WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxiliary power units

  1. Hovercraft auxiliary power units (APUs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.J.

    1983-08-01

    Auxiliary power units (APU) manufactured by British firms for use in hovercraft are characterized. Both diesel and gas-turbine APUs are found to be well suited to the demands of this application. The design features, dimensions, performance data, and installation requirements are discussed for the SS 90, SS 923, DA-1, BA-1, HM 5, and Gevaudan 9 APUs, as well as the TRS 18 gas-turbine smoke generator. The progress made in improving the fuel efficiency of gas turbines and reducing the weight of diesel engines is considered significant.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market

  3. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  4. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  5. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  6. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  7. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, M.; Loken, G.; Horton, J.; Lukens, W.; Scott, W.; Baughman, J.; Bauch, T.

    An overview of the United States Space Shuttle Orbiter APU, which provides power to the Orbiter vehicle hydraulic system, is presented. Three complete APU systems, each with its own separate fuel system, supply power to three dedicated hydraulic systems. These in turn provide power to all Orbiter vehicle critical flight functions including launch, orbit, reentry, and landing. The basic APU logic diagram is presented. The APU includes a hydrazine-powered turbine that drives a hydraulic pump and various accessories through a high-speed gearbox. The APU also features a sophisticated thermal management system designed to ensure safe and reliable operation in the various launch, orbit, reentry, and landing environments.

  8. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... locomotive is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) that operates during an idle shutdown mode, you must account for the APU's emissions rates as specified in this section, unless the APU is part of an... emission rate (g/hr) as specified in § 1033.530. Add the APU emission rate (g/hr) that you determine...

  9. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    MSFC has embarked on use of green propellant replacement of hydrazine for a variety of applications. This paper focused on activities for auxiliary power unit but MSFC is actively investigating use of green propellants for thruster applications. MSFC is interested in partnership with the international community to address the infusion of green propellant into greater use.

  10. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which... in operation, and remain stopped during operation of the engine as an auxiliary power unit (“APU...

  11. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began the process of building an integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies. Technology Area 1 (TA-01)1 for Launch Propulsion Systems is one of fourteen TAs that provide recommendations for the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA's space technology activities. Identified within TA-01 was the need for a green propulsion auxiliary power unit (APU) for hydraulic power by 2015. Engineers led by the author at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been evaluating green propellant alternatives and have begun the development of an APU test bed to demonstrate the feasibility of use. NASA has residual APU assets remaining from the retired Space Shuttle Program. Likewise, the F-16 Falcon fighter jet also uses an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) that has similar characteristics to the NASA hardware. Both EPU and APU components have been acquired for testing at MSFC. This paper will summarize the status of the testing efforts of green propellant from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) propellant AFM315E based on hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) with these test assets.

  12. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Beckel, Steve

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began the process of building an integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies. Technology Area 1 (TA-01) for Launch Propulsion Systems is one of fourteen TA's that provide recommendations for the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA's space technology activities. Identified within TA-01 was the need for a green propulsion auxiliary power unit (APU) for hydraulic power by 2015. Engineers led by the author at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been evaluating green propellant alternatives and have begun the development of an APU testbed to demonstrate the feasibility of use. NASA has residual APU assets remaining from the retired Space Shuttle Program. Likewise, the F-16 Falcon fighter jet also uses an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) that has similar characteristics to the NASA hardware. Both EPU's and APU components have been acquired for testing at MSFC. In concert with this effort, ATK has been developing green propellant technology based on the Swedish Space Corp ECAPS LMP-103S propellant. Propellant blending and test facilities have been established at ATK's Elkton MD facility with the intent to provide suitable propellant blends for application to green APU systems as well as thrusters. This paper will summarize the status of the testing efforts with ATK for use of the green propellant LMP-103S based on ammonium dinitramide and use of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) propellant AF-M315E based on hydroxyl ammonium nitrate with these test assets.

  13. Compact propane fuel processor for auxiliary power unit application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokupil, M.; Spitta, C.; Mathiak, J.; Beckhaus, P.; Heinzel, A.

    With focus on mobile applications a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is currently being developed at the Centre for Fuel Cell Technology (Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik, ZBT gGmbH). The system is consisting of an integrated compact and lightweight fuel processor and a low temperature PEM fuel cell for an electric power output of 300 W. This article is presenting the current status of development of the fuel processor which is designed for a nominal hydrogen output of 1 k Wth,H2 within a load range from 50 to 120%. A modular setup was chosen defining a reformer/burner module and a CO-purification module. Based on the performance specifications, thermodynamic simulations, benchmarking and selection of catalysts the modules have been developed and characterised simultaneously and then assembled to the complete fuel processor. Automated operation results in a cold startup time of about 25 min for nominal load and carbon monoxide output concentrations below 50 ppm for steady state and dynamic operation. Also fast transient response of the fuel processor at load changes with low fluctuations of the reformate gas composition have been achieved. Beside the development of the main reactors the transfer of the fuel processor to an autonomous system is of major concern. Hence, concepts for packaging have been developed resulting in a volume of 7 l and a weight of 3 kg. Further a selection of peripheral components has been tested and evaluated regarding to the substitution of the laboratory equipment.

  14. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Lubośny; Krzysztof Dobrzyński; Jacek Klucznik

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown) is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high ca...

  15. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high capacity is required.

  16. Strategic analysis of a manufacturing company and the North American auxiliary power unit market

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Craig B.

    2005-01-01

    Power Systems has been the leader in the truck auxiliary power unit business since 2000 and has been making significant advancements in the price of the product as well as its reliability and robustness. Unfortunately the reliability and robustness requirement is increasing further and the profit margin is shrinking to the point that Power Systems needs to undertake a new product development program. The new product offering will result in zero increase in the price to the customer but provid...

  17. On the switching of NPP power unit transformers from auxiliary network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the parameters of direct transformer connection the oscillography of a number of parameters of Zaporozhe NPP network and generators was performed, when switching the 1000 MW power unit transformer complex with 750 kV buses. The complex of transformers consisted of three single-phase 787/24 kV ORts-417000/750-77 type transformers and two auxiliary 24/6.3/6.3 kV of TRDNS-63000/35-72 type tramsformers connected to their 24 kV windings. It is shown that generator excitation forcing conditions arise for several seconds when applying voltage to a power unit step-up transformer through closure of the switch onto NPP high-voltage buses due to high jumps of magnetizing current. A technique of switching power unit transformer through application of voltage from 6 kV auxiliary section with subsequent connection to NPP high-voltage buses via a short-term mode of parallel operation, is mastered

  18. STS-31 Discovery, OV-103, auxiliary power unit 1 (APU-1) controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The controller for Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, auxiliary power unit 1 (APU-1) is documented before removal following the launch scrub on 04-10-90. The controller weighs about 15 pounds and controls the speed of the APU. It was flown to the vendor, Sundstrand Corp., Rockford, Illinois, for analysis and testing. Launch of OV-103 on mission STS-31 has been rescheduled for 04-24-90 following the successful replacement of the APU-1 and the recharging of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) nickel-hydrogen batteries. View provided by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with alternate KSC number KSC-90PC-663.

  19. Hydrogen environment embrittlement of turbine disk alloys. [for space shuttle auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.; Joyce, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Astroloy and V-57, two candidate turbine disk alloys for the auxiliary power unit (APU) of the space shuttle propulsion and power system were tested for their resistance to embrittlement in hydrogen environments. Samples of both these nickel-base alloys were subjected to notch and smooth tensile testing and to creep testing in hydrogen. The high resistance exhibited by Astroloy forgings to embrittlement by hydrogen is attributed to the microstructure produced by forging and also to the special heat treatment schedule. V-57 turbine disks successfully completed short-time performance testing in the experimental APU. The use of the Astroloy, however, would permit increasing turbine inlet temperature and the rotational speed beyond those possible with V-57.

  20. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700oC. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  1. Auxiliary power unit based on a solid oxide fuel cell and fuelled with diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeremy; Boltze, Matthias

    An auxiliary power unit (APU) is presented that is fuelled with diesel, thermally self-sustaining, and based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The APU is rated at 1 kW electrical, and can generate electrical power after a 3 h warm-up phase. System features include a "dry" catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer, a 30 cell SOFC stack with an open cathode, and a porous-media afterburner. The APU does not require a supply of external water. The SOFC stack is an outcome of a development partnership with H.C. Starck GmbH and Fraunhofer IKTS, and is discussed in detail in an accompanying paper.

  2. Model-based prediction of suitable operating range of a SOFC for an Auxiliary Power Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfafferodt, Matthias; Heidebrecht, Peter; Stelter, Michael; Sundmacher, Kai

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady state model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to be used in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). The fuel cell is fed a prereformed gas from an external autothermic reformer. In addition to the three electrochemical reactions (reduction of oxygen at the cathode, oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide at the anode) the water-gas shift reaction and the methane steam reforming reaction are taken into account in the anode channel. The model predicts concentrations and temperatures and uses an equivalent circuit approach to describe the current-voltage characteristics of the cell. The model equations are presented and their implementation into the commercial mathematical software FEMLAB is discussed. An application of this model is used to determine suitable operating parameters with respect to optimum performance and allowable temperature.

  3. The modeling of a standalone solid-oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, N.; Li, Q.; Sun, X.; Khaleel, M. A.

    In this research, a Simulink model of a standalone vehicular solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) is developed. The SOFC APU model consists of three major components: a controller model; a power electronics system model; and an SOFC plant model, including an SOFC stack module, two heat exchanger modules, and a combustor module. This paper discusses the development of the nonlinear dynamic models for the SOFC stacks, the heat exchangers and the combustors. When coupling with a controller model and a power electronic circuit model, the developed SOFC plant model is able to model the thermal dynamics and the electrochemical dynamics inside the SOFC APU components, as well as the transient responses to the electric loading changes. It has been shown that having such a model for the SOFC APU will help design engineers to adjust design parameters to optimize the performance. The modeling results of the SOFC APU heat-up stage and the output voltage response to a sudden load change are presented in this paper. The fuel flow regulation based on fuel utilization is also briefly discussed.

  4. 75 FR 34347 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... published the proposed AD in the Federal Register on December 23, 2009 (74 FR 68196). That action proposed... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant economic...) for Honeywell International Inc. auxiliary power unit (APU) models GTCP36- 150(R) and...

  5. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  6. Auxiliary power unit noise of Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jimmy S. W.; Yang, S. J. Eric

    Most modern civil aircraft have an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) which provides compressed air for engine starting and the air-conditioning system on ground and electrical power for aircraft use both on-ground and in-fligth. It is basically a gas turbine engine and it consists of a compressor section, a turbine section, and an accessory drive section. For Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft, the APU is located inside a compartment in the tail section of the aircraft and is completely enclosed by a sound-reduction fire-proof titanium shroud. APU noise is one of the major noise sources at many airports and is extremely important for a densely populated city such as Hong Kong. The noise from APU can affect many people, including ground crew aircraft maintenance staff, and people living in the vicinity of the airport. However, there is very little information available in the literature about APU noise. This paper describes the noise measurement method and presents the measurement results for APUs of one B747 and two B737 aircraft under both 'loaded' and 'no-load' conditions.

  7. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yongpeng Shen; Zhendong He; Dongqi Liu; Binjie Xu

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary power units (APUs) are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP) firstly. The four comp...

  8. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  9. Conceptual design and selection of a biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchia, S.; Tillemans, F. W. A.; van den Oosterkamp, P. F.; Saracco, G.

    Within the European project BIOFEAT (biodiesel fuel processor for a fuel cell auxiliary power unit for a vehicle), a complete modular 10 kW e biodiesel fuel processor capable of feeding a PEMFC will be developed, built and tested to generate electricity for a vehicle auxiliary power unit (APU). Tail pipe emissions reduction, increased use of renewable fuels, increase of hydrogen-fuel economy and efficient supply of present and future APU for road vehicles are the main project goals. Biodiesel is the chosen feedstock because it is a completely natural and thus renewable fuel. Three fuel processing options were taken into account at a conceptual design level and compared for hydrogen production: (i) autothermal reformer (ATR) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors; (ii) autothermal reformer (ATR) with a single medium temperature shift (MTS) reactor; (iii) thermal cracker (TC) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors. Based on a number of simulations (with the AspenPlus® software), the best operating conditions were determined (steam-to-carbon and O 2/C ratios, operating temperatures and pressures) for each process alternative. The selection of the preferential fuel processing option was consequently carried out, based on a number of criteria (efficiency, complexity, compactness, safety, controllability, emissions, etc.); the ATR with both HTS and LTS reactors shows the most promising results, with a net electrical efficiency of 29% (LHV).

  10. Engineering aspects and hardware verification of a volume producable solid oxide fuel cell stack design for diesel auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Michael; Reinert, Andreas; Mai, Björn Erik; Kuznecov, Mihail

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack module is presented that is designed for operation on diesel reformate in an auxiliary power unit (APU). The stack was designed using a top-down approach, based on a specification of an APU system that is installed on board of vehicles. The stack design is planar, modular and scalable with stamped sheet metal interconnectors. It features thin membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), such as electrolyte supported cells (ESC) and operates at elevated temperatures around 800 °C. The stack has a low pressure drop in both the anode and the cathode to facilitate a simple system layout. An overview of the technical targets met so far is given. A stack power density of 0.2 kW l -1 has been demonstrated in a fully integrated, thermally self-sustaining APU prototype running with diesel and without an external water supply.

  11. A review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (HT-PEMFC)-based auxiliary power units for diesel-powered road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Lehnert, Werner; Janßen, Holger; Samsun, Remzi Can; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive review of research on the development of auxiliary power units with enhanced reformate tolerance for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). Developments in diesel reforming for fuel cells as auxiliary power units (APUs), single fuel cells and stacks and systems are outlined in detail and key findings are presented. Summaries of HT-PEMFC APU applications and start-up times for HT-PEMFC systems are then given. A summary of cooling HT-PEMFC stacks using a classic schematic diagram of a 24-cell HT-PEMFC stack, with a cooling plate for every third cell, is also presented as part of a stack analysis. Finally, a summary of CO tolerances for fuel cells is given, along with the effects of different CO volume fractions on polarization curves, the fraction of CO coverage, hydrogen coverage, anode overpotential and cell potential.

  12. A techno-economic comparison of fuel processors utilizing diesel for solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehter, Pedro; Hansen, John Bøgild; Larsen, Peter Koch

    Ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) is the preferred fuel for mobile auxiliary power units (APU). The commercial available technologies in the kW-range are combustion engine based gensets, achieving system efficiencies about 20%. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) promise improvements with respect to efficiency and emission, particularly for the low power range. Fuel processing methods i.e., catalytic partial oxidation, autothermal reforming and steam reforming have been demonstrated to operate on diesel with various sulphur contents. The choice of fuel processing method strongly affects the SOFC's system efficiency and power density. This paper investigates the impact of fuel processing methods on the economical potential in SOFC APUs, taking variable and capital cost into account. Autonomous concepts without any external water supply are compared with anode recycle configurations. The cost of electricity is very sensitive on the choice of the O/C ratio and the temperature conditions of the fuel processor. A sensitivity analysis is applied to identify the most cost effective concept for different economic boundary conditions. The favourite concepts are discussed with respect to technical challenges and requirements operating in the presence of sulphur.

  13. Study on Use of Fuel-Cell Auxiliary Power Units in Refrigerator Cars Employed for Delivery to Convenience Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Noboru; Kamiyama, Hideyuki; Kogoshi, Sumio; Kudo, Yusuke; Fukada, Takafumi; Ogawa, Makoto

    The use of fuel-cell auxiliary power units (FC-APU) in refrigerator cars employed delivery to for convenience store delivery has been studied. The delivery pattern is assumed to be a typical pattern that includes driving between convenience stores or between a delivery center and a convenience store, unloading, driver's lunch break. The M15 driving mode, which simulates the driving condition in urban areas, is used as the driving mode in the delivery pattern. The FC-APU system includes a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) module, an inverter, and DC/DC converter. Bench tests of the FC-APU are performed to determine the hydrogen fuel consumption rate and the energy efficiency; these values depend on the output power of the PEFC module. The calculated relationship between the output power and fuel consumption rate of a current used system, which consists of an alternator and a secondary battery, are used to estimate the energy efficiency of the current used system. On the basis of the measurement data in this study and the results for the model proposed by Brodric et al. [C. J. Brodrick et al., Trans. Res. D, vol 7, pp. 303 (2002)], the payback period is calculated. The results indicate that the payback period would be 2.1 years when the FC-APU operates at a load of 70%.

  14. BIOFEAT: Biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Study of the feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, M.; Bollito, G.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, S.

    An integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a 10 kW e integrated biodiesel fuel processor has been designed and is being developed. Auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and thermal cracking (TC) were considered for converting the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells. The fuel processor includes also a gas clean-up system that will reduce the carbon monoxide in the primary processor exit gas to below 10 ppm via a new heat-integrated CO clean-up unit, based on the assembly of catalytic heat exchange plates, so as to meet the operational requirements of a PEMFC stack. This article is devoted to the study and selection of the proper feed strategy for the primary fuel processor. Different pre-treatment and feed alternatives (e.g. based on nozzles or simple coils) were devised and tested for the ATR processors, which turned out to be the preferred primary processing route. A nozzle-based strategy was finally selected along with special recommendations about the constituent materials and the operating procedures to be adopted to avoid coking and nozzle corrosion as well as to allow a wide turn down ratio.

  15. Electrical start-up for diesel fuel processing in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Tschauder, Andreas; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    As auxiliary power units in trucks and aircraft, fuel cell systems with a diesel and kerosene reforming capacity offer the dual benefit of reduced emissions and fuel consumption. In order to be commercially viable, these systems require a quick start-up time with low energy input. In pursuit of this end, this paper reports an electrical start-up strategy for diesel fuel processing. A transient computational fluid dynamics model is developed to optimize the start-up procedure of the fuel processor in the 28 kWth power class. The temperature trend observed in the experiments is reproducible to a high degree of accuracy using a dual-cell approach in ANSYS Fluent. Starting from a basic strategy, different options are considered for accelerating system start-up. The start-up time is reduced from 22 min in the basic case to 9.5 min, at an energy consumption of 0.4 kW h. Furthermore, an electrical wire is installed in the reformer to test the steam generation during start-up. The experimental results reveal that the generation of steam at 450 °C is possible within seconds after water addition to the reformer. As a result, the fuel processor can be started in autothermal reformer mode using the electrical concept developed in this work.

  16. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary power units (APUs are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP firstly. The four competing objectives of this CMOP are fuel-electricity conversion cost, hydrocarbon (HC emissions, carbon monoxide (CO emissions and nitric oxide (NO x emissions. Then, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and weighted metric decision making method are employed to solve the APU operating point multi-objective optimization model. Finally, bench experiments under New European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal test procedure (FTP and high way fuel economy test (HWFET driving cycles show that, compared with the results of the traditional fuel consumption single-objective optimization approach, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach shows significant improvements in emissions performance, at the expense of a slight drop in fuel efficiency.

  17. Dynamic evaluation of low-temperature metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell oriented to auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenwei; Berghaus, Jörg Oberste; Yick, Sing; Decès-Petit, Cyrille; Qu, Wei; Hui, Rob; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave

    A metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composed of a Ni-Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 2- δ (Ni-SDC) cermet anode and an SDC electrolyte was fabricated by suspension plasma spraying on a Hastelloy X substrate. The cathode, an Sm 0.5Sr 0.5CoO 3 (SSCo)-SDC composite, was screen-printed and fired in situ. The dynamic behaviour of the cell was measured while subjected to complete fuel shutoff and rapid start-up cycles, as typically encountered in auxiliary power units (APU) applications. A promising performance - with a maximum power density (MPD) of 0.176 W cm -2 at 600 °C - was achieved using humidified hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. The cell also showed excellent resistance to oxidation at 600 °C during fuel shutoff, with only a slight drop in performance after reintroduction of the fuel. The Cr and Mn species in the Hastelloy X alloy appeared to be preferentially oxidized while the oxidation of nickel in the metallic substrate was temporarily alleviated. In rapid start-up cycles with a heating rate of 60 °C min -1, noticeable performance deterioration took place in the first two thermal cycles, and then continued at a much slower rate in subsequent cycles. A postmortem analysis of the cell suggested that the degradation was mainly due to the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficient across the cathode/electrolyte interface.

  18. 75 FR 33162 - Airworthiness Directives; Microturbo Saphir 20 Model 095 Auxiliary Power Units (APUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or..., of the SAPHIR 20 Model 095 APU is a life-limited part. Microturbo had determined through...

  19. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas; Dwyer, Harry; Sperling, Daniel; Gouse, S. William; King, Foy

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engines. Ef...

  20. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Sperling, Dan; Gouse, Bill; Harris, D Bruce; King, Foy G

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engin...

  1. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas; Dwyer, Harry; Sperling, Daniel; Gouse, S. William; King, Foy

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engines....

  2. Investigation of the Start-up Strategy for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Auxiliary Power Unit under Transient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. von Spakovsky

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A typical approach to the synthesis/design optimization of energy systems is to only use steady state operation and high efficiency (or low total life cycle cost at full load as the basis for the synthesis/design. Transient operation as reflected by changes in power demand, shut-down, and start-up are left as secondary tasks to be solved by system and control engineers once the synthesis/design is fixed. However, start-up and shut-down may be events that happen quite often and, thus, may be quite important in the creative process of developing the system. This is especially true for small power units used in transportation applications or for domestic energy supplies, where the load demand changes frequently and peaks in load of short duration are common. The duration of start-up is, of course, a major factor which must be considered since rapid system response is an important factor in determining the feasibility of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC based auxiliary power units (APUs. Start-up and shut-down may also significantly affect the life span of the system due to thermal stresses on all system components. Therefore, a proper balance must be struck between a fast response and the costs of owning and operating the system so that start-up or any other transient process can be accomplished in as short a time as possible yet with a minimum in fuel consumption.

    In this research work we have been studying the effects of control laws and strategies and transients on system performance. The results presented in this paper are based on a set of transient models developed and implemented for the components of a 5 kWe net power SOFC based APU and for the high-fidelity system which results from their integration. The simulation results given below are for two different start-up approaches: one with steam recirculation and component pre-heating and the second without either. These start-up simulations were performed for fixed values of a number of

  3. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  4. Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, John S; Timko, Michael T; Herndon, Scott C; Wood, Ezra C; Yu, Zhenhong; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip; Hagen, Donald; Wey, Changlie; Anderson, Bruce E; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Hudgins, Charles H; Thornhill, K Lee; Winstead, Edward; Howard, Robert; Bulzan, Dan I; Tacina, Kathleen B; Knighton, W Berk

    2012-04-01

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK auxiliary power unit (APU) were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements were conducted by multiple research organizations for sulfur dioxide (SO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), speciated gas-phase emissions, particulate matter (PM) mass and number, black carbon, and speciated PM. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD), number-based geometric mean particle diameter (GMD), and smoke number were also determined from the data collected. The results of the research showed PM mass emission indices (EIs) in the range of 20 to 700 mg/kg fuel and PM number EIs ranging from 0.5 x 10(15) to 5 x 10(15) particles/kg fuel depending on engine load and fuel type. In addition, significant reductions in both the SO2 and PM EIs were observed for the use of the FT fuel. These reductions were on the order of approximately 90% for SO2 and particle mass EIs and approximately 60% for the particle number EI, with similar decreases observed for black carbon. Also, the size of the particles generated by JP-8 combustion are noticeably larger than those emitted by the APU burning the FT fuel with the geometric mean diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm depending on engine load and fuel type. Finally, both particle-bound sulfate and organics were reduced during FT-2 combustion. The PM sulfate was reduced by nearly 100% due to lack of sulfur in the fuel, with the PM organics reduced by a factor of approximately 5 as compared with JP-8. PMID:22616284

  5. Performance Based Logistics (PBL) for the FA-18/S-3/P-3/C-2 auxiliary power unit (APU) at Honeywell: an applied analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Landreth, Clifford J.; Corporon, Laura L.; Wilhelm, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA project is to evaluate and assess the metrics, incentives and other terms and conditions of the Performance Based Logistics (PBL) contract between Naval Aviation Inventory Control Point (NAVICP) and Honeywell in support of FA-18/S-3/P-3/C-2 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to determine if the contractual terms and conditions established are effective in facilitating and encouraging the full potential of PBL savings and improved performance. PBL is an acquisition reform initi...

  6. The Subsection Control Strategy Used for the Auxiliary Power Unit Electrical Start%应用于APU电起动的分段式控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海宵

    2013-01-01

    The auxiliary power unit ( APU) is an important system of the civil aircraft for the aircraft safety and comfort. Large current output for long time will cause disadvantage effect on battery usage life. Also the too long start time will damage APU. So when start the APU by using the battery as the input power, for the purpose of re-ducing the damage to battery and APU, it is needed to start the APU in a shorter time by a lower battery output cur-rent. The subsection of power-current control strategy can start the APU in shorter time with the lowest damage to the battery and APU. This is important for extending the use life of APU and battery.%民用飞机辅助动力装置( APU)是保证飞机安全和舒适性的重要系统。大电流长时放电对蓄电池的使用寿命有不利影响,同时起动时间过长对APU也有不利影响。在使用蓄电池作为起动APU的功率来源时,为了减小对蓄电池和APU的损害,需要使用较小的蓄电池输出电流在较短的时间内将APU起动。采用功率-电流分段式控制的起动方式可以在较短的时间内,以对蓄电池和APU损伤最小的方式实现APU的起动。对延长蓄电池和APU使用寿命具有重要意义。

  7. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon;

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...

  8. 辅助动力装置建模及数值仿真%Model and numerical simulation of auxiliary power unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常博博; 苏三买; 刘铁庚; 刘美凤

    2011-01-01

    In order to supporting auxiliary power unit(APU) design,the widely used APU with load compressor in structure was discussed and modeled.Firstly,the structural characteristics and regulation law are introduced and then how the load compressor works on APU was analyzed.Finally the mathematic model of APU was established based on components.Take a kind of APU as the object for numerical simulation and then compare with the actual test data.The results show that the dynamic simulation error is less than 5%.The mathematic model of APU is suitable for engineering usage.%为辅助APU(auxiliary power unit)的研发,以目前广泛应用的带负载压气机结构APU为研究对象,进行建模分析与研究.首先介绍了APU结构特点与调节规律,然后分析了负载压气机对APU共同工作的影响,最后采用部件法建立了该类型APU数学模型并设计仿真软件.以某型APU为对象,数值仿真与实际试车数据比较,结果表明所采用的建模方法是正确的,计算误差小于5%,所建立的模型能够满足工程需求.

  9. Power consumption of the ASCV and auxiliary equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1998-01-01

    Operating an ASCV requires power - to cover the losses in the ASCV itself and to run auxiliary equipment. It is necessary to take this power consumption into account when considering the economical aspects of installing an ASCV.Field measurements of this consumption of the ASCV in Rejsby Hede are...

  10. 20--500 watt AMTEC auxiliary electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K. [Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerous design studies have been completed on Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) power systems for space applications demonstrating their substantial increase in performance. Recently design studies have been initiated to couple AMTEC power conversion with fossil fueled combustion systems. This paper describes the results of a Phase 1 SBIR effort to design an innovative, efficient, reliable, long life AMTEC Auxiliary Electric Power System (AEPS) for remote site applications (20--500 watts). The concept uses high voltage AMTEC cells, each containing 7 to 9 small electrolyte tubes, integrated with a combustor and recuperator. These multi-tube AMTEC cells are low cost, reliable, long life static converters. AMTEC technology is ideal for auxiliary electric power supplies that must operate reliably over a broad range of temperatures, fuel sources, power levels, and operational specifications. The simplicity, efficiency (20% systems) and modularity of this technology allow it to fill applications as varied as light-weight backpacks, remote site power supplies, and military base power. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of a 20% system design, and showed that the development needs to focus on identifying long life AMTEC cell components, determining the AMTEC cell and system reliability, and demonstrating that a 20 watt AMTEC system is 3--5 times more efficient than existing systems for the same application.

  11. Development and design of experiments optimization of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell auxiliary power unit with onboard fuel processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstedt, Jörg; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen; Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan

    In this work, the concept development, system layout, component simulation and the overall DOE system optimization of a HT-PEM fuel cell APU with a net electric power output of 4.5 kW and an onboard methane fuel processor are presented. A highly integrated system layout has been developed that enables fast startup within 7.5 min, a closed system water balance and high fuel processor efficiencies of up to 85% due to the recuperation of the anode offgas burner heat. The integration of the system battery into the load management enhances the transient electric performance and the maximum electric power output of the APU system. Simulation models of the carbon monoxide influence on HT-PEM cell voltage, the concentration and temperature profiles within the autothermal reformer (ATR) and the CO conversion rates within the watergas shift stages (WGSs) have been developed. They enable the optimization of the CO concentration in the anode gas of the fuel cell in order to achieve maximum system efficiencies and an optimized dimensioning of the ATR and WGS reactors. Furthermore a DOE optimization of the global system parameters cathode stoichiometry, anode stoichiometry, air/fuel ratio and steam/carbon ratio of the fuel processing system has been performed in order to achieve maximum system efficiencies for all system operating points under given boundary conditions.

  12. Auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank electrical power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2006-10-24

    An auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank (AQRDCT) power converter with fast current charging, voltage balancing (or charging), and voltage clamping circuits is provided for achieving soft-switched power conversion. The present invention is an improvement of the invention taught in U.S. Pat. No. 6,111,770, herein incorporated by reference. The present invention provides faster current charging to the resonant inductor, thus minimizing delay time of the pulse width modulation (PWM) due to the soft-switching process. The new AQRDCT converter includes three tank capacitors or power supplies to achieve the faster current charging and minimize the soft-switching time delay. The new AQRDCT converter further includes a voltage balancing circuit to charge and discharge the three tank capacitors so that additional isolated power supplies from the utility line are not needed. A voltage clamping circuit is also included for clamping voltage surge due to the reverse recovery of diodes.

  13. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs.

  14. Increasing the Cruise Range and Reducing the Capital Cost of Electric Vehicles by Integrating Auxiliary Unit with the Traction Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Satheesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor cruise performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs continues to be the primary reason that impends their market penetration. Adding more battery to extend the cruise range is not a viable solution as it increases the structural weight and capital cost of the EV. Simulations identified that a vehicle spends on average 15% of its total time in braking, signifying an immense potential of the utilization of regenerative braking mechanism. Based on the analysis, a 3 kW auxiliary electrical unit coupled with the traction drive during braking events increases the recoverable energy by 8.4%. In addition, the simulation revealed that, on average, the energy drawn from the battery is reduced by 3.2% when traction drive is integrated with the air-conditioning compressor (an auxiliary electrical load. A practical design solution of the integrated unit is also included in the paper. Based on the findings, it is evident that the integration of an auxiliary unit with the traction drive results in enhancing the energy capturing capacity of the regenerative braking mechanism and decreases the power consumed from the battery. Further, the integrated unit boosts other advantages such as reduced material cost, improved reliability, and a compact and lightweight design.

  15. Self-start of auxiliary electric motors at the site with 440MW units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique for calculating electric motors in self-start modes with provision for their mechanical charateristics is given. Recommendations on switching off individual electric motors during self-start of both single and all sections of NPP 440 MW unit auxiliaries to restore quickly bus voltage are presented

  16. 福清核电1、2号机组增大应急给水箱容积安全分析%Safety Analysis on the Volume Increase of Auxiliary Water Tank for Number One and Two Units of Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟立丽; 邵舸; 顾健; 薛峻峰; 彭建平; 王志强

    2013-01-01

    When main feed water system or start-up feed water system is unavailable, auxiliary feed water system, as Engineered Safety Facility (ESF), provides water for Steam Generators (SG) to remove the stored and decay heat from the reactor core. In order to improve the safety of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and increase operational flexibility, the water inventory of the auxiliary feed water tank is increased in the number one and two units of Fuqing NPP. The model of the NPP is built based on mechanical safety analytical code, and conservative assumptions are used in the calculation. Three typical accident sequences, such as loss of main feed water, loss of offsite power in category Ⅱ accident, and main feed water line break in category IV, are selected to analyze whether or not the inventory in auxiliary water tank after improvement satisfies the relevant requirements in RCC-R The results show that auxiliary water inventory of 713m3 is needed for loss of main feed water accident, auxiliary water inventory of 723m3 is needed for loss of offsite power accident, and auxiliary water inventory of 799m3 is needed for main feed water line break accident. The inventory in auxiliary water tank after improvement satisfies the requirements for category Ⅱ and Ⅳ accidents. The safety of NPP is improved due to the inventory redundancy and a time window is also provided for the operators to perform related accident procedures.%辅助给水系统(ASG)作为专设安全设施在主给水或启动给水不可用时向蒸汽发生器供水,以导出堆芯余热.为了提高电厂安全性,增加运行灵活性,福清核电1、2号机组对应急给水箱的有效容积进行了增加.本文采用机理性安全分析程序,建立核电厂分析模型,在计算过程中采用保守假设条件,选取Ⅱ类工况下正常给水丧失事故,厂外电丧失事故,Ⅳ类工况下主给水管道破裂事故3条典型事故序列,分析改进后的应急给水箱容量是否满足压水

  17. Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Study Volume 1: RASER Task Order 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Audie; Meier, John

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) and the impact in a 90-passenger More-Electric Regional Jet application. The study established realistic hybrid SOFC APU system weight and system efficiencies, and evaluated the impact on the aircraft total weight, fuel burn, and emissions from the main engine and the APU during cruise, landing and take-off (LTO) cycle, and at the gate. Although the SOFC APU may be heavier than the current conventional APU, its weight disadvantage can be offset by fuel savings in the higher SOFC APU system efficiencies against the main engine bleed and extraction during cruise. The higher SOFC APU system efficiency compared to the conventional APU on the ground can also provide considerable fuel saving and emissions reduction, particularly at the gate, but is limited by the fuel cell stack thermal fatigue characteristic.

