimulus, auxin concentration gradients, and what should be taught concerning this hypothesis are discussed. (DS)

  6. The role of auxins in somatic embryogenesis of Abies alba

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráková, Zuzana; Eliášová, Kateřina; Fischerová, Lucie; Vágner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), s. 587-596 ISSN 1895-104X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin inhibitor * Fir * Phytohormone Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  7. Evaluation of different densities of auxin and endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mentha piperita and Thymus vulgaris are two important species of the family Lamiaceae. Two distinct experiments were conducted and examined; the first evaluate the effect of different auxin levels on M. piperita and T. vulgaris growth, while the second examined the effect of two fungi Piriformospora indica and Sebacina ...

  8. Synthetic auxin herbicides control germinating scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington

    2014-01-01

    Scotch broom is a large, nonnative shrub that has invaded forests and grasslands in 27 U.S. states. Without treatment, Scotch broom’s persistent seedbank ensures a continuing source of regeneration after soil disturbance. In growth chamber studies, five rates of three synthetic auxin herbicides, aminocyclopyrachlor (AC), aminopyralid (AP), and clopyralid (CP), were...

  9. Differential in vitro response of microsomal subfractions to auxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, E.E.; Brightman, A.O.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Morre, J.

    1990-01-01

    Soybean microsomes incubated with or without 1 μM 2,4-D loose phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and other phospholipids. Vesicles labeled in vivo with [ 14 C]choline prior to isolation and incubation exhibit rapid 2,4-D-induced hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to a plateau within 15 min. As much as 50% of the radioactivity of the membrane appeared in the soluble supernatant. However, when separated into plasma membrane (PM)-enriched and PM-depleted fractions, the PM-enriched fraction was unresponsive to auxin. Similarly, highly purified pM fractions from soybean microsomes exhibited no auxin-stimulated breakdown of phosphoinosotides, and no stimulations of phospholipase C or of phospholipase A 2 . Instead, PM exhibited an auxin-stimulated NADH oxidase activity not shown by microsomes depleted of PM. The results suggest that in vitro auxin effects on phospholipid metabolism involve components of the microsomal fraction other than PM such as the endoplasmic reticulum or tonoplast, whereas PM responds by enhanced NADH oxidase activity

  10. Why plants need more than one type of auxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simon, Sibu; Petrášek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 3 (2011), s. 454-460 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin * IAA * 4-Cl-IAA * IBA * PAA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2011

  11. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) ... The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low ...

  12. Effects of cations on hormone transport in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the influence of aluminum and calcium (and certain other cations) on hormone transport in corn roots. When aluminum was applied unilaterally to the caps of 15 mm apical root sections the roots curved strongly away from the aluminum. When aluminum was applied unilaterally to the cap and 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was applied to the basal cut surface twice as much radioactivity (assumed to be IAA) accumulated on the concave side of the curved root as on the convex side. Auxin transport in the apical region of intact roots was preferentially basipetal, with a polarity (basipetal transport divided by acropetal transport) of 6.3. In decapped 5 mm apical root segments, auxin transport was acropetally polar (polarity = 0.63). Application of aluminum to the root cap strongly promoted acropetal transport of auxin reducing polarity from 6.3 to 2.1. Application of calcium to the root cap enhanced basipetal movement of auxin, increasing polarity from 6.3 to 7.6. Application of the calcium chelator, ethylene-glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, greatly decreased basipetal auxin movement, reducing polarity from 6.3 to 3.7. Transport of label after application of tritiated abscisic acid showed no polarity and was not affected by calcium or aluminum. The results indicate that the root cap is particularly important in maintaining basipetal polarity of auxin transport in primary roots of corn. The induction of root curvature by unilateral application of aluminum or calcium to root caps is likely to result from localized effects of these ions on auxin transport. The findings are discussed relative to the possible role of calcium redistribution in the gravitropic curvature of roots and the possibility of calmodulin involvement in the action of calcium and aluminum on auxin transport.

  13. Techniques for studying gravity waves and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves and their associated breaking into turbulence are very important in producing the overall picture of middle atmosphere global dynamics and associated transport. It is shown in this research that MST radars represent a most powerful technique for obtaining the needed parameters for gravity-wave-induced drag and diffusion effects as well as measuring wave accelerations and diffusion directly. A mathematical solution to this problem is that of radiative equilibrium with a balanced thermal wind.

  14. Auxin signal transcription factor regulates expression of the brassinosteroid receptor gene in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Morinaka, Yoichi; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Kitano, Hidemi; Fujioka, Shozo

    2013-02-01

    The phytohormones auxins and brassinosteroids are both essential regulators of physiological and developmental processes, and it has been suggested that they act inter-dependently and synergistically. In rice (Oryza sativa), auxin co-application improves the brassinosteroid response in the rice lamina inclination bioassay. Here, we showed that auxins stimulate brassinosteroid perception by regulating the level of brassinosteroid receptor. Auxin treatment increased expression of the rice brassinosteroid receptor gene OsBRI1. The promoter of OsBRI1 contains an auxin-response element (AuxRE) that is targeted by auxin-response factor (ARF) transcription factors. An AuxRE mutation abolished the induction of OsBRI1 expression by auxins, and OsBRI1 expression was down-regulated in an arf mutant. The AuxRE motif in the OsBRI1 promoter, and thus the transient up-regulation of OsBRI1 expression caused by treatment with indole-3-acetic acid, is essential for the indole-3-acetic acid-induced increase in sensitivity to brassinosteroids. These findings demonstrate that some ARFs control the degree of brassinosteroid perception required for normal growth and development in rice. Although multi-level interactions between auxins and brassinosteroids have previously been reported, our findings suggest a mechanism by which auxins control cellular sensitivity to brassinosteroids, and further support the notion that interactions between auxins and brassinosteroids are extensive and complex. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Auxinic herbicides, mechanisms of action, and weed resistance: A look into recent plant science advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Auxin governs dynamic cellular processes involved at several stages of plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms employed by auxin in light of recent scientific advances, with a focus on synthetic auxins as herbicides and synthetic auxin resistance mechanisms. Two auxin receptors were reported. The plasma membrane receptor ABP1 (Auxin Binding Protein 1 alters the structure and arrangement of actin filaments and microtubules, leading to plant epinasty and reducing peroxisomes and mitochondria mobility in the cell environment. The second auxin receptor is the gene transcription pathway regulated by the SCFTir/AFB ubiquitination complex, which destroys transcription repressor proteins that interrupt Auxin Response Factor (ARF activation. As a result mRNA related with Abscisic Acid (ABA and ethylene are transcribed, producing high quantities of theses hormones. Their associated action leads to high production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, leading to tissue and plant death. Recently, another ubiquitination pathway which is described as a new auxin signaling route is the F-box protein S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2A (SKP2A. It is active in cell division regulation and there is evidence that auxin herbicides can deregulate the SKP2A pathway, which leads to severe defects in plant development. In this discussion, we propose that SFCSKP2A auxin binding site alteration could be a new auxinic herbicide resistance mechanism, a concept which may contribute to the current progress in plant biology in its quest to clarify the many questions that still surround auxin herbicide mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of weed resistance.

  16. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  17. Idaho State Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...

  18. The space gravity environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally thought that gravity is zero on an object travelling at constant velocity in space. This is not exactly so. We detail in the following those causes that make space gravity not strictly zero.

  19. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  20. DNAG Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...

  1. Gravity-induced asymmetric distribution of a plant growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Momonoki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Dolk (1936) demonstrated that gravistimulation induced an asymmetric distribution of auxin in a horizontally-placed shoot. An attempt is made to determine where and how that asymmetry arises, and to demonstrate that the endogenous auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, becomes asymmetrically distributed in the cortical cells of the Zea mays mesocotyl during 3 min of geostimulation. Further, indole-3-acetic acid derived by hydrolysis of an applied transport form of the hormone, indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, becomes asymmetrically distributed within 15 min of geostimulus time. From these and prior data is developed a working theory that the gravitational stimulus induces a selective leakage, or secretion, of the hormone from the vascular tissue to the cortical cells of the mesocotyl.

  2. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Harms

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10^–23 Hz^–1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our

  3. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10-23 Hz-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  4. Gravity is Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  5. Covariant w∞ gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.

  6. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Ricardo; Sauer, Michael; Vanneste, Steffen; Palacios-Gomez, Miriam; Li, Hongjiang; Heilmann, Mareike; van Wijk, Ringo; Vermeer, Joop E M; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Jiří

    2014-05-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the importance of cell polarity, its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, including the definition and distinctiveness of the polar domains within the PM. Here, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that the signaling membrane components, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P 2 ] as well as PtdIns4P 5-kinases mediating their interconversion, are specifically enriched at apical and basal polar plasma membrane domains. The PtdIns4P 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 are redundantly required for polar localization of specifically apical and basal cargoes, such as PIN-FORMED transporters for the plant hormone auxin. As a consequence of the polarity defects, instructive auxin gradients as well as embryonic and postembryonic patterning are severely compromised. Furthermore, auxin itself regulates PIP5K transcription and PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P 2 levels, in particular their association with polar PM domains. Our results provide insight into the polar domain-delineating mechanisms in plant cells that depend on apical and basal distribution of membrane lipids and are essential for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Auxins on Vegetative Propagation through Stem Cuttings of Couroupita guianensis Aubl.: A Conservation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mahipal S. Shekhawat; M. Manokari

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the potential of exogenous auxins in the development of adventitious shoots and roots from shoot cuttings of Couroupita guianensis (Nagalingam), a threatened tree. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of various concentrations of auxins on shoot and root morphological traits of stem cuttings in the greenhouse. Amongst the auxins tested, significant effects on number of shoot buds’ induction and their growth were observed with α-Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NA...

  8. Auxin-induced modifications of cell wall polysaccharides in cat coleoptile segments. Effect of galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Masuda, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced cell elongation in oat coleoptile segments. Cell elongation induced by exogenously applied auxin is controlled by factors such as auxin uptake, cell wall loosening, osmotic concentration of sap and hydraulic conductivity. However, galactose does not have any effect on these factors. The results discussed in this paper led to the conclusion that galactose does not affect cell wall loosening which controls rapid growth, but inhibits cell wall synthesis which is required to maintain long-term growth

  9. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, Douglas; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  10. [Production of auxins by the endophytic bacteria of winter rye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzaeva, O V; Shirokikh, I G

    2010-01-01

    The ability of the actinomycetes and coryneform bacteria isolated from the root tissues of winter rye to produce auxin in a liquid culture was studied. The isolates of coryneform bacteria produced indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the medium in the amount of 9.0-95.0 microg/ml and the isolates of actinomycetes in the amount of 39.5-83.0 microg/ml. The maximal IAA accumulation in culture liquid of actinomycetes coincided, in general, with the beginning of the stationary growth phase. The dependences of IAA synthesis by actinomycetes on the composition and pH of nutrient medium, tryptophan concentration, and aeration conditions were determined. Biological activity of the bacterial IAA was assessed. Treatment of winter rye seeds with coryneform auxin-producing bacteria increased the germination capacity and enhanced an intensive seedling growth in vitro.

