WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxiliary power unit

  1. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  2. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the... power unit....

  3. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  4. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  5. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  7. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, M.; Loken, G.; Horton, J.; Lukens, W.; Scott, W.; Baughman, J.; Bauch, T.

    An overview of the United States Space Shuttle Orbiter APU, which provides power to the Orbiter vehicle hydraulic system, is presented. Three complete APU systems, each with its own separate fuel system, supply power to three dedicated hydraulic systems. These in turn provide power to all Orbiter vehicle critical flight functions including launch, orbit, reentry, and landing. The basic APU logic diagram is presented. The APU includes a hydrazine-powered turbine that drives a hydraulic pump and various accessories through a high-speed gearbox. The APU also features a sophisticated thermal management system designed to ensure safe and reliable operation in the various launch, orbit, reentry, and landing environments.

  9. 14 CFR 25.363 - Side load on engine and auxiliary power unit mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 25.363 Side load on engine and auxiliary power unit mounts. (a) Each engine and auxiliary power unit... the side load on the engine and auxiliary power unit mount, at least equal to the maximum load factor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Side load on engine and auxiliary...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... locomotive is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) that operates during an idle shutdown mode, you must account for the APU's emissions rates as specified in this section, unless the APU is part of an... emission rate (g/hr) as specified in § 1033.530. Add the APU emission rate (g/hr) that you determine...

  11. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which... in operation, and remain stopped during operation of the engine as an auxiliary power unit (“APU...

  12. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began the process of building an integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies. Technology Area 1 (TA-01)1 for Launch Propulsion Systems is one of fourteen TAs that provide recommendations for the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA's space technology activities. Identified within TA-01 was the need for a green propulsion auxiliary power unit (APU) for hydraulic power by 2015. Engineers led by the author at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been evaluating green propellant alternatives and have begun the development of an APU test bed to demonstrate the feasibility of use. NASA has residual APU assets remaining from the retired Space Shuttle Program. Likewise, the F-16 Falcon fighter jet also uses an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) that has similar characteristics to the NASA hardware. Both EPU and APU components have been acquired for testing at MSFC. This paper will summarize the status of the testing efforts of green propellant from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) propellant AFM315E based on hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) with these test assets.

  13. 75 FR 34347 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) for Honeywell International Inc. auxiliary power unit (APU) models GTCP36- 150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR... proposed AD applies to Honeywell International Inc. APU models GTCP36-150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR)....

  14. STS-31 Discovery, OV-103, auxiliary power unit 1 (APU-1) controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The controller for Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, auxiliary power unit 1 (APU-1) is documented before removal following the launch scrub on 04-10-90. The controller weighs about 15 pounds and controls the speed of the APU. It was flown to the vendor, Sundstrand Corp., Rockford, Illinois, for analysis and testing. Launch of OV-103 on mission STS-31 has been rescheduled for 04-24-90 following the successful replacement of the APU-1 and the recharging of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) nickel-hydrogen batteries. View provided by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with alternate KSC number KSC-90PC-663.

  15. Survey of technology for hybrid vehicle auxiliary power units. Interim report, April 1994-June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    The state-of-the-art of heat engines for use as auxiliary power units in hybrid vehicles is surveyed. The study considers reciprocating or rotary heat engines, excluding gas turbines and fuel cells. The relative merits of various engine-generator concepts are compared. The concepts are ranked according to criteria tailored for a series-type hybrid drive. The two top APU concepts were the free-piston engine/linear generator (FPELG) and the Wankel rotary` engine. The FPELG is highly ranked primarily because of thermal efficiency cost, producibility. reliability, and transient response advantages; it is a high risk concept because of unproven technology. The Wankel engine is proven. with high power density, low cost and low noise. Four additional competitive concepts include two-stroke spark-ignition engine. two-stroke gas generator with turboalternator, free-piston engine gas generator with turboalternator, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine. This study recommends additional work, including cycle simulation development and preliminary design to better quantify thermal efficiency and power density. Auxiliary concepts were also considered, including two which warrant further study: electrically actuated valves, and lean turndown of a normally stoichiometric engine. These concepts should be evaluated by retrofitting to existing engines.

  16. Auxiliary power unit based on a solid oxide fuel cell and fuelled with diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeremy; Boltze, Matthias

    An auxiliary power unit (APU) is presented that is fuelled with diesel, thermally self-sustaining, and based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The APU is rated at 1 kW electrical, and can generate electrical power after a 3 h warm-up phase. System features include a "dry" catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer, a 30 cell SOFC stack with an open cathode, and a porous-media afterburner. The APU does not require a supply of external water. The SOFC stack is an outcome of a development partnership with H.C. Starck GmbH and Fraunhofer IKTS, and is discussed in detail in an accompanying paper.

  17. Ground test challenges in the development of the Space Shuttle orbiter auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, N. H.; Lance, R. J.; Weary, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional aircraft hydraulic system design approach was selected to provide fluid power for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Developing the power unit, known as the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), to drive the hydraulic pumps presented a major technological challenge. A small, high speed turbine drive unit powered by catalytically decomposed hydrazine and operating in the pulse mode was selected to meet the requirement. Because of limitations of vendor test facilities, significant portions of the development, flight qualification, and postflight anomaly testing of the Orbiter APU were accomplished at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) test facilities. This paper discusses the unique requirements of attitude, gravity forces, pressure profiles, and thermal environments which had to be satisfied by the APU, and presents the unique test facility and simulation techniques employed to meet the ground test requirements. In particular, the development of the zero-g lubrication system, the development of necessary APU thermal control techniques, the accomplishment of integrated systems tests, and the postflight investigation of the APU lube oil cooler behavior are discussed.

  18. The modeling of a standalone solid-oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, N.; Li, Q.; Sun, X.; Khaleel, M. A.

    In this research, a Simulink model of a standalone vehicular solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) is developed. The SOFC APU model consists of three major components: a controller model; a power electronics system model; and an SOFC plant model, including an SOFC stack module, two heat exchanger modules, and a combustor module. This paper discusses the development of the nonlinear dynamic models for the SOFC stacks, the heat exchangers and the combustors. When coupling with a controller model and a power electronic circuit model, the developed SOFC plant model is able to model the thermal dynamics and the electrochemical dynamics inside the SOFC APU components, as well as the transient responses to the electric loading changes. It has been shown that having such a model for the SOFC APU will help design engineers to adjust design parameters to optimize the performance. The modeling results of the SOFC APU heat-up stage and the output voltage response to a sudden load change are presented in this paper. The fuel flow regulation based on fuel utilization is also briefly discussed.

  19. Auxiliary power unit noise of Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jimmy S. W.; Yang, S. J. Eric

    Most modern civil aircraft have an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) which provides compressed air for engine starting and the air-conditioning system on ground and electrical power for aircraft use both on-ground and in-fligth. It is basically a gas turbine engine and it consists of a compressor section, a turbine section, and an accessory drive section. For Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft, the APU is located inside a compartment in the tail section of the aircraft and is completely enclosed by a sound-reduction fire-proof titanium shroud. APU noise is one of the major noise sources at many airports and is extremely important for a densely populated city such as Hong Kong. The noise from APU can affect many people, including ground crew aircraft maintenance staff, and people living in the vicinity of the airport. However, there is very little information available in the literature about APU noise. This paper describes the noise measurement method and presents the measurement results for APUs of one B747 and two B737 aircraft under both 'loaded' and 'no-load' conditions.

  20. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  2. Analysing the Possible Ways for Short-Term Forcing Gas Turbine Engines in Auxiliary Power Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Trotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a gas turbine energy unit as an example, the article discusses possible ways for forcing the short-term gas turbine engines (GTE. The introduction explains the need for forcing the air transport and marine GTE in specific driving conditions and offers the main methods. Then it analyzes the three main short-term forcing methods according to GTE power, namely: precompressor water injection, a short-term rise in temperature after the combustion chamber, and feeding an additional compressed air into combustion chamber from the reserve cylinders.The analysis of the water injection method to force a GTE presents the main provisions and calculation results of the cycle, as a function of engine power on the amount of water injected into compressor inlet. It is shown that with water injection into compressor inlet in an amount of 1% of the total airflow there is a 17% power increase in the compressor. It also lists the main implementation problems of this method and makes a comparison with the results of other studies on the water injection into compressor.Next, the article concerns the GTE short-term forcing method through the pre-turbine short-term increase in the gas temperature. The article presents the calculation results of the cycle as a function of the power and the fuel-flow rate on the gas temperature at the turbine inlet. It is shown that with increasing temperature by 80 degrees the engine power increases by 11.2% and requires 11% more fuel. In the analysis of this method arises an issue of thermal barrier coating on the blade surface. The article discusses the most common types of coatings and their main shortcomings. It lists the main challenges and some ways of their solving when using this method to implement the short-term forcing.The last method under consideration is GTE short-term forcing by feeding the compressed air into the combustion chamber from the additional reserve cylinders. It should be noted that this method is

  3. Conceptual design and selection of a biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchia, S.; Tillemans, F. W. A.; van den Oosterkamp, P. F.; Saracco, G.