  18. The ATLAS FTK Auxiliary Card: A Highly Functional VME Rear Transition Module for a Hardware Track Finding Processing Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Alison, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdan, M; Bryant, P; Cheng, YY; Krizka, K; Shochet, M; Tompkins, L; Webster, J

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer is a hardware-based track finder for the ATLAS High Level Trigger. Pattern recognition and preliminary track fitting are performed by VME Processing Units consisting of an Associative Memory Board (AMB) containing custom associative memory chips for pattern recognition, and the Auxiliary Card (AUX), a powerful rear transition module which formats the data for the AMB and performs linearized fits on AMB track candidates. We report on the design and testing of the AUX, which utilizes six FPGAs to process up to 32 Gbps of hit data and fit one track candidate per nanosecond.

  19. Disturbance in the power system caused by auxiliary DC installation failure of switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesic, M. [HEP Transmission System Operator, Zagreb (Croatia); Tesnjak, S.; Skok, S. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2008-07-01

    Auxiliary direct current (DC) installation failures can lead to outages in power plants and compromise the security of power systems. In this study, a simplified stationary model was used to simulate an auxiliary DC installation in a switchyard. The aim of the study was to evaluate new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for auxiliary DC installation dimensioning and analysis. Criteria included the dimensioning and selection of batteries; the calculation of conductor heating; voltage drop calculations; conductor squares in relation to permanent currents; and the evaluation of protection elements. The new standards were compared with the previous auxiliary system installation methodology. Results of the study suggested that the new standard has introduced significant improvements in short circuit current calculation. Laboratory tests for the measurement of short circuits showed that the active network has less of an impact on the auxiliary system than previous measuring methods. Alterations to the IEC standard will be required as a result of limitations to the short circuit current and new rectifier technology. Results of the study will be used to develop a new model and scheme for dimensioning and analyzing auxiliary DC installations. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Using auxiliary gas power for CCS energy needs in retrofitted coal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bashadi, Sarah O.; Herzog, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Adding post-combustion capture technology to existing coal-fired power plants is being considered as a near-term option for mitigating CO[subscript 2] emissions. To supply the thermal energy needed for CO[subscript 2] capture, much of the literature proposes thermal integration of the existing coal plant’s steam cycle with the capture process’ stripper reboiler. This paper examines the option of using an auxiliary natural gas turbine plant to meet the energetic demands of carbon capture and c...

  1. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  2. Power station unit control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VDI/VDE code refers to the power generating unit within the process control system that interconnects the power unit and the consumer. Basic principles and requirements to be met by the various networks are explained, as well as characteristics of control engineering of the power generating unit and its components. This is followed by a description of the configurations of the unit control system, the control equipment and operational characteristics, the suitability and applicability of unit control configurations, and finally of the control quality with regard to sensibility to disturbances. A list of symbols used and of catchwords is given. (HAG)

  3. Multicriteria optimization of the investment in the auxiliary services of thermal power plants: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multiobjective optimization model to improve the efficiency of auxiliary services. • Economic (investment and NPV) and energy saving criteria are considered. • Evolutionary multiobjective optimization is used for solving the problem with a DM. • A case study based on a real 1100 MW coal-fired power plant is considered. • Results show very profitable solutions from the economic and energy points of view. - Abstract: Thermal power plants have traditionally operated at rated power as base load, but nowadays they operate at partial loads because of the new situation of the electricity market. These plants have raised their auxiliary services consumption because, in most of the cases, the auxiliaries were not designed to efficiently operate at partial loads. This paper presents a multiple criteria study about the efficiency improvement of the auxiliary services. We consider the economic investment and the net present value, as economic criteria, together with the energy saving criterion. In the multiobjective model proposed, the energy model is validated using several measures taken in a 1100 megawatts coal power plant. Besides, the multiobjective problem associated to the case study considered is solved using evolutionary multiobjective optimization and considering preference information. The results obtained conclude that a significant efficiency improvement of the auxiliary services can be achieved by means of the improvement strategies considered. Indeed, the high net present values reached indicate that the investments required by the different solutions are really profitable from the economic perspective. Therefore, investing money in the efficiency improvement of the auxiliary services represents a very profitable option for improving the operation of power plants at partial loads

  4. Performance of turbine auxiliaries and service systems at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of the turbine auxiliaries and service systems at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, India are described. Some of the specific problems encountered in connection with the feed water, turbine governing and common services like compressed air, chilled water, water treatment and chlorination systems are outlined. (K.B.)

  5. Analysis of design of auxiliary system of Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plant's internal auxiliary system has an important role in its safety operation. Because of the decay heat and safety aspects in the nuclear power plants, this role is more important. In this thesis, operation of the nuclear power plant with PWR reactor is studied and deferent nuclear systems described. In the next section all electrical loads in the Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant identified and feeding methods of each load is determined. by use of the single line diagram of the internal auxiliary system, the nominal rating of all electrical devices as transformers, inverters, Ups, diesel generators and etc. is determined. In the following, short circuit calculations performed and by above conclusion, rating values of circuit breakers is determined. At last the starting problems of electrical motors is studied and the results of motor's behavior at starting moment is discussed

  6. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  7. Analysis of Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station unit auxiliary transformer fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 6, 1988, the Unit 1 Unit Auxiliary Transformer (UAT) catastrophically failed resulting in a major oil fire. A secondary fire, due to re-energization of a non-class 1E 13.8 KV bus, damaged turbine building switchgear and bus components. The estimated cost of direct damage is approximately $3,400,000. The initiating event leading to the UAT failure was most likely a phase to ground fault in a non-class 1E 13.8 KV bus. The initial fault condition resulted in arcing which propagated into a three phase to ground fault which lead to winding failure and rupture of the UAT. The transformer oil fire was controlled and extinguished by passive and active fire protection features and the plant fire department. The switchgear fire was extinguished by the plant fire department utilizing a CO2 hose reel system. 1 fig

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  9. Equipment Reliability Improvement for Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant Auxiliary Feedwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigated how the performance of the Koeberg Auxiliary Feedwater System could be improved using the 'maintenance rule'. As a conclusion, this paper figured out AFWS pumps and the TDP control circuit need special attention in improving the reliability of the AFWS, this lead to an improved maintenance strategy for the system. The purpose of this study is to apply maintenance rule to enhance the Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) maintenance strategy at Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). Currently, Koeberg AFWS health status is red, needing an improvement. This study seeks to use maintenance rule to identify components that enable AFWS to fulfill its essential functions so as to focus maintenance resources and have the greatest beneficial impact on improving reliability and availability of the system

  10. NSTS Orbiter auxiliary power unit turbine wheel cracking risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, T. A.; Mcclung, R. C.; Torng, T. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The present investigation of turbine-wheel cracking problems in the hydrazine-fueled APU turbine wheel of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's Main Engines has indicated the efficacy of systematic probabilistic risk assessment in flight certification and safety resolution. Nevertheless, real crack-initiation and propagation problems do not lend themselves to purely analytical studies. The high-cycle fatigue problem is noted to generally be unsuited to probabilistic modeling, due to its extremely high degree of intrinsic scatter. In the case treated, the cracks appear to trend toward crack arrest in a low cycle fatigue mode, due to a detuning of the resonance model.

  11. Safety Assessment of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) System for Civil Aircraft Based on Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis (DFTA)%基于动态故障树分析的民用飞机辅助动力装置系统安全性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋

    2014-01-01

    Traditional fault tree analysis method is widely used for system safety assessment in civil aviation indus-try , but dynamic characteristics of systems/subsystems, including operational sequencing interpretation, spare and redundancy expression cannot be represented by traditional fault trees. On the other hand, civil aircraft auxiliary power unit ( APU) often operates as a redundant system and its behavior can be described by using dynamic fault tree appropriately. As a result, the interest of DFTA application is focused on APU system safety assessment. In this paper, two kinds of dynamic gates ( PAND and CSP) were introduced firstly. Their quantitative calculations were presented by applying Markov model. Then two typical cases with auxiliary power unit ( APU) system safety assess-ment were analyzed by traditional fault tree and dynamic fault tree respectively. Finally the comparison between two kinds of Fault Tree Analysis ( FTA ) was provided and the result indicates that Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis ( DFTA) method based on proper application reaches remarkable accuracy ,and the calculation cost is acceptable when second-order approximation of exponential distribution function is applied.%在民用航空工业领域,传统的故障树分析方法广泛运用于系统安全性评估。然而,包含系统/子系统运行的时序阐述以及备份、冗余表达在内的动态特性不能通过传统故障树呈现。另一方面,民用飞机辅助动力装置( APU)经常作为一个冗余系统运作,因而其行为可以通过运用动态故障树进行适当的描述。所以APU的这种特性激发了动态故障树分析在APU系统安全性评估上应用的关注。首先介绍了两种动态门(优先与门和冷备件门),其定量计算通过施用马尔可夫模型来呈现;然后分别通过传统故障树以及动态故障树分析了APU系统安全性评估的两个典型案例;最后进行了两种故障树分析( FTA )的比较,其

  12. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  13. Teleporting an unknown quantum state with unit fidelity and unit probability via a non-maximally entangled channel and an auxiliary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashvand, Taghi

    2016-08-01

    We present a new scheme for quantum teleportation that one can teleport an unknown state via a non-maximally entangled channel with certainly, using an auxiliary system. In this scheme depending on the state of the auxiliary system, one can find a class of orthogonal vectors set as a basis which by performing von Neumann measurement in each element of this class Alice can teleport an unknown state with unit fidelity and unit probability. A comparison of our scheme with some previous schemes is given and we will see that our scheme has advantages that the others do not.

  14. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  15. The ATLAS FTK Auxiliary Card: A Highly Functional VME Rear Transition Module for a Hardware Track Finding Processing Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Alison, John; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdan, Mircea; Bryant, Patrick; Cheng, Yangyang; Krizka, Karol; Shochet, Mel; Tompkins, Lauren; Webster, Jordan S

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer is a hardware-based charged particle track finder for the High Level Trigger system of the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC. Using a multi-component system, it finds charged particle trajectories of 1 GeV/c and greater using data from the full ATLAS silicon tracking detectors at a rate of 100 kHz. Pattern recognition and preliminary track fitting are performed by VME Processing Units consisting of an Associative Memory Board containing custom associative memory chips for pattern recognition, and the Auxiliary Card (AUX), a powerful rear transition module which formats the data for pattern recognition and performs linearized fits on track candidates. We report on the design and testing of the AUX, which utilizes six FPGAs to process up to 32 Gbps of hit data, as well as fit the helical trajectory of one track candidate per nanosecond through a highly parallel track fitting architecture. Both the board and firmware design will be discussed, as well as the performance observed in tests at CERN ...

  16. Analysis of Heat Removal Capability of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) in APR (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, South Korea has designed PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus). Because the PAFS replaces a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system and plays a role in the ultimate heat sink for decay heat, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of PAFS under postulated accidents conditions. Therefore, the performance analysis is carried out for two accident cases: Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and Feedwater Line Break (FLB) accidents. For the analysis, MARS-KS code is used and MARS-KS model is developed by adding PAFS model to the existing APR1400 model

  17. Analysis of Heat Removal Capability of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) in APR (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y. J.; Kang, K. H.; Yun, B. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, South Korea has designed PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus). Because the PAFS replaces a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system and plays a role in the ultimate heat sink for decay heat, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of PAFS under postulated accidents conditions. Therefore, the performance analysis is carried out for two accident cases: Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and Feedwater Line Break (FLB) accidents. For the analysis, MARS-KS code is used and MARS-KS model is developed by adding PAFS model to the existing APR1400 model.

  18. Increasing the Cruise Range and Reducing the Capital Cost of Electric Vehicles by Integrating Auxiliary Unit with the Traction Drive

    OpenAIRE

    N. Satheesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Poor cruise performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs) continues to be the primary reason that impends their market penetration. Adding more battery to extend the cruise range is not a viable solution as it increases the structural weight and capital cost of the EV. Simulations identified that a vehicle spends on average 15% of its total time in braking, signifying an immense potential of the utilization of regenerative braking mechanism. Based on the analysis, a 3 kW auxiliary electrical unit co...

  19. Optimizationin Operational Analysis of Auxiliary Steam System in Thermal Power Plant%火力发电厂辅汽系统优化运行分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乃军; 白秀春; 王俊俊

    2015-01-01

    For choosing different steam source for the auxiliary steam system in Inner Mongolia Daihai Electric Power Generation Co.,Ltd., carry on the quantitative analysis to the influence of the unit efficiency, the result is the most economical when choosing No.4 extraction steam of second unit supplying, while slightly economical as using second unit cold reheater as first unit. According to the results of the analysis, it provides a theoretical basis and guidance for selecting the source of auxiliary steam in power plants, so as to achieve the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption, improve the operation efficiency. At the same time, based on the actual operating mode, unit start-up and shutdown, accident conditions, combined with different seasons and temperature, auxiliary steam consumption, it proposes operation precautions.%对内蒙古岱海发电有限责任公司辅助蒸汽系统选择不同供汽汽源时,机组运行经济性受到的影响进行了定量分析,认为由二期机组四段抽汽供汽经济性最优,由二期机组冷段再热蒸汽供汽的经济性略优于由一期机组冷段再热蒸汽供汽。并结合机组实际运行方式、机组启停方式及机组发生事故时的运行情况等,根据不同季节环境温度及各辅汽用户用汽量情况,提出辅汽系统优化运行注意事项。

  20. 75 FR 3622 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    .... The Commission will assist consumers, including those who have previously purchased wireless... Street, SW., Room CY-A257, Washington, DC 20554. It also may be purchased from the Commission's... option, notify any entity operating low power auxiliary stations of its intention to initiate...

  1. Safety analysis and justification for modification of auxiliary feed-water system in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major feed-water line break accident is re-analyzed, which is based on Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power station final safety analysis report, to justify the impacts of the decreasing of auxiliary feed-water flow rate on the safety margin in Daya Bay. The results showed that the accident analysis can meet the demands of acceptance criteria with the auxiliary feed-water flowrate decreasing from 45 m3/h to 41.8 m3/h, and enough safety margin is still retained

  2. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  3. Optimization of relay protection for a auxiliary power system%厂用电系统继电保护优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子峰

    2015-01-01

    基于对厂用电系统继电保护中存在的配置不完整、后备保护动作时间过长等问题的分析,提出了配置6 kV 母线专用主保护、在低压厂用电系统变压器高压侧增加限时电流速断保护装置、优化后备保护之间配合的方案,并以此对厂用电系统的继电保护配置进行了优化,以600 MW机组为例,进行了保护整定计算,结果表明,优化后的厂用电系统继电保护配置完整,保护范围合理,后备保护动作时间显著缩短。从而,提高了厂用电系统继电保护动作的快速性和厂用电系统运行安全性。%On the basis of analysis on some questions of relay protection in auxiliary power systems,like the imperfection in configuration and the actuation time is too long,a scheme was proposed for relay protection design,such as configuring a specialized main protection for 6 kV busbar,adding a time limited current fast-trip protection on the high-voltage side of low-voltage transformers in auxiliary power system,optimizing the cooperation of reserve protections and then designing the configuration of relay protection in auxiliary power system according to the optimizing rule.Taking a 600 MW unit as the example,settings calculation was carried out.The results proved that the configuration of relay protection in auxiliary power system is integrated perfectly due to the optimization,the coverage of protection is reasonable and the actuation time of reserve protection has been remarkably shortened.Thus,the actuation speed and security of the auxiliary power system are promoted.

  4. Energy Efficiency of Thermal Power Station Auxiliary Power Consumption and Cost Savings in Carbon Footprint in India

    OpenAIRE

    K. Thirumavalavan; Mathi Ramalingam; Jayalalitha Subbaiahan

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses about the energy conservation and carbon credits in Thermal Power Stations in India. Indian power scenario, accounts for 66.4% (1,36,436 MW) of Thermal Power Generation. The Thermal Power Stations have the problem of consuming 8.5% of power it produces. Also it has the drawback of emission factors which leaves the carbon footprint, which has to be controlled as per the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The United Nations Framework watches ...

  5. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunwei; Tian, Xiubo

    2016-08-01

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.

  6. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunwei; Tian, Xiubo

    2016-08-01

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process. PMID:27587123

  7. A CAE package for design of auxiliary buildings in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants have a large number of auxiliary buildings housing various services and control systems in addition to the main reactor building. These are usually of the framed construction of two or three floors falling under seismic class I or II. Class I structures have to be qualified for seismic forces of intensity as given by SSE (safe shutdown earthquake) for three orthogonal components acting simultaneously while class II structures need to be qualified for seismic forces of intensity as given by OBE (operating basis earthquake) for two component motion-one horizontal and one vertical acting simultaneously. The seismic analysis of these buildings is carried out using the BLOCK model. For the analysis of three component motion, USNRC R.G. 1.92 permits time history method of analysis and timewise combination of responses of the three components in the proper phases. However, such a method of analysis is uneconomical for the buildings in question, more so when the layouts of such buildings during the planning phases undergo quite a few revisions necessitating reanalysis. As such, the response spectrum method of analysis is adopted for each directional component and the responses to the three component excitation are combined by adopting the SRSS criteria

  8. Development of 8 MW Power Supply Based on Pulse Step Modulation Technique for Auxiliary Heating System on HL-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Xuan, Weimin; Yao, Lieying; Wang, Yingqiao

    2012-03-01

    The high voltage power supply (HVPS) based on pulse step modulation (PSM) has already been developed for the auxiliary heating system on HL-2A. This power supply consists of many switch power supplies, and its output voltage can be obtained by modulating their delay time and pulse widths. The PSM topology and control principle are presented in this paper. The simple algorithms for the control system are explained clearly. The switch power supply (SPS) module has been built and the test results show it can meet the requirements of the auxiliary heating system. Now, 112 SPS modules and the whole system have already been developed. Its maximum output is about 72 kV/93 A. The protection time is less than 5 μs. The different outputs of this power supply are used for the electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system with different duty ratios. The experimental results of the entire system are presented. The results indicate that the whole system can meet the requirements of the auxiliary heating system on HL-2A.

  9. Planning maintenance during the first outage and refuelling of Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To take an example in the equipment maintenance of the primary circuit and auxiliary systems, this paper sums up the first outage and refuelling planning maintenance of Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit. It concludes the guiding principle and preparatory treatment. Some suggestions are put forward. These suggestions provide active function for improving planning maintenance and management of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

  10. Seismic Back Calculation of an Auxiliary Building of the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The auxiliary storage building of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant houses all the equipment for checking, intermediate storage and the treatment of all solid, liquid and gas products deriving from the operation of the plant, which may have been exposed to radiation. Due to the systems installed in the building it has to resist an earthquake of intensity level OBE (Operating Basis Earthquake). A corresponding verification was not carried out when the plant was constructed. To fulfil the requirements of the regulatory commission (HSK) the seismic safety of the storage facility had to undergo a detailed investigation. The following studies were made within the framework of this investigation: preparation of a concept; specifying the most important aspects and boundary conditions; calculation of the frequency-dependent impedance function of the ground with 3-D soil and foundation computational models for different depths of embedment; execution of the soil-structure interaction analysis with 3-D lumped mass models; preparation of a refined 3-D finite element model of the structure; verification of the model by checking the masses; execution of the modal analysis to determine the dynamic behaviour; execution of the static analysis with the operational loads; execution of the seismic analysis using the response spectrum method; superposition of stresses from the static and seismic analyses; execution of the geotechnical stability analyses; execution of the local stress and bearing capacity verifications; determination of the floor response spectra. The results are in agreement with observations from real earthquakes, which is a good indicator of the reliability of the methods employed and the computational models

  11. Architecture of nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear units with circulation cooling using cooling towers are dominating points of the landscape. The individual cooling towers or pairs of cooling towers should be situated in the axes of double units and should also linearly be arranged, rhythmically in the respective zone. Examples are shown of the architectural designs of several nuclear power plants in the USA, the UK, the USSR, France, the FRG and Italy. (H.S.)

  12. Sensitivity of Power Station Auxiliary Network to the Possibility of Ferroresonance Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Wiśniewski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the new class of 1000 MW power units to a power system creates new problems associated with the operation of its individual components and circuits. One such issue is the phenomenon of ferroresonance in the internal load network. This is not a new problem but it requires examination due to the higher level of supply voltage (10 kV. This paper examines the possibility of ferroresonance occurrence and its character depending on the extent of the network, voltage transformers’ load, the effect of grounding resistors in the star point of the power transformer and the presence of varistor surge arresters. The results are presented in the form of ferroresonance maps. They allow assessing the impact of various parameters on the phenomenon, explaining the reasons for possible failure and properly programming the network conditions in order to avoid the risk of ferroresonance.

  13. Experimental simulation of a light aircraft crash on to a nuclear power plant auxiliary building roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments described were conducted at a reduced scale with geometric dimensions of prototype structures of one-fifth full size. The target was based on the auxiliary buildings for the proposed Sizewell PWR. Descriptions of the simulated aircraft model and the test panels are given, together with the instrumentation. Details are given of the test programme and the results are summarized and discussed. Comparison is made of the model aircraft tests with an equivalent hard missile impact. (U.K.)

  14. Holistic Modeling, Design & Analysis of Integrated Stirling and Auxiliary Clean Energy Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amrit Om

    The research revolves around the development of a model to design and analyze Stirling systems. Lack of a standard approach to study Stirling systems and difficulty in generalizing existing approaches pose stiff challenges. A stable mathematical model (integrated second order adiabatic and dynamic model) is devised and validated for general use. The research attempts to design compact combined heat and power (CHP) system to run on multiple biomass fuels and solar energy. Analysis is also carried out regarding the design of suitable auxiliary systems like thermal energy storage system, biomass moisture removal system and Fresnel solar collector for the CHP Stirling system.

  15. A Study of the Disturbance in Steam Power Unit Caused by Solar Auxiliary Heating System%太阳能辅助加热系统对蒸汽动力机组运行性能的扰动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安连锁; 徐玫; 陈海平; 冯蕾; 张衡

    2015-01-01

    It is common that variable conditions are considered in the process of solar-assisted coal-fired power system designing. Small disturbance theory tells us that when no obvious water distribution happens complex variable conditions calculation can be saved and the results which meet required precision can be achieved as well. A quantitative analysis was conducted for the impact of the solar auxiliary heating system on the thermal system. The results show that within a small range the impact caused by the solar auxiliary heating system can be regarded as a small disturbance, while in the usual range(30% to 100%) although it can not be regarded as a small disturbance the calculation of steam admission flow and power generation can be simplfied under the coal-saving and power-boosting operation mode. In addition, the calculation of thermal conversion rate, generating heat rate and coal consumption rate can be simplified when the percentage of replacing point 1 extraction steam is under 60%; the calculation of thermal conversion rate, generating heat rate, coal consumption rate in waste heat utilization can be simplified no matter how the percentage of replacing extraction steam changes; the calculation of collector field area and the initial investment can also be simplified when the percentage of replacing point 1 extraction steam is under 55%. That is, the error of the caculation for the above parameters meet the engineering accuracy requirement when small disturbance algorithm is used. The above conclusion provides a theoretical reference for the optimal design and analysis of the solar-aided coal-fired power system.%光煤互补热发电系统的设计过程中通常都要进行变工况计算,由小扰动理论可知,当系统变动不足以引起汽水重新分布时,省去繁杂的变工况计算也可得到精度合乎要求的结果。该文针对太阳能辅助加热系统对热力系统影响进行了定量分析,结果表明太阳能辅助加热系

  16. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  17. Design of condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) was designed. ► The requirement of the heat removal rate and the prevention of water hammer phenomena were considered. ► The proposed design of the heat exchanger satisfied the requirement of the passive heat removal system. - Abstract: The APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), a next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, has adopted the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) on the secondary system of the steam generator (SG) as an advanced safety feature. It is intended to replace the conventional auxiliary feedwater system, which consists of active components for the SG in a passive way. It removes decay heat from the reactor core by cooling down the secondary system of the SG using a condensation heat exchanger installed in the PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). The objective of this study is to design a condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS and to evaluate the cooling performance for the proposed design using the thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety). Requirements such as the heat removal capacity and the prevention of water hammer were preferentially considered to determine the design parameters of the heat exchanger tube. The MARS code analysis result showed that the proposed design of the PAFS heat exchanger is able to cool down the required amount of decay heat. The distribution of a liquid volume fraction and flow regime predicted by the MARS code shows that the proposed design of the heat exchanger excludes the water hammer inside the tube. Estimation of a two-phase flow pressure drop indicates that the pressure drop inside the tube is negligible compared to the total pressure drop in the PAFS. From the MARS code analysis, it is concluded that the proposed design of the condensation heat exchanger in the PAFS satisfies the overall criteria for the performance of the passive heat removal

  18. Aging and service wear of auxiliary feedwater pumps for PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes investigations on auxiliary feedwater pumps being done under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Objectives of these studies are: to identify and evaluate practical, cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging and service wear); recommend inspection and maintenance practices; establish acceptance criteria; and help facilitate use of the results. Emphasis is given to identifying and assessing methods for detecting failure in the incipient stage and to developing degradation trends to allow timely maintenance, repair or replacement actions. 3 refs

  19. Increasing efficiency of ecological vehicles by integrating auxiliary units directly to the driven shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Satheesh; Schier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The climatisation requirements of Electric Vehicles (EVs) largely depend on its usage location. For example, EVs operated in European countries require heating only during the winter season. Meanwhile, EVs operated in equatorial regions face cooling load throughout the year. To date, the low range for a given battery charge remains the single-most important factor that hinders the widespread acceptance of EVs. The high-power electrical loads as a result of the traction, heating systems and ai...

  20. A Parallel Auxiliary Grid AMG Method for GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; Hu, Xiaozhe; Cohen, Jonathan; Xu, Jinchao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new parallel auxiliary grid algebraic multigrid (AMG) method to leverage the power of graphic processing units (GPUs). In the construction of the hierarchical coarse grid, we use a simple and fixed coarsening procedure based on a region quadtree generated from an auxiliary grid. This allows us to explicitly control the sparsity patterns and operator complexities of the AMG solver. This feature provides (nearly) optimal load balancing and predictable communication p...

  1. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author)

  2. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system

  3. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant

  4. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the emergency/auxiliary feedwater (EFW/AFW) system at press water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses costing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify genetic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Virgil C. Summer plant was selected as one m a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a priority listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at Virgil C. Summer plant

  5. Field emission electric propulsion power conditioning unit design concept, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, A.; Devambez, F.; Valentian, D.

    The requirements for auxiliary and primary propulsion systems were investigated in order to define the requirements for the field emission electric propulsion power conditioning unit (PCU). Emphasis was placed on simplifying the PCU design and improving weight. The PCU consists of a central power and control module (CPCM) connected to several thruster dedicated power supply modules (TDPDM). The connections between the CPCM and the TDPDM the command and control philosophy, and the power components and power circuits are considered. The use of high inverter frequencies and optical fiber data transmission to aleviate high voltage insulation problems are addressed.

  6. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a undisturbed reactor operation, the various Auxiliary and Ancillary Systems must function perfectly with the Reactor Coolant System together. While the Auxiliary Systems are directly connected to the Reactor Coolant System and therefore have contact with the Reactor Coolant, the Ancillary Systems perform tasks which do not directly influence reactor operation and in part are necessary exclusively for environment protection. The design criteria of the individual systems are a result of these tasks, especially in relation to availability, operational readiness and probability of failure. (orig.)

  7. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  8. Investigations in the modelling and control of a medium voltage hybrid inverter system that uses a low voltage /low power rated auxiliary current source inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Savvas; Rashed, Mohamed; Klumpner, Christian; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid converters consist of a main inverter processing the bulk of the power with poor waveform performance and a fast and versatile auxiliary inverter to correct the distortion. In this paper, the main converter is a medium voltage NPC inverter and the auxiliary inverter is a low-voltage and low-current rated current source inverter (CSI), with series capacitor being used to minimize the CSI voltage stress. The result is a high output current quality which is obtained with a very low switch...

  9. Auxiliary building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five types of auxiliary structures are described such as were used during the construction of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, namely a portable staircase tower, a stable staircase tower, mobile tower scaffolding, mobile scaffolding on a crane track and a scaffold cradle. Basic technical data for all types of scaffolding are given. (Pu)

  10. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100 M Wt, about 25 M We). CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium. In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented. Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor. (author)

  11. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100MWt, about 25MWe).CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium.In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented.Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor

  12. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  13. Analysis of steam-generator tube-rupture events combined with auxiliary-feedwater control-system failure for Three Mile Island-Unit 1 and Zion-Unit 1 pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steam-generator tube-rupture (SGTR) event combined with loss of all offsite alternating-current power and failure of the auxiliary-feedwater (AFW) control system has been investigated for the Three Mile Island-Unit 1 (TMI-1) and Zion-Unit 1 (Zion-1) pressurized water reactors. The Transient Reactor Analysis Code was used to simulate the accident sequence for each plant. The objectives of the study were to predict the plant transient response with respect to tube-rupture flow termination, extent of steam generator overfill, and thermal-hydraulic conditions in the steam lines. Two transient cases were calculated: (1) a TMI-1 SGTR and runaway-AFW transient, and (2) a Zion-1 SGTR and runaway-AFW transient. Operator actions terminated the tube-rupture flow by 1342 s (22.4 min) and 1440 s (24.0 min) for TMI-1 and Zion-1, respectively, but AFW injection was continued. The damaged steam generator (DSG) overfilled by 1273 s (21.2 min) for the TMI-1 calculation and by 1604 s (26.7 min) for the Zion-1 calculation. The DSG steam lines were completely filled by 1500 s (25 min) and 2000 s (33.3 min) for TMI-1 and Zion-1, respectively. The maximum subcooling in the steam lines was approx.63 K (approx.1130F) for TMI-1 and approx.44 K (approx.800F) for Zion-1

  14. Portable Power And Digital-Communication Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Richard R.; Henry, Paul K.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual network of electronic-equipment modules provides electrical power and digital radio communications at multiple sites not served by cables. System includes central communication unit and portable units powered by solar photovoltaic arrays. Useful to serve equipment that must be set up quickly at remote sites or buildings that cannot be modified to provide cable connections.

  15. Combustion Power Unit--400: CPU-400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion Power Co., Palo Alto, CA.

    Aerospace technology may have led to a unique basic unit for processing solid wastes and controlling pollution. The Combustion Power Unit--400 (CPU-400) is designed as a turboelectric generator plant that will use municipal solid wastes as fuel. The baseline configuration is a modular unit that is designed to utilize 400 tons of refuse per day…

  16. Modular Power Conditioning Unit for Photovoltaic Applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhide, Parag; Bhat, SR

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with some design issues involved in a photovoltaic power conditioning system. The power conditioning unit (PCU) is built in a modular way and is controlled by a micro controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The choice o f the power converter and suitable pv_array configuration are also discussed. Power MOSFETs are used as switching elements. Experimental system of 1kW capacity is also explained, with battery charging as a specific application.