  11. Light and gravity signals synergize in modulating plant development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P.; Kiss, John Z.; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. Javier

    2014-01-01

    Tropisms are growth-mediated plant movements that help plants to respond to changes in environmental stimuli. The availability of water and light, as well as the presence of a constant gravity vector, are all environmental stimuli that plants sense and respond to via directed growth movements (tropisms). The plant response to gravity (gravitropism) and the response to unidirectional light (phototropism) have long been shown to be interconnected growth phenomena. Here, we discuss the similarities in these two processes, as well as the known molecular mechanisms behind the tropistic responses. We also highlight research done in a microgravity environment in order to decouple two tropisms through experiments carried out in the absence of a significant unilateral gravity vector. In addition, alteration of gravity, especially the microgravity environment, and light irradiation produce important effects on meristematic cells, the undifferentiated, highly proliferating, totipotent cells which sustain plant development. Microgravity produces the disruption of meristematic competence, i.e., the decoupling of cell proliferation and cell growth, affecting the regulation of the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis. Light irradiation, especially red light, mediated by phytochromes, has an activating effect on these processes. Phytohormones, particularly auxin, also are key mediators in these alterations. Upcoming experiments on the International Space Station will clarify some of the mechanisms and molecular players of the plant responses to these environmental signals involved in tropisms and the cell cycle. PMID:25389428

  12. Light and gravity signals synergize in modulating plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P. Vandenbrink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropisms are growth-mediated plant movements that help plants to respond to changes in environmental stimuli. The availability of water and light, as well as the presence of a constant gravity vector, are all environmental stimuli that plants sense and respond to via directed growth movements (tropisms. The plant response to gravity (gravitropism and the response to unidirectional light (phototropism have long been shown to be interconnected growth phenomena. Here, we discuss the similarities in these two processes, as well as the known molecular mechanisms behind the tropistic responses. We also highlight experiments done in a microgravity environment in order to decouple two tropisms through experiments carried out in the absence of a significant unilateral gravity vector. In addition, alteration of gravity, especially the microgravity environment, and light irradiation produce important effects on meristematic cells, the undifferentiated, highly proliferating, totipotent cells which sustain plant development. Microgravity produces the disruption of meristematic competence, i.e. the decoupling of cell proliferation and cell growth, affecting the regulation of cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis. Light irradiation, especially red light, mediated by phytochromes, has an activating effect on these processes. Phytohormones, particularly auxin, are key mediators in these alterations. Upcoming experiments on the International Space Station will clarify some of the unknown mechanisms and molecular players of the plant responses to these environmental signals involved in tropisms and the cell cycle.

  13. Investigating a Potential Auxin-Related Mode of Hormetic/Inhibitory Action of the Phytotoxin Parthenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G

    2016-01-01

    Parthenin is a metabolite of Parthenium hysterophorus and is believed to contribute to the weed's invasiveness via allelopathy. Despite the potential of parthenin to suppress competitors, low doses stimulate plant growth. This biphasic action was hypothesized to be auxin-like and, therefore, an auxin-related mode of parthenin action was investigated using two approaches: joint action experiments with Lactuca sativa, and dose-response experiments with auxin/antiauxin-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. The joint action approach comprised binary mixtures of subinhibitory doses of the auxin 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) mixed with parthenin or one of three reference compounds [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB)]. The reference compounds significantly interacted with IAA at all doses, but parthenin interacted only at low doses indicating that parthenin hormesis may be auxin-related, in contrast to its inhibitory action. The genetic approach investigated the response of four auxin/antiauxin-resistant mutants and a wildtype to parthenin or two reference compounds (IAA, PCIB). The responses of mutant plants to the reference compounds confirmed previous reports, but differed from the responses observed for parthenin. Parthenin stimulated and inhibited all mutants independent of resistance. This provided no indication for an auxin-related action of parthenin. Therefore, the hypothesis of an auxin-related inhibitory action of parthenin was rejected in two independent experimental approaches, while the hypothesis of an auxin-related stimulatory effect could not be rejected.

  14. Do Phytotropins Inhibit Auxin Efflux by Impairing Vesicle Traffic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Černá, A.; Schwarzerová, K.; Elčkner, Miroslav; Morris, David; Zažímalová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2003), s. 254-263 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Grant - others:EU INCO COPERNICUS(XE) ERBIC15 CT98 0118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid * BY-2 tobacco * auxin efflux Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.634, year: 2003

  15. Tissue-specific profiling of the Arabidopsis thaliana auxin metabolome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Hényková, Eva; Sairanen, I.; Kowalczyk, M.; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Ljung, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2012), s. 523-536 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : indole-3-acetic acid * auxin * biosynthesis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.582, year: 2012

  16. Auxin and cytokinin relationships in 24 microalgal strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stirk, W.A.; Ördög, V.; Novák, Ondřej; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Balint, P.; van Staden, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2013), s. 459-467 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1284 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxins * cytokinin free bases * cytokinin ribotides Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.529, year: 2013

  17. Induction of coiling in tendrils by auxin and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, L

    1967-11-10

    Symmetric application of indole-3-acetic acid, CO(2), or, to a lesser extent, ethylene can substitute for the contact stimulus in inducing coiling in the tendrils of Marah fabaceus. In the case of auxin, treatment of the apical few millimeters results in strong, permanent coiling throughout the length of the tendril. The speed of the response to CO(2) is comparable to that to tactile stimuli. A possible mechanism for thigmotropism is outlined.

  18. The allelochemical MDCA inhibits lignification and affects auxin homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steenackers, W.; Cesarino, I.; Klíma, Petr; Quareshy, M.; Vanholme, R.; Corneillie, S.; Kumpf, R. P.; Van De Wouwer, D.; Ljung, K.; Goeminne, G.; Novák, Ondřej; Zažímalová, Eva; Napier, R.; Boerjan, W.; Vanholme, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, č. 2 (2016), s. 874-888 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-10948S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin biosynthesis * lignification * Asparagus officinalis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  19. How calmodulin binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) mediate auxin responses

    OpenAIRE

    Galon, Yael; Snir, Orli; Fromm, Hillel

    2010-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an adaptive feature of all organisms, which, in land plants, entails changes in orientation of growth (tropism), patterns of development, organ architecture, timing of developmental processes and resource allocation. However, little is known about the molecular components that integrate exogenous environmental cues with internal hormonal signaling pathways. This addendum describes a role for calcium-regulated calmodulin-binding transcription 1 (CAMTA1) in auxin signal...

  20. Auxin regulation of Arabidopsis flower development involves members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizek, Beth A

    2011-06-01

    Auxin is an important regulator of many aspects of plant growth and development. During reproductive development, auxin specifies the site of flower initiation and subsequently regulates organ growth and patterning as well as later events that determine reproductive success. Underlying auxin action in plant tissues is its uneven distribution, resulting in groups of cells with high auxin levels (auxin maxima) or graded distributions of the hormone (auxin gradients). Dynamic auxin distribution within the periphery of the inflorescence meristems specifies the site of floral meristem initiation, while auxin maxima present at the tips of developing floral organ primordia probably mediate organ growth and patterning. The molecular means by which auxin accumulation patterns are converted into developmental outputs in flowers is not well understood. Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT) transcription factor family are important developmental regulators in both roots and shoots. In roots, the expression of two AIL/PLT genes is regulated by auxin and these genes feed back to regulate auxin distribution. Here, several aspects of flower development involving both auxin and AIL/PLT activity are described, and evidence linking AIL/PLT function with auxin distribution in reproductive tissues is presented.

  1. Nicotine synthesis in Nicotiana tabacum L. induced by mechanical wounding is regulated by auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiumei; Li, Chunjian; Zhang, Fusuo

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different kinds of mechanical wounding on nicotine production in tobacco plants were compared, with sand or hydroponics culture under controlled conditions. Both removal of the shoot apex and damage of the youngest unfolded leaves nos 1 and 2 by a comb-like brusher with 720 punctures caused an increase in nicotine concentration in whole plants at day 3, and reached its highest level at day 6. The nicotine concentration induced by excision of the shoot apex was much higher than that induced by leaf wounding. Both treatments also caused an increase in jasmonic acid (JA) concentration within 90 min in the shoot, followed by an increase in the roots (210 min), in which the JA concentration induced by leaf wounding was significantly higher than that induced by excision of the shoot apex. The increase in nicotine concentration occurred throughout the whole plant, especially in the shoot, while the increase in JA concentration in the shoot was restricted to the damaged tissues, and was not observed in the adjacent tissues. Removal of the lateral buds that emerged after excision of the shoot apex caused a further increase in nicotine concentrations in the plant tissues. Removal of mature leaves, however, did not cause any changes in nicotine concentration in the plant, even though the degree of wounding in this case was comparable with that occurring with apex removal. The results suggest that the nicotine production in tobacco plants was not correlated with the degree of wounding (cut-surface or punctures), but was highly dependent on the removal of apical meristems and hence on the major sources of auxin in the plant. Furthermore, immediate application of 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) on the cut surface after removing the shoot apex completely inhibited the increase both in nicotine in whole plants and in JA in the damaged stem segment and roots. Application of an auxin transport inhibitor around the stem directly under the shoot apex of intact plants also

  2. Classification of auxin plant hormones by interaction property similarity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Sanja; Gabdoulline, Razif R.; Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Wade, Rebecca C.

    1998-01-01

    Although auxins were the first type of plant hormone to be identified, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this important class of plant hormones. We present a classification of a set of about 50 compounds with measured auxin activities, according to their interaction properties. Four classes of compounds were defined: strongly active, weakly active with weak antiauxin behaviour, inactive and inhibitory. All compounds were modeled in two low-energy conformations, `P' and `T', so as to obtain the best match to the `planar' and `tilted' conformations, respectively, of indole 3-acetic acid. Each set of conformers was superimposed separately using several different alignment schemes. Molecular interaction energy fields were computed for each molecule with five different chemical probes and then compared by computing similarity indices. Similarity analysis showed that the classes are on average distinguishable, with better differentiation achieved for the T conformers than the P conformers. This indicates that the T conformation might be the active one. Further, a screening was developed which could distinguish compounds with auxin activity from inactive compounds and most antiauxins using the T conformers. The classifications rationalize ambiguities in activity data found in the literature and should be of value in predicting the activities of new plant growth substances and herbicides.