    Within the European project BIOFEAT (biodiesel fuel processor for a fuel cell auxiliary power unit for a vehicle), a complete modular 10 kW e biodiesel fuel processor capable of feeding a PEMFC will be developed, built and tested to generate electricity for a vehicle auxiliary power unit (APU). Tail pipe emissions reduction, increased use of renewable fuels, increase of hydrogen-fuel economy and efficient supply of present and future APU for road vehicles are the main project goals. Biodiesel is the chosen feedstock because it is a completely natural and thus renewable fuel. Three fuel processing options were taken into account at a conceptual design level and compared for hydrogen production: (i) autothermal reformer (ATR) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors; (ii) autothermal reformer (ATR) with a single medium temperature shift (MTS) reactor; (iii) thermal cracker (TC) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors. Based on a number of simulations (with the AspenPlus® software), the best operating conditions were determined (steam-to-carbon and O 2/C ratios, operating temperatures and pressures) for each process alternative. The selection of the preferential fuel processing option was consequently carried out, based on a number of criteria (efficiency, complexity, compactness, safety, controllability, emissions, etc.); the ATR with both HTS and LTS reactors shows the most promising results, with a net electrical efficiency of 29% (LHV).

  4. Engineering aspects and hardware verification of a volume producable solid oxide fuel cell stack design for diesel auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Michael; Reinert, Andreas; Mai, Björn Erik; Kuznecov, Mihail

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack module is presented that is designed for operation on diesel reformate in an auxiliary power unit (APU). The stack was designed using a top-down approach, based on a specification of an APU system that is installed on board of vehicles. The stack design is planar, modular and scalable with stamped sheet metal interconnectors. It features thin membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), such as electrolyte supported cells (ESC) and operates at elevated temperatures around 800 °C. The stack has a low pressure drop in both the anode and the cathode to facilitate a simple system layout. An overview of the technical targets met so far is given. A stack power density of 0.2 kW l -1 has been demonstrated in a fully integrated, thermally self-sustaining APU prototype running with diesel and without an external water supply.

  5. A review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (HT-PEMFC)-based auxiliary power units for diesel-powered road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Lehnert, Werner; Janßen, Holger; Samsun, Remzi Can; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive review of research on the development of auxiliary power units with enhanced reformate tolerance for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). Developments in diesel reforming for fuel cells as auxiliary power units (APUs), single fuel cells and stacks and systems are outlined in detail and key findings are presented. Summaries of HT-PEMFC APU applications and start-up times for HT-PEMFC systems are then given. A summary of cooling HT-PEMFC stacks using a classic schematic diagram of a 24-cell HT-PEMFC stack, with a cooling plate for every third cell, is also presented as part of a stack analysis. Finally, a summary of CO tolerances for fuel cells is given, along with the effects of different CO volume fractions on polarization curves, the fraction of CO coverage, hydrogen coverage, anode overpotential and cell potential.

  6. Logistics and Capability Implications of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle with a Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-13

    Husted, John MacBain Delphi Corporation Heather McKee US Army TACOM Copyright © 2003 SAE International ABSTRACT Modern military ground vehicles are...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Delphi Corporation,5725 Delphi Drive,Troy,Mi,48098 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION... injector hardware change. A single, 28V, 400A permanent-magnet direct current (DC) generator is driven by a power take off (PTO) directly connected to

  7. Study on Use of Fuel-Cell Auxiliary Power Units in Refrigerator Cars Employed for Delivery to Convenience Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Noboru; Kamiyama, Hideyuki; Kogoshi, Sumio; Kudo, Yusuke; Fukada, Takafumi; Ogawa, Makoto

    The use of fuel-cell auxiliary power units (FC-APU) in refrigerator cars employed delivery to for convenience store delivery has been studied. The delivery pattern is assumed to be a typical pattern that includes driving between convenience stores or between a delivery center and a convenience store, unloading, driver's lunch break. The M15 driving mode, which simulates the driving condition in urban areas, is used as the driving mode in the delivery pattern. The FC-APU system includes a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) module, an inverter, and DC/DC converter. Bench tests of the FC-APU are performed to determine the hydrogen fuel consumption rate and the energy efficiency; these values depend on the output power of the PEFC module. The calculated relationship between the output power and fuel consumption rate of a current used system, which consists of an alternator and a secondary battery, are used to estimate the energy efficiency of the current used system. On the basis of the measurement data in this study and the results for the model proposed by Brodric et al. [C. J. Brodrick et al., Trans. Res. D, vol 7, pp. 303 (2002)], the payback period is calculated. The results indicate that the payback period would be 2.1 years when the FC-APU operates at a load of 70%.

  8. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary power units (APUs are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP firstly. The four competing objectives of this CMOP are fuel-electricity conversion cost, hydrocarbon (HC emissions, carbon monoxide (CO emissions and nitric oxide (NO x emissions. Then, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and weighted metric decision making method are employed to solve the APU operating point multi-objective optimization model. Finally, bench experiments under New European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal test procedure (FTP and high way fuel economy test (HWFET driving cycles show that, compared with the results of the traditional fuel consumption single-objective optimization approach, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach shows significant improvements in emissions performance, at the expense of a slight drop in fuel efficiency.

  9. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  10. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Sperling, Dan; Gouse, Bill; Harris, D. Bruce; King, Foy G

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engin...

  11. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Lipman, Timothy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas; Dwyer, Harry; Sperling, Daniel; Gouse, S. William; King, Foy

    2002-01-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engines....

  12. Investigation of the Start-up Strategy for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Auxiliary Power Unit under Transient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. von Spakovsky

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A typical approach to the synthesis/design optimization of energy systems is to only use steady state operation and high efficiency (or low total life cycle cost at full load as the basis for the synthesis/design. Transient operation as reflected by changes in power demand, shut-down, and start-up are left as secondary tasks to be solved by system and control engineers once the synthesis/design is fixed. However, start-up and shut-down may be events that happen quite often and, thus, may be quite important in the creative process of developing the system. This is especially true for small power units used in transportation applications or for domestic energy supplies, where the load demand changes frequently and peaks in load of short duration are common. The duration of start-up is, of course, a major factor which must be considered since rapid system response is an important factor in determining the feasibility of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC based auxiliary power units (APUs. Start-up and shut-down may also significantly affect the life span of the system due to thermal stresses on all system components. Therefore, a proper balance must be struck between a fast response and the costs of owning and operating the system so that start-up or any other transient process can be accomplished in as short a time as possible yet with a minimum in fuel consumption.

    In this research work we have been studying the effects of control laws and strategies and transients on system performance. The results presented in this paper are based on a set of transient models developed and implemented for the components of a 5 kWe net power SOFC based APU and for the high-fidelity system which results from their integration. The simulation results given below are for two different start-up approaches: one with steam recirculation and component pre-heating and the second without either. These start-up simulations were performed for fixed values of a number of

  13. Solar powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a solar array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the solar powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor controller for controlling voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the solar cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.

  14. Auxiliary engine digital interface unit (DIU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This auxiliary propulsion engine digital unit controls both the valving of the fuel and oxidizer to the engine combustion chamber and the ignition spark required for timely and efficient engine burns. In addition to this basic function, the unit is designed to manage it's own redundancy such that it is still operational after two hard circuit failures. It communicates to the data bus system several selected information points relating to the operational status of the electronics as well as the engine fuel and burning processes.

