WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxiliary water systems

  1. Aging assessment of PWR [Pressurized Water Reactor] Auxiliary Feedwater Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a review of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater Systems. Two of the objectives of the NPAR Program are to identify failure modes and causes and identify methods to detect and track degradation. In Phase I of the Auxiliary Feedwater System study, a detailed review of system design and operating and surveillance practices at a reference plant is being conducted to determine failure modes and to provide an indication of the ability of current monitoring methods to detect system degradation. The extent to which current practices are contributing to aging and service wear related degradation is also being assessed. This paper provides a description of the study approach, examples of results, and some interim observations and conclusions. 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, A.; Ramilo, L.; Santecchia, A.; Vindrola, C.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100MWt, about 25MWe).CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium.In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented.Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor

  3. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Santecchia, Alberto; Vindrola, Carlos; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100 M Wt, about 25 M We). CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium. In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented. Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor. (author)

  4. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolich, J.; Santome, D.; Drexler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author) [es

  5. Intersection auxiliary signal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    1995-12-01

    Many intersection accidents are related to drivers' inappropriate responses to an amber signal light, due to their misjudgment on the traffic situation and/or their aggressive behavior. To reduce intersection accidents of this nature, this paper proposes the Intersection Auxiliary Signal System (IAS). IAS can be installed at selected intersections, where information regarding signal phasing, intersection geometry and speed limit is transmitted from an ultrasonic/infra-red transmitter. An on-vehicle device receivers and processes the information, the provides the driver with explicit suggestions on the correct action to take (continue to pass or decelerate to stop), or warnings against on-going incorrect actions. IAS is expected to be more effective in suburban intersections, which are usually characterized by greater dimension, longer amber phases, and higher vehicle speeds. Both the intersection transmitters and the on-vehicle processors are expected to have simple structures and low costs. Simulation results show that IAS has a significant effect on reducing red signal violation, especially when there is no significant dilemma zones.

  6. Reliability study of the auxiliary feed-water system of a pressurized water reactor by faults tree and Bayesian Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lava, Deise Diana; Borges, Diogo da Silva; Guimarães, Antonio Cesar Ferreira; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: deise_dy@hotmail.com, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feed-water System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10{sup -3}. (author)

  7. Lower Snake River Little Goose and Lower Granite Locks and Dams: Adult Fishway Systems Emergency Auxiliary Water Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wielick, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    ... to address the Biological Opinion requirement. This Emergency Auxiliary Water Supply, Phase II - Technical Report continues to evaluate the Phase I report alternatives for the Little Goose and Lower Granite Lock and Dams at a greater...

  8. Support on water chemistry and processes for nuclear power plant auxiliary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocron, M.; Becquart, E.; La Gamma, A.M.; Schoenbrod, B. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Gcia. Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Allemandi, W.; Fernandez, A.N.; Ovando, L. [Central Nuclear Embalse, Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    In particular PHWRs have a system devoted to the purification and upgrading of the collected heavy water leaks. The purification train is fed with different degradation ratios (D{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O), activities and impurities. The water is distilled in a packed bed column filled with a mesh type packing. The mesh wire is made of a bronze substrate covered by copper oxides whose current composition has been determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. With the purpose of minimizing the column stack corrosion, the water is pre-treated in a train consisting of an activated charcoal bed-strong cationic-anionic resin and a final polishing mixed bed resin. Ionic chemicals like acetic acid (whose provenance is suspected to come from the air treatment/D{sub 2}O recovery system where the regeneration is performed at high temperature) are detected by the conductivity and ion chromatography when they concentrate at the column bottom. Traces of oils are retained by the charcoal bed but some compounds extracted by the aqueous phase are suspected to be responsible for the resins fouling or precursors of potentially aggressive agents inside the distillation column. Those species have been detected and identified by gaseous chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the present work, the identification, evaluation of alternatives for the retention and results compared to the original products present in the water upgrading purification train have been summarized. (authors)

  9. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  10. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  11. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  12. Operating experiences and degradation detection for auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    A study of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) Systems has been conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The results of the study are documented in NUREG/CR-5404, Vol. 1, Auxiliary Feedwater System Aging Study. The study reviewed historical failure experience and current monitoring practices for the AFW System. This paper provides an overview of the study approach and results

  13. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  14. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  15. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  16. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  17. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX)/hydrocarbon propulsion concepts for a "second generation' orbiter auxiliary propulsion system was evaluated. The most attractive fuel and system design approach identified, and the technology advancements that are needed to provide high confidence for a subsequent system development were determined. The fuel candidates were ethanol, methane, propane, and ammonia. Even though ammonia is not a hydrocarbon, it was included for evaluation because it is clean burning and has a good technology base. The major system design options were pump versus pressure feed, cryogenic versus ambient temperature RCS propellant feed, and the degree of OMS-RCS integration. Ethanol was determined to be the best fuel candidate. It is an earth-storable fuel with a vapor pressure slightly higher than monomethyl hydrazine. A pump-fed OMS was recommended because of its high specific impulse, enabling greater velocity change and greater payload capability than a pressure fed system.

  18. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  19. Decontamination of the reactor pressure vessel and further internals and auxiliary systems in the German boiling water reactor Isar-1; Dekontamination des RDB inkl. der Einbauten wie Dampftrockner und Wasserabscheider sowie der angeschlossenen Hilfssysteme im deutschen Siedewasserreaktor ISAR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael; Sempere Belda, Luis; Basu, Ashim; Topf, Christian [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Abt. Chemistry Services; Erbacher, Thomas; Hiermer, Thomas; Schnurr, Bernhard; Appeldorn, Thomas van [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk ISAR, Essenbach (Germany). Abt. Maschinentechnik; Volkmann, Christian [ESG Engineering Services GmbH, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The German nuclear power plant ISAR 1 (KKI 1), a 878 MWe boiling water reactor of KWU design, was shut down on March 17{sup th}, 2011. With the objective to minimize the plants activity inventory accompanied by the reduction of contact dose rates of systems and components the project 'decontamination of the RPV incl. steam dryer and water separator and the connected auxiliary systems' was implemented in the first quarter of 2015. One major focus within the project was the specific in-situ decontamination of the steam dryer.

  20. Satellite auxiliary-propulsion selection techniques. Addendum: A survey of auxiliary electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A review of electric thrusters for satellite auxiliary propulsion was conducted at JPL during the past year. Comparisons of the various thrusters for attitude propulsion and east-west and north-south stationkeeping were made based upon performance, mass, power, and demonstrated life. Reliability and cost are also discussed. The method of electrical acceleration of propellant served to divide the thruster systems into two groups: electrostatic and electromagnetic. Ion and colloid thrusters fall within the electrostatically accelerated group while MPD and pulsed plasma thrusters comprise the electromagnetically accelerated group. The survey was confined to research in the United States with accent on flight and flight prototype systems.

  1. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information contained in the quantum states of two auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lvjun; Qiu, Daowen

    2007-01-01

    In probabilistic cloning with two auxiliary systems, we consider and compare three different protocols for the success probabilities of cloning. We show that, in certain circumstances, it may increase the success probability to add an auxiliary system to the probabilistic cloning machine having one auxiliary system, but we always can find another cloning machine with one auxiliary system having the same success probability as that with two auxiliary systems

  2. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  3. Simulation of a passive auxiliary feedwater system with TRACE5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorduy, María; Gallardo, Sergio; Verdú, Gumersindo, E-mail: maloral@upv.es, E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Instituto Universitario de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental (ISIRYM), València (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    The study of the nuclear power plant accidents occurred in recent decades, as well as the probabilistic risk assessment carried out for this type of facility, present human error as one of the main contingency factors. For this reason, the design and development of generation III, III+ and IV reactors, which include inherent and passive safety systems, have been promoted. In this work, a TRACE5 model of ATLAS (Advanced Thermal- Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) is used to reproduce an accidental scenario consisting in a prolonged Station BlackOut (SBO). In particular, the A1.2 test of the OECD-ATLAS project is analyzed, whose purpose is to study the primary system cooling by means of the water supply to one of the steam generators from a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). This safety feature prevents the loss of secondary system inventory by means of the steam condensation and its recirculation. Thus, the conservation of a heat sink allows the natural circulation flow rate until restoring stable conditions. For the reproduction of the test, an ATLAS model has been adapted to the experiment conditions, and a PAFS has been incorporated. >From the simulation test results, the main thermal-hydraulic variables (pressure, flow rates, collapsed water level and temperature) are analyzed in the different circuits, contrasting them with experimental data series. As a conclusion, the work shows the TRACE5 code capability to correctly simulate the behavior of a passive feedwater system. (author)

  4. Seismic qualification of PWR plant auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Tsai, N.C.

    1983-08-01

    The NRC Standard Review Plan specifies that the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a safeguard system that functions in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) to remove the decay heat via the steam generator. Only recently licensed PWR plants have an AFW system designed to the current Standard Review Plan specifications. The NRC devised the Multiplant Action Plan C-14 in order to make a survey of the seismic capability of the AFW systems of operating PWR plants. The purpose of this survey is to enable the NRC to make decisions regarding the need of requiring the licensees to upgrade the AFW systems to an SSE level of seismic capability. To implement the first phase of the C-14 plan, the NRC issued a Generic Letter (GL) 81-14 to all operating PWR licensees requesting information on the seismic capability of their AFW systems. This report summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's efforts to assist the NRC in evaluating the status of seismic qualification of the AFW systems in 40 PWR plants, by reviewing the licensees' responses to GL 81-14

  5. Assembly auxiliary system for narrow cabins of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Due to the narrow space and complex structure of spacecraft cabin, the existing asssembly systems can not well suit for the assembly process of cabin products. This paper aims to introduce an assembly auxiliary system for cabin products. A hierarchical-classification method is proposed to re-adjust the initial assembly relationship of cabin into a new hierarchical structure for efficient assembly planning. An improved ant colony algorithm based on three assembly principles is established for searching a optimizational assembly sequence of cabin parts. A mixed reality assembly environment is constructed with enhanced information to promote interaction efficiency of assembly training and guidance. Based on the machine vision technology, the inspection of left redundant objects and measurement of parts distance in inner cabin are efficiently performed. The proposed system has been applied to the assembly work of a spacecraft cabin with 107 parts, which includes cabin assembly planning, assembly training and assembly quality inspection. The application result indicates that the proposed system can be an effective assistant tool to cabin assembly works and provide an intuitive and real assembly experience for workers. This paper presents an assembly auxiliary system for spacecraft cabin products, which can provide technical support to the spacecraft cabin assembly industry.

  6. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  7. STARTER-GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Levin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a starter-generator system for an auxiliary power unit of an aircraft. A feature of the presented system is the use of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. The main problem of the system is the generation of electric energy of an aircraft on the basis of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets is the absence of the possibility of regulating the voltage and frequency of electrical energy, in this connection, a semiconductor converter that ensures the conversion of generated electric energy with significant mass-dimensions characteristics.The article proposes an approach to designing a starter-generator system with a parallel connection of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. This approach makes it possible to significantly reduce the part of the electrical energy that needs to be converted, as a consequence, the semiconductor converter has significantly smaller mass-and-batch characteristics.In the article the modes of generation of electric energy and the starter mode of operation of the starter-generator system are considered in detail, the circuit realization of the semiconductor converter is shown. A scheme for replacing one phase of the system for generating electric energy and calculating electric parameters is presented.The possibility of creating a highly efficient starter-generator system based on a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter for an auxiliary power plant of aircrafts is shown. Structural and basic schemes for constructing a system for generating electrical energy are proposed. The approach to the choice of rational circuit solutions is substantiated, basic estimates of the electrical parameters of the system are obtained. The possibility of achieving a specific mass of a semiconductor converter for synchronous

  8. Energic, Exergic, Exergo‐economic investigation and optimization of auxiliary cooling system (ACS equipped with compression refrigerating system (CRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Karimi Sadaghiyani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heller main cooling tower as air-cooled heat exchanger is used in the combined cycle power plants (CCPP to reduce the temperature of condenser. In extreme summer heat, the efficiency of the cooling tower is reduced and it lessens performance of Steam Turbine Generation (STG unit of Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP. Thus, the auxiliary cooling system (ACS is equipped with compression refrigerating system (CRS. This auxiliary system is linked with the Heller main cooling tower and improves the performance of power plant. In other words, this auxiliary system increases the generated power of STG unit of CCPP by decreasing the temperature of returning water from cooling tower Therefore, in the first step, the mentioned auxiliary cooling system (ACS as a heat exchanger and compression refrigerating system (CRS have been designed via ASPEN HTFS and EES code respectively. In order to validate their results, these two systems have been built and theirs experimentally obtained data have been compared with ASPEN and EES results. There are good agreements between results. After that, exergic and exergo-economic analysis of designed systems have been carried out. Finally, the compression refrigerating system (CRS has been optimized via Genetic Algorithm (GA. Increasing in exergy efficiency (ε from 14.23% up to 36.12% and decreasing the total cost rate (ĊSystem from 378.2 ($/h to 308.2 ($/h are as results of multi-objective optimization.

  9. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  10. Integrated hydrogen/oxygen technology applied to auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Integrated Hydrogen/Oxygen Technology (IHOT) study was to determine if the vehicle/mission needs and technology of the 1990's support development of an all cryogenic H2/O2 system. In order to accomplish this, IHOT adopted the approach of designing Integrated Auxiliary Propulsion Systems (IAPS) for a representative manned vehicle; the advanced manned launch system. The primary objectives were to develop IAPS concepts which appeared to offer viable alternatives to state-of-the-art (i.e., hypergolic, or earth-storable) APS approaches. The IHOT study resulted in the definition of three APS concepts; two cryogenic IAPS, and a third concept utilizing hypergolic propellants.

  11. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  12. Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongha; Kim, Jaeyul; Seong, Hoje; Kang, Kyoungho

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results

  13. Evaluation of Transmission Grid Voltage Impact on the Operation of Power Units’ Auxiliary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the low voltage impact on the operation of critical auxiliaries of selected generation units in the national power system. Time limits are determined for the operation of these auxiliaries at low voltage in the power system and the acceptable reduced voltages in their secondary circuits at which the generation unit is capable of interoperation with the system. Upgrades of auxiliary systems are proposed which would enable interoperation of the unit and the system at significantly reduced system voltages.

  14. Auxiliary System Load Schemes in Large Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzle, I.; Bosnjak, D.; Pandzic, H.

    2010-01-01

    Uninterrupted auxiliary system power supply in large power plants is a key factor for normal operation, transient states, start-ups and shutdowns and particularly during fault conditions. Therefore, there are many challenges in designing the main electrical system as well as the auxiliary systems power supply. Depending upon the type of fuel used and the environmental control system required, a thermal power plant may consume as much as 10% of its total generation for auxiliary power, while a nuclear power plant may require only 4 - 6% auxiliaries. In general, the larger the power generating plant, the higher the voltage selected for the AC auxiliary electric system. Most stations in the 75 to 500 MW range utilize 4,2 kV as the base auxiliary system voltage. Large generating stations 500 - 1000 MW and more use voltage levels of 6,9 kV and more. Some single dedicated loads such as electric driven boiler feed pumps are supplied ba a 13,8 kV bus. While designing the auxiliary electric system, the following areas must be considered: motor starting requirements, voltage regulation requirements, short-circuit duty requirements, economic considerations, reliability and alternate sources. Auxiliary power supply can't be completely generalized and each situation should be studied on its own merits to determine the optimal solution. Naturally, nuclear power plants have more reliability requirements and safety design criteria. Main coolant-pump power supply and continuity of service to other vital loads deserve special attention. This paper presents an overview of some up-to-date power plant auxiliary load system concepts. The main types of auxiliary loads are described and the electric diagrams of the modern auxiliary system supply concepts are given. Various alternative sources of auxiliary electrical supply are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of these are compared and proposals are made for high voltage distribution systems around the thermal and nuclear plant

  15. Disturbance in the power system caused by auxiliary DC installation failure of switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesic, M. [HEP Transmission System Operator, Zagreb (Croatia); Tesnjak, S.; Skok, S. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2008-07-01

    Auxiliary direct current (DC) installation failures can lead to outages in power plants and compromise the security of power systems. In this study, a simplified stationary model was used to simulate an auxiliary DC installation in a switchyard. The aim of the study was to evaluate new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for auxiliary DC installation dimensioning and analysis. Criteria included the dimensioning and selection of batteries; the calculation of conductor heating; voltage drop calculations; conductor squares in relation to permanent currents; and the evaluation of protection elements. The new standards were compared with the previous auxiliary system installation methodology. Results of the study suggested that the new standard has introduced significant improvements in short circuit current calculation. Laboratory tests for the measurement of short circuits showed that the active network has less of an impact on the auxiliary system than previous measuring methods. Alterations to the IEC standard will be required as a result of limitations to the short circuit current and new rectifier technology. Results of the study will be used to develop a new model and scheme for dimensioning and analyzing auxiliary DC installations. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Performance evaluation of a state-of-the-art solar air-heating system with auxiliary heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The system in Solar House 2 consists of 57.9 sq. m. of Solaron Series 300 Collectors, 10.3 cu. m. of pebble bed storage, domestic water preheating capability and a Carrier air-to-air heat pump as an auxiliary heater. Although the control subsystem was specially constructed to facilitate experimental changes and data reduction, the balance of the solar system was assembled with off-the-shelf components. Since all components of the system are commercially available the system is considered to be a state of the art solar air-heating system. The system design is one that is recommended for residential and small office buildings.

  17. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shengling; Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Xin; Wang Zhanshan; Ding Yongkun; Miao Wenyong; Dong Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  18. Efficacy of a water-cooled garment for auxiliary body cooling in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Pradhan, C K; Nag, A; Ashtekar, S P; Desai, H

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of a water-cooled jacket for auxiliary body cooling was examined under a simulated hot environment. The personal garment comprised of a water re-circulating three-layered vest of cotton fabric lined with 2 mm diameter latex tubing and inter-spaced coating of rubberized solution. Four subjects wearing the water-cooled jacket were tested in the environment chamber (30, 35 and 40 degrees C DB, 50-60% RH, air velocity 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s, with corresponding average effective temperature of 26 +/- 2.3, 33 +/- 1.1 and 36 +/- 1.5 degrees C). The inlet water temperature was maintained at 10-12 degrees C, with flow rates of 2.6 +/- 0.3, 4.3 +/- 0.3 and 5.1 +/- 0.3 l/h). At 30 degrees C DB, variation in water flow had marginal effect on microclimate, while at higher temperatures (35 and 40 degrees C DB), the re-circulating cooled water had noticeable effects in lowering microclimate, trunk and other skin temperatures, and maintaining the body core within 36.7 +/- 0.2 to 37.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C, over 2 h exposure at 35 and 40 degrees C DB. The observation indicates that the water-cooled jacket provided auxiliary cooling to maintain comfortable microclimate, skin and body core temperatures. This enabled subjects to sustain comfortable heat balance over 2 h heat exposure without any noticeable heat strain.

  19. Computer determination of event maps with application to auxiliary supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wredenberg, L.; Billinton, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method of evaluating the reliability of sequential operations in systems containing standby and alternate supply facilities is presented. The method is based upon the use of a digital computer for automatic development of event maps. The technique is illustrated by application to a nuclear power plant auxiliary supply system. (author)

  20. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  1. Progress in the integration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotamäki, M.; Cordier, J.-J.; Kuehn, I.; Perrin, J.-L.; Sweeney, S.; Villedary, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Usage of 3D CAD model in ITER configuration management presented. • 3D CAD models efficient in configuration and interface management. • Costly and schedule delaying changes avoided with proper interface management. • ITER buildings construction progressing. - Abstract: The ITER Tokamak machine is located in the center of Tokamak complex buildings consisting of Tokamak, Diagnostic, and Tritium buildings. Around the Tokamak complex there are over 30 auxiliary buildings housing various plant systems serving the Tokamak machine either directly or indirectly. The layout and space allocation of each auxiliary building and plant systems housed by the building are represented in the so-called Configuration Management Models (CMM). These are light 3D CAD models that define the required space envelope and the physical interfaces between the systems and the buildings and in-between the systems. The paper describes the CMM and interface management processes of the ITER auxiliary buildings and plant systems, and discusses the preparations for the plant installation phase. In addition, the current baseline configuration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings is described together with the recent developments in the configuration of different systems, as well as the current status of the construction of the buildings.

  2. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the South Texas Project nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1993-12-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. South Texas Project was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the South Texas Project plant

  3. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the McGuire nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1994-05-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. McGuire was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the McGuire plant

  4. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Vehec, T.A.

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant

  5. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Lloyd, R.C.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Garner, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. H. B. Robinson was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the H. B. Robinson plant

  6. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Byron and Braidwood nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1991-07-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Byron and Braidwood were selected for the fourth study in this program. The produce of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plants and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Byron/Braidwood plants. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. “Wheelchair slow transit” system-based elderly auxiliary travel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on research of the current situation and analysis result of a case study in the Nanjing region, this paper proposes a “wheelchair slow transit”(WST system-based elderly auxiliary travel mode. The system involves three fundamental composition frames, namely, support, transit components, and connection components. Each component is designed as an armrest, ground track, or vertical type to respond to actual demands. Thus, this system may be adaptable to diverse conditions. Taking Xiangpuying community as a case study, the author examined the application of the WST auxiliary mode in particular communities. The WST system helps to increase the accessibility of existing public areas, creates a safe community traffic environment, improves municipal facilities, and strengthens universal design. The study intends to provide a reference to obtain a complete aged care design and to build a comfortable and livable aged care community environment.

  8. Common-cause failure analysis of McGuire Unit 2 auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.; Shepherd, J.C.; Fowler, R.D.; Summitt, R.L.; Logan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    A powerful method for qualitative common cause failure analysis (CCFA) of nuclear power plant systems was developed by EG and G Idaho at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. As a cooperative project to demonstrate and evaluate the usefulness of the method, the Duke Power Company agreed to allow a CCFA of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) in their McGuire Nuclear Station Unit 2. The results of the CCFA are the subject of this discussion

  9. Operation of the main feedwater system turbopump following plant trip with total failure of the auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas Alvaro, A.M. de; Rosa Martinez, B. de la; Alcaide, F.; Toledano Camara, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Auxiliary Feedwater System (AF) is a safeguard system which has been designed to supply feedwater to the steam generators, cool the primary system and remove decay heat from the reactor when the main feedwater pumps fail due to loss of power or any other reason. Thus, when plant trip occurs, the AF system pumps start up automatically, allowing removal of decay heat from the reactor. However, even though this system (2 motor-driven pumps and 1 turbopump) is highly reliable, injection of water to the steam generators must be ensured when it fails completely. To do this, if plant trip has not been caused by loss of off site power or failure of the Main Feedwater System (FW) turbopumps, one of these turbopumps can be used to achieve removal of decay heat. Since a large amount of steam is consumed by these turbopumps, an analysis has been performed to determine whether one of these pumps can be used and what actions are necessary to inject water into the steam generators. Results show that, for the case in question, a FW turbopump can be used to remove decay heat from the reactor. (author)

  10. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.; Costamagna, P.; Traverso, A.; Santin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs.

  11. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Testa, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  12. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  13. The integrated design of the ITER magnets and their auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, M.

    1999-01-01

    The magnet system design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has reached a high degree of integration to meet performance and operation requirements, including reliability and maintainability, in a cost effective manner. This paper identifies the requirements of long inductive burn time, large number of tokamak pulses, operational flexibility for the poloidal field (PF) system, magnet reliability and the cost constraints as the main design drivers. Key features of the magnet system which stem from these design drivers are described, together with interfaces and integration aspects of certain auxiliary systems. (author)

  14. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or

  15. Improved 3-dimensional image processing technology for remote handling auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizuka, Chiaki; Jinza, Keisuke; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In the radioactive environment of a nuclear facility, access to the work environment is restricted and therefore handling operations are performed using remote controlled devices. Fuji Electric has developed a remote-controlled auxiliary system that utilizes shape recognition technology to identify and visualize the location and orientation of target objects to be handled. By watching the operation screen of this system, an operator can easily control a manipulator or other handling apparatus. This paper presents an overview and describes details of the development of the system. (author)

  16. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  17. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  18. Probabilistic analysis of reactor safety - The auxiliary feedwater system of Angra I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.R. da L.C. de.

    1981-09-01

    The unavailability of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) of Angra-1, was calculated. The fault tree analysis technique was used, considering two diferent types of contribution to system unavailability: The one due to hard-ware failure and the contribution due to test and maintenance which was separately analysed. The COMBO-and SAMPLE computer codes were used. The results have shown that the AFWS of Angra-1 contains enough redundancy to guarantee a safe operation under the conditions analysed, best values having been obtained for the unavailability of AFWS of Angra 1 with those codes than with the WASH-1400. (E.G.) [pt

  19. A data acquisition and storage system for the ion auxiliary propulsion system cyclic thruster test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.

    1989-01-01

    A nine-track tape drive interfaced to a standard personal computer was used to transport data from a remote test site to the NASA Lewis mainframe computer for analysis. The Cyclic Ground Test of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), which successfully achieved its goal of 2557 cycles and 7057 hr of thrusting beam on time generated several megabytes of test data over many months of continuous testing. A flight-like controller and power supply were used to control the thruster and acquire data. Thruster data was converted to RS232 format and transmitted to a personal computer, which stored the raw digital data on the nine-track tape. The tape format was such that with minor modifications, mainframe flight data analysis software could be used to analyze the Cyclic Ground Test data. The personal computer also converted the digital data to engineering units and displayed real time thruster parameters. Hardcopy data was printed at a rate dependent on thruster operating conditions. The tape drive provided a convenient means to transport the data to the mainframe for analysis, and avoided a development effort for new data analysis software for the Cyclic test. This paper describes the data system, interfacing and software requirements.

  20. Research of Tai-chi-chuan auxiliary training system based on Kinect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong XUE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the scientific standardization of Tai-chi-chuan teaching and training, a Tai-chi-chuan auxiliary training system based on Kinect motion capture technology and extraction of the angle feature and speed feature is proposed and designed. The dynamic time planning algorithm (DTW sampling corresponding frame is applied to replace the traditional method of sampling the key frame. The auxiliary training system consists of learning module, action acquisition module and action scoring module. Learning module with stan-dard action teaching video, to meet the requirements of students learning; action acquisition module uses Microsoft developed Kinect equipment to realize data acquisition of the spatial coordinates of the human skeleton in Tai-chi-chuan action, and through filtered noise reduction and the occlusion point data processing the skeleton data is saved. The scoring module constructs the test sequence based on the 16 angle features of eight key joint nodes and the instantaneous velocity characteristics of 20 joint nodes. By comparing with the standard sequence in real time, the original scoring rules is used to achieve the scoring function, which provides students with intuitive and reliable training recommendations, so as to improve the efficiency of learning. By increasing the number of sensors, further designing and optimizing data fusion and filtering algorithm, combining with Microsoft’s Kinect2.0 version, the system can also be applied to medical rehabilitation, physical training analysis and evaluation, virtual reality and human-computer interaction, etc.