  3. [AUXINS AND CYTOKININES SYNTHESIS BY BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM UNDER FLAVONOIDS INFLUENCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, N O

    2015-01-01

    Research the ability of different by effectiveness symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soybean bacteria Bradyrhizobium japonicum to the synthesis of phytohormones-stimulators auxins and cytokinins for the actions of plant flavonoids genistein and naringenin. Extracellular phytohormonal compound isolated from the supernatant culture liquid of the soybean rhizobia by redistribution of phytohormones in two phases solvent immiscible with each other. Auxins and cytokinins were determined by thin layer spectra densitometry chromatography. Shown the ability of symbiotic diastrophic soybean strains to synthesize auxins (4-1067 mg/g of absolutely dry biomass) and cytokinins (141-1554 mg/g of absolutely dry biomass). Cultivation soybean rhizobia in the presence of flavonoid compounds genistein and naringenin leads to the narrowing of the range and reducing the number of phytohormones: unchecked synthesis of indole-3-carboxylic acid, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetic acid hydrazide and zeatin. Depressing effect of flavonoids on the phytohormones in soybean rhizobia synthesis is probably due to changes in metabolism microsymbiotic bacteria that are not aimed at the synthesis of secondary metabolites and to launch effective nodulating mechanisms, and also the concentration of flavonoid compounds in the nutrient medium.

  4. A mutation in the Arabidopsis HYL1 gene encoding a dsRNA binding protein affects responses to abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Fedoroff, N.

    2000-01-01

    Both physiological and genetic evidence indicate interconnections among plant responses to different hormones. We describe a pleiotropic recessive Arabidopsis transposon insertion mutation, designated hyponastic leaves (hyl1), that alters the plant's responses to several hormones. The mutant is characterized by shorter stature, delayed flowering, leaf hyponasty, reduced fertility, decreased rate of root growth, and an altered root gravitropic response. It also exhibits less sensitivity to auxin and cytokinin and hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid normalizes the mutant phenotype somewhat, whereas another auxin transport inhibitor, N-(1-naph-thyl)phthalamic acid, exacerbates the phenotype. The gene, designated HYL1, encodes a 419-amino acid protein that contains two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding motifs, a nuclear localization motif, and a C-terminal repeat structure suggestive of a protein-protein interaction domain. We present evidence that the HYL1 gene is ABA-regulated and encodes a nuclear dsRNA binding protein. We hypothesize that the HYL1 protein is a regulatory protein functioning at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level.

  5. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Ricardo; Sauer, Michael; Vanneste, Steffen; Palacios-Gomez, Miriam; Li, Hongjiang; Heilmann, Mareike; van Wijk, Ringo; Vermeer, Joop E.M.; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the importance of cell polarity, its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, including the definition and distinctiveness of the polar domains within the PM. Here, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that the signaling membrane components, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] as well as PtdIns4P 5-kinases mediating their interconversion, are specifically enriched at apical and basal polar plasma membrane domains. The PtdIns4P 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 are redundantly required for polar localization of specifically apical and basal cargoes, such as PIN-FORMED transporters for the plant hormone auxin. As a consequence of the polarity defects, instructive auxin gradients as well as embryonic and postembryonic patterning are severely compromised. Furthermore, auxin itself regulates PIP5K transcription and PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, in particular their association with polar PM domains. Our results provide insight into the polar domain–delineating mechanisms in plant cells that depend on apical and basal distribution of membrane lipids and are essential for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. PMID:24876254

  6. Expression of a gymnosperm PIN homologous gene correlates with auxin immunolocalization pattern at cotyledon formation and in demarcation of the procambium during Picea abies somatic embryo development and in seedling tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palovaara, Joakim; Hallberg, Henrik; Stasolla, Claudio; Luit, Bert; Hakman, Inger

    2010-04-01

    In seed plants, the body organization is established during embryogenesis and is uniform across gymnosperms and angiosperms, despite differences during early embryogeny. Evidence from angiosperms implicates the plant hormone auxin and its polar transport, mainly established by the PIN family of auxin efflux transporters, in the patterning of embryos. Here, PaPIN1 from Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), a gene widely expressed in conifer tissues and organs, was characterized and its expression and localization patterns were determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization during somatic embryo development and in seedlings. PaPIN1 shares the predicted structure of other PIN proteins, but its central hydrophilic loop is longer than most PINs. In phylogenetic analyses, PaPIN1 clusters with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. PIN3, PIN4 and PIN7, but its expression pattern also suggests similarity to PIN1. The PaPIN1 expression signal was high in the protoderm of pre-cotyledonary embryos, but not if embryos were pre-treated with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). This, together with a high auxin immunolocalization signal in this cell layer, suggests a role of PaPIN1 during cotyledon formation. At later stages, high PaPIN1 expression was observed in differentiating procambium, running from the tip of incipient cotyledons down through the embryo axis and to the root apical meristem (RAM), although the mode of RAM specification in conifer embryos differs from that of most angiosperms. Also, the PaPIN1 in situ signal was high in seedling root tips including root cap columella cells. The results thus suggest that PaPIN1 provides an ancient function associated with auxin transport and embryo pattern formation prior to the separation of angiosperms and gymnosperms, in spite of some morphological differences.

  7. Patterns of auxin and abscisic acid movement in the tips of gravistimulated primary roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Because both abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) have been suggested as possible chemical mediators of differential growth during root gravitropism, we compared with redistribution of label from applied 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA during maize root gravitropism and examined the relative basipetal movement of 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA applied to the caps of vertical roots. Lateral movement of 3H-ABA across the tips of vertical roots was non-polar and about 2-fold greater than lateral movement of 3H-IAA (also non-polar). The greater movement of ABA was not due to enhanced uptake since the uptake of 3H-IAA was greater than that of 3H-ABA. Basipetal movement of label from 3H-IAA or 3H-ABA applied to the root cap was determined by measuring radioactivity in successive 1 mm sections behind the tip 90 minutes after application. ABA remained largely in the first mm (point of application) whereas IAA was concentrated in the region 2-4 mm from the tip with substantial levels found 7-8 mm from the tip. Pretreatment with inhibitors of polar auxin transport decreased both gravicurvature and the basipetal movement of IAA. When roots were placed horizontally, the movement of 3H-IAA from top to bottom across the cap was enhanced relative to movement from bottom to top whereas the pattern of movement of label from 3H-ABA was unaffected. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in root gravitropism but contrary to the idea that gravi-induced asymmetric distribution of ABA contributes to the response.

  8. Physiological asymmetry in etiolated pea epicotyls: relation to patterns of auxin distribution and phototropic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, H.; Galston, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Etiolated pea seedlings require transformation of Pr phytochrome to Pfr before they display optimal phototropic response to unilateral blue light. This study investigates the possible role of auxin transport in explaining these phenomena. Labeled [2-14C]IAA applied to the intact terminal buds of dark-grown and red light-treated pea seedlings was measured 210 min later on the shaded and illuminated sides of the epicotyl as a function of direction and duration of irradiation with blue light. Totally darkened epicotyls show an asymmetry in distribution of radioactivity in the upper growth zone of the epicotyl, in favor of the side under the concave part of the apical hook. Red light, which greatly potentiates curvature toward subsequent unilateral blue light, lowers this asymmetry. Blue light directed to the epicotyl of red-pretreated plants in a plane parallel to the hook and from the side bearing the convex portion of the hook induces positive phototropic curvature as well as a surplus of radioactivity on the illuminated side of the upper epicotyl and on the shaded side of the lower growth zone of the epicotyl. Light directed to the side bearing the concave part of the hook also causes an accumulation of counts in the upper part of the lighted side but produces neither curvature of the epicotyl nor accumulation of counts in the lower shaded side. Because of this built-in physiological asymmetry in the growth zone just below the apical hook, it is difficult to explain the effects of red and blue light on curvature in terms of patterns of auxin distribution alone.

  9. Auxin-binding pocket of ABP1 is crucial for its gain-of-function cellular and developmental roles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grones, P.; Chen, X.; Simon, S.; Kaufmann, W.A.; De Rycke, R.; Nodzyński, T.; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 16 (2015), s. 5055-5065 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * ABP1 * Auxin binding Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  10. A complex molecular interplay of auxin and ethylene signaling pathways is involved in Arabidopsis growth promotion by Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Poupin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of phytohormones homeostasis is one of the proposed mechanisms to explain plant growth promotion induced by beneficial rhizobacteria (PGPR. However, there is still limited knowledge about the molecular signals and pathways underlying these beneficial interactions. Even less is known concerning the interplay between phytohormones in plants inoculated with PGPR. Auxin and ethylene are crucial hormones in the control of plant growth and development, and recent studies report an important and complex crosstalk between them in the regulation of different plant developmental processes. The objective of this work was to study the role of both hormones in the growth promotion of Arabidopsis thaliana plants induced by the well-known PGPR Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. For this, the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several genes related to auxin biosynthesis, perception and response and ethylene biosynthesis were studied, finding that most of these genes showed specific transcriptional regulations after inoculation in roots and shoots. PsJN-growth promotion was not observed in Arabidopsis mutants with an impaired ethylene (ein2-1 or auxin (axr1-5 signaling. Even, PsJN did not promote growth in an ethylene overproducer (eto2, indicating that a fine regulation of both hormones signaling and homeostasis is necessary to induce growth of the aerial and root tissues. Auxin polar transport is also involved in growth promotion, since PsJN did not promote primary root growth in the pin2 mutant or under chemical inhibition of transport in wild type plants. Finally, a key role for ethylene biosynthesis was found in the PsJN-mediated increase in root hair number. These results not only give new insights of PGPR regulation of plant growth but also are also useful to understand key aspects of Arabidopsis growth control.

  11. Endogenous auxins and growth inhibitors in the developing inflorescences and infructescences of black poplar (Populus nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniela Kamieńska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on some change in endogenous auxin content in black poplar inflorescences and infructescences in the course of their development. The same groups of auxin were present in both inflorescences and infructescences examined. The maximum activity of auxin was found in male as well as female inflorescences about 3,5 cm long. The female ones, however, showed a higher level of total auxin content than the males.