  15. SSH2S: Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides for an auxiliary power unit based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricco, Marcello; Bang, Mads; Fichtner, Maximilian; Hauback, Bjorn; Linder, Marc; Luetto, Carlo; Moretto, Pietro; Sgroi, Mauro

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of the SSH2S (Fuel Cell Coupled Solid State Hydrogen Storage Tank) project was to develop a solid state hydrogen storage tank based on complex hydrides and to fully integrate it with a High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack. A mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was used as the main storage material for the tank, due to its high gravimetric storage capacity and relatively low hydrogen desorption temperature. The mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was coupled with a standard intermetallic compound to take advantage of its capability to release hydrogen at ambient temperature and to ensure a fast start-up of the system. The hydrogen storage tank was designed to feed a 1 kW HT-PEM stack for 2 h to be used for an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). A full thermal integration was possible thanks to the high operation temperature of the fuel cell and to the relative low temperature (170 °C) for hydrogen release from the mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system.

  16. The Subsection Control Strategy Used for the Auxiliary Power Unit Electrical Start%应用于APU电起动的分段式控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海宵

    2013-01-01

    The auxiliary power unit ( APU) is an important system of the civil aircraft for the aircraft safety and comfort. Large current output for long time will cause disadvantage effect on battery usage life. Also the too long start time will damage APU. So when start the APU by using the battery as the input power, for the purpose of re-ducing the damage to battery and APU, it is needed to start the APU in a shorter time by a lower battery output cur-rent. The subsection of power-current control strategy can start the APU in shorter time with the lowest damage to the battery and APU. This is important for extending the use life of APU and battery.%民用飞机辅助动力装置( APU)是保证飞机安全和舒适性的重要系统。大电流长时放电对蓄电池的使用寿命有不利影响,同时起动时间过长对APU也有不利影响。在使用蓄电池作为起动APU的功率来源时,为了减小对蓄电池和APU的损害,需要使用较小的蓄电池输出电流在较短的时间内将APU起动。采用功率-电流分段式控制的起动方式可以在较短的时间内,以对蓄电池和APU损伤最小的方式实现APU的起动。对延长蓄电池和APU使用寿命具有重要意义。

  17. A micro-structured 5kW complete fuel processor for iso-octane as hydrogen supply system for mobile auxiliary power units Part I. Development of autothermal reforming catalyst and reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Gunther; Baier, Tobias; Schürer, Jochen; Tiemann, David; Ziogas, Athanassios; Ehwald, Hermann; Alphonse, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A micro-structured autothermal reformer was developed for a fuel processing/fuel cell system running on iso-octane and designed for an electrical power output of 5kWel. The target application was an automotive auxiliary power unit (APU). The work covered both catalyst and reactor development. In fixed bed screening, nickel and rhodium were identified as the best candidates for autothermal reforming of gasoline. Under higher feed flow rates applied in microchannel testing, a catalyst formul...

  18. 辅助动力装置建模及数值仿真%Model and numerical simulation of auxiliary power unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常博博; 苏三买; 刘铁庚; 刘美凤

    2011-01-01

    In order to supporting auxiliary power unit(APU) design,the widely used APU with load compressor in structure was discussed and modeled.Firstly,the structural characteristics and regulation law are introduced and then how the load compressor works on APU was analyzed.Finally the mathematic model of APU was established based on components.Take a kind of APU as the object for numerical simulation and then compare with the actual test data.The results show that the dynamic simulation error is less than 5%.The mathematic model of APU is suitable for engineering usage.%为辅助APU(auxiliary power unit)的研发,以目前广泛应用的带负载压气机结构APU为研究对象,进行建模分析与研究.首先介绍了APU结构特点与调节规律,然后分析了负载压气机对APU共同工作的影响,最后采用部件法建立了该类型APU数学模型并设计仿真软件.以某型APU为对象,数值仿真与实际试车数据比较,结果表明所采用的建模方法是正确的,计算误差小于5%,所建立的模型能够满足工程需求.

  19. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    totally decouple the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin source connection does, because they are still in the loop of power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary source connection are investigated and analyzed: common source stray inductance reduction, transient drain-source current......Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...... imbalance mitigation and influence on the steady state bond wire current distribution. Simulation and experimental results validate the working mechanism analysis and the effects of the auxiliary source connections....

  20. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple......-source current imbalance mitigation, and 3) the influence on the steady-state current distribution. Lastly, simulations and experimental results validate the theoretical analysis....

  1. Power consumption of the ASCV and auxiliary equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1998-01-01

    Operating an ASCV requires power - to cover the losses in the ASCV itself and to run auxiliary equipment. It is necessary to take this power consumption into account when considering the economical aspects of installing an ASCV.Field measurements of this consumption of the ASCV in Rejsby Hede...

  2. Power spectrum with auxiliary fields in de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohsenzadeh, M. [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Qom Branch, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tanhayi, M.R. [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yusofi, E. [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Science and Research Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Amol, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We use the auxiliary fields and (excited-) de Sitter solutions to study the standard power spectrum of primordial fluctuations of a scalar field in the early universe. The auxiliary fields are the negative norm solutions of the field equation and as is shown, with a fixed boundary condition, utilizing these states results in a finite power spectrum without any infinity. The power spectrum is determined by the de Sitter solutions up to some corrections and the space-time symmetry is not broken in this point of view. The modulation to the power spectrum is of order ((H)/(Λ)){sup 2}, where H is the Hubble parameter and Λ is the energy scale, e.g., the Planck scale. (orig.)

  3. Development and design of experiments optimization of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell auxiliary power unit with onboard fuel processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstedt, Jörg; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen; Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan

    In this work, the concept development, system layout, component simulation and the overall DOE system optimization of a HT-PEM fuel cell APU with a net electric power output of 4.5 kW and an onboard methane fuel processor are presented. A highly integrated system layout has been developed that enables fast startup within 7.5 min, a closed system water balance and high fuel processor efficiencies of up to 85% due to the recuperation of the anode offgas burner heat. The integration of the system battery into the load management enhances the transient electric performance and the maximum electric power output of the APU system. Simulation models of the carbon monoxide influence on HT-PEM cell voltage, the concentration and temperature profiles within the autothermal reformer (ATR) and the CO conversion rates within the watergas shift stages (WGSs) have been developed. They enable the optimization of the CO concentration in the anode gas of the fuel cell in order to achieve maximum system efficiencies and an optimized dimensioning of the ATR and WGS reactors. Furthermore a DOE optimization of the global system parameters cathode stoichiometry, anode stoichiometry, air/fuel ratio and steam/carbon ratio of the fuel processing system has been performed in order to achieve maximum system efficiencies for all system operating points under given boundary conditions.

  4. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.; Costamagna, P. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' (DICheP), University of Genoa, Via all' Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genova (Italy); Traverso, A.; Santin, M. [Department of Machines, Energetic Systems and Transport (DIMSET), University of Genoa, Via all' Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genova (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs. (author)

  5. Compact Reliable Robust (CORE) Power System for Auxiliary Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-17

    SOFC stacks. The paper covers the power system development with the emphasis on the 300-hour demonstration of the 10 kWe reformer operating on JP-8...cell stack and its robustness while dramatically improving its tolerance to fuel impurities – closer to levels for SOFC stacks. This tolerance has...photograph of a SOFC reformer that was delivered to Army Research Laboratory (ARL). Presented in Figure 1b is a photograph of the 2 kWe reformer for HTPEM

  6. Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Study Volume 1: RASER Task Order 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Audie; Meier, John

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) and the impact in a 90-passenger More-Electric Regional Jet application. The study established realistic hybrid SOFC APU system weight and system efficiencies, and evaluated the impact on the aircraft total weight, fuel burn, and emissions from the main engine and the APU during cruise, landing and take-off (LTO) cycle, and at the gate. Although the SOFC APU may be heavier than the current conventional APU, its weight disadvantage can be offset by fuel savings in the higher SOFC APU system efficiencies against the main engine bleed and extraction during cruise. The higher SOFC APU system efficiency compared to the conventional APU on the ground can also provide considerable fuel saving and emissions reduction, particularly at the gate, but is limited by the fuel cell stack thermal fatigue characteristic.