  1. Auxiliary Sensor-Based Borehole Transient Electromagnetic System for the Nondestructive Inspection of Multipipe Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient electromagnetic (TEM techniques are widely used in the field of geophysical prospecting. In borehole detection, the nondestructive inspection (NDI of a metal pipe can be performed efficiently using the properties of eddy currents. However, with increasing concern for safety in oil and gas production, more than one string of pipe is used to protect wellbores, which complicates data interpretation. In this paper, an auxiliary sensor-based borehole TEM system for the NDI of multipipe strings is presented. On the basis of the characteristics of the borehole TEM model, we investigate the principle behind the NDI of multipipe strings using multiple time slices of induced electromotive force (EMF in a single sensor. The results show that the detection performance of NDI is strongly influenced by eddy-current diffusion in the longitudinal direction. To solve this problem, we used time slices of the induced EMF in both the main and auxiliary sensors. The performance of the proposed system was verified by applying it to an oil well with a production casing and liner. Moreover, field experiments were conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics for Compression Ignition Vehicles: An Experimental Investigation of Solar Alkaline Water Electrolysis for Improving Diesel Combustion and a Solar Charging System for Reducing Auxiliary Engine Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Garry Inocentes

    Vehicle-integrated photovoltaic electricity can be applied towards aspiration of hydrogen-oxygen-steam gas produced through alkaline electrolysis and reductions in auxiliary alternator load for reducing hydrocarbon emissions in low nitrogen oxide indirect-injection compression-ignition engines. Aspiration of 0.516 ± 0.007 liters-per-minute of gas produced through alkaline electrolysis of potassium-hydroxide 2wt.% improves full-load performance; however, part-load performance decreases due to auto-ignition of aspirated gas prior to top-dead center. Alternator load reductions offer improved part-load and full-load performance with practical limitations resulting from accessory electrical loads. In an additive approach, solar electrolysis can electrochemically convert solar photovoltaic electricity into a gas comprised of stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen gas. Aspiration of this hydrogen-oxygen gas enhances combustion properties decreasing emissions and increased combustion efficiency in light-duty diesel vehicles. The 316L stainless steel (SS) electrolyser plates are arranged with two anodes and three cathodes space with four bipolar plates delineating four stacks in parallel with five cells per stack. The electrolyser was tested using potassium hydroxide 2 wt.% and hydronium 3wt.% at measured voltage and current inputs. The flow rate output from the reservoir cell was measured in parallel with the V and I inputs producing a regression model correlating current input to flow rate. KOH 2 wt.% produced 0.005 LPM/W, while H9O44 3 wt.% produced less at 0.00126 LPM/W. In a subtractive approach, solar energy can be used to charge a larger energy storage device, as is with plug-in electric vehicles, in order to alleviate the engine of the mechanical load placed upon it by the vehicles electrical accessories through the alternator. Solar electrolysis can improve part-load emissions and full-load performance. The average solar-to-battery efficiency based on the OEM rated

  3. Methodology for testing a system for remote monitoring and control on auxiliary machines in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Vasil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory system for remote monitoring and control of an asynchronous motor controlled by a soft starter and contemporary measuring and control devices has been developed and built. This laboratory system is used for research and in teaching. A study of the principles of operation, setting up and examination of intelligent energy meters, soft starters and PLC has been made as knowledge of the relevant software products is necessary. This is of great importance because systems for remote monitoring and control of energy consumption, efficiency and proper operation of the controlled objects are very often used in different spheres of industry, in building automation, transport, electricity distribution network, etc. Their implementation in electric vehicles for remote monitoring and control on auxiliary machines is also possible and very useful. In this paper, a methodology of tests is developed and some experiments are presented. Thus, an experimental verification of the developed methodology is made.

  4. An auxiliary frequency tracking system for general purpose lock-in amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Chen, Liuhao; Huang, Anfeng; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Hanlu

    2018-04-01

    Lock-in amplifiers (LIAs) are designed to measure weak signals submerged by noise. This is achieved with a signal modulator to avoid low-frequency noise and a narrow-band filter to suppress out-of-band noise. In asynchronous measurement, even a slight frequency deviation between the modulator and the reference may lead to measurement error because the filter’s passband is not flat. Because many commercial LIAs are unable to track frequency deviations, in this paper we propose an auxiliary frequency tracking system. We analyze the measurement error caused by the frequency deviation and propose both a tracking method and an auto-tracking system. This approach requires only three basic parameters, which can be obtained from any general purpose LIA via its communications interface, to calculate the frequency deviation from the phase difference. The proposed auxiliary tracking system is designed as a peripheral connected to the LIA’s serial port, removing the need for an additional power supply. The test results verified the effectiveness of the proposed system; the modified commercial LIA (model SR-850) was able to track the frequency deviation and continuous drift. For step frequency deviations, a steady tracking error of less than 0.001% was achieved within three adjustments, and the worst tracking accuracy was still better than 0.1% for a continuous frequency drift. The tracking system can be used to expand the application scope of commercial LIAs, especially for remote measurements in which the modulation clock and the local reference are separated.

  5. Fuel handling machine and auxiliary systems for a fuel handling cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2013-10-01

    This working report is an update for as well as a supplement to an earlier fuel handling machine design (Kukkola and Roennqvist 2006). A focus in the earlier design proposal was primarily on the selection of a mechanical structure and operating principle for the fuel handling machine. This report introduces not only a fuel handling machine design but also auxiliary fuel handling cell equipment and its operation. An objective of the design work was to verify the operating principles of and space allocations for fuel handling cell equipment. The fuel handling machine is a remote controlled apparatus capable of handling intensely radiating fuel assemblies in the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The fuel handling cell is air tight space radiation-shielded with massive concrete walls. The fuel handling machine is based on a bridge crane capable of traveling in the handling cell along wall tracks. The bridge crane has its carriage provided with a carousel type turntable having mounted thereon both fixed and telescopic masts. The fixed mast has a gripper movable on linear guides for the transfer of fuel assemblies. The telescopic mast has a manipulator arm capable of maneuvering equipment present in the fuel handling cell, as well as conducting necessary maintenance and cleaning operations or rectifying possible fault conditions. The auxiliary fuel handling cell systems consist of several subsystems. The subsystems include a service manipulator, a tool carrier for manipulators, a material hatch, assisting winches, a vacuum cleaner, as well as a hose reel. With the exception of the vacuum cleaner, the devices included in the fuel handling cell's auxiliary system are only used when the actual encapsulation process is not ongoing. The malfunctions of mechanisms or actuators responsible for the motion actions of a fuel handling machine preclude in a worst case scenario the bringing of the fuel handling cell and related systems to a condition appropriate for

  6. Precision improvement of frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Fumin

    2018-03-01

    The measurement precision of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser distance measurement should be proportional to the scanning range of the tunable laser. However, the commercial external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is not an ideal tunable laser source in practical applications. Due to the unavoidable mode hopping and scanning nonlinearity of the ECDL, the measurement precision of FMCW laser distance measurements can be substantially affected. Therefore, an FMCW laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers is proposed in this paper. Moreover, to eliminate the effects of ECDL, the frequency-sampling method and mode hopping influence suppression method are employed. Compared with a fringe counting interferometer, this FMCW laser ranging system has a measuring error of ± 20 μm at the distance of 5.8 m.

  7. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Quiping; Sun, Xiaodong; Chtistensen, Richard; Blue, Thomas; Yoder, Graydon; Wilson, Dane

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  8. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  9. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Quiping [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Chtistensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yoder, Graydon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-08

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  10. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C report: Oxygen-hydrogen RCS/OMS integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, A. E.; Regnier, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    A comparison of the concepts of auxiliary propulsion systems proposed for the space shuttle vehicle is discussed. An evaluation of the potential of integration between the reaction control system and the orbit maneuvering system was conducted. Numerous methods of implementing the various levels of integration were evaluated. Preferred methods were selected and design points were developed for two fully integrated systems, one partially integrated system, and one separate system.

  11. How mixing during hot water draw-offs influence the thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    with high height/diameter ratios and small auxiliary volumes. Based on the investigations, it is recommended to design hot water tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems as mantle tanks with as high height/diameter ratio as possible and with as small an auxiliary volume as possible, of course under...

  12. Chemistry control approach of pre commissioning and power operation of primary and auxiliary system of KGS-3 and 4 and trouble shooting made

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennet Raj, N.; Sahu, B.S.; Kumar, Vineet; Valluri, J.

    2008-01-01

    KGS (Kaiga Generating Station) 3 and 4 is a 220 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) using heavy water (D 2 O) as moderator and primary heat coolant and the secondary system is light water which is used to make the steam for generating the power. The chemistry control approach made for the successful commissioning and subsequent power operation of the unit is discussed here. The chemistry control is of two parts first part covers the pre commissioning chemistry control and the second part covers the commissioning chemistry control. During commissioning all systems were preserved by proper chemistry control and regular recirculation of system to avoid stagnancy. The major pre commissioning and commissioning chemistry control are depicted below: Pre commissioning chemistry control of primary heat transport (PHT) system and auxiliaries; Pre commissioning chemistry control of moderator system; Primary heat transport system hot conditioning with light water; Commissioning chemistry control of End Shield System (ESC) and Calandria Vault Cooling (CVC) system; Heavy water addition and its chemistry control in moderator system; and Heavy water addition and its chemistry control in PHT system. During power operation dew point in annular gas monitoring system (AGMS) of KGS unit 3 was maintaining in higher side under recirculation. The increase of dew point could be due to ingress of heavy water or light water. A new device was developed to collect condensate and the chemistry of the condensate was checked. The result indicated the ingress of light water. (author)

  13. Detection of global and local parameter variations using nonlinear feedback auxiliary signals and system augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Kiran; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2010-06-01

    Recently, system augmentation has been combined with nonlinear feedback auxiliary signals to provide sensitivity enhancement in both linear and nonlinear systems. Augmented systems are higher dimensional linear systems that follow trajectories of a nonlinear system one at a time. These augmented systems are subject to a specialized augmented forcing which enforces the augmented system to exactly reproduce the trajectory of the nonlinear system when projected onto the lower dimensional (physical) system. Augmented systems have additional benefits outside of handling nonlinear systems, which makes them more desirable than regular linear systems for sensitivity enhancing control. One of the key advantages of augmented systems is the complete control over the augmented degrees of freedom, and the additional sensor-type knowledge from the augmented variables. These sensing and actuation features are very useful when only few physical actuators and sensors can be placed. Such restrictions are common in most applications, and they severely limit the usefulness of traditional linear sensitivity enhancing feedback approaches. Another benefit of the augmentation is that the control exerted on the augmented degrees of freedom does not require any physical energy, rather it is just signal processing. In this work, these benefits are refined to improve the robustness of detection using sensitivity enhancement. Also, the benefits of system augmentation are explored by using few actuators and sensors. An optimization algorithm is employed not only to maximize the sensitivity of resonant frequencies to added mass at particular locations, but also to detect uniform changes in mass and stiffness. In addition to increased sensitivity for both global and local parameter changes, a study of increasing the sensitivity of local changes, while decreasing the sensitivity of global changes is conducted. Additionally, a methodology is presented to accurately extract augmented frequencies

  14. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C and E report: Storable propellants, RCS/OMS/APU integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, D. D.; Bruns, A. E.; Perryman, D. C.; Wieland, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Auxiliary propulsion concepts for application to the space shuttle are compared. Both monopropellant and bipropellant earth storable reaction control systems were evaluated. The fundamental concepts evaluated were: (1) monopropellant and bipropellant systems installed integrally within the vehicle, (2) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and wing tip pods, and (3) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and fuselage pods. Numerous design variations within these three concepts were evaluated. The system design analysis and methods for implementing each of the concepts are reported.

  15. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen boost/vane pump for the advanced orbit transfer vehicles auxiliary propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzek, F.; Mokadam, R. G.; To, I. H.; Stanitz, J. D.; Wollschlager, J.

    1979-01-01

    A rotating, positive displacement vane pump with an integral boost stage was designed to pump saturated liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen for auxiliary propulsion system of orbit transfer vehicle. This unit is designed to ingest 10% vapor by volume, contamination free liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The final pump configuration and the predicted performance are included.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER MODEL TO EVALUATE PERFORMANCE OF THE PASSIVE AUXILIARY FEEDWATER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUN-JE CHO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, various studies have been conducted to develop safety systems for 3rd-generation (GEN-III nuclear power plants that are driven by passive systems. The Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS is one of several passive safety systems being designed for the Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+, and extensive studies are being conducted to complete its design and to verify its feasibility. Because the PAFS removes decay heat from the reactor core under transient and accident conditions, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of the PAFS under hypothetical accident conditions. The heat removal capability of the PAFS is strongly dependent on the heat transfer at the condensate tube in Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX. To evaluate the model of heat transfer coefficient for condensation, the Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS code is used to simulate the experimental results from PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop (PASCAL. The Shah model, a default model for condensation heat transfer coefficient in the MARS code, under-predicts the experimental data from the PASCAL. To improve the calculation result, The Thome model and the new version of the Shah model are implemented and compared with the experimental data.

  17. Development of the user interface for visualization of the auxiliary systems of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merced D, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) has a nuclear research reactor type swimming pool with movable core cooled and moderate with light water. The nominal maximum power of the reactor is 1 MW in steady-state operation and can be pulsed at a maximum power of 2,000 MW for approximately 10 milliseconds. This reactor is mainly used to study the effects of radiation on various materials and substances. In 2001 the new control console of the nuclear reactor was installed which was based on two digital computers, one computer controls the bar management mechanisms and the other the systems to the reactor operator. In 2004, the control computer was replaced and the software was updated. Within the modernization and/or updating of the TRIGA Mark III reactor of ININ, is intended (theme of this work) to develop the user interface for the visualization of the auxiliary systems, through a Man-Machine Interface module for the renewal process of the control console. The man-machine interface system to be developed will have communication with the programmable logic controllers that will be constantly monitored and controlled to obtain real-time variables of the reactor behavior. (Author)

  18. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-01-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  19. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Beaver Valley, Units 1 and 2 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Vehec, T.A.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Rossbach, L.W.; Sena, P.P. III

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2 were selected as two of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2

  20. A New Online Secondary Path Modeling Method with An Auxiliary Noise Power Scheduling Strategy for Narrowband Active Noise Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the online secondary path modeling (SPM method with an auxiliary noise power scheduling strategy has been crucial for active noise control (ANC systems and has also become a popular research topic. However, most scheduling strategies have been designed for broadband active noise control (BANC, and these ideas may not be directly applied to narrowband active noise control (NANC systems due to the difference in structure between BANC and NANC systems. In this paper, a new online SPM method with auxiliary noise power scheduling is proposed. Here, the controlled system is adapted using the filtered-x weighted accumulated least mean square (FXWALMS algorithm proposed by the authors. Moreover, the auxiliary noise power is scheduled based on the convergence status of the forgetting factor to accurately track the change in the NANC system. As a result, the proposed method not only achieves good modeling accuracy and fast convergence but also considerably increases noise attenuation. Extensive simulations are conducted to prove the superior performance of the proposed method in various scenarios.

  1. Treatment of auxiliary cooling tower water - influence on drainage canals and deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsch, K.

    1977-01-01

    The increasingly performed turning to re-cooled power plants, as a result of the waste heat problem, in connection with the water protection, required that the technical world has to do something about the problems of preliminary stresses of the surface waters, and the cooling water quality, necessary for the operation of power plants. The thickening of the cooling water in the circulation, connected with the wet re-cooling, as a result of evaporation, requires treatment of the water, taken for cooling purposes under several quality points of view. The water treatment procedures, practical according to the latest state of todays technology, show different influences on the returned cooling water, and on the residues occuring during the treatment (in accordance with the substances separated from the receiving canal). Therefore, depending on location the individual influence factors shall be determined and valuated during the selection of the treatment procedure. Make-up water quantity, raw water quality, quality of the returned water from the receiving canal (cleaning effect for the flow). Composition and storage ability of the residues from the water treatment. (orig.) [de

  2. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  3. Water Vapor Products from Differential-InSAR with Auxiliary Calibration Data: Accuracy and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.

    2014-12-01

    Although water vapor disturbance has been long term recognized as the major error source in differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (d-InSAR) techniques for the ground deformation monitoring and topography reconstruction, it provides opportunities to extract the atmospheric water-vapor information from satellite SAR imageries that can be further used to support studies on earth energy budget, climate, the hydrological cycle, and meteorological forecasting, etc. The water vapor contribution in interferometric phases is normally referred as the atmospheric delay dominated by water vapor rather than condensed water (e.g. cloud). D-InSAR can produce maps of the column water vapor amounts (equivalent to integrated water vapor (IWV) or Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) in other literatures) that are important parameters quantitatively describe the total amount of water vapor overlying a point on the earth surface. Similar products have been operationally produced in multi-spectrum remote sensing, e.g. Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a spatial resolution in 500 m to 1km; Whereas, the PWV products derived by d-InSAR have remarkably high spatial resolution that can capture fine scale of water vapor variations in space as small as tens of meters or even less. In recent years, some efforts have been made to derive the water vapor products from interferogram and analyze the corresponding products quality, such as studies comparing integrated water vapor derived from interferometric phases to other measurements (e.g. MERIS, MODIS, GNSS), studies on deriving absolute water vapor products from d-InSAR, and studies on integrating d-InSAR water vapor products in meteorological numerical forecast. In this study, considering these limitation factors and based on previous studies, we discuss the accuracy and statistics of the water vapor products from satellite SAR, including (1) Accuracy of the differential water vapor products; (2) Sources of

  4. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Harrison, D.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document presents a compilation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system failure information which has been screened for risk significance in terms of failure frequency and degradation of system performance. It is a risk-prioritized listing of failure events and their causes that are significant enough to warrant consideration in inspection planning at Diablo Canyon. This information is presented to provide inspectors with increased resources for inspection planning at Diablo Canyon. The risk importance of various component failure modes was identified by analysis of the results of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for many pressurized water reactors (PWRs). However, the component failure categories identified in PRAs are rather broad, because the failure data used in the PRAs is an aggregate of many individual failures having a variety of root causes. In order to help inspectors to focus on specific aspects of component operation, maintenance and design which might cause these failures, an extensive review of component failure information was performed to identify and rank the root causes of these component failures. Both Diablo Canyon and industry-wide failure information was analyzed. Failure causes were sorted on the basis of frequency of occurrence and seriousness of consequence, and categorized as common cause failures, human errors, design problems, or component failures. This information permits an inspector to concentrate on components important to the prevention of core damage. Other components which perform essential functions, but which are not included because of high reliability or redundancy, must also be addressed to ensure that degradation does not increase their failure probabilities, and hence their risk importances. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Auxiliary control system of the safety parameters for IPR-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coura, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the description for the control of three cooling water parameters (conductivity, temperature and the maximum and minimum water levels) as well as the percent power fraction of the nuclear research reactor IPR-R1. In order to keep the reactor in good operation conditions, one permanent and accurate control of the cooling water is needed. The double monitoring of a fourth parameter, part of the original design, the percent power fraction, is obtained through the control of the uncompensated ion chamber current and aims to avoid the operation of the reactor without running the cooling system. (Author) [pt

  6. A novel vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction approach using auxiliary solvent: Determination of iodide in mineral water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, Serhii; Vishnikin, Andriy B; Andruch, Vasil

    2016-01-01

    A novel vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VA-LLME) for determination of iodide was developed. The method includes the oxidation of iodide with iodate in the presence of hydrochloric acid followed by VA-LLME of the ion-pair formed between ICl2(-) and Astra Phloxine reagent (AP) and subsequent absorbance measurement at 555nm. The appropriate experimental conditions were investigated and found to be: 5mL of sample, 0.27molL(-)(1) HCl, 0.027mmolL(-1) KIO3 as the oxidation agent, 250μL of extraction mixture containing amyl acetate as the extraction solvent and carbon tetrachloride as the auxiliary solvent (1:1, v/v), 0.04mmolL(-1) AP reagent, vortex time: 20s at 3000rpm, centrifugation: 4min at 3000rpm. The calibration plot was linear in the range 16.9-169μg L(-1) of iodide, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.996, and the relative standard deviation ranged from 1.9 to 5.7%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.75 and 6.01μgL(-)(1) of iodide, respectively. The suggested procedure was applied for determination of iodide in real mineral water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity of energy and exergy performances of heating and cooling systems to auxiliary components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    Heating and cooling systems in buildings consist of three main subsystems: heating/cooling plant, distribution system, and indoor terminal unit. The choice of indoor terminal unit determines the characteristics of the distribution system and the heating and cooling plants that can be used....... Different forms of energy (electricity and heat) are used in heating and cooling systems, and therefore, a holistic approach to system design and analysis is needed. In particular, distribution systems use electricity as a direct input to pumps and fans, and to other components. Therefore, exergy concept...... should be used in design and analysis of the whole heating and cooling systems, in addition to the energy analysis. In this study, water-based (floor heating and cooling, and radiator heating) and air-based (air heating and cooling) heating and cooling systems were compared in terms of their energy use...

  8. Test facility for auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of fast breeder reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In preparation of constructing ''Monju'', a prototype fast breeder reactor, PNC has been pushing forward its research and development projects and the ACS was constructed under these projects. The auxiliary cooling system is an important engineered safety feature, and is used for safe removal of heat from the reactor at the shutdown. The ACS serves as a means of testing and assessing the auxiliary cooling system for the ''Monju'' and is designed and manufactured to have one fifth capacity of the Monju. The air heat exchanger and the ACS system was designed to withstand higher temperature range of the conventional design code (MITI-501), and finned tubes were applied for effective heat removal. Preheating system was designed to heat up the whole system over 200 0 C within 20 hours to prevent sodium from freezing. Basic performance of ACS was verified satisfactorily by a series of performance tests, such as start up test, flow rate measurement and preheating test before delivery. The experience from designing and construction of ACS and data obtained by these tests will be very instructive for designing and construction of the ''Monju''. (author)

  9. Design and setting up of a system for remote monitoring and control on auxiliary machines in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Vasil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems for remote monitoring and control of the proper operation, energy consumption, and efficiency of the controlled objects are very often used in different spheres of industry, in the electricity distribution network, etc. Various types of intelligent energy meters, PLCs and other control devices are involved in such systems. Proper operation of the auxiliary machines in electric vehicles is of great importance and implementation of a system for their remote monitoring and control is useful and ensures reliability and increased efficiency. A system has been designed and built using contemporary devices. An asynchronous motor is controlled by a soft starter and opportunities for remote monitoring (by an intelligent energy meter and control (by a PLC and Touch panel have been provided. Soft starters are widely used in industry for control on asynchronous drives when speed regulation is not a mandatory requirement. They are cheaper than inverters and frequency converters and allow for temporal reduction of the torque and current surge during start-up, as well as smooth deceleration. Therefore they can also be used in electric vehicles to control auxiliary machines (pumps, fans, air coolers, compressors, etc.. The present paper presents a methodology for their design and setting up.

  10. Comparative Study of Electric Energy Storages and Thermal Energy Auxiliaries for Improving Wind Power Integration in the Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In regards to the cogeneration system in Northern China, mainly supported by combined heat and power (CHP plants, it usually offers limited operation flexibility due to the joint production of electric and thermal power. For that large-scale wind farms included in the cogeneration system, a large amount of wind energy may have to be wasted. To solve this issue, the utilization of the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries are recommended, including pumped hydro storage (PHS, compressed air energy storage (CAES, hydrogen-based energy storage (HES, heat storage (HS, electric boilers (EB, and heat pumps (HP. This paper proposes a general evaluation method to compare the performance of these six different approaches for promoting wind power integration. In consideration of saving coal consumption, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing investment cost, the comprehensive benefit is defined as the evaluation index. Specifically, a wind-thermal conflicting expression (WTCE is put forward to simplify the formulation of the comprehensive benefit. Further, according to the cogeneration system of the West Inner Mongolia (WIM power grid, a test system is modelled to perform the comparison of the six different approaches. The results show that introducing the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries can both contribute to facilitating wind power integration, and the HP can provide the best comprehensive benefit.

  11. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  12. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-06-07

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  13. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  14. Derivation of the mass factors for decommissioning cost estimation of low contaminated auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Ignalina NPP was operating two RBMK-1500 reactors. Unit 1 was closed at the end of 2004, and Unit 2 - at the end of 2009. Now they are under decommissioning. Decommissioning has been started from the reactor's periphery, with dismantling of non-contaminated and low contaminated equipment and installations. This paper discusses a methodology for derivation of mass factors for preliminary decommissioning costing at NPP when the number of inventory items is significant, and separate consideration of each inventory item is impossible or impractical for preliminary decommissioning plan, especially when the level of radioactive contamination is very low. The methodology is based on detailed data analysis of building V1 taking into account period and inventory based activities, investment and consumables and other decommissioning approach- related properties for building average mass factors. The methodology can be used for cost estimation of preliminary decommissioning planning of NPP auxiliary buildings with mostly very low level contamination. (authors)

  15. Study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a LWR nuclear power plant through the Fault Tree and Bayesian Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lava, Deise Diana

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10 -3 . (author)

  16. Computation of Ground-State Properties in Molecular Systems: Back-Propagation with Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Mario; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-11-14

    We address the computation of ground-state properties of chemical systems and realistic materials within the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method. The phase constraint to control the Fermion phase problem requires the random walks in Slater determinant space to be open-ended with branching. This in turn makes it necessary to use back-propagation (BP) to compute averages and correlation functions of operators that do not commute with the Hamiltonian. Several BP schemes are investigated, and their optimization with respect to the phaseless constraint is considered. We propose a modified BP method for the computation of observables in electronic systems, discuss its numerical stability and computational complexity, and assess its performance by computing ground-state properties in several molecular systems, including small organic molecules.

  17. Theory of energy level and its application in water-loop heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qi Dong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel theory of saving energy and its application in water loop heat pump. • Reverse energy caused by units to water loop and its solution. • New method for determining the energy-saving range of water loop heat pump. • Capacity model of auxiliary heat source and its size for all building types. • Advice for reducing total energy consumption of water loop heat pump. - Abstract: It is a difficult problem to how to determine the reverse energy caused by units to water loop when a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) is in cooling and heating simultaneous mode, which not only has a great impact on energy-saving rate but also decides the use of auxiliary heat source in winter. This paper presents a theory of energy level to improve the research on WLHP system by using the relationship among building, circulating water and units. In this theory, the circulating water replaces building load as a new method to convert the reverse energy into energy change of circulating water and the equation of energy level also is built to determine the energy-saving range of WLHP system and report the capacity model of auxiliary heat source for all building types. An office building with different auxiliary powers is tested to analyze system operation characteristic and the effect of auxiliary heat source on unit and system and the results validate previous conclusions and suggest that an energy balance should be considered between units and auxiliary power to improve overall operation.

  18. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main...

  19. Coordinated application of electrical auxiliaries equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appiarius, J.C.; Krug, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    As the power requirements of auxiliaries continue to increase, both in total and as a percentage of generating unit capacity, coordinated application of auxiliaries system components demands more sophisticated approaches to system design. Among the techniques developed to assist system designers is a method which separates the auxiliaries system into modules for conceptual design, with analyses which consider design criteria, equipment capability, and expected operating constraints. This and other techniques, intended to optimize application of metalclad switchgear and auxiliaries transformers, can provide the designer with tools for proper selection and application of equipment which can contribute significantly to overall system performance.

  20. Auxiliary propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, S. D.

    1984-02-01

    When man is put in the loop, almost anything can happen. Caution must be exercised in permitting life cycle costs analysis to control technology investment. One of the ways of reducing cost is to stay with the old tried and true technology. However, when requirements of a permanent space station are considered (15-year life, the issues associated with health monitoring, maintenance, and repair), the conclusion is that very little, if anything, is really state of the art. Before investing in old technologies to make them comply with the requirements of a permanent space station, the question of whether or not it is worth putting the money there as opposed to advancing the state of the art should be considered. Program managers and system designers must not make the mistake of selecting old technologies in the belief that they are state of the art.

  1. Model predictive control-based dynamic coordinate strategy for hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system of a heavy commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Li, Guanghan; Yin, Guodong; Song, Dafeng; Li, Sheng; Yang, Nannan

    2018-02-01

    Equipping a hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system (HHMAS), which mainly consists of a hydraulic variable pump, a hydraulic hub-motor, a hydraulic valve block and hydraulic accumulators, with part-time all-wheel-drive functions improves the power performance and fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles. The coordinated control problem that occurs when HHMAS operates in the auxiliary drive mode is addressed in this paper; the solution to this problem is the key to the maximization of HHMAS. To achieve a reasonable distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, a nonlinear control scheme based on model predictive control (MPC) is investigated. First, a nonlinear model of HHMAS with vehicle dynamics and tire slip characteristics is built, and a controller-design-oriented model is simplified. Then, a steady-state feedforward + dynamic MPC feedback controller (FMPC) is designed to calculate the control input sequence of engine torque and hydraulic variable pump displacement. Finally, the controller is tested in the MATLAB/Simulink and AMESim co-simulation platform and the hardware-in-the-loop experiment platform, and its performance is compared with that of the existing proportional-integral-derivative controller and the feedforward controller under the same conditions. Simulation results show that the designed FMPC has the best performance, and control performance can be guaranteed in a real-time environment. Compared with the tracking control error of the feedforward controller, that of the designed FMPC is decreased by 85% and the traction efficiency performance is improved by 23% under a low-friction-surface condition. Moreover, under common road conditions for heavy commercial vehicles, the traction force can increase up to 13.4-15.6%.