  12. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  13. A noncanonical auxin-sensing mechanism is required for organ morphogenesis in arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonini, Sara; Deb, Joyita; Moubayidin, Laila; Stephenson, Pauline; Valluru, Manoj; Freire-Rios, Alejandra; Sorefan, Karim; Weijers, Dolf; Friml, Jiří; Østergaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Tissue patterning in multicellular organisms is the output of precise spatio–temporal regulation of gene expression coupled with changes in hormone dynamics. In plants, the hormone auxin regulates growth and development at every stage of a plant’s life cycle. Auxin signaling occurs through

  14. Isolation and characterization of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase gene of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, D.A.M. van der; Schuyer, M.; Scheres, B.J.G.; Zaal, B.J. van der; Hooykaas, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Genes homologous to the auxin-inducible Nt103 glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene of tobacco, were isolated from a genomic library of Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated a λ clone containing an auxin-inducible gene, At103-1a, and part of a constitutively expressed gene, At103-1b. The coding regions

  15. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  16. Overexpression of the bacterial ipt gene in developing Arabidopsis seedlins carrying auxin reporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuderová, Alena; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), S23 [2nd International Symposium Auxins and Cytokinins in Plant Development. 07.07.2005-12.07.2005, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600380507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : ipt gene * auxin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  17. Stress resistance of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis is modulated by auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repar, J; Šućurović, S; Zahradka, K; Zahradka, D; Ćurković-Perica, M

    2013-11-01

    Two bacterial species, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, were exposed to different auxins to examine possible effects of these substances on bacterial stress tolerance. Bacterial resistance to UV irradiation, heat shock, and streptomycin was assessed with and without previous exposure to the following auxins: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Escherichia coli and B. subtilis cultures pretreated with any of the 3 auxins survived UV irradiation better than the untreated cultures. Also, B. subtilis cultures pretreated with IBA or NAA survived prolonged heat exposure better than the untreated cultures, while IAA pretreatment had no effect on heat shock survival. In contrast, auxin pretreatment rendered E. coli more sensitive to heat shock. Escherichia coli cultures pretreated with auxins were also more sensitive to streptomycin, while auxin pretreatment had no effect on sensitivity of B. subtilis to streptomycin. These results show that auxins may either enhance or reduce bacterial tolerance to different stressors, depending on the bacterial species and the type and level of the stress. Auxins usually had similar effects on the same bacterial species in cases when the same type and level of stress were applied.

  18. Auxins and gibberellins in embryonic shoots of Scots pine in relation to flower sex differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kulikowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower sex differentiation in Scots pine is correlated with endogenous balance of auxins to gibberellins. Male flower primordia initiation is connected with high amounts of gibberellins whereas the initiation of female ones is associated with a high level of auxins and a low content of gibberellins.

  19. Auxins and gibberellins in embryonic shoots of Scots pine in relation to flower sex differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kulikowska; J. Kopcewicz; Z. Zatorska; T. Szcześniak

    2015-01-01

    Flower sex differentiation in Scots pine is correlated with endogenous balance of auxins to gibberellins. Male flower primordia initiation is connected with high amounts of gibberellins whereas the initiation of female ones is associated with a high level of auxins and a low content of gibberellins.

  20. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  1. Proteomic and mechanistic analysis of Auxin Response Factors in the Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llavata Peris, C.I.

    2013-01-01

    Auxin is a phytohormone that is crucial for many aspects of plant development. The processes in which this hormone has been implicated span from embryo development to flower transition, defense, tropic responses, and many other processes during plant life. A key question in auxin biology is how this

  2. Single-cell-based system to monitor carrier driven cellular auxin homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barbez, E.; Laňková, Martina; Pařezová, Markéta; Maizel, A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Friml, J.; Kleine-Vehn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, FEB 4 (2013) ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin homeostasis * DR5 * Auxin carrier Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.942, year: 2013

  3. The auxin signalling network translates dynamic input into robust patterning at the shoot apex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernoux, Teva; Brunoud, Géraldine; Farcot, Etienne; Morin, Valérie; Van den Daele, Hilde; Legrand, Jonathan; Oliva, Marina; Das, Pradeep; Larrieu, Antoine; Wells, Darren; Guédon, Yann; Armitage, Lynne; Picard, Franck; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Cellier, Coralie; Parry, Geraint; Koumproglou, Rachil; Doonan, John H; Estelle, Mark; Godin, Christophe; Kepinski, Stefan; Bennett, Malcolm; De Veylder, Lieven; Traas, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is thought to provide positional information for patterning during development. It is still unclear, however, precisely how auxin is distributed across tissues and how the hormone is sensed in space and time. The control of gene expression in response to auxin involves a complex network of over 50 potentially interacting transcriptional activators and repressors, the auxin response factors (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. Here, we perform a large-scale analysis of the Aux/IAA-ARF pathway in the shoot apex of Arabidopsis, where dynamic auxin-based patterning controls organogenesis. A comprehensive expression map and full interactome uncovered an unexpectedly simple distribution and structure of this pathway in the shoot apex. A mathematical model of the Aux/IAA-ARF network predicted a strong buffering capacity along with spatial differences in auxin sensitivity. We then tested and confirmed these predictions using a novel auxin signalling sensor that reports input into the signalling pathway, in conjunction with the published DR5 transcriptional output reporter. Our results provide evidence that the auxin signalling network is essential to create robust patterns at the shoot apex. PMID:21734647

  4. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. influence of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Mukherjee

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.

  6. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  7. Lysine Residues Are Not Required for Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis of the Auxin/Indole Acidic Acid Protein IAA11[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Jonathan; Estelle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although many ubiquitin-proteasome substrates have been characterized in plants, very little is known about the corresponding ubiquitin attachment(s) underlying regulated proteolysis. Current dogma asserts that ubiquitin is typically covalently attached to a substrate through an isopeptide bond between the ubiquitin carboxy terminus and a substrate lysyl amino group. However, nonlysine (non-Lys) ubiquitin attachment has been observed in other eukaryotes, including the N terminus, cysteine, and serine/threonine modification. Here, we investigate site(s) of ubiquitin attachment on indole-3-acetic acid1 (IAA1), a short-lived Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family member. Most Aux/IAA proteins function as negative regulators of auxin responses and are targeted for degradation after ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase SCFTIR1/AFB (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1, Cullin, F-box [SCF] with Transport Inhibitor Response1 [TIR1]/Auxin Signaling F-box [AFB]) by an interaction directly facilitated by auxin. Surprisingly, using a Histidine-Hemaglutinin (HIS6x-HA3x) epitope-tagged version expressed in vivo, Lys-less IAA1 was ubiquitinated and rapidly degraded in vivo. Lys-substituted versions of IAA1 localized to the nucleus as Yellow Fluorescent Protein fusions and interacted with both TIR1 and IAA7 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid experiments, indicating that these proteins were functional. Ubiquitination on both HIS6x-HA3x-IAA1 and Lys-less HIS6x-HA3x-IAA1 proteins was sensitive to sodium hydroxide treatment, indicative of ubiquitin oxyester formation on serine or threonine residues. Additionally, base-resistant forms of ubiquitinated IAA1 were observed for HIS6x-HA3x-IAA1, suggesting additional lysyl-linked ubiquitin on this protein. Characterization of other Aux/IAA proteins showed that they have diverse degradation rates, adding additional complexity to auxin signaling. Altogether, these data indicate that Aux

  8. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.; Aguilar, R.; Mendez, A.P.; de Jimenez, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of [ 32 P] ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of 32 P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on 32 P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent K m values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins

  9. Auxin-regulated changes in protein phosphorylation in pea epicotyl segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Chengappa, S.; Raghothama, K.G.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin-regulated changes in protein phosphorylation were studied by labeling pea epicotyl segments with ( 32 P) PO 4 3- and analyzing the phosphoproteins by two dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Analysis of phosphoproteins revealed auxin-regulated changes in the phosphorylation of specific polypeptides. In the presence of auxin, phosphorylation of 23,000, 82,000, 105,000 and 110,000 molecular weight polypeptides was markedly decreased whereas phosphorylation of 19,000, 24,000, 28,000 molecular weight polypeptides was increased. Some of these changes are very rapid and could be observed within minutes. Furthermore, their studies with calmodulin antagonists indicate the possible involvement of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and/or phosphatases in auxin-regulated changes in protein phosphorylation. In view of these results, they suggest that auxin-regulated protein phosphorylation could be the one of the earliest events in regulating diverse physiological processes by this hormone

  10. Plasma membrane NADH oxidase of maize roots responds to gravity and imposed centrifugal forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E.; Morre, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    NADH oxidase activities measured with excised roots of dark-grown maize (Zea mays) seedlings and with isolated plasma membrane vesicles from roots of dark-grown maize oscillated with a regular period length of 24 min and were inhibited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic [correction of dichorophenoxyacetic] acid. The activities also responded to orientation with respect to gravity and to imposed centrifugal forces. Turning the roots upside down resulted in stimulation of the activity with a lag of about 10 min. Returning the sections to the normal upright position resulted in a return to initial rates. The activity was stimulated reversibly to a maximum of about 2-fold with isolated plasma membrane vesicles, when subjected to centrifugal forces of 25 to 250 x g for 1 to 4 min duration. These findings are the first report of a gravity-responsive enzymatic activity of plant roots inhibited by auxin and potentially related to the gravity-induced growth response. c2001 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  11. UGT74D1 is a novel auxin glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shang-Hui; Ma, Xin-Mei; Han, Ping; Wang, Bo; Sun, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Auxin is one type of phytohormones that plays important roles in nearly all aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. The glycosylation of auxins is considered to be an essential mechanism to control the level of active auxins. Thus, the identification of auxin glycosyltransferases is of great significance for further understanding the auxin regulation. In this study, we biochemically screened the group L of Arabidopsis thaliana glycosyltransferase superfamily for enzymatic activity toward auxins. UGT74D1 was identified to be a novel auxin glycosyltransferase. Through HPLC and LC-MS analysis of reaction products in vitro by testing eight substrates including auxins and other compounds, we found that UGT74D1 had a strong glucosylating activity toward indole-3-butyric acid [IBA], indole-3-propionic acid [IPA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA], catalyzing them to form corresponding glucose esters. Biochemical characterization showed that this enzyme had a maximum activity in HEPES buffer at pH 6.0 and 37°C. In addition, the enzymatic activity analysis of crude protein and the IBA metabolite analysis from transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing UGT74D1 gene were also carried out. Experimental results indicated that over-production of the UGT74D1 in plants indeed led to increased level of the glucose conjugate of IBA. Moreover, UGT74D1 overexpression lines displayed curling leaf phenotype, suggesting a physiological role of UGT74D1 in affecting the activity of auxins. Our current data provide a new target gene for further genetic studies to understand the auxin regulation by glycosylation in plants.