  7. 福清核电1、2号机组增大应急给水箱容积安全分析%Safety Analysis on the Volume Increase of Auxiliary Water Tank for Number One and Two Units of Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟立丽; 邵舸; 顾健; 薛峻峰; 彭建平; 王志强

    2013-01-01

    When main feed water system or start-up feed water system is unavailable, auxiliary feed water system, as Engineered Safety Facility (ESF), provides water for Steam Generators (SG) to remove the stored and decay heat from the reactor core. In order to improve the safety of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and increase operational flexibility, the water inventory of the auxiliary feed water tank is increased in the number one and two units of Fuqing NPP. The model of the NPP is built based on mechanical safety analytical code, and conservative assumptions are used in the calculation. Three typical accident sequences, such as loss of main feed water, loss of offsite power in category Ⅱ accident, and main feed water line break in category IV, are selected to analyze whether or not the inventory in auxiliary water tank after improvement satisfies the relevant requirements in RCC-R The results show that auxiliary water inventory of 713m3 is needed for loss of main feed water accident, auxiliary water inventory of 723m3 is needed for loss of offsite power accident, and auxiliary water inventory of 799m3 is needed for main feed water line break accident. The inventory in auxiliary water tank after improvement satisfies the requirements for category Ⅱ and Ⅳ accidents. The safety of NPP is improved due to the inventory redundancy and a time window is also provided for the operators to perform related accident procedures.%辅助给水系统(ASG)作为专设安全设施在主给水或启动给水不可用时向蒸汽发生器供水,以导出堆芯余热.为了提高电厂安全性,增加运行灵活性,福清核电1、2号机组对应急给水箱的有效容积进行了增加.本文采用机理性安全分析程序,建立核电厂分析模型,在计算过程中采用保守假设条件,选取Ⅱ类工况下正常给水丧失事故,厂外电丧失事故,Ⅳ类工况下主给水管道破裂事故3条典型事故序列,分析改进后的应急给水箱容量是否满足压水

  8. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  9. Study and Application of Universal Model for Quantitative Exergy Analysis of Auxiliary Steam and Water for the Coal-fired Power Unit%火电厂辅助汽水系统定量(火用)分析计算通用模型的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴智泉; 安连锁; 韩中合

    2011-01-01

    根据(火用)平衡方程,利用(火用)效率的概念对火电厂各回热加热器进行了分析,通过论证推导,提出了火电机组辅助汽水系统定量(火用)分析计算的通用模型.运用此模型定量计算某电厂328.5MW机组高压缸轴封漏汽利用对汽轮机装置系统(火用)效率的影响;为辅助系统局部定量分析提供了便利方法.%Based on exergy balanced equation, with the concept of exergy efficiency the exergy analysis of heaters is worked.Based on strict deduction and demonstration, the general quantitative exergy calculation model of auxiliary steam and water for the coal-fired power unit is given. With this model,take the utilization of shaft-packing leakage in HP cylinder of a 328.5MW unit to define its effect on steam turbine thermal system. What is more,it provides new theoretic base for coal-fired power unit's thermal exergy analysis especially for partial qualitative exergy analysis.

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  12. IEC 61850. Integrated supervision of auxiliary power equipment; IEC 61850. Prozess und Eigenbedarf wachsen zusammen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Robert; Jung, Matthias [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    It is state of technology today: Having process control and auxiliary power control integrated in one DCS. The integration is based on the international standard IEC 61850 which allows standardization of electrical structures from the process interface up to the DCS level. Modern control systems are designed to realize a system structure according to IEC 61850. A wide range of systems is available from systems with interfaces to realize a standardized data exchange up to systems with a complete integration of the standard IEC 61850. (orig.)

  13. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Damage by Loss of Auxiliary Feed Water during the Extended Loss of All AC Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Woo Jae; Chung, Soon Il; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Duk Joo; Lee, Seung Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the reactor core damage time for OPR1000 type Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was analyzed to develop a strategy to handle ELAP and to apply to the EOP. The reactor core damage time in the ELAP condition was calculated according to the time of Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) loss. Fukushima accident was caused by long hours of Station Black Out (SBO) caused by natural disaster beyond Design Based Accident (DBA) criteria. It led to the reactor core damage. After the accident, the regulatory authorities of each country (Japan, US, EU, IAEA, and etc.) recommended developing the necessary systems and strategies in order to cover up the Extended Loss of All AC Power (ELAP) such as one occurred in the Fukushima accident. And the need of procedure or guideline to cope with ELAP has been raised through the stress test for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant unit 1. Current Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) used in domestic nuclear power plant are seemed to be insufficient to cope with ELAP. Therefore, it has been required to be improved. As the result, the time of AFW loss in the ELAP condition influences greatly on core damage time.

  15. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  16. Control of an afterburner in a diesel fuel cell power unit under variable load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Pregelj, Boštjan; Petrovčič, Janko; Samsun, Remzi Can

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control system for a catalytic afterburner in a diesel fuel cell auxiliary power unit is presented. The catalytic afterburner is used to burn the non-utilised hydrogen and other possible combustible components of the fuel cell anode off-gas. To increase the energy efficiency of the auxiliary power unit, the thermal energy released in the catalytic afterburner is utilised to generate the steam for the fuel processor. For optimal operation of the power unit in all modes of operation including load change, stable steam generation is required and overall energy balance must be kept within design range. To achieve this, the reaction temperature of the catalytic afterburner must be stable in all modes of operation. Therefore, we propose the afterburner temperature control based on mass and thermal balances. Finally, we demonstrate the control system using the existing prototype of the diesel fuel cell auxiliary power unit.

  17. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  18. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunwei; Tian, Xiubo

    2016-08-01

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.

  19. A general purpose diagnostic technique for marine diesel engines - Application on the main propulsion and auxiliary diesel units of a marine vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamaris, V.T., E-mail: lamaris@central.ntua.g [Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou St., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Hountalas, D.T. [Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou St., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2010-04-15

    Diesel engines are widely used in marine applications (i.e. propulsion and auxiliaries) except from a few cases where gas or steam turbines are used. This is the result of their high efficiency, power concentration and reliability compared to other compatible or alternative power sources. The proper and efficient operation of the engines (main engine and diesel generator units) in marine applications is critical, and therefore techniques or systems that determine engine current condition and detect potential faults are extremely important. Furthermore, it is advantageous when such techniques can be applied on different engine configurations and provide reliable results, because on a vessel usually exist diesel engines of different type, i.e. the main propulsion unit is a large low-speed two-stroke diesel engine while the diesel generators are four-stroke medium or high speed engines. In the present work is described and evaluated for the first time the application of an improved diagnostic technique, developed by the authors, on both the main engine and the auxiliary units of a commercial marine vessel. The diagnostic technique is based on a thermodynamic simulation model. The simulation model embedded in the technique has been modified, namely an existing two-zone model is replaced by a multi-zone one. With this modification it is avoided model constant tuning with the operating conditions. This is extremely important for the diagnostic philosophy of the proposed technique. Using data from engine shop tests, the simulation model is calibrated (i.e. model constants are determined) and the engine reference condition is obtained. The simulation model is then used to estimate the current engine condition, using field measurements (i.e. cylinder pressure measurements, periphery data, etc.). From the results it is revealed that the diagnosis method provides detailed information for the operating condition of both engines and the values of parameters that cannot be

  20. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  1. Study of Electrical and Thermal Behaviour of Li-ion Polymer Cells for Auxiliary Power Supply in Underwater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium  ion  polymer (Li-Po battery technology is the latest technology for portable use and the most promising technology for exercise torpedoes. These batteries are technologically evolved from Lithium ion batteries. In this paper, extensive experimental studies on Li-Po cells which include studies on electrical characteristics during charge-discharge cycles, discharge at different C rates, self discharge throughout  charge stand, temperature profiles at the cathode and anode during the discharges, etc. are reported and discussed. The extensive electrical characterisation done on these cells indicates the capability of these cells for use as auxiliary power supply in underwater weapon applications.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(2, pp.127-131, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.995

  2. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Lloyd, R.C.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Garner, L.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. H. B. Robinson was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the H. B. Robinson plant.

  3. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the South Texas Project nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. South Texas Project was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the South Texas Project plant.

  4. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R C; Moffitt, N E; Gore, B F; Vo, T V; Vehec, T A [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant.

  5. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the McGuire nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. McGuire was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the McGuire plant.

  6. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vehec, T.A.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Fort Calhoun was selected as the sixth plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Fort Calhoun plant.

  7. A Parallel Auxiliary Grid AMG Method for GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; Hu, Xiaozhe; Cohen, Jonathan; Xu, Jinchao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new parallel auxiliary grid algebraic multigrid (AMG) method to leverage the power of graphic processing units (GPUs). In the construction of the hierarchical coarse grid, we use a simple and fixed coarsening procedure based on a region quadtree generated from an auxiliary grid. This allows us to explicitly control the sparsity patterns and operator complexities of the AMG solver. This feature provides (nearly) optimal load balancing and predictable communication p...