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on element technology development auxiliary to New Sunshine Program. Development of power plant utilizing hot water (Development of technology of hot dry rock power generation system); 1998 nendo new sunshine keikaku joho jigyo seika hokokusho. Nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu (koon gantai hatsuden system no gijutsu kaihatsu (yoso gijutsu no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the study of the formation of an artificial hot water system, test facilities are designed in preparation for long-term circulation heat extraction. Construction work is performed for building a micro-seismometer observation system. Geochemical and geological surveys are conducted and a simulation is performed using a model improved by considering fracture information. In the mapping of fractures, a re-solution is worked out about the mechanism of acoustic emissions generated when a test was given at the Hijiori site, and the data on the P and T axes in the solution are utilized for the study of the stress field in the vicinity of the test site by means of the inverse analysis of the stress. As for measurement within the borehole, the mean porosity is calculated on the basis of data from neutron/density loggings, and studies are made to extract productive fractures, in which process PTS (pressure, temperature, spinner flowmeter) logging data and BHTV (borehole televiewer) data are compared with each other. For the construction of a fracture model, a software program is developed and added to the hot dry rock visualization system. (NEDO)

  3. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high capacity is required.

  4. Auxiliary equipment cooling circuit in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the propagation of bacterias that transform NO 2 into NO 3 in auxiliary equipment coolants using corrosion inhibitors of nitrite type in BWR type reactors. Method: In auxiliary equipments coolant systems, water quality is controlled by using purified water as supplement water and nitrite such as Na 2 NO 2 as the corrosion inhibitors. However, in the circumstance where dissolved oxygen is present, bacteria propagate to oxidize NO 2 into NO 3 . Thus, NO 2 at 200 ppm is reduced to 20 ppm. In view of the above, a surge tank supplied from water supplement line is connected in series and a deaeration device is disposed thereto. Since the presence of dissolved oxygen causes the bacteria to propagate it is desired that the dissolved oxygen density in the supplement water is less than 5 ppm. Deaeration and pressure reduction in the surge tank can remove the dissolved oxygen, prevent NO 3 increase and also prevent stress corrosion cracks in the system pipeways. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. The VieB auxiliary protein negatively regulates the VieSA signal transduction system in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie L; Ismail, Ayman M; Kenrick, Sophia A; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-03-04

    Vibrio cholerae is a facultative pathogen that lives in the aquatic environment and the human host. The ability of V. cholerae to monitor environmental changes as it transitions between these diverse environments is vital to its pathogenic lifestyle. One way V. cholerae senses changing external stimuli is through the three-component signal transduction system, VieSAB, which is encoded by the vieSAB operon. The VieSAB system plays a role in the inverse regulation of biofilm and virulence genes by controlling the concentration of the secondary messenger, cyclic-di-GMP. While the sensor kinase, VieS, and the response regulator, VieA, behave similar to typical two-component phosphorelay systems, the role of the auxiliary protein, VieB, is unclear. Here we show that VieB binds to VieS and inhibits its autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer activity thus preventing phosphorylation of VieA. Additionally, we show that phosphorylation of the highly conserved Asp residue in the receiver domain of VieB regulates the inhibitory activity of VieB. Taken together, these data point to an inhibitory role of VieB on the VieSA phosphorelay, allowing for additional control over the signal output. Insight into the function and regulatory mechanism of the VieSAB system improves our understanding of how V. cholerae controls gene expression as it transitions between the aquatic environment and human host.

  6. The analysis of the functional role of man and machine in the control of a notional auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.; Codazzi, A.; Decortis, F.

    1991-01-01

    We will describe here the simulation of a moderately complex plant, i.e. the Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) of a nuclear power plant, which has been developed for interacting with a cognitive model of operator in a simulation framework of man-machine system studies as well as with an external operator for verifying and validating the hypotheses of the theoretical model by experimental studies. In order to develop such simulation, which must be very flexible for satisfying the needs of interaction with an operator as well as with a cognitive model, a number of special conditions have been respected: the model of functional behaviour of the system has been extended to include the logic of control mechanisms, i.e. components, indicators and actuators; the control tasks for a number of sequences has been developed; the robustness of physical model has been tested in whole possible configuration of the plant; and finally, the interface of the simulation with the model for dynamic failures of components has also been granted. In this paper, these aspects of the deterministic model of the AFWS will be firstly presented in detail. Then, the interface of the plant simulation with an external user or with the cognitive model of the operator will be described focusing on the analysis of the control task. Finally, we will attempt to integrate our approach in an overall framework of taxonomy for studying human actions in complex work context

  7. GER values and environmental impact scores production of auxiliaries for the water chain; GER-waarden en milieu-impactscores productie van hulpstoffen in de waterketen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afman, M.; Bijleveld, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Mulder, M. [Mrabella Mulder Waste Water Management, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Alternative processes are available for both wastewater treatment at sewage works and drinking water preparation at water production plants. Some of these involve greater use of chemicals and auxiliary materials, and an important issue is therefore how the energy savings achieved with a particular option compare with the energy required to produce the auxiliaries in question. Against this background a study was carried out to assess the energy consumption of auxiliaries production. For the auxiliaries most frequently used the following were determined: (1) the energy impact of production, expressed as the Gross Energy Requirements (GER) of the materials in question, broken down into renewable versus non-renewable energy; and (2) the environmental impact of production, expressed as a single indicator according to the ReCiPe methodology. The report also provides 'user recommendations' for the calculated values (what they should and should not be used for) and an explanation of the methodology used. The study dovetails with the STOWA research programme 'The Energy Plant', a study exploring the potential for reducing the energy consumption of sewage works to such an extent as to make them net suppliers of energy [Dutch] Voor de behandeling van afvalwater in een rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie (RWZI) en de bereiding van drinkwater bij waterproductiebedrijven bestaan alternatieve processen. Sommige processen zorgen voor een hogere dosering van chemicaliën en hulpstoffen in het zuiveringsproces. Een belangrijk aandachtspunt hierbij is of de energiebesparing die behaald wordt met een zuiveringsvariant, opweegt tegen de energie-impact van de productie van de benodigde hulpstoffen. Om deze reden is een studie uitgevoerd gericht op het energieverbruik van de productie van de hulpstoffen. Van de meest gebruikte hulpstoffen zijn bepaald: (1) de energie-impact van de productie van de hulpstoffen, uitgedrukt in de GER-waarde (bruto primaire energie) van de

  8. Participation of Empresarios Agrupados in engineering of the Tokamak systems and auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez del Palacio, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Architect Engineering works comprise approximately the design of 32 buildings and structures, some of them very simple and others extremely complex. 32 buildings include nuclear buildings, as the Toyama, tritium, or the building of emergency diesel and buildings conventional and the building of the site services. Systems including those related to systems within a building they reach conventional, while interfaces with process systems are countless. Grouped entrepreneurs led the design of the mechanical (PBS65) systems and Electric (PBS43) actively participating in the design of systems of fire proofing of buildings and site. During the development of engineering accident of Fukushima works directly affect in the design of the systems.

  9. Modifications done in the IPR-R1 reactor and their auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maretti Junior, F.; Amorim, V.A. de; Coura, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The improvements done in the IPR-R1 reactor for adequateness of operation conditions and increase of irradiation sample capability. The cooling systems, reactor pool, system of control rods were substituted. The optimization of transfer pneumatic system was done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery Energy Storage System with Electric Vehicles’ Auxiliary for a Distribution Network with Renewable Energy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With global conventional energy depletion, as well as environmental pollution, utilizing renewable energy for power supply is the only way for human beings to survive. Currently, distributed generation incorporated into a distribution network has become the new trend, with the advantages of controllability, flexibility and tremendous potential. However, the fluctuation of distributed energy resources (DERs is still the main concern for accurate deployment. Thus, a battery energy storage system (BESS has to be involved to mitigate the bad effects of DERs’ integration. In this paper, optimal scheduling strategies for BESS operation have been proposed, to assist with consuming the renewable energy, reduce the active power loss, alleviate the voltage fluctuation and minimize the electricity cost. Besides, the electric vehicles (EVs considered as the auxiliary technique are also introduced to attenuate the DERs’ influence. Moreover, both day-ahead and real-time operation scheduling strategies were presented under the consideration with the constraints of BESS and the EVs’ operation, and the optimization was tackled by a fuzzy mathematical method and an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. Furthermore, the test system for the proposed strategies is a real distribution network with renewable energy integration. After simulation, the proposed scheduling strategies have been verified to be extremely effective for the enhancement of the distribution network characteristics.

  11. Parallel island genetic algorithm applied to a nuclear power plant auxiliary feedwater system surveillance tests policy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Lapa, Celso M.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we focus the application of an Island Genetic Algorithm (IGA), a coarse-grained parallel genetic algorithm (PGA) model, to a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) surveillance tests policy optimization. Here, the main objective is to outline, by means of comparisons, the advantages of the IGA over the simple (non-parallel) genetic algorithm (GA), which has been successfully applied in the solution of such kind of problem. The goal of the optimization is to maximize the system's average availability for a given period of time, considering realistic features such as: i) aging effects on standby components during the tests; ii) revealing failures in the tests implies on corrective maintenance, increasing outage times; iii) components have distinct test parameters (outage time, aging factors, etc.) and iv) tests are not necessarily periodic. In our experiments, which were made in a cluster comprised by 8 1-GHz personal computers, we could clearly observe gains not only in the computational time, which reduced linearly with the number of computers, but in the optimization outcome

  12. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond...... to adverbs in languages like English, while the rest are tense-aspect markers; and (iv) it is possible to combine several auxiliary verbs in a single clause. For some of the auxiliary verbs there are extant full verbs from which they have evolved. To some extent, therefore, it is possible to observe what...

  13. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  14. Planned flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. Part 2: Integration with host spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of the flight test and a description on how those objectives are in support of an overall program goal of attaining user application were described. The approach to accomplishment was presented as it applies to integrating the propulsion system with the host spacecraft. A number of known interface design considerations which affect the propulsion system and the spacecraft were discussed. Analogies were drawn comparing the relationship of the organizations involved with this flight test with those anticipated for future operational missions. The paper also expanded upon objectives, system description, mission operations, and measurement of plume effects.

  15. BIOFEAT: Biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Study of the feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, M.; Bollito, G.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, S.

    An integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a 10 kW e integrated biodiesel fuel processor has been designed and is being developed. Auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and thermal cracking (TC) were considered for converting the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells. The fuel processor includes also a gas clean-up system that will reduce the carbon monoxide in the primary processor exit gas to below 10 ppm via a new heat-integrated CO clean-up unit, based on the assembly of catalytic heat exchange plates, so as to meet the operational requirements of a PEMFC stack. This article is devoted to the study and selection of the proper feed strategy for the primary fuel processor. Different pre-treatment and feed alternatives (e.g. based on nozzles or simple coils) were devised and tested for the ATR processors, which turned out to be the preferred primary processing route. A nozzle-based strategy was finally selected along with special recommendations about the constituent materials and the operating procedures to be adopted to avoid coking and nozzle corrosion as well as to allow a wide turn down ratio.

  16. Ultrasonographic scoring system: an auxiliary to differential diagnosis of gastric pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacioğlu, S; Dolar, E; Acar, Y; Dalay, R; Temuçin, G

    1993-02-01

    In a prospective clinical study, 64 patients with gastric pathologies (27 malignant and 37 benign) were examined ultrasonographically. Gastric wall layer changes, gastric wall thickness, lesion length, and protrusion into the lumen were evaluated. A scoring system was defined based on the distribution of these parameters and the score of each patient was calculated retrospectively. Six of the malignant cases had scores in the benign range and 3 of the benign cases had scores in the malignant range. Sensitivity of this scoring system in terms of detecting malignancy was 78% and specificity 92%. The positive predictive value was 88%, the negative predictive value was 85%, and overall diagnostic accuracy was 86%. This scoring system was considered to be a useful aid in the differential diagnosis of gastric pathologies.

  17. Definition of an auxiliary processor dedicated to real-time operating system kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halang, Wolfgang A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of process control data processing, it is necessary to enhance the productivity of real time high level languages and to automate the task administration, because presently 60 percent or more of the applications are still programmed in assembly languages. This may be achieved by migrating apt functions for the support of process control oriented languages into the hardware, i.e., by new architectures. Whereas numerous high level languages have already been defined or realized, there are no investigations yet on hardware assisted implementation of real time features. The requirements to be fulfilled by languages and operating systems in hard real time environment are summarized. A comparison of the most prominent languages, viz. Ada, HAL/S, LTR, Pearl, as well as the real time extensions of FORTRAN and PL/1, reveals how existing languages meet these demands and which features still need to be incorporated to enable the development of reliable software with predictable program behavior, thus making it possible to carry out a technical safety approval. Accordingly, Pearl proved to be the closest match to the mentioned requirements.

  18. Evaluation of the performance of the systems cooling auxiliary of the Almaraz NPP turbine building; Evaluacion del rendimiento de los sistemas de refrigeracion auxiliar del edificio de turbinas de CNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar Carmona, G.

    2011-07-01

    After the successive performance improvements, to evacuate the thermal loads, and maintain acceptable temperatures throughout the year, added an auxiliary cooling system of the building of turbine, TCA system, composed of 5 shot forced by unit cooling towers.

  19. A moving image system for cardiovascular nuclear medicine. A dedicated auxiliary device for the total capacity imaging system for multiple plane dynamic colour display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, M.; Toyama, H.; Murata, H.; Takaoka, S.

    1981-01-01

    The recent device of the authors, the dedicated multiplane dynamic colour image display system for nuclear medicine, is discussed. This new device is a hardware-based auxiliary moving image system (AMIS) attached to the total capacity image processing system of the authors' department. The major purpose of this study is to develop the dedicated device so that cardiovascular nuclear medicine and other dynamic studies will include the ability to assess the real time delicate processing of the colour selection, edge detection, phased analysis, etc. The auxiliary system consists of the interface for image transferring, four IC refresh memories of 64x64 matrix with 10 bit count depth, a digital 20-in colour TV monitor, a control keyboard and a control panel with potentiometers. This system has five major functions for colour display: (1) A microcomputer board can select any one of 40 different colour tables preset in the colour transformation RAM. This key also provides edge detection at a certain level of the count by leaving the optional colour and setting the rest of the levels at 0 (black); (2) The arithmetic processing circuit performs the operation of the fundamental rules, permitting arithmetic processes of the two images; (3) The colour level control circuit is operated independently by four potentiometers for four refresh image memories, so that the gain and offset of the colour level can be manually and visually controlled to the satisfaction of the operator; (4) The simultaneous CRT display of the maximum four images with or without cinematic motion is possible; (5) The real time movie interval is also adjustable by hardware, and certain frames can be freezed with overlapping of the dynamic frames. Since this system of AMIS is linked with the whole capacity image processing system of the CPU size of 128kW, etc., clinical applications are not limited to cardiovascular nuclear medicine. (author)

  20. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  1. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  2. Commonality Study of the Pressure-Volume-Temperature Based Propellant Gaging Software Modules for the Auxiliary Power Unit, Reaction Control System, and Orbital Maneuvering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhon, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer storage requirements can be reduced if areas of commonality exist in two or more programs placed in the same computer and identical code can be used by more than one program. The pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) relationship for the propellant tank pressurant agent is utilized as the basis for either a primary of a backup propellant gaging program for the auxiliary power unit (APU), the reaction control system (RCS), and the orbital maneuvering system (OMS). These three propellant gaging programs were investigated. It was revealed that a very limited degree of software commonality exits among them. An examination of this common software indicated that only the computation of the helium compressibility factor in an external function subprogram accessible to both the RCS and OMS propellant gaging programs appears to offer a savings in computer storage requirements.

  3. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, Val; Aspinwall, David B.

    1977-12-01

    The information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's (SEMCO) solar hot water system is presented. This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures. This system, being developed by SEMCO, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  4. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  5. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  6. Integral effect test and code analysis on the cooling performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) during an FLB (feedwater line break) accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study focuses on the experimental validation of the operational performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system). • A transient simulation of the FLB (feedwater line break) in the integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS, was performed to investigate thermal hydraulic behavior during the PAFS actuation. • The test result confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with the FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. • The experimental result was utilized to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. - Abstract: APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), which is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant developed in Korea, adopts PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) as an advanced safety feature. The PAFS can completely replace an active auxiliary feedwater system by cooling down the secondary side of steam generators with a natural convection mechanism. This study focuses on experimental and analytical investigation for cooling and operational performance of the PAFS during an FLB (feedwater line break) transient with an integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS. To realistically simulate the FLB accident of the APR+, the three-level scaling methodology was taken into account to design the test facility and determine the test condition. From the test result, the PAFS was actuated to successfully cool down the decay heat of the reactor core by the condensation heat transfer at the PCHX (passive condensation heat exchanger), and thus it could be confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with a FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. This integral effect test data were used to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. The code analysis result proved that it could reasonably predict the FLB transient including the actuation of the PAFS and the natural convection

  7. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  8. Methodology for carrying out energy diagnosis in auxiliaries systems in thermal electrical central stations; Metodologia para realizar un diagnostico energetico en sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebradt Garcia, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rojas Hidalgo, Ismael; Huante Perez, Liborio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    One of the potential areas for energy saving in Central Electric Power Plants are the auxiliaries system, so as to based in a preliminary energy diagnosis and considering that energy saving measures would be taken, going from the instrumentation, operational changes in equipment, as well as in using velocity variators in motors, it turns out to be that the energy consumption of auxiliaries at 75% load in a 150 MW thermal power plant varies from 3% to 4% and for the case of a 350 MW power plant the energy consumption of the auxiliaries represents 2 to 3.5%. Nowadays this consumption are above 6%. Considering that the country has 40 units with capacities varying from 150 to 350 MW, the economical and the fuel saving would be substantial. This paper will present a summary of the methodology to be used to carry out this type of projects. [Espanol] Una de las areas potenciales de ahorro de energia en centrales termoelectricas son los sistemas auxiliares, de tal manera que basados en un diagnostico energetico preliminar y considerando que se aplicarian las medidas de ahorro de energia que van desde la instrumentacion, cambios operativos en equipos, asi como el uso de variadores de velocidad en motores, se tienen que los consumos de auxiliares para un 75% de carga en una central termoelectrica de 150 MW varian desde un 3% hasta un 4% y para el caso de una central termoelectrica de 350 MW, el consumo de auxiliares representa del 2 al 3.5%. Hoy en dia dichos consumos estan por encima del 6%. Si consideramos que el pais cuenta con 40 unidades que varian desde 150 MW hasta 350 MW, entonces los ahorros economicos y de combustible serian impactantes. La presente ponencia mostrara un resumen de la metodologia a emplear para la realizacion de este tipo de proyectos.

  9. Multicomponent analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins and auxiliary substances in multivitamin preparations by qNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiff, Julia; Monakhova, Yulia B; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2015-04-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was tested to control 12 vitamins and accompanying substances in multivitamin preparations. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) varied in the 9.0-77.0 mg/kg and in the 34.5-93.5 mg/kg range, respectively. The coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged between 0.9% and 12%. The (1)H NMR spectra showed linearity for the 140-260 mg sample weight (R(2) > 0.918). The NMR spectra of multivitamin preparations showed the presence of different degradation products of ascorbic acid. The NMR method was applied to 13 different multivitamin preparations including tablets, capsules, and effervescent tablets with average recovery rates between 85% and 132%. A number of accompanying substances (citric acid, mannitol, saccharin, cyclamate, sum of steviol glycosides, and butylhydroxytoluene) were additionally identified and quantified. NMR was found to be suitable for the simultaneous qualitative measurement of water- and fat-soluble vitamins and accompanying substances and shows some promise for quantitative determination of at least 5 vitamins (B1, B3, B5, B6, and E) in multivitamin preparations.

  10. Bacillus Probiotic Enzymes: External Auxiliary Apparatus to Avoid Digestive Deficiencies, Water Pollution, Diseases, and Economic Problems in Marine Cultivated Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos Soto, Jorge

    Exploitation of marine fishes is the main source of several life-supporting feed compounds such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that maintain the production of most trading marine organisms by aquaculture. However, at this rate the marine inventory will go to the end soon, since fishery resources are finite. In this sense, the availability of the principal ingredients obtained from marine fishes is going to decrease considerably, increasing the diet prices and affecting the economy of this activity. Therefore, aquaculture industry needs to find nonexpensive land unconventional resources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and use bacterial probiotics to improve digestion-assimilation of these unfamiliar compounds. Bacillus subtilis is a cosmopolitan probiotic bacterium with a great enzymatic profile that could improve nutrient digestion-assimilation, induce healthy growth, and avoid water pollution, decreasing economic problems and increasing yields in the aquaculture industry. In this chapter, we present how Bacillus enzymes can help marine animals to assimilate nutrients from unconventional and economic plant resources. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2017-07-15

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  12. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K.

    2017-01-01

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  13. Electric power plant technology. Generators, transformers, auxiliary installations, protective systems. Lecture notes. 5. rev. ed.; Elektrische Kraftwerkstechnik. Generatoren, Transformatoren, Eigenbedarfsanlagen, Schutzeinrichtungen. Vorlesungsskript

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ulrich

    2009-07-01

    The lecture series on electric power plant engineering was initiated in 1969 by Prof. Helmut Schaefer, founder of the then department of power economy and power plant engineering. The lecture series was continuously updated in its contents and didactic approach, e.g. by integrating innovative power generation concepts like micro cogeneration plants and fuel cell systems. The focus is on the fundamentals and function of generators, main transformers, auxiliary installations and protective systems in power plant. Apart from the electrotechnical aspects, also aspects of mechanical engineering are gone into. Also discussed are energy conversion concepts fo renewable power generation plants like wind turbines and PV systems. This is the 5th, completely revised edition. It addresses primarily attendants of the lectures but may also serve as a textbook and reference manual for interested experts.

  14. Auxiliary Density Matrix Methods for Hartree-Fock Exchange Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, Manuel; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2010-08-10

    The calculation of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) is computationally demanding for large systems described with high-quality basis sets. In this work, we show that excellent performance and good accuracy can nevertheless be obtained if an auxiliary density matrix is employed for the HFX calculation. Several schemes to derive an auxiliary density matrix from a high-quality density matrix are discussed. Key to the accuracy of the auxiliary density matrix methods (ADMM) is the use of a correction based on standard generalized gradient approximations for HFX. ADMM integrates seamlessly in existing HFX codes and, in particular, can be employed in linear scaling implementations. Demonstrating the performance of the method, the effect of HFX on the structure of liquid water is investigated in detail using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations (300 ps) of a system of 64 molecules. Representative for large systems are calculations on a solvated protein (Rubredoxin), for which ADMM outperforms the corresponding standard HFX implementation by approximately a factor 20.

  15. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  16. Energy saving in the auxiliaries consumption for circulation water pumps optimizing the thermal regime; Ahorro en el consumo de auxiliares por bombas de agua de circulacion optimando el regimen termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Martinez, Roni [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A methodology is proposed that should be followed in any thermal electric power plant to determine the load value at which a unit requires a second circulation water pump without affecting the thermal regime and avoiding an excessive auxiliaries consumption in partial loads. In applying this method the power plant would have an energy saving equivalent to the auxiliaries consumption during an hour, when the unit as operating at full load. [Espanol] Se propone una metodologia que debe seguirse en cualquier central termoelectrica para determinar el valor de la carga en la cual una unidad requiere de la segunda bomba de agua de circulacion sin afectar el regimen termico y evitadose un excesivo consumo de auxiliares en cargas parciales. Al aplicar este metodo la central tendria un ahorro de energia equivalente al consumo de auxiliares durante una hora cuando la unidad esta generando su maxima carga.

  17. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Matthew D [Peoria, IL; Slone, Larry M [Washington, IL; Welter, James Milton [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  18. Effect of Modifications to Induction System on Altitude Performance of V-1710-93 Engine III : Use of Parabolic Rotating Guide Vanes and NACA Designed Auxiliary-stage Inlet Elbow and Interstage Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standahar, Ray M; Mccarty, James S

    1947-01-01

    Bench runs of a modified V-1710-93 engine equipped with a two-stage supercharger, interstage carburetor, aftercooler assembly, and backfire screens have been made at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet to determine the effect of several induction-system modifications on the engine and supercharger performance. The standard guide vanes on the auxiliary- and engine-stage superchargers were replaced by rotating guide vanes with a parabolic blade profile. The auxiliary-stage inlet elbow and interstage duct were replaced with new units of NACA design. These modifications were made one at a time and data were obtained after each change to determine the effect of each modification. All runs were made at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet and all changes in engine power were made by varying the speed of the auxiliary-stage supercharger.

  19. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  20. Water system virus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  1. Development of the user interface for visualization of the auxiliary systems of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor; Desarrollo de la interface de usuario para la visualizacion de los sistemas auxiliares del reactor nuclear Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merced D, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) has a nuclear research reactor type swimming pool with movable core cooled and moderate with light water. The nominal maximum power of the reactor is 1 MW in steady-state operation and can be pulsed at a maximum power of 2,000 MW for approximately 10 milliseconds. This reactor is mainly used to study the effects of radiation on various materials and substances. In 2001 the new control console of the nuclear reactor was installed which was based on two digital computers, one computer controls the bar management mechanisms and the other the systems to the reactor operator. In 2004, the control computer was replaced and the software was updated. Within the modernization and/or updating of the TRIGA Mark III reactor of ININ, is intended (theme of this work) to develop the user interface for the visualization of the auxiliary systems, through a Man-Machine Interface module for the renewal process of the control console. The man-machine interface system to be developed will have communication with the programmable logic controllers that will be constantly monitored and controlled to obtain real-time variables of the reactor behavior. (Author)

  2. Smart solar domestic hot water systems. Development and test; Intelligente solvarmeanlaeg. Udvikling og afproevning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, E.; Knudsen, S.; Furbo, S.; Vejen, N.K.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to develop and test smart solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW systems) where the energy supply from the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a flexible way fitted to the hot water consumption in such a way, that the SDHW systems are suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. In a smart SDHW system the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a smart way. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the water in the hot water tank from the top and only the hot water volume needed by the consumers is heated. Further the water is heated immediately before tapping. The control system includes a number of temperature sensors which cover the temperatures in the auxiliary heated volume. Based on these temperatures the energy content in the hot water tank is calculated. Only water heated to a temperature above 50 deg. C contributes to the total energy content in the hot water tank. Furhter the control system includes a timer that only allows the auxiliary energy supply system to be active in certain time periods and only if the energy content in the hot water tank is lower than wanted. In this way the water in the tank is heated immediately before the expected time of tapping and only the hot water volume needed is heated. The report is divided into five main sections. The sections deals with: Developing and testing storage tanks, laboratory test of SDHW systems based on some of the developed storage tanks, validation of simulation programs for smart solar heating systems, optimisation of system design and control strategy and measurements on two smart SDHW systems installed in single family houses. In all the developed hot water tanks, attempt is made to heat the water in the tank from the top of the tank and not as in traditional tanks where the water is heated from the lowest level of the auxiliary energy supply system, normally a helix or a electrical heating element placed in the

  3. A solar water system acting as the building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Li [School of Architecture, Tianjin Univ., TJ (China); Wang Yiping; Ren Jianbo [School of Chemical Engineering and Tech., Tianjin Univ., TJ (China); Kong Jianguo [Tianjin Cuipinghu Science Park, TJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new type of solar water system in the form of building material is designed, and applied to an office building in Meijiang eco-district located in Tianjin City, China. In this project, 60m{sup 2} wall type and 30m{sup 2} solar roof collectors are used to supply hot water directly and also to be an evaporator for an auxiliary heat pump with a power of 4.5kW. The energy rejected by the condenser contributes to load requirements through a refrigerant (R22)-to-water heat exchanger immersed in a 3m{sup 3} hot water storage tank. Experimental results show that, the daily-averaged collector efficiency ranged from 40 to 50% and form 60% to 70% in winter and summer, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor - dismantling the auxiliary systems and clearance and reuse of the buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.; Steger, F.; Steininger, R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents work performed in the last phase of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf. Dismantling the pump room installations and the ventilation system, as well as the clearance of the buildings is described. Some conclusions and summary data regarding the time table, material management, and the cost of the entire project are also presented. (author)

  5. Undulative induction electron accelerator for the waste and natural water purification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kulish, Victor V; Gubanov, I V

    2001-01-01

    The project analysis of Undulative Induction Accelerator (EH - accelerator) for the waste and natural water purification systems is accomplished. It is shown that the use of the four-channel design of induction block and the standard set of auxiliary equipment (developed earlier for the Linear Induction Accelerators - LINACs) allow to construct commercially promising purification systems. A quality analysis of the accelerator is done and the optimal parameters are chosen taking into account the specific sphere of its usage.