  12. UGT74D1 is a novel auxin glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Hui Jin

    Full Text Available Auxin is one type of phytohormones that plays important roles in nearly all aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. The glycosylation of auxins is considered to be an essential mechanism to control the level of active auxins. Thus, the identification of auxin glycosyltransferases is of great significance for further understanding the auxin regulation. In this study, we biochemically screened the group L of Arabidopsis thaliana glycosyltransferase superfamily for enzymatic activity toward auxins. UGT74D1 was identified to be a novel auxin glycosyltransferase. Through HPLC and LC-MS analysis of reaction products in vitro by testing eight substrates including auxins and other compounds, we found that UGT74D1 had a strong glucosylating activity toward indole-3-butyric acid [IBA], indole-3-propionic acid [IPA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA], catalyzing them to form corresponding glucose esters. Biochemical characterization showed that this enzyme had a maximum activity in HEPES buffer at pH 6.0 and 37°C. In addition, the enzymatic activity analysis of crude protein and the IBA metabolite analysis from transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing UGT74D1 gene were also carried out. Experimental results indicated that over-production of the UGT74D1 in plants indeed led to increased level of the glucose conjugate of IBA. Moreover, UGT74D1 overexpression lines displayed curling leaf phenotype, suggesting a physiological role of UGT74D1 in affecting the activity of auxins. Our current data provide a new target gene for further genetic studies to understand the auxin regulation by glycosylation in plants.

  13. theory of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... the existence of dark energy and dark matter, several modified theories of gravitation have been proposed as alternative to Einstein's theory. By modifying the geometrical part of Einstein–Hilbert action of general relativity, we obtain the modified gravity. Modified gravity is of great importance because it can ...

  14. Dual gravity and matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Roo, Mees de; Kerstan, Sven F.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    We consider the problem of finding a dual formulation of gravity in the presence of non-trivial matter couplings. In the absence of matter a dual graviton can be introduced only for linearised gravitational interactions. We show that the coupling of linearised gravity to matter poses obstructions to

  15. Anti-gravity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsingh, S. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.

  16. Entropy and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gravity upon changes of the entropy of a gravity-dominated system is discussed. In a universe dominated by vacuum energy, gravity is repulsive, and there is accelerated expansion. Furthermore, inhomogeneities are inflated and the universe approaches a state of thermal equilibrium. The difference between the evolution of the cosmic entropy in a co-moving volume in an inflationary era with repulsive gravity and a matter-dominated era with attractive gravity is discussed. The significance of conversion of gravitational energy to thermal energy in a process with gravitational clumping, in order that the entropy of the universe shall increase, is made clear. Entropy of black holes and cosmic horizons are considered. The contribution to the gravitational entropy according to the Weyl curvature hypothesis is discussed. The entropy history of the Universe is reviewed.

  17. Wall to membrane linkers, stretch activated channels, and the detection of tension, voltage, temperature, auxin, and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1992-01-01

    Introduction. The higher plant is a heterogeneous, mechanically prestressed structure continually subject to shifting forces. When a cell grows in a plant at gravitropic equilibrium, it must create localized maxima of shear in walls of neighboring cells. Such mechanical stress and strain are likely detected in a variety of ways. However, tension-sensitive ion channels are of particular interest because it appears that they are elaborately evolved for sensory function. We hypothesize that 1) the patchy patterns of high shear are focused via wall-to-membrane linkers onto the plasma membrane, where 2) they are translated by mechanosensory cation channels into corresponding patterns of high cytosolic Ca2+, which 3) initiate local enhancement of wall expansion. Further, we hypothesize that the local promotion of enhancement is achieved at least in part by local intensification of auxin transport across the plasma membrane. By implication, when an organ is asymmetrically pressed, rubbed, or bent or when it is displaced in the gravitational field, the net asymmetry of shear stress occurring across the organ would lead to asymmetric redistribution of auxin and corrective asymmetric growth. We shall describe a representative mechanosensitive Ca(2+) -selective cation channel (MCaC) with susceptibilities to xenobiotics implicating it as a force transducer in thigmo- and gravitropism. Then, we shall consider whether a putative wall-to-membrane linker (WML) could be a key feature of the molecular architecture permitting the stress distributed in the wall system to be focused on the channels.

  18. A high-throughput method for the quantitative analysis of indole-3-acetic acid and other auxins from plant tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkawi, Lana S; Tam, Yuen-Yee; Tillman, Julie A; Pederson, Ben; Calio, Jessica; Al-Amier, Hussein; Emerick, Michael; Normanly, Jennifer; Cohen, Jerry D

    2008-01-15

    To investigate novel pathways involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, and response, we have developed a high-throughput screen for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. Historically, the quantitative analysis of IAA has been a cumbersome and time-consuming process that does not lend itself to the screening of large numbers of samples. The method described here can be performed with or without an automated liquid handler and involves purification solely by solid-phase extraction in a 96-well format, allowing the analysis of up to 96 samples per day. In preparation for quantitative analysis by selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the carboxylic acid moiety of IAA is derivatized by methylation. The derivatization of the IAA described here was also done in a 96-well format in which up to 96 samples can be methylated at once, minimizing the handling of the toxic reagent, diazomethane. To this end, we have designed a custom diazomethane generator that can safely withstand high flow and accommodate larger volumes. The method for IAA analysis is robust and accurate over a range of plant tissue weights and can be used to screen for and quantify other indolic auxins and compounds including indole-3-butyric acid, 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid, and indole-3-propionic acid.

  19. Strategy of seedlings to overcome their sessile nature: auxin in the mobility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eZadnikova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms that are permanently restricted to their site of germination. Tocompensate for their lack of mobility, plants evolved unique mechanisms enabling them torapidly react to ever changing environmental conditions and flexibly adapt their postembryonicdevelopmental program. A prominent demonstration of this developmental plasticity is theirability to bend organs in order to reach the position most optimal for growth and utilization oflight, nutrients, and other resources. Shortly after germination, dicotyledonous seedlings form abended structure, the so-called apical hook, to protect the delicate shoot meristem andcotyledons from damage when penetrating through the soil. Upon perception of a lightstimulus, the apical hook rapidly opens and the photomorphogenic developmental program isactivated. After germination, plant organs are able to align their growth with the light sourceand adopt the most favorable orientation through bending, in a process named phototropism.On the other hand, when roots and shoots are diverted from their upright orientation, theyimmediately detect a change in the gravity vector and bend to maintain a vertical growthdirection.Noteworthy, despite the diversity of external stimuli perceived by different plantorgans, all plant tropic movements share a common mechanistic basis: differential cell growth.In our review, we will discuss the molecular principles underlying various tropic responses withthe focus on mechanisms mediating the perception of external signals, transduction cascadesand downstream responses that regulate differential cell growth and consequently, organbending. In particular, we highlight common and specific features of regulatory pathways incontrol of the bending of organs and a role for the plant hormone auxin as a key regulatorycomponent.

  20. Lateral root formation and the multiple roles of auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yujuan; Scheres, Ben

    2018-01-04

    Root systems can display variable architectures that contribute to survival strategies of plants. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana possesses a tap root system, in which the primary root and lateral roots (LRs) are major architectural determinants. The phytohormone auxin fulfils multiple roles throughout LR development. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of four aspects of LR formation: (i) LR positioning, which determines the spatial distribution of lateral root primordia (LRP) and LRs along primary roots; (ii) LR initiation, encompassing the activation of nuclear migration in specified lateral root founder cells (LRFCs) up to the first asymmetric cell division; (iii) LR outgrowth, the 'primordium-intrinsic' patterning of de novo organ tissues and a meristem; and (iv) LR emergence, an interaction between LRP and overlaying tissues to allow passage through cell layers. We discuss how auxin signaling, embedded in a changing developmental context, plays important roles in all four phases. In addition, we discuss how rapid progress in gene network identification and analysis, modeling, and four-dimensional imaging techniques have led to an increasingly detailed understanding of the dynamic regulatory networks that control LR development. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of auxin and copper on growth of saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Sharifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is known as one of the most common spices and medicinal plant in the world. Little information is available on the effects of copper and growth regulators on morphological characteristics of saffron. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of copper and auxin on morphological properties of root and leaf of saffron. This study was arranged as a factorial experiment in greenhouse condition and in hydroponic system. Copper was used in copper sulfate (CuSO4 form (0, 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L and auxin in naphthalene acetic acid (NAA form (0, 1 and 2 g/L. Results showed that interaction of Naphthalene acetic acid 1 g/L and copper sulfate 0.1 mg/L increased root number, as well as root and leaf dry weight. Furthermore, naphthalene acetic acid 1 and 2 g/L in most treatments reduced the number of buds. Copper concentration of corm was increased in 0.2 mg/L copper sulfate.

  2. Auxin, ethylene and light in gravitropic growth: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Hg; Sabovljevic, A.; Njio, G.; Roth, U.