  8. Novel murine dendritic cell lines: a powerful auxiliary tool for dendritic cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A Fuertes Marraco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in vitro facilitates discovery, screening and pilot experiments, often preceding research in vivo. Several technical difficulties render Dendritic Cell (DC research particularly challenging, including the low frequency of DC in vivo, thorough isolation requirements, and the vulnerability of DC ex vivo. Critically, there is not as yet a widely accepted human or murine DC line and in vitro systems of DC research are limited. In this study, we report the generation of new murine DC lines, named MutuDC, originating from cultures of splenic CD8α conventional DC (cDC tumors. By direct comparison to normal WT splenic cDC subsets, we describe the phenotypic and functional features of the MutuDC lines and show that they have retained all the major features of their natural counterpart in vivo, the splenic CD8α cDC. These features include expression of surface markers Clec9A, DEC205, and CD24, positive response to TLR3 and TLR9 but not TLR7 stimuli, secretion of cytokines and chemokines upon activation, as well as cross-presentation capacity. In addition to the close resemblance to normal splenic CD8α cDC, a major advantage is the ease of derivation and maintenance of the MutuDC lines, using standard culture medium and conditions, importantly without adding supplementary growth factors or maturation-inducing stimuli to the medium. Furthermore, genetically modified MutuDC lines have been successfully obtained either by lentiviral transduction or by culture of DC tumors originating from genetically modified mice.In view of the current lack of stable and functional DC lines, these novel murine DC lines have the potential to serve as an important auxiliary tool for DC research.

  9. Portable Power And Digital-Communication Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Richard R.; Henry, Paul K.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual network of electronic-equipment modules provides electrical power and digital radio communications at multiple sites not served by cables. System includes central communication unit and portable units powered by solar photovoltaic arrays. Useful to serve equipment that must be set up quickly at remote sites or buildings that cannot be modified to provide cable connections.

  10. CRITICAL UNIT STREAM POWER FOR SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Yang's (1996) sediment transport theory based on unit stream power is one of the most accurate theories, but in his equations the use of product of slope and critical velocity instead for critical unit stream power is not suitable. Dimensionless critical unit stream power required at incipient motion can be derived from the principle of conservation of power as a function of dimensionless particle diameter and relative roughness. Based on a lot of data sets, this new criterion was developed. By use of this new criteria, Yang's (1973) sand transport formula and his 1984 gravel transport formula could be improved when sediment concentration is less than about 100 ppm by weight.

  11. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  12. French wind generator systems. [as auxiliary power sources for electrical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental design of a wind driven generator with a rated power of 800 kilovolt amperes and capable of being connected to the main electrical network is reported. The rotor is a three bladed propeller; each blade is twisted but the fixed pitch is adjustable. The asynchronous 800-kilovolt ampere generator is driven by the propeller through a gearbox. A dissipating resistor regulates the machine under no-load conditions. The first propeller on the machine lasted 18 months; replacement of the rigid propeller with a flexible structure resulted in breakdown due to flutter effects.

  13. Modeling Small Scale Solar Powered ORC Unit for Standalone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bocci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When the electricity from the grid is not available, the generation of electricity in remote areas is an essential challenge to satisfy important needs. In many developing countries the power generation from Diesel engines is the applied technical solution. However the cost and supply of fuel make a strong dependency of the communities on the external support. Alternatives to fuel combustion can be found in photovoltaic generators, and, with suitable conditions, small wind turbines or microhydroplants. The aim of the paper is to simulate the power generation of a generating unit using the Rankine Cycle and using refrigerant R245fa as a working fluid. The generation unit has thermal solar panels as heat source and photovoltaic modules for the needs of the auxiliary items (pumps, electronics, etc.. The paper illustrates the modeling of the system using TRNSYS platform, highlighting standard and “ad hoc” developed components as well as the global system efficiency. In the future the results of the simulation will be compared with the data collected from the 3 kW prototype under construction in the Tuscia University in Italy.

  14. Model Specification for Rework of Aircraft Engine, Power Transmission, and Accessory/Auxiliary Ball and Roller Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Branzai, Emanuel V.

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a model specification for the rework and/or repair of bearings used in aircraft engines, helicopter main power train transmissions, and auxiliary bearings determined to be critical by virtue of performance, function, or availability. The rolling-element bearings to be processed under the provisions of this model specification may be used bearings removed after service, unused bearings returned from the field, or certain rejected bearings returned for reinspection and salvage. In commercial and military aircraft application, it has been a practice that rolling-element bearings removed at maintenance or overhaul be reworked and returned to service. Depending on the extent of rework and based upon theoretical analysis, representative life factors (LF) for bearings subject to rework ranged from 0.87 to 0.99 the lives of new bearings. Based on bearing endurance data, 92 percent of the bearing sets that would be subject to rework would result in L(sub 10) lives equaling and/or exceeding that predicted for new bearings. The remaining 8 percent of the bearings have the potential to achieve the analytically predicted life of new bearings when one of the rings is replaced at rework. The potential savings from bearing rework varies from 53 to 82 percent of that of new bearings depending on the cost, size, and complexity of the bearing

  15. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  16. On Improving Ratio/Product Estimator by Ratio/Product-cum-Mean-per-Unit Estimator Targeting More Efficient Use of Auxiliary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve a more efficient use of auxiliary information we propose single-parameter ratio/product-cum-mean-per-unit estimators for a finite population mean in a simple random sample without replacement when the magnitude of the correlation coefficient is not very high (less than or equal to 0.7. The first order large sample approximation to the bias and the mean square error of our proposed estimators are obtained. We use simulation to compare our estimators with the well-known sample mean, ratio, and product estimators, as well as the classical linear regression estimator for efficient use of auxiliary information. The results are conforming to our motivating aim behind our proposition.

  17. CRH2型动车组辅助电源系统故障分析%Fault analysis of auxiliary power system in CRH2 bullet train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向超; 王亦军

    2013-01-01

    探讨了300 km速度级CRH2C型动车组辅助电源系统的供电电压、工作原理以及内部构成。针对CRH2C型动车组辅助电源系统的常见故障,分析了故障发生的原因,并提出了有效的应急处理措施。%The supply voltage, working principle and internal structure of auxiliary power supply system in 300 km/h grade CRH2C bullet train are discussed. The common fault causes of auxiliary power supply system in CRH2C bullet train are analyzed. The effective emergent measures for the fault treatment are put forward.

  18. Solar power water distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  19. Connection of auxiliary power supply to the power plant's main instrumentation and control system by way of IEC 61850; Anbindung des elektrischen Kraftwerks-Eigenbedarfs an die Hauptleittechnik mittels IEC 61850

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuches, Joerg [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany). Technical Project Management Project BoA 2 and 3; Wittner, Stephan [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany). Electrical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Based on the positive experience with the integration of control and signalling of the auxiliary power supply switchgear into the I and C system SPPA-T-3000 of Siemens by way of the IEC 61850 protocol in the Neurath power plant F/G project, the concept was further advanced for the power plant new build projects of the Westfalen power plant at Hamm and the Eemshaven power station in the Netherlands. The development aimed to integrate all other components of auxiliary power supply, such as transformers, battery systems as well as rectifiers and inverters, directly into the main I and C system on the basis of the IEC 61850 protocol, apart from the medium-voltage and low-voltage switchgear. (orig.)

  20. Electric power plant technology. Generators, transformers, auxiliary installations, protective systems. Lecture notes. 5. rev. ed.; Elektrische Kraftwerkstechnik. Generatoren, Transformatoren, Eigenbedarfsanlagen, Schutzeinrichtungen. Vorlesungsskript

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ulrich

    2009-07-01

    The lecture series on electric power plant engineering was initiated in 1969 by Prof. Helmut Schaefer, founder of the then department of power economy and power plant engineering. The lecture series was continuously updated in its contents and didactic approach, e.g. by integrating innovative power generation concepts like micro cogeneration plants and fuel cell systems. The focus is on the fundamentals and function of generators, main transformers, auxiliary installations and protective systems in power plant. Apart from the electrotechnical aspects, also aspects of mechanical engineering are gone into. Also discussed are energy conversion concepts fo renewable power generation plants like wind turbines and PV systems. This is the 5th, completely revised edition. It addresses primarily attendants of the lectures but may also serve as a textbook and reference manual for interested experts.

  1. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages......Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...