  17. Characteristics of Ne-Xe microplasma in unit discharge cell of plasma display panel equipped with counter sustain electrodes and auxiliary electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a new structure plasma display panel (PDP) cell with counter sustain electrodes was diagnosed by optical emission and laser absorption spectroscopic measurements of the spatiotemporal behaviours of the microplasma. Two different types of panels were prepared: one with sustain electrodes only and the other with additional data and auxiliary electrodes on the rear and front plates. By using cells of the former type, the basic performance was measured as the dependences on the Xe concentration in Ne, the total pressure and the applied sustain voltage. It was seen that a higher Xe concentration was advantageous for the luminous efficiency although the required minimum sustain voltage became larger. By using the latter type of cell, the effects of driving schemes were investigated by varying the applied potentials onto the auxiliary and data electrodes. It was found that the role of the auxiliary electrode is remarkable; the discharge expands largely in the cell when the voltage and the width of the pulses applied to the auxiliary electrode are optimized to be 200 V and 0.3 μs, respectively, while the data electrode is grounded. The production efficiency of Xe atoms in the metastable (1s5) and resonance (1s4) states was derived from the measured absolute densities normalized by the input power per cell and the decay rates of those densities. The vacuum ultraviolet emission efficiency estimated from the results was compared between the tested conditions, and a noticeable improvement was recognized in the optimized condition, about 40% larger than a conventional driving condition without additional pulses. It was also seen that this cell structure is potentially superior in luminous efficiency to the conventional coplanar structure currently used in commercial PDPs

  18. BN-1200 reactor power unit design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 2010, the RF Government has approved the Federal Target Program “New Generation Nuclear Power Technologies for the Period of 2010-2015 and for the long-term up to 2020”. Within this Program, the R&D work for new generation 1200MWe sodium fast reactor is provided. The BN-1200 design is based on the combination of approved and innovative technical decisions, which allow: – reliable power unit with large BN reactor to be developed in a short period of time for commercial construction as a part of closed nuclear fuel cycle; – qualitatively new technical level of power unit to be provided according to generation 4 NPP requirements. The paper characterizes the activities performed now for the power unit design in various areas: – power unit design; – reactor plant (RP) detailed design development; – R&D work to validate the RP system and equipment; – code upgrading and verification; – safety validation. (author)

  19. Aseismatic design in outdoor major civil engineering structures in Unit 1 Sendai Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Unit 1 of Sendai Nuclear Power Station, the cooling seawater taken from the sea is for cooling the steam condenser and for cooling the reactor auxiliary components including the emergency core cooling system. Therefore, in design of the latter structures there are imposed very strict standards. In the auxiliary components seawater cooling system, the intake pit and the seawater pipe duct are classified as aseismatic class A, which are both support structures for the machinery and pipes and the system facility itself. Surveys and design studies made on the outdoor structures in Sendai Unit 1 are described : surveys in the geology and the ground, preliminary aseismatic studies (static and dynamic), confirmation tests, evaluation, decision of the basic design ideas, the design, etc. (Mori, K.)

  20. Modeling Small Scale Solar Powered ORC Unit for Standalone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bocci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When the electricity from the grid is not available, the generation of electricity in remote areas is an essential challenge to satisfy important needs. In many developing countries the power generation from Diesel engines is the applied technical solution. However the cost and supply of fuel make a strong dependency of the communities on the external support. Alternatives to fuel combustion can be found in photovoltaic generators, and, with suitable conditions, small wind turbines or microhydroplants. The aim of the paper is to simulate the power generation of a generating unit using the Rankine Cycle and using refrigerant R245fa as a working fluid. The generation unit has thermal solar panels as heat source and photovoltaic modules for the needs of the auxiliary items (pumps, electronics, etc.. The paper illustrates the modeling of the system using TRNSYS platform, highlighting standard and “ad hoc” developed components as well as the global system efficiency. In the future the results of the simulation will be compared with the data collected from the 3 kW prototype under construction in the Tuscia University in Italy.

  1. Auxiliary steam supply and process steam extraction at the combined-cycle unit Moerdijk/The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toebes, J.A.; Beker, M.J.W.; Puts, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    The first combined-cycle plant to be operated in combination with a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant has been built by the Dutch electric power utility N.V. Electriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland (N.V. EPZ). Steam generated by the combustion of municipal waste is supplied to the heat recovery steam generators of the combined cycle unit. In addition to generating electric power for the public grid, the plant also supplies process steam to a neighboring chemical plant. The combination results in nearly 70% utilization of the energy contained in the natural gas fuel. The plant has a maximum electrical output of 339 MW and reduces annual natural gas consumption by approximately 40 million cubic meters which corresponds to a CO{sub 2} emission reduction of nearly 100,000 metric tons per year. The combined-cycle plant started operation in mid 1996 and during the first two years of operation showed heat consumption and emission levels in conformity with requirements. This paper presents the integrated concept and the main operating results.

  2. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  3. Determination of power and power descriptions at walking with auxiliary facilities of pushing (by sticks away from lower support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adashevskiy V.M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of work is a design of motions in Nordic walking, and analysis of power and power descriptions of motion. The basic aspects of walking with sticks and their influence on quality of life of people of different age are considered. Directions of the use of physical exercises for the people of senior age are selected. Possibilities of the use of walking in the physical rehabilitation of patients and people with a hyposthenic health is shown. It is set that, walking extend the use of models of Nordic possibility of leadthrough of researches and theoretical ground for more deep study of features of such type of movements. It is marked that the model of motion is expedient to utillize in combination with cinegram walking and by the indexes of dynamometry. It is recommended at lowering to observe the rules of technique of motion and safety.

  4. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  5. An annular-furnace boiler for the 660-MW power unit for ultrasupercritical parameters intended for firing brown slagging coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serant, F. A.; Belorutskii, I. Yu.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Gordeev, V. V.; Stavskaya, O. I.; Katsel, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present the main technical solutions adopted in designing annular-furnace boilers intended for operation on brown coals of the prospective Maikubensk open-cast mine in Kazakhstan as part of 660-MW power units for ultrasupercritical steam conditions. Results from 3D modeling of combustion processes are presented, which clearly show the advantages furnaces of this kind have over a traditional furnace in burning heavily slagging brown coals. The layout of the main and boiler auxiliary equipment in the existing boiler cell of the 500-MW power unit at the Ekibastuz GRES-1 district power station is shown. Appropriate attention is paid to matters concerned with decreasing harmful emissions.

  6. 77 FR 57001 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... (77 FR 11421). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. Transport... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... period for APU's modified per SB 3910001-49-16250. KLM commented that the risk for these blades is...

  7. 77 FR 11421 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion Transport Canada, which is the aviation... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... design. This proposed AD would require modification of the APU rear gas generator case, exhaust...

  8. Purchasing power parity within the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey M.B. Tootell

    1992-01-01

    Economics has many articles of faith. One of the most dearly held is Purchasing Power Parity, which posits that the price of the same good in different regions should be equivalent when no barriers to arbitrage exist. Because Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is an important assumption in much of international economic theory, this article examines empirical evidence testing this proposition. ; Instead of analyzing international data, this study analyzes PPP between regions of the United States. ...

  9. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...... shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages. The...

  10. The 3rd power unit roofing decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most features of the 3rd power unit (PU) roofing decontamination are described: 1) the most active materials were thrown into the 4th PU ruins before the Ukrytie construction completion; 2) the decontamination was fulfilled using remote-controlled mechanisms and manual devices (the main part). 6 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Vertical vibration test results of auxiliary building of the No. 1 Genkai nuclear power plant utilizing explosion test of excavating base rocks of the No. 2 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical vibration behavior of the auxiliary building of the No. 1 Genkai nuclear power plant was examined, utilizing the explosion test of excavation for the No. 2 plant, about 60 m apart from the auxiliary building. The explosive from 2.25 to 33.8 kg was used for simultaneous explosion and 13.4 to 47.4 kg for stepwise explosions, and the tests of ten explosions were conducted, divided into three cases. Concerning the test results, the wave forms were obtained at many points in the auxiliaty building within about one second after explosion. The first mode natural frequency was about 10 - 25 Hz, and the damping coefficient was 1 - 10%. The elastic behavior and about two times amplifying response at the top as compared to the basement were observed in the vibration of the building. The local frequency in the vertical vibration was different according to the individual points in the building, as the building has large area and several floors with complicated structures. The running spectra, Fourier spectra and power spectra were obtained experimentally. On the other hand, the numerical analysis was conducted using the particle system model, and compared to the experimental results, and the calculated values were about 1.5 - 2.0 times as large as the experimental values in the maximum responses. As for the experiment, the horizontal vibration behavior was also measured, which showed a little different vibrating characteristic curves. This experiment was effective to get the qualitative knowledge for the vertical vibration behavior of the auxiliary building in a nuclear power plant. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear option is not dead in the US, despite the recent news stories, and there seems to be the editorial acceptance of the fact that nuclear power is necessary. The nuclear power in the US is a success, and in the last year, 12.6 % of the electric power of the US was generated by nuclear power plants. Ten years hence, the figure is to exceed 20 %, and nuclear power will be surpassed by only coal. The number of the nuclear reactors in operation then will be 76. Nuclear power has saved billions of dollar for the electric power customers in the US. A survey was conducted on 62 nuclear, 51 coal and 14 large oil-fired units about the costs in 1982 including levelized carrying charge, fuel, operation and maintenance, insurance and tax, allowance for decommissioning and waste management, by the US Atomic Industrial Forum. Nuclear power had 11 % cost advantage at bus bar over coal, and 56 % over oil. From 1972 to 1981, the average capacity factor of nuclear power plants was 61.5 %, exceeding that of large coal firing plants. However, about the plants under construction, it is a mixed story. The long term outlook, the fuel cycle, waste disposal and the development of FBRs are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  14. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  15. Power Control Unit of Irecin Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Re, V.; Ferrrante, M.; Ortenzi, A.; Petrozzi, M.

    2004-08-01

    On board resources necessary to perform the mission tasks are very limited in nano-satellites. This paper proposes a real-time sub-system, which is able to manage Irecin Power Supply. Irecin power supply includes the solar panels, built with silicon solar cells, the batteries and the necessary electronic for Energy generation and distribution to its subsystems. The Power Control Unit (PCU), provided with electrical power by means of solar panels, optimises the batteries recharging using a Peek Power Tracking; generates and stabilizes the voltage of 5 V for all subsystems; checks subsystems power absorption notifying it to the main micro-processor board. The proposed subsystem controls whole satellite subsystems energy adsorption by monitoring battery recharge status and handling subsystems activation /deactivation. It allows isolating damaged subsystems which could put in short cut the nanosatellite power supply and, generally, it increases nanosatellite time-life. Moreover this configuration allows to let free the on board main microprocessor from the power control functions, increasing its communication capabilities with the others subsystems. IRECIN uses rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which ensure very high energy density reducing power system volume and weight. These batteries are characterised also by a wide temperature range, enabling a simpler thermal design and by a very low cost. All electronic components are SMD technology in order to reduce weight and size. The realized Electronic boards are completely developed, realized and tested at the Vitrociset S.P.A. under control of Research and Develop Group. The proposed sub-system is implemented on the Irecin, a modular nano-satellite weighting less than 1.5 kg, constituted by sixteen external sides with surface-mounted solar cells and three internal Al plates, kept together by four steel bars. Attitude is determined by three-axis magnetometer and the solar panels data. Control is provided by an active

  16. Turbine generator and its auxiliaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turbine generator and its auxiliary systems in Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) have been performing well and further their performance and availability has increased due to timely assessment of the problems anticipated in the systems by a close co-ordination among the concerned staff. Continued efforts are on for further improvements. (author)

  17. The turbogenerator units of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and characteristics of the 1000MWe turbogenerator units selected by 'Electricite de France' for the nuclear power plants planned in the French nuclear programme are presented. Two units are presently operating in the Fessenheim power plant

  18. Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  19. 77 FR 43382 - Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. MPS2 shares the site with Millstone Power Station Unit 1... COMMISSION Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc., (the... operation of the Millstone Power Station, Unit 2 (MPS2). The license provides, among other things, that...

  20. Polymer light-emitting diodes based on cationic iridium(III) complexes with a 1,10-phenanthroline derivative containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit as the auxiliary ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaijun; Wei, Liying; Meng, Guoyun; Li, Yanhu; Wang, Guanze; Yang, Furui; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Wei; Cao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    A 1,10-phenanthroline derivative (co-phen) containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit was synthesized and used as the auxiliary ligand in cationic iridium(III) complexes [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (ppy: 2-phenylpyridine) and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (npy: 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)pyridine). Two complexes have high thermal stability with the glass-transition temperatures (Tg) of 207 °C and 241 °C, and the same 5% weight-reduction temperatures (ΔT5%) of 402 °C. Both of them were used as phosphorescent dopants in solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs): ITO/PEDOT: PSS/PVK: PBD: complex (mass ratios 100: 40: x, x = 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0)/CsF/Al. The maximum luminances of the PLEDs using [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 were 12567 cd m-2 and 11032 cd m-2, the maximum luminance efficiencies were 17.3 cd A-1 and 20.4 cd A-1, the maximum power efficiencies were 9.8 lm W-1 and 10.3 lm W-1, and the maximum external quantum efficiencies were 9.3% and 11.4% respectively. The CIE color coordinates were around (0.37, 0.57) and (0.44, 0.54) respectively, corresponding to the yellow green region.

  1. A data envelopment analysis for energy efficiency of coal-fired power units in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two kinds of energy efficiency (EE) indices are analyzed and compared. • The influence degrees of different uncontrollable factors on EE are compared. • The influence of load factor on special EE is 82.6% larger than capacity factor. • The influence of cooling method on special EE is 90.32% larger than steam pressure. • The generalized EE indicator is more recommended by the authors. - Abstract: In this article, the non-parametric data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is employed to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) of 34 coal-fired power units in China. Input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) model is used for EE analysis. Two efficiency indices, generalized EE and special EE are defined and analyzed. The generalized EE is calculated based on four input parameters: coal consumption, oil consumption, water consumption and auxiliary power consumption by power units. The special EE is only based on two input parameters: coal consumption and auxiliary power consumption. Relations between these two EE indices and non-comparable factors including quality of coal, load factor, capacity factor, parameters of main steam and cooling method are studied. Comparison between EE evaluation results of the two indices is conducted. Results show that these two kinds of EE are more sensitive to the load factor than the capacity factor. The influence of the cooling method on EE is larger than that of main steam parameter. The influence of non-comparable factors on the special EE is stronger than that on the generalized EE

  2. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  3. Study of auxiliary power systemsfor offshore wind turbines : an extended analysis of a diesel gen-setsolution

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Until today the offshore wind power has grown in a steady pace and many new wind farms are being constructed around the globe. An important factor that is investigated today in the industry are the security of power supply to the equipment needed for controlling the offshore system during emergency situations. When a offshore wind farm is disconnected from the external grid and an emergency case occur the wind turbine generators lose their ability to transfer power and they are forced to be t...

  4. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond to...

  5. Methodical recommendations for power unit comprehensive engineering and radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes power unit radiation survey methods developed and applied during conduction of Ch NPP unit I Comprehensive Engineering Radiation Survey. Special requirements for units under decommissioning, main survey principals, criteria for definition of volume and the order of survey for various systems of a NPP Unit are included

  6. Concentration of WWER-1000 unit power on one site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of a suitable number of nuclear power plant units built on one site is discussed. Using an example of three sites being prepared now in Czechoslovakia, two alternatives - one with two WWER-1000 units, the other with four WWER-1000 units on one site - are evaluated from the viewpoint of long-range nuclear power development program in Czechoslovakia, costs, transmission of electric power and heat supply. (author). 10 tabs., 13 refs

  7. Power Conversion System Strategies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushik Rajashekara

    2005-01-01

    Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly fuel cell vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, power conversion strategies for propulsion and auxiliary power unit applications are described. The power electronics strategies for the successful development of the fuel cell vehicles are presented. The fuel cell systems for propulsion and for auxiliary power unit applications are also discussed.

  8. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska

    2015-01-01

    One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland), NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA), ...

  9. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment..., Section III.O, ``Oil collection system for reactor coolant pump,'' for Facility Operating License No. NPF... Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS Unit 1), located in Louisa County, Virginia. Therefore, as required by...

  10. Anticorrosion and halobios control for tidal power generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anticorrosion and halobios control is the key techniquesrelated to the safety and durability of tidal power generating units. The technique of material application, antifouling coating and cathodic protection are often adopted. The technical research, application, updating and development are carried on Jiangxia Tidal Power Station, which is based on the old Unit 1-Unit 5 operated for nearly 30 years, and the new Unit 6 operated in 2007. It is found that stainless steeland the antifouling coating used in Unit 1- Unit 5 are very effective, but cathodic protection is often likely to fail because of the limitation of structure and installation. Analyses and studies for anticorrosion and halobios control techniques of tidal power generating units according to theory, experience and actual effects have been done, which can be for reference to the tidal power station designers and builders.

  11. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... auxiliary fan failure due to malfunction, accident, power failure, or other such unplanned or unscheduled... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed...

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-416 and 50-417, Mississippi Power and Light Company, Middle South Energy, Inc., South Mississippi Electric Power Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Mississippi Power and Light Company, et. al., joint application for licenses to operate the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, located on the east bank of the Mississippi River near Port Gibson in Claiborne County, Mississippi, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information is presented concerning design criteria for structures and systems; engineered safety systems; auxiliary systems; operations; and TMI-2 requirements

  13. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' published as a final rule in the Federal...

  14. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant; Um modelo de manutencao centrada em confiabilidade aplicada ao sistema de agua de alimentacaco auxiliar de uma usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    1998-01-15

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  15. Post TMI nuclear power plant operator qualification and training practices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant operator qualification and training practices in the United States which have changed or may change as a result of the accident at Three Mile Island are discussed. First, the response of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been to develop a comprehensive plan designed to improve the operational safety of nuclear power facilities. This includes upgrading operator training, operator licensing examinations, shift staffing requirements and operator entry level qualifications. Secondly the U.S. National Voluntary Consensus Standards Response has included revisions of three standards in this area. Thirdly, the Research Response: the U.S. Department of Energy is funding research by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in the area of operator qualification and training, including job and task analyses for the auxiliary operator, reactor operator, senior reactor operator, shift supervisor and shift technical advisor. Additionally research under the auspices of the USNRC in the areas of job/task analysis, nuclear power plant simulators, and the effects of shift work will be used to help establish optimal qualification and training requirements for nuclear power plant operators. (U.K.)

  16. Experimental Research and Control Strategy of Pumped Storage Units Dispatching in the Taiwan Power System Considering Transmission Line Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s power system is isolated and not supported by other interconnected systems. Consequently, the system frequency immediately reflects changes in the system loads. Pumped storage units are crucial for controlling power frequency. These units provide main or auxiliary capacities, reducing the allocation of frequency-regulating reserve (FRR and further reducing generation costs in system operations. Taiwan’s Longmen Nuclear Power Plant is set to be converted for commercial operations, which will significantly alter the spinning reserves in the power system. Thus, this study proposes a safe and economic pumped storage unit dispatch strategy. This strategy is used to determine the optimal FRR capacity and 1-min recovery frequency in a generator failure occurrence at the Longmen Power Plant. In addition, this study considered transmission capacity constraints and conducted power flow analysis of the power systems in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The results indicated that, in the event of a failure at Longmen Power Plant, the proposed strategy can not only recover the system frequency to an acceptable range to prevent underfrequency load-shedding, but can also mitigate transmission line overloading.

  17. On units combination and commitment optimization for electric power production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 何永秀

    2004-01-01

    Electric power system is one of the most important and complex engineering in modern society, supplying main and general power for social production and social life. Meanwhile, since it is a productive system with both high input and output, it has an obvious economic significance to improve its operating efficiency. For an example, an unit is 10 GW year. It will be discussed mainly that how to establish optimization model and its numerical algorithm for operating management of the electric power system. The idea on establishing optimization model is how to dispatch work state of units or power plants, so that total cost of fuel consumption for generation is reduced to the minimum. Here the dispatch is to decide which unit or plant to operate, which unit or plant to stop running, how much power should be generated for those operating units or plants at each given time interval.

  18. Use of a turboexpander in steam power units for heat energy recovery in heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, R. A.; Daminov, A. Z.; Solomin, I. N.; Futin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    A method for raising the efficiency of a boiler plant by installing a unit operating by the organic Rankine cycle is presented. Such units allow one to generate electricity to cover the auxiliaries of a heat source at a heat-transfer fluid temperature of no more than 130°C. The results of commissioning tests of boilers revealed that their efficiency is maximized under a load that is close or corresponds to the nominal one. If this load is maintained constantly, excess heat energy is produced. This excess may be used to generate electric energy in a steam power unit with a turboexpander. A way to insert this unit into the flow diagram of a boiler plant is proposed. The results of analysis of turbine types (turboexpanders included) with various capacities are presented, and the optimum type for the proposed flow diagram is chosen. The methodology for the design of turboexpanders and compressors used in the oil and gas industry and their operational data were applied in the analysis of a turboexpander. The results of the thermogasdynamic analysis of a turboexpander and the engineered shape of an axial-radial impeller are presented. Halocarbon R245fa is chosen as the working medium based on its calorimetric properties.

  19. Impact of wind power on the unit commitment and power system operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Center of Finland (Finland); O' Malley, Mark; Tuohy, Aidan [Univ. College Dublin (Ireland). School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering; Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Lange, Bernhard [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Gibescu, Madeleine [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Electrical Sustainable Energy; Meibom, Peter [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Intelligent Energy Systems Programme; Vigueras-Rodriguez, Antonio; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Castilla-La Mancha Univ. (Spain). Renewable Energy Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The article reviews the new requirements variable and partly unpredictable wind power could bring to unit commitment and power system operations. Current practice is shortly described and contrasted against the new requirements. Literature specifically addressing questions about wind power and unit commitment related power system operations is reviewed. Analyzed issues include forecast errors, dispatch, operating reserves, intra-day unit commitments, and sharing reserves across interconnections. Discussion highlights the most important issues and gaps in the current knowledge. (orig.)

  20. Decommissioning Experience: Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Trojan nuclear power plant, it was found that operation of the existing spent fuel pool cleanup systems after shutdown was costly during the period that the fuel was waiting to be sent to an ISFSI. The existing system was interlinked with other systems on the site. It was found to be less expensive to provide an independent cooling and cleanup service for the pool. This allowed other decommissioning activities to be continued. The EPRI report provides a guide to establishing an independent fuel pool auxiliary system. This was needed for the period prior to transferring fuel to dry storage in an ISFSI. In June 2002, EPRI published another report summarizing the experience and changes that had been made at a number of plants in providing an independent spent fuel pool cooling and cleanup system

  1. Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed is discussed. Present and future jet engine systems are compared. The role of auxiliary power units is evaluated. Details of secondary electric power generation systems with and without auxiliary power units are given. Advanced bleed systems are compared with minimum bleed systems. A cost model of ownership is given. The difference in the cost of ownership between a minimum bleed system and an advanced bleed system is given.

  2. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  3. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lei; Wei Bin; Ma Li; Cheng Wen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the development of UHV grid will provide a strong material support for the united national power market by expanding market coverage, lowering load fluctuation and promoting diversification of power resources.

  4. Construction prospects of new power units at Khmelnitskij NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Energy Strategy of Ukraine for a period up to 2030 it is planned to put into operation power units 3 and 4 of Khmelnitskij NPP by year 2016. In this work considerations are presented on the possible options while selecting reactor unit type for Khmelnitskij NPP power units 3 and 4, which is the main determinant of the cost, construction and commissioning time, and utilization of the existent civil structures. To optimize Khmelnitskij-3 and 4 construction, a survey of the data has been conducted with regard to the possibility of construction of new power units of PWR/VVER type at Khmelnitskij NPP site. The multivariable analysis has been performed based on the projects technical and cost data, construction time and conditions, as well as their compliance with the IAEA and EUR safety requirements for new power units. (author)

  5. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  6. Mochovce power plant units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives the basic technical data and history of the construction of the units 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP.The current status of the units completion according to the original plan is: civil part - 70%; mechanical part - 30%; electric and IC equipment - 1%. Strategic plan for the preservation of the units 3 and 4 has been developed in accordance with TECDOC-1110. In implementation of the plan preservation activities are performed for the components located and built-in on the site and in storehouses. Preservation with dryers and protective coatings is applied. The factors of possible component degradation are determined. Ventilation components are used for improving the climate conditions in the primary part of the reactor building. Temperature and humidity measurements are done and temperature control is set. Special pre-service inspections beyond the basic scope of preservation and protection works are conducted of steam generator and reactor pressure vessel. The implementation of the design data protection and enhancement is discussed. The feasibility study of units 3 and 4 completion funding has been developed in 2002

  7. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae;

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave the...... generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  8. Semiparametric Power Envelopes for Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael

    This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown infinitedime......This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...

  9. Power source unit of a small airship

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal on a construction of a power supply module that is intended to be implemented in a small airship. Because the bearing capacity of the airship is limited, simple and efficient voltage converters must be employed. The paper provides a description of a proposal on mutual timing of these converters that leads to eliminating of the interferences caused by the currents that are drawn by the converters. The hereby described method allows the designers to use smaller c...

  10. An Isotope-Powered Thermal Storage unit for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Rose, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope-Powered Thermal Storage Unit (ITSU), that would store and utilize heat energy in a 'pulsed' fashion in space operations, is described. Properties of various radioisotopes are considered in conjunction with characteristics of thermal energy storage materials, to evaluate possible implementation of such a device. The utility of the unit is discussed in light of various space applications, including rocket propulsion, power generation, and spacecraft thermal management.

  11. 深冷装置应用单级膨胀加辅助制冷工艺的技术分析%Technical analysis on application of single-stage expansion plus auxiliary refrigeration process in cryogenic unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 杨心理; 李应力

    2015-01-01

    Technical analysis was made to the 6 cryogenic units in Daqing Oil field which use single-stage expansion +auxiliary cryogen refrigeration in the aspects of their key data control and adjustment and refrigeration system optimizing operation,problems existed during their operation were found out,the reasonable control range of key process data of all units were given.%从装置关键工艺参数控制与调整、制冷系统优化运行措施方面对大庆油田采用单级膨胀+辅助冷剂制冷的6套深冷装置进行了技术分析,找出装置运行中出现的问题,给出各套装置的关键工艺参数的合理控制范围。

  12. Modern acting principles of Nuclear power unit resonance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways of conditions for control the nuclear power unit 'lifetime' and extension of their operation beyond the design service life are considered. The requirements and approaches to the life extension of NPP unit safety which have no definite operation period are formulated

  13. Stochastic Electric Power Generation Unit Commitment in Deregulated Power Market Environment

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gharehdaghi; H. Jamali; M. Deysi; A. Khalili

    2012-01-01

    Utilities participating in deregulated markets observe increasing uncertainty in load (i.e., demand for electric power) and prices for fuel and electricity on spot and contract markets. This study proposes a new formulation of the unit commitment problem of electric power generators in a restructured electricity market. Under these conditions, an electric power generation company will have the option to buy or sell from a power pool in addition to producing electricity on its own. The unit co...

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-461, Illinois Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria for structures, systems, and components; reactor coolant and connected systems; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power system; auxiliary systems; radiation protection; and conduct of operations

  15. Unit size limitations in smaller power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing nations have generally found it an economic necessity to accept the minimum commercial size limit of 600 MWe. Smaller reactor sizes tendered as 'one off' specials carry high specific cost penalties which considerably weaken the competitiveness of nuclear versus conventional thermal plants. The revised IAEA market survey for nuclear power in developing countries (1974 edition) which takes account of the recent heavy escalation in oil prices, indicates a reasonable market for smaller size reactors in the range 150 MWe to 400 MWe, but until this market is approached seriously by manufacturers, the commercial availability and economic viability of smaller size reactors remains uncertain. (orig.)

  16. Window-mounted auxiliary solar heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, K. G.; Herndon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    System uses hot-air collectors, no thermal storage, and fan with thermostat switches. At cost of heating efficiency, unit could be manufactured and sold at price allowing immediate entry to market as auxiliary heating system. Its simplicity allows homeowner installation, and maintenance is minimal.

  17. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the developmen...

  18. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  19. Power conversion unit for the South African direct cycle HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system parameters chosen to optimise the thermal efficiency of the Eskom PBMR whilst maintaining component simplicity is discussed. Power Conversion Unit components, which are now at a preliminary design stage comprise a precooler, two turbo units consisting of a turbine driven compressor, recuperator and a power turbine, driving an alternator. Design aspects of every component is mentioned and the inventory method of poorer control is explained with reference to start-up and and shut-down events, the system an effective load following device, down to 4% of full power. Application of the same design principles for HTGRs smaller than 25 MWe is discussed. (author)

  20. Nuclear reactors with auxiliary boiler circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor has a main circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating one or more main energy converting units, such as gas turbines, and an auxiliary circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating at least one steam generating boiler arranged to be heated by the coolant after its passage through the reactor core to provide steam for driving an auxiliary steam turbine, such an arrangement providing a simplified start-up procedure also providing emergency duties associated with long term heat removal on reactor shut down

  1. Improved Power Quality Monitoring through Phasor Measurement Unit Data Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Marinelli, Mattia; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    The observability needs in future power systems will change radically due to the continuing implementation of renewable energy sources at all voltage levels. Especially in distribution grids new observables will be needed in order to monitor the state of the power system sufficiently and to perfo....... The voltage unbalance factor (VUF) could be a ‘new’ observable for a particular power system condition. Information about the actual injected wind power for a certain grid area could be derived without knowing/measuring the real wind power injection....... the correct actions for operating the system. In future power systems more measuring sensors including phasor measurement units will be available distributed all over the power system. They can and should be utilized to increase the observability of the power system. In this paper the impact of...

  2. An automatic control system for a power-generating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itelman, U.R.; Mankin, M.N.; Mikhailova, I.V.

    1979-02-05

    There exists an automatic control system for a power-generating unit, which contains a load regulator for the turbine, which is connected to the output of the actuator valve servo motor together with the slide valve of the regulator measuring channel, a boiler productivity regulator and a frequency-compensation unit for controlling the input power; the output from this unit is connected to the input to the turbine load regulator and the boiler productivity regulator. In this automatic control system, the compensation unit is manufactured in the form of a frequency deviation sensor connected to the voltage transformer of the generator--it is a complex electronic and conversion component. In order to simplify this design of the compensation unit, it is manufactured as a motion sensor, which is mechanically connected to the slide valve. This connection is made through the slide box of the valve or through the valve position rod.

  3. The hydroelectric power market in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world is the United States, right after Canada. In the United States, 7.1 per cent of net electricity generation was attributed to hydroelectric power in 2000, which totalled 269 terawatt hours (TWh). Aging facilities, outdated technology in some facilities, a cumbersome licensing process, and increasing environmental demands from interest groups for the preservation of river systems and surrounding wildlife challenge the industry. Pacific Coast states, especially California, were faced with electric power shortages during the summer of 2001, due to low market prices, high power usage among consumers and drought. The problems with the deregulation of the electricity market were brought to light by these shortages. Legislation to restructure the electric power industry in 25 states had not been enacted as of January 2002. The purchase of more power from both Canada and the Mexico is being considered by the government of the United States, as is the creation of a national power grid to allow for power transmission throughout the country. The Canada-United States energy trade might be affected by such a move, and result in project construction opportunities for Canadian companies. Renewable energy sources must be responsible for the generation of 10 per cent of power generation levels by 2020, on a gradual basis as mandated by law. By 2005, New York City must purchase 10 per cent of its power from renewable energy sources, reaching 20 per cent by 2010. The repair and replacement of aging dam equipment, the development of advanced turbine technology to protect fish stocks and water quality, dam removal, the construction of power lines are all opportunities open to Canadian companies. 60 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  5. Transport in Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NSTX spherical torus (ST) provides a unique platform to investigate magnetic confinement in auxiliary-heated plasmas at low aspect ratio. Auxiliary power is routinely coupled to ohmically heated plasmas by deuterium neutral-beam injection (NBI) and by high-harmonic fast waves (HHFW) launch. While theory predicts both techniques to preferentially heat electrons, experiment reveals the electron temperature is greater than the ion temperature during HHFW, but the electron temperature is less than the ion temperature during NBI. In the following we present the experimental data and the results of transport analyses

  6. Nuclear power plant with new-generation WWER-1000 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Czechoslovak nuclear industry is faced with a serious problem posed by the growing capital demands of nuclear power plants. Comparison with a number of foreign nuclear power plants revealed that the basic units of the Czechoslovak nuclear programme, WWER-1000 plants of the Zaporozhe type, have reserves in their technical design that can be utilized to reduce the capital and operating costs. This is the object of design work on a new-generation WWER-1000 type unit. The goals of the project, its organization and the extent of participation of the Czechoslovak party are described. The main target parameters of the new-generation unit (NGU) per gross output of a 1000 MWe unit, as compared with the Temelin nuclear power plant units, are as follows: concrete consumption (m3/MW) NGU/Temelin: 200/406; physical lifetime of the nuclear power plant (years): 50/30; possibility of power control: daily/weekend; area permanently occupied by the facility including cooling towers (m2/MW): 220/358; area temporarily occupied (m2/MW): 136/385; specific capital costs (CSK/MWh) 180/226. (Z.S.)

  7. Loss of vital ac power and the residual heat removal system during mid-loop operations at Vogtle Unit 1 on March 20, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 20, 1990, the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant Unit 1, located in Burke County, Georgia, about 25 miles southeast of Augusta, experienced a loss of all safety (vital) ac power. The plant was in cold shutdown with reactor coolant level lowered to ''mid-loop'' for various maintenance tasks. Both the containment building personnel hatch and equipment hatch were open. One emergency diesel generator and one reserve auxiliary transformer were out of service for maintenance, with the remaining reserve auxiliary transformer supplying both Unit 1 safety buses. A truck in the low voltage switchyard backed into the support column for an offsite power feed to the reserve auxiliary transformer which was supplying safety power. The insulator broke, a phase-to-ground fault occurred, and the feeder circuit breakers for the safety buses opened. The operable emergency diesel generator started automatically because of the undervoltage condition on the safety bus, but tripped off after about 1 minute. About 20 minutes later the diesel generator load sequencer was reset, causing the diesel generator to start a second time. The diesel generator operated for about 1 minute, and tripped off. The diesel generator was restarted in the manual emergency mode 36 minutes after the loss of power. The generator remained on line and provided power to its safety bus. During the 36 minutes without safety bus power, the reactor coolant system temperature rose from about 90 degree F to 136 degree F. This report documents the results of an Incident Investigation Team sent to Vogtle by the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine what happened, identify the probable causes, and make appropriate findings and conclusions. 79 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Heat up calculation for the auxiliary feed water pump room at Ulchin units 3 and 4 for loss of HVAC accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to estimate the air temperature inside an Auxiliary Feed Water (AFW) Motor Driven (MD) pump room for the case where there is loss of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC). A transient calculation for the closed pump room without cooling by any HVAC system shows that the volume averaged air temperature reaches around 60 .deg. C for a transient period of 8.0h. From previous studies, the external air and surface boundary temperatures are assumed to increase slowly starting from an initial temperature of 35 .deg. C. For the cases where the door is opened at 2, 4, and 6h after the initiation of HVAC failure, the average air temperature promptly drops by about 4 .deg. C when the door is opened and then slowly increases. The current calculations based on the CFD technique predict the rate of increase of air temperature to be lower than that determined by previous conservative calculations on the basis of a lumped model

  9. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas... significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 3942, dated January 25, 2010)....