    The regulation mechanism of gravitropic differential plant growth is commonly divided into three sequential processes: the perception of the gravistimulus (generally attributed to amyloplast sedimentation), the transduction of the perceived signal (of which very little is known), and the adequate differential growth response (generally attributed to asymmetric auxin redistribution). The detailled mechanism is still unresolved and remains to be elucidated in significant parts. Employing 2D SDS-PAGE /Q-TOF amongst other methods and strategies we studied the effect of different auxins on gravitropism of coleoptiles and hypocotyls. We also analyzed the effects of light and ethylene (synthesis and perception) on gravitropic growth of primary shoots and roots and analyzed the protein pattern with respect to the observed physiological effects. In coleoptiles, under the applied experimental conditions the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4 D) on gravitropism differed from the effect of indolylacetic acid (IAA), which was similar to the one observed in sunflower hypocotyls. In roots, the relevance of ethylene for gravitropic differential growth and the capacity to evade mechanical barriers during horizontal gravistimulation was analyzed in detail. A special focus was addressed on the physiological significance of the root cap. We will show that the relevance of ethylene for gravitropism has hitherto been misjudged. Further new findings and their implications for the regulation mechanism of gravitropism will be presented and discussed. Kramer et al., (2003) J. Ex. Bot. 54, (393), 2723-2732 Edelmann, H.G., (2002) J. Ex. Bot. 53, (375), 1825-1828

  3. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan

    2015-08-13

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  4. The role of auxins and cytokinins in the mutualistic interaction between Arabidopsis and Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ritter, Claudia; Venus, Yvonne; Camehl, Iris; Varma, Ajit; Shahollari, Bationa; Novák, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Arabidopsis growth and reproduction are stimulated by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The fungus produces low amounts of auxins, but the auxin levels and the expression of auxin-regulated genes are not altered in colonized roots. Also, mutants with reduced auxin levels (ilr1-1, nit1-3, tfl2, cyp79 b2b3) respond to P. indica. However, the fungus rescues the dwarf phenotype of the auxin overproducer sur1-1 by converting free auxin into conjugates, which also results in the downregulation of the auxin-induced IAA6 and the upregulation of the P. indica-induced LRR1 gene. The fungus produces relatively high levels of cytokinins, and the cytokinin levels are higher in colonized roots compared with the uncolonized controls. trans-Zeatin cytokinin biosynthesis and the CRE1/AHK2 receptor combination are crucial for P. indica-mediated growth stimulation, while mutants lacking cis-zeatin, impaired in other cytokinin receptor combinations, or containing reduced cytokinin levels respond to the fungus. Since root colonization is not affected in the cytokinin mutants, we propose that cytokinins are required for P. indica-induced growth promotion. Finally, a comparative analysis of the phytohormone mutants allows the conclusion that the response to P. indica is independent of the architecture and size of the roots.

  5. SCFTIR1/AFB-Based Auxin Perception: Mechanism and Role in Plant Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Mohammad; Bagchi, Rammyani; Estelle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Auxin regulates a vast array of growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Auxin responses are highly context dependent and can involve changes in cell division, cell expansion, and cell fate. The complexity of the auxin response is illustrated by the recent finding that the auxin-responsive gene set differs significantly between different cell types in the root. Auxin regulation of transcription involves a core pathway consisting of the TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, and the ARF transcription factors. Auxin is perceived by a transient coreceptor complex consisting of a TIR1/AFB protein and an Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the coreceptor results in degradation of the Aux/IAAs and derepression of ARF-based transcription. Although the basic outlines of this pathway are now well established, it remains unclear how specificity of the pathway is conferred. However, recent results, focusing on the ways that these three families of proteins interact, are starting to provide important clues. PMID:25604443

  6. Effects of natural and synthetic auxins on the gravitropic growth habit of roots in two auxin-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis, axr1 and axr4: evidence for defects in the auxin influx mechanism of axr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, K. T.

    1999-01-01

    The partially agravitropic growth habit of roots of an auxin-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, axr4, was restored by the addition of 30-300 nM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to the growth medium. Neither indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) nor 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed such an effect. Growth of axr4 roots was resistant to IAA and 2,4-D, but not at all to NAA. The differential effects of the three auxins suggest that the defects of axr4 result from a lower auxin influx into its cells. The partially agravitropic growth habit of axr1 roots, which was less severe than that of axr4 roots, was only slightly affected by the three auxins in the growth medium at concentrations up to 300 nM; growth of axr1 roots was resistant to all three of the auxins. These results suggest that the lesion of axrl mutants is different from that of axr4.

  7. Scaling in quantum gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ambjørn

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2-point function is the natural object in quantum gravity for extracting critical behavior: The exponential falloff of the 2-point function with geodesic distance determines the fractal dimension dH of space-time. The integral of the 2-point function determines the entropy exponent γ, i.e. the fractal structure related to baby universes, while the short distance behavior of the 2-point function connects γ and dH by a quantum gravity version of Fisher's scaling relation. We verify this behavior in the case of 2d gravity by explicit calculation.

  8. The Future of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.

  9. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  10. New massive gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.

  11. Discrete quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday

  12. Haxby Worldwide Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, Dr. William F. Haxby of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University prepared this data base of free-air gravity anomalies, based on the...

  13. Carroll versus Galilei gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Cuàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rollier, Blaise [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Veldhuis, Tonnis ter [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-30

    We consider two distinct limits of General Relativity that in contrast to the standard non-relativistic limit can be taken at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action instead of the equations of motion. One is a non-relativistic limit and leads to a so-called Galilei gravity theory, the other is an ultra-relativistic limit yielding a so-called Carroll gravity theory. We present both gravity theories in a first-order formalism and show that in both cases the equations of motion (i) lead to constraints on the geometry and (ii) are not sufficient to solve for all of the components of the connection fields in terms of the other fields. Using a second-order formalism we show that these independent components serve as Lagrange multipliers for the geometric constraints we found earlier. We point out a few noteworthy differences between Carroll and Galilei gravity and give some examples of matter couplings.

  14. Gravity Data for Egypt

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...

  15. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. What Is Gravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, George

    2004-01-01

    Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…

  17. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  18. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, F.F. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Disturbed local auxin homeostasis enhances cellular anisotropy and reveals alternative wiring of auxin-ethylene crosstalk in Brachypodium distachyon seminal roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pacheco-Villalobos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations gained from model organisms are essential, yet it remains unclear to which degree they are applicable to distant relatives. For example, in the dicotyledon Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis, auxin biosynthesis via indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA is essential for root development and requires redundant TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 (TAA1 and TAA1-RELATED (TAR genes. A promoter T-DNA insertion in the monocotyledon Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium TAR2-LIKE gene (BdTAR2L severely down-regulates expression, suggesting reduced tryptophan aminotransferase activity in this mutant, which thus represents a hypomorphic Bdtar2l allele (Bdtar2l(hypo . Counterintuitive however, Bdtar2l(hypo mutants display dramatically elongated seminal roots because of enhanced cell elongation. This phenotype is also observed in another, stronger Bdtar2l allele and can be mimicked by treating wild type with L-kynerunine, a specific TAA1/TAR inhibitor. Surprisingly, L-kynerunine-treated as well as Bdtar2l roots display elevated rather than reduced auxin levels. This does not appear to result from compensation by alternative auxin biosynthesis pathways. Rather, expression of YUCCA genes, which are rate-limiting for conversion of IPA to auxin, is increased in Bdtar2l mutants. Consistent with suppression of Bdtar2l(hypo root phenotypes upon application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC, BdYUCCA genes are down-regulated upon ACC treatment. Moreover, they are up-regulated in a downstream ethylene-signaling component homolog mutant, Bd ethylene insensitive 2-like 1, which also displays a Bdtar2l root phenotype. In summary, Bdtar2l phenotypes contrast with gradually reduced root growth and auxin levels described for Arabidopsis taa1/tar mutants. This could be explained if in Brachypodium, ethylene inhibits the rate-limiting step of auxin biosynthesis in an IPA-dependent manner to confer auxin levels that are sub

  20. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  1. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  2. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  3. GRAVI-2 space experiment: investigating statoliths displacement and location effects on early stages of gravity perception pathways in lentil roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, François; Eche, Brigitte; Pereda Loth, Veronica; Badel, Eric; Legue, Valerie; Brunel, Nicole; Label, Philippe; Gérard, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    The plants ability to orient their growth with respect to external stimuli such as gravity is a key factor for survival and acclimation to their environment. Belowground, plant roots modulate their growth towards gravity, allowing soil exploration and uptake of water and nutrients. In roots, gravity sensing cells called statocytes are located in the center of the root cap. Statocytes contain starch-filled plastids denser than the cytoplasm, which sedimentation along the direction of gravity is widely accepted as being involved into early stages of gravity perception (the starch-statolith hypothesis; Sack, 1991). Root gravitropism following statoliths displacement is based on auxin redistribution in the root apex, inducing differential growth between the root upward and downward sides. However at the cell scale, the chain of transduction starting from statoliths displacement and leading to auxin redistribution remains poorly documented. Signaling molecules such as calcium, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate are serious candidates previously shown to be involved within minutes before modification of the expression of auxin-related genes (Morita, 2010; Sato et al., 2015). Here, we observe and quantify statoliths displacements and locations at various levels of gravity to investigate two hypothesis: (i) Are contacts between statoliths and the endoplasmic reticulum necessary to induce gravitropism? (ii) Are very low displacements of statoliths sufficient to initiate transduction pathways such as the calcium's one? These questionings have led to an experiment called GRAVI-2 which took place aboard the ISS in 2014. During the experiment, lentil roots were grown in the European modular cultivation system for several hours in microgravity and were then submitted to short high gravity stimulus (5 and 15 minutes at 2 g) before the return to Earth for analyses. Ongoing cytological measurements will reveal the effects of statoliths

  4. Transcriptome analysis of the rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum brasilense reveals an extensive auxin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Sandra; Cloots, Lore; Engelen, Kristof; Das, Frederik; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos; Spaepen, Stijn

    2011-05-01

    The rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum brasilense produces the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the indole-3-pyruvate pathway. As we previously demonstrated that transcription of the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (ipdC) gene is positively regulated by IAA, produced by A. brasilense itself or added exogenously, we performed a microarray analysis to study the overall effects of IAA on the transcriptome of A. brasilense. The transcriptomes of A. brasilense wild-type and the ipdC knockout mutant, both cultured in the absence and presence of exogenously added IAA, were compared.Interfering with the IAA biosynthesis/homeostasis in A. brasilense through inactivation of the ipdC gene or IAA addition results in much broader transcriptional changes than anticipated. Based on the multitude of changes observed by comparing the different transcriptomes, we can conclude that IAA is a signaling molecule in A. brasilense. It appears that the bacterium, when exposed to IAA, adapts itself to the plant rhizosphere, by changing its arsenal of transport proteins and cell surface proteins. A striking example of adaptation to IAA exposure, as happens in the rhizosphere, is the upregulation of a type VI secretion system (T6SS) in the presence of IAA. The T6SS is described as specifically involved in bacterium-eukaryotic host interactions. Additionally, many transcription factors show an altered regulation as well, indicating that the regulatory machinery of the bacterium is changing.