  6. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Dismantling the auxiliary systems and clearance and reuse of the buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents work performed in the last phase of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf. Dismantling the pump room installations and the ventilation system, as well as the clearance of the buildings is described. Some conclusions and summary data regarding the timetable, material management, and the cost of the entire project are also presented.

  7. Cox17 Protein Is an Auxiliary Factor Involved in the Control of the Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organizing System*

    OpenAIRE

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a recently discovered protein complex that is crucial for establishing and maintaining the proper inner membrane architecture and contacts with the outer membrane of mitochondria. The ways in which the MICOS complex is assembled and its integrity is regulated remain elusive. Here, we report a direct link between Cox17, a protein involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase, and the MICOS complex. Cox17 interacts with ...

  8. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  9. Infrared Camera Characterization of Bi-Propellant Reaction Control Engines during Auxiliary Propulsion Systems Tests at NASA's White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Elizabeth; Sharp, David; Sheller, Richard; Styron, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a FUR Systems A40M infrared (IR) digital camera for thermal monitoring of a Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol bi-propellant Reaction Control Engine (RCE) during Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) testing at the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Typically, NASA has relied mostly on the use of ThermoCouples (TC) for this type of thermal monitoring due to the variability of constraints required to accurately map rapidly changing temperatures from ambient to glowing hot chamber material. Obtaining accurate real-time temperatures in the JR spectrum is made even more elusive by the changing emissivity of the chamber material as it begins to glow. The parameters evaluated prior to APS testing included: (1) remote operation of the A40M camera using fiber optic Firewire signal sender and receiver units; (2) operation of the camera inside a Pelco explosion proof enclosure with a germanium window; (3) remote analog signal display for real-time monitoring; (4) remote digital data acquisition of the A40M's sensor information using FUR's ThermaCAM Researcher Pro 2.8 software; and (5) overall reliability of the system. An initial characterization report was prepared after the A40M characterization tests at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to document controlled heat source comparisons to calibrated TCs. Summary IR digital data recorded from WSTF's APS testing is included within this document along with findings, lessons learned, and recommendations for further usage as a monitoring tool for the development of rocket engines.

  10. Replacement of electrical protection of generation (main generator, main transformer and auxiliary transformers) and new associated monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archilla, J.

    2013-01-01

    The replacement of the electrical protection of generation is a technological quantum leap, since moving from an analog system (known by) (all, intuitive and visual) to a digital (integrates the hardware on a single computer, much more powerful and programmable). The keys to overcoming the challenge are know to manage the technological leap, the operational limitations of plant (keep operating the)preferred sources of energy) and make a good design (including a review independent of the configuration of the relays, taking into account the experience (operational available).

  11. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  12. Cox17 Protein Is an Auxiliary Factor Involved in the Control of the Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organizing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2015-06-12

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a recently discovered protein complex that is crucial for establishing and maintaining the proper inner membrane architecture and contacts with the outer membrane of mitochondria. The ways in which the MICOS complex is assembled and its integrity is regulated remain elusive. Here, we report a direct link between Cox17, a protein involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase, and the MICOS complex. Cox17 interacts with Mic60, thereby modulating MICOS complex integrity. This interaction does not involve Sco1, a partner of Cox17 in transferring copper ions to cytochrome c oxidase. However, the Cox17-MICOS interaction is regulated by copper ions. We propose that Cox17 is a newly identified factor involved in maintaining the architecture of the MICOS complex. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Cox17 Protein Is an Auxiliary Factor Involved in the Control of the Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organizing System*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a recently discovered protein complex that is crucial for establishing and maintaining the proper inner membrane architecture and contacts with the outer membrane of mitochondria. The ways in which the MICOS complex is assembled and its integrity is regulated remain elusive. Here, we report a direct link between Cox17, a protein involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase, and the MICOS complex. Cox17 interacts with Mic60, thereby modulating MICOS complex integrity. This interaction does not involve Sco1, a partner of Cox17 in transferring copper ions to cytochrome c oxidase. However, the Cox17-MICOS interaction is regulated by copper ions. We propose that Cox17 is a newly identified factor involved in maintaining the architecture of the MICOS complex. PMID:25918166

  14. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  15. Active mass damper system for high-rise buildings using neural oscillator and position controller: sinusoidally varying desired displacement of auxiliary mass intended for reduction of maximum control force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, D.; Hongu, J.; Sasaki, T.; Shima, S.; Nakamura, M.; Moriwaki, I.

    2017-04-01

    Reducing vibration of high-rise structures under earthquake load has been the subject of considerable efforts in Japan. Relevant researches about vibration energy dissipation devices for buildings have been undertaken. An active mass damper is one of the well-known vibration control devices. Despite the accumulation of much knowledge of control design methods for the system, application of the devices to high-rise structures under earthquake load is challenging, because the active mass dampers have one serious disadvantage about stroke limitation of the auxiliary mass. In this study, we have proposed a new control system, which had a neural oscillator and position controller, to solve this problem. The objective of this paper is to improve the vibration control performance of the proposed active mass damper system. The previous method generated rectangular waves as the desired displacement, whose amplitude is varied in accordance with the vibration responses of a structure excited by earthquakes. Furthermore, the gains of the position controller, which derives the auxiliary mass to the desired displacement, have been designed in consideration of response reduction of the structure. However, the generated rectangular desired displacement was not adequate to reduce the maximum acceleration responses of the structure, because the driving force for the auxiliary mass generates excessive amounts of acceleration as the direction of the desired displacement is switched. Thus, this paper proposes a new method, which generates sinusoidal varying desired displacement for the auxiliary mass of the active mass damper system to reduce the acceleration response of structures. The results of numerical simulation showed that the proposed method in this work was effective for improving the control performance.

  16. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Tafoya, J. I. (Jose I.); Guidry, D. R. (Dennis Ray)

    2004-01-01

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is

  17. Performance of a directly-coupled PV water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokeddem, Abdelmalek; Midoun, Abdelhamid; Kadri, D.; Hiadsi, Said; Raja, Iftikhar A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Directly coupled PV water pumping system installed and performance studied. → Configured for two static heads, operate without electronic control and auxiliary power. → The system attains steady state soon after any abrupt change. → Cost effective and useful for low head communicating wells system. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study carried out to investigate the performance of a simple, directly coupled dc photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping system. The system comprises of a 1.5 kWp PV array, dc motor and a centrifugal pump. The experiment was conducted over a period of 4 months and the system performance was monitored under different climatic conditions and varying solar irradiance with two static head configurations. Although the motor-pump efficiency did not exceed 30%, which is typical for directly-coupled photovoltaic pumping systems, such a system is clearly suitable for low head irrigation in the remote areas, not connected to the national grid and where access to water comes as first priority issue than access to technology. The system operates without battery and complex electronic control, therefore not only the initial cost is low but also maintenance, repairing and replacement cost can be saved. The study showed that directly coupled system attains steady state soon after any abrupt change.

  18. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  19. Automated Water-Purification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  20. Creating Sustainable Urban Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Managing urban water infrastructure is conventionally the professional domain of engineers. As urban water systems are placed under increasing pressure due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and climate change, the provision of water and sanitation services to cities has become a wicked problem. As such it cannot be adequately addressed by engineers alone, and requires greater attention from urban designers and planners. The move to sustainable urban water systems will involve greater a...

  1. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    The progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. Included is a comparison of the proposed Solaron-Heat Pump and Solaron-Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, Installation Drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities from July 1, 1977 through November 9, 1977.

  2. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  3. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Let him always come' e. á vá hátl-é vá yá étlélà. OPT 3PL quickly-OPT 3PL go sleep. 'Let them quickly go to bed'. 3.4 Negative markers. Negation is marked on AA verbs. The auxiliary verb hatla 'quickly' is negated in three tenses.

  4. Optimization of Solar Water Heating System under Time and Spatial Partition Heating in Rural Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of time and spatial partition heating to a solar water heating system. The heating effect and system performance were analyzed under the continuous and whole space heating and time and spatial partition heating using TRNSYS. The results were validated by comparing with the test results of the demonstration building. Compared to continuous and whole space heating, the use of time and spatial partition heating increases the solar fraction by 16.5%, reduces the auxiliary heating by 7390 MJ, and reduces the annual operation cost by 2010 RMB. Under time and spatial partition heating, optimization analyses were conducted for the two system capacity parameters of the solar collector area and tank volume and the one operation parameter of auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature. The results showed that a reasonable choice of the solar collector area can reduce the dynamic annual cost, the increased tank volume is advantageous to heat storage, and the auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature have greater influence on the indoor heating effect. The advanced opening of solar water heating system and the normal opening of passive air vents are recommended. Based on the comparison of the two modes, the time and spatial partition heating technology is a better choice for rural dwellings.

  5. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of hydogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N to 440 mN thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  6. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant; Um modelo de manutencao centrada em confiabilidade aplicada ao sistema de agua de alimentacaco auxiliar de uma usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    1998-01-15

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  7. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree angle, rising away from the hoist. (c) The Auxiliary emblem consists of a disk with the shield of the Coat of...

  8. Modeling a hierarchical structure of factors influencing exploitation policy for water distribution systems using ISM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Wyczółkowski, Ryszard; Gładysiak, Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Water distribution systems are one of the basic elements of contemporary technical infrastructure of urban and rural areas. It is a complex engineering system composed of transmission networks and auxiliary equipment (e.g. controllers, checkouts etc.), scattered territorially over a large area. From the water distribution system operation point of view, its basic features are: functional variability, resulting from the need to adjust the system to temporary fluctuations in demand for water and territorial dispersion. The main research questions are: What external factors should be taken into account when developing an effective water distribution policy? Does the size and nature of the water distribution system significantly affect the exploitation policy implemented? These questions have shaped the objectives of research and the method of research implementation.

  9. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  10. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary to...

  11. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...

  12. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...--Auxiliary emblem: We propose to revise this section. Provisions of the existing Sec. 5.41 would be... existing Sec. 5.47(c) describing the Auxiliary emblem and explain the use of the emblem as identification...), and 5.36(c). Added language to describe the Auxiliary emblem and discuss when it can be worn and used...

  13. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  14. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  15. Pressurized water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Design and mode of operation of the main PWR components are described: reactor core, pressure vessel and internals, cooling systems with pumps and steam generators, ancillary systems, and waste processing. (TK) [de

  16. History of Sandia National Laboratories` auxiliary closure mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weydert, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ponder, G.M. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    An essential component of a horizontal, underground nuclear test setup at the Nevada Test Site is the auxiliary closure system. The massive gates that slam shut immediately after a device has been detonated allow the prompt radiation to pass, but block debris and hot gases from continuing down the tunnel. Thus, the gates protect experiments located in the horizontal line-of-sight steel pipe. Sandia National Laboratories has been the major designer and developer of these closure systems. This report records the history of SNL`s participation in and contributions to the technology of auxiliary closure systems used in horizontal tunnel tests in the underground test program.

  17. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  18. Waste water heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    Markovi?, G.; Vranayov?, Z.; K?posztasov?, D.

    2016-01-01

    After heating and cooling, water heating is typically the second largest user of energy in the home. There are a lot of purposes and uses of hot water in buildings - showers, tubs, sinks, dishwashers and clothes washers etc. In most cases, these hot waste waters are discarded direct to sewer system. When we take into the account all of these purposes in every households, the wastewater retains a considerable portion of its initial energy ? energy that could be recovered and use...

  19. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  20. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  1. Seismic Design of ITER Component Cooling Water System-1 Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya P.; Jadhav, Mahesh; Sharma, Lalit K.; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Patel, Nirav; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gohil, Guman; Patel, Hiren; Dangi, Jinendra; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, A. G. A.

    2017-04-01

    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3, This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event.

  2. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Drinking Water Treatment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about drinking water treatment systems. This fact sheet discusses different types of water treatment systems available to homeowners. It includes a table with water contaminants or problems, possible causes of the problem, and solutions.

  3. Hovercraft auxiliary power units (APUs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.J.

    1983-08-01

    Auxiliary power units (APU) manufactured by British firms for use in hovercraft are characterized. Both diesel and gas-turbine APUs are found to be well suited to the demands of this application. The design features, dimensions, performance data, and installation requirements are discussed for the SS 90, SS 923, DA-1, BA-1, HM 5, and Gevaudan 9 APUs, as well as the TRS 18 gas-turbine smoke generator. The progress made in improving the fuel efficiency of gas turbines and reducing the weight of diesel engines is considered significant.

  4. Study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a LWR nuclear power plant through the Fault Tree and Bayesian Network; Estudo de confiabilidade do Sistema Auxiliar de Agua de Alimentacao de uma central nuclear a agua leve por arvore de falhas e rede Bayesiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lava, Deise Diana

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10{sup -3}. (author)

  5. Auxiliary bearing design considerations for gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    The need to avoid contamination of the primary system, along with other perceived advantages, has led to the selection of electromagnetic bearings (EMBs) in most ongoing commercial-scale gas cooled reactor (GCR) designs. However, one implication of magnetic bearings is the requirement to provide backup support to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The demands on these auxiliary or 'catcher' bearings have been substantially escalated by the recent development of direct Brayton cycle GCR concepts. Conversely, there has been only limited directed research in the area of auxiliary bearings, particularly for vertically oriented turbomachines. This paper explores the current state-of-the-art for auxiliary bearings and the implications for current GCR designs. (author)

  6. Drinking-water monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A new measuring system was developed by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for monitoring the quality of drinking-water. It is based on the experience made with the installation of UWEDAT (registered trademark) environmental monitoring networks in several Austrian provinces and regions. The standard version of the drinking-water monitoring system comprises sensors for measuring chemical parameters in water, radioactivity in water and air, and meteorological values of the environment. Further measuring gauges, e.g. for air pollutants, can be connected at any time, according to customers' requirements. For integration into regional and supraregional networks, station computers take over the following tasks: Collection of data and status signals transmitted by the subsystem, object protection, intermediate storage and communication of data to the host or several subcentres via Datex-P postal service, permanent lines or radiotransmission

  7. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  8. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations. 74.6 Section 74.6 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to Al...

  9. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  10. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun J Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Xitsonga, certain Aspectual Auxiliary verbs (AA verbs appear with double subject agreement. While these AA verbs have been reported in the description of Xitsonga (Baumbach 1987: 250-252, a systematic morphosyntactic study of these constructions has not been undertaken. This study aims to fill this gap. An AA verb is marked with tense, aspect, mood, negation and relative clause markers and may occur in wh-questions. The lexical verb following the AA verb may be the target of verbal extensions (applicative and reciprocal, reflexive, causative and passive markers. [Please click on "Supplementary files" in the ARTICLE TOOLS sidebar on the right for the accompanying sound files.

  11. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  13. Lecture 1. on auxiliary heating in 'Breakeven Tokamaks'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, John

    1978-01-01

    We may identify two main areas where auxiliary heating may be used in breakeven Tokamak reactors. (1) In the start up phase of a Tokamak reactor, having a thermal energy distribution, auxiliary heating is required to bridge the gap between the ohmic state where the temperature will probably be approximately 1 keV, and the ignited condition where T>5 keV. (2) In two component and three component systems, auxiliary power is required to maintain a non-thermal ion distribution. I will follow a similar line to that taken in the above papers and will assess the auxiliary heating requirements of a 'Breakeven Tokamak' producing approximately 500 MW of thermal power, using the D-T cycle. I will consider two and three component systems insofar as they may be used during the start up phase, but not as reactor systems in their own right. In the first lecture I will not discuss details of the heating methods. Symbols and units are given in the Appendix

  14. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Class A TV licensees may request a decrease from the authorized facility's ERP in the license application. An FM, TV or Class A TV licensee may also increase the ERP of the auxiliary facility in a license... licensed main facility as an auxiliary facility with an ERP less than or equal to the ERP specified on the...

  15. Orthodontic springs and auxiliary appliances: assessment of magnetic field interactions associated with 1.5 T and 3 T magnetic resonance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, J.; Priest, A.N.; Adam, G.; Schulze, D.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Klocke, A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate magnetic field interactions at 1.5 and 3 T for 20 orthodontic devices used for fixed orthodontic therapy. Twenty springs and auxiliary parts made from varying ferromagnetic alloys were tested for magnetic field interactions in the static magnetic field at 1.5 and 3 T. Magnetic translational force F z (in millinewtons) was evaluated by determining the deflection angle β [American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standard test method)]. Magnetic-field-induced rotational force F rot was qualitatively determined using a five-point scale. β was found to be >45 in 13(15) devices at 1.5(3) T and translational force F z exceeded gravitational force F g on the particular object [F z 10.17-261.4 mN (10.72-566.4 mN) at 1.5(3) T]. F z was found to be up to 24.1(47.5)-fold higher than F g at 1.5(3) T. Corresponding to this, F rot on the objects was shown to be high at both field strengths (≥ +3). Three objects (at 1.5 T) and one object (at 3 T) showed deflection angles rot was found to be ≥ +3 at both field strengths. For the remaining objects, β was below 45 and torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. Of 20 objects investigated for magnetic field interactions at 1.5(3) T, 13(15) were unsafe in magnetic resonance (MR), based on the ASTM criteria of F z . The implications of these results for orthodontic patients undergoing MRI are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  17. Dynamic optimization of maintenance and improvement planning for water main system: Periodic replacement approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Choi, Go Bong; Lee, Jong Min [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Chul [Samchully Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) based approach to derive an optimal schedule of maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement of the water main system. The scheduling problem utilizes auxiliary information of a pipe such as the current state, cost, and deterioration model. The objective function and detailed algorithm of dynamic programming are modified to solve the periodic replacement problem. The optimal policy evaluated by the proposed algorithm is compared to several existing policies via Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed decision framework provides a systematic way to obtain an optimal policy.

  18. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  19. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  20. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-11

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a separator at an exterior of a cylindrical pipe. The helical T-resonator including a feed line, and a helical open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The helical ground conductor including a helical ground plane opposite the helical open shunt stub and a ground ring conductively coupled to the helical ground plane. The feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring, and the separator disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line to electrically isolate the helical T-resonator from the helical ground conductor.

  1. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  2. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  3. Analysis of systems for hot water supply with solar energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, M.

    2001-01-01

    The results from the analysis of the hot water consumption of a group of hotels in the Black See resort Albena are presented. Structural schemes of hot water solar systems with flat plate collectors have been synthesized. By the synthesis have been analyzed the type of the consumers, the operating period, the existing heating plants, the auxiliary energy source - electricity. The change of the solar fraction by different performance of the system have been investigated. A comparative analysis of the alternative solutions has been fulfilled. The most advantageous solution has been chosen on the basis of the evaluation of the pay-back period, the life cycle savings and the benefit-cost ratio. The effect of the changing economic characteristics on the economic efficiency have been investigated. The risk for the investments has been examined. It had been proved that for the conditions in Bulgarian Black See region the use of solar energy for hot water producing is economic reasonable. (author)

  4. Optimization of solar water heating systems through water replenishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Govind N.; Kedare, Shireesh B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2009-01-01

    In a typical solar water heating system, cold water is replenished into the storage tank as soon as the load is served. However, it is possible to determine the water replenishment profile (i.e., the quantity of the cold makeup water to be supplied to the storage tank over a day) that optimizes the overall system. In this paper, the effect of water replenishment on the system sizing is studied and a novel strategy for water replenishment is proposed to improve the design and performance of solar water heating systems. Based on an analytical technique, an approximate water replenishment profile is proposed to size a solar water heating system near-optimally. The problem is analyzed using a methodology called design space approach. Design space of a solar water heating system identifies all possible and feasible designs on a collector area vs. storage volume diagram. For illustration of the proposed methodology, an example problem is solved. It is observed that the annualized system cost can be reduced by 13.7%. For the cost-optimal system configuration, a reduction of 12.7% in the collector area and 10.2% reduction in the storage volume are observed. The proposed methodology is particularly important and advantageous for large commercial and industrial solar water heating systems

  5. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  6. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  7. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  8. Experimental investigation of a Hybrid Solar Drier and Water Heater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, Alireza; Nematollahi, Omid; Joybari, Mahmood Mastani; Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad; Assari, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A Hybrid Solar Drier and Water Heater System experimentally investigated. • Using collected data, GIS maps were plotted for solar energy of Khuzestan Province. • System is presented which facilitates a dual-purpose solar collector. • The system includes a 100 l water storage tank, a solar dryer with 5 trays. • Experiments were carried out to dry vegetables (parsley, dill and coriander). - Abstract: Drying process is of great importance in food industries. One of the best methods of food drying is using solar dryers. For initial estimation of solar energy, calculations were made for statistical information measured by Renewable Energy Organization of Iran. Using collected data, GIS maps were plotted for solar energy of Khuzestan Province, Iran. In this study, a new hybrid system is presented which facilitates a dual-purpose solar collector to simultaneously support a dryer system and provide consumptive hot water. The system includes a 100 l water storage tank, a solar dryer with 5 trays, and a dual-purpose collector. Experiments were carried out to dry a mixture of vegetables (parsley, dill and coriander) at constant air and water flow rates. Besides, an electrical heater has been used as an auxiliary source for heating. The results indicated that the system optimally dried the vegetables and simultaneously provided the consumptive hot water

  9. Participation of Empresarios Agrupados in engineering of the Tokamak systems and auxiliary buildings; Participacion de Empresarios Agrupados en la Ingenieria de los sistemas de tokamak y edificios auxiliares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez del Palacio, V.

    2013-07-01

    The Architect Engineering works comprise approximately the design of 32 buildings and structures, some of them very simple and others extremely complex. 32 buildings include nuclear buildings, as the Toyama, tritium, or the building of emergency diesel and buildings conventional and the building of the site services. Systems including those related to systems within a building they reach conventional, while interfaces with process systems are countless. Grouped entrepreneurs led the design of the mechanical (PBS65) systems and Electric (PBS43) actively participating in the design of systems of fire proofing of buildings and site. During the development of engineering accident of Fukushima works directly affect in the design of the systems.

  10. USAF Mobility Program Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    also be necessary. Water treatment systems are presented which can be developed to yield potable water from these sources. The proposed systems can be designed to meet the requirements of the Bare Base Mobility Program. (Author)

  11. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  12. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  13. Stripping of organic compounds from wastewater as an auxiliary fuel of regenerative thermal oxidizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2009-08-15

    Organic solvents with different volatilities are widely used in various processes and generate air and water pollution problems. In the cleaning processes of electronics industries, most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are vented to air pollution control devices while most non-volatile organic solvents dissolve in the cleaning water and become the major sources of COD in wastewater. Discharging a high-COD wastewater stream to wastewater treatment facility often disturbs the treatment performance. A pretreatment of the high-COD wastewater is therefore highly desirable. This study used a packed-bed stripping tower in combination with a regenerative thermal oxidizer to remove the COD in the wastewater from a printed circuit board manufacturing process and to utilize the stripped organic compounds as the auxiliary fuel of the RTO. The experimental results showed that up to 45% of the COD could be removed and 66% of the RTO fuel could be saved by the combined treatment system.

  14. A diesel fuel processor for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krekel, Daniel; Pasel, Joachim; Prawitz, Matthias; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    Producing a hydrogen-rich gas from diesel fuel enables the efficient generation of electricity in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in diesel reforming. One issue encountered is the stable operation of water-gas shift reactors with real reformates. A new fuel processor is developed using a commercial shift catalyst. The system is operated using optimized start-up and shut-down strategies. Experiments with diesel and kerosene fuels show slight performance drops in the shift reactor during continuous operation for 100 h. CO concentrations much lower than the target value are achieved during system operation in auxiliary power unit mode at partial loads of up to 60%. The regeneration leads to full recovery of the shift activity. Finally, a new operation strategy is developed whereby the gas hourly space velocity of the shift stages is re-designed. This strategy is validated using different diesel and kerosene fuels, showing a maximum CO concentration of 1.5% at the fuel processor outlet under extreme conditions, which can be tolerated by a high-temperature PEFC. The proposed operation strategy solves the issue of strong performance drop in the shift reactor and makes this technology available for reducing emissions in the transportation sector.

  15. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uday Kumar, N.T.; Mohan, Gowtham; Martin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar driven cogeneration system integrating membrane distillation technology is developed. • System utilizes solar thermal energy for the operations without auxiliary heaters. • Three different system integrations are experimentally investigated in UAE. • Economical benefits of solar cogeneration system is also reported. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month’s operation at AURAK’s facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m 2 . System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage; and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m 2 . In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

  16. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  17. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  18. Greening the global water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  19. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  20. Water activity in polyol/water systems: new UNIFAC parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Water activities of a series of polyol/water systems were measured with an AquaLab dew point water activity meter at 298K. The investigated polyols with carbon numbers from n=2-7 are all in liquid state at room temperature and miscible at any molar ratio with water. In aqueous solutions with the same molar concentration, the diols with lower molecular weight lead to lower water activities than those with higher molecular weights. For diols with four or more carbon atoms, the hydrophilicity shows considerable differences between isomers: The 1,2-isomers - consisting of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic part - bind less strongly to water than isomers with a more balanced distribution of the hydroxyl groups. The experimental water activities were compared with the predictions of the group contribution method UNIFAC: the model predictions overestimate the water activity of water/polyol systems of substances with two or more hydroxyl groups and can not describe the decreased binding to water of isomers with hydrophobic tails. To account for the differences between isomers, a modified UNIFAC parameterization was developed, that allows to discriminate between three types of alkyl groups depending on their position in the molecule. These new group interaction parameters were calculated using water activities of alcohol/water mixtures. This leads to a distinctly improved agreement of model predictions with experimental results while largely keeping the simplicity of the functional group approach.

  1. Water activity in polyol/water systems: new UNIFAC parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolli, C.; Peter, Th.

    2005-06-01

    Water activities of a series of polyol/water systems were measured with an AquaLab dew point water activity meter at 298K. The investigated polyols with carbon numbers from n=2-7 are all in liquid state at room temperature and miscible at any molar ratio with water. In aqueous solutions with the same molar concentration, the diols with lower molecular weight lead to lower water activities than those with higher molecular weights. For diols with four or more carbon atoms, the hydrophilicity shows considerable differences between isomers: The 1,2-isomers - consisting of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic part - bind less strongly to water than isomers with a more balanced distribution of the hydroxyl groups. The experimental water activities were compared with the predictions of the group contribution method UNIFAC: the model predictions overestimate the water activity of water/polyol systems of substances with two or more hydroxyl groups and can not describe the decreased binding to water of isomers with hydrophobic tails. To account for the differences between isomers, a modified UNIFAC parameterization was developed, that allows to discriminate between three types of alkyl groups depending on their position in the molecule. These new group interaction parameters were calculated using water activities of alcohol/water mixtures. This leads to a distinctly improved agreement of model predictions with experimental results while largely keeping the simplicity of the functional group approach.