  10. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... License No. NPF-63, issued to Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as... part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1;...

  11. Technical proposal polar crane of AES-91 nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical characteristics, function and standard system for the polar cranes of Russian AES-91 nuclear power unit and domestic M310 are compared and analyzed, and the differences are balanced based on the principle to ensure the safety function and cover the two standard system, and then the technical proposal for domestic manufacture of polar cranes for Tianwan NPP Units No.3 and No.4 is provided. (authors)

  12. Inspection of licensed nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection of licensed nuclear power plants in the United States is performed by the Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE), United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. IE has several key functions : a) Inspection of licensees and investigation of incidents, occurrences and allegations. b) Detection and correction of safety and security problems. c) Enforcement of rules, regulations, and Commission orders. d) Feedback to the industry and others regarding safety experience. e) Informing the public and others. Major enforcement actions and events involving operating power reactors for the past several years will be summarized. (author)

  13. 机车辅助电源电快速瞬变脉冲群试验案例分析%Investigation on Locomotive Auxiliary Power in EFT Testing Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦爱玉; 赵阳; 颜伟; 慈文彦; 王珏

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of production and harassment to EFT is employed to investigate the EFT problems of the locomotive auxiliary power. This paper studies the processing method and puts forward the solution to EFT problems of power line and IGBT. The experimental results show that, the EFT level of locomotive auxiliary power is efficiently improved,conformable to GB/T17626. 4-2008.%针对机车辅助电源电快速瞬变脉冲群( EFT)抗扰度问题,分析了脉冲群产生和骚扰机理,研究了脉冲群的处理方法,提出了针对电源线EFT问题的解决方法.试验结果表明,所提方法可以有效提高机车辅助电源EFT抗扰度等级,达到GB/T 17626.4—2008标准要求.

  14. The United States: the next major nuclear power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three issues concerning the outlook for nuclear power in the United States are discussed. The first is the demand for new electricity supply. The second is the supply of electricity. With the recession in the supply industry between 1973-1984 a surge in the provision of new generating capacity is expected. Nuclear power will be part of this for strategic, economic and environmental reasons. The short-term situation is the third issue. The need to renew energy supply is being accepted and postponed nuclear projects will be revived and new orders placed in 1988/9. Analysis of the United States economy showing recovery from recession, taxation rates and economic performance is discussed as the background to projections of growth in the electricity output, electricity prices, power plant orders and electricity demand. A sensitivity analysis for electricity costs is made. It is not envisaged that alternative energy technologies will figure significantly in the future power market. (U.K.)

  15. Automotive Power Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  16. Power Dissipation Challenges in Multicore Floating-Point Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    With increased densities on chips and the growing popularity of multicore processors and general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) power dissipation and energy consumption pose a serious challenge in the design of system-on-chips (SoCs) and a rise in costs for heat removal. In this work...

  17. Contingency-Constrained Unit Commitmentin Meshed Isolated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Vinter, Peter; Bærentsen, Runi;

    2015-01-01

    and a modelling point of view. We compare the ORPP to a unit commitment problem that only considers the stationary behavior of the frequency. Simulations based on a Faroe Islands case study show that, without being overly conservative, potential blackouts and power outages can be avoided using the...

  18. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    This article extends the analysis of local power of unit root tests in a nonlinear direction by considering local nonlinear alternatives and tests built specically against stationary nonlinear models. In particular, we focus on the popular test proposed by Kapetanios et al. (2003, Journal of...

  19. Power up rate plan of NPP PAKS units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAKS investigates the way to up rate the power of units to the 108% of the original nominal level. This thermal power level makes possible to reach the 500 MW (gross) electric power production. Present paper shows the main features of new nominal state. To help the evaluation of power up rate from fuel side, a 2-step fuel modernization procedure is planned. In the 1st step a slightly modified fuel with increased pin pitch and Hf layer in followers planned to be introduced, in the 2nd step geometrically modified fuel with higher enrichment and burnable poison. The article also contains the description of the planned transient and equilibrium cycles. During the transient cycles the nominal power and the fuel also will change (Authors)

  20. Radionuclides in United States commercial nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the next ten to twenty years, many of the commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States will be reaching their projected lifetime of forty years. As these power plants are decommissioned, it seems prudent to consider the recycling of structural materials such as stainless steel. Some of these materials and components have become radioactive through either nuclear activation of the elements within the components or surface contamination with radioactivity form the operational activities. In order to understand the problems associated with recycling stainless steel from decommissioned nuclear power reactors, it is necessary to have information on the radionuclides expected on or in the contaminated materials. A study has been conducted of radionuclide contamination information that is available for commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States. There are two types of nuclear power reactors in commercial use in the United States, pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Before presenting radionuclide activities information, a brief discussion is given on the major components and operational differences for the PWRs and BWRs. Radionuclide contamination information is presented from 11 PWRs and over 8 BWRs. These data include both the radionuclides within the circulating reactor coolant water as well as radionuclide contamination on and within component parts

  1. KLT-20 reactor for a floating power unit. Annex VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KLT-20 reactor installation is being designed by the Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building (OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod) as a power source for floating nuclear power plants (NPPs). At present, the activities are most advanced for the project of a pilot floating heat and power plant with the KLT-40S reactor installations, advanced analogues of the commercial KLT-40 reactors of the Russian icebreaker fleet. For the KLT-40S, detailed design of the reactor unit and floating power unit has been developed and approved; the Rostechnadzor of Russia license for plant siting and floating power unit construction in Severodvinsk (Russian Federation) has been obtained. The KLT-20, based on a pressurized light-water reactor of 20 MW(e), is a two-loop modification of the KLT-40S reactor with several improvements in the main equipment and a long-refuelling interval, achieved with the enrichment of less than 20%. The reactor design with a long refuelling interval was developed based on the engineering solutions of the pilot KLT-40S reactor installation; different from it, the KLT-20 provides for no on-site refuelling. The refuelling, radioactive waste management and repairs of a floating NPP with the KLT-20 would be performed at special maintenance centres. The infrastructure of nuclear ship maintenance centres in Russia could be used for these purposes

  2. Stochastic Electric Power Generation Unit Commitment in Deregulated Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gharehdaghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilities participating in deregulated markets observe increasing uncertainty in load (i.e., demand for electric power and prices for fuel and electricity on spot and contract markets. This study proposes a new formulation of the unit commitment problem of electric power generators in a restructured electricity market. Under these conditions, an electric power generation company will have the option to buy or sell from a power pool in addition to producing electricity on its own. The unit commitment problem is expressed as a stochastic optimization problem in which the objective is to maximize expected profits and the decisions are required to meet the standard operating constraints. Under the assumption of competitive market and price taking, it is depicted that the unit commitment schedule for a collection of N generation units can be solved by considering each unit separately. The volatility of the spot market price of electricity is represented by a stochastic model. This paper uses probabilistic dynamic programming to solve the stochastic optimization problem pertaining to unit commitment. It is shown that for a market of 150 units the proposed unit commitment can be accurately solved in a reasonable time by using the normal, Edgeworth, or Monte Carlo approximation methods.

  3. Progress on radio frequency auxiliary heating system designs in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER will require over 100 MW of auxiliary power for heating, on- and off-axis current drive, accessing the H-mode, and plasma shut-down. The Electron Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ECRF) and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) are two forms of Radio Frequency (RF) auxiliary power being developed for these applications. Design concepts for both the ECRF and ICRF systems are presented, key features and critical design issues are discussed, and projected performances outlined

  4. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  5. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. The electrical power market in the Midwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power industry in the Midwest United States, Illinois, Missouri and Wisconsin, are following the general pattern of industry deregulation that has recently taken place in other jurisdictions in the United States. This report describes the economic and business environment in the Midwest and presents potential opportunities. Several electric utilities have stalled investment in energy restructuring due to the uncertainties surrounding electricity deregulation. Others, however, see opportunity to maximize their energy and operational efficiencies. They are investing to upgrade their existing power plants and expand their transmission and distribution systems. In addition, companies are looking to reduce operating costs by improving electric power equipment manufacturing and services. They are taking closer looks at cogeneration power projects, automated systems and enhanced turbine technology. Canadian companies that want to do business in the U.S. should be prepared by building networks. They are strongly advised to work with the Canadian Consulate General in the region as well as other Canadian support agencies. It is expected that despite overall slower growth in the industry, about 45,056 MW of new generating capacity will be added by electric utilities throughout the United States by 2007. Approximately 88 per cent of the new capacity will be new gas-fired capacity. Other changes are also planned for this same time period, including changing fuel mix and deactivating about 12,000 MW of power generating capacity. Electric power generation is expected to increase 1.7 per cent per year from 2000 to 2003. The market for electric power equipment in the U.S. is estimated at over $30.8 billion. This includes steam turbines, generators, steam boilers, hydro turbines, gas turbines and diesel generating sets. It is estimated that between 2000 to 2006, the annual growth rate will be about 2.8 per cent. refs., tabs

  7. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  8. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  9. Nuclear power generation costs in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing world energy prices and shortages of fuel resources make the utilization of nuclear power extremely important. The United States nuclear power industry represents the largest body of nuclear power experience in the world. Analysis of the recent United States experience of substantial increases in the cost of nuclear power generation provides good insight into the interdependence of technological, financial, and institutional influences and their combined impact on the economic viability of nuclear power generation. The various factors influencing ultimate generation costs, including construction cost, fuel cost, regulatory reviews, and siting considerations are discussed, and their relative impacts are explored, including discussion of design complexity and related regulatory response. A closer look into the recent relatively high escalation of nuclear plant construction costs shows how differing economic conditions can affect the relative cost effectiveness of various methods of power generation. The vulnerability of capital-intensive, long-lead-time projects to changes in economic conditions and uncertainty in future power demands is discussed. Likewise, the pitfalls of new designs and increased sophistication are contrasted to the advantages which result from proven designs, reliable engineering, and shorter lead times. The value of reliable architect-engineers experienced in the design and construction of the plant is discussed. A discussion is presented of additional regulatory requirements stemming from public safety aspects of nuclear power. These include recognition of requirements for the very large effort for quality assurance of materials and workmanship during plant construction and operation. Likewise, a discussion is included of the demanding nature of operations, maintenance, and modification of plants during the operational phase because of the need for highly qualified operations and maintenance personnel and strict quality assurance

  10. Changing Perceptions of Nuclear Power in The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although many new nuclear power plants have been brought on line in that time, resulting in a capacity of 110 plants with operating permits and another twelve in the last stages of completion, all of these plants were authorized before 1978. The fundamental reason for this moratorium in new orders was the precipitous reduction in electricity demand, arising from the OPEC embargo and Iran revolution, which created excess electric capacity throughout the United States. In fact, many nuclear and coal plants were cancelled to minimize the over capacity problem and no large base load generating units have been ordered of any kind in the past decade. So the 'moratorium' is not really unique to nuclear power. Progress, coupled with increased awareness that nuclear power is one of the keys to solving atmospheric environmental problems, will swing political and public acceptance back to being favorable. Successful progress in these matters will be of benefit to public acceptance around the world and, conversely, serious technical difficulties, particularly entailing any major incident with a nuclear power plants anywhere in the world, will adversely affect the improvement in political and public acceptance in the United States. It is vitally important, therefore, that we continue to further enhance international cooperation in nuclear power. We are pleased the Korea Electric power Corporation and the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute are participating in EPRI development programs, and hope that cooperation will increase in the future. We're most encouraged by the formation of the World Association of Nuclear Operators, which will be initiated in Moscow next month. The nuclear electric utilities and their governments around the world, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD should be commended for their initiative in international cooperation

  11. Power conditioning unit development for MAG-TRANSIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, R. G.; Smith, R. J.

    The results of a development program which has been completed on a modular inverter, referred to as the Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), employing many parallel TO-3 transistors, are discussed. The PCU has been designed to provide a precisely controlled, variable voltage, variable frequency excitation to a linear induction motor in the MAG-TRANSIT system, a form of magnetically levitated vehicles for people mover applications. The CPU, which consists of eight power modules, with 24 transistors each, has demonstrated a capacity of 73.4 kVA.

  12. Nuclear power reactor licensing and regulation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to four subjects: an explanation of the origins, statutory basis and development of the present regulatory system in the United States; a description of the various actions which must be taken by a license applicant and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before a nuclear power plant can be constructed and placed on-line, an account of the current regulatory practices followed by the US NRC in licensing nuclear power reactors; an identification of some of the 'lessons learned' from the Three Mile Island accident and some proposed regulatory and legislative solutions. (NEA)

  13. Inventory of power plants in the United States: December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1979 inventory of power plants provides a comprehensive list of existing, standby, out-of-service, retired and projected electric generating plants in the U.S. Arranged under the broad sections of existing, jointly owned and projected units, tabulated data on individual plants in each state are presented. These data include unit name, location, type, MW rating, primary fuel, alternative fuel, status, year built, and whether or not it is jointly owned. Jointly owned plants are separately identified as to the percent of ownership belonging to named owners. Projected plants have data on plant characteristics, current status and scheduled completion date. Summaries of the total number of each type of power plant in each state are also provided

  14. QUALITY EVALUATION OF THE TPP POWER GENERATING UNITS WEAR RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconditioning of the power generating unit worn equipment and devices is conducted during the scheduled repair period. Quality of wear reconditioning is evaluated by technical state and repair work implementation. Quality of the repair work execution characterizes logistical activities of the power station and the repair services and is rated by a five-grade scale. There are three technical conditions: adequate, subject to reservations, falling short of the technical standard documentation requirements. In practical work these constraints give place to essential ambiguity of the decision. Further to regulating techniques by way of informational support, the authors propose conducting the wear-reconditioning quality evaluation (repair quality accordingly the technical-and-economic indexes pattern of change. The paper recommends applying similarly the fivegrade system in evaluating the power generating unit technical state and distinguishes intolerable, dissatisfactory, fair, good and model estimates. The study demonstrates the assessment criteria dependence on the character of reliability and economical efficiency of performance variation after the repair with increase or decrease of the technical-and-economic indexes in reference to their mean, minimum and maximum values before the repair. The cases ascribed to intolerable quality of the wear reconditioning are those with one or more technical-and-economic indexes that not only failed to improve their values but deteriorated, and at that they became the worst amongst observable values. The model quality estimate of the wear reconditioning is allotted under condition that the power unit technical-and-economic index valuations after the repair not merely improved but also exceeded the best among those under observation. The developed method and algorithm for quality evaluation of the scheduled repair implementation contribute to practical realization of the independent monitoring. This monitoring

  15. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  16. Engine Auxiliary System Guideline: Cooling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kela, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was done for Wärtsilä Technical Services organization. The assignment was to consolidate a guideline for cooling systems as an engine auxiliary system covering the Wärtsilä 4-stroke engines currently in production. The guideline was to include information considering both marine and power plants installations. The sources of information were internal documentation from Wärtsilä, literature review and discussions with Wärtsilä cooling system experts. The guideline includes informati...

  17. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, T [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, T, E-mail: turbo@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  18. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, T.; Suzuki, T.

    2010-08-01

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  19. Generic information display system for the control centre of the nuclear power station power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last years much attention was given to the problem of man-machine interface management for the control systems of high risk object. Modular control panels with computerized display systems are proposed in a number of projects. Rejection of expanded mnemonics and transition to integrated mnemonics and automated workstations feature these projects. The implementation of such systems is related to the need to overcome a number of difficulties. The specialists is automated control systems (ACS) encountered the similar situation in astronautics and then in aviation. Therefore it is reasonable to take into consideration their experience while designing ACS or modifying operational ACS for the power units of atomic stations. In addition, the experience of soviet specialists in the field of astronautics is the most useful from our point of view. Information display systems of manned spacecrafts, starting with the ''Vostok'', substantially differed from those of aircraft and American spacecrafts. Compact consoles using command compression and multifunctional electronic displays and controls were proposed in place of expanded consoles. Based on the experience in astronautics the paper considers the problems of designing a console panel for the integrated IDS and consoles for the ACS of complex objects, including a power unit of the atomic power station. The power unit IDS is presented as an integrated shared system and the operators' workstations. The shared system consists of four levels to display a general status of the power unit; accidents related to the power unit safety; the main parameters and arrangements of the power unit; instruction of goal designations. The workstations have the four similar levels related to the reactor plant or turbine and additional levels to display particular parameters and limitations, routine control and critical situation isolation of a space station and the console of the operator's workstation. (author). 10 refs, 8 figs

  20. The Evolution of the United States Civilian Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elements of major importance in our civilian power programme are economics and efficient utilization of nuclear fuel resources. Extensive development work will be required by each of these factors, but development work alone in the absence of successful nuclear power plant operating experience will not suffice. An important start towards this end has been made with water reactors and additional operating experience on these systems will accumulate at an accelerated pace over the next few years. These efforts are producing results inasmuch as utility com panies are beginning to undertake the construction of large water reactors on the basis of firm economics. Operating experience with other reactor concepts is now beginning to be accumulated in the United States. To the extent that these reactor concepts satisfy the requirement of economics and efficient utilization of nuclear fuel, additional large nuclear power plants employing these reactor concepts will be undertaken by utility companies. (author)

  1. The outline of decommissioning plan for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station's Unit 1 and Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, terminated nuclear power stations must be dismantled and removed, and doing this requires establishing a nuclear reactor facility decommissioning plan as based on the Law on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors, and getting the approval of the national government. Termination Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station's Unit 1 and Unit 2 on January 30, 2009 Chubu Electric submitted an 'Application for Approval of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station's Unit 1 and Unit 2 Decommissioning Plan' to the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry in keeping with the stipulations of Article 43, Paragraph 3-2-2, of the Law on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors. On June 1, 2009 As the application was authorized on November 18, 2009, Chubu Electric started to dismantle. The application includes an overall plan for dismantling reactor facilities safely and surely, a description of tasks to be performed during the period Chubu Electric is preparing to dismantle the facilities in the coming years (system decontamination, survey of facility contamination, etc.) and safety assurance measures, among other information. (author)

  2. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed...

  3. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  4. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  5. Design validation and BN-800 power unit construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, the Government of the Russian Federation has approved the Federal target program 'Development of nuclear power generation complex in Russia up to 2015'. Along with accelerated construction of large VVER-1000 power units, the program envisages the development of nuclear power innovative technologies. They include the activities in fast neutron reactors, which are involved in the perspective to change nuclear power over to closed fuel cycle, which provides the most efficient use of uranium resources and solution of highly actual political and ecological issues of SNF and RW handling. The central stage of the innovation component of target program deals with construction of fast sodium reactor BN-800 that shall take the important stage in development of fast breeder reactor technology and in generation of closed fuel cycle of nuclear power industry. BN-800 design has been developed on the basis of BN-600 reactor, which operates successfully at Beloyarsk NPP starting from 1980. During this period, the reactor plant shows high and stable indices of reliability, safety and efficiency. Average annual plant capacity factor of power unit from the moment of reaching of design rate (from 1982) is 75.7%. In addition, unscheduled loss of plant capacity factor value due to process equipment failures is small (∼ 2%). The final technical decisions on BN-800 were made in 1990th after Chernobyl NPP accident and following strengthening of requirements for nuclear-power safety. For qualitative safety enhancement, BN-800 design implements some predominantly passive systems (additional emergency protection rods hydraulically suspended in sodium coolant, emergency cooling air HX, tray for confining of core melt under hypothetic accident). During design upgrading, the improvements aimed at enhancement of technical-economic indices were also introduced. The main fact that allows sufficient decrease (by 34%) of RP specific metal consumption is BN-800 power increase by ∼45% at

  6. SEPP-ZVS High Frequency Inverter Incorporating Auxiliary Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Itoi, Misao; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents a novel circuit topology to attain ZVS operation of a high frequency inverter over a wide range output power regulation using a PWM control technique by connecting an auxiliary switch to the conventional single ended push-pull (SEPP) ZVS high frequency inverter. A switching current is injected into the main switches via the auxiliary switch only during the short period between its turn-on and off times to supply a current required for its ZVS operation.

  7. DESIGNING FEATURES OF POWER OPTICAL UNITS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Afanasiev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the question of an optical unit designing for transmitting power laser radiation through an optical fiber. The aim of this work is designing a simple construction unit with minimized reflection losses. The source of radiation in the optical unit described below is an ultraviolet laser with diode pumping. We present the general functioning scheme and designing features for the three main parts: laser beam deflecting system, laser beam dump and optical unit control system. The described laser beam deflection system is composed of a moving flat mirror and a spherical scattering mirror. Comparative analysis of the production technology for such mirrors was carried out, and, as a result, the decision was made to produce both mirrors of 99.99 % pure molybdenum without coating. A moving mirror deflects laser emission from a source through a fiber or deflects it on a spherical mirror and into the laser beam dump, moreover, switching from one position to another occurs almost immediately. It is shown that a scattering mirror is necessary, otherwise, the absorbing surface of the beam dump is being worn out irregularly. The laser beam dump is an open conical cavity, in which the conical element with its spire turned to the emission source is placed. Special microgeometry of the internal surface of the beam dump is suggested for the better absorption effect. An optical unit control system consists of a laser beam deflection system, laser temperature sensor, deflection system solenoid temperature sensor, and deflection mirror position sensor. The signal processing algorithm for signals coming from the sensors to the controller is described. The optical unit will be used in special technological equipment.

  8. Performance/Power Space Exploration for Binary64 Division Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The digit-recurrence division algorithm is used in several high-performance processors because it provides good tradeoffs in terms of latency, area and power dissipation. In this work we develop a minimally redundant radix-8 divider for binary64 (double-precision) aiming at obtaining better energ...... efficiency in the performance-per-watt space. The results show that the radix-8 divider, when compared to radix-4 and radix-16 units, requires less energy to complete a division for high clock rates....

  9. Reliability analysis of selected systems of nuclear power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability analysis is discussed of selected facilities of the 440 MW nuclear power unit using the failure tree method. The first part of the paper deals with the primary circuit and analyses the possibility of a dangerous failure arising of the system of accident alarm of the first order of the WWER 440 nuclear reactor during the event of the ''outage of four and more circulating pumps''. The second part of the paper is related to the secondary circuit. It studies the causes and probabilities of the failures of functions of condensate flow pumping and control with regard to the event the ''turbogenerator failure''. (author)

  10. Poultry litter power station in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale power station, fired using poultry litter. The 12.7 MW of electricity generated is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The spent litter that constitutes the fuel is made up of excrement and animal bedding (usually 90% excrement and 10% straw or wood shavings). It comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (UK)

  11. Development of High-Power Hall Thruster Power Processing Units at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bozak, Karin E.; Santiago, Walter; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested four different power processor concepts for high power Hall thrusters. Each design satisfies unique goals including the evaluation of a novel silicon carbide semiconductor technology, validation of innovative circuits to overcome the problems with high input voltage converter design, development of a direct-drive unit to demonstrate potential benefits, or simply identification of lessonslearned from the development of a PPU using a conventional design approach. Any of these designs could be developed further to satisfy NASA's needs for high power electric propulsion in the near future.

  12. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  13. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  14. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  15. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  16. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  17. Estimating overland flow erosion capacity using unit stream power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ming SHIH; Chih Ted YANG

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion caused by water flow is a complex problem.Both empirical and physically based approaches were used for the estimation of surface erosion rates.Their applications are mainly limited to experimental areas or laboratory studies.The maximum sediment concentration overland flow can carry is not considered in most of the existing surface erosion models.The lack of erosion capacity limitation may cause over estimations of sediment concentration.A correlation analysis is used in this study to determine significant factors that impact surface erosion capacity.The result shows that the unit stream power is the most dominant factor for overland flow erosion which is consistent with experimental data.A bounded regression formula is used to reflect the limits that sediment concentration cannot be less than zero nor greater than a maximum value.The coefficients used in the model are calibrated using published laboratory data.The computed results agree with laboratory data very well.A one dimensional overland flow diffusive wave model is used in conjunction with the developed soil erosion equation to simulate field experimental results.This study concludes that the non-linear regression method using unit stream power as the dominant factor performs well for estimating overland flow erosion capacity.

  18. Development Status of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, Jon Boise; Godfoy, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the development of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The reactor simulator core and Annular Linear Induction Pump have been fabricated and assembled into a test loop at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A 12 kWe Power Conversion Unit (PCU) is being developed consisting of two 6 kWe free-piston Stirling engines. The two 6 kWe engines have been fabricated by Sunpower Inc. and are currently being tested separately prior to integration into the PCU. The Facility Cooling System (FCS) used to reject convertor waste heat has been assembled and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The structural elements, including a Buildup Assembly Platform (BAP) and Upper Truss Structure (UTS) have been fabricated, and will be used to test cold-end components in thermal vacuum prior to TDU testing. Once all components have been fully tested at the subsystem level, they will be assembled into an end-to-end system and tested in thermal vacuum at GRC.

  19. Design of Power Shift Auxiliary Gearbox in Transmission for Tractor%拖拉机负载增扭/梭行换挡副变速器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 王志晨

    2016-01-01

    动力换挡变速器换挡时动力不中断,且能够将复杂的换挡过程简化为按钮操作,在国外的拖拉机上已得到了广泛应用。为此,设计了一种新型的负载换挡行星齿轮副变速器,增加了原变速箱的挡位数,并实现了增扭负载换挡与梭行换挡。在分析了整体功能要求的基础上,确定了变速器的传动方案及结构,设计了副变速器液压控制系统,并对拖拉机各挡总传动比及理论车速进行了设计计算。同时,绘制了拖拉机牵引力和比油耗曲线,定义拖拉机牵引功率利用率和比油耗损失率用以评价拖拉机动力性和燃油经济性,并通过计算比较了改进前后拖拉机的动力性和燃油经济性情况。%With the advantage of uninterrupted output power in the process of gear shift, power shift transmission is wide-ly used on Tractor abroad.In this paper, a new type power shift auxiliary gearbox is developed.The new type auxiliary gearbox increases the number of gear positions and has the function of torque booster and shuttle shift.Based on the anal-ysis of function requirements, the general drive scheme and structural style is obtained.The hydraulic control system is designed, and gear ratios and theoretical travel speeds are calculated.The tractor traction and specific fuel consumption curves are drawn.The traction power utilization and specific fuel consumption loss rate is defined to evaluate the tractor dynamic and fuel economy performance .The tractor dynamic and fuel economy performance of original tractor and im-proved tractor is compared through calculation.

  20. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' which requires that the calculated emergency core...

  1. Unit rehabilitation at Newfoundland Light and Power Co. Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979, Newfoundland Light and Power Corporation Limited conducted a complete review of its hydroelectric facilities, assessing their general condition, determining means of improving efficiency, and determining economical ways of redeveloping sites to increase output. The study resulted in ongoing upgrading of each of the 22 facilities. The work completed, economic and other justification for the projects, and an analysis of results with respect to improved production and efficiency are presented for three of the sites, Topsail, Lawn, and Lookout Brook. Work on Topsail included the installation of a new penstock and installation of a 2,250 kW turbine to replace the old 1,200 kW unit. At Lawn, the old woodstave penstock was rebuilt, and a single 650 kW turbine was installed to replace the existing two 150 kW Voith units. Work at Lookout Brook involved installing a 2,650 kW turbogenerator to replace the two Leffel units which were becoming expensive to operate and maintain. It is concluded that while Topsail and Lookout Brook appear to be good investments, increased operating and capital cost and lower than estimated production have combined to produce poor economic results at Lawn. 4 tabs

  2. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operable capacity at US electric power plants totaled 693,016 megawatts, as of year-end 1991. Coal-fired capacity accounted for 43 percent (299,849 megawatts) of the total US generating capacity, the share it has essentially maintained for the past decade. Gas-fired capacity accounted for 18 percent (125,683 megawatts); nuclear, 14 percent (99,589 megawatts); water, 13 percent (92,031 megawatts); petroleum, 10 percent (72,357 megawatts); other, one percent (3,507 megawatts). The 693,016 megawatts of operable capacity includes 3,627 megawatts of new capacity that came on line during 1991 (Table 2). This new capacity is 42 percent less than capacity in new units reported for 1990. Gas-fired capacity accounted for the greatest share of this new capacity. It represents 38 percent of the new capacity that started operation in 1991. The surge in new gas-fired capacity is the beginning of a trend that is expected to exist over the next 10 years. That is, gas-fired capacity will dominate new capacity additions. Gas-fired capacity additions during the next 10 years will primarily be in simple cycle gas turbines and gas turbines operating as combined cycle units. These planned gas turbine and combined cycle units, whose capacity totals over 21,000 megawatts, are expected to serve peak and intermediate loads of electric utilities

  3. 76 FR 39134 - ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COMMISSION ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... licensing basis requirements previously applicable to the nuclear power units and associated...

  4. Design and conditioning of a 50-kVA power-conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechschulte, D.L.; Shuey, K.C.; Vonderembse, J.F.; Shireman, D.W.; Niederjohn, W.M.

    1981-07-01

    A 50-kVA power conditioning unit is described including its operation, mechanical layout, factory tests results, and recommendations for future work. The appendixes include a description of the microprocessor controller for the power system, applicable drawings, and a summary of the design specifications for the power conditioning unit.

  5. Research and Application of Auxiliary Optimization Technology of Power Grid Accident Processing Based on the Mode of Regulation and Control Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Houzhen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident processing is the most important link of the scheduling of daily monitoring. The improvement of intelligent level is of great significance for improving the efficiency of accident processing scheduling, shortening the time of accident processing and preventing further deterioration of accidents. According to features of accident processing scheduling, this paper puts forward an integrated framework of aid decision-making of online accident processing based on large power grid, and carries out a study from five aspects, namely integrated information support platform, risk perception in advance, online fault diagnosis, aid decision-making afterwards and visual display, so as to conduct real-time tracking on operating state of power grid, eliminate potential safety hazards of power grid and upgrade power grid from “manual analysis” scheduling to “intelligent analysis” scheduling.