  5. Auxin, the organizer of the hormonal/environmental signals for root hair growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard D.-W.; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2013-01-01

    The root hair development is controlled by diverse factors such as fate-determining developmental cues, auxin-related environmental factors, and hormones. In particular, the soil environmental factors are important as they maximize their absorption by modulating root hair development. These environmental factors affect the root hair developmental process by making use of diverse hormones. These hormonal factors interact with each other to modulate root hair development in which auxin appears to form the most intensive networks with the pathways from environmental factors and hormones. Moreover, auxin action for root hair development is genetically located immediately upstream of the root hair-morphogenetic genes. These observations suggest that auxin plays as an organizing node for environmental/hormonal pathways to modulate root hair growth. PMID:24273547

  6. Influence of time of auxin application on wheat haploid embrio formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Slaven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid interspecies zygote appears after crosses between wheat and maize Zygote derived after usual self-fertilization in wheat is dividing by mitotic divisions into embryo. However, interspecies zygote aborts soon. Auxin treatment is widely used to promote its development. Growth hormones auxins have stimulative ortoxic effects on plant tissue sin relation to its concentration and the time of application. In this paper the effect of time of auxin dicamba application on embryo in wheat x maize crosses was investigated. Chromosomes of pollen donor parent are eliminated quickly in cells of such embryos and they become haploid. It was concluded that for the production of haploid embryos the best time for auxin application is one day after pollination with maize.

  7. Comparison of auxin activty in tumourous and normal callus cultures from sunflower and tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal and tumourous calluses of sunflower and tobacco the level of extractable auxins was determined by Avena coleoptile straight growth test. Auxin activity was detected practically in two zones: I - at position with Rf 0.2-0.4 and II - at position with Rf 0.6-0.9. The tumour tissues of sunflower and tobacco plants, representing different types of neoplastic growth exhibit a 3 times higher auxin activity as compared with that of the corresponding normal tissues. Tobacco tissues, on the other hand, had a higher auxin level than the corresponding sunflower tissues and they exhibited different proportions in the activity of zones I and II, which points to a dominance of genetic regulation of hormone metabolism in these plants.

  8. Inter-regulation of the unfolded protein response and auxin signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.N.; Aung, K.; Rolčík, Jakub; Walicki, K.; Friml, J.; Brandizzi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2014), s. 97-107 ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : endoplasmic reticulum stress * unfolded protein response * auxin response Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  9. Early and late root formation in epicotyl cuttings of Pinus sylvestris after auxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygh, G; Grönroos, R; Gulin, L; Von Arnold, S

    1993-01-01

    Auxin stimulated rooting of epicotyl cuttings of Pinus sylvestris irrespective of the physiological stage of the plant from which the cuttings were taken. The epicotyl cuttings were divided into two groups, those that differentiated roots early (within 6 weeks after cutting) and those that differentiated roots late (more than 6 weeks after cutting). Auxin treatment significantly stimulated the frequency of early rooting of epicotyl cuttings, whereas it had no effect on the frequency of late rooting of epicotyl cuttings. The number of roots per rooted cutting was significantly higher after auxin treatment both on early and late rooted cuttings. Anatomical studies showed that most of the roots on both early and late rooted cuttings developed from wound tissue. However some types of rooting were found only after auxin treatment of early rooted cuttings, e.g., roots that developed from resin duct wound tissue or from vascular tissue or in the pith.

  10. Control of cytokinin and auxin homeostasis in cyanobacteria and algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižková, Eva; Kubeš, Martin; Dobrev, Petre; Přibyl, Pavel; Šimura, J.; Zahajská, Lenka; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Novák, Ondřej; Motyka, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2017), s. 151-166 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14649S; GA ČR GA15-22322S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : solid-phase extraction * performance liquid-chromatography * yucca flavin monooxygenases * tandem mass-spectrometry * abscisic-acid * arabidopsis-thaliana * indole-3-acetic-acid iaa * endogenous cytokinins * chlorella-vulgaris * phenylacetic acid * Cytokinin * auxin * cyanobacteria * algae * metabolism * cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase * cytokinin 2-methylthioderivatives * trans-zeatin * indole-3-acetic acid * tRNA Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  11. Ethylene-auxin interactions regulate lateral root initiation and emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2008-07-01

    Plant root systems display considerable plasticity in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Auxin stimulates pericycle cells within elongating primary roots to enter de novo organogenesis, leading to the establishment of new lateral root meristems. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in root branching are not well characterized. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis, resulting from the application of low concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), promotes the initiation of lateral root primordia. Treatment with higher doses of ACC strongly inhibits the ability of pericycle cells to initiate new lateral root primordia, but promotes the emergence of existing lateral root primordia: behaviour that is also seen in the eto1 mutation. These effects are correlated with decreased pericycle cell length and increased lateral root primordia cell width. When auxin is applied simultaneously with ACC, ACC is unable to prevent the auxin stimulation of lateral root formation in the root tissues formed prior to ACC exposure. However, in root tissues formed after transfer to ACC, in which elongation is reduced, auxin does not rescue the ethylene inhibition of primordia initiation, but instead increases it by several fold. Mutations that block auxin responses, slr1 and arf7 arf19, render initiation of lateral root primordia insensitive to the promoting effect of low ethylene levels, and mutations that inhibit ethylene-stimulated auxin biosynthesis, wei2 and wei7, reduce the inhibitory effect of higher ethylene levels, consistent with ethylene regulating root branching through interactions with auxin.

  12. [Gravity resistance, another graviresponse in plants--function of anti-gravitational polysaccharides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Soga, Kouichi

    2003-08-01

    The involvement of anti-gravitational polysaccharides in gravity resistance, one of two major gravity responses in plants, was discussed. In dicotyledons, xyloglucans are the only cell wall polysaccharides, whose level, molecular size, and metabolic turnover were modified under both hypergravity and microgravity conditions, suggesting that xyloglucans act as anti-gravitational polysaccharides. In monocotyledonous Poaceae, (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta glucans, instead of xyloglucans, were shown to play a role as anti-gravitational polysaccharides. These polysaccharides are also involved in plant responses to other environmental factors, such as light and temperature, and to some phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene. Thus, the type of anti-gravitational polysaccharides is different between dicotyledons and Poaceae, but such polysaccharides are universally involved in plant responses to environmental and hormonal signals. In gravity resistance, the gravity signal may be received by the plasma membrane mechanoreceptors, transformed and transduced within each cell, and then may modify the processes of synthesis and secretion of the anti-gravitational polysaccharides and the cell wall enzymes responsible for their degradation, as well as the apoplastic pH, leading to the cell wall reinforcement. A series of events inducing gravity resistance are quite independent of those leading to gravitropism.

  13. Brane-World Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartens Roy

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane" embedded in a 1+3+$d$-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk", with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the $d$ extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak ($sim$TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. General relativity cannot describe gravity at high enough energies and must be replaced by a quantum gravity theory, picking up significant corrections as the fundamental energy scale is approached. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review discusses the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models.

  14. Expression Profiling of Strawberry Allergen Fra a during Fruit Ripening Controlled by Exogenous Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Uno, Yuichi

    2017-06-02

    Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an important plant hormone in strawberry fruit that controls fruit fleshiness and ripening. In this study, we treated strawberry fruits with exogenous auxin or auxin inhibitors at pre- and post-harvest stages, and analyzed Fra a transcriptional and translational expression levels during fruit development by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Pre-harvest treatment with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone did not affect Fra a expression, but applied in conjunction with achene removal NAA promoted fruit pigmentation and Fra a protein accumulation. The response was developmental stage-specific: Fra a 1 was highly expressed in immature fruit, whereas Fra a 2 was expressed in young to ripe fruit. In post-harvest treatments, auxin did not contribute to Fra a induction. Auxin inhibitors delayed fruit ripening; as a result, they seemed to influence Fra a 1 expression. Thus, Fra a expression was not directly regulated by auxin, but might be associated with the ripening process and/or external factors in a paralog-specific manner.

  15. Crystal structure of an indole-3-acetic acid amido synthetase from grapevine involved in auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Thomas S; Böttcher, Christine; Newman, Janet; Lucent, Del; Cowieson, Nathan; Davies, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    Auxins are important for plant growth and development, including the control of fruit ripening. Conjugation to amino acids by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases is an important part of auxin homeostasis. The structure of the auxin-conjugating Gretchen Hagen3-1 (GH3-1) enzyme from grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in complex with an inhibitor (adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]phosphate), is presented. Comparison with a previously published benzoate-conjugating enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that grapevine GH3-1 has a highly similar domain structure and also undergoes a large conformational change during catalysis. Mutational analyses and structural comparisons with other proteins have identified residues likely to be involved in acyl group, amino acid, and ATP substrate binding. Vv GH3-1 is a monomer in solution and requires magnesium ions solely for the adenlyation reaction. Modeling of IAA and two synthetic auxins, benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), into the active site indicates that NAA and BTOA are likely to be poor substrates for this enzyme, confirming previous enzyme kinetic studies. This suggests a reason for the increased effectiveness of NAA and BTOA as auxins in planta and provides a tool for designing new and effective auxins.

  16. Variation in auxin sensing guides AUX/IAA transcriptional repressor ubiquitylation and destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Martin; Niemeyer, Michael; Hellmuth, Antje; Janitza, Philipp; Christ, Gideon; Samodelov, Sophia L; Wilde, Verona; Majovsky, Petra; Trujillo, Marco; Zurbriggen, Matias D; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Quint, Marcel; Calderón Villalobos, Luz Irina A

    2017-06-07

    Auxin is a small molecule morphogen that bridges SCF TIR1/AFB -AUX/IAA co-receptor interactions leading to ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA transcriptional repressors. Here, we systematically dissect auxin sensing by SCF TIR1 -IAA6 and SCF TIR1 -IAA19 co-receptor complexes, and assess IAA6/IAA19 ubiquitylation in vitro and IAA6/IAA19 degradation in vivo. We show that TIR1-IAA19 and TIR1-IAA6 have distinct auxin affinities that correlate with ubiquitylation and turnover dynamics of the AUX/IAA. We establish a system to track AUX/IAA ubiquitylation in IAA6 and IAA19 in vitro and show that it occurs in flexible hotspots in degron-flanking regions adorned with specific Lys residues. We propose that this signature is exploited during auxin-mediated SCF TIR1 -AUX/IAA interactions. We present evidence for an evolving AUX/IAA repertoire, typified by the IAA6/IAA19 ohnologues, that discriminates the range of auxin concentrations found in plants. We postulate that the intrinsic flexibility of AUX/IAAs might bias their ubiquitylation and destruction kinetics enabling specific auxin responses.