  2. Determination of technical and economic parameters of an ionic transport membrane air separation unit working in a supercritical power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an air separation unit was analyzed. The unit consisted of: an ionic transport membrane contained in a four-end type module, an air compressor, an expander fed by gas that remains after oxygen separation and heat exchangers which heat the air and recirculated flue gas to the membrane operating temperature (850 °C. The air separation unit works in a power plant with electrical power equal to 600 MW. This power plant additionally consists of: an oxy-type pulverized-fuel boiler, a steam turbine unit and a carbon dioxide capture unit. Life steam parameters are 30 MPa/650 °C and reheated steam parameters are 6 MPa/670 °C. The listed units were analyzed. For constant electrical power of the power plant technical parameters of the air separation unit for two oxygen recovery rate (65% and 95% were determined. One of such parameters is ionic membrane surface area. In this paper the formulated equation is presented. The remaining technical parameters of the air separation unit are, among others: heat exchange surface area, power of the air compressor, power of the expander and auxiliary power. Using the listed quantities, the economic parameters, such as costs of air separation unit and of individual components were determined. These quantities allowed to determine investment costs of construction of the air separation unit. In addition, they were compared with investment costs for the entire oxy-type power plant.

  3. Economic and safety analysis of unconventional peak regulation on power unit of peak shifting start-stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Zhao, J. F.; Duan, X. Q.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tthe capacity difference of peak regulation between the power gird and the actual demand has become a serious problem considering the growth in the difference between electricity supply and demand. Therefore, peak regulation of power grid needs to be deeply studied. Unconventional peak regulation on unit of peak shifting start-stop is a way that can broaden the range of power regulation, as well as benefit safe operation of the power grid. However, it requires frequent and fast unit start-stop, complex operation, and more staff labor. By carrying out unconventional thermal power unit load test, the start-stop mode of peak auxiliary equipment is studied in this paper, indicating that it has a positive effect on safety and economic of load-peaking operation. The best working conditions of the peak units is found by analysing consumption cost, safety specifications, and life lost of the start-stop peak regulation mode.

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  5. Damage of Concrete Parking Aprons From Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) exhaust and Spilled Jet Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    attacking the sulphoaluminates as well. Finally, the Portland cement binder may have to be replaced by a neutral material (pH of 7) such as polymer concrete... sulphoaluminates (8) as well. Finally, the Portland cement binder may have to be replaced by a neutral material (pH of 7) such as polymer concrete or

  6. 77 FR 57001 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... (77 FR 11421). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. Transport... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... period for APU's modified per SB 3910001-49-16250. KLM commented that the risk for these blades is...

  7. 77 FR 11421 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion Transport Canada, which is the aviation... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... design. This proposed AD would require modification of the APU rear gas generator case, exhaust...

  8. 75 FR 33162 - Airworthiness Directives; Microturbo Saphir 20 Model 095 Auxiliary Power Units (APUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...-21-AD; Amendment 39-16332; AD 2010-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Microturbo Saphir..., of the SAPHIR 20 Model 095 APU is a life-limited part. Microturbo had determined through ``fleet...-015-03, of the SAPHIR 20 Model 095 APU is a life-limited part. Microturbo had determined...

  9. 换相隔离开关合闸引发厂用电断路器误动原因分析及处理%Phase Reserval Disconnector Trigger Auxiliary Power Switch Misoperation Cause Analysis and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏宇; 汪卫平

    2016-01-01

    换相隔离开关(PhaseReservalDisconnector)为抽水蓄能发电机组所特有的设备,负责机组发电和抽水两种工况下相序的转换,具有重要作用,为保证在电网失电情况下,机组能够顺利完成黑启动,换相隔离开关采用直流电机作为其动作来源。琅琊山电厂2号机组在换相隔离开关发电合闸过程中,因W1相直流电机励磁回路接触不良,电机气隙磁场发生畸变,动作过程中对厂用电断路器的外部控制信号直流回路产生干扰,导致厂用电10kV断路器发生误动作。%Phase Reserval Disconnector for pumped storage generator set equipment,is responsible for generating units and pumping the sequence of the two kinds of working conditions is transformation,plays an important role,in order to guarantee under the condition of electrical breakdown,the unit would be able to complete the black start,commutation knife using dc motor as the source of action. Reed {langya} mountain power plant unit 2 in the process of commutation knife power switching,because of the poor contact of W1 phase dc motor excitation circuit,motor air-gap magnetic field distortion and movements have great ac induction component in the process of flow to the dc power supply circuit,the external control of the auxiliary power switch signal interferences with dc circuit,auxiliary power 10 kv switch leads to false action.

  10. Analysis and Comparing of Urban Rail Locomotive Auxiliary System AC Power Supply Mode%城轨列车辅助系统交流供电方式的分析与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎纯洁

    2015-01-01

    Through analyzing the urban rail locomotive auxiliary system AC power system supply mode, comparing the ad-vantages and disadvantages of general power supply mode and individual supply mode, prove accordance to urban rail auxil-iary system AC power supply mode selection.%通过对城轨列车辅助系统交流供电方式进行分析,比较集中供电方式和分散供电方式的各自优劣,为城轨列车辅助系统交流供电供电方式选型提供依据。

  11. 21 CFR 890.5950 - Powered heating unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered heating unit. 890.5950 Section 890.5950...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5950 Powered heating unit. (a) Identification. A powered heating unit is a device intended for medical purposes...

  12. Development of a power electronics unit for the Space Station plasma contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-02-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  13. Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  14. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  15. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  16. Power Conversion System Strategies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushik Rajashekara

    2005-01-01

    Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly fuel cell vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, power conversion strategies for propulsion and auxiliary power unit applications are described. The power electronics strategies for the successful development of the fuel cell vehicles are presented. The fuel cell systems for propulsion and for auxiliary power unit applications are also discussed.

  17. Polymer light-emitting diodes based on cationic iridium(III) complexes with a 1,10-phenanthroline derivative containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit as the auxiliary ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaijun; Wei, Liying; Meng, Guoyun; Li, Yanhu; Wang, Guanze; Yang, Furui; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Wei; Cao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    A 1,10-phenanthroline derivative (co-phen) containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit was synthesized and used as the auxiliary ligand in cationic iridium(III) complexes [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (ppy: 2-phenylpyridine) and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (npy: 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)pyridine). Two complexes have high thermal stability with the glass-transition temperatures (Tg) of 207 °C and 241 °C, and the same 5% weight-reduction temperatures (ΔT5%) of 402 °C. Both of them were used as phosphorescent dopants in solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs): ITO/PEDOT: PSS/PVK: PBD: complex (mass ratios 100: 40: x, x = 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0)/CsF/Al. The maximum luminances of the PLEDs using [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 were 12567 cd m-2 and 11032 cd m-2, the maximum luminance efficiencies were 17.3 cd A-1 and 20.4 cd A-1, the maximum power efficiencies were 9.8 lm W-1 and 10.3 lm W-1, and the maximum external quantum efficiencies were 9.3% and 11.4% respectively. The CIE color coordinates were around (0.37, 0.57) and (0.44, 0.54) respectively, corresponding to the yellow green region.

  18. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but...

  19. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms...

  20. Design of auxiliary power amplifier based on predistortion technology%基于预失真技术的功率放大器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦建华; 陈浩

    2012-01-01

    文章基于预失真技术设计了用于广播调频发射的功率放大器,要求工作频率在88-108MHz,功率增益大于25dB,三阶交调小于-45dBc。功率放大器选择Freecale公司的增强型LDMOS功率场效应管MRF6VP2600H。预失真器采用的是二次混频原理,具有结构简单,易于实现,对功放增益影响小等优点。经过ADS仿真软件仿真,基于预失真技术设计的功率放大器达到系统设计要求。%the paper aims to introduce a kind of auxiliary power amplifier which is design for launching the FM radio.It's base on the predistortion technology and it's work in 88-108MHz, power gain is greater than 25dB, and third-order intermodulation is less than -50dBc.the freecale's enhanced LDMOS power mosfet module MRF6VP2600H was selected as the main amplifier.The predistortion device is used the second frequency mixing principle, the structure is simple and easy to realize. After ADS simulation software simulation, based on the design of the predistonion technology power amplifier achieve system design requirements

  1. On units combination and commitment optimization for electric power production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 何永秀

    2004-01-01

    Electric power system is one of the most important and complex engineering in modern society, supplying main and general power for social production and social life. Meanwhile, since it is a productive system with both high input and output, it has an obvious economic significance to improve its operating efficiency. For an example, an unit is 10 GW year. It will be discussed mainly that how to establish optimization model and its numerical algorithm for operating management of the electric power system. The idea on establishing optimization model is how to dispatch work state of units or power plants, so that total cost of fuel consumption for generation is reduced to the minimum. Here the dispatch is to decide which unit or plant to operate, which unit or plant to stop running, how much power should be generated for those operating units or plants at each given time interval.