  6. Motion charged battery as sustainable flexible-power-unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Zong-Hong; Niu, Simiao; Lin, Long; Xie, Yannan; Pradel, Ken C; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-12-23

    Energy harvesting and storage are the two most important energy technologies developed for portable, sustainable, and self-sufficient power sources for mobile electronic systems. However, both have limitations for providing stable direct-current (DC) with an infinite lifetime. Herein, we integrated a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)-based mechanical energy harvester with Li-ion-battery (LIB)-based energy storage as a single device for demonstrating a flexible self-charging power unit (SCPU), which allows a battery to be charged directly by ambient mechanical motion. This physical integration enables a new operation mode of the SCPU: the "sustainable mode", in which the LIB stores the TENG-generated electricity while it is driving an external load. With the LIB being replenished by the ambient mechanical energy, the SCPU can keep providing a constant voltage to the load by utilizing the stable difference between the battery's intrinsic electrode potentials. This study will impact the traditional trends of battery research and advance the development of the self-powered systems. PMID:24266595

  7. Geothermal electric power generation in Iceland for the proposed Iceland/United Kingdom HVDC power link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews geothermal electric power potential in Iceland which could economically be developed to supplement hydro power for the proposed HVDC Power Link to the United Kingdom, and power intensive industries in Iceland, which are envisaged for development at this time. Technically harnessable energy for electricity generation taking account of geothermal resources down to an assumed base depth, temperature distribution in the crust, probable geothermal recovery factor, and accessibility of the field, has been assessed. Nineteen known high-temperature fields and 9 probable fields have been identified. Technically harnessable geo-heat for various areas is indicated. Data on high temperature fields suitable for geothermal electric power generation, and on harnessable energy for electric power generation within volcanic zones, is stated, and overall assessments are made. The paper then reviews how the potential might be developed, discussing preference of possible sites, and cost of the developments at todays prices. Cost of geothermal electric power generation with comparative costs for hydro generation are given. Possible transmission system developments to feed the power to the proposed HVDC Link converter stations are also discussed

  8. Evaluation of the performance of combined cooling, heating, and power systems with dual power generation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits of using a combined cooling, heating, and power system with dual power generation units (D-CCHP) is examined in nine different U.S. locations. One power generation unit (PGU) is operated at base load while the other is operated following the electric load. The waste heat from both PGUs is used for heating and for cooling via an absorption chiller. The D-CCHP configuration is studied for a restaurant benchmark building, and its performance is quantified in terms of operational cost, primary energy consumption (PEC), and carbon dioxide emissions (CDE). Cost spark spread, PEC spark spread, and CDE spark spread are examined as performance indicators for the D-CCHP system. D-CCHP system performance correlates well with spark spreads, with higher spark spreads signifying greater savings through implementation of a D-CCHP system. A new parameter, thermal difference, is introduced to investigate the relative performance of a D-CCHP system compared to a dual PGU combined heat and power system (D-CHP). Thermal difference, together with spark spread, can explain the variation in savings of a D-CCHP system over a D-CHP system for each location. The effect of carbon credits on operational cost savings with respect to the reference case is shown for selected locations. - Highlights: • We investigate benefits from using combined cooling, heating, and power systems. • A dual power generation unit configuration is considered for CCHP and CHP. • Spark spreads for cost, energy, and emissions correlate with potential savings. • Thermal difference parameter helps to explain variations in potential savings. • Carbon credits may increase cost savings where emissions savings are possible

  9. 基于年费用法的电站辅机投资项目经济评价研究%Economic Evaluation of Auxiliary Equipment Project in Power Plants Based on the Annualized Cost Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓霞

    2013-01-01

    The economic evaluation is an important part of feasibility study and project proposals. It also can help making decision. The thesis, in accordance with characteristics of the electric power project and the specific property of evaluation, analyzes the component elements, establishes evaluating indicator, and constructs economic assessment method of auxiliary equipment project in power plants. Through empirical analysis, scientific and practiced characters of index system and evaluating method have been validated.%  经济评价是电力项目可行性研究与项目建议书的重要组成部分,是项目决策科学化的据。论文从电站辅机项目的特点和评价独特性入手,分析和甄别构成要素、设置评价指标,构建了基年费用法的电站辅机设备的经济性评价方法,并通过实证分析,验证了指标体系和评价方法的科学性和实践可行性。

  10. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-358. Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria for structures, systems, and components; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; instrumentation and controls; electric power; auxiliary systems; conduct of operations; and TMI-2 requirements

  11. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-05-15

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  12. Power from Perspective. Potential future United States energy portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce; Gibson, Amy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37831-6038 (United States); Healy, K.C.; Cody, Preston; Beres, Drew; Ritter, A.J. [Deloitte Touche (United States); Ashish, Ashutosh; Lulla, Sam; Mazur, Jim [Independent Consultant (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents United States energy portfolios for the year 2030, developed from seven different Perspectives. The Perspectives are characterized by different weights placed on fourteen defining values (e.g., cost, social acceptance). The portfolios were constructed to achieve three primary goals, energy independence, energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. The portfolios are also evaluated over a comprehensive set of secondary criteria (e.g., economic growth, technical feasibility). It is found that very different portfolios based on very different defining values can achieve the three primary goals. Commonalities among the portfolios include reliance upon cellulosic ethanol, nuclear power, and energy efficiency to meet year 2030 energy demands. It is concluded that the US energy portfolio must be diverse and to achieve national energy goals will require an explicit statement of goals, a strong role for government, and coordinated action across society. (author)

  13. Modifications and addition of an auxiliary feedwater pump to SONGS [San Onofre nuclear generating station] 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the recent modifications and equipment additions to the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) Unit 1. As a result of the Three Mile Island accident, several modifications to the AFW system were required. The addition of a third auxiliary feedwater pump was necessary to allow auxiliary feedwater operation following a main steam-line break concurrent with a single active failure

  14. Modelling of Auxiliary Devices for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Application

    OpenAIRE

    Olsén, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The engine torque is an important control signal. This signal is disturbed by the devices mounted on the belt. To better be able to estimate the torque signal, this work aims to model the auxiliary devices'influence on the crankshaft torque. Physical models have been developed for the air conditioning compressor, the alternator and the power steering pump. If these models are to be used in control unit function development and testing, they have to be fast enough to run on a hardware-in-the-l...

  15. Psychophysiological maintaining power unit operators reliability in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research center of nuclear power industry analyzed the causes of failures in power unit operation connected with the errors made by operators. In normal function of NPP operation readings of the devices change slowly and the units operation is steady. It creates monotonous actions and leads to the loss of vigilance. But at the same time a unit operator is in the state of operation waiting which leads to psychological tenacity. Each moment an operator must imagine how the power unit works and he must be ready to operate the unit quickly. For safety operation of NPP it's necessary to select people who have some professional qualities and who will be able to acquire knowledge at the appointed time. The operator's motivation is of great importance: if he wants to work at a NPP and why: if he is interested in successful work; if he is indifferent to his work or not. The negative factors that influence successful work are as follows: low ability for logical analyses expressed yearning for domination, to become a leader, to produce favorable impression by all means, including lie; disability to eject factors, causing alarm and long emotional experience. We have watched this kind of operators could do anything in critical situation low level of activity and mood special individual approach to the situation, when a person is guided only by himself without due regard to other people. Additional clinical psychodiagnostic methods are implemented after making primary psychodiagnostics to persons who have some signs of supposed mental health defects. Near 3 thousand operators have been tested at the Psychological Service at the STC. The results were: 7% of the pretenders did not meet the requirements, they have not been accepted to work in NPPs. The experts did not recommend to employ 16% of the pretenders or it's necessary to control their work carefully. 77% of the pretenders have been recommended to operational work

  16. Integration issues of a plasma contactor Power Electronics Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; York, Kenneth W.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1995-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor is baselined on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) for spacecraft charge control. The plasma contactor system consists of a hollow cathode assembly (HCA), a power electronics unit (PEU), and an expellant management unit (EMU). The plasma contactor has recently been required to operate in a cyclic mode to conserve xenon expellant and extend system life. Originally, a DC cathode heater converter was baselined for a continuous operation mode because only a few ignitions of the hollow cathode were expected. However, for cyclic operation, a DC heater supply can potentially result in hollow cathode heater component failure due to the DC electrostatic field. This can prevent the heater from attaining the proper cathode tip temperature for reliable ignition of the hollow cathode. To mitigate this problem, an AC cathode heater supply was therefore designed, fabricated, and installed into a modified PEU. The PEU was tested using resistive loads and then integrated with an engineering model hollow cathode to demonstrate stable steady-state operation. Integration issues such as the effect of line and load impedance on the output of the AC cathode heater supply and the characterization of the temperature profile of the heater under AC excitation were investigated.

  17. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

    2008-06-20

    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  18. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  19. Improving Energy Efficiency of Auxiliaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summaries of this report are: Economics Ultimately Dictates Direction; Electric Auxiliaries Provide Solid Benefits. The Impact on Vehicle Architecture Will be Important; Integrated Generators With Combined With Turbo Generators Can Meet the Electrical Demands of Electric Auxiliaries; Implementation Will Follow Automotive 42V Transition; Availability of Low Cost Hardware Will Slow Implementation; Industry Leadership and Cooperation Needed; Standards and Safety Protocols Will be Important. Government Can Play an Important Role in Expediting: Funding Technical Development; Incentives for Improving Fuel Economy; Developing Standards, Allowing Economy of Scale; and Providing Safety Guidelines

  20. Estimation of lifespan and economy parameters of steam-turbine power units in thermal power plants using varying regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The use of potent power units in thermal and nuclear power plants in order to regulate the loads results in intense wear of power generating equipment and reduction in cost efficiency of their operation. We review the methodology of a quantitative assessment of the lifespan and wear of steam-turbine power units and estimate the effect of various operation regimes upon their efficiency. To assess the power units' equipment wear, we suggest using the concept of a turbine's equivalent lifespan. We give calculation formulae and an example of calculation of the lifespan of a steam-turbine power unit for supercritical parameters of steam for different options of its loading. The equivalent lifespan exceeds the turbine's assigned lifespan only provided daily shutdown of the power unit during the night off-peak time. We obtained the engineering and economical indices of the power unit operation for different loading regulation options in daily and weekly diagrams. We proved the change in the prime cost of electric power depending on the operation regimes and annual daily number of unloading (non-use) of the power unit's installed capacity. According to the calculation results, the prime cost of electric power for the assumed initial data varies from 11.3 cents/(kW h) in the basic regime of power unit operation (with an equivalent operation time of 166700 hours) to 15.5 cents/(kW h) in the regime with night and holiday shutdowns. The reduction of using the installed capacity of power unit at varying regimes from 3.5 to 11.9 hours per day can increase the prime cost of energy from 4.2 to 37.4%. Furthermore, repair and maintenance costs grow by 4.5% and by 3 times, respectively, in comparison with the basic regime. These results indicate the need to create special maneuverable equipment for working in the varying section of the electric load diagram.

  1. Application of superconducting magnetic energy storage unit for damping of subsynchronous oscillations in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, J.B.X.; Rabbani, M.G.; Elangovan, S. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    A novel strategy for suppressing subsynchronous resonance (SSR) in power systems using a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is presented. The energy transfer between the power system and the SMES unit is based on simultaneous control of active and reactive power modulation of the SMES unit. The active power is controlled by an artificial neural network (ANN) based controller, while the reactive power is controlled by a conventional regulator. The gains of the controllers are determined from the power system operating conditions and the rating of the SMES unit. Unequal {alpha}-mode of firing angle control of the converters is utilized to enforce zero energy transfer in the SMES unit under steady state conditions. The proposed scheme is tested using the IEEE first benchmark model for subsynchronous oscillations, and it is found that, with the proposed mode of control, the SMES unit can effectively restore power system stability. (author)

  2. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... (76 FR 37842). Based upon the environmental assessment, the Commission has determined that issuance of... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit 1, located in York County, PA. PBAPS Unit 1...

  3. A Model of Energy Saving Control Using the Discharge Units of Thermal Power Stations

    OpenAIRE

    КАНЮК, Г. И.; Мезеря, А. Ю.; Лаптинов, И. П.

    2016-01-01

    The model of energy saving control of discharge units (pumps and fans) of thermal power stations has been proposed. The factors that affect the power efficiency of the supercharger operation have been shown. The influence of the technical performances of pipeline systems on the power station efficiency has been demonstrated. The function of power losses in the supercharger that can be varied in real time depending on the changes of power responses in the discharge units (bearing wear, a chang...

  4. Power processing unit options for high powered nuclear electric propulsion using MPD thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthamer, S.; Frisbee, R.H. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Das, R.S.L. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.]|[California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An electric propulsion vehicle designed to transport cargo in support of a piloted expedition to Mars will require electrical power in the range of megawatts. This paper summarizes an evaluation of various megawatt-class power processing unit (PPU) design and technology options for high-power nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles using turboalternators and advanced magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. A baseline system uses a low-voltage turboalternator, rectifiers and thrusters. However, there are other options. Four such design and technology options with the potential of improving overall system efficiency and reducing cabling mass are analyzed. The first option uses high-voltage AC from a wye-connected turboalternator and a step-down transformer, the second option uses a six-phase star-connected turboalternator instead of the wye-connected alternator in the baseline configuration, the third option uses PPU rectifier electronics located near the thrusters with a remotely-located radiator, and the fourth option uses cryogenic power conversion electronics and cabling to reduce losses. It is found that the third option has the potential of providing maximum overall power conversion efficiency and reducing mass. Presently, the fourth option appears to have maximum complexity of design and implementation, is costly, and is somewhat uncertain even through it can be the most attractive option in the future.

  5. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  6. 78 FR 285 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for Healy Power Generation Unit #2, Healy, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... major modification to the existing Healy power plant, now known as Healy Unit 1. Healy Unit 1 is a 25... Rural Utilities Service Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for Healy Power Generation... generating electrical power for commercial use in GVEA's service territory. GVEA proposes to...

  7. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  8. Characterization of wind power resource in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Gunturu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind resource in the continental and offshore United States has been reconstructed and characterized using metrics that describe, apart from abundance, its availability, persistence and intermittency. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA boundary layer flux data has been used to construct wind profile at 50 m, 80 m, 100 m, 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density (WPD estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar to those in the US wind atlas developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, but quantitatively a class less in some regions, but are within the limits of uncertainty. The wind speeds at 80 m were quantitatively and qualitatively close to the NREL wind map. The possible reasons for overestimation by NREL have been discussed. For long tailed distributions like those of the WPD, the mean is an overestimation and median is suggested for summary representation of the wind resource.

    The impact of raising the wind turbine hub height on metrics of abundance, persistence, variability and intermittency is analyzed. There is a general increase in availability and abundance of wind resource but there is an increase in intermittency in terms of level crossing rate in low resource regions.

  9. Constraints on nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. nuclear option appears, at this time, to be disappearing. Determinants of energy supply seem to be changing from engineering and economic factors to other considerations. Regulatory and financial constraints now appear to be dominating the guidelines for electrical energy expansion. American electric utilities, for the most part, have not been able to obtain sufficient revenues to cover their costs of production. What price increases that they are being allowed to charge their customers come too late to keep up with inflation. They require increasing quantities of outside funding in the form of debt and equity capital. This they can only obtain at record high rates, if at all. Most utilities are not even earning what their regulators have determined are fair returns. Financial problems and regulatory tangles severely affect nuclear power, despite its proven technology and environmental and economic benefits. If the United States loses the nuclear alternative, the economic consequences of limiting fuels for electric base load generation to coal only will be severe; analogous to a monopoly situation in fuel supply. It is doubtful, despite the huge resources of coal, that the coal industry can satisfy even a reduced future demand. The question then becomes whether the technological leader of the world may in the future be faced with blackouts and rationing of electricity

  10. Water-chemical process in reactor units of nuclear icebreakers and floating power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design specific features and operational experience of the reactor plants used at Russian nuclear ships and icebreakers are discussed. The role of different factors affecting the primary coolant circuit water-chemical characteristics is considered. The primary circuit of the ship propulsion reactors has closed and relatively small volume. The coolant after washing and first filling is exchanged not more than 3-4 times for the whole operating period. The general approach to water chemistry for the primary coolant circuits of the ship propulsion reactor plants is suggested basing on the generalizing of the large information volume gained during laboratory investigations into the water-chemical processes, benchmark tests and in the course of long-time operation which is the most important source of information. It is shown that the ammonium water chemistry applied in ship propulsion plants is stable, easily organized and maintained, the volume of liquid radioactive wastes produced is not great. Use of these conditions in reactor plants of new small-power NPP and floating power unit projects is considered to be reasonable and sufficiently supported by data. The operational experience shows that improvements may be directed to changes in the regime of cleaning system utilization and increasing the ion-exchange slim service lifetime

  11. Limitation for performance of jobs in power unit control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure is described for an analysis of the somatic and mental health condition of operating personnel in the unit control room of a nuclear power plant. It was divided into three stages, viz.: (1) determination of adverse and favorable effects of work; (2) the recording of social, psychological, physiological and biochemical changes in the personnel; (3) determination of possibilities of controlling the limit for performance of a job. The analysis showed that the problem is complex and should permanently remain in the centre of attention. (J.B.). 3 refs

  12. Finland banks on nuclear power and biomass. New power station unit at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR has been developed from French reactor type N4 (Chivaux) and the German reactor type Konvoi (Philippsburg 2, Isar 2). The improvement of efficiency of about 1 400 to 1 600 MW results from the colder coolant water of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The total investment amounts 3 Mrd. Euro. The decision of the Finish Government in favour of the EPR was safety, supply reliability and production cost. Therefore in February could start the ground moving work for this first new nuclear power unit in Europe since more than ten years. (GL)

  13. Risk-Constrained Unit Commitment of Power System Incorporating PV and Wind Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Alimardani; Seyed Hossein Hosseinian; Gholam Hossein Riahy; Sajjad Abedi

    2011-01-01

    Wind and solar (photovoltaic) power generations have rapidly evolved over the recent decades. Efficient and reliable planning of power system with significant penetration of these resources brings challenges due to their fluctuating and uncertain characteristics. In this paper, incorporation of both PV and wind units in the unit commitment of power system is investigated and a risk-constrained solution to this problem is presented. Considering the contribution of PV and wind units, the aim is...

  14. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours

  15. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest in......Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...

  16. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bucchi; Forte, P; F. Frendo; R. Squarcini

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR) is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are...

  17. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net electric power generated by Unit 1 was 2,315,124 MWH(e) and Unit 2 generated 2,062,954 MWH(e) with Unit 1 generator on line for 3,157.8 hrs and Unit 2 on line for 2,881.2 hrs. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, abnormal occurrences, and environmental monitoring. (FS)

  18. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  19. New power plant units in Russia; Neue Kraftwerksbloecke fuer Russland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Horst; Kraemer, Ralph [TETRA ENERGIE GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Bull, Thomas; Sperling, Dietmar [EON Russian Power (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the privatisation of the Russian electricity industry, the power stations were liberated from the power supply company RAO EES ROSSII. Six power station combinations and ten power station federations were created. In order to ensure a fair competition between the power station combinations, special attention was given to a comparable priority with respect to age, fuel fundamentals and efficiency. This principle resulted in a technical differentiation and in a territorially scattered situation of the individual power stations. The individual power stations are described in the contribution under consideration.

  20. 77 FR 46185 - United States v. United Technologies Corporation and Goodrich Corporation; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... dissuade a customer from approving such a design. 21. A generator used in an auxiliary power unit (``APU'') cannot be used in place of a main engine generator. APU generators are designed to perform a function... as the APU, cannot be used on a main engine for a large aircraft because they do not have the...

  1. 核电厂辅助给水系统控制方案设计研究%Study on Control System of Auxiliary Feedwater System of Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁超

    2015-01-01

    Auxiliary water supply system is an important system in the design of safety facilities of nuclear power station. The common cause fault of software and the power plant station blackout are two key factors for control system of ASG. So in the design of the control system, in order to deal with the two failure factors, the control strategy of diversity and emergency power supply are respectively adopted. Through analysis diversity control strategy is an effect method to prevent the failure of the safety functions resulting from software common cause failure which meets single failure criterion. In the case of station blackout, it is necessary to provide emergency power supply for control system of the starting ASG, and ensure the system safety functions workable.%辅助给水系统(ASG)是核电厂专设安全设施中重要的系统。对于实现对ASG功能控制的安全级系统,软件共因故障和全厂失电是导致控制失效的两个关键因素。因此,在进行控制系统设计时,为应对这两大失效因素,分别采用了多样性和增加应急电源的控制策略。通过分析,采用多样性控制策略可以有效地防止软件共因故障导致安全功能丧失的风险,保证系统满足单一故障的要求。同时在全厂断电的情况下,增加应急供电电源,对启动ASG功能的控制系统进行紧急供电,保证系统安全功能可执行。

  2. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  4. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  5. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  6. Trace analysis of auxiliary feedwater capacity for Maanshan PWR loss-of-normal-feedwater transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maanshan nuclear power plant is a Westinghouse PWR of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, TPC). A few years ago, TPC has made many assessments in order to uprate the power of Maanshan NPP. The assessments include NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) parameters calculation, uncertainty acceptance, integrity of pressure vessel, reliability of auxiliary systems, and transient analyses, etc. Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident happened, it is necessary to consider transients with multiple-failure. Base on the analysis, we further study the auxiliary feedwater capability for Loss-of-Normal-Feedwater (LONF) transient. LONF is the limiting transient of non-turbine trip initiated event for ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) which results in a reduction in capability of the secondary system to remove the heat generated in the reactor core. If the turbine fails to trip immediately, the secondary water inventory will decrease significantly before the actuation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. The heat removal from the primary side decreases, and this leads to increases of primary coolant temperature and pressure. The water level of pressurizer also increases subsequently. The heat removal through the relief valves and the auxiliary feedwater is not sufficient to fully cope with the heat generation from primary side. The pressurizer will be filled with water finally, and the RCS pressure might rise above the set point of relief valves for water discharge. RCS pressure depends on steam generator inventory, primary coolant temperature, negative reactivity feedback, and core power, etc. The RCS pressure may reach its peak after core power reduction. According to ASME Code Level C service limit criteria, the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure must be under 22.06 MPa. The USNRC is developing an advanced thermal hydraulic code named TRACE for nuclear power plant safety analysis. The development of TRACE is based on TRAC and integrating with RELAP5 and other programs. SNAP

  7. Performance analysis of a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+), which is a GEN III+ reactor based on the APR1400, is being developed in Korea. In order to enhance the safety of the APR+, a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) has been adopted in the APR+. The PAFS replaces the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) by introducing a natural driving force mechanism while maintaining the system function of cooling the primary side and removing the decay heat. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the PAFS under design basis events using best-estimated thermalhydraulic codes

  8. Fuel cells multi-stack power architectures and experimental validation of 1 kW parallel twin stack PEFC generator based on high frequency magnetic coupling dedicated to on board power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) multi-stack generator and its power electronic interface dedicated to an on board vehicle power unit. A parallel electric architecture has been designed and tested. First, a dynamic model of the PEFC stack, valid for high frequencies and compatible with power converter interactions, has been developed. This model is used for simulations of the global fuel cell and power converter behaviors. Second, an inventory of generic multi-stack fuel cells architectures is presented in order to couple electrically the fuel cell stacks to an on board DC bus (in series, parallel, through magnetic coupling..). This state of the art is completed by an overview of several candidate power converter topologies for fuel cells. Then, among all the possible technical solutions, an original power converter architecture using a high frequency planar transformer is proposed, which allows parallel and series magnetic couplings of two fuel cell stacks. Then, the study focuses on a first step, which is the association of two PEFC stacks. Such a structure, having good efficiency, is well adapted for testing and operation of fuel cells in normal and degraded working modes, which correspond to real constraints on board a vehicle. Finally, experimental validations on a 2 x 500 W twin stack PEFC with power converter interface demonstrate the technological feasibility for the embarked multi-stack fuel cells generator. The 1 kW power level chosen for the experimentation is close to that of a small on board PEFC auxiliary power unit (APU)

  9. 田阳县那坡镇宝美村龙达屯水利配套工程隧洞设计%The Tunnel Design of Water & Power Auxiliary Project in Longda Village of Baomei Hamlet in Napo Town of Tianyang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺钠

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the tunnel condition of water&power auxiliary project in Longda village of Baomei hamlet in Napo town of Tianyang county, and explains the design description of the drainage tunnel.%  文章介绍了田阳县那坡镇宝美村龙达屯水利配套工程隧洞概况,并对其排涝隧洞进行设计说明。

  10. Power Conditioning Unit for BepiColombo Transfer Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Magnus Moberg

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a new generation of power conditioning developed to fulfil the power needs of the BepiColombo Mercury Transfer Module (MTM). It will address the functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal aspects of the design.The MTM has very high power demands from electronics, heaters and especially from four Ion propulsion engines, which is used for velocity control during the transfer phase to Mercury. The total power demand is 14KW of continues power, which is provided by the PCU with solar arrays (SA) as the power source. The high power shall be provided with a 100V semi-regulated main bus. A small battery, only sized for low power to the electronics and heaters during eclipse phases at the Moon, Venus and Mercury, is connected directly to the main bus.

  11. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A power supply concept capable of operation over 25:1 and 64:1 impedance ranges at full power has been successfully demonstrated in our Phase I effort at...

  12. Control system for a nuclear power producing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention deals with an improvement of a power/load control system for a PWR type reactor. A signal that regulates the feedwater supply is in proportion to the desired power of the reactor. Arrangements for the control of the heat transfer from the reactor and the control of the feedwater flow rate to the steam generator are both simultaneously affected by the feedwater supply signal. This coordinated control system embodies a fast response of power generation to power demand

  13. Radio frequency auxiliary heating systems design in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of radio frequency (RF) auxiliary heating systems will provide at least one half of the required 100 MW of auxiliary power in ITER. Five of the 20 equatorial ports are assigned to RF heating systems. Recent work has focused on developing an integrated equatorial port-plug design concept for all of the RF auxiliary heating systems as well as other equatorial port systems such as diagnostics. Common features of the design approach include the use of identical interfaces to services such as cooling water, vacuum, mechanical connection to the vessel, and maintenance. Based on the integrated port concept, a high level of design integration has been achieved for the RF heating systems. Implementation of the integrated design concept has been accomplished without significantly affecting the individual system performance and with limited impact on the torus layout. (author)

  14. The Marginalized Auxiliary Particle Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsche, Carsten; Schön, Thomas; Klein, Anja

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with nonlinear systems subject to a conditionally linear, Gaussian sub-structure. This structure is often exploited in high-dimensional state estimation problems using the marginalized (aka Rao-Blackwellized) particle filter. The main contribution in the present work is to show how an efficient filter can be derived by exploiting this structure within the auxiliary particle filter. Based on a multisensor aircraft tracking example, the superior performance of the...

  15. Considering the turbine back-pressure effect of thermal units to optimize the PQ-power generation in power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new algorithm of PQ-power optimization is mentioned and some typical numerical examples are presented in this article. The fuel cost characteristics being obtained in form of superposition of some high order polynomial and sinusoidal functions can approximately simulate the turbine back-pressure effect the generator units at the electrical thermal stations and solve the problem of economic active power dispatch. A new loss factor formula expressing the network transmission power losses is a second order polynomial function of generator power containing a square matrix. This loss factor formula is proposed for optimum solution of generator reactive power in multi-machine power system. (author)

  16. 49 CFR 393.94 - Interior noise levels in power units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior noise levels in power units. 393.94... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.94 Interior noise levels in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior noise level...

  17. Grid support by power electronic converters of distributed generation units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, J.

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of small Distributed Generation (DG) units are connected to the grid. The introduction of DG causes several problems, which are mainly related to the differences between DG units and conventional generators. Four problems have been considered in this thesis: damping of harmonics

  18. About Utilization Efficiency Evaluation of Gas-Expansion and Generator Units at Thermal Power Stations

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Kachan; A. A. Bazylenko

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers methods for determination of gas-expansion and generator unit indices when they are applied at a thermal power station. It is shown, that while relating the effect of additional power-and-heat generation output due to heat taking-off from steam turbines to gas-expansion and generator unit to the operation of this unit a specific fuel consumption of power supply from gas-expansion and generator unit can be lower than fuel equivalent of kilowatt-hour.

  19. About Utilization Efficiency Evaluation of Gas-Expansion and Generator Units at Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methods for determination of gas-expansion and generator unit indices when they are applied at a thermal power station. It is shown, that while relating the effect of additional power-and-heat generation output due to heat taking-off from steam turbines to gas-expansion and generator unit to the operation of this unit a specific fuel consumption of power supply from gas-expansion and generator unit can be lower than fuel equivalent of kilowatt-hour.

  20. Maintenance management of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plants Unit 1 and Unit 2 terminated operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaoka NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2 terminated operation on January 30th of 2009 and submitted an application for the decommissioning plan licensing on June 1st of 2009. At present due to the lack of clarity about requirements for maintenance at decommissioning stage such as Hamaoka NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2, we considered their maintenance optimization and planed maintenance management categorized three classifications in anticipation of the future decommissioning. (author)

  1. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P. [Bechtel Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  2. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    The regulation capability that may be provided by the individual small-scale distributed energy resources (DER power units) may be insignificant. However, the aggregated response from a large number of DER power units can be significant and thereby provide valuable system services to the power...... electricity prices for indirect control of active power. The local, dynamic electricity prices are realised as dynamic adjustments of the quasi-stationary global power price. The aims of the dynamic price adjustments are to prevent overloading of the grid, to reduce the grid power losses and to regulate the...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...

  3. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  4. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  5. Field emission electric propulsion power conditioning unit design concept, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, A.; Devambez, F.; Valentian, D.

    The requirements for a power conditioning unit (PCU) for a field emission thruster system are discussed. Specifically, the emitter power supply system, thermal control and structural aspects, and the frozen PCU architecture are addressed. In addition, a PCU development program is presented. Results indicate that inverters can be operated at 50 KHz and that a single transformer is sufficient to provide beam power. An optical fiber link between the central control unit and the thruster dedicated power module is feasible and allows fast binary exchange between units. Weight improvement with respect to a classical solution is nearly 50%.

  6. A reliability growth model for 300 MW pumped-storage power units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyuan SHI; Yu YANG; Zhicheng DENG

    2009-01-01

    A reliability growth model for pumped-storage power units is presented. Ways for estimating and fitting on checking the model's parameters are given together with analysis results concerning the reliability growth of 300 MW pumped-storage power units. On site operation, reliability data show that the reliability growth model conforms to rules of reliability growth tendency. Analysis results of reliability growth indicate that measures taken for improving maintenance and operation by the pumped-storage power companies are effective and that the reliability of the 300 MW pumped-storage power units exhibits a rising tendency.

  7. 77 FR 26793 - Florida Power and Light Company, St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2, Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company, St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2, Exemption 1.0 Background The Florida..., which authorizes operation of St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2 (St. Lucie, Unit 2). The license provides... margins of safety of Appendix G of Section XI of the ASME Code [Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code].''...

  8. 76 FR 77563 - Florida Power & Light Company; St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0 Background The Florida..., which authorizes operation of St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 1 (St. Lucie, Unit 1). The license provides... ASME Code [Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code].'' The regulations in 10 CFR part 50, Appendix G...

  9. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  10. Dynamic analysis of reactor auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of structural methods of generalized use in the dynamic analysis of Auxiliary Buildings and similar structures of Nuclear Power Plants is presented. Emphasis is placed on the structural response to blast and seismic loading studied from a global view point. Alternative models for the representation of both element and global stiffnesses are discussed. The assumption of rigid floor behaviour for lateral force excitation is studied. Advantages of using multi-stick models are referred and illustrated. The occurrence of torsional motions on the response is examined. The study evidences the importance of the low aspect ratio of these structures and shows its influence on parameters currently used in design of conventional buildings. (Author)

  11. Construction progress of Shimane Nuclear Power Station Unit No.3 supplied for the Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. is now constructing Shimane nuclear power station unit No.3 supplied for The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. Commercial operation is planned to start in December 2011. Hitachi's state-of-the-art construction technologies are applied and all construction milestones have been on schedule without any problems. (author)

  12. Improvement of nuclear core power distribution analysis for Ulchin unit 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FMCP package which does the power shape analysis of Framatom type of reactors on IBM mainframe, is migrated to an IBM-PC system. This report describes the related technique and works. An IBM-PC software DAP is developed to replace the plant computer attached 8 inch floppy disk driver to an IBM-PC. Other programs of FMCP, such as CEDRIC, CARIN and ESTHER, are also migrated to an IBM-PC using Lahey Fortran 77 compiler. A few auxiliary programs are also developed for easy handling of FMCP in the IBM-PC environment. This report describes the usage of the developed system as well as the migration related techniques. (Author) 4 figs

  13. 76 FR 36864 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 14, 2011 (76 FR 8314). Only one comment was received, which... normal sources of engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) generated electrical power inoperative. Service experience has shown that loss of all electrical power from the airplane's engine and APU driven...

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dagher, Leila [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  16. Trouble shooting fuel leak at Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power Suppression Testing (PST) is recommend for BWR in fuel leak occur. Operation by PST allows to identify leaked fuel bundle, suppresses its power and continue plant operation safely. Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit No.2 (Shika-2) has an experience fuel leak in its 2nd operation cycle, April 2009. This paper describes experience of trouble shooting fuel leak at Shika-2. (author)

  17. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters can be operated over a wide range of specific impulse while maintaining high efficiency. However S/C power system constraints on electric propulsion...

  18. The Future of Solar Power in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Reid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used detailed industry data to analyse the impacts of expected further cost reductions on the competitiveness of solar power in Britain, and assess whether the solar market can survive without support in the near future. We investigated three solar power markets: large-scale, ground-mounted “solar farms” (defined in our analysis as larger than a 5000 kilowatt system; commercial roof-top (250 kW; and residential rooftop (3 kW. We found that all three would be economic without support in the next decade. Such an outcome assumes progressively falling support under a stable policy regime. We found that unsubsidised residential solar power may be cheaper with battery storage within the next five to 10 years. Unsupported domestic solar battery packs achieve payback periods of less than 10 years by 2025. That could create an inflexion point driving adoption of domestic solar systems. The variability of solar power will involve some grid integration costs at higher penetration levels, such as more frequent power market scheduling; more interconnector capacity; storage; and backup power. These costs and responses could be weighed against non-market benefits including the potential for grid balancing; lower carbon and particulate emissions; and energy security.

  19. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  20. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  1. Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, E.

    2016-05-01

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co- I p direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P RF absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  2. Present state of electric power business in United States and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reported present state of nuclear power and electric power business in United States and Europe after Fukushima Daiichi Accident. As for the trend of demand and supply of electric power and policy, the accident forced Germany possibly to proceed with phase-out of nuclear power, but France and United States to sustain nuclear power with no great change of energy policy at this moment. As for the trend of electric power market, there was not state in United States with liberalized retail market of electric power after rolling blackouts occurred in California State in the early 2000s. In Germany proceeding with renewable energy introduction, renewable electricity fed into the grid was paid for by the network operators at fixed tariffs and the costs passed on to electricity consumers were increasing. Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) in United States forced the state to introduction of renewable energy to some ratio, and Feed-in Tariff (FIT) introduced in EU in 1990s lead to introduction of a large amount of renewable electricity targeted in 2020. Huge amount of wind power introduction brought about several problems to solve such that excess electric power above domestic demand had bad effects on grids in neighboring region. Enforcement of power transmission lines was also needed with increase of maximum electric power as well as introduction of a large amount of renewable electricity. (T. Tanaka)

  3. 基于FADEC的辅助动力装置半实物仿真系统%HILS System of Auxiliary Power Unit Based on FADEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱小娟

    2009-01-01

    以某型辅助动力装置(APU)为控制对象,设计了全权限数字电子控制器,基于该控制器设计了APU的控制软件,通过接入仿真监控系统、传感器、执行机构等实物建立了APU的半实物仿真平台.对APU实际工作过程的半实物仿真结果表明,该系统能有效地控制APU,并实时反映APU的运行情况,为APU系统的研制提供了良好的试验手段.