  2. Computation within the auxiliary field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baeurle, S A

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the classical auxiliary field methodology has been developed as a new simulation technique for performing calculations within the framework of classical statistical mechanics. Since the approach suffers from a sign problem, a judicious choice of the sampling algorithm, allowing a fast statistical convergence and an efficient generation of field configurations, is of fundamental importance for a successful simulation. In this paper we focus on the computational aspects of this simulation methodology. We introduce two different types of algorithms, the single-move auxiliary field Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm and two new classes of force-based algorithms, which enable multiple-move propagation. In addition, to further optimize the sampling, we describe a preconditioning scheme, which permits to treat each field degree of freedom individually with regard to the evolution through the auxiliary field configuration space. Finally, we demonstrate the validity and assess the competitiveness of these algo...

  3. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  4. CIT burn control using auxiliary power modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniotakis, E.A.; Freidberg, J.P.; Cohn, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is predicted that ignited tokamaks such as CIT will experience a thermal instability. In this work a zero dimensional transport model is used as a means of examining this thermal instability. In order to solve the problems associated with the uncertainty in predicting the behavior of an ignited tokamak plasma, auxiliary power may be used for mapping the tokamak operating space, both in the low temperature stable regime and in the high temperature unstable regime. Auxiliary power modulation as a means of burn control is the most reliable method, especially during the initial stages of CIT operation. By modulating the auxiliary power stable thermal equilibria can be created at relatively high values of Q (∼65). 20 refs., 28 figs

  5. An experimental study of solar desalination using free jets and an auxiliary hot air stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Eldesouki I.; Khalaf-Allah, Reda A.; Dahab, Mohamed A.

    2018-04-01

    An experimental study for a solar desalination system based on jet-humidification with an auxiliary perpendicular hot air stream was carried out at Suez city, Egypt 29.9668°N, 32.5498°E. The tests were done from May to October 2016. The effects of nozzles situations and nozzle diameter with and without hot air stream on fresh water productivity were monitored. The results show that; the lateral and downward jets from narrow nozzles have more productivities than other situations. The hot air stream has to be adapted at a certain flow rate to get high values of productivity. The system productivity is (5.6 L/m 2 ), the estimated cost is (0.030063 / L) and the efficiency is 32.8%.

  6. Water activity in polyol/water systems: new UNIFAC parameterization

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolli, C.; Peter, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Water activities of a series of polyol/water systems were measured with an AquaLab dew point water activity meter at 298 K. The investigated polyols with carbon numbers from n=2–7 are all in liquid state at room temperature and miscible at any molar ratio 5 with water. In aqueous solutions with the same mass concentration, the diols with lower molecular weight lead to lower water activities than those with higher molecular weights. For diols with four or more carbon atoms, the hygro...

  7. Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Mars Water Acquisition System (AMWAS) recovers and purifies water from Mars soils for oxygen and fuel production, life support, food production, and...

  8. Optimization Program for Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Area-Wide Optimization Program (AWOP) provides tools and approaches for drinking water systems to meet water quality optimization goals and provide an increased – and sustainable – level of public health protection to their consumers.

  9. Preliminary Results of a New Auxiliary Mechatronic Near-Field Radar System to 3D Mammography for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Ghanbarzadeh Dagheyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and early detection of breast cancer is of high importance, as it is directly associated with the patients’ overall well-being during treatment and their chances of survival. Uncertainties in current breast imaging methods can potentially cause two main problems: (1 missing newly formed or small tumors; and (2 false alarms, which could be a source of stress for patients. A recent study at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH indicates that using Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT can reduce the number of false alarms, when compared to conventional mammography. Despite the image quality enhancement DBT provides, the accurate detection of cancerous masses is still limited by low radiological contrast (about 1% between the fibro-glandular tissue and affected tissue at X-ray frequencies. In a lower frequency region, at microwave frequencies, the contrast is comparatively higher (about 10% between the aforementioned tissues; yet, microwave imaging suffers from low spatial resolution. This work reviews conventional X-ray breast imaging and describes the preliminary results of a novel near-field radar imaging mechatronic system (NRIMS that can be fused with the DBT, in a co-registered fashion, to combine the advantages of both modalities. The NRIMS consists of two antipodal Vivaldi antennas, an XY positioner, and an ethanol container, all of which are particularly designed based on the DBT physical specifications. In this paper, the independent performance of the NRIMS is assessed by (1 imaging a bearing ball immersed in sunflower oil and (2 computing the heat Specific Absorption Rate (SAR due to the electromagnetic power transmitted into the breast. The preliminary results demonstrate that the system is capable of generating images of the ball. Furthermore, the SAR results show that the system complies with the standards set for human trials. As a result, a configuration based on this design might be suitable for use in realistic clinical

  10. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  11. New energy conversion processes and neglected auxiliary systems - a treasure trove for energy service providers; Neue Techniken und vernachlaessigte Nebenanlagen - eine Fundgrube fuer Energiedienstleister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochem, E.

    1998-12-31

    The paper shows that apart from the risks, the deregulation of the energy sector also offered new chances, which recently materialized in three emerging independent trends, initiating innovative approaches for energy conversion and applications and demand for new knowledge-based, near-production energy services as a new field for engineers: Providers of energy efficiency-related technology widen their capabilities by adding the new business segment of energy service marketing. Industrial energy users more strongly consider outsourcing of energy conversion systems and the relevant contracting schemes as an option for reducing energy costs. Public enterprise as energy users started following this trend, all the more as insufficient financial resources do not permit them to reinvest. The paper discusses the conversion processes which currently open up promising chances for energy service producers. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Neben Gefahren, die inhaerentes Merkmal der Liberalisierung sind, zeichnen sich drei unabhaengige Entwicklungen ab, die innovative Initiativen in der Energiewandlung und -nutzung staerken und wissensintensive produktionsnahe Dienstleistungen als zentrale Aufgabe fuer den Ingenieur initieren: - Die Energieeffizienz-Technologieanbieter nehmen die Energiedienstleistungen in ihre Angebotspalette auf. - Die betrieblichen Energieanwender beginnen zunehmend, ueber das Outsourcing energiewandelnder Anlagen Energiekosten zu senken. - Die oeffentliche Hand als Energieanwender beginnt aehnlich zu denken, zumal sie infolge der hohen Verschuldung unzureichende finanzielle Mittel fuer Reinvestitionen hat. Hierueber sei kurz berichtet, bevor auf die Techniken eingegangen wird, die sich besonders aus heutiger Sicht fuer Energiedienstleister eignen. (orig./RHM)

  12. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  13. Loss Model and Efficiency Analysis of Tram Auxiliary Converter Based on a SiC Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the auxiliary converter in the auxiliary power supply system of a modern tram adopts Si IGBT as its switching device and with the 1700 V/225 A SiC MOSFET module commercially available from Cree, an auxiliary converter using all SiC devices is now possible. A SiC auxiliary converter prototype is developed during this study. The author(s derive the loss calculation formula of the SiC auxiliary converter according to the system topology and principle and each part loss in this system can be calculated based on the device datasheet. Then, the static and dynamic characteristics of the SiC MOSFET module used in the system are tested, which aids in fully understanding the performance of the SiC devices and provides data support for the establishment of the PLECS loss simulation model. Additionally, according to the actual circuit parameters, the PLECS loss simulation model is set up. This simulation model can simulate the actual operating conditions of the auxiliary converter system and calculate the loss of each switching device. Finally, the loss of the SiC auxiliary converter prototype is measured and through comparison it is found that the loss calculation theory and PLECS loss simulation model is valuable. Furthermore, the thermal images of the system can prove the conclusion about loss distribution to some extent. Moreover, these two methods have the advantages of less variables and fast calculation for high power applications. The loss models may aid in optimizing the switching frequency and improving the efficiency of the system.

  14. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  15. Monitoring process variability using auxiliary information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a Shewhart type control chart namely V (r) chart is proposed for improved monitoring of process variability (targeting large shifts) of a quality characteristic of interest Y. The proposed control chart is based on regression type estimator of variance using a single auxiliary variable

  16. Computer Simulation of Auxiliary Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    EFFICIENCY (1.0) ETAM - MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY (1.0) * HV - MAIN COMBUSTOR FUEL HEATING VALUE AT T4 FOR JP-4 (Optional. If omitted, it is calculated by...2559.67, DPT=0.O, M-2, N=2, WrF4DS=0., ETAHPC-.746, HPACC=g*5, PRLPT=9.418, HPDS=200., IV-18400., ITITLE=1, DPIN=.04, ETAM =. 98, ETAHPT=.8, PRHPT-1 .5...OPT, cP’E, OPINV DO-, HPACC, HODS, S LCSL, HCSL, 2 PCBLC, TI., ETAM $ IMcENSION ANUM (2), AWORO (?), 3W1’RO (?), TITLE REAL LCSL DATA AWORD / 3rlATI

  17. Functional systems of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1982-01-01

    The main topics, discussed in the present paper, are: - Principle design of the reactor coolant system - reactor pressure vessel with internals - containment design - residual heat removal and emergency cooling systems - nuclear component cooling systems - emergency feed water systems - plant electric power supply system. (orig./RW)

  18. Results of an aging-related failure survey of light water safety systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The collection and evaluation of operating experience data are necessary in determining the effects of aging on the safety of operating nuclear plants. This paper presents the final results of a two-year research effort evaluating aging impacts on components in light water reactor systems. This research was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two unique types of data analyses were performed. In the first, an aging-survey study, aging-related failure data for fifteen light water reactor systems were obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). These included safety, support, and power conversion systems. A computerized sort of these records classified each record into one of five generic categories, based on the utility's choice of the failure's NPRDS cause category. Systems and components within the systems that were most affected by aging were identified. In the second analysis, information on aging-related reported causes of failures was evaluated for component failures reported to NPRDS for auxiliary feedwater, high pressure injection, service water, and Class 1E electrical power distribution systems. 3 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Design and scope of impact of auxiliary lanes : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Texas Department of Transportation districts have constructed auxiliary lanes to support interchange : ramp operations and to resolve congestion proximate to freeway entrance and exit ramps. While auxiliary lanes are : built throughout T...

  20. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  1. A system model for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Colin; Roquier, Bastien; Soutter, Marc; Mermoud, André

    2009-03-01

    Although generally accepted as a necessary step to improve water management and planning, integrated water resources management (IWRM) methodology does not provide a clear definition of what should be integrated. The various water-related issues that IWRM might encompass are well documented in the literature, but they are generally addressed separately. Therefore, water management lacks a holistic, systems-based description, with a special emphasis on the interrelations between issues. This article presents such a system model for water management, including a graphical representation and textual descriptions of the various water issues, their components, and their interactions. This model is seen as an aide-memoire and a generic reference, providing background knowledge helping to elicit actual system definitions, in possible combination with other participatory systems approaches. The applicability of the model is demonstrated through its application to two test case studies.

  2. NASA's Plum Brook Station Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzak, Robert M.; Kimpton, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Plum Brook Station's water systems were built in the 1940s to support a World War II ordnance production complex. Because the systems had not been analyzed for current NASA usage, it was unknown if they could meet current requirements and codes or if they were efficient for current use. NASA wanted to determine what improvements would be needed or advisable to support its research projects, so it contracted a hydraulic analysis of the raw and domestic water systems. Burgess and Niple determined current water demands and water flow, developed and calibrated models of the two water systems, and evaluated efficiency improvements and cost-cutting options. They recommended replacing some water mains, installing a new service connection, and removing some high-maintenance items (an underground reservoir, some booster pumps, and a tower).

  3. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  4. Solar PV energy for water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction into understanding the relative merits, characteristics, including economics, of photovoltically powered water pumping systems. Although more than 10,000 photovoltaic pumping systems are known to be operating through out the world, many potential users do not know how to decide weather feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can made an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with photovoltaics. (author)

  5. Water Resources Systems Engineering - Cornell University

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Growing concerns about how “change” (climate, land-use, population, etc.) will strain our water resources is motivating the need for the next generation of professionals that can innovate the planning and management of these systems. Course topics build on the legacy of research in the water resources systems area and seek to provide a new generation of planners with an enhanced ability to discover and negotiate the highly uncertain tradeoffs we face in balancing the water resources demands o...

  6. Values Connecting Societies and Water Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko); J.J. Bouma (Jan Jaap); M. Bal (Mansee)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ Water systems such as rivers and lakes have many important values for ecosystems and human societies. Both economical, social-ecological, cultural and political values are met by the water systems, connecting different activities in human society and

  7. Alternative Water Systems Project (India) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Alternative Water Systems Project seeks to develop a point-of-use safe water system incorporating natural plant-derived coagulants, simple sari cloth filtration and chlorine disinfection for the control of waterborne diseases in South Asian slums. This is a technical approach that is simple, inexpensive, makes use of ...

  8. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  9. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  10. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  11. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    words, because the English primary auxiliary verbs are so important in our communication, speakers must consider the various ways thus type of auxiliary verbs can be grammatically used in sentences. Traditional Grammar Approach to the Use of English Auxiliaries. Greenbaum (1988) defines grammar as a general theory ...

  12. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as outboard fins and winglets, and their supporting aerodynamic...

  13. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  14. Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, Sabina; Batlles Garrido, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ► This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ► It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ► It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ► It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

  15. GPR-Based Water Leak Models in Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Cabrera, David; Herrera, Manuel; Izquierdo, Joaquín; Ocaña-Levario, Silvia J.; Pérez-García, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of leakage in water distribution systems through the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a nondestructive method. Laboratory tests are performed to extract features of water leakage from the obtained GPR images. Moreover, a test in a real-world urban system under real conditions is performed. Feature extraction is performed by interpreting GPR images with the support of a pre-processing methodology based on an appropriate combination of statistical methods and multi-agent systems. The results of these tests are presented, interpreted, analyzed and discussed in this paper.

  16. GPR-Based Water Leak Models in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ayala–Cabrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of leakage in water distribution systems through the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR as a nondestructive method. Laboratory tests are performed to extract features of water leakage from the obtained GPR images. Moreover, a test in a real-world urban system under real conditions is performed. Feature extraction is performed by interpreting GPR images with the support of a pre-processing methodology based on an appropriate combination of statistical methods and multi-agent systems. The results of these tests are presented, interpreted, analyzed and discussed in this paper.

  17. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  18. Effect of water source pollution on the water quality of Shanghai water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaohong; Sun, Qun; Wang, Xinze; Zhu, Bin

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the quality of water source in Shanghai, China and its water supply system. The effect of purification by traditional water treatment process and the effluent biological stability were evaluated by measuring quality parameters in the water supply system. The data showed that the main pollutants in the water source of Huangpu River were organics and ammonia. The conventional water treatment process is not effective to remove these pollutants. Concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, ammonia and UV254 are affected by the water distribution system (DS). The effect is more obvious especially for nitrate and UV254. In addition, the turbidity and chroma increased along the water supply system. The data obtained in this study show the extent of biological instability of drinking water in Shanghai.

  19. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  20. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  1. A water quality monitoring system for HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Tinoco, S.; Iriarte, A.

    2012-09-01

    HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), is a gamma ray (γ) large aperture observatory with high sensitivity that will be able to continuously monitor the sky for transient sources of photons with energies between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. HAWC is under construction in Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico, which is located at a high altitude of 4100m. HAWC will be an array of 300 Cherenkov detectors each one with 200,000 liters of highly pure water. The sensitivity of the instrument depends strongly on the water quality. We present the design and construction of the HAWC water quality monitoring system. We seek monitor the transparency in violet-blue range to achieve and maintain the required water transparency quality in each detector. The system is robust and user friendly. The measurements are reproducible. Also we present some results from the monitoring the water from the VAMOS detector tanks and of the filtering system.

  2. Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutakki Tirumala Uday Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most desirable and sparse resource in Gulf cooperation council (GCC region. Utilization of point-of-use (POU water treatment devices has been gaining huge market recently due to increase in knowledge of urban population on health related issues over contaminants in decentralized water distribution networks. However, there is no foolproof way of knowing whether the treated water is free of contaminants harmful for drinking and hence reliance on certified bottled water has increased worldwide. The bottling process right from treatment to delivery is highly unsustainable due to huge energy demand along the supply chain. As a step towards sustainability, we investigated various ways of coupling of membrane distillation (MD process with solar domestic heaters for co-production of domestic heat and pure water. Performance dynamics of various integration techniques have been evaluated and appropriate configuration has been identified for real scale application. A solar combi MD (SCMD system is experimentally tested for single household application for production 20 L/day of pure water and 250 L/day of hot water simultaneously without any auxiliary heating device. The efficiency of co-production system is compared with individual operation of solar heaters and solar membrane distillation.

  3. Analysis of Buoyancy Module Auxiliary Installation Technology Based on Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songsen; Jiao, Chunshuo; Ning, Meng; Dong, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    To reduce the requirement for lifting capacity and decrease the hoist cable force during the descending and laying process of a subsea production system (SPS), a buoyancy module auxiliary installation technology was proposed by loading buoyancy modules on the SPS to reduce the lifting weight. Two models are established, namely, the SPS lowering-down model and the buoyancy module floating-up model. The main study results are the following: 1) When the buoyancy module enters the water under wave condition, the amplitude of tension fluctuation is twice that when SPS enters water; 2) Under current condition, the displacement of SPS becomes three times larger because of the existence of the buoyancy module; 3) After being released, the velocity of the buoyancy module increases to a large speed rapidly and then reaches a balancing speed gradually. The buoyancy module floats up at a balancing speed and rushes out from the water at a pop-up distance; 4) In deep water, the floating-up velocity of the buoyancy module is related to its mass density and shape, and it is not related to water depth; 5) A drag parachute can reduce floating-up velocity and pop-up distance effectively. Good agreement was found between the simulation and experiment results.

  4. Water hammer analysis in a water distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Twyman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The solution to water hammer in a water distribution system (WDS is shown by applying three hybrid methods (HM based on the Box’s scheme, McCormack's method and Diffusive Scheme. Each HM formulation in conjunction with their relative advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. The analyzed WDS has pipes with different lengths, diameters and wave speeds, being the Courant number different in each pipe according to the adopted discretization. The HM results are compared with the results obtained by the Method of Characteristics (MOC. In reviewing the numerical attenuation, second order schemes based on Box and McCormack are more conservative from a numerical point of view, being recommendable their application in the analysis of water hammer in water distribution systems.

  5. Modified Darboux transformations with foreign auxiliary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct a new type of first-order Darboux transformations for the stationary Schroedinger equation. In contrast to the conventional case, our Darboux transformations support arbitrary (foreign) auxiliary equations. We show that among other applications, our formalism can be used to systematically construct Darboux transformations for Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials, including a recent result (Lin et al., 2007) as a special case. -- Highlights: → We generalize the Darboux transformation for the Schroedinger equation. → By admitting arbitrary auxiliary functions, we provide a new tool for generating solutions. → As a special case we recover a recent result on energy-dependent potentials. → We extend the latter result to very general energy-dependence.

  6. Annual analysis of heat pipe PV/T systems for domestic hot water and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Gang; Fu Huide; Ji Jie; Chow Tintai; Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal system with freeze protection was proposed. ► A detailed annual simulation model for the HP-PV/T system was presented. ► Annual performance of HP-PV/T was predicted and analyzed under different condition. - Abstract: Heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (HP-PV/T) systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy. Compared with traditional water-type photovoltaic/thermal systems, HP-PV/T systems can be used in cold regions without being frozen with the aid of a carefully selected heat-pipe working fluid. The current research presents a detailed simulation model of the HP-PV/T system. Using this model, the annual electrical and thermal behavior of the HP-PV/T system used in three typical climate areas of China, namely, Hong Kong, Lhasa, and Beijing, are predicted and analyzed. Two HP-PV/T systems, with and without auxiliary heating equipment, are studied annually under four different kinds of hot-water load per unit collecting area (64.5, 77.4, 90.3, and 103.2 kg/m 2 ).

  7. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, P.

    1997-09-01

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made

  8. AP1000 service water system availability analysis in Sanmen NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Weijie

    2015-01-01

    Service water system operation requirements and circulate water system maintenance needs are analyzed, and it is determined that the circulate water system maintenance will result in the availability of service water pumps. Solutions are proposed to resolve the conflicts between the circulate water system maintenance and the service water system availability, that will improve the safety and economy of the plant. (authors)

  9. Ferroresonance Phenomenon in Power Plant Auxiliary Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Łosiński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the ferroresonance phenomenon occurring in a medium voltage grid with an ungrounded neutral point of the supply transformer. Results of a study of ferroresonance in the auxiliary grid at Żarnowiec Pumped Storage Power Plant are presented. Analysis of the study results has led to the development and implementation of an effective method of preventing the adverse ferroresonance phenomenon.

  10. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    a higher level in the hot water distribution system (2.1 d–1 to 2.3 d–1) than in the hot water tank (1.4 d–1 to 2.2 d–1) indicating an important area for surface associated growth. The net growth rate of the suspended bacteria measured in hot water from the top, middle and bottom of the hot water tank......The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  11. Improved Aqueous Solubility and Antihypercholesterolemic Activity of Ezetimibe on Formulating with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Hydrophilic Auxiliary Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivalli, Kale Mohana Raghava; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the aqueous solubility, dissolution, and pharmacodynamic properties of a BCS class II drug, ezetimibe (Eze) by preparing ternary cyclodextrin complex systems. We investigated the potential synergistic effect of two novel hydrophilic auxiliary substances, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and L-ascorbic acid-2-glucoside (AA2G) on hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) solubilization of poorly water-soluble hypocholesterolemic drug, Eze. In solution state, the binary and ternary systems were analyzed by phase solubility studies and Job's plot. The solid complexes prepared by freeze-drying were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The log P values, aqueous solubility, dissolution, and antihypercholesterolemic activity of all systems were studied. The analytical techniques confirmed the formation of inclusion complexes in the binary and ternary systems. HPBCD complexation significantly (p solubility, dissolution, and hypocholesterolemic properties of Eze, and the addition of ternary component produced further significant improvement (p solubility, dissolution, and antihypercholesterolemic activity due to the addition of TPGS or AA2G may be attributed to enhanced wetting, dispersibility, and complete amorphization. The use of TPGS or AA2G as ternary hydrophilic auxiliary substances improved the HPBCD solubilization and antihypercholesterolemic activity of Eze.

  12. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...

  13. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  14. Aging and low-flow degradation of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the results of research done under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. It examines the degradation imparted to safety Auxiliary Feedwater System pumps at nuclear plants due to the low flow operation. The Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System is normally a stand-by system. As such it is operated most often in the test mode. Since few plants are equipped with full flow test loops, most testing is accomplished at minimum flow conditions in pump by-pass lines. It is the vibration and hydraulic forces generated at low flow conditions that have been shown to be the major causes of AFW pump aging and degradation. The wear can be manifested in a number of ways, such as impeller or diffuser breakage, thrust bearing and/or balance device failure due to excessive loading, cavitation damage on such stage impellers, increase seal leakage or failure, sear injection piping failure, shaft or coupling breakage, and rotating element seizure

  15. Water masers in the Kronian system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Elitzur, Moshe; Cosmovici, Cristiano B.; Avruch, Ian M.; Pluchino, Salvatore; Montebugnoli, Stelio; Salerno, Emma; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Mujunen, Ari; Ritakari, Jouko; Molera, Guifre; Wagner, Jan; Uunila, Minttu; Cimo, Giuseppe; Schilliro, Francesco; Bartolini, Marco; Fernández, J. A.; Lazzaro, D.; Prialnik, D.; Schulz, R.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of water has been considered for a long time as a key condition for life in planetary environments. The Cassini mission discovered water vapour in the Kronian system by detecting absorption of UV emission from a background star (Hansen et al. 2006). Prompted by this discovery, we

  16. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  17. Life Support Systems: Wastewater Processing and Water Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Wastewater Processing and Water Management task: Within an integrated life support system, water...

  18. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying facility potable water system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) potable water (PW) system. The PW system provides potable water to the CVDF for supply to sinks, water closets, urinals, showers, custodial service sinks, drinking fountains, the decontamination shower, supply water to the non-PW systems, and makeup water for the de-ionized water system

  20. High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

  1. VLTI auxiliary telescopes: a full object-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Duhoux, Philippe; Karban, Robert

    2000-06-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Telescope Control Software (TCS) is a portable system. It is now in use or will be used in a whole family of ESO telescopes VLT Unit Telescopes, VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes, NTT, La Silla 3.6, VLT Survey Telescope and Astronomical Site Monitors in Paranal and La Silla). Although it has been developed making extensive usage of Object Oriented (OO) methodologies, the overall development process chosen at the beginning of the project used traditional methods. In order to warranty a longer lifetime to the system (improving documentation and maintainability) and to prepare for future projects, we have introduced a full OO process. We have taken as a basis the United Software Development Process with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and we have adapted the process to our specific needs. This paper describes how the process has been applied to the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes Control Software (ATCS). The ATCS is based on the portable VLT TCS, but some subsystems are new or have specific characteristics. The complete process has been applied to the new subsystems, while reused code has been integrated in the UML models. We have used the ATCS on one side to tune the process and train the team members and on the other side to provide a UML and WWW based documentation for the portable VLT TCS.

  2. Design and operation of the LAMPF Auxiliary Controller. High-speed remote processing on the CAMAC dataway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machen, D.R.

    1979-02-01

    A CAMAC Auxiliary Controller has been developed to further the concepts of distributed processing in both process control and experiment data-acquisition systems. The Auxiliary Controller is built around a commercially available 16-bit microcomputer and a high-speed bit-sliced microprocessor capable of instruction execution times of 140 ns. The modular nature of the controller allows the user to tailor the controller capabilities to the system problem, while maintaining the interface techniques of the CAMAC Standard

  3. Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Unidirectional Auxiliary Surfaces for Hypersonic Vehicles Based on Adaptive Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naibao He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flight control scheme is proposed using the terminal sliding mode technique, unidirectional auxiliary surfaces and the disturbance observer model. These proposed dynamic attitude control systems can improve control performance of hypersonic vehicles despite uncertainties and external disturbances. The terminal attractor is employed to improve the convergence rate associated with the critical damping characteristics problem noted in short-period motions of hypersonic vehicles. The proposed robust attitude control scheme uses a dynamic terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces. The nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate system uncertainties and external disturbances. The output of the disturbance observer aids the robust adaptive control scheme and improves robust attitude control performance. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces.

  4. Importance of continuous monitoring and control of auxiliary power consumption in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the conceptual solution on the basis of which a system for continuous monitoring and control of auxiliary power consumption is defined in the four most important thermal power plants within the Electric Power Industry of Serbia (TENT A and B, TE Kostolac A and B. A unique system of measuring of auxiliary power consumption at the level of EPS is established in order to perform the appropriate measurement in the following phases, whose data would be archived for the purpose of further analyzes of energy balances. The results of these measurements should be used to define the concrete measures for auxiliary power consumption reduction in power plants, which, in addition to improving energy efficiency, would directly affect the cost reduction.

  5. Microbiology of the Space Shuttle water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D W; Pierson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has a once-through water system that is initially filled on the ground, partially drained before launch and then refilled with fuel-cell generated water on orbit. The microbiological standard for the Space Shuttle potable water system during this study period allowed only 1 microbe of any kind per l00mL and no detectable coliforms. Contamination episodes in more than 15 years of Shuttle operation have been rare; however, for the past 24 missions, bacterial contamination has been detected in 33% of the samples collected 3d before launch. These samples have had on average 55CFU/100mL of bacteria, with the median less than 1CFU/100mL. Burkholderia cepacia has been the primary contaminant of the Shuttle water supply system both before and after flight. Water samples assessed during the STS-70 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery were found to be contaminated (Space Shuttle Columbia and the waste lines were found to harbor biofilms containing Bacillus spp. Nevertheless, the water systems of the four Space Shuttle vehicles provide extremely pure water.

  6. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, reliable drinking water to their customers, many face a number of challenges in their ability to achieve and maintain system sustainability. Some of these include high operator turnover, aging infrastructure, and lack of financial resources. Oftentimes, small communities and their state primacy agencies are reluctant to use novel approaches to drinking water challenges because they may have hidden costs or result in unforeseen health consequences for the community. EPA’s Office of Research and Development is helping to build confidence in innovative treatment technologies and approaches by conducting research that small communities, including tribal communities, and state primacy agencies can rely on to successfully remove contaminants of interest, without compromising the overall sustainability of their system. To share EPA's small drinking water systems research with the states, small systems, and the public.