  2. Energy efficiency of computer power supply units - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B. [cepe - Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Huser, H. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    2002-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the efficiency of computer power supply units, which decreases rapidly during average computer use. The background and the purpose of the project are examined. The power supplies for personal computers are discussed and the testing arrangement used is described. Efficiency, power-factor and operating points of the units are examined. Potentials for improvement and measures to be taken are discussed. Also, action to be taken by those involved in the design and operation of such power units is proposed. Finally, recommendations for further work are made.

  3. 光伏并网逆变器辅助电源设计%Design of Auxiliary Power Supply for Grid-connected Photovoltaic Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易振华; 孙以泽; 彭乐乐; 陈晓

    2012-01-01

    太阳能是清洁安全可靠的可再生能源,采用光伏并网技术的太阳能发电已成为应用面最广的光伏新能源应用技术.基于电流型PWM控制芯片UCC2801设计了一种光伏并网逆变器用辅助电源,采用4路输出的单端反激式拓扑,由光伏并网逆变器的直流母线供电,并采用电压基准源及光耦实现隔离反馈.试验结果表明,该辅助电源输入电压范围宽、输出纹波小、交叉负载调整率低,还能防止反复启停及在电源启动后自动关断.%Solar energy is a kind of clean,safe,reliable and renewable energy. Solar energy generation with grid-con nected photovoltaic technology has become wide utilization in photovoltaic new energy technology. Based on the current type PWM control chip UCC2801,an auxiliary power supply (APS) of grid-connected photovoltaic inverter is designed. The APS adopts topological structure of four-output single-ended flyback and power is supplied by DC bus of the inverter. Voltage reference point and optical coupling are used to realize the I/O isolation and feedback. The test results show that the APS has advantages of wide scope of input voltage,low DC output voltage ripple and cross-load regulation ratio,which can avoid repeated start-stop and auto-shutdown after power source startup.

  4. Experimental Research and Control Strategy of Pumped Storage Units Dispatching in the Taiwan Power System Considering Transmission Line Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s power system is isolated and not supported by other interconnected systems. Consequently, the system frequency immediately reflects changes in the system loads. Pumped storage units are crucial for controlling power frequency. These units provide main or auxiliary capacities, reducing the allocation of frequency-regulating reserve (FRR and further reducing generation costs in system operations. Taiwan’s Longmen Nuclear Power Plant is set to be converted for commercial operations, which will significantly alter the spinning reserves in the power system. Thus, this study proposes a safe and economic pumped storage unit dispatch strategy. This strategy is used to determine the optimal FRR capacity and 1-min recovery frequency in a generator failure occurrence at the Longmen Power Plant. In addition, this study considered transmission capacity constraints and conducted power flow analysis of the power systems in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The results indicated that, in the event of a failure at Longmen Power Plant, the proposed strategy can not only recover the system frequency to an acceptable range to prevent underfrequency load-shedding, but can also mitigate transmission line overloading.

  5. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  6. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lei; Wei Bin; Ma Li; Cheng Wen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the development of UHV grid will provide a strong material support for the united national power market by expanding market coverage, lowering load fluctuation and promoting diversification of power resources.

  7. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant; Um modelo de manutencao centrada em confiabilidade aplicada ao sistema de agua de alimentacaco auxiliar de uma usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    1998-01-15

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  8. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  9. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  10. Use of a turboexpander in steam power units for heat energy recovery in heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, R. A.; Daminov, A. Z.; Solomin, I. N.; Futin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    A method for raising the efficiency of a boiler plant by installing a unit operating by the organic Rankine cycle is presented. Such units allow one to generate electricity to cover the auxiliaries of a heat source at a heat-transfer fluid temperature of no more than 130°C. The results of commissioning tests of boilers revealed that their efficiency is maximized under a load that is close or corresponds to the nominal one. If this load is maintained constantly, excess heat energy is produced. This excess may be used to generate electric energy in a steam power unit with a turboexpander. A way to insert this unit into the flow diagram of a boiler plant is proposed. The results of analysis of turbine types (turboexpanders included) with various capacities are presented, and the optimum type for the proposed flow diagram is chosen. The methodology for the design of turboexpanders and compressors used in the oil and gas industry and their operational data were applied in the analysis of a turboexpander. The results of the thermogasdynamic analysis of a turboexpander and the engineered shape of an axial-radial impeller are presented. Halocarbon R245fa is chosen as the working medium based on its calorimetric properties.

  11. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  12. Development and operation of 1 MW wind power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, I.; Lavrov, V. [Machine-building Design Bureau, (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of wind power units (WPUs), which operate on renewable wind power, as well as combined power sources including WPUs, have an important national economic significance in the Russian Federation, particularly in the areas of construction and operation of nuclear power plants, hydro-electric stations and other traditional power plants. Development of WPUs of high power level is a complicated task, and the solution requires investigations in the areas of experimental design, technology, and the organization of industrial production. Initially, the problem of the development of large diameter propellers, power electric equipment, reducers and drive mechanisms, automatic control devices, and control and diagnostic system need to be solved. This report covers the basic results and directions of the work of the Machine-building Design Bureau `Raduga` in the field of wind power engineering as well as the basic performance of the units. (author). 7 figs.

  13. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond...... to adverbs in languages like English, while the rest are tense-aspect markers; and (iv) it is possible to combine several auxiliary verbs in a single clause. For some of the auxiliary verbs there are extant full verbs from which they have evolved. To some extent, therefore, it is possible to observe what...... semantic changes the auxiliary verbs have undergone or are undergoing during the process of grammaticalization....

  14. Optimizing Power Heterogeneous Functional Units for Dynamic and Static Power Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinori Sato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption is the major constraint for modern microprocessor designs. In particular, static power consumption becomes a serious problem as the transistor size shrinks via semiconductor technology improvement. This paper proposes a technique that reduces the static power consumed by functional units. It exploits the activity rate of functional units and utilizes the power heterogeneous functional units. From detailed simulations, we investigate the conditions in which the proposed technique works effectively for simultaneous dynamic and static power reduction and find that we can reduce the total power by 11.2% if two out of four leaky functional units are replaced by leakless ones in the situation where the static power occupies half of the total power.

  15. 光伏微型逆变器辅助电源的变压器设计%Solar micro inverter auxiliary power transformer design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林; 杨国为; 刘斌

    2015-01-01

    在光伏微型逆变器中需要给控制板,继电器,散热风扇,电流采样器以及驱动小板等供应不同电压和不同功率的直流电源,本文设计了从光伏板取电的一个多路输出的高频变压器。原负边的线圈采用了三明治叠绕的方法,以此来减少漏感,并且对辅助电源的电流反馈和电压反馈环节进行了设计,确保空载与满载下都有稳定的输出,最后,搭建了电路,对光伏微型逆变器进行供电与调试。由于采用电流与电压双环控制,负载调整率更低,对实验波形进行分析并验证了设计方案可行性。%In order to control panel in solar micro inverter, relay, cooling fan, the current sampler and drive small plate of different voltage and different power supply dc power supply, this paper designed from the photovoltaic panels a multiplexed output of electricity of high frequency transformer. The negative side of coil the sandwich overlapping method was adopted , in order to reduce the leakage inductance. And the auxiliary power supply voltage feedback and current feedback link has carried on the design, make sure that under no-load and load has a stable output. Finally, set up a circuit, to solar micro inverter power supply and debugging, due to the double loop control using current and voltage, lower load adjustment rate, analyze the experimental waveforms and verify the feasibility of design schema.

  16. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  17. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae;

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...

  18. Power quality improvement of unbalanced power system with distributed generation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe; Excell, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a power electronic system for improving the power quality of the unbalanced distributed generation units in three-phase four-wire system. In the system, small renewable power generation units, such as small PV generator, small wind turbines may be configured as single phase...... generation units. The random nature of renewable power sources may result in significant unbalance in the power network and affect the power quality. An electronic converter system is proposed to correct the system unbalance and harmonics so as to deal with the power quality problems. The operation...... and control of the converter are described. Simulation results have demonstrated that the system can effectively correct the unbalance and enhance the system power quality....

  19. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the developmen...