  4. Solar-auxiliary Coal-fired Power Generation System Thermal Economic Analysis%太阳能辅助燃煤发电系统经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛晓霞; 邵娜; 邵成; 钱晨; 姜晨峰

    2015-01-01

    介绍了太阳能辅助锅炉受热面替代部分省煤器作用和太阳能辅助给水回热加热的两种发电系统。应用等效热降法对这两种太阳能辅助燃煤发电集成方案的热经济指标进行了计算与比较,选择了太阳能辅助给水回热加热为优化的集成方案。对槽式集热器的换热效率,光热电转换效率及投资节煤比3个技术经济性相关指标进行研究,在太阳能辅助给水回热加热的方案中,通过综合比较利用太阳能产生的汽替换各级抽汽的计算结果后,得出了替换第六级抽汽最为合理的结论。%Two power generation systems were introduced about solar assisted part replace of boiler economizer heating surface effects and the solar-assisted heating feed water regenerator .It was calculated and compared these two types of solar assisted heat economic indicators coal-fired integrated solutions by using of Equivalent Heat Drop .It was selected a solar-assisted water heating for the optimization of regenerative integrated solution ., Three related indicators of technical and economic were studied On heat transfer efficiency of trough collector and the light thermoelectric conversion efficiency as well as investment in coal saving ratio .In the solar thermal heating auxiliary feedwater back scheme , By comprehensive comparison of the use of solar energy to produce steam to replace the calculation of results at all levels extraction .It was obtained the most reasonable conclusion of replacing sixth stage extraction .

  5. The dynamic responses of the soil-auxiliary buildings structure interaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic responses of the soil-auxiliary buildings structure interaction system in the nuclear power plant are concerned. The main distinguished feature of this study is that the extreme un-symmetry of the auxiliary buildings and reactor containment are considered. A Synthetical mechanical model for study is established. Finally, the analysis of the dynamic response of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant structure is taken as a simple example of applying this method and the numerical results are given

  6. Design optimization and modification of reactor trip protection system of nuclear power unit of WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When carrying out periodic test of nuclear power unit reactor trip protection system, it is necessary to disconnect trip breakers in turn. There are big risks in such kind of periodic tests and many unplanned trip events happened because of malfunction of equipment in reactor trip protection system periodic tests of foreign and domestic nuclear power units under operation, which caused great economic loss. The paper introduces the practical results of design optimization and modification of reactor trip protection system of a nuclear power unit of WWER. (authors)

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  9. Influence of large nuclear units on the operating condition of the Electric Power System in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant contributes a significant share to the Bulgarian Electric Power System's balance of energy and power. The concentration of such large electricity generation capacity in one power plant, as well as the use of turbogenerators with unit capacity of 1000 MW provokes certain difficulties. Sudden tripping of a very large generator on minimum load causes heavy disturbance to the electric power system. The present paper addresses the measures aimed at decreasing the power deficit, respectively the system disturbance and to avoid a major power system failure that could be initiated by tripping of a large nuclear turbogenerator. An evaluation is made of electric control systems and governors, their characteristics and behaviour. Participation on large nuclear turbogenerators in primary frequency control, voltage and reactive power regulation is described. Analyses are illustrated by authentic records of transients during nuclear units tripping. (author)

  10. Perfects, resultatives and auxiliaries in early English

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Thomas; Alexiadou, Artemis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will argue for a novel analysis of the auxiliary alternation in Early English, its development and subsequent loss which has broader consequences for the way that auxiliary selection is looked at cross-linguistically. We will present evidence that the choice of auxiliaries accompanying past participles in Early English differed in several significant respects from that in the familiar modern European languages. Specifically, while the construction with have became a full-fle...

  11. The economic aspect of transition to power units with supercritical steam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.R. Kotler

    2007-09-15

    Information on the development and use of power units for supercritical and ultrasupercritical steam parameters in the United States, as well as in Europe and Japan, is presented. It is shown that increasing the parameters of steam reduces not only the fuel consumption, but also the specific emissions of toxic and greenhouse gases. Results of a calculation carried out at the EPRI (the United States) are presented, which show that it is advisable to construct power units for supercritical parameters only at certain (sufficiently high) price of the fuel being fired.

  12. Dynamics and design of a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyurin, S. Yu.; Kreinin, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of the preselection of parameters of a power unit of a mechatronic complex on the basis of the condition for providing a required control energy has been discussed. The design of the unit is based on analysis of its dynamics under the effect of a special-type test conditional control signal. The specific features of the approach used are a reasonably simplified normalized dynamic model of the unit and the formation of basic similarity criteria. Methods of designing a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator that operates in point-to-point and oscillatory modes have been considered.

  13. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  14. A study of the public opinion concerning nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, I surveyed the outcome of opinion poll about people's attitude toward nuclear power and analysed their awareness of nuclear power generation in the United States. As a result, it was found that percentage of the people who have positive attitude toward nuclear power has been over 60% since 1998. This result corresponds to the fact that people's preference is tending more toward nuclear power generation which is called the nuclear power Renaissance in the United States. Furthermore, analysis of the outcome of the opinion poll in power stations site region was also conducted and it was found that attitude of the people in the site region was more positive than that of average level in the United States. (author)

  15. Liquid metal coolants for space nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration is given to the results of investigations conducting in IPPE from the 1950s on the technology and heat transfer of liquid metal coolants (lithium and sodium-potassium eutectic alloy) of space nuclear power plants (SNPP). The advantage of lithium coolant is its low density, splendid heat-transfer properties, high boiling point, low saturated vapor pressure, low activation when passing through reactor core, etc. Its disadvantage is high melting point and the higher corrosion activity than sodium-potassium alloy one. Prospects of lithium coolant use in developing current powerful SNPP are shown. Reliable operation of liquid metal part (with sodium-potassium coolant) of SNPP of low power and limited life at satellites launching in the USSR in 1970-80s is pointed out

  16. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advanced of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are: (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to capital investments; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production; and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system, and the human task places the human in the correct role in the relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  17. Planning for decommissioning of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law, the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate the negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, on the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned radioactive waste management technologies, licensing documents for decommissioning, other technical-environmental and also social-economic measures is presented. Specific conditions in Lithuania important for defining the decommissioning strategy are highlighted. (author)

  18. The Hydroelectric Business Unit of Ontario Power Generation Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this presentation was on the generation and sale of electricity. Prior to deregulation, companies that generated electricity had a readily available customer base to whom the electricity could be sold. The author discussed some of the changes affecting the industry as a result of deregulation of the electricity market in Ontario: the increasing number of companies, as well as the increased number of generators supplying power within the province. Currently 85 per cent of the generation in Ontario is met by Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and this percentage will decrease through de-control. De-control can be achieved in a variety of ways, either through the sale of assets, leases, asset swaps. The market rules dictate that OPG not control in excess of 35 per cent of the generation supply in Ontario, OPG is examining the situation. New supply being constructed or new interconnections with neighboring markets could affect the total assets that would have to be de-controlled. OPG has a mix of generation that includes hydroelectric, fossil, and nuclear, as well as a single wind turbine. Green power, defined as electricity generation deemed less intrusive environmentally than most traditional generation, includes wind, water, landfill gas, solar and others, and could affect the mix of generation. It is expected that there will be a niche market for green power, especially when one considers the reduction in emissions. It could represent a viable option for smaller startup companies, as less capital is required. The options for selling the power, either to the spot market or by entering into a bilateral contract with another customer, were explained

  19. Economic impacts of electricity liberalization on the status of nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the economic impact of electricity liberalization on the status of nuclear power generation in the United States. Nuclear power plants have been treated equally with other types of power plants in the liberalized electricity market. The existing nuclear power plants were thought to be competitive in liberalized wholesale electricity market. Competitive pressure from the market also facilitated efficiency improvement among the existing nuclear power plants. Although it was difficult to build new reactor, the U.S. nuclear power generators expanded capacity through up rates. In recent years, however, nuclear power plants suffer from the decline in wholesale power prices and some of them are forced to retire early. Although there are some market design issues that could be improved to maintain the efficient nuclear power plants in competitive environment, it is now argued that some additional arrangements to mitigate the investment risks of the nuclear power plants are necessary. (author)

  20. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis of blower fan for HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic bearing instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the blower fan system with helium of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), and the auxiliary bearing was applied in the HTR-10 as the backup protector. When the electromagnetic bearing doesn't work suddenly for the power broken, the auxiliary bearing is used to support the falling rotor with high rotating speed. The rotor system will be protected by the auxiliary bearing. The design of auxiliary bearing is the ultimate safeguard for the system. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the blower fan. The rotor's length is about 1.5 m, its weight is about 240 kg and the rotating speed is about 5400 r/min. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis are very important for the design of blower fan to make success. The research status of the auxiliary bearing was summarized in the paper. A sort of auxiliary bearing scheme was proposed. MSC.Marc was selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The scheme design of auxiliary bearing and analysis result of rotor dynamics offer the important theoretical base for the protector design and control system of electromagnetic bearing of the blower fan. (authors)

  1. 77 FR 33004 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Company, LLC (the licensee, EGC) for operation of the Clinton Power Station, Unit 1 (CPS), located in De... EGC, from CPS to Creek Township to expand the Lisenby Cemetery. Before acceptance of the partial...

  2. Economic, political, and public acceptance factors influencing the future of nuclear power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Views are presented on the economic, political, and public acceptance factors influencing the future of nuclear power in the United States. Electricity has been the preferred energy choice throughout the world. Nuclear energy must produce a competitive economic result along with energy supply security and environmental impacts. In the United States there exists ample experience and capacity to plan, design, construct, and operate new large nuclear power plants which could be competitive. Even at the lowest level of apparent safety and acceptance there was on the whole enough economic incentive and political support to keep the enterprise going. According to the United States Council for Energy Awareness polls, public acceptance is positive. The long-term outlook of nuclear power should be favorable. The one thing which would preclude nuclear power having a future in the United States would be for all parties to insist on eliminating all risks.

  3. The Design, Testing and Operation of the IUE Data Processing Unit Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The design and operation is reported of the power supply for the IUE data processing unit. Design specifications are presented along with performance data and parts selection. Illustrations show the completed circuit with and without its covers.

  4. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  5. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): High Temperature Boost Power Processing Unit (PPU) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task is to investigate the technology path to develop a 10kW modular Silicon Carbide (SiC) based power processing unit (PPU). The PPU utilizes the high...

  6. Evaluation of restructuring process of the Romanian power sector as compared to the United Kingdom experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents comparatively the restructuring and privatization processes of the power field in Romania and United Kingdom. The main aspects taken into consideration are the following: the Romanian legislation; Romanian power production; Romanian power transport and distribution; evolution of the British process of restructuring and privatization; British power production; British power transport and market; British power distribution and supply. One concludes that although the initial frame of Romanian power sector compares generally with the British one, structure and economic and market background different evolution of the two countries will make more evident the differences between Romania and United Kingdom, among these the district or zonal heating and the commercial, industrial and domestic share in energy demand. Also different are the basic energy resources. Romania disposes of important hydropower supply as compared to UK. Also, of interest are the interconnection among the energy producers in the neighbouring countries

  7. Optimization of the Wind Power generation unit using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Jain; P.B. Sharma; V. K. Sethi; Mukesh Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Wind is one of the cheapest and widely source of alternative energy. To convert it into electrical energy a wind turbine with generator is used but to properly convert this wind energy into electrical energy proper design of wind turbine is needed. In this paper we presents a genetic algorithm based optimization technique for the estimation of wind turbine parameters on the basis of requirements of electrical power, rotating speed, and chord area for the given range of wind velocity, blade ra...

  8. A pilot application of risk-based methods to establish in-service inspection priorities for nuclear components at Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a method that uses risk-based approaches to establish in-service inspection plans for nuclear power plant components. This method uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FEMA) techniques to identify and prioritize the most risk-important systems and components for inspection. The Surry Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was selected for pilot applications of this method. The specific systems addressed in this report are the reactor pressure vessel, the reactor coolant, the low-pressure injection, and the auxiliary feedwater. The results provide a risk-based ranking of components within these systems and relate the target risk to target failure probability values for individual components. These results will be used to guide the development of improved inspection plans for nuclear power plants. To develop inspection plans, the acceptable level of risk from structural failure for important systems and components will be apportioned as a small fraction (i.e., 5%) of the total PRA-estimated risk for core damage. This process will determine target (acceptable) risk and target failure probability values for individual components. Inspection requirements will be set at levels to assure that acceptable failure probabilistics are maintained

  9. A pilot application of risk-based methods to establish in-service inspection priorities for nuclear components at Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, T.; Gore, B.; Simonen, F.; Doctor, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a method that uses risk-based approaches to establish in-service inspection plans for nuclear power plant components. This method uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FEMA) techniques to identify and prioritize the most risk-important systems and components for inspection. The Surry Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was selected for pilot applications of this method. The specific systems addressed in this report are the reactor pressure vessel, the reactor coolant, the low-pressure injection, and the auxiliary feedwater. The results provide a risk-based ranking of components within these systems and relate the target risk to target failure probability values for individual components. These results will be used to guide the development of improved inspection plans for nuclear power plants. To develop inspection plans, the acceptable level of risk from structural failure for important systems and components will be apportioned as a small fraction (i.e., 5%) of the total PRA-estimated risk for core damage. This process will determine target (acceptable) risk and target failure probability values for individual components. Inspection requirements will be set at levels to assure that acceptable failure probabilistics are maintained.

  10. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach Bottom Unit 2 generated 3,005,350 MWH(e) net electric power and was on line 3,132.48 hrs and Unit 3 generated 2,972,897 MWH(e) and was on line 3,417.97 hours. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and abnormal occurrences. (FS)

  11. Estimation of Wasted Thermal Energy from Gas Turbine Units in Mosul Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A. R. Al-Habbo; A.Youns Fathi

    2012-01-01

    The present study involve a thermal analysis of a gas turbine unit like those which are used in Mosul gas turbine power station in order to estimate the amount of thermal energy is wasted in the exhaust gases. A computer program is developed to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on the performance of the gas turbine unit including the mass flow of air, power output, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature and the amount of wasted thermal energy (Qexh)...

  12. Condition Monitoring for hydraulic Power Units – user-oriented entry in Industry 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Laube, Martin; Haack, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    One of Bosch Rexroth’s newest developments is the ABPAC power unit, which is both modular and configurable. The modular design of the ABPAC is enhanced by a selfcontained Condition Monitoring System (CMS), which can also be used to retrofit existing designs. This dissertation shows how Industry 4.0-Technology provides special advantages for the diverse user profiles. Today, Hydraulic Power Units have either scheduled intervals for preventive maintenance or are repaired in case of component fa...

  13. Panel unit root tests of purchasing power parity hypothesis: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gozgor, Giray

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ some front page panel unit root tests to examine the validity of the purchasing power parity hypothesis in Turkey. Using monthly observations panel data of nine major county’s currency dates January 2003 through April 2010, we find that panel unit root tests are not rejected the mean-reversion of real exchange rates. Thus, the empirical results indicate significant support for the purchasing power parity holds in Turkey

  14. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  15. 76 FR 53972 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... indirect transfer of control of CR-3, along with Brunswick Steam Electric Plant (BSEP), Units 1 and 2, including BSEP Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1,...

  16. 75 FR 34776 - Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... quantity of non- radiological effluents. No changes to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System... COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4; Environmental... licensee), for operation of the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4, located in...

  17. Design Analysis of Power Extracting Unit of an Onshore OWC Based Wave Energy Power Plant using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Suleman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes design and analysis of power extracting unit of an onshore OWC (Oscillating Water Column based wave energy power plant of capacity about 100 kilowatts. The OWC is modeled as solid piston of a reciprocating pump. The power extracting unit is designed analytically by using the theory of reciprocating pumps and principles of fluid mechanics. Pro-E and ANSYS workbench softwares are used to verify the analytical design. The analytical results of the flow velocity in the turbine duct are compared with the simulation results. The results are found to be in good agreement with each other. The results achieved by this research would finally assist in the overall design of the power plant which is the ultimate goal of this research work.

  18. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Stephen R

    2003-07-01

    The basic question asked in the beginning of this article was whether the evidence from research is persuasive enough to conclude that competition in the meatpacking industry is deficient. The literature review led to the conclusion that the answer is no. Research varies widely in terms of data and methodologic approaches. The research, however, clearly finds evidence of market power. Many SCP studies indicated the existence and exercise of market power, but the failure of the paradigm makes definitive conclusions dangerous. The NEIO studies showed a persistent gap between the price of livestock and marginal costs but the studies did not incorporate sufficient detail to prove specific behavior. Azzam and Anderson [4] conducted an extensive review of competition in meatpacking. In their summary, they offered criticisms of the SCP approach and the conduct parameter approach. These investigators concluded that the body of empiric evidence was insufficient to persuasively argue that the meatpacking industry was not competitive. Sexton [69] discussed more recent critiques of the conduct parameter appraoch. Despite its weaknesses, he concluded that market power estimates in meatpacking are modest but that structural changes on balance are beneficial, from an efficiency viewpoint. Examining the evidence either by data aggregation, methodology, or time period results in little difference in the qualitative interpretation. The research community has done what Nicholls [2] said was needed. The need remains relevant. The research leaves us with a clear picture and nagging questions. Azzam and Anderson [4] recommended that further research focus on the process of competition or the rivalrous interaction between competitors, and on competitors' strategies for responding to technologic and market forces, as the business history of the industry suggests. Specifically, they recommended two approaches. First, to develop empiric pricing models for short-term monitoring. Such models

  19. Newly developed erosion-corrosion problems in secondary side of Paks Nuclear Power Plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were four identical VVER-440 type units installed at Paks Nuclear Power Plant with 440MW electrical capacity of each, between 1982 and 1987. Based on inherent reserve capacity of these units, the operational and maintenance experiences and examples of power upgrading abroad it was decided to increase the power of our units in a stepwise way. Presently, this upgrading project is close to finalization resulting in 500MW electrical capacity of each unit. To realize the planned electrical power increase it was necessary to increase the primary and secondary heat power, which requested the increase of mass flow, temperature and pressure of secondary coolant flowing through the steam generators. According to the preliminary expert evaluations these increased parameters would not cause such an increase in humidity of steam leaving the turbine houses that could adversely impair our long term power upgrading plans. The steam humidity was determined on our units and the values did not even exceed the original design values. In spite of these preliminary investigations, significant accumulation of erosion-corrosion products at different places of secondary circuit was found and erosion damages of some secondary side equipment were discovered as a probable consequence of power upgrading. An extensive evaluation programme has been started involving experts and institutes of material testing, chemistry and hydrodynamics. Results and details of that work are given in our presentation. (author)

  20. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Class A TV licensees may request a decrease from the authorized facility's ERP in the license application. An FM, TV or Class A TV licensee may also increase the ERP of the auxiliary facility in a license... licensed main facility as an auxiliary facility with an ERP less than or equal to the ERP specified on...

  1. Completion of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No. 4 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. is a BWR plant in which the results of the LWR improvement and standardization project by Japanese independent technology were adopted. Hitachi Ltd. has applied the experiences of construction and operation obtained so far, the improved technology based on research and development and the latest technologies to it, in addition to the technology which was verified in the preceding No. 5 plant. In the aspect of the systems and facilities, the various improvements based on the experience in past plants were reflected from the initial stage of design. Also in the design techniques, the three-dimensional CAD system using the newest computer technology was applied to the layout and piping design, and the quality and efficiency of design were improved. In the aspect of construction, a crawler crane with the largest lifting capacity in the world was used, and the large section module method, by which large prefabricated machinery, equipment and piping are directly lifted in, was applied. By these means, the safety of workings was secured, the construction period was shortened, and the plant showed good, stable results in the trial, and started the commercial operation in August, 1994. No. 4 plant is a BWR plant of 1100 MW output. The applied new technologies and the contents of the improvement of the design and facilities are shown. The outline and the features of the construction works and the trial operation are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Fuel flexibility in power generation onboard offshore floating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keep, Jeroen van [Waertsilae Corporation, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    Power Plants for offshore oil and gas installations utilizing dual fuel (DF) reciprocating engines are by many owners seen as an interesting alternative to conventional solutions due to the apparent advantages in fuel flexibility, fuel efficiency and lower emission. The paper summarizes the dual fuel technology, typical solutions for FPSO's and operational. Items that are discussed: DF operation and how it works; fuel flexibility, including transfer between fuel modes; fuel efficiency, also in production an important cost saver; emissions of the different fuel modes; size and weights, constraints; experiences of the P-63 project. With the above it is safe to conclude that the DF-technology is mature with important benefits for the offshore production market in certain specific applications, most notably the FPSO's for fields in low gas to oil ratios, bringing important fuel cost savings and also for new-built F-LNG/FSO/FPSO's where the power plant can be accommodated below decks, freeing up valuable deck space for the process plant. (author)

  3. Construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station unit No.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No.5 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station is a BWR type nuclear power plant of 1100 MWe capacity, the construction of which was begun in October, 1983, and the commercial operation was started on April 10, 1990. This plant is the first plant in which the results of the secondary improvement and standardization were fully adopted, and it the latest facilities aiming at the further improvement of reliability and the reduction of the radiation dose to which workers are exposed. By the adoption of the improved technology for systems, machinery and equipment, such as the core with zirconium-lined fuel and the installation of the pumps in reactor coolant purification system in low temperature zone, the objective of improving the plant performance was attained. In the construction, the improvement of construction techniques using large mobile cranes for the first time in Japan and the promotion of the trial operation based on the activities of promoting high reliability enabled the completion of construction within the predetermined period. The construction processes and techniques, the new technology adopted in the plant system, the layout, the activities of promoting high reliability and the start-up test are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Siting in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic factors in nuclear plant siting, including availability of sufficient quantities of cooling water, site accessibility, presence of adequate soil bearing capacity, foundations, population distribution and flooding, are reviewed. Tabulations comparing these factors for the more recent sites in the United States are presented. Seismology and tornado design features are compared and discussed. The inter-relation between topography, meteorology and disposal of radioactive gases from normal operation is discussed. The site accessibility discussion includes the desirability of railroad access to the site with penalties for lack of rail access evaluated. Construction access requirements including transportation of the reactor pressure vessel and turbine-generator components are considered. A discussion is included on the public acceptance considerations in nuclear plant siting. Recent trends, pertinent to very large nuclear stations, are noted and the relative importance of each factor is evaluated. (author)

  5. Patnow 2, 460 MW, first supercritical power unit in Poland - EPC project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witwicki, W. [SNC Lavalin Polska (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    The project of Patnow-Adamow-Konin SA (PAK) to modernize their power plant at Platnow and construct a state-of-the-art supercritical brown coal fired power plant in place of the old oil fired units is described. 8 figs.

  6. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) power supply for the Power Processing Unit (PPU)...

  7. 78 FR 66385 - Omaha Public Power District Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-40... Commission (NRC) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists of one pressurized-water reactor...

  8. 76 FR 5216 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Florida Power Corporation (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-72, which.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists...

  9. 76 FR 63668 - Omaha Public Power District; Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District; Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD or the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-40... Commission (NRC, the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists of a...

  10. 75 FR 15744 - Omaha Public Power District; Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District; Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-40 which... Commission (NRC, the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists of one...

  11. Optimization models of the supply of power structures’ organizational units with centralized procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sysoiev Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    Management of the state power structures’ organizational units for materiel and technical support requires the use of effective tools for supporting decisions, due to the complexity, interdependence, and dynamism of supply in the market economy. The corporate nature of power structures is of particular interest to centralized procurement management, as it provides significant advantages through coordination, eliminating duplication, and economy of scale. Th...

  12. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Gail E. [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Gillingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  13. VECTOR-VALUED RANDOM POWER SERIES ON THE UNIT BALL OF Cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors study the vector-valued random power series on the unit ball of Cn and get vector-valued Salem-Zygmund theorem for them by using martingale technique. Further, the relationships between vector-valued random power series and several function spaces are also studied.

  14. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  15. A survey of nuclear power in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using the heat from a nuclear reactor to replace the boiler in a conventional electricity generating station was realised at an equally early date and, at a conference held at Harwell in September 1950, it was decided that the idea was a feasible one, and a design team was established. It is almost 20 years ago that the British Government authorised the construction of a duel-purpose power and plutonium producing reactor at Calder Hall. The reactor, the first of eight of the same design, all of which are still operating, was the world's first regular power producing nuclear reactor and first fed power (about 35 MW) to the national grid on 17th October 1956. The British reactor construction industry has undoubtedly suffered from its fragmentation and the resulting uneven load placed on individual companies by the variations in the reactor ordering programme. The British nuclear fuel industry has similarly been affected by fluctuating demand but, because of the continuing demand for replacement fuel and the steps taken to secure overseas business and develop international collaborative arrangements, to a much lesser extent. Nuclear fuel services, formerly the responsibility of the Atomic Energy Authority's Production Group and now of British Nuclear Fuels Limited, have built up to an annual business of Pounds 55M., on which a trading profit of Pounds 7 1/2 M. was earned in 1971/72, and the wide experience gained over many years and the substantial improvements made in the manufacturing plants give good prospects for the future. As we have learnt from past experience, the forecasting of electricity demand over a period as long as twenty years is always a difficult and uncertain task, especially at a time when the rate of increase in electricity consumption in the U. K. has been unusually low. However, it seems probable that the growth rate in electricity consumption will return in due course to the higher levels achieved in the past. Bearing this in

  16. Semiconductor laser diodes and the design of a D.C. powered laser diode drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccio, Joseph C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses the design, development and operational analysis of a D.C. powered semiconductor laser diode drive unit. A laser diode requires an extremely stable power supply since a picosecond spike of current or power supply switching transient could result in permanent damage. The design offers stability and various features for operational protection of the laser diode. The ability to intensity modulate (analog) and pulse m...

  17. Isolated battery charger with unit power factor; Carregador de baterias isolado com fator de potencia unitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co, Marcio Almeida

    1993-05-01

    This work presents a single phase, isolated AC/DC converter (Battery Charger) with active power factor correction in a single stage of power processing. the topology studied is the fed-current full-bridge, in boost mode operation, at fixed switching frequency. After a complete design of converter and simulations, the results of a 1.500 W e 50 kHz prototype are shown. a Unit Power Factor and Total Harmonic Distortion less than 5% were obtained. (author)

  18. Floating power unit with KLT-40S reactor for seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the growing fresh water demand forecasts one makes a conclusion about the future of the nuclear desalination. Paper reviews the world-wide state of the art and records of the nuclear desalination. One dwells upon the requirements for the nuclear power-desalinating systems and substantiates the expediency and the feasibility to construct the vessel reactor base floating power plants. Paper presents the key design parameters of the KLT-40S reactor floating power unit

  19. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has therefore been developed. The system is implemented as a complement, producing control signals to be added to those of the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advanta...

  20. On the possibility to use submarine nuclear power units to generate peaceful energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary information about principle possibilities of using nuclear power units of Russian submarines for energy supply is given in this paper. In the frame of the dismantling of the military power all over the world, this information can be useful for specialists in atomic energy generation. On the one hand the number of potentially available nuclear units, i.e. the overall power, makes attractive the proposal on the other hand, great technical and organizational problems make impractical to justify the use of nuclear submarines. (author)

  1. The Future Potential of Waver Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic; Jeff Epler; Maureen Hand; Donna Heimiller; Walter Short; Kelly Eurek

    2012-09-20

    The theoretical ocean wave energy resource potential exceeds 50% of the annual domestic energy demand of the United States, is located close to coastal population centers, and, although variable in nature, may be more consistent and predictable than some other renewable generation technologies. As a renewable electricity generation technology, ocean wave energy offers a low air pollutant option for diversifying the U.S. electricity generation portfolio. Furthermore, the output characteristics of these technologies may complement other renewable technologies. This study addresses the following: (1) The theoretical, technical and practical potential for electricity generation from wave energy (2) The present lifecycle cost profile (Capex, Opex, and Cost of Electricity) of wave energy conversion technology at a reference site in Northern California at different plant scales (3) Cost of electricity variations as a function of deployment site, considering technical, geo-spatial and and electric grid constraints (4) Technology cost reduction pathways (5) Cost reduction targets at which the technology will see significant deployment within US markets, explored through a series of deployment scenarios RE Vision Consulting, LLC (RE Vision), engaged in various analyses to establish current and future cost profiles for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies, quantified the theoretical, technical and practical resource potential, performed electricity market assessments and developed deployment scenarios. RE Vision was supported in this effort by NREL analysts, who compiled resource information, performed analysis using the ReEDSa model to develop deployment scenarios, and developed a simplified assessment of the Alaska and Hawaii electricity markets.

  2. Analysis of Transplanting Turbofan Engine Technology to Reducing Power Consumption Rate of Thermal Power Unit%涡扇发动机技术用于降低火电机组厂用电分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建锋; 李斌; 吕俊复

    2012-01-01

    降低火力发电厂的厂用电率是提高火力发电机组效率的有效方法,目前常用的降低火力发电厂厂用电的技术方案是采用小型汽轮机驱动给水泵或者风机的方式,或者采用变频技术.为降低火力发电厂的厂用电率,提出一种全新的技术方案,即通过移植航空涡扇发动机技术,利用高温换热器替代核心机的燃烧室加热从压气机出来的高压空气,高温高压的空气在透平内膨胀做功以后再排到锅炉中,压气机由透平驱动,透平富余功率可以用来发电,或驱动电厂用电设备.通过建立该技术方案的性能计算模型,计算结果表明,对于600MW火力发电机组,在透平入口空气温度为700℃时,在不增加锅炉排烟温度的条件下,空气透平除提供锅炉用风耗功以外,还可以发出最多超过9 MW的电功率,折算减少厂用电率达3%.对空气轮机降低厂用电与小汽轮机降低厂用电的方式进行比较,结果显示该技术方案优于小汽轮机降低厂用电方式.%Reducing power consumption rate is effective way to increase the system efficiency of thermal power generating units, in currently, people often using a small turbine to drive feed water pump or fan to reduce the power consumption rate or using converter technique. A new technology program is proposed in order to reduce the power consumption rate, by transplanting turbofan engine technology to power plant, through using the high temperature heat exchanger replaced the combustion chamber of gas turbine to heat high-pressure air flowed from the compressor, so the high temperature and pressure air flowing into turbine and then discharging to boiler after expensing and working in turbine. In addition to drive the compressor, turbine generating surplus power can be used to replace part of the auxiliary power or drive electrical equipments. The computational model of the performance of the technology program was established and the

  3. Optimal coordinate operation control for wind–photovoltaic–battery storage power-generation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Adopt ‘rainflow’ calculation method to establish the battery cycle life model and quantitatively calculate the life wreck. • Minimize unit cost of power generation through enhanced gravitational search algorithm. • Analyze the relationship between renewable resource potential and the economic efficiency of power generation unit. - Abstract: An optimal coordinate operation control method for large-scale wind–photovoltaic (PV)–battery storage power generation units (WPB-PGUs) connected to a power grid with rated power output was proposed to address the challenges of poor stability, lack of decision-making, and low economic benefits. The “rainflow” calculation method was adopted to establish the battery cycle life model and to calculate quantitatively the life expectancy loss in the operation process. To minimize unit cost of power generation, this work optimized the output period of the equipment and strategy of battery charging and discharging with consideration of working conditions, generation equipment characteristics, and load demand by using the enhanced gravitational search algorithm (EGSA). A case study was conducted on the basis of data obtained using WPB-PGU in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that the proposed method could effectively minimize the unit cost of a WPB-PGU under different scenarios and diverse meteorological conditions. The proposed algorithm has high calculation accuracy and fast convergence speed

  4. Start up and commercial operation of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to start up of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant preoperational tests and start tests were performed and they are described in its more eminent aspects. In relation to commercial operation of nuclear station a series of indicator were set to which allow the measurement of performance in unit 1, in areas of plant efficiency and personal safety. Antecedents. Laguna Verde station is located in Alto Lucero municipality in Veracruz state, 70 kilometers north-northeast from port of Veracruz and a 290 kilometers east-northeast from Mexico city. The station consist of two units manufactured by General Electric, with a nuclear system of vapor supply also called boiling water (BWR/5), and with a system turbine-generator manufactured by Mitsubishi. Each unit has a nominal power of 1931 MWt and a level design power of 675 Mwe and a net power of 654 Electric Megawatts

  5. Feasibility Study on Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System in Loss of Condenser Vacuum Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear leading countries are developing and constructing technology intensive pressurized water reactors (PWRs) such as AP1000 (United State), EPR (Europe), and US-APWR (Japan), and these advanced reactors adopt several passive safety features in order to enhance the safety and reliability. Domestic advanced reactor APR1400 already completed the earlier development in 2002, and technology gap from the nuclear leading countries become large. In particular, China requires technology transfer in the order of new power plant construction. Thus it is expected difficult to export the power plant to the newly developing countries without our own technology. Therefore, the improvement of competitive power and establishment of infra structure of advanced nuclear industry through innovative technology enhancement are urgent and essential to international competitive marketing. Passive safety features have been always adopted as an improved design concept in the development of innovative reactor design. Domestic nuclear industry has stated the development of APR+ as a Korean specific reactor for the export strategy. In the development of APR+ a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) has been considered as a noticeable candidate of improved design. Reference 2 reported that the adoption of PAFS, which can replace the auxiliary feedwater system, can prevent core damage in the accident of station black out (SBO), since Class 1E DC power operates the related valves, and 8 hours hot standby operation of plant without operation action is achievable. This PAFS contributes to the safety and economics, in that it decreases the core damage frequency 26% from 2.45E- 06/r-y to 1.80E-06/r-y, and it saves the construction cost 20 million Kr-Won. This paper discusses on the performance of PAFS for the accident of loss of condenser vacuum as a precursor of detailed design specification

  6. Feasibility Study on Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System in Loss of Condenser Vacuum Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong; Kim, Han Gon [NETEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Nuclear leading countries are developing and constructing technology intensive pressurized water reactors (PWRs) such as AP1000 (United State), EPR (Europe), and US-APWR (Japan), and these advanced reactors adopt several passive safety features in order to enhance the safety and reliability. Domestic advanced reactor APR1400 already completed the earlier development in 2002, and technology gap from the nuclear leading countries become large. In particular, China requires technology transfer in the order of new power plant construction. Thus it is expected difficult to export the power plant to the newly developing countries without our own technology. Therefore, the improvement of competitive power and establishment of infra structure of advanced nuclear industry through innovative technology enhancement are urgent and essential to international competitive marketing. Passive safety features have been always adopted as an improved design concept in the development of innovative reactor design. Domestic nuclear industry has stated the development of APR+ as a Korean specific reactor for the export strategy. In the development of APR+ a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) has been considered as a noticeable candidate of improved design. Reference 2 reported that the adoption of PAFS, which can replace the auxiliary feedwater system, can prevent core damage in the accident of station black out (SBO), since Class 1E DC power operates the related valves, and 8 hours hot standby operation of plant without operation action is achievable. This PAFS contributes to the safety and economics, in that it decreases the core damage frequency 26% from 2.45E- 06/r-y to 1.80E-06/r-y, and it saves the construction cost 20 million Kr-Won. This paper discusses on the performance of PAFS for the accident of loss of condenser vacuum as a precursor of detailed design specification.