  7. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Carter, Donald L.; Schunk, Richard G.; Pruitt, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station Water Recovery System (WRS) is comprised of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multifiltration Bed, develop improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor, evaluate optimum operation of UPA through parametric testing, and improve reliability of the UPA fluids pump and Distillation Assembly.

  8. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  9. Automatic supervision of solar heating systems. Part 1: Solar kits for domestic hot water preparation; Supervision automatique d'installations solaires thermiques. Premiere partie consacree aux kits solaires de production d'eau chaude sanitaire. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, T.; Gillet, D.

    1999-07-01

    The system under consideration is a solar domestic hot water heating system (SDHWS) manufactured in Switzerland. The heat exchanger is a mantle, which surrounds the entire storage tank. One major structural improvement has been designed. It consists in the replacement of the auxiliary heater made of one single electrical element by three smaller ones with different lengths. This configuration requires the manipulation of two additional actuators. Therefore, an advanced control strategy has also been considered for all the actuators manipulated. These actuators are the pump driving the fluid in the collector loop and the three electrical elements. Weather forecasts provided on-line by the Swiss Institute of Meteorology (SIM) as well as the estimation of the users' needs in terms of tapped water are integrated in this advanced control strategy. The segmentation of the auxiliary heater together with a suitable advanced control strategy have led to significant improvements in terms of comfort and energy consumption. (author)

  10. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Water Resources Center, Lubbock, Texas (United States); Pickering, K. [Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2002-06-15

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NO{sub 2}{sup -} as the e{sup -} acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities

  11. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K.; Pickering, K.

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO 3 - and NO 2 - as the e - acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities considering a closed loop

  12. Design and Experiment of Auxiliary Bearing for Helium Blower of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guojun; Shi Zhengang; Liu Xingnan; Zhao Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    The helium blower is the important equipment for HTR-PM. Active magnetic bearing (AMB) instead of mechanical bearing is selected to support the rotor of the helium blower. However, one implication of AMB is the requirement to provide the auxiliary bearing to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The auxiliary bearing is used to support the rotor when the AMB fails to work. It must support the dropping rotor and bear the great impact force and friction heat. The design of the auxiliary bearing is one of the challenging problems in the whole system. It is very important for the helium blower with AMB of HTR-PM to make success. The rotor’s length of helium blower of HTR-PM is about 3.3 m, its weight is about 4000 kg and the rotating speed is 4000 r/min. The axial load is 4500kg, and the radial load is 1950kg. The angular contact ball bearing was selected as the auxiliary bearing. The test rig has been finished. It is difficult to analyze the falling course of the rotor. The preliminary analysis of the dropping rotor was done in the special condition. The impact force of auxiliary bearing was computed for the axial and radial load. And the dropping test of the blower rotor for HTR-10 will be introduced also in this paper. Results offer the important theoretical base for the protector design of the helium blower with AMB for HTR-PM. (author)

  13. Auxiliary Linear Problem, Difference Fay Identities and Dispersionless Limit of Pfaff-Toda Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Takasaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the study of Fay-type identities revealed some new features of the DKP hierarchy (also known as ''the coupled KP hierarchy'' and ''the Pfaff lattice''. Those results are now extended to a Toda version of the DKP hierarchy (tentatively called ''the Pfaff-Toda hierarchy''. Firstly, an auxiliary linear problem of this hierarchy is constructed. Unlike the case of the DKP hierarchy, building blocks of the auxiliary linear problem are difference operators. A set of evolution equations for dressing operators of the wave functions are also obtained. Secondly, a system of Fay-like identities (difference Fay identities are derived. They give a generating functional expression of auxiliary linear equations. Thirdly, these difference Fay identities have well defined dispersionless limit (dispersionless Hirota equations. As in the case of the DKP hierarchy, an elliptic curve is hidden in these dispersionless Hirota equations. This curve is a kind of spectral curve, whose defining equation is identified with the characteristic equation of a subset of all auxiliary linear equations. The other auxiliary linear equations are related to quasi-classical deformations of this elliptic spectral curve.

  14. Modelling transitions in urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, W; Urich, C; Bach, P M; Rogers, B C; de Haan, F J; Brown, R R; Mair, M; McCarthy, D T; Kleidorfer, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Deletic, A

    2017-12-01

    Long term planning of urban water infrastructure requires acknowledgement that transitions in the water system are driven by changes in the urban environment, as well as societal dynamics. Inherent to the complexity of these underlying processes is that the dynamics of a system's evolution cannot be explained by linear cause-effect relationships and cannot be predicted under narrow sets of assumptions. Planning therefore needs to consider the functional behaviour and performance of integrated flexible infrastructure systems under a wide range of future conditions. This paper presents the first step towards a new generation of integrated planning tools that take such an exploratory planning approach. The spatially explicit model, denoted DAnCE4Water, integrates urban development patterns, water infrastructure changes and the dynamics of socio-institutional changes. While the individual components of the DAnCE4Water model (i.e. modules for simulation of urban development, societal dynamics and evolution/performance of water infrastructure) have been developed elsewhere, this paper presents their integration into a single model. We explain the modelling framework of DAnCE4Water, its potential utility and its software implementation. The integrated model is validated for the case study of an urban catchment located in Melbourne, Australia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distilled Water Distribution Systems. Laboratory Design Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, J.C.

    Factors concerning water distribution systems, including an evaluation of materials and a recommendation of materials best suited for service in typical facilities are discussed. Several installations are discussed in an effort to bring out typical features in selected applications. The following system types are included--(1) industrial…

  16. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  17. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    2002-01-01

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  18. Modeling electric load and water consumption impacts from an integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage system for residential buildings in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshaw, Charles R.; Rhodes, Joshua D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydronic integrated rainwater thermal storage (ITHERST) system concept presented. • ITHERST system modeled to assess peak electric load shifting and water savings. • Case study shows 75% peak load reduction and 9% increase in energy consumption. • Potable rainwater collection could provide ∼50–90% of water used for case study. - Abstract: The United States’ built environment is a significant direct and indirect consumer of energy and water. In Texas, and other parts of the Southern and Western US, air conditioning loads, particularly from residential buildings, contribute significantly to the peak electricity load on the grid, straining transmission. In parallel, water resources in these regions are strained by growing populations and shrinking supplies. One potential method to address both of these issues is to develop integrated thermal energy and auxiliary water (e.g. rainwater, greywater, etc.) storage and management systems that reduce peak load and freshwater consumption. This analysis focuses on a proposed integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage (ITHERST) system that is incorporated into a residential air-source chiller/heat pump with hydronic distribution. This paper describes a step-wise hourly thermodynamic model of the thermal storage system to assess on-peak performance, and a daily volume-balance model of auxiliary water collection and consumption to assess water savings potential. While the model is generalized, this analysis uses a case study of a single family home in Austin, Texas to illustrate its capabilities. The results indicate this ITHERST system could reduce on-peak air conditioning electric power demand by over 75%, with increased overall electric energy consumption of approximately 7–9%, when optimally sized. Additionally, the modeled rainwater collection reduced municipal water consumption by approximately 53–89%, depending on the system size.

  19. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  20. Radon in water aeration system operational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    North East Environmental Products, Inc. is a manufacturer of residential scale aeration systems for removal of radon and volatile organic chemicals from private water supplies. This paper is a review of the operational history of residential scale point of entry (POE) radon aeration systems. Emphasis is placed on the difficulties and solutions encountered in actual installations caused by both mechanical difficulties and water quality parameters. A summary of radon reduction efficiency is presented for wells with radon concentrations from 21,000 to 2,600,000 pCi/L. A discussion of customer concerns and attitudes is presented along with other areas for further technical improvement. Training techniques for dealers and installers are also discussed. An update of the current status of the radon in water industry includes current sales volumes as compared to the potential market and an update on the radon in water MCL standard setting process from an industry perspective

  1. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  2. Evaluation of auxiliary tempering pump effectiveness at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendling, L.C.; Holland, A.F.

    1989-08-01

    The effectiveness of auxiliary tempering pump operation at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station (SES) at reducing plant-induced mortality of aquatic biota was evaluated. Several Representative Important Species (RIS) and dominant benthic and zooplankton species were used in the evaluation as indicators of overall system-wide responses. Expected mortality with and without auxiliary pump operation was estimated using thermal tolerance data available from the scientific literature for blue crabs, white perch, striped bass, spot, Macoma balthica and Acartia tonsa. The evaluation led to the conclusion that the operation of auxiliary tempering pumps at Chalk Point SES increases plant-induced mortality of spot, white perch, striped bass, and zooplankton. Operation of the tempering pumps may reduce blue crab mortality slightly under certain circumstances, and Macoma balthica mortality is probably largely unaffected by their operation.

  3. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    conclusion of the monitoring phase, turf specialists from California State University, Fresno determined the appearance of the smart plot was slightly less...studies conducted on farms in California that demonstrate activities that: 1) lead to more efficient applied water use or enhance water quality; 2...irrigation audit of the sprinklers systems was conducted by the Center for Irrigation Technology (CIT), California State University, Fresno to ensure the

  4. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    OpenAIRE

    Matuska, Tomas; Sourek, Borivoj

    2017-01-01

    Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized loa...

  5. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  6. Guidelines for Transient Analysis in Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, Ivo; Karney, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of water losses are transient phenomena, caused by normal and accidental pump and valve operations. ...

  7. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain-source......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple...

  8. Water maser emission from exoplanetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmovici, C. B.; Pogrebenko, S.

    2018-01-01

    Since the first discovery of a Jupiter-mass planet in 1995 more than 2000 exo-planets have been found to exist around main sequence stars. The detection techniques are based on the radial velocity method (which involves the measurement of the star's wobbling induced by the gravitational field of the orbiting giant planets) or on transit photometry by using space telescopes (Kepler, Corot, Hubble and Spitzer) outside the absorbing Earth atmosphere. From the ground, as infrared observations are strongly limited by atmospheric absorption, radioastronomy offers almost the only possible way to search for water presence and abundance in the planetary atmospheres of terrestrial-type planets where life may evolve. Following the discovery in 1994 of the first water maser emission in the atmosphere of Jupiter induced by a cometary impact, our measurements have shown that the water maser line at 22 GHz (1.35 cm) can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool for water search outside the solar system, as comets are able to deliver considerable amounts of water to planets raising the fascinating possibility of extraterrestrial life evolution. Thus in 1999 we started the systematic search for water on 35 different targets up to 50 light years away from the Sun. Here we report the first detection of the water maser emission from the exoplanetary systems Epsilon Eridani, Lalande 21185 and Gliese 581. We have shown the peculiar feasibility of water detection and its importance in the search for exoplanetary systems especially for the Astrobiology programs, given the possibility of long period observations using powerful radiotelescopes equipped with adequate spectrometers.

  9. Adapting water accounting for integrated water resource management. The Júcar Water Resource System (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Pedro-Monzonís, María

    2014-11-01

    An increase in water demands, exacerbated by climate change and the tightening of environmental requirements, leads to a reduction in available water resources for economic uses. This situation poses challenges for water resource planning and management. Water accounting has emerged as an appropriate tool to improve transparency and control in water management. There are multiple water accounting approaches, but they generally involve a very exhaustive list of accounted concepts. According to our findings in this research, one of the best water accounting methodologies is the Australian Water Accounting Standard. However, its implementation for integrated water resource planning and management purposes calls into questioning the amount of information and level of detail necessary for the users of water accounts. In this paper, we present a different method of applying the Australian Water Accounting Standard in relation to water resource management, which improves its utility. In order to compare the original approach and that proposed here, we present and discuss an application to the Júcar Water Resource System, in eastern Spain.

  10. [Influence of water source switching on water quality in drinking water distribution system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Niu, Zhang-bin; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the regularity of the change on the physical and chemical water qualities in the distribution system during the process of water source switching in A city. Due to the water source switching, the water quality is chemical-astable. Because of the differences between the two water sources, pH reduced from 7.54 to 7.18, alkalinity reduced from 188 mg x L(-1) to 117 mg x L(-1), chloride (Cl(-)) reduced from 310 mg x L(-1) to 132 mg x L(-1), conductance reduced from 0.176 S x m(-1) to 0.087 S x m(-1) and the ions of calcium and magnesium reduced to 15 mg x L(-1) and 11 mg x L(-1) respectively. Residual chlorine changed while the increase of the chlorine demand and the water quantity decreasing at night, and the changes of pH, alkalinity and residual chlorine brought the iron increased to 0.4 mg x L(-1) at the tiptop, which was over the standard. The influence of the change of the water parameters on the water chemical-stability in the drinking water distribution system is analyzed, and the controlling countermeasure is advanced: increasing pH, using phosphate and enhancing the quality of the water in distribution system especially the residual chlorine.

  11. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  12. Auxiliary VHF transmitter to aid recovery of solar Argos/GPS PTTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2014-01-01

    While conducting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) research, we found that solar-powered global positioning systems platform transmitter terminals (GPS PTTs) can be lost if the solar panel does not receive adequate sunlight. Thus, we developed 5-g (mortality sensor included; Prototype A) and 9.8-g (no mortality sensor; Prototype B) auxiliary very high...

  13. The auxiliary elliptic-like equation and the exp-function method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of auxiliary elliptic-like equation. As examples, the RKL models, the high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Hamilton amplitude equation, the generalized Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV system and the generalized ZK–BBM equation are ...

  14. Water chemistry of nuclear reactor systems 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water chemistry aspects of nuclear reactors are of critical importance. This book is a state-of-the-art review of the best international experience. It embodies the expertise presented at the fifth triennial international conference on the water chemistry of nuclear reactor systems in October 1989. The book is published in two volumes. Topics covered range widely and are grouped into eight sections. These include PWR experience (13 papers), radiation control measures (8 papers), BWR operational experience (10 papers), radiolysis in BWR coolants (11 papers), decontamination (10 papers), secondary-side chemistry (8 papers), water chemistry purification (8 papers), and fission product chemistry (4 papers). There are also 45 poster papers on aspects of water chemistry. All the papers are indexed separately. Discussion on the papers is included in volume 2 but is not indexed. (author)

  15. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  16. Interfacial Properties of Polydimethylsiloxane-Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed E.; Grest, Gary S.; Stevens, Mark J.; Tsige, Mesfin; Heine, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a main constituent of silicone adhesives, which have a wide use as adhesives. Often these adhesives are used as sealants. The interaction between water and PDMS is of fundamental importance. To improve our understanding at the molecular level, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of PDMS in the presence of water, with the long-term goal of studying how water molecules effect debonding at the surface. Knowledge of the basic interfacial properties of a multicomponent system, such as the surface tension, contact angle, and diffusion constant, are essential to obtain the proper dynamic behavior in a molecular simulation of adhesion and wetting processes. Explicit-atom simulations of 10^5 or more atoms were used to determine liquid-vapor surface tension and the contact angle for water on the surface of PDMS. We present results for the dependence of the surface tension on chain length and end-group functionality.

  17. Energy and Exergy Performances of Air-Based vs. Water-Based Heating and Cooling Systems: A Case Study of a Single-Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Different indoor terminal units can be used to heat and cool indoor spaces. These terminal units mostly rely on convection and radiation heat transfer mechanisms but their relative ratios can vary significantly for air-based and water-based systems with implications on whole system performance......, in terms of energy and exergy. In addition to the energy and exergy input required at the heating and cooling plants, the energy use of auxiliary components (fans and pumps) also vary depending on the chosen terminal unit. In order to study the energy and exergy performances of air-based and water......-based systems, an air heating and cooling system, and a radiant floor heating and cooling system were chosen, respectively. A single-family house was used as a case study assuming that different space heating and cooling systems were used to condition the indoor space of this house. In addition to the thermal...

  18. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  19. Secondary systems of PWR and BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, N.

    1981-01-01

    The secondary systems of a nuclear power plant comprises the steam, condensate and feedwater cycle, the steam plant auxiliary or ancillary systems and the cooling water systems. The presentation gives a general review about the main systems which show a high similarity of PWR and BWR plants. (orig./RW)

  20. 21 CFR 1240.86 - Protection of pier water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of pier water system. 1240.86 Section... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.86 Protection of pier water system. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall make a connection between its nonpotable water system and any pier potable water...

  1. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  2. Stability and Confinement Properties of Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Menard; R.E.Bell; C. Bourdelle; D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; L.R. Grisham; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; S.S. Medley; D. Mueller; F. Paoletti; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; J.R. Wilson; M.G. Bell; J.M. Bialek; C.E.Bush; J.C. Hosea; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; M. Ono; Y-K.M. Peng; C.H. Skinner; V.A. Soukhanovskii; E.J. Synakowski; G. Taylor; G.A. Wurden; and S.J. Zweben

    2001-07-05

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a spherical tokamak with nominal plasma major radius R(subscript ''0'') = 0.85 m, minor radius a = 0.66 m, and aspect ratio A > 1.28. Typical discharge parameters are plasma current I (subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, toroidal magnetic field B(subscript ''t0'') = 0.25-0.45 Tesla at major radius R(subscript ''0''), elongation = 1.7-2.2, triangularity 0.3-0.5, line-average electron density = 2-5 x 10(superscript ''19'') m(superscript ''-3''), electron temperature T(subscript ''e'')(0) = 0.5-1.5 keV, and ion temperature T(subscript ''i'')(0) = 0.5-2 keV. The NSTX auxiliary heating systems can routinely deliver 4.5 MW of 80-keV deuterium neutral beams and 3 MW of 30-MHz high-harmonic fast-wave power. Kinetic profile diagnostics presently include a 10-channel, 30-Hz multipulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS), a 17-channel charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system, a 48-chord ultra-soft X-ray (USXR) array, and a 15-chord bolometry array. Initial experiments utilizing auxiliary heating on NSTX have focused on MHD stability limits, confinement trends, studying H-mode characteristics, and performing initial power balance calculations.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE WATER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site water system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  4. [Maintenance and monitoring of water treatment system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoriero, G; Pozzoni, P; Tentori, F; Scaravilli, P; Locatelli, F

    2005-01-01

    Water treatment systems must be submitted to maintenance, disinfections and monitoring periodically. The aim of this review is to analyze how these processes must complement each other in order to preserve the efficiency of the system and optimize the dialysis fluid quality. The correct working of the preparatory process (pre-treatment) and the final phase of depuration (reverse osmosis) of the system need a periodic preventive maintenance and the regular substitution of worn or exhausted components (i.e. the salt of softeners' brine tank, cartridge filters, activated carbon of carbon tanks) by a competent and trained staff. The membranes of reverse osmosis and the water distribution system, including dialysis machine connections, should be submitted to dis-infections at least monthly. For this purpose it is possible to use chemical and physical agents according to manufacturer' recommendations. Each dialysis unit should predispose a monitoring program designed to check the effectiveness of technical working, maintenance and disinfections and the achievement of chemical and microbiological standards taken as a reference. Generally, the correct composition of purified water is monitored by continuous measuring of conductivity, controlling bacteriological cultures and endotoxin levels (monthly) and checking water contaminants (every 6-12 months). During pre-treatment, water hardness (after softeners) and total chlorine (after chlorine tank) should be checked periodically. Recently the Italian Society of Nephrology has developed clinical guidelines for water and dialysis solutions aimed at suggesting rational procedures for production and monitoring of dialysis fluids. It is hopeful that the application of these guidelines will lead to a positive cultural change and to an improvement in dialysis fluid quality.

  5. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  6. Water distribution systems design optimisation using metaheuristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topic of multi-objective water distribution systems (WDS) design optimisation using metaheuristics is investigated, comparing numerous modern metaheuristics, including several multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, an estimation of distribution algorithm and a recent hyperheuristic named AMALGAM (an evolutionary ...

  7. APPLICATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APPLICATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN WATER PUMPING. Tesfaye Bayou. Department of Electrical Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. Supply of commercial type of energy sources for rural communities has been a problem, especially in least developed countries like Ethiopia. With a sizeable ...

  8. Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Factors Affecting Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water distribution systems with ammonia present from either naturally occurring ammonia or ammonia addition during chloramination are at risk for nitrification. Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is undesirable and may result in water quality degradatio...

  9. Development of the APR+ Auxiliary Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Park, Young Sheop; Kang, Yong Chul

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing which contains all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a succeeding model of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Auxiliary Building (AB) is one of the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the AB

  10. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E; Cordero, R

    2008-01-01

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles

  11. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F (Mexico)], E-mail: aramador@gmail.com, E-mail: nbagatella@uv.mx, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx

    2008-03-21

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles.

  12. Assessing Landscape-Scale Soil Moisture Distribution Using Auxiliary Sensing Technologies and Multivariate Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, C.; Castrignanò, A.; Mueller, T.; Zourarakis, D.; Zhu, J.

    2013-12-01

    from 2010 LiDAR returns collected at ≤1 m nominal pulse spacing. Exploratory statistics revealed 12 variables that best associate with soil moisture including slope, elevation, calcium, organic matter, clay, sand and geoelectric measurements (ERa for each date). A linear combination of basic variogram functions, called the linear model of coregionalization (LMC), was fitted using a matrix of direct and cross experimental variograms constituting the 12 different variables studied. The LMC consisted of 3 basic components: nugget, spherical (short range scale=40m) and exponential (long range scale=250m) where each component explained 17%, 22% and 60% of the total measured variation, respectively. Applying principal component analysis to the coregionalization matrix at each spatial scale produced a set of regionalized factors summarizing the variation at that spatial scale. Mapping regionalized factors decomposes the total measured system variation into scale-dependent synthetic homogeneous zones that lend insight into the properties influencing SMV. Results suggest that soil texture and OM drive the soil moisture variation under the soil moisture regimes observed. This study shows the potential for using ERa and multivariate statistics to develop soil moisture management strategies under water stressed conditions.

  13. 75 FR 57200 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... 147 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary... proposing to amend the National Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan) and its auxiliary provisions by... Coordinator, Poultry Improvement Staff, National Poultry Improvement Plan, Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA...

  14. 76 FR 15791 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions... the National Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan) and its auxiliary provisions by providing new or... National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP, also referred to below as ``the Plan'') is a cooperative Federal...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the... power unit. [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18974, Apr. 9, 1993] ...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  18. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    themselves. This paper aims at carrying out linguistic theoretical exercise as regards the use of the English primary auxiliary verbs. The paper also aims at exposing the rate at which speakers of English Language misuse the. English primary auxiliary verbs. The traditional grammar alongside structural grammar was used to ...

  19. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  20. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not available...

  1. ON THE CATEGORY STATUS OF AUXILIARIES AND THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seem requires a [+ stativeJ verb in its complement. However, this set of auxiliaries cannot occur in the complement of a verb like force, requiring a [- stativeJ verb in its comPlement.18). Ross explains the above data by assuming that this set of auxiliaries has the features. [: ~ux. J. The major premiss of the relevant argument ...

  2. Drinking Water Microbiome as a Screening Tool for Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water utilities in the US using chloramine as disinfectant treatment in their distribution systems have experienced nitrification episodes, which detrimentally impact the water quality. A chloraminated drinking water distribution system (DWDS) simulator was operated throug...

  3. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  4. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  5. Elimination of the auxiliary fields in the antifield formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of the elimination of the auxiliary fields in the path integral quantization of gauge theories is investigated in the context of the antifield formalism. It is shown that gauge fixing fermions can be found such that: (i) the auxiliary fields remain auxiliary after gauge fixing; and (ii) the gauge fixed actions obtained by eliminating the auxiliary fields before or after writing down the path integral coincide. The contribution of the auxiliary fields to the integration measure is also discussed. These results are applied (i) to the problem of the equivalence between the lagrangian and hamiltonian path integral formulations; and (ii) to the problem of the elimination of the second class constraints in the hamiltonian formalism. (orig.)

  6. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    totally decouple the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin source connection does, because they are still in the loop of power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary source connection are investigated and analyzed: common source stray inductance reduction, transient drain-source current......Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...... imbalance mitigation and influence on the steady state bond wire current distribution. Simulation and experimental results validate the working mechanism analysis and the effects of the auxiliary source connections....

  7. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  8. Impact of environmental regulations on control of copper ion concentration in the DIII-D cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1993-10-01

    Tokamaks and industrial users are faced with the task of maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. Operating these systems concentrates the impurities in the water requiring subsequent disposal. Environmental regulations are making this increasingly difficult. This paper will discuss the solution to the problem of removing and disposing of copper ions in the DIII-D low conductivity water system. Since the commissioning of the Doublet facility, the quality of the water in the 3000 gpm system that cools the DIII-D vacuum vessel coils, power supplies and auxiliary heating components has been controlled with mixed-bed ion exchangers. Low ion levels, particularly copper, are required to operate this equipment. In early 1992, the company that leases and regenerates DIII-D ion exchangers said they no longer can accept these resin beds for regeneration due to the level of copper ion on the resin. This change in policy, a change that has been adopted throughout their industry, was necessary to assure that the Metropolitan Sewerage System of the City of San Diego stays in compliance with State of California regulations and EPA-mandated national pretreatment standards and regulations. A cost effective solution was implemented which utilizes a reverse osmosis filtration system with the ion exchangers for make-up water. Levels of copper ion disposed to the sewer are in compliance with government standards. These measures have thus far proved effective in maintaining low conductivity and overall good quality cooling water. Specifically, this paper discusses DIII-D deionized cooling water quality requirements and an affective means to meet these requirements in order to be in compliance with government regulations for copper ion disposal. The problems discussed, the alternatives considered and the approach taken would be readily applicable to any deionized cooling water system containing copper where EPA standards and regulations are mandated

  9. The origin of inner Solar System water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M O'D

    2017-05-28

    Of the potential volatile sources for the terrestrial planets, the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites are closest to the planets' bulk H and N isotopic compositions. For the Earth, the addition of approximately 2-4 wt% of CI/CM material to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth can explain the abundances of many of the most volatile elements, although some solar-like material is also required. Two dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation predict that the carbonaceous chondrites formed either in the asteroid belt ('classical' model) or in the outer Solar System (5-15 AU in the Grand Tack model). To test these models, at present the H isotopes of water are the most promising indicators of formation location because they should have become increasingly D-rich with distance from the Sun. The estimated initial H isotopic compositions of water accreted by the CI, CM, CR and Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrites were much more D-poor than measured outer Solar System objects. A similar pattern is seen for N isotopes. The D-poor compositions reflect incomplete re-equilibration with H 2 in the inner Solar System, which is also consistent with the O isotopes of chondritic water. On balance, it seems that the carbonaceous chondrites and their water did not form very far out in the disc, almost certainly not beyond the orbit of Saturn when its moons formed (approx. 3-7 AU in the Grand Tack model) and possibly close to where they are found today.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The completed phases of a study evaluating LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system concepts for a second generation Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) are presented. The results of the preliminary system evaluation phase are summarized, and efforts regarding the in-depth system evaluation phase are described. Ethanol and methane are considered to be the best fuel candidates as both are non-coking, non-corrosive, and offer high performance capability. Ethanol affords the highest dV and total impulse capability because of its high density-specific impulse product, while methane affords the lowest system wet weight when the system is sized for a fixed dV or total impulse requirement. The LOX/ethanol system allows the use of a simple non-insulated RCS feed system, and is the most attractive LOX/hydrocarbon OMS-RCS. Its operational costs would be substantially less than the current N2O4/MMH system.

  11. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  12. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  13. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  14. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent,

  15. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry

  17. Water in micro- and nanofluidics systems described using the water potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    This Tutorial Review shows the behaviour of water in micro- and nanofluidic systems. The chemical potential of water (‘water potential’) conveniently describes the energy level of the water at different locations in and around the system, both in the liquid and gaseous state. Since water moves from

  18. 21 CFR 1250.82 - Potable water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potable water systems. 1250.82 Section 1250.82... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.82 Potable water systems. The following conditions must be met by vessel water systems used for the storage and distribution of water which has met...

  19. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a... protection for structures, cargo, and vessels. Each water system must include on the pier or wharf at least...