  17. Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, P L; Wilkinson, C; Franssen, H M; Balk, P A; van der Plas, L H; Weisbeek, P J; Douwe de Boer, A

    2000-03-01

    Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is a bulbous plant species that requires a period of low temperature for proper growth and flowering. The mechanism of sensing the low temperature period is unknown. The study presented in this paper shows that the essential developmental change in tulip bulbs during cold treatment is an increase in sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin. This is demonstrated using a model system consisting of isolated internodes grown on tissue culture medium containing different combinations of the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. Using mathematical modelling, equations taken from the field of enzyme kinetics were fitted through the data. By doing so it became apparent that longer periods of low temperature resulted in an increased maximum response at a lower auxin concentration. Besides the cold treatment, gibberellin also enhances the response to auxin in the internodes in this in vitro system. A working model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, gibberellin action and auxin sensitivity is put forward. Possible analogies with other cold-requiring processes such as vernalization and stratification, and the interaction of auxin and gibberellin in the stalk elongation process in other plant species are discussed.

  18. The outer epidermis of Avena and maize coleoptiles is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A controversy exists as to whether or not the outer epidermis in coleoptiles is a unique target for auxin in elongation growth. The following evidence indicates that the outer epidermis is not the only auxin-responsive cell layer in either Avena sativa L. or Zea mays L. coleoptiles. Coleoptile sections from which the epidermis has been removed by peeling elongate in response to auxin. The magnitude of the response is similar to that of intact sections provided the incubation solution contains both auxin and sucrose. The amount of elongation is independent of the amount of epidermis removed. Sections of oat coleoptiles from which the epidermis has been removed from one side are nearly straight after 22 h in auxin and sucrose, despite extensive growth of the sections. These data indicate that the outer epidermis is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth, at least in Avena and maize coleoptiles.

  19. Autoradiographic studies with the 14C-IAA in relation to synergism between auxin and non-auxin chemicals in the rooting of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, K.G.; Basu, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    Indole and α-naphthol significantly synergized the IAA-induced rooting of P. vulqaris cuttings. The pattern of incorporation of radiocarbon of IAA-I- 14 C and IAA-2- 14 C supplied to the base of the cuttings was, however, not altered by the synergists and the same radioactive metabolites were located on the radioautograms of ethanolic extracts of the hypocotyls of cuttings under the different treatments. The results thereby discount the possibility of formation of bioactive complexes between auxins and synergists as the mechanism of synergism in rooting. The synergists, however, influenced the extent of incorporation of radiocarbon of the labelled auxin molecules into some of the radioactive metabolites. (auth.)

  20. Auxin promotes susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae via a mechanism independent of suppression of salicylic acid-mediated defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutka, Andrew M; Fawley, Stephen; Tsao, Tiffany; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2013-06-01

    Auxin is a key plant growth regulator that also impacts plant-pathogen interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae manipulates auxin physiology in Arabidopsis thaliana to promote pathogenesis. Pseudomonas syringae strategies to alter host auxin biology include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and production of virulence factors that alter auxin responses in host cells. The application of exogenous auxin enhances disease caused by P. syringae strain DC3000. This is hypothesized to result from antagonism between auxin and salicylic acid (SA), a major regulator of plant defenses, but this hypothesis has not been tested in the context of infected plants. We further investigated the role of auxin during pathogenesis by examining the interaction of auxin and SA in the context of infection in plants with elevated endogenous levels of auxin. We demonstrated that elevated IAA biosynthesis in transgenic plants overexpressing the YUCCA 1 (YUC1) auxin biosynthesis gene led to enhanced susceptibility to DC3000. Elevated IAA levels did not interfere significantly with host defenses, as effector-triggered immunity was active in YUC1-overexpressing plants, and we observed only minor effects on SA levels and SA-mediated responses. Furthermore, a plant line carrying both the YUC1-overexpression transgene and the salicylic acid induction deficient 2 (sid2) mutation, which impairs SA synthesis, exhibited additive effects of enhanced susceptibility from both elevated auxin levels and impaired SA-mediated defenses. Thus, in IAA overproducing plants, the promotion of pathogen growth occurs independently of suppression of SA-mediated defenses. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Zou, Ming-Hong; Feng, Bi-Hong; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as MiPIN1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as MiAUX1, MiAUX2, MiAUX3 and MiAUX4). The results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs belong to plant PIN and AUXs/LAXs groups. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs was lowest at 0 days but sharply increased on and after day 4. During the root formation in the mango cotyledon segments, the MiPIN1 expression in the distal cut surface (DCS) was always higher than the expression in the proximal cut surface (PCS) whereas the expression of the MiAUXs in the PCS was usually higher than in the DCS. This expression pattern might be result in the PAT from the DCS to the PCS, which is essential for the adventitious root formation in the PCS. Our previous study indicated that a pre-treatment of embryos with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly promoted adventitious rooting in PCS whereas a pre-treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) completely inhibited this rooting. In this study, however, IBA and TIBA pre-treatments slightly changed the expression of MiPIN1. In contrast, while the MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by the IBA pre-treatment, the expression levels were down-regulated by the TIBA pre-treatment. These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Gravity and embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between the developing embryo (both plant and animal) and a gravitational field has long been contemplated. The difficulty in designing critical experiments on the surface of the earth because of its background of 1 g, has been an obstacle to a resolution of the problem. Biological responses to gravity (particularly in plants) are obvious in many cases; however, the influence of gravity as an environmental input to the developing embryo is not as obvious and has proven to be extremely difficult to define. In spite of this, over the years numerous attempts have been made using a variety of embryonic materials to come to grips with the role of gravity in development. Three research tools are available: the centrifuge, the clinostat, and the orbiting spacecraft. Experimental results are now available from all three sources. Some tenuous conclusions are drawn, and an attempt at a unifying theory of gravitational influence on embryonic development is made.

  3. Induced classical gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novozhilov, Yu.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We review the induced-gravity approach according to which the Einstein gravity is a long-wavelength effect induced by underlying fundamental quantum fields due to the dynamical-scale symmetry breaking. It is shown that no ambiguities arise in the definition of the induced Newton and cosmological constants if one works with the path integral for fundamental fields in the low-scale region. The main accent is on a specification of the path integral which enables us to utilize the unitarity condition and thereby avoid ambiguities. Induced Einstein equations appear from the symmetry condition that the path integral of fundamental fields for a slowly varying metric is invariant under the local vertical strokeGL(4, R)-transformations of a tetrad, which contain the local Euclidean Lorentz, O(4)-rotations as a subgroup. The relatinship to induced quantum gravity is briefly outlined. (orig.)

  4. The quantization of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...

  5. Gravity and strings

    CERN Document Server

    Ortín, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.

  6. Stochastic quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1987-01-01

    We begin with a naive application of the Parisi-Wu scheme to linearized gravity. This will lead into trouble as one peculiarity of the full theory, the indefiniteness of the Euclidean action, shows up already at this level. After discussing some proposals to overcome this problem, Minkowski space stochastic quantization will be introduced. This will still not result in an acceptable quantum theory of linearized gravity, as the Feynman propagator turns out to be non-causal. This defect will be remedied only after a careful analysis of general covariance in stochastic quantization has been performed. The analysis requires the notion of a metric on the manifold of metrics, and a natural candidate for this is singled out. With this a consistent stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity becomes possible. It is even possible, at least perturbatively, to return to the Euclidean regime. 25 refs. (Author)

  7. Quantum Gravity Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.

  8. Brane-World Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Maartens

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the “brane” embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the “bulk”, with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity “leaks” into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall–Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies – the 5-dimensional Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.

  9. Exogenous auxin regulates multi-metabolic network and embryo development, controlling seed secondary dormancy and germination in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yiling; Zhao, Jiehong; Fu, Junjie; Ren, Xueliang; Wang, Guoying; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-02-09

    Auxin was recognized as a secondary dormancy phytohormone, controlling seed dormancy and germination. However, the exogenous auxin-controlled seed dormancy and germination remain unclear in physiological process and gene network. Tobacco seeds soaked in 1000 mg/l auxin solution showed markedly decreased germination compared with that in low concentration of auxin solutions and ddH2O. Using an electron microscope, observations were made on the seeds which did not unfold properly in comparison to those submerged in ddH2O. The radicle traits measured by WinRHIZO, were found to be also weaker than the other treatment groups. Quantified by ELISA, there was no significant difference found in β-1,3glucanase activity and abscisic acid (ABA) content between the seeds imbibed in gradient concentration of auxin solution and those soaked in ddH2O. However, gibberellic acid (GA) and auxin contents were significantly higher at the time of exogenous auxin imbibition and were gradually reduced at germination. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), revealed that the transcriptome of auxin-responsive dormancy seeds were more similar to that of the imbibed seeds when compared with primary dormancy seeds by principal component analysis. The results of gene differential expression analysis revealed that auxin-controlled seed secondary dormancy was associated with flavonol biosynthetic process, gibberellin metabolic process, adenylyl-sulfate reductase activity, thioredoxin activity, glutamate synthase (NADH) activity and chromatin regulation. In addition, auxin-responsive germination responded to ABA, auxin, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediated signaling pathway (red, far red and blue light), glutathione and methionine (Met) metabolism. In this study, exogenous auxin-mediated seed secondary dormancy is an environmental model that prevents seed germination in an unfavorable condition. Seeds of which could not imbibe normally, and radicles of which also could not develop normally and

  10. Integration of Auxin and Salt Signals by the NAC Transcription Factor NTM2 during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmin; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Je-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Seed germination is regulated through elaborately interacting signaling networks that integrate diverse environmental cues into hormonal signaling pathways. Roles of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid in germination have been studied extensively using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants having alterations in seed germination. Auxin has also been implicated in seed germination. However, how auxin influences germination is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that auxin is linked via the IAA30 gene with a salt signaling cascade mediated by the NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 transcription factor NTM2/Arabidopsis NAC domain-containing protein 69 (for NAC with Transmembrane Motif1) during seed germination. Germination of the NTM2-deficient ntm2-1 mutant seeds exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity. However, the salt resistance disappeared in the ntm2-1 mutant overexpressing the IAA30 gene, which was induced by salt in a NTM2-dependent manner. Auxin exhibited no discernible effects on germination under normal growth conditions. Under high salinity, however, whereas exogenous application of auxin further suppressed the germination of control seeds, the auxin effects were reduced in the ntm2-1 mutant. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of auxin on germination, germination of YUCCA 3-overexpressing plants containing elevated levels of active auxin was more severely influenced by salt. These observations indicate that auxin delays seed germination under high salinity through cross talk with the NTM2-mediated salt signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:21450938

  11. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS06 (2012 & 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2012 & 2013 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  12. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  13. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  14. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES01 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN03 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2014 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  16. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  17. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for PN01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for California and Oregon collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  18. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN08 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2016 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  20. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN04 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Michigan and Lake Huron collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...