  7. A comparative thermodynamic, economic and risk analysis concerning implementation of oxy-combustion power plants integrated with cryogenic and hybrid air separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mathematical model of an integrated oxy-combustion power plant. • Comparison of a hybrid membrane–cryogenic oxygen generation plant with a cryogenic plant. • Thermodynamic analysis of the modeled cases of the plant. • Comparative economic analysis of the power plant with cryogenic and hybrid ASU. • Comparative risk analysis using a Monte Carlo method and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of two types of oxy-combustion power plant that differ from each other in terms of the method of oxygen separation. For the purpose of the analysis, detailed thermodynamic models of oxy-fuel power plants with gross power of approximately 460 MW were built. In the first variant (Case 1), the plant is integrated with a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). In the second variant (Case 2), the plant is integrated with a hybrid membrane–cryogenic installation. The models were built and optimized using the GateCycle, Aspen Plus and Aspen Custom Modeller software packages and with the use of our own computational codes. The results of the thermodynamic evaluation of the systems, which primarily uses indicators such as the auxiliary power and efficiencies of the whole system and of the individual components that constitute the unit, are presented. Better plant performance is observed for Case 2, which has a net efficiency of electricity generation that is 1.1 percentage points greater than that of Case 1. For the selected structure of the system, an economic analysis of the solutions was made. This analysis accounts for different scenarios of the functioning of the Emission Trading Scheme and includes detailed estimates of the investment costs in both cases. As an indicator of profitability, the break-even price of electricity was used primarily. The results of the analysis for the assumptions made are presented in this paper. A system with a hybrid air separation unit has slightly better economic performance. The break-even price

  8. Energy saving in the auxiliaries consumption for circulation water pumps optimizing the thermal regime; Ahorro en el consumo de auxiliares por bombas de agua de circulacion optimando el regimen termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Martinez, Roni [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A methodology is proposed that should be followed in any thermal electric power plant to determine the load value at which a unit requires a second circulation water pump without affecting the thermal regime and avoiding an excessive auxiliaries consumption in partial loads. In applying this method the power plant would have an energy saving equivalent to the auxiliaries consumption during an hour, when the unit as operating at full load. [Espanol] Se propone una metodologia que debe seguirse en cualquier central termoelectrica para determinar el valor de la carga en la cual una unidad requiere de la segunda bomba de agua de circulacion sin afectar el regimen termico y evitadose un excesivo consumo de auxiliares en cargas parciales. Al aplicar este metodo la central tendria un ahorro de energia equivalente al consumo de auxiliares durante una hora cuando la unidad esta generando su maxima carga.

  9. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1996-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  10. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 power plant containment analysis using GOTHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The inclusion of vent heat transfer had a significant impact on the overall containment response. • The vent heat transfer and condensation results in lower containment pressure. • The reduced gas transfer to the wetwell via the vents results in higher hydrogen concentration in the drywell. - Abstract: This paper is a part of Fukushima Technical Evaluation Project (EPRI, 2013a, 2014a, 2015) which investigates various aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi event using the GOTHIC code. The analysis takes advantage of the capability of GOTHIC to model certain aspects of the system geometry and behavior in more detail than typically considered in containment performance analysis. GOTHIC is a general purpose thermal hydraulics code that is used extensively in the nuclear industry for system design support, licensing support and safety analysis. It has the capability to model 3-dimensional flow behavior including the effects of turbulence, diffusion and buoyancy (EPRI, 2014b). This allows GOTHIC to be used in cases where mixing effects and stratification are important. The analysis presented here considers the events at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1) following the tsunami and leading up to the time of the hydrogen detonation in the 1F1 Reactor Building. The 1F1 MAAP5 Baseline Scenario (EPRI, 2013b) is used to define the steam, hydrogen and carbon-monoxide source terms from the primary system and the core concrete interaction. The model incorporates three dimensional modeling of the drywell, wetwell and connecting vent system that can predict the 3-dimensional flow patterns and the temperature and gas distributions. The model also includes leakage to the surrounding reactor building and the wetwell vent to the stack. The 3D containment model includes models for the heat transfer from the steam and gas in the drywell vent system to the torus room, wetwell gas space and pool. Inclusion of vent heat transfer had a significant impact on the overall containment

  11. A pilot application of risk-informed methods to establish inservice inspection priorities for nuclear components at Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed risk-informed approaches for inservice inspection plans of nuclear power plants. This method uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results to identify and prioritize the most risk-important components for inspection. The Surry Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was selected for pilot application of this methodology. This report, which incorporates more recent plant-specific information and improved risk-informed methodology and tools, is Revision 1 of the earlier report (NUREG/CR-6181). The methodology discussed in the original report is no longer current and a preferred methodology is presented in this Revision. This report, NUREG/CR-6181, Rev. 1, therefore supersedes the earlier NUREG/CR-6181 published in August 1994. The specific systems addressed in this report are the auxiliary feedwater, the low-pressure injection, and the reactor coolant systems. The results provide a risk-informed ranking of components within these systems

  12. Combined heat and power unit using renewable raw materials. A cogeneration power plant with wood chips and pellets; BHKW auf Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe. KWK mit Holzhackschnitzeln und Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm

    2013-04-08

    To date, combined heat and power units were operated with fossil fuels. However, combined heat and power units based on renewable raw materials increasingly gained attention. Commerce and local authorities can use these combined heat and power units in order to get into the energy self-sufficiency. Two companies have now developed procedures for the development of combined heat and power plants which can be operated with wood chips or pellets. These systems consist of a wood gasifier and a downstream combined heat and power unit.

  13. ASP - Grid connections of large power generating units; ASP - Anslutning av stoerre produktionsanlaeggningar till elnaetet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Aake; Larsson, Richard [Vattenfall Power Consultants, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Grid connections of large power generating units normally require more detailed studies compared to small single units. The required R and D-level depends on the specific characteristics of the production units and the connecting grid. An inquiry for a grid connection will raise questions for the grid owner regarding transmission capability, losses, fault currents, relay protection, dynamic stability etc. Then only a few larger wind farms have been built, the experiences from these types of grid connections are limited and for that reason it can be difficult to identify issues appropriate for further studies. To ensure that electric power generating units do not have unacceptable impact on the grid, directions from the Swedish TSO (Svenska Kraftnaet) have been stated. The directions deal, for example, with power generation in specific ranges of voltage level and frequency and the possibility to remain connected to the grid when different faults occur. The requirements and the consequences of these directions are illustrated. There are three main issues that should be considered: Influence on the power flow from generating units regarding voltage level, currents, losses etc.; Different types of electric systems in generating units contribute to different levels of fault currents. For that reason the resulting fault current levels have to be studied; It is required that generating units should remain connected to the grid at different modes of operation and faults. These modes have to be verified. Load flow and dynamic studies normally demand computer models. Comprehensive models, for instance of wind farms, can bee difficult to design and normally large computer capacity is required. Therefore simplified methods to perform relevant studies are described. How to model an electric power generating unit regarding fault currents and dynamic stability is described. An inquiry for a grid connection normally brings about a discussion concerning administration. To make it

  14. Determination of the thermal loadings affecting the auxiliary lines of the reactor coolant system in French PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various incidents, imputed to thermal fatigue, which occurred throughout the world on the auxiliary lines of Reactor Coolant System (SIS, RHR, CVC), led EDF to urge a research program in order to determine the origins and the consequences of these problems for the French nuclear power plants. In 1992, following the crossing crack discovered at Dampierre 2 on the un-isolable part of a Safety Injection System pipe, a program of instrumentation was defined and is described in this paper. Among the objectives, two of the principal goals were to determine the thermal loadings really supported by the various lines and to highlight the thermal hydraulic phenomena affecting them. Indeed, in order to explain the discovered damages, it was essential to know the real thermal loadings to compare them with those of design and to carry out mechanical calculations of resistance to thermal fatigue. The instrumentations installed on the 900 MW units enabled to check the resistance with the fatigue of all the auxiliary lines in spite of significant differences between the real loadings and those envisaged at the design. They contributed to the knowledge improvement on the local thermal hydraulic phenomena but the incidents at Dampierre 1 showed that this knowledge is still imperfect. The results of these instrumentations are also used for the design of the future units by the use of the feedback of several cycles of acquisition on the 900 MW units, but also 1300 MW and 1450 MW since similar instrumentations were installed on the auxiliary lines in Golfech 2 and Chooz B1

  15. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... impact (Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926 through 13967, dated March 27, 2009... Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. (PEC... promulgating its revisions to 10 CFR Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register (FR) notice dated March...

  16. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  17. Lifetime of automated control system of technological processes of nuclear power unit and its updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the analysis of their physical lifetime, components of automated technological process control systems at WWER nuclear power plants are divided into three categories, viz., irreparable equipment, equipment reparable during unit shutdown, and equipment reparable during the unit operation. Conditions for the innovation and upgrading of automated control systems at Czechoslovak WWER-440 nuclear power plants are discussed. Presumably, at the Bohunice V-2 and the Dukovany nuclear power plants the innovation of these systems will proceed in a manner similar to that applied at the Loviisa nuclear power plant in Finland. The decision concerning the global upgrading should be postponed until experience is gained with the new automated control system that will be installed at the first unit of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The upgrading of the automated control systems at the two Bohunice V-1 power plant units poses specific problems, particularly with respect to the assessment of the true physical lifetime of the technological equipment and to the finding of the best approach to the upgrading. (Z.M.). 2 figs

  18. Subsequent flue gas desulfurization of coal-fired power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presently operating coal-fired power plant in Hungary do not satisfy the pollution criteria prescribed by the European Union norms. The main polluting agent is the sulfur dioxide emitted by some of the power plants in Hungary in quantities over the limit standards. The power plant units that are in good operating state could be made competitive by using subsequent desulfurization measures. Various flue gas desulfurization technologies are presented through examples that can be applied to existing coal-fired power plants. (R.P.)

  19. Effects of the accident at Mihama Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an ongoing public opinion survey regarding nuclear power generation, which started in 1993, a survey was carried out in the Kansai and Kanto regions two months after the accident at Unit 3 of the Mihama Nuclear Power Plant. In addition to analyzing the statistically significant changes that have taken place since the previous survey (taken in 2003), increase and decrease of the ratio of answers to all the questions related to nuclear power before and after the two accidents were compared in the case of the accidents which occurred in the Mihama Unit 3 and the JCO company's nuclear-fuel plant. In the Kansai region, a feeling of uneasiness about the risky character of nuclear power generation increased to some extent, while the public's trust in the safety of nuclear power plants decreased somewhat. After a safety-related explanation on ''Early detection of troubles'' and Accident prevention'' was given from a managerial standpoint, people felt a little less at ease than they had before. Uneasiness, however, did not increase in relation to the overall safety explanation given about the engineering and technical functioning of the plant. There was no significant negative effect on the respondents' evaluation of or attitude toward nuclear power generation. It was found that the people's awareness about the Mihama Unit 3 accident was lower and the effect of the accident on their awareness of nuclear power generation was more limited and smaller when compared with the case of the JCO accident. In the Kanto region, people knew less about the Mihama Unit 3 accident than those living in the Kansai region, and they remembered the JCO accident, the subsequent cover-up by Tokyo Electric Power Company, and the resulting power shortage better than those living in Kansai. This suggested that there was a little difference in terms of psychological distance in relation to the accidents an incidents depending on the place where the events occurred and the company which

  20. Auxiliary Heating Systems for the Ignitor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, M.; Mantovani, S.; Coppi, B.

    2013-10-01

    Auxiliary plasma heating systems directed at extending the range of plasma regimes that can be accessed by Ohmic heating only are important components of the Ignitor machine. In order to affect the entire plasma column an appropriate ICRH systemhas been designed and components of it have been tested. The adoption of a 280 GHz system affecting, by ECRH, the outer edge of the plasma column has been proposed in order to influence temperature and density profiles in this important region. The ICRH system will operate over the range 80-120 MHz, consistent with magnetic fields in the range 9-13 T. The maximum delivered power goes from 8 MW (at 80 MHz) to 6 MW (at 120 MHz) distributed over 4 ports. A full size prototype of the VTL between the port flange and the antenna straps, with the external support and precise guiding system has been constructed. The innovative quick latching system located at the end of the coaxial cable has been successfully tested, providing perfect interference with the spring Be-Cu electrical contacts. Vacuum levels of 10-6, compatible with the limit of material degassing, and electrical tests up to 12 kV without discharges have been obtained. Special attention was given to the finishing of the inox surfaces, and to the TIG welds. U.S. DOE sponsored.

  1. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle;

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has ...... tests on a 265 MW coal-fired power-plant unit reveals that the maximum allowable load gradient that can be imposed on the plant, can be increased from 4 MW/min. to 8 MW/min.......The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...... of the multivariable and load-de*pendent nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process, as a scheduled LQG controller with feedforward action is utilized. The LQG controller improves the control of critical pro*cess variables, making it possible to increase the load-following capability of a specific plant. Field...

  2. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle;

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has ...... tests on a 265 MW coal-fired power-plant unit reveals that the maximum allowable load gradient that can be imposed on the plant, can be increased from 4 MW/min. to 8 MW/min.......The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...... of the multivariable and load-de*pendent nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process, as a scheduled LQG controller with feedforward action is utilized. The LQG controller improves the control of critical pro*cess variables, making it possible to increase the load-following capability of a specific plant. Field...

  3. Economic Assessment of Unified Power Quality Controller Operation in Joint and Separated Modes with DG Units

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Hoseynpoor; T. Pirzadeh Ashraf; Sh. Sajedi

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the joint operation of the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) and distributed generation system with there separated operation and compares these modes from economic point of view. The investigated joint system consists of a series inverter, a shunt inverter, and an DG unit connected in the dc link through a rectifier. The separated system consists of a separate UPQC and DG unit which is connected to grid through back to back inverters. The investment cost of joint ...

  4. Social aspects of a solar-powered desalination unit for remote Australian communities

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, M.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The technical, economic and environmental aspects of small-scale desalination units powered by renewable energies for remote areas have received considerable attention in recent years. However, social aspects of such units have often been neglected resulting in abandoned and dysfunctional systems. This paper considers the potential of the reverse osmosis solar installation (ROSI) to be integrated at a number of different sites in Central Australia. Performance is evaluated against attributes ...

  5. Optimization models of the supply of power structures’ organizational units with centralized procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysoiev Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of the state power structures’ organizational units for materiel and technical support requires the use of effective tools for supporting decisions, due to the complexity, interdependence, and dynamism of supply in the market economy. The corporate nature of power structures is of particular interest to centralized procurement management, as it provides significant advantages through coordination, eliminating duplication, and economy of scale. This article presents optimization models of the supply of state power structures’ organizational units with centralized procurement, for different levels of simulated materiel and technical support processes. The models allow us to find the most profitable options for state power structures’ organizational supply units in a centre-oriented logistics system in conditions of the changing needs, volume of allocated funds, and logistics costs that accompany the process of supply, by maximizing the provision level of organizational units with necessary material and technical resources for the entire planning period of supply by minimizing the total logistical costs, taking into account the diverse nature and the different priorities of organizational units and material and technical resources.

  6. Strat-up testing in the engine room of the Khmelnitskij NPP first power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific features of thermal-mounting works at the Khmelnitskij NPP first power unit and main stages of start-up testing which befgan in April, 1987, are considered. Main specific feature of works is the so-called pure mounting of the feedwater pipeline system with the following passivation of internal surfaces with an inhibitor. It permitted essentially to decrease afterinstallation corrosion of pipelines. Thus, a set of start-up tesing carried out provided with indices of water-chemical conditions corresponding to the standards of operation in two works after power unit start-up

  7. Summary of startup test of Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit No.2 was put into commercial operation in March 2006, which is the 1358 MWe advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) incorporating plant experiences and latest technologies of more improved stable operation, reliability and maintenance. For example, SUMIT (Spectral Unit Module Initial Core) was equipped to flatten power peaking for fuel burnup extension and also compact ASD (Adjustable Speed Drive) for recirculation internal pumps using insulated gate bipolar transistor elements. The reactor start-up tests were performed step-by-step about for eleven months from April 2005 to confirm the required performance with safe and stable operation. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Efficiency limits of rehabilitation of the Thermal Power Plant Turceni units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyses the efficiency limits of the programs A2 and A3 of rehabilitation of the TPP Turceni units considering the current economic situation and the power and energy balances in the Romania's National Power System. Starting from the current net income and also, taking into account the performances which can be reached by the units to be rehabilitated, according to the guarantee figures provided by the German Consortium ABB-DBE, one is determined the maximum investment for rehabilitation so that the adjusted net income to be equal to the expenses and adjusted investments (reverse method). (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria

  10. Power conversion unit for linear motor drive for electric railcar; Linear motor kudo denshayo shuhenkan sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Power conversion units have been delivered, designed for use aboard linear motor-driven electric railcars to connect JFK Airport, New York City, and its outskirts. Using this system, 750VDC power is collected from a third rail, and AC power is supplied from two power conversion units installed on each railcar to linear motors mounted on two sets of bogies, one for each bogie set. The railcar may be operated singly, and its maximum speed is 110km/h. This is the first linear motor-driven railcar ever to run by vector control. It is found that the railcar is highly responsive to control across the whole speed range including sudden changes in load. The railcars will come into service operation upon completion of the railroads now being constructed. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Analysis of the trends in motor problems at nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up until 2006 the authors analyzed the trends in problems with main generators, emergency diesel generators and circuit breakers that suffered failures with great frequency from among electric appliances at nuclear power plants. At domestic nuclear power plants, motor problems have occurred only 5% as often as in the United States. However, as the plant operation period will be extended or the maintenance approach is being changed from preventive maintenance to condition-based maintenance, Japanese nuclear power plants will be employing maintenance schemes similar to those prevailing in the United States. As a result, there is concern that the frequency of motor problems at domestic nuclear power plants may rise. We therefore analyzed the trends in problems for motors for which the trends in failures have not been analyzed yet from among electric appliances that suffer failures very frequently. In this study, we analyzed the trends observed in motor problem events (214 cases) that occurred at nuclear power plants in the United States during the five-year period from 2002 to 2006 registered in the Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated's (INSS) database, as well as in problem events (five cases) that occurred at domestic nuclear power plants during the same period as registered in the Nuclear Information Archives (NUCIA). Important lessons learned from the trends in motor problems in the United States are that we must carefully monitor high-power pump metors' wiring (coils) for insulation deterioration and maintain bearings to prevent problems with motors at PWR-operating nuclear power plants. (author)

  12. Abortion in the United States' bible belt: organizing for power and empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Castle Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Over the last 30 years, conservative power in the United States, financed and organized by Christian fundamentalist sects, the Catholic Church, and conservative corporate and political leadership, has become more threatening and potentially destabilizing of progressive democratic principles and practices. Powerful interlocking political, financial and social forces are arrayed against women in many Southern and Western states. They are having destructive effects on women's ability to...

  13. Evaluation of the natural circulation capability test results for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kang Sik; Jeong, Weon Sang; Lee, Ju Han; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Yong Won; Ryuk, Keun Su; Shin, Bong Chul; Kim, Byung Ho; Oh, Chul Sung [KEPCO, Ulchin (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    During the Power Ascension Test (PAT) period, the transient tests related to the natural circulation capability were successfully completed for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (UCN 3). The tests were successfully completed by meeting all acceptance criteria. The post-trip PCS shows good performance as designed and the measured natural circulation capacity was demonstrated to be adequate for the core decay heat removal for UCN 3.

  14. Evaluation of the natural circulation capability test results for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Power Ascension Test (PAT) period, the transient tests related to the natural circulation capability were successfully completed for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (UCN 3). The tests were successfully completed by meeting all acceptance criteria. The post-trip PCS shows good performance as designed and the measured natural circulation capacity was demonstrated to be adequate for the core decay heat removal for UCN 3

  15. Purchasing power parity in OECD countries: nonlinear unit root tests revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Paulo José Regis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide additional evidence on the purchasing power parity empirical fulfillment in a pool of OECD countries. We apply the Harvey et al. (2008) linearity test and the Kruse (2010) nonlinear unit root test. The results point to the fact that the purchasing power parity theory holds in a greater number of countries than has been reported in previous studies.

  16. Summary data for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of data is presented for all United States commercial nuclear power plants for which a construction permit application was made through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data are compiled in four separate tables with cross-referencing indexes: Table 1--General Data; Table 2--Reactor Data; Table 3--Site Data, and Table 4--Circulating-Water System Data. The power plants are listed in numerical order by docket number in all four tables

  17. 78 FR 79017 - Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Physical Security Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS) Units 1 and 2 were permanently shut... ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

  18. 76 FR 72007 - ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' paragraph (b)(1) states, ``The...

  19. Photovoltaic power stations in Germany and the United States: A comparative study by data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares Photovoltaic (PV) power stations between Germany and the United States to examine which country more efficiently provides renewable energy in their usages. For the comparative analysis, this study utilizes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) as a methodology to evaluate the performance of PV power stations from the perspective of both solar and land usages. A total of one hundred sixty PV power stations (eighty in Germany and eighty in the United States) are used for this comparison. The demand for sustainable energy and energy security has been rapidly increasing over the past decade because of concerns about environment and limited resources. PV solutions are one of many renewable technologies that are being developed to satisfy a recent demand of electricity. Germany is the world's top installer and consumer of PV power and the United States is one of the top five nations. Germany leads the way in installed PV capacity even though the nation has less solar resources and land area. Due to limited solar resources, low insolation and sunshine, and land area, the United States should have a clear advantage over Germany. However, the empirical result of this study exhibits that PV power stations in Germany operate more efficiently than those of the United States even if the latter has many solar and land advantages. The surprising result indicates that the United States has room for improvement when it comes to utilizing solar and land resources and needs to reform the solar policy. For such a purpose, Feed-In Tariff (FIT) may be an effective energy policy at the state level in the United States because the FIT provides investors such as utility companies and other types of energy firms with financial incentives to develop large PV power stations and generation facilities for other renewable energy. It may be true that the FIT is a powerful policy tool to promote PV and other renewable installation and support a reduction of an amount of greenhouse

  20. Three-phase power supply, output 60v and 100a, with unit power factor and low RFI level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Vieira Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-phase rectifier, unit power factor, non-dissipative commutation in DC-DC converter and synchronized control in frequency, working with 89% of global efficiency and low level do RFI. The proposed structure allows the operation with high switching frequency. The output voltage is controlled by PWM with a constant frequency. The operation principle, theoretical analysis from DC converter, relevant equations, current balance control technique and experimental results, are shown in this paper.

  1. 2001 replacement plan of main component for Genkai nuclear power plant unit 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial operation of Genkai unit 1 started in October 1975 and Genkai unit 2 in March 1981. Each of them is a two-loop type PWR plant whose output is 559 MW. Until now Genkai unit 1 and 2 have been operating satisfactorily with good operating performance since their commercial operation started. Meantime we have made efforts to improve the reliability of facilities and their functions by systematically performing improvement and repair work reflecting the lessons learned from operation experience of nuclear power plants at home and abroad and the result of technical development. We have decided to replace main component during the 20. outage of Genkai unit 1 and the 16. outage of Genkai unit 2 which are scheduled in March 2001, in order to reduce future radiation exposure and to improve the reliability. (author)

  2. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  3. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended

  4. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  5. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended.

  7. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1998. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions and generating unit changes. This report is prepared annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data or nonconfidential data of nonutilities are presented, it is specifically noted as nonutility data. 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  8. Power combining scheme for 50 kW pulsed solid state RF power amplifier unit at 325 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of 50 kW pulsed Solid State RF Power amplifier (SSPA) unit at 325 MHz is under progress at RRCAT for our Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) program. RF Power combining is mandatory requirement for SSPA, as output of solid state RF devices is moderate. As a part of this system, 16-Way radial power combiner, 16-Way radial power divider and 100 kW (pulsed RF : pulse width-2 ms, repetition rate-50 Hz) 2-Way power combiner have been successfully designed, developed and characterized at 325 MHz. 16-Way power combiner have output at 3 1/8' inch rigid coaxial line and 16 inputs at N-type connector while 16-Way Power divider has input and 16 outputs at N- type connector. 100 kW 2-Way power combiner have two inputs and output at 3 1/8 inch rigid coaxial line. It is proposed to achieve 50 kW RF output by combining 32 nos. of previously developed pulsed 1.8 kW solid state RF amplifier modules with the help of two nos. of 16-Way radial power combiners, power dividers and one no. of 100 kW 2-Way RF power combiner. Measured return loss at 325 MHz using Rohde and Schwarz make vector network analyzer for 16-Way power combiners and 16-Way power dividers were found to be better than 23 dB and 20 dB respectively. Amplitude and phase variation of 16 nos. of coupling coefficients between input and output were limited to ± 0.1 dB and ±l1° respectively for both the structures. Return loss for 100 kW pulsed RF 2-Way power combiner at 325 MHz has been measured better than 20 dB and amplitude and phase symmetry of both inputs were better than to ± 0.03 dB and ± 0.50° respectively. (author)

  9. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  10. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  11. The analysis of parameters of the cryogenic oxygen unit cooperating with power plant to realize oxy-fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna; Składzień, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The paper examines from the thermodynamic point of view operation of coal fired power unit cooperating with the cryogenic oxygen unit, with a particular emphasis on the characteristic performance parameters of the oxygen unit. The relatively high purity technical oxygen produced in the oxygen unit is then used as the oxidant in the fluidized bed boiler of the modern coal fired power unit with electric power output of approximately 460 MW. The analyzed oxygen unit has a classical two-column structure with an expansion turbine (turboexpander), which allows the use of relatively low pressure initially compressed air. Multivariant calculations were performed, the main result being the loss of power and efficiency of the unit due to the need to ensure adequate driving power to the compressor system of the oxygen generating plant.

  12. The analysis of parameters of the cryogenic oxygen unit cooperating with power plant to realize oxy-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnydiuk-Stefan Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines from the thermodynamic point of view operation of coal fired power unit cooperating with the cryogenic oxygen unit, with a particular emphasis on the characteristic performance parameters of the oxygen unit. The relatively high purity technical oxygen produced in the oxygen unit is then used as the oxidant in the fluidized bed boiler of the modern coal fired power unit with electric power output of approximately 460 MW. The analyzed oxygen unit has a classical two-column structure with an expansion turbine (turboexpander, which allows the use of relatively low pressure initially compressed air. Multivariant calculations were performed, the main result being the loss of power and efficiency of the unit due to the need to ensure adequate driving power to the compressor system of the oxygen generating plant.

  13. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  14. Water energy resources of the United States with emphasis on low head/low power resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Cherry, Shane J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Reeves, Kelly S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Lee, Randy D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Carroll, Gregory R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Verdin, Kristine L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A, and similar presentations for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  15. Power in the National Health Service: a case study of a unit considering NHS Trust status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, E

    1991-07-01

    There are a number of theoretical frameworks which aim to provide a language for understanding and discussing the nature of power and influence in organisational decision making. One of the most recent and comprehensive frameworks is that developed by Mintzberg. Following a resumé of the most pertinent sections of Mintzberg's framework, this paper uses it to investigate the power relationships in an NHS Mental Health Unit (MHU) considering NHS Trust status. This investigation reveals some important conclusions about the nature of power in the NHS but also explores some of the limitations of the framework as a descriptive and predictive tool. PMID:10115536

  16. United Nations deliberations of the use of nuclear power sources in space: 1978-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Sholtis, Joseph A., Jr.; Rashkow, Bruce C.

    1988-01-01

    The United Nations (U.N.) is continuing its deliberations on the use of nuclear power sources (NPS) in space. Although no complete set of legal principles has yet been agreed upon, certain scientific and technical criteria for the safe design and use of NPS have been accepted. In this respect, it should be noted that in its 1981 report, the Working Group on the Use of Power Sources in Outer Space concluded that power sources can be used safely in outer space, provided that all necessary safety requirements are met. This is also a succinct statement of the U.S. position.

  17. Seismic-upgrading modification for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plants Unit 3 to 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes field experience of seismic-upgrading modification, which enhances seismic design margin, for Hamaoka nuclear power plants unit 3 to 5. One of the difficulties of this project consists in conducting modification for operating nuclear power plants. Some ideas, such as utilizing seismic isolation system for temporary tower crane for steel stack modification, and high-pressure injection mixing method for soil improvement surrounding piping duct instead of conventional method, are adopted not to impact nuclear power plant operation. On the other hands, modification for piping support, cable tray support, and conduit support for electric cable, was performed during plant shut down due to considering plant impact. (author)

  18. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  19. Control characteristics on accel power supply of prototype injector unit for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control characteristics on accel power supply of prototype injector unit for JT-60 are studied. Evaluation method of them is shown, where ion source characteristics are included. Several characteristics experimentally obtained can be well explained using this evaluation method. It is available to investigate the method to get better control characteristics. (author)

  20. Construction of power-generating gas turbine units with the use of efficient thermal schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, D. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Zhuravlev, Yu. I.; Lesnichenko, A. Ya.; Tsai, S. S.

    2008-08-01

    The design features of GTE-30 and GTE-50 power-generating gas turbines, the basic thermal circuit of a PGU-90 (150) combined-cycle plant, and a layout solution for a cogeneration station built around a gas-turbine unit are considered.

  1. Plant process control system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functions and constitution of Plant Process Control System of Full Scope Simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit are introduced. The methods of realizing these functions such as how to generate the database, to communicate, to display and to operate the graph, to alarm and print out, are described in detail

  2. Radiation monitoring of equipment contamination in the process of decommissioning of nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider the possibility of estimating the overall radioactive contamination of equipment at nuclear power units under decommissioning with the help of sampling and non-sampling methods of measurement, using the apparatus of the radiation transport theory. Sampling methods of gamma-spectrometry are analyzed including egress radiation control of metals to be used without restrictions

  3. STS-45 ATLAS-1 pallet and Igloo power unit mating in KSC O and C Bldg

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Atmosphere Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1 pallet and Igloo power unit mating completed in Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Operations and Checkout (O and C) Bldg test stand 3. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-91PC-1704.

  4. Coalition of distributed generation units to virtual power players - a game theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Santos, Gabriel;

    2015-01-01

    and the existence of new management players such as several types of aggregators. This paper proposes a methodology to facilitate the coalition between distributed generation units originating Virtual Power Players (VPP) considering a game theory approach. The proposed approach consists in the analysis...