  20. A water flow calorimeter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Neutral beam systems are instrumented by several water flow calorimeter systems, and some means is needed to verify the accuracy of such systems and diagnose their failures. This report describes a calibration system for these calorimeters. The calibrator consists of two 24 kilowatt circulation water heaters, with associated controls and instrumentation. The unit can supply power from 0 to 48 kW in five coarse steps and one fine range. Energy is controlled by varying the power and the time of operation of the heaters. The power is measured by means of precision power transducers, and the energy is measured by integrating the power with respect to time. The accuracy of the energy measurement is better than 0.5% when the power supplied is near full scale, and the energy resolution is better than 1 kilojoule. The maximum energy delivered is approximately 50 megajoules. The calorimetry loop to be calibrated is opened, and the calibrator is put in series with the calorimeter heat source. The calorimeter is then operated in its normal fashion, with the calibrator used as the heat source. The calibrator can also be used in a stand alone mode to calibrate calorimeter sensors removed from systems

  1. Operator Support System for Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie; Shen Shifei

    1996-01-01

    Operator Support System for Pressurized Water Reactor (OSSPWR) has been developed under the sponsorship of IAEA from August 1994. The project is being carried out by the Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. The Design concepts of the operator support functions have been established. The prototype systems of OSSPWR has been developed as well. The primary goal of the project is to create an advanced operator support system by applying new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, advanced communication technologies, etc. Recently, the advanced man-machine interface for nuclear power plant operators has been developed. It is connected to the modern computer systems and utilizes new high performance graphic displays. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  2. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging

  3. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  4. Modeling and stability analysis for the upper atmosphere research satellite auxiliary array switch component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, R.; Natarajan, T.; Day, J.

    1987-01-01

    A feedback control system, called an auxiliary array switch, was designed to connect or disconnect auxiliary solar panel segments from a spacecraft electrical bus to meet fluctuating demand for power. A simulation of the control system was used to carry out a number of design and analysis tasks that could not economically be performed with a breadboard of the hardware. These tasks included: (1) the diagnosis of a stability problem, (2) identification of parameters to which the performance of the control system was particularly sensitive, (3) verification that the response of the control system to anticipated fluctuations in the electrical load of the spacecraft was satisfactory, and (4) specification of limitations on the frequency and amplitude of the load fluctuations.

  5. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were com...

  6. Passive systems for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Noviello, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the most original concepts that have been considered in Italy for the back-fitting of the nuclear power plants in order to reduce the probability and the importance of the release to the environment in case of a core melt. With reference either to BWR or PWR, passive concepts have been considered for back-fitting in the following areas: pump seals damage prevention and ECCS passive operation; reactor passive depressurization; molten reactor core passive cooling; metal containment passive water cooling through a water tank located at high level; containment isolation improvement through a sealing system; containment leaks control and limitation of environmental release. In addition some considerations will be made on the protection against external events introduced from the beginning on the PUN design either on building and equipment lay-out either on structure design. (author). 5 figs

  7. Low speed performance of a supersonic axisymmetric mixed compression inlet with auxiliary inlets. [Lewis 9x15-ft anechoic wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Cubbison, R. W.; Trefny, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a representative supersonic cruise inlet was investigated using a fan simulator coupled to the inlet to provide characteristic noise signatures and to pump the inlet flow. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0 to 0.2 for the inlet equipped with an auxiliary inlet system that provided 20 to 40 percent of the fan flow. Results show that inlet performance improved when the inlet bleed systems were sealed; when the freestream Mach number was increased; and when the auxiliary inlets were opened. The inlet flow could not be choked by either centerbody translation or by increasing the fan speed when the 40 percent auxiliary inlet was incorporated.

  8. Parallel Auxiliary Space AMG Solver for $H(div)$ Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-18

    We present a family of scalable preconditioners for matrices arising in the discretization of $H(div)$ problems using the lowest order Raviart--Thomas finite elements. Our approach belongs to the class of “auxiliary space''--based methods and requires only the finite element stiffness matrix plus some minimal additional discretization information about the topology and orientation of mesh entities. Also, we provide a detailed algebraic description of the theory, parallel implementation, and different variants of this parallel auxiliary space divergence solver (ADS) and discuss its relations to the Hiptmair--Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition of $H(div)$ [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483--2509] and to the auxiliary space Maxwell solver AMS [J. Comput. Math., 27 (2009), pp. 604--623]. Finally, an extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness and scalability of our implementation on large-scale $H(div)$ problems with large jumps in the material coefficients.

  9. New set of auxiliary fields for supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Rivelles, V. de.

    1983-02-01

    A brief introduction on supersymmetry is given. The problems with the obtainment of the auxiliary fields in supergravity theories are discussed, after a short presentation of the supersymmetry algebra representations. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Optimization of a computer simulation code to analyse thermal systems for solar energy water heating; Aperfeicoamento de um programa de simulacao computacional para analise de sistemas termicos de aquecimento de agua por energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzebon, Felipe Barin

    2009-02-15

    The potential of solar water heating systems through solar energy in Brazil is excellent due to the climatic features of the country. The performance of these systems is highly influenced also by the materials used to build it and by the dimension of its equipment and components. In face of global warming, solar energy gains more attention, since it is one of the renewable energy that will be largely used to replace some of the existing polluting types of energy. This paper presents the improvement of a software that conducts simulations of water heating systems using solar energy in thermosyphon regime or forced circulation. TermoSim, as it is called, was initiated at the Solar Labs, and is in its version 3.0. The current version is capable of simulating 6 different arrangements' possibilities combined with auxiliary energy: systems with solar collectors with auxiliary energy with gas, electric energy, internal electric energy, electric energy in series with the consumption line, and no auxiliary energy. The software is a tool to aid studies and analysis of solar heating systems, it has a friendly interface that is easy to comprehend and results are simple to use. Besides that, this version also allows simulations that consider heat losses at night, situation in which a reverse circulation can occur and mean efficiency loss, depending on the simulated system type. There were many simulations with the mathematical models used and comparisons were made with the climatic data of the city of Caxias do Sul, in Rio Grande do Sul state, in Brazil, determining the system with the most efficient configuration for the simulated water consume profile. The paper is finalized with simple economic analyses with the intention of foreseeing the time for payback on the investment, taking into account the current prices for electrical energy in the simulated area and the possible monthly economy provided with the use of a solar energy heating system. (author)

  11. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning...... methodology with Ireland as a case and the applicability of energy scenarios modelling tools as a main focus, evaluation of energy demands in Italy and finally evaluation of underground cables vs overhead lines and lacking public acceptance of incurring additional costs for the added benefit of having...

  12. Auxiliary device for the assembly of cruciform BWR control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The mounting auxiliary equipment has got a frame of the size of a core cell that can be put on the core grid. Diagonally arranged link bodies serve to center the cross-shaped control rod. The mounting auxiliary equipment consists of a single piece and therefore facilitates manipulation for which a diagonal handle is provided at the upper end. It may be swung aside. (RW) [de

  13. Auxiliary device for the assembly of cruciform BWR control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mounting auxiliary equipment has got a frame of the size of a core cell that can be put on the core grid. Diagonally arranged link bodies serve to center the cross-shaped control rod. The mounting auxiliary equipment consists of a single piece and therefore facilitates manipulation for which a diagonal handle is provided at the upper end. It may be swung aside. (orig./HP)

  14. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems : A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the

  15. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  16. Chapter 13. Industrial Application of Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry.......Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry....

  17. Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses available information on nitrification occurrence in drinking water chloraminated distribution systems. Chapter 4 provides an introduction to causes and controls for nitrification in chloraminated drinking water systems. Both chapters are intended to serve ...

  18. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  19. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of co...... political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China.......The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  20. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  1. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  2. Life cycle management of service water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, Geoffrey R.; Besuner, Philip M.; Mahajan, Sat P.

    2004-01-01

    As nuclear plants age, more attention must focus on age and time dependent degradation mechanisms such as corrosion, erosion, fatigue, etc. These degradation mechanisms can best be managed by developing a life cycle management plan which integrates past historical data, current conditions and future performance needs. In this paper we present two examples of life cycle management. In the first example, the 20-year maintenance history of a sea water cooling system (cement-lined, cast iron) is reviewed to develop attributes like maintenance cost, spare part inventory, corrosion, and repair data. Based on this information, the future expected damage rate was forecast. The cost of managing the future damage was compared with the cost to replace (in kind and with upgraded materials. A decision optimization scheme was developed to choose the least cost option from: a) Run as-is and repair; b) replace in kind; or c) replace with upgraded material and better design. In the second example, life cycle management techniques were developed for a ceilcote lined steel pipe cooling water system. Screens (fixed and traveling), filters, pumps, motors, valves, and piping were evaluated. (author)

  3. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING ELECTRIC ENERGY QUALITY ON HEATING OF THE AUXILIARY MA-CHINES OF AC ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. YU. Baliichuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to study the problem of increase the reliability of auxiliary machines for AC electric trains during operation in real conditions. Methodology. The peculiarity of system construction of auxiliary machines for AC electric rolling stock is the use of asynchronous motors for general industrial purpose. An engineering method of influence determination on the feeding voltage asymmetry and its deviation from the nominal value on heating of auxiliary machines insulation was proposed. Findings. It is found out that in case when the auxiliary machines of AC electric trains work under asymmetry factor of the voltage 10% or more and feeding voltage deviation from the nominal order 0.6 relative unit then it is possible the overheat of their isolation, even if it has class H. Originality. For the first time the issue of the total insulation heating under such boundary parameters combinations of energy quality, when each of them contributes to the heating insulation increase as compared to the nominal regime of the "rotating phase splitter−auxiliary machinery" system was illuminated. Practical value. Conducted research allow us to establish the boundary parameter values of feeding energy quality (asymmetry factor, feeding voltage deviations from the nominal value, at which additional isolation overheating of this class under the effect of specified factors will not exceed the agreed value.

  5. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  6. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Grazl, K.; Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M.

    1995-01-01

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.)

  7. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  8. WATER QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Source waters of the U.S. are vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic factors affecting quality for use as both a drinking water and ecological media. Important factors include physical parameters such as increased turbidity, ecological cycles such as algal blooms, and episodic ...

  9. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  10. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  11. New system of cooling download Arrocampo. Project TEVA; Nuevos sistema refrigeracion descarga Arrocampo. Proyecto TEVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta Munoz, S.

    2012-07-01

    Project TEVA The new system is basically a mechanical forced-cooling tower, a system of pumping water from Arrocampo, pipes and valves supply a collection basin water tower, a channel to drain the existing auxiliary spillway own shot dam and a new power line from the Central.

  12. Pump selection and application in a pressurized water reactor electric generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitch, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Various pump applications utilized in a nuclear pressurized water reactor electric generating plant are described. Emphasis is on pumps installed in the auxiliary systems of the primary nuclear steam supply system. Hydraulic and mechanical details, the ASME Code (Nuclear Design), materials, mechanical seals, shaft design, seismic qualification, and testing are addressed

  13. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  14. Detection system for continuous 222Rn monitoring in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Patschova, E.; Bosa, I.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution presents one of the high-sensitive systems of continuous radon monitoring in waters. The device can be used for the continual control of 222 Rn activity concentration in water sources, for a study of the daily and seasonal variations of radon activity concentration in water systems, for the determination of the infiltration time of surface water into the ground water and for the next untraditional applications. (authors)

  15. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    [Preview - JPEG: 537 x 400 pix - 31k] [Normal - JPEG: 1074 x 800 pix - 555k] [HiRes - JPEG: 3000 x 2235 pix - 6.0M] ESO PR Photo 07d/05 ESO PR Photo 07d/05 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 550 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1099 pix - 946k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2414 x 3316 pix - 11.0M] Captions: ESO PR Photo 07b/05 shows VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes 1 and 2 (AT1 and AT2) in the early evening light, with the spherical domes opened and ready for observations. In ESO PR Photo 07c/05, the same scene is repeated later in the evening, with three of the large telescope enclosures in the background. This photo and ESO PR Photo 07c/05 which is a time-exposure with AT1 and AT2 under the beautiful night sky with the southern Milky Way band were obtained by ESO staff member Frédéric Gomté. However, most of the time the large telescopes are used for other research purposes. They are therefore only available for interferometric observations during a limited number of nights every year. Thus, in order to exploit the VLTI each night and to achieve the full potential of this unique setup, some other (smaller), dedicated telescopes were included into the overall VLT concept. These telescopes, known as the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), are mounted on tracks and can be placed at precisely defined "parking" observing positions on the observatory platform. From these positions, their light beams are fed into the same common focal point via a complex system of reflecting mirrors mounted in an underground system of tunnels. The Auxiliary Telescopes are real technological jewels. They are placed in ultra-compact enclosures, complete with all necessary electronics, an air conditioning system and cooling liquid for thermal control, compressed air for enclosure seals, a hydraulic plant for opening the dome shells, etc. Each AT is also fitted with a transporter that lifts the telescope and relocates it from one station to another. It moves around with its own housing on the top of Paranal, almost like a snail

  16. Comparison of collective Thomson scattering signals due to fast ions in ITER scenarios with fusion and auxiliary heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Asunta, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.

    2009-01-01

    functions of fast ions generated by NBI and ICRH are calculated for a steady-state ITER burning plasma equilibrium with the ASCOT and PION codes, respectively. The parameters for the auxiliary heating systems correspond to the design currently foreseen for ITER. The geometry of the CTS system for ITER...

  17. Modeling water quality in distribution systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Robert Maurice

    2012-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Effects of Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Organization of Water Supplies in the United...

  18. Enhanced monitor system for water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David E [Knoxville, TN; Rodriquez, Jr., Miguel [Oak Ridge, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN

    2009-09-22

    An automatic, self-contained device for detecting toxic agents in a water supply includes an analyzer for detecting at least one toxic agent in a water sample, introducing a means for introducing a water sample into the analyzer and discharging the water sample from the analyzer, holding means for holding a water sample for a pre-selected period of time before the water sample is introduced into the analyzer, and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the analyzer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one toxic agent in the water sample.

  19. Water contamination events in UK drinking-water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John

    2008-01-01

    Water supply companies in the UK have a duty under prime UK legislation to notify the Drinking Water Inspectorate of events affecting or potentially affecting the quality of drinking-water supplies. Under the same legislation, the Inspectorate has a duty to investigate each event. After assessing all of the information available, including companies' reports, the Inspectorate advises on the way in which the event was handled and whether any statutory requirements were contravened. If appropriate, a prosecution of the water company may be initiated. Copies of the assessment are sent to the water company, relevant local and health authorities, Ofwat (the economic regulator), the regional Consumer Council for Water and any other interested parties, including consumers who request it. Generic guidance may be issued to the industry on matters of wider concern. This paper considers the role of the Inspectorate, the powers available to it and reporting arrangements. An overview is presented of events that occurred between 1990 and 2005 and common features are identified. Causes of different types of event are discussed. The importance of well-established contacts between the various interested parties involved in protecting public health is emphasised through discussion of example incidents.

  20. Reliability of supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations extra high voltage to high voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations (SS of extra high voltages (EHV to high voltage (HV - SS EHV/HV kV/kV is of special interest for the functioning of these important SS, as it provides a supply for system of protection and other vital functions of SS. The article addresses several characteristic examples involving MV lines with varying degrees of independence of their supply, and the possible application of direct transformation EHV/LV through special voltage transformers. Auxiliary sources such as inverters and diesel generators, which have limited power and expensive energy, are also used for the supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage. Corresponding reliability indices are calculated for all examples including mean expected annual engagement of diesel generators. The applicability of certain solutions of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage SS EHV/HV, taking into account their reliability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness is analyzed too. In particular, the analysis of applications of direct transformation EHV/LV for supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage, for both new and existing SS EHV/HV.

  1. Water hammers in direct contact heater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the causes and mitigation or prevention of water hammers occurring in direct contact heaters and their attached lines. These water hammers are generally caused by rapid pressure reductions in the heaters or by water lines not flowing full. Proper design and operating measures can prevent or mitigate water hammer occurrence. Water hammers often do not originate at the areas where damage is noted

  2. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.; Meeuwsen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance. The KW IWTS was designed to treat basin water and maintain basin clarity during fuel retrieval, washing, and packaging activities in the KW Basin. The original design was based on a mission that was limited to handling of KW Basin fuel. The use of the IWTS was extended by the decision to transfer KE fuel to KW to be cleaned and packaged using KW systems. The use was further extended for the packaging of two more Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing legacy fuel and scrap. Planning is now in place to clean and package Knock Out Pot (KOP) Material in MCOs using these same systems. Some washing of KOP material in the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) is currently being done to remove material that is too small or too large to be included in the KOP Material stream. These plans will require that the IWTS remain operational through a campaign of as many as 30 additional MCOs, and has an estimated completion date in 2012. Recent operation of the IWTS during washing of canisters of KOP Material has been impacted by low pressure readings at the inlet of the P4 Booster Pump. The system provides a low pressure alarm at 10 psig, and low-low pressure interlock at 5 psig. The response to these low readings has been to lower total system flow to between 301 and 315 gpm. In addition, the IWTS operator has been required to operate the system in manual mode and make frequent adjustments to the P4 booster pump speed during PCM washes. The preferred mode of operation is to establish a setpoint of 317 gpm for the P4 pump speed and run IWTS in semi-automatic mode. Based on hydraulic modeling compared to field data presented in this report, the low P4 inlet pressure is attributed to restrictions in the 2-inch KOP inlet hose and in the KOP itself

  3. Design and construction of a water treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaat, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    A physico-chemical water treatment system including a clarifier and a cation ion-exchange column of sodium cycle has been designed and constructed to obtain experience in design and technology of these systems. Water hardness is reduced from 500 PPM to zero PPM by reaction of lime with raw water in clarifier and passage of this partially softened water through the cation ion-exchange column for complete softening. The system has the capacity of treating 30,000 liters of water per cycle of operation. Ascending water velocity in the clarifier and volume and concentration of the regenerant and flow rate of water in the cation ion-exchange column have been experimentally determined. The project has enhanced and upgraded ENTEC'S water experts abilities to design and construct water treatment systems at higher industrial scales. (Author)

  4. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  5. Sand-Filtration System For Improving Water Quality For Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand-Filtration System For Improving Water Quality For Rural Community Water Supply. AY Karikari, JA Ampofo. Abstract. The performance of a pilot sand filtration plant for a small town water supply was monitored over a seven month period to evaluate the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the filtered water ...

  6. Metolachlor and atrazine fate in surface water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.J.; Anderson, T.A.; Coats, J.R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The detection of pesticides in surface water and ground water provokes concern involving human health risks associated with pesticide exposure. Monitoring studies of surface waters have detected concentrations of herbicides that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contamination level (MCL) for drinking water. Conventional water treatment processes do not remove many herbicides. Tap water drawn from surface-water sources has been reported to contain levels of herbicides above the regulatory limits. There is current interest in the use of artificial wetlands and macrophyte-cultured ponds in waste-water-treatment systems. Aquatic plant-based water treatment systems improve waste water effluent by solid filtration and nutrient assimilation. Various aquatic plants have been shown to accumulate metals, absorb inorganic ions, and accelerate the biodegradation of complex organics. Our research evaluates the fate of metolachlor and atrazine in surface water, surface water/sediment, and surface water/aquatic plant incubation systems to study the influence of sediment and aquatic plants in the removal and biotransformation of herbicides from contaminated waters. Aquatic macrophyte systems may prove to be useful in the remediation of herbicide contaminated surface waters in water treatment facilities or in the reduction of herbicide concentrations from tile drain effluents prior to entering watersheds.

  7. The use of auxiliary devices during irrigation to increase the cleaning ability of a chelating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho Prado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study investigated the cleaning ability of ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI and a novel activation system with reciprocating motion (EC, EasyClean, Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos when used with a relatively new chelating agent (QMix, Dentsply. In addition, the effect of QMix solution when used for a shorter (1 minute and a longer application time (3 minutes was investigated. Materials and Methods Fifty permanent human teeth were prepared with K3 rotary system and 6% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10 according to the final irrigation protocol: G1, negative control (distilled water; G2, positive control (QMix 1 minute; G3, QMix 1 minute/UAI; G4, QMix 1 minute/EC; G5, QMix 3 minutes. Subsequently the teeth were prepared and three photomicrographs were obtained in each root third of root walls, by scanning electron microscopy. Two blinded and pre-calibrated examiners evaluated the images using a four-category scoring system. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05. Results There were differences among groups (p < 0.05. UAI showed better cleaning ability than EC (p < 0.05. There were improvements when QMix was used with auxiliary devices in comparison with conventional irrigation (p < 0.05. Conventional irrigation for 3 minutes presented significantly better results than its use for 1 minute (p < 0.05. Conclusions QMix should be used for 1 minute when it is used with UAI, since this final irrigation protocol showed the best performance and also allowed clinical optimization of this procedure.

  8. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  9. Water chemistry diagnosis system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Koya, Hiroshi; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1990-01-01

    The water quality control for the BWRs in Japan has advanced rapidly recently, and as to the dose reduction due to the decrease of radioactivity, Japan takes the position leading the world. In the background of the advanced water quality control like this and the increase of nuclear power plants in operation, the automation of arranging a large quantity of water quality control information and the heightening of its reliability have been demanded. Hitachi group developed the water quality synthetic control system which comprises the water quality data management system to process a large quantity of water quality data with a computer and the water quality diagnosis system to evaluate the state of operation of the plants by the minute change of water quality and to carry out the operational guide in the aspect of water quality control. To this water quality diagnosis system, high speed fuzzy inference is applied in order to do rapid diagnosis with fuzzy data. The trend of development of water quality control system, the construction of the water quality synthetic control system, the configuration of the water quality diagnosis system and the development of algorithm and the improvement of the reliability of maintenance are reported. (K.I.)

  10. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  11. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water purification... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification...

  12. Identification and characterization of steady and occluded water in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huiyan; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Weigao; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration and leakage of drinking water in distribution systems have been a major issue in the water industry for years, which are associated with corrosion. This paper discovers that occluded water in the scales of the pipes has an acidic environment and high concentration of iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate and nitrate, which aggravates many pipeline leakage accidents. Six types of water samples have been analyzed under the flowing and stagnant periods. Both the water in the exterior of the tubercles and stagnant water carry suspended iron particles, which explains the occurrence of "red water" when the system hydraulic conditions change. Nitrate is more concentrated in occluded water under flowing condition in comparison with that in flowing water. However, the concentration of nitrate in occluded water under stagnant condition is found to be less than that in stagnant water. A high concentration of manganese is found to exist in steady water, occluded water and stagnant water. These findings impact secondary pollution and the corrosion of pipes and containers used in drinking water distribution systems. The unique method that taking occluded water from tiny holes which were drilled from the pipes' exteriors carefully according to the positions of corrosion scales has an important contribution to research on corrosion in distribution systems. And this paper furthers our understanding and contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding occluded environments in corrosion scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  14. Model Predictive Control for Operational Water Management : A Case Study of the Dutch Water System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, X.

    2015-01-01

    Water is needed everywhere to satisfy domestic, agricultural and industrial water demands, to maintain navigation systems, and to preserve healthy and sustainable ecosystems. In order to protect us from floods and to reallocate water resources in a man-made environment, the 'hardware', water-related

  15. Information Theory for Risk-based Water System Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Operational management of water resources needs predictions of future behavior of water systems, to anticipate shortage or excess of water in a timely manner. Because the natural systems that are part of the hydrological cycle are complex, the predictions inevitably are subject to considerable

  16. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  17. Optimal water meter selection system | Johnson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic/financial analysis based on an income statement together with capital budgeting techniques assist with the determination of the financial suitability of investing in a new replacement water meter. This financial analysis includes various potential income and expenditure components that will result from the ...

  18. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  19. Model predictive control on open water systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Overloop, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Human life depends on water daily, especially for drinking and food production. Also, human life needs to be protected against excess of water caused by heavy precipitation and floods. People have formed water management organizations to guarantee these necessities of life for communities. These

  20. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  1. Underground Water Distribution System, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Leak Detection Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The survey was conducted by myself, Donald Muir, Operations Coordinator, and required 12.25 working days. This was not a survey of the entire water distribution system but instead a survey of water mains 8 inch and larger...

  2. Water Information Management & Analysis System (WIMAS) v 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Water Information Management and Analysis System (WIMAS) is an ArcView based GIS application that allows users to query Kansas water right data maintained by the...

  3. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  4. Drying of heavy water system and works of charging heavy water in Fugen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Iijima, Setsuo

    1980-01-01

    The advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'' is the first heavy water-moderated, boiling light water-cooled nuclear reactor for power generation in Japan. It is a large heavy water reactor having about 130 m 3 of heavy water inventory and about 300 m 3 of helium space as the cover gas of the heavy water system. The heavy water required was purchased from FRG, which had been used for the power output test in the KKN, and the quality was 99.82 mol % mean heavy water concentration. The concentration of heavy water for Fugen used for the nuclear design is 99.70 mol%, and it was investigated how heavy water can be charged without lowering the concentration. The matters of investigation include the method of bringing the heavy water and helium system to perfect dryness after washing and light water test, the method of confirming the sufficient dryness to prevent the deterioration, and the method of charging heavy water safely from its containers. On the basis of the results of investigation, the actual works were started. The works of drying the heavy water and helium system by vacuum drying, the works of sampling heavy water and the result of the degree of deterioration, and the works of charging heavy water and the measures to the heavy water remaing in the containers are described. All the works were completed safely and smoothly. (J.P.N.)

  5. The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a water value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Walsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

  6. [Water-saving mechanisms of intercropping system in improving cropland water use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Yun; Wu, Pu-Te; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Cheng, Xue-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Based on the multi-disciplinary researches, and in terms of the transformation efficiency of surface water to soil water, availability of cropland soil water, crop canopy structure, total irrigation volume needed on a given area, and crop yield, this paper discussed the water-saving mechanisms of intercropping system in improving cropland water use efficiency. Intercropping system could promote the full use of cropland water by plant roots, increase the water storage in root zone, reduce the inter-row evaporation and control excessive transpiration, and create a special microclimate advantageous to the plant growth and development. In addition, intercropping system could optimize source-sink relationship, provide a sound foundation for intensively utilizing resources temporally and spatially, and increase the crop yield per unit area greatly without increase of water consumption, so as to promote the crop water use efficiency effectively.

  7. Electrospinning of aligned fibers with adjustable orientation using auxiliary electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arras, Matthias M L; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Bergmeister, Helga

    2012-01-01

    A conventional electrospinning setup was upgraded by two turnable plate-like auxiliary high-voltage electrodes that allowed aligned fiber deposition in adjustable directions. Fiber morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The auxiliary electric field constrained the jet bending instability and the fiber deposition became controllable. At target speeds of 0.9 m s −1 90% of the fibers had aligned within 2°, whereas the angular spread was 70° without the use of auxiliary electrodes. It was even possible to orient fibers perpendicular to the rotational direction of the target. The fiber diameter became smaller and its distribution narrower, while according to the FTIR-ATR measurement the molecular orientation of the polymer was unaltered. This study comprehensively documents the feasibility of directed fiber deposition and offers an easy upgrade to existing electrospinning setups. (paper)

  8. Dental auxiliaries versus community health workers: similarities and contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Melo Costa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The dental auxiliaries and the community health workers (CHWs are practitioners that represent an important part in the Family Health Policy in Brazil and have several tasks. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attributes of the dental auxiliaries and of the CHWs, regarding the application of their services and their education/training, to identify the similarities and contrasts between these health care practitioners. METHODOLOGY: Quantitative and census method data collection performed on the context of the Education Program for Health Workers - PET‑Saúde, 2010‑2012. The data collection method was a semi-structured questionnaire. The analysis has a level of significance of p0.05. CONCLUSION: Similarities and contrasts were identified between these health care workers. The dental auxiliaries, despite being mostly issued to specific assignments on a clinical environment, are able to shift their praxis by taking actions on a family and community context once integrated to a family health team.