  5. 75 FR 13142 - Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point, Units 3 and 4; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ..., Revisions 1A and 2A, have been met for Turkey Point 3 and 4. The use of the methodology in TR BAW-2308... not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 4426) This exemption is... COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point, Units 3 and 4; Exemption 1.0 Background...

  6. Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 3 nuclear reactor recirculation pump incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the incident and investigation of excessive mechanical vibration of the unit 3 recirculation pump of the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station. The topics include equipment damage, failure analysis, operational issues, actions to prevent reoccurrence, metallic particle contamination and cleanup and recovery of the cooling system, and future monitoring of recirculation pumps

  7. 75 FR 13320 - Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... generator replacement outage that is currently underway at CR-3. In addition to steam generators, other.... DPR 72 issued to Florida Power Corporation (the licensee), for operation of the Crystal River Unit 3... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect...

  8. Sulphur isotope measurements relevant to power plant emissions in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A body of sulphur isotope data has been collected for fuels, power plant emissions, and atmospheric sulphur in the northeastern part of the United States. This information is now presented in part to document its existence but more importantly to gain a better understanding of the fate of sulphur in the environment

  9. Incorporating Wind Power Forecast Uncertainties Into Stochastic Unit Commitment Using Neural Network-Based Prediction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, into power systems significantly increases the uncertainties on system operation, stability, and reliability in smart grids. In this paper, the nonparametric neural network-based prediction intervals (PIs) are implemented for forecast uncertainty quantification. Instead of a single level PI, wind power forecast uncertainties are represented in a list of PIs. These PIs are then decomposed into quantiles of wind power. A new scenario generation method is proposed to handle wind power forecast uncertainties. For each hour, an empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) is fitted to these quantile points. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate scenarios from the ECDF. Then the wind power scenarios are incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the stochastic SCUC problem. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies incorporated with interval forecasts of wind power are implemented. The results of these cases are presented and discussed together. Generation costs, and the scheduled and real-time economic dispatch reserves of different unit commitment strategies are compared. The experimental results show that the stochastic model is more robust than deterministic ones and, thus, decreases the risk in system operations of smart grids. PMID:25532191

  10. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  11. Pretreatment investigations and field trialing of an innovative solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, S.; Scheid, S.; Mathew, K.; Goen Ho [Murdoch University (Australia). Remote Area Developments Group

    1998-07-01

    The Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University in collaboration with a local manufacturer, Venco Products Pty Ltd have developed a solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination unit ('Solarflow') specifically designed for remote areas. The unit has recently been commercialised with eighteen units presently in operation through Australia and South East Asia. Several sites where units have been requested however, notably Central Australia and Indonesia, have feed water which is marginal in terms of its ability to be treated by reverse osmosis without some form of pretreatment. Guidelines for feed water pretreatment generally apply to large scale commercial units which operate at high recovery ratios and thus have limited applicability to the Solarflow unit. Research at Murdoch University's Environmental Technology Centre (ETC) is currently underway to determine the performance of the units both under laboratory and field conditions over the longer term with marginal feed waters. This will allow an assessment of maintenance requirements, membrane life expectancy and the design of appropriate pretreatment systems to enable the units to perform reliably in remote areas. This paper will describe the findings to date and the areas where further research is indicated. (author)

  12. Operating experience with the WWER-440/W 230 reactor units of the Greifswald nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After seventeen years of operation, almost to the day, unit 1 of the Greifswald nuclear power station was shut down in December 1990 as the last of the units still in operation. This step completed the decommissioning of all units as ordered by the authorities. The use of nuclear power for energy generation in the eastern part of Germany, which began when the Rheinsberg nuclear power station was commissioned in 1966, has thus been brought to a temporary end. The Greifswald (4x440 MW) and Rheinsberg (70 MW) nuclear power stations covered an annual average of 10 to 12% of the electricity requirement of the GDR in the past ten years, thus contributing to a stable energy supply over a prolonged period of time. For security reasons of the then GDR government there was hardly any possibility to report about the performance and operating records of the plants in former years. The 1990 press reports consequently were bound to create the impression as if these reactor plants had not been very successful and had been operated at high risk. In order to put these impressions on a more objective base, this report presents important findings made during the operation of the Greifswald nuclear power station and evaluates them. (orig.)

  13. Tracy Power Station -- Unit No. 4, Pinon Pine Power Project Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This Public Design Report describes the Pinon Pine Project which will be located at the Sierra Pacific Power Company`s (SPPCO) Tracy Station near Reno, Nevada. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant is designed to process 880 tones per day (TPD) of bituminous coal producing approximately 107 gross megawatts of electric power (MWe). This project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2192MC29309. The plant incorporates the Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) fluidized bed gasification technology which produces a low-Btu gas which is used as fuel in a combined cycle power plant which has been modified to accommodate the fuel gas produced by an air-blown gasifier. The gasification system also includes hot gas removal of particulates and sulfur compounds from the fuel gas resulting in a plant with exceptionally low atmospheric emissions. Desulfurization is accomplished by a combination of limestone injection into the KRW fluidized bed gasifier and by a transport reactor system. Particulate removal is accomplished by high efficiency cyclones and a barrier filter. The Pinon Pine Project Schedule is divided into three phases. Phase I includes permitting and preliminary design. Phase II, which overlaps Phase I, covers detailed design, procurement, and construction. Phase III will cover the initial operation and demonstration portion of the project.

  14. Control of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Units in Multi-Machine Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, Aruna

    A new scheme, in which a synchronous generator connected to the SMES busbar is used as a feedback generator, is proposed to control superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units in multi-machine power systems, in this dissertation. The speed and the load angle changes of the feedback generator are used to calculate the necessary real power transfers to the SMES, while the necessary reactive power transfers are calculated from the voltage changes of the common busbar. Expressions are derived for the direct and quadrature axis components of the current drawn by the SMES, for unequal firing angles in the converter bridge, and the relationships of the two currents to the total real and reactive power transfers to the SMES are shown. The expressions derived are valid for small or large systems, under steady state or transient conditions, and it is shown through computer simulations in a small power system that, the proposed scheme is quite effective in stabilizing electromechanical oscillations caused by small as well as large disturbances. It is also shown that, the SMES can improve the power output of wind turbine induction generators, and also stabilize the oscillations caused by wind power losses in a steam turbine generator system, and thereby eliminate the need to use diesel turbine generators for the same purpose. Finally, equations are derived to represent the synchronous machine in terms of its d-q circuits, while it is connected to the network which is described by complex quantities, and the formulations done for the proposed scheme are extended to study the use of SMES units with proposed control in power systems of large and complex configurations. The proposed scheme of control is simple, and does not call for a special design of a controller requiring simplifying assumptions such as the presence of an infinite busbar or steady state operating conditions on the system, and therefore, would help in the widespread use of SMES units in electric

  15. Process-circuit and layout solutions for steam-turbine units and performance efficiency of thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol'dberg, A. A.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Criteria for evaluating process-circuit and layout solutions adopted in designing steam-turbine units are presented together with their values for a number of steam-turbine units produced by the Ural Turbine Works. The presented values of the criteria are recommended for being used as tentative ones in designing new thermal power plants or in upgrading them with the use of steam turbine units operating both as basic power installations and as part of combined-cycle power plants. The influence of process-circuit and layout solutions adopted for steam-turbine units on the effectiveness of thermal power plant construction and plant performance efficiency is shown.

  16. Climate change impacts on thermoelectric-power generation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoelectric-power generation accounts for more than 70% of the total electricity generation in the United States, which requires large amounts of water for cooling purposes. Water withdrawals for thermoelectric-power generation accounted for 45% of total water use in the United States in 2010. Across the country, water demand from power plants is increasing due to pressures from growing populations and other needs, and is straining existing water resources. Moreover, temperature exceedance in receiving waters has increasingly caused power plants shut downs across parts of the country. Thermoelectric power is vulnerable to climate change owing to the combined effects of lower summer river flows and higher receiving water temperatures. In addition, the efficiency of production is reduced as air temperature rises, which propagates to more unfulfilled power demand during peak seasons. Therefore, a holistic modeling framework of water-energy-climate for the contiguous U.S. is presented here to quantify thermal output from power plants and estimate water use and energy production fluctuations due to ambient climate as well as environmental regulations. The model is calibrated on a plant-by-plant basis for year 2010 and 2011 using the available power plant inventory from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Simulations were carried out for years 2012 and 2013, and results show moderate improvements in capturing thermal output variabilities after calibration. Future power plant operations under scenarios featuring different climate and regulatory settings were investigated. Results demonstrate the interplay among water, energy and climate, and that future changes in climate and socioeconomics significantly affect power plant operations, which may provide insights to climate change mitigation considerations and energy decisions.

  17. A decomposition method for network-constrained unit commitment with AC power flow constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the increasingly high requirement of smart grid operations, considering AC power flow constraints in the NCUC (network-constrained unit commitment) is of great significance in terms of both security and economy. This paper proposes a decomposition method to solve NCUC with AC power flow constraints. With conic approximations of the AC power flow equations, the master problem is formulated as a MISOCP (mixed integer second-order cone programming) model. The key advantage of this model is that the active power and reactive power are co-optimised, and the transmission losses are considered. With the AC optimal power flow model, the AC feasibility of the UC result of the master problem is checked in subproblems. If infeasibility is detected, feedback constraints are generated based on the sensitivity of bus voltages to a change in the unit reactive power generation. They are then introduced into the master problem in the next iteration until all AC violations are eliminated. A 6-bus system, a modified IEEE 30-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system are used to validate the performance of the proposed method, which provides a satisfactory solution with approximately 44-fold greater computational efficiency. - Highlights: • A decomposition method is proposed to solve the NCUC with AC power flow constraints • The master problem considers active power, reactive power and transmission losses. • OPF-based subproblems check the AC feasibility using parallel computing techniques. • An effective feedback constraint interacts between the master problem and subproblem. • Computational efficiency is significantly improved with satisfactory accuracy

  18. Unit commitment with wind power generation: integrating wind forecast uncertainty and stochastic programming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V. M.; Rocklin, M.; Lee, S.; Anitescu, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Chicago); (New York Univ.)

    2009-10-09

    We present a computational framework for integrating the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulations that account for wind power uncertainty. We first enhance the WRF model with adjoint sensitivity analysis capabilities and a sampling technique implemented in a distributed-memory parallel computing architecture. We use these capabilities through an ensemble approach to model the uncertainty of the forecast errors. The wind power realizations are exploited through a closed-loop stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulation. We discuss computational issues arising in the implementation of the framework. In addition, we validate the framework using real wind speed data obtained from a set of meteorological stations. We also build a simulated power system to demonstrate the developments.

  19. Thermoemission reactor-converters for nuclear power units in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a thermoemission reactor-converter, the direct conversion of thermal into electrical energy is based on the thermoelectric emission of electrons in electricity-generating channels. The paper describes the following: the electricity-generating channel, characteristics of the electricity-generating channels and the reactor-converter, a thermal neutron reactor-converter, a fast neutron reactor-converter, and estimating the mass-limit characteristics of the thermoemission units. Thermoemission nuclear power units with built-in generators in the nuclear reactor core can be regarded as a promising source of electric power for supplying the needs of space equipment for various purposes with a wide range of electric power demands over a long service life and with acceptable mass-limit characteristics

  20. The on-board computer in diagnosis of satellite power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel'giy, V. V.; Bugrovskiy, V. V.; Kovachich, Yu. V.; Petrov, B. N.; Shevyakov, A. A.

    Diagnosis of a space thermoemission power unit incorporating a Topaz type reactor converter is hindered by the low potential of the measurement system. The lack of information is restored by computing from the measurement date. Examples of dynamic mode diagnosis with restoration of information on the field temperature is given. The power unit diagnosis algorithms are implemented in the onboard computer whose power is about 200,000 operations per second. Memory and computing requirements are determined from algorithms of different diagnosis degrees. Results in study of the necessary computer component redundancy are given for different models of system degradation. The redundancy level should insure that the nucleus of the computer system with a minimally necessary 4K-words memory remains in operation after three years into the mission.

  1. Nuclear power in the United Kingdom - the end of the beginning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is a young technology that has developed within a political environment of ever-changing priorities. In the United Kingdom, Government-led central planning of electricity supply has given way to market forces and the future of nuclear power depends on its ability to compete in this competitive environment as well as its wider public acceptance. In only three years, the disciplines of private sector competition have transformed the economics of United Kingdom nuclear operations and the new generation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) at Sizewell is set to lead the world in safety and performance. Taken together with the growing recognition of the need to protect the local and global environment from the products of the combustion of fossil fuels, the prospects for the future of nuclear power as the major clean energy source for the twenty-first century have never been better. (Author)

  2. On economic efficiency of nuclear power unit life extension using steam-gas topping plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different options for life extension of the operating nuclear power units have been analyzed in the report with regard for their economic efficiency. A particular attention is given to the option envisaging the reduction of reactor power output and its subsequent compensation with a steam-gas topping plant. Steam generated at its heat-recovery boilers is proposed to be used for the additional loading of the nuclear plant turbine so as to reach its nominal output. It would be demonstrated that the implementation of this option allows to reduce total costs in the period of power plant life extension by 24-29% as compared with the alternative use of the replacing steam-gas unit and the saved resources could be directed, for instance, for decommissioning of a reactor facility. (authors)

  3. Genkai Nuclear Power Station Units 1 and 2. Upgrading of central instrumentation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genkai Unit No.1 started commercial operation in October 19754 and Genkai Unit No.2 in March 1981. They are two-loop PWR plants with the electrical power output of 559 MW each. Units No.1 and 2 have been successfully operation and accumulated good results to data. Meanwhile, striving to maintain and enhance reliability, Kyushu Electric Power Company has been systematically implementing upgrade and repair works by reflecting knowledge acquired from nuclear power plant operating experience in Japan and overseas and the outcome of technological developments. The main control boards had been modified several times, as had other equipment before this upgrading project started. Although there was no significant problem in the safe and stable plant operation using the boards as they were, the scalability and maintainability became worse. This would become a problem in future in view of the continuation of safe and stable plant operation for a long time. We thought to enhance the reliability, operability and monitorability further and decided to replace the main control boards with new ones equipped with more CRTs that are the same type as those used in the latest Genkai Units No.3 and 4 located in the same site. And, the related systems, including the primary and secondary system control systems, plant computers, and alarm and monitor cabinets, were replaced with the units featuring the latest technology. Hereafter, this project may be called as CBR in short. The replacement work was implemented by coinciding with the 20th refueling outage (March 6 to August 18, 2001) for Unit No.1 and with the 16th refueling outage (March 16 to September 20, 2001) for Unit No.2. (author)

  4. Modeling and Optimization of the Medium-Term Units Commitment of Thermal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Liao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired thermal power plants, which represent the largest proportion of China’s electric power system, are very sluggish in responding to power system load demands. Thus, a reasonable and feasible scheme for the medium-term optimal commitment of thermal units (MOCTU can ensure that the generation process runs smoothly and minimizes the start-up and shut-down times of thermal units. In this paper, based on the real-world and practical demands of power dispatch centers in China, a flexible mathematical model for MOCTU that uses equal utilization hours for the installed capacity of all thermal power plants as the optimization goal and that considers the award hours for MOCTU is developed. MOCTU is a unit commitment (UC problem with characteristics of large-scale, high dimensions and nonlinearity. For optimization, an improved progressive optimality algorithm (IPOA offering the advantages of POA is adopted to overcome the drawback of POA of easily falling into the local optima. In the optimization process, strategies of system operating capacity equalization and single station operating peak combination are introduced to move the target solution from the boundary constraints along the target isopleths into the feasible solution’s interior to guarantee the global optima. The results of a case study consisting of nine thermal power plants with 27 units show that the presented algorithm can obtain an optimal solution and is competent in solving the MOCTU with high efficiency and accuracy as well as that the developed simulation model can be applied to practical engineering needs.

  5. Analysis of current state of transformer equipment, its role and place in affording safety, increasing power- and ecological effectiveness operation of units of nuclear power stations of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of technical state, life service and reliability of modern transformer equipment of power generating units of nuclear power stations (NPS) was conducted. Cause-and-effect factors of pre-emergency and emergency faults of transformers have been analyzed. Technical offers aimed at improvement of efficiency and reliability parameters of transformer equipment operation on NPS units were developed.

  6. Economic Assessment of Unified Power Quality Controller Operation in Joint and Separated Modes with DG Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hoseynpoor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the joint operation of the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC and distributed generation system with there separated operation and compares these modes from economic point of view. The investigated joint system consists of a series inverter, a shunt inverter, and an DG unit connected in the dc link through a rectifier. The separated system consists of a separate UPQC and DG unit which is connected to grid through back to back inverters. The investment cost of joint system is compared with investment cost of separate use of UPQC and DG unit and the economic saving due to use of coupled system is estimated. The DG unit is assumed a wind energy conversion system (WECS in this study. The analysis shows that joint operation of UPQC with WECS is significantly economical.

  7. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  8. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  9. Data processing unit and power system for the LANL REM instrument package. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, W. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Instrumentation and Space Research Div.

    1994-03-01

    The NEPSTP spacecraft needs highly reliable instrumentation to measure the nuclear reactor health and performance. These reactor measurements are essential for initial on-orbit phase operations and documentation of performance over time. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the guidance of W. C. Feldman, principal investigator, has designed the Radiation Environment Monitoring (REM) package to meet these needs. The instrumentation package contains two neutron detectors, one gamma-ray detector, a data processing unit, and an instrument power system. The REM package is an integration of quick turn-around, state of the practice technology for detectors, data processors, and power systems. A significant portion of REM consists of subsystems with flight history. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has been tasked by LANL to design support electronics, including the Data Processing Unit (DPU) and Power System for REM. The goal for this project is to use technologies from current programs to speed up and simplify the design process. To meet these design goals, the authors use an open architecture VME bus for the DPU and derivatives of CASSINI power supplies for the instrument power system. To simplify integration and test activities, they incorporate a proven software development strategy and tool kits from outside vendors. The objective of this report is to illustrate easily incorporated system level designs for the DPU, power system and ground support electronics (GSE) in support of the important NEPSTP program.

  10. A Closed Brayton Power Conversion Unit Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude Russell; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt & Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level.

  11. A closed Brayton power conversion unit concept for nuclear electric propulsion for deep space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt and Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level

  12. Overview of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Power System Integration and Operation at Desert RATS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; George, Pat; Gambrell, Ronnie; Chapman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A habitat demonstration unit (HDU) was constructed at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and designed by a multicenter NASA team led out of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The HDU was subsequently utilized at the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) program held at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. This report describes the power system design, installation and operation for the HDU. The requirements for the power system were to provide 120 VAC, 28 VDC, and 120 VDC power to the various loads within the HDU. It also needed to be capable of providing power control and real-time operational data on the load's power consumption. The power system had to be capable of operating off of a 3 phase 480 VAC generator as well as 2 solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The system operated well during the 2 week Desert RATS campaign and met all of the main goals of the system. The power system is being further developed to meet the future needs of the HDU and options for this further development are discussed.

  13. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  14. Introduction of reliability, safety and risk monitoring technology in BN-600 power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC Operating Entity set the task to introduce risk monitoring technology for continuous estimate and control of nuclear units quantitative safety measures change. JSC “Afrikantov OKBM” and “Beloyarsk NPP” developed risk monitor system “RIM” which is introducing now at Beloyarsk NPP BN-600 unit 3. To estimate quantitative safety measures Level 1 PSA for internal initiating events for full power operating conditions model of Beloyarsk NPP BN-600 unit 3 is used. PSA model was developed using national certified PSA software CRISS. To ensure NPP reliability and safety, implementation of comprehensive systematic study (monitoring) of NPP operating experience is of fundamental value. To solve this problem, JSC “Afrikantov OKBM” and “Beloyarsk NPP” developed and introduced the system for analytical reliability and safety monitoring of BN-600 power unit based on information retrieval system (IRS) “Istochnik-BN”. The paper describes system objectives, main characteristics and results of reliability, safety and risk monitoring technology introducing at Beloyarsk NPP BN-600 unit 3. (author)

  15. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  16. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  17. Draft environmental impact statement. River Bend Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal financing of an undivided ownership interest of River Bend Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 on a 3293-acre site near St. Francisville, Louisiana is proposed in a supplement to the final environmental impact statement of September 1974. The facility would consist of a boiling-water reactor that would produce a maximum of 2894 megawatts (MW) of electrical power. A design level of 3015 MW of electric power could be realized at some time in the future. Exhaust steam would be cooled by mechanical cooling towers using makeup water obtained from and discharged to the Mississippi River. Power generated by the unit would be transmitted via three lines totaling 140 circuit miles traversing portions of the parishes of West Feliciana, East Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Pointe Coupee, and Iberville. The unit would help the applicant meet the power needs of rural electric consumers in the region, and the applicant would contribute significanlty to area tax base and employment rolls during the life of the unit. Construction related activities would disturb 700 forested acres on the site and 1156 acres along the transmission routes. Of the 60 cubic feet per second (cfs) taken from the river, 48 cfs would evaporate during the cooling process and 12 cfs would return to the river with dissolved solids concentrations increased by 500%. The terrace aquifer would be dewatered for 16 months in order to lower the water table at the building site, and Grants Bayou would be transformed from a lentic to a lotic habitat during this period. Fogging and icing due to evaporation and drift from the cooling towers would increase slightly. During the construction period, farming, hunting, and fishing on the site would be suspended, and the social infractructure would be stressed due to the influx of a maximum of 2200 workers

  18. MARS calculation of PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) heat exchanger in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) as one of the advanced safety feature. To design the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS, the two-phase flow phenomena in horizontal U-tube and PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank) were investigated by MARS calculation. By benchmarking with NOKO experimental result, MARS code showed a reasonable capability to quantitatively predict the condensation in horizontal tube heat exchanger. And the design of PAFS heat exchanger was proved to sufficiently remove the decay heat by the condensation heat transfer without any active auxiliary feedwater system

  19. Evaluation of Effect of N2 Gas on the Cooling Capability of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+), a next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, adopts Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) to replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. Because PAFS removes decay heat from the reactor core, it is required to verify the performance of PAFS in postulated accidents cases. In addition, an effect of non-condensable gas such as N2 gas on the heat removal capability of PAFS should be evaluated since the non-condensable gas may deteriorate a condensation heat transfer through the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS. In this study, MARS code is used to evaluate the effect of N2 gas

  20. MARS calculation of PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) heat exchanger in APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung Uhn; Yun, Byong Jo; Bae, Sung Won; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) as one of the advanced safety feature. To design the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS, the two-phase flow phenomena in horizontal U-tube and PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank) were investigated by MARS calculation. By benchmarking with NOKO experimental result, MARS code showed a reasonable capability to quantitatively predict the condensation in horizontal tube heat exchanger. And the design of PAFS heat exchanger was proved to sufficiently remove the decay heat by the condensation heat transfer without any active auxiliary feedwater system.

  1. Power cycling and ramp test in R-2 and Mihama Unit 2 for MHI PWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to the present time, Mitsubishi has manufactured approximately 3000 fuel assemblies for Japanese PWRs, of which performance in reactors is satisfactory under base load operation. For the forthcoming load following age in Japan, expected in mid eighties, Mitsubishi is performing various R and D programs, so that load following operation can be smoothly introduced with current good performance maintained. R and D programs consist of two phases. One is the verification and demonstration of power ramping and cycling capability of the current design fuels, and the other is the development of remedy fuels with more operational margin. This paper describes the recent results obtained for the former phase, especially for the following two programs: (1) Power cycling and ramp test in R-2; (2) Power ramp demonstration (PRD) in Mihama Unit 2 (PRD-1). PIE works for power cycling and ramp test rods have been almost completed. The second PRD will be performed early in 1983

  2. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  3. Human resource development for the new nuclear power plant unit in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a discussion of a study to define the programs for development of the human resource infrastructure needed for a new nuclear power plant unit in the Republic of Armenia. While Armenia has a workforce experienced in operation and regulation of a nuclear power plant (NPP), a significant portion of the current Armenia Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) workforce is approaching retirement age and will not be available for the new plant. The Government of Armenia is performing a human resource infrastructure study in cooperation with the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), sponsored by the JAEA. The study of Human Resource Development for Armenia uses the INPRO methodology for assessment of human resources. The results of this study will provide the basis for decisions on human resource development programs for nuclear power in Armenia and provide a model for countries with the limited resources that are working to develop nuclear energy in the future. (authors)

  4. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  5. Modelling Of The Hydro Unit Of The Power Plant Tikvesh By MATLAB/SIMULINK Program Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of the energy market allows the independent producers of energy to take part in covering the needs of the consumers. This process will make the operation, as well as the planning of the electric power systems more complicated and more difficult. Usage of the various kinds of practically oriented models, created with the available software, has many advantages. Creating simulation models for all the power plants in the system and connecting them into one complete model allow analyses for the behavior of the power plants and the behavior of whole power system for different operational regimes. This paper shows a simulation model of the hydro unit with a Francis turbine, installed in HPP Tikvesh, the results from the simulation and an overview of the reliability of the obtained model. (Author)

  6. Public participation in the siting and licensing of nuclear power plants in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the United Kingdom there is a history of involving the public in the decision making process for major new projects through the public inquiry system. Nuclear power plant is no exception to this and each proposal to build a new reactor is, in practice, subject to public scrutiny at an inquiry. This paper outlines the process by which an operator obtains permission to build and operate a new reactor in the United Kingdom, and the participation of the public in the decision making process. (author)

  7. Review of tube support plate analysis for steam generators of Millstone Unit II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetite growth in steam generator tube support plates was observed in the Millstone Unit II Nuclear Power Plant. If growth is allowed to continue, the tube may eventually fail resulting from plate shifting and the squeezing action of the growing magnetite. The corrective actions undertaken by the Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (NNECO) for this effect have been summarized in a report submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entitled, Millstone Unit No. II Steam Generator Repairs and Corrective Actions, Docket No. 50-336. The analytical study part of this report is reviewed here, and conclusions and recommendations for further research are given

  8. Economic and technical experience of nuclear power production in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power, utilizing light-water reactor technology, is a significant source of electric power generation in the United States of America, accounting for about 12% of the electric power production in 1981, more than either oil-fired or hydroelectric generation. It is also the single fastest growing source of central station electric generation in the US, supplying over 40% of the generation in some major industrialized areas, including northern Illinois. The operating experience of LWRs in the United States over the past 25 years is reviewed and, based on that experience, economics, operations, safety, environmental impacts and public acceptance are discussed. An inescapable conclusion is that such plants are well suited for operation on large, interconnected electric power systems. Compared with coal-fired central station electric generation, such plants are cost competitive in most areas and are more reliable. Furthermore, the health and safety record of the nuclear industry has not been surpassed by any other major industry. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power, highlighting the fallibility of plant systems and equipment as well as of human and institutional response. Together with excess generating reserve margins, financial stress and nuclear licensing difficulties, this decline has been a contributing factor to the absence of any new plant orders in the US since 1978. The conclusion is that nuclear power has served the consumer well and that, while much remains to be done to realize its full potential, there is no turning back on nuclear power in the US. At the same time, the prospects for new orders in the US will depend upon such factors as capacity requirements, economics, utility confidence and financing capability, regulatory environment, public acceptance, assurance of lifetime supplies of fuel at competitive prices and the availability of other options for bulk power generation. (author)

  9. A fast method for the unit scheduling problem with significant renewable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model to the scheduling of power systems with significant renewable power generation is provided. • A new methodology that takes information from the analysis of each scenario separately is proposed. • Based on a probabilistic analysis, unit scheduling and corresponding economic dispatch are estimated. • A comparison with others methodologies is in favour of the proposed approach. - Abstract: Optimal operation of power systems with high integration of renewable power sources has become difficult as a consequence of the random nature of some sources like wind energy and photovoltaic energy. Nowadays, this problem is solved using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) approach, which allows considering important statistical characteristics of wind and solar power production such as the correlation between consecutive observations, the diurnal profile of the forecasted power production, and the forecasting error. However, MCS method requires the analysis of a representative amount of trials, which is an intensive calculation task that increases considerably with the number of scenarios considered. In this paper, a model to the scheduling of power systems with significant renewable power generation based on scenario generation/reduction method, which establishes a proportional relationship between the number of scenarios and the computational time required to analyse them, is proposed. The methodology takes information from the analysis of each scenario separately to determine the probabilistic behaviour of each generator at each hour in the scheduling problem. Then, considering a determined significance level, the units to be committed are selected and the load dispatch is determined. The proposed technique was illustrated through a case study and the comparison with stochastic programming approach was carried out, concluding that the proposed methodology can provide an acceptable solution in a reduced computational time

  10. Calculation of radioactive inventory of activated parts for nuclear power unit and analysis of influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the operation characteristics of the nuclear power unit, the radioactive inventory of activated parts was calculated by ORIGEN2, and the effects of bum-up, operation mode and power change on the radioactive inventory for activated parts were analyzed. The results indicated that the radioactive inventory grew with the increasing of burn-up, and when the actual operation time was longer than the effective operation time, the increasing rate of nuclide activity approximated the burn-up increasing; Radioactive inventory of activated parts was influenced directly by the operation modes of the nuclear power unit, and under same reactor load, operation power and bum-up, the radioactive inventory for non-continuous operation mode is less than that for the continuous operation mode. Effects of operation modes on radioactive inventory reversed with half life of nuclides. Under same bum-up and longer operation time, the effect of operation power change on the radioactive inventory is not obvious, (authors)

  11. Estimation of Wasted Thermal Energy from Gas Turbine Units in Mosul Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A. R. Al-Habbo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study involve a thermal analysis of a gas turbine unit like those which are used in Mosul gas turbine power station in order to estimate the amount of thermal energy is wasted in the exhaust gases. A computer program is developed to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on the performance of the gas turbine unit including the mass flow of air, power output, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature and the amount of wasted thermal energy (Qexh.Results indicate that mass flow of air decreases as the ambient temperature increase; this eventually affected the power out, thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. Results show that the power output decrease by 28.5% when the temperature increased from 15 ºC to 45 ºC. However, the temperature of exhaust gases increased by nearly 0.04% as the temperature approach 45 ºC and the thermal energy expelled with exhaust decreased nearly by 0.12%. It also found that the wasted thermal energy nearly twice the produced power output of gas turbine.

  12. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  13. 'Kazmer' a complex noise diagnostic system for 1000 MWe PWR WWER type nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise diagnostic systems have previously been developed and installed for the WWER-440 type reactors at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Based on the experiences, the system has been extended and modified for use in 1000 MWe, WWER-1000 type units. KAZMER consists of three subsystem, the KARD reactor noise diagnostic system, ARGUS vibration monitoring system for rotation machinery, and ALMOS acoustic monitoring system. The installation of the KAZMER system at the Kalinin Nuclear Power Station, Russia, and the first operational experiences are outlined. (R.P.) 15 refs.; 9 figs

  14. Field trialing of an innovative solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brackish water has been conducted at the Environmental Technology Centre (ETC) by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) since 1990. Initial research examined several renewable energy power supply options but due to portability, low maintenance and an output which matches demand, solar power was selected. This has culminated in the solarflow unit which is the result of a successful collaboration with industry partner G.P and G.F. Hill Pty Ltd for engineering design and commercial production. Initial data from field trials has been favourable and indicates that further research into low-cost systems for feedwater pretreatment and prefilters is required. (Author)

  15. Social Acceptance of Wind Power in the United States: Evaluating Stakeholder Perspectives (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.

    2009-05-01

    As the wind industry strives to achieve 20% wind energy by 2030, maintaining high levels of social acceptance for wind energy will become increasingly important. Wind Powering America is currently researching stakeholder perspectives in the U.S. market and reviewing findings from wind energy projects around the world to better understand social acceptance barriers. Results from European studies show that acceptance varies widely depending on local community values. A preliminary survey shows similar results in the United States. Further research will be conducted to refine our understanding of key social acceptance barriers and evaluate the best ways to mitigate negative perspectives on wind power.

  16. Heat engineering problems of designing boiler units of power plants with heat emission superstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezintes, P.A.; Shvarts, A.L.

    1981-06-01

    In connection with the achievements in the development of thermoemission converters, the problem of their application at steam power plants as a superstructure is posed. The efficiency of such a combined cycle is discussed. A design diagram including a power unit with an 800 MW steam turbine with standard supercritical steam parameters is considered. The main constraint on the efficiency of the combined cycle with a solid fuel-fired boiler is the level of air preheating. This is due to the slagging properties of ash and heat-resistance and chemical resistance of materials used for air preheaters.

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in the United Kingdom. The general technology underlying most aspects of power reactor C and I in the UK has not altered since the last progress report although there have been many improvements in detail. In one field, however, that of computer applications, the change has almost been one of kind rather than degree. The following fields are briefly described: The status of nuclear power in the UK, the development of sensors, the development of electronic equipment, signal processing - information technology, quality assurance and the validation and verification of software, expert systems, training simulators. (author). 1 ref

  18. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77913). However, by letter dated April 26, 2011, the licensee withdrew the... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located...

  19. 75 FR 58445 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... operation of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in York and...

  20. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... Generation Company, LLC (Exelon, the licensee) for operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units...-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from Limerick Generating Station (LGS) in the Peach Bottom Atomic...