  9. What Modals Are: Modal Verbs, Modal Words, and Auxiliary Modals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazira A. Kakzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modals are a complicated grammatical phenomenon. As of today, the status of modals is still not precisely defined in the linguistics literature, and they are described under different names: modal verbs, modal words, auxiliary modals, or defective verbs. Modals express the result of the conversion of thought processes (deep structure about the realization of actions into surface structure. As articles determine the status of nouns as indefinite or definite things, modals determine the relation of a person to actions or the quality of an action as realizable or unrealizable. Modals cannot truly be ‘modal verbs’, because they lack the morphological characteristics of verbs (aspect, voice, mood, and tense, and the term ‘defective verb’ is flawed for the same reason. Furthermore, they cannot be ‘auxiliary modals’, because they don’t neutralize their main meanings when they become auxiliary. Thus, I propose to refer to these elements only as modals or modal words.

  10. Ecology of Legionella pneumophila within water distribution systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, J E; Yu, V L; Best, M G

    1985-01-01

    The reservoir for hospital-acquired Legionnaires disease has been shown to be the potable water distribution system. We investigated the influence of the natural microbial population and sediment (scale and organic particulates) found in water systems as growth-promoting factors for Legionella pneumophila. Our in vitro experiments showed that: (i) water from hot-water storage tank readily supported the survival of L. pneumophila, (ii) the concentration of sediment was directly related to the ...

  11. Apparatus, System, and Method for Forward Osmosis in Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2013-01-03

    An apparatus, system, and method for desalinating water is presented. The invention relates to recovery of water from impaired water sources by using FO and seawater as draw solution (DS). The seawater becomes diluted over time and can be easily desalinated at very low pressures. Thus, a device consumes less energy when recovering water. The apparatus, system and method comprise an immersed forward osmosis cell.

  12. A fuzzy recommendation system for daily water intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Dai; Rung-Ching Chen; Shun-Zhi Zhu; Chung-Yi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Water is one of the most important constituents of the human body. Daily consumption of water is thus necessary to protect human health. Daily water consumption is related to several factors such as age, ambient temperature, and degree of physical activity. These factors are generally difficult to express with exact numerical values. The main objective of this article is to build a daily water intake recommendation system using fuzzy methods. This system will use age, physical activity, and a...

  13. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  14. Full Scale Drinking Water System Decontamination at the Water Security Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA’s Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) facility is a full-scale representation of a drinking water distribution system. In collaboration with the Idaho National...

  15. Report on decontamination of the heavy water system - Annex 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    After dying, the air was introduced into the heavy water system including both heat exchangers. The whole system excluding the pump 'Avala' was filled with 7% acid solution. After 3 days, this solution was removed and the system was filled with 1% solution which remained in the system for 6 hours. The analysis of decontamination effects showed that the whole procedure should be repeated. Parts of the taken apart pump were decontaminated. Washing of the heavy water system was done by cold, then by warm water and finally by distilled water. The pH value was permanently controlled. The achieved decontamination results are shown in a separate report [sr

  16. Shower Water Reuse System-Expanded Operations to Laundry Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    methylmethanamine 42751-79-1 5-35 ppm 300 µL/L Coagulation and flocculation agent Ferric sulfate (>9.5%) 10028-22-5 Magnasol 4000 Aluminum chlorhydrate...items developed. Residues of chemicals of military interest that cost the U.S. Army billions of dollars and were part of mission essential activities...environmental health effects of SWRS expansion for laundry water recycling, specifically evaluating the safety of the system’s flocculating or coagulation

  17. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.E.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  18. Water System Architectures for Moon and Mars Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Water systems for human bases on the moon and Mars will recycle multiple sources of wastewater. Systems for both the moon and Mars will also store water to support and backup the recycling system. Most water system requirements, such as number of crew, quantity and quality of water supply, presence of gravity, and surface mission duration of 6 or 18 months, will be similar for the moon and Mars. If the water system fails, a crew on the moon can quickly receive spare parts and supplies or return to Earth, but a crew on Mars cannot. A recycling system on the moon can have a reasonable reliability goal, such as only one unrecoverable failure every five years, if there is enough stored water to allow time for attempted repairs and for the crew to return if repair fails. The water system that has been developed and successfully operated on the International Space Station (ISS) could be used on a moon base. To achieve the same high level of crew safety on Mars without an escape option, either the recycling system must have much higher reliability or enough water must be stored to allow the crew to survive the full duration of the Mars surface mission. A three loop water system architecture that separately recycles condensate, wash water, and urine and flush can improve reliability and reduce cost for a Mars base.

  19. Microbial composition of purified waters and implications for regrowth control in municipal water systems

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Caitlin R.; Edwards, Marc A.; Pruden, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The limits of water treatment to control microbial regrowth were examined using highly purified waters. Measurable microbial genetic material was detected in the product water in a survey of thirteen laboratory pure water systems. Illumina 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed surprisingly diverse microbial assemblages, confirmed to be active in bioassays, with no direct relationship to quality or maintenance of the systems. With storage under both light and dark conditions, a 2-log incr...

  20. Development and validation of a drinking water temperature model in domestic drinking water supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanovic, Ljiljana; Moerman, Andreas; Hoek, van der, Jan Peter; Vreeburg, Jan; Blokker, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Domestic drinking water supply systems (DDWSs) are the final step in the delivery of drinking water to consumers. Temperature is one of the rate-controlling parameters for many chemical and microbiological processes and is, therefore, considered as a surrogate parameter for water quality processes. In this study, a mathematical model is presented that predicts temperature dynamics of the drinking water in DDWSs. A full-scale DDWS resembling a conventional system was built and run according to...

  1. Sampling designs dependent on sample parameters of auxiliary variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wywiał, Janusz L

    2015-01-01

    The book offers a valuable resource for students and statisticians whose work involves survey sampling. An estimation of the population parameters in finite and fixed populations assisted by auxiliary variables is considered. New sampling designs dependent on moments or quantiles of auxiliary variables are presented on the background of the classical methods. Accuracies of the estimators based on original sampling design are compared with classical estimation procedures. Specific conditional sampling designs are applied to problems of small area estimation as well as to estimation of quantiles of variables under study. .

  2. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...... auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest...

  3. Analysis and Measurement of NOx Emissions in Port Auxiliary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German de Melo Rodriguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is made NOx pollution emitted by port auxiliary vessels, specifically by harbour tugs, due to its unique operating characteristics of operation, require a large propulsion power changes discontinuously, also possess some peculiar technical characteristics, large tonnage and high propulsive power, that differentiate them from other auxiliary vessels of the port. Taking into account all the above features, there are no studies of the NOx emission engines caused by different working regimes of power because engine manufacturers have not measured these emissions across the range of operating power, but usually we only report the pollution produced by its engines to a maximum continuous power.

  4. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  5. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, protein (PN, and polysaccharide (PS in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  6. TRNSYS coupled with previs for simulation and sizing of solar water heating system: University Campus as case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dkiouak, R.; Ahachad, M.

    2006-01-01

    A solar plant for hot-water production was investigated by the dynamic simulation code TRNSYS coupled with PREVIS code. Typical daily university campus consumption for a 240 students was considered. The hot-water demand temperature (45 degree centigrade) is controlled by a conventional fuel auxiliary heater and a tempering valve. The fluids circulate by pumps activated by electricity. Annual energy performance, in terms of solar fraction, was calculated for Tangier.(Author)

  7. Modulatory mechanisms and multiple functions of somatodendritic A-type K+ channel auxiliary subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hungtao Jerng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary subunits are non-conducting, modulatory components of the multi-protein ion channel complexes that underlie normal neuronal signaling. They interact with the pore-forming α-subunits to modulate surface distribution, ion conductance, and channel gating properties. For the somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium (ISA channel based on Kv4 α-subunits, two types of auxiliary subunits have been extensively studied: Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPLPs. KChIPs are cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins that interact with intracellular portions of the Kv4 subunits, whereas DPLPs are type II transmembrane proteins that associate with the Kv4 channel core. Both KChIPs and DPLPs genes contain multiple start sites that are used by various neuronal populations to drive the differential expression of functionally distinct N-terminal variants. In turn, these N-terminal variants generate tremendous functional diversity across the nervous system. Here, we focus our review on (1 the molecular mechanism underlying the unique properties of different N-terminal variants, (2 the shaping of native ISA properties by the concerted actions of KChIPs and DPLP variants, and (3 the surprising ways that KChIPs and DPLPs coordinate the activity of multiple channels to fine-tune neuronal excitability. Unlocking the unique contributions of different auxiliary subunit N-terminal variants may provide an important opportunity to develop novel targeted therapeutics to treat numerous neurological disorders.

  8. The SOL-2/Neto auxiliary protein modulates the function of AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Mellem, Jerry E; Jensen, Michael; Brockie, Penelope J; Walker, Craig S; Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Hauth, Linda; Madsen, David M; Maricq, Andres V

    2012-09-06

    The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates excitatory synaptic transmission by gating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). AMPA receptors (AMPARs), a subtype of iGluR, are strongly implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We previously discovered two classes of AMPAR auxiliary proteins in C. elegans that modify receptor kinetics and thus change synaptic transmission. Here, we have identified another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR. In sol-2 mutants, behaviors dependent on glutamatergic transmission are disrupted, GLR-1-mediated currents are diminished, and GLR-1 desensitization and pharmacology are modified. Remarkably, a secreted variant of SOL-1 delivered in trans can rescue sol-1 mutants, and this rescue depends on in cis expression of SOL-2. Finally, we demonstrate that SOL-1 and SOL-2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water...... and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response relationships a range of effects from different drinking water qualities is merged into a holistic...... economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water...

  10. A fuzzy recommendation system for daily water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important constituents of the human body. Daily consumption of water is thus necessary to protect human health. Daily water consumption is related to several factors such as age, ambient temperature, and degree of physical activity. These factors are generally difficult to express with exact numerical values. The main objective of this article is to build a daily water intake recommendation system using fuzzy methods. This system will use age, physical activity, and ambient temperature as the input factors and daily water intake values as the output factor. The reasoning mechanism of the fuzzy system can calculate the recommended value of daily water intake. Finally, the system will compare the actual recommended values with our system to determine the usefulness. The experimental results show that this recommendation system is effective in actual application.

  11. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  12. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  13. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    southwestern U.S., requiring states, particularly California , to establish mandates for reductions in water usage . On April 1, 2015, Governor Brown...and mostly dry summer season) in southern California , it is not a cost effective method to reduce potable water usage for landscape irrigation...mean time between failures MTTF mean time to failure MWDSC Metropolitan Water District of Southern California NAVFAC EXWC Naval Facilities

  14. Historical Calibration of a Water Account System

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy M Baynes; Graham M Turner; James West

    2009-01-01

    Models that are used for future based scenarios should be calibrated with historical water supply and use data. Historical water records in Australia are discontinuous, incomplete and often incongruently disaggregated. We present a systematic method to produce a coherent reconstruction of the historical provision and consumption of water in Victorian catchments. This is demonstrated using WAS: an accounting and simulation tool that tracks the stocks and flows of physical quantities relating t...

  15. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  16. Water Quality in Selected Small Drinking Water Systems of Missouri Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small drinking water treatment systems (serving <10,000 population in rural communities frequently encounter multiple challenges in water quality and federal regulatory compliance, especially the disinfection byproduct (DBP regulations, due to source water variations, limited resources, and aging infrastructures. Unlike most studies on the DBP control using synthetic water in laboratory settings, this research aimed to identify the major water quality issues confronting small systems in the state of Missouri (MO, the United States of America (USA. Three small systems were selected based on source water and geographic locations. Water samples were collected quarterly from each major treatment process during the period of May 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed to identify the treatment effectiveness and potential water quality issues in each small system. Results of water quality characterization showed that the major water quality issue in the selected small systems was the low efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (DOC removal, especially the DOC species that are considered as the DBP precursors. Most collected water samples had a higher trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA maximum contaminant limit (MCL (80 μg/L. Based on the analysis of the treatment efficiency in each system, several strategies for water quality improvement were recommended, and a few of which have been implemented in the small systems, leading to improved drinking water quality and compliance with the USEPA DBP regulations. This study would provide a valuable aid to small system operators and local water authority in context of water quality improvement and the regulatory compliance.

  17. Water Resources System Archetypes: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Persistent Water Resources Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W.; Madani, K.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.

  18. Unit process engineering for water quality control and biosecurity in marine water recirculating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-intensity systems that treat and recirculate water must maintain a culture environment that can sustain near optimum fish health and growth at the design carrying capacity. Water recirculating systems that use centralized treatment systems can benefit from the economies of scale to decrease th...

  19. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  20. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  1. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  2. Drinking water distribution systems: assessing and reducing risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Water Science and Technology Board; National Research Council (U.S.). Committe on Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks

    2006-01-01

    .... Distribution systems -- consisting of pipes, pumps, valves, storage tanks, reservoirs, meters, fittings, and other hydraulic appurtenances -- carry drinking water from a centralized treatment plant...

  3. A transportable system for radioactivity contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated water treatment system called SARRY for retrieval and recovery of water in operation at the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant since August 2011 has been modified by compacting the system size to develop a mobile system SARRY-Aqua that can process Cs-contaminated water (one ton/hour) to the level of 10 Bq/kg. Installing the system in a small container with dimensions conforming to the international standards facilitates transportation by truck and enables the contaminated water treatment occurring in a variety of locations. (S. Ohno)

  4. Developing Fluorescence Sensor Systems for Early Detection of Nitrification Events in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of nitrification events in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification events ...

  5. Privatisation of water systems: Crime against humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus R. Mobie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasises the importance of water resources, which are vital to the sustenance of life. Water is essential for various reasons: for drinking, for personal hygiene, for cooking, for watering crops, for cleaning our homes etc. One can therefore conclude that, without this vital resource, there is no life. It is for this reason that God, giver of life, gave water as a gift – free – both to humanity and to the rest of creation, so that we may all achieve fullness of life. This article challenges the fact that, because of the insistence of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the privatisation of water supplies where the poorest of the poor are unable to pay, these people are cut off from water supplies and are deprived of the right to the fullness of life. The author emphasises that there is no life without water, that water resources are a gift from the creator and should therefore be made accessible to all, rich and poor alike.

  6. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid...

  7. Integrated Solution Support System for Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassahun, A.; Blind, M.; Krause, A.U.M.; Roosenschoon, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    Solving water management problems involves technical, social, economic, political and legal challenges and thus requires an integrated approach involving people from different backgrounds and roles. The integrated approach has been given a prominent role within the European Union¿s Water Framework

  8. Innovated feed water distributing system of VVER steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Sousek, P.; Simo, T.; Lehota, M.; Lipka, J.; Slugen, V.

    2000-01-01

    Defects in feed water distributing system due to corrosion-erosion effects have been observed at many VVER 440 steam generators (SG). Therefore analysis of defects origin and consequently design development and testing of a new feed water distributing system were performed. System tests in-situ supported by calculations and comparison of measured and calculated data were focused on demonstration of long term reliable operation, definition of water flow and water chemical characteristics at the SG secondary side and their measurements and study of dynamic characteristics needed for the innovated feed water distributing system seismic features approval. The innovated feed water distributing system was installed in the SGs of two VVER units already. (author)

  9. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  10. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mertz

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10{sup -3} that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  11. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Mertz Jason Cardon Mike Salmon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10 -3 that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  12. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled; Solucoes do sistema de equacoes P1 sem o uso de equacoes diferenciais auxiliares acopladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dialysate. This generic type of device may include a water softener, sediment filter, carbon filter, and... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water...

  14. Joint optimization of regional water-power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Mo, Birger; Gjelsvik, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Energy and water resources systems are tightly coupled; energy is needed to deliver water and water is needed to extract or produce energy. Growing pressure on these resources has raised concerns about their long-term management and highlights the need to develop integrated solutions. A method fo...

  15. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue of Tuesday, March 22, 2011, make the...

  16. An analysis of the auxiliary structure of basic Nigerian pidgin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of pidgin as a language should not depend on “social” recognition or “social” approval. The basis for ... Premised on the foregoing, this study strives to illustratively analyse the auxiliary structure of basic Nigerian pidgin sentences since the issue of basic word order is one of the universals of human language.

  17. On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions An and Bn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comment: “On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions An and Bn”. FRANK E HARRIS. Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Email: harris@qtp.ufl.edu. Abstract. Guseinov, Mamedov ...

  18. Auxiliary services for petrochemistry. Cogeneration, thermocompression, steam distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergerio, G.; Bruzzi, V.

    1999-01-01

    The article gives some guidelines for the choice of the most suitable energy vectors distributed in petrochemical plants and refineries for auxiliary services and for processes (mainly distillation). Conclusions are summed up in a diagram showing the most suitable heat sources and sinks for the various temperature ranges [it

  19. Dental auxiliaries for dental care traditionally provided by dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Tom A; Brocklehurst, Paul; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Davies, Linda; Tickle, Martin; Issac, Ansy; Robinson, Peter G

    2014-08-20

    Poor or inequitable access to oral health care is commonly reported in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Although the severity of these problems varies, a lack of supply of dentists and their uneven distribution are important factors. Delegating care to dental auxiliaries could ease this problem, extend services to where they are unavailable and liberate time for dentists to do more complex work. Before such an approach can be advocated, it is important to know the relative effectiveness of dental auxiliaries and dentists. To assess the effectiveness, costs and cost effectiveness of dental auxiliaries in providing care traditionally provided by dentists. We searched the following electronic databases from their inception dates up to November 2013: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group's Specialised Register; Cochrane Oral Health Group's Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 11, 2013); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness; five other databases and two trial registries. We also undertook a grey literature search and searched the reference list of included studies and contacted authors of relevant papers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled clinical trials (NRCTs), interrupted time series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies (CBAs) evaluating the effectiveness of dental auxiliaries compared with dentists in undertaking clinical tasks traditionally performed by a dentist. Three review authors independently applied eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included study and two review authors assessed the quality of the evidence from the included studies, according to The Cochrane Collaboration's procedures. Since meta-analysis was not possible, we gave a narrative description of the results. We identified five studies (one cluster

  20. On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions An and Bn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Onsekiz Mart University, C¸ anakkale, Turkey. Email: guseinov@cheerful.com. Abstract. The Comment 'on the computation of auxiliary functions An(p) and Bn(pt)' (F E Harris,. Pramana – J. Phys. 61, C779 (2003)) is analysed in the arbitrary range of parameters n p and pt.

  1. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and... compromise the integrity of the car body or be otherwise impractical. Auxiliary lights on such MU locomotives... flashing feature may be activated automatically, but shall be capable of manual activation and deactivation...

  2. Improving Semi-Supervised Learning with Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    expressive for semi-supervised learning. By utilizing the stochasticity of the auxiliary variable we demonstrate how to train discriminative classifiers resulting in state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning exemplified by an 0.96% error on MNIST using 100 labeled data points. Furthermore...

  3. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  4. System for harvesting water wave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  5. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  6. Virtual Water Scarcity Risk to the Global Trade System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shen; Liang, Sai; Konar, Megan; Zhu, Zeqi; Chiu, Anthony S F; Jia, Xiaoping; Xu, Ming

    2018-01-16

    Local water scarcity risk (LWSR, meaning potential economic output losses in water-using sectors due to physical water scarcity) can be transmitted to downstream economies through the globalized supply chains. To understand the vulnerability of the global economy to water scarcity, we examine the impacts of local water scarcity risk on the global trade system from 1995 to 2009. We observe increasingly intensified geographical separation between physical water scarcity and production losses due to water scarcity. We identify top nation-sectors in virtual water scarcity risk (VWSR) exports (indicating local water scarcity risk in each nation transmitted to foreign nations through its exports), including agriculture and utilities in major economies such as China, India, Spain, France, and Turkey. These nation-sectors are critical to the resilience of the global economy to water scarcity. We also identify top nation-sectors in virtual water scarcity risk imports (indicating each nation's vulnerability to foreign water scarcity risk through the global trade system), highlighting their vulnerability to distant water scarcity. Our findings reveal the need for nations to collaboratively manage and conserve water resources, and lay the foundation for firms in high VWSR-importing sectors to develop strategies to mitigate such risk.

  7. Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli An

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of water constraint risk and developed an approach for the evaluation of the water constraint risks for agricultural production by performing a case study in Daxing District, Beijing, China. The results show that, over the whole growth period, the order of the water constraint risks of crops from high to low was wheat, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, summer soybean, summer peanut, spring corn, and summer corn, and the order of the water constraint risks of the cropping systems from high to low was winter wheat-summer grain crops, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, and spring corn. Our results are consistent with the actual evolving process of cropping system. This indicates that our proposed method is practicable to adjust and optimize the cropping systems to mitigate and adapt to potential water risks. This study provides an insight into the adjustment and optimization of cropping systems under resource constraints.

  8. Hydroponic systems and water management in aquaponics: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics (AP, the integrated multi-trophic fish and plants production in quasi-closed recirculating system, is one of the newest sustainable food production systems. The hydroponic component of the AP directly influences water quality (in turn influencing fish growth and health, and water consumption (through evapotranspiration of the entire system. In order to assess the role of the design and the management of the hydroponic component on the overall performance, and water consumption of the aquaponics, 122 papers published from 1979 to 2017 were reviewed. Although no unequivocal results were found, the nutrient film technique appears in several aspects less efficient than medium-based or floating raft hydroponics. The best system performance in terms of fish and plant growth, and the highest nutrient removal from water was achieved at water flow between 0.8 L min–1 and 8.0 L min–1. Data on water consumption of aquaponics are scarce, and no correlation between the ratio of hydroponic unit surface/fish tank volume and the system water loss was found. However, daily water loss was positively correlated with the hydroponic surface/fish tank volume ratio if the same experimental conditions and/or systems were compared. The plant species grown in hydroponics influenced the daily water loss in aquaponics, whereas no effect was exerted by the water flow (reciprocating flood/drain cycle or constant flow or type (medium-based, floating or nutrient film technique of hydroponics.

  9. Development and validation of a drinking water temperature model in domestic drinking water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanovic, Ljiljana; Moerman, Andreas; Hoek, van der Jan Peter; Vreeburg, Jan; Blokker, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Domestic drinking water supply systems (DDWSs) are the final step in the delivery of drinking water to consumers. Temperature is one of the rate-controlling parameters for many chemical and microbiological processes and is, therefore, considered as a surrogate parameter for water quality

  10. Development and validation of a drinking water temperature model in domestic drinking water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanović, L.; Moerman, A.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Blokker, M

    2017-01-01

    Domestic drinking water supply systems (DDWSs) are the final step in the delivery of drinking water to consumers. Temperature is one of the rate-controlling parameters for many chemical and microbiological processes and is, therefore, considered as a surrogate parameter for water quality processes.

  11. Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    . In order to inhibit gas hydrate formation in subsea pipelines monoethylene glycol (MEG) and methanol are injected in large amounts. It is important to know the distribution of these chemicals in oil and water systems for economical operation of a production facility and to evaluate their impact on marine...... life. Furthermore distribution of chemicals is important information for downstream processing of oil and gas. The purpose of this project is the experimental measurement and the thermodynamic modeling of distribution of these complex chemicals in oil-water systems. Traditionally distribution...... of chemicals in oil-water system is calculated using octanol-water partition coefficients. But experiments carried out by Statoil R & D have shown that octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) do not always mimic oil-water partition coefficients (Koil-water) and therefore calculations may not be always...

  12. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...... desiccant dew-point cooling system, for demonstrating its function and applicability. Simulations are carried out for varying outdoor conditions under constant supply conditions. The results show that the system is independent of external water supply for the majority of simulated conditions. In comparison...

  13. Water Treatment Systems Make a Big Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In the 1960s, NASA's Manned Space Center (now known as Johnson Space Center) and the Garrett Corporation, Air Research Division, conducted a research program to develop a small, lightweight water purifier for the Apollo spacecraft that would require minimal power and would not need to be monitored around-the-clock by astronauts in orbit. The 9-ounce purifier, slightly larger than a cigarette pack and completely chlorine-free, dispensed silver ions into the spacecraft s water supply to successfully kill off bacteria. A NASA Technical Brief released around the time of the research reported that the silver ions did not impart an unpleasant taste to the water. NASA s ingenuity to control microbial contamination in space caught on quickly, opening the doors for safer methods of controlling water pollutants on Earth.

  14. Lyophilization for Water Recovery III, System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids that remain. Our previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground- based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents results of functional and performance tests.

  15. Experimental Study of the Performance of Air Source Heat Pump Systems Assisted by Low-Temperature Solar-Heated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low temperatures, the heating efficiency of air source heat pump systems during the winter is very low. To address this problem, a low-temperature solar hot water system was added to a basic air source heat pump system. Several parameters were tested and analyzed. The heat collection efficiency of the solar collector was analyzed under low-temperature conditions. The factors that affect the performance of the heat pumps, such as the fluid temperature, pressure, and energy savings, were analyzed for cases where the solar energy auxiliary heat pump and the air source heat pump are used independently. The optimal heating temperature and the changes in the fluid temperature were determined. The influence of the compression ratio and the coefficient of performance (COP were investigated theoretically. The results revealed the parameters that are important to the performance of the system. Several measures for improving the COP of the heat pump units are provided for other applications and future research.

  16. The optimisation of a water distribution system using Bentley WaterGEMS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtnicka Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper maintenance of water distribution systems (WDSs requires from operators multiple actions in order to ensure optimal functioning. Usually, all requirements should be adjusted simultaneously. Therefore, the decision-making process is often supported by multi-criteria optimisation methods. Significant improvements of exploitation conditions of WDSs functioning can be achieved by connecting small water supply networks into group systems. Among many potential tools supporting advanced maintenance and management of WDSs, significant improvements have tools that can find the optimal solution by the implemented mechanism of metaheuristic methods, such as the genetic algorithm. In this paper, an exemplary WDS functioning optimisation is presented, in relevance to a group water supply system. The action range of optimised parameters included: maximisation of water flow velocity, regulation of pressure head, minimisation of water retention time in a network (water age and minimisation of pump energy consumption. All simulations were performed in Bentley WaterGEMS software.

  17. Ozonation system for treatment of cooling tower water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, T.; Horton, A.; Kaplan, B.

    1994-11-10

    An improved system for treatment of cooling tower water using ozone as a biocide. A self-contained unit is supplied with compressed air which is introduced to ozone generating electrodes at a constant flowrate. The ozone is mixed with tower water and then returned to the cooling tower. A sampling probe allows for constant monitoring of the ozone content of water coming from the tower. The volume of ozone mixing with the tower water is accordingly constantly adjusted. The system also includes safety control features to monitor system operation and provide shutoff in the event of malfunction. (author).

  18. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  19. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Blomer, J. [CERN; Herner, K. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Slyz, M. [Fermilab

    2015-12-23

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called 'alien cache' to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached

  20. Emergy evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system based on water cycle process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Wu, Z.; Lv, C.

    2017-12-01

    The water utilization benefits are formed by the material flow, energy flow, information flow and value stream in the whole water cycle process, and reflected along with the material circulation of inner system. But most of traditional water utilization benefits evaluation are based on the macro level, only consider the whole material input and output and energy conversion relation, and lack the characterization of water utilization benefits accompanying with water cycle process from the formation mechanism. In addition, most studies are from the perspective of economics, only pay attention to the whole economic output and sewage treatment economic investment, but neglect the ecological function benefits of water cycle, Therefore, from the perspective of internal material circulation in the whole system, taking water cycle process as the process of material circulation and energy flow, the circulation and flow process of water and other ecological environment, social economic elements were described, and the composition of water utilization positive and negative benefits in water-ecological-economic system was explored, and the performance of each benefit was analyzed. On this basis, the emergy calculation method of each benefit was proposed by emergy quantitative analysis technique, which can realize the unified measurement and evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system. Then, taking Zhengzhou city as an example, the corresponding benefits of different water cycle links were calculated quantitatively by emergy method, and the results showed that the emergy evaluation method of water utilization benefits can unify the ecosystem and the economic system, achieve uniform quantitative analysis, and measure the true value of natural resources and human economic activities comprehensively.