  20. Power Dissipation Challenges in Multicore Floating-Point Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    With increased densities on chips and the growing popularity of multicore processors and general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) power dissipation and energy consumption pose a serious challenge in the design of system-on-chips (SoCs) and a rise in costs for heat removal. In this work......, we analyze the impact of power dissipation in floating-point (FP) units and we consider different alternatives in the implementation of FP-division that lead to substantial energy savings. We compare the implementation of division in a Fused Multiply-Add (FMA) unit based on the Newton...

  1. Improved Power Quality Monitoring through Phasor Measurement Unit Data Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Marinelli, Mattia; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    The observability needs in future power systems will change radically due to the continuing implementation of renewable energy sources at all voltage levels. Especially in distribution grids new observables will be needed in order to monitor the state of the power system sufficiently and to perform...... the correct actions for operating the system. In future power systems more measuring sensors including phasor measurement units will be available distributed all over the power system. They can and should be utilized to increase the observability of the power system. In this paper the impact of photovoltaic....... The voltage unbalance factor (VUF) could be a ‘new’ observable for a particular power system condition. Information about the actual injected wind power for a certain grid area could be derived without knowing/measuring the real wind power injection....

  2. Unit-sizing of hydro power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruzewski, P.; Rogeaux, C.; Laurier, P.

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries with great and unexploited renewable energy potential, Governments can exploit local resources for electricity supply, substantial energy savings and sustainable socio-economic development of these own countries. The decision-making process regarding the choice of renewable energy sources for energy supply in these countries is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels such as economic, technical, environmental, and social. Therefore, reaching clear and unambiguous solutions may be very difficult. It is from this difficulty that the need arises to develop a tool for the design of hydro energy sources for electricity. The work involved in seeking a compromise solution requires an adequate technical assessment based on multiple criteria methods. One of the criteria is the assessment of the appropriate size of the hydropower plant. This paper presents the state-of-art of preliminary sizing of hydropower plant for the given renewable energy potential. The main step consists of carefully selecting and sizing the innovative hydraulic units based upon the suitability of the flow and head range. Since the flow and head data have now been confirmed, the potential annual energy generation can be properly assessed.

  3. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy); Zerbinati, O. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2007-06-20

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H{sub 2} supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm{sup 2} and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance. (author)

  4. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E.; Zerbinati, O.

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H 2 supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm 2 and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance.

  5. Improving Size and Power in Unit Root Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Jansson, Michael

    of recent contributions to improve upon both size and power of unit root tests and in so doing the approach of using rigorous statistical optimality criteria in the development of such tests is stressed. In addition to presenting tests where improved size can be achieved by modifying the standard Dickey......A frequent criticism of unit root tests concerns the poor power and size properties that many of such testsexhibit. However, the past decade or so intensive research has been conducted to alleviate these problems and great advances have been made. The present paper provides a selective survey......-Fuller class of tests, the paper presents theory of optimal testing and the construction of power envelopes for unit root tests underdifferent conditions allowing for serial correlation, deterministic components, assumptions regarding the initial condition, non-Gaussian errors, and the use of covariates....

  6. Standby power supply automatic switching-on relay design and setting of converter station auxiliary power system%换流站站用电备自投装置设计及整定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓静; 李志勇; 杨慧霞; 蒋冠前; 杨静

    2015-01-01

    Perfect station auxiliary power system main diagram and efficient standby power supply automatic switching-on logic should be designed in converter station of HVDC system for the safe and stable operation. According to the electric diagram and operation requirement of Pu'er converter station, five operation conditions are considered and charge/discharge logic and thirteen automatic switching-on/off logic are designed for 10 kV standby power supply automatic switching-on relay, two automatic switching-on/off logics are designed for 400 V standby power supply automatic switching-on relay. Meanwhile, the setting principle and coordination are discussed and the recommended settings are given. The standby power supply automatic switching-on/off logic has been applied in Pu'er converter station, experimental results and operation conditions show that standby power supply automatic switching-on relay will trip the circuit breaker of fault line and switch to standby power supply rapidly while one or two station auxiliary power supply fault without reducing HVDC transmission power, the reliability and stability of HVDC system are greatly improved.%为了保证直流输电工程换流站站用电设备安全稳定运行,必须合理设计站用电系统及备用电源自动投入装置的动作逻辑。以糯扎渡直流输电工程普洱换流站为例,根据主接线形式、运行要求和具体运行工况,对10 kV备自投的五种运行工况分别设计了备自投充放电逻辑和十三种动作投切逻辑,对400 V备自投单母分段运行方式设计了两种动作投切逻辑。同时,对备自投装置的定值整定原则及定值配合相关问题进行了研究,给出了推荐定值。所提出的备自投方案经现场实际运行证明:通过10 kV和400 V两级备自投装置的配合,在各种运行工况下某路或某两路站用电源失电时备自投装置都能快速动作投切至备用电源,无需降低直流输送功率或

  7. Development of Electric Power Units Driven by Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Takao; Kaneko, Atsushi; Uchimura, Tomoyuki; Irie, Kiichi; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi

    For the development of a simple and compact power generator driven by waste heat, working fluids and an expander were studied, then a practical electric power unit was put to test. Many working fluids were calculated with the low temperature power cycle (evaporated at 77°C, condensed at 42°C),and TFE,R123,R245fa were selected to be suitable for the cycle. TFE(Trifluoroethanol CF3CH2OH) was adopted to the actual power generator which was tested. A radial turbine was adopted as an expander, and was newly designed and manufactured for working fluid TFE. The equipment was driven by hot water as heat source and cooling water as cooling source, and generated power was connected with electric utility. Characteristics of the power generating cycle and characteristics of the turbine were obtained experimentally.

  8. Contingency-Constrained Unit Commitmentin Meshed Isolated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Vinter, Peter; Bærentsen, Runi

    2015-01-01

    is kept above a predefined limit in the event of a contingency. The minimum frequency constraints are formulated using novel sufficient conditions that take into account the system inertia and the dynamics of the power generators. The proposed sufficient conditions are attractive from both a computational......This paper presents a mixed-integer linear optimization problem for unit commitment and economic dispatch of power generators in a meshed isolated power system. The optimization problem is referred to as the optimal reserve planning problem (ORPP). The ORPP guarantees that the system frequency...... and a modelling point of view. We compare the ORPP to a unit commitment problem that only considers the stationary behavior of the frequency. Simulations based on a Faroe Islands case study show that, without being overly conservative, potential blackouts and power outages can be avoided using the ORPP...

  9. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  10. 试论火力发电厂汽机辅机现状及优化策略%On the Current Situation and Optimization Strategies of Thermal Power Plant Steam Turbine Auxiliary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛继群; 梁健

    2013-01-01

    随着我国社会的不断进步,经济的快速发展,对火力发电需求越来越高,汽机辅机是整个火力发电中的一个重要组成部分,它在火力发电中起到了决定性的作用。可随着现在用电量的日渐加大,火力发电厂的发电量也在逐日上涨,这对汽机辅机造成了一定程度的影响。%With the continuous progress of our society and the rapid economic development, the demand for power generation is increasing. Steam turbine auxiliary is an important part in the whole power generation, and it plays a decisive role in thermal power. With the gradually increased electricity consumption, the generating capacity of thermal power is also rising day by day, which has caused a certain influence on the auxiliary turbine.

  11. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  12. High Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Robert J.; Santiago, Walter; Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested a technology-push power processing unit for electric propulsion applications that utilizes high voltage silicon carbide (SiC) technology. The development specifically addresses the need for high power electronics to enable electric propulsion systems in the 100s of kilowatts. This unit demonstrated how high voltage combined with superior semiconductor components resulted in exceptional converter performance.

  13. Stochastic Electric Power Generation Unit Commitment in Deregulated Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gharehdaghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilities participating in deregulated markets observe increasing uncertainty in load (i.e., demand for electric power and prices for fuel and electricity on spot and contract markets. This study proposes a new formulation of the unit commitment problem of electric power generators in a restructured electricity market. Under these conditions, an electric power generation company will have the option to buy or sell from a power pool in addition to producing electricity on its own. The unit commitment problem is expressed as a stochastic optimization problem in which the objective is to maximize expected profits and the decisions are required to meet the standard operating constraints. Under the assumption of competitive market and price taking, it is depicted that the unit commitment schedule for a collection of N generation units can be solved by considering each unit separately. The volatility of the spot market price of electricity is represented by a stochastic model. This paper uses probabilistic dynamic programming to solve the stochastic optimization problem pertaining to unit commitment. It is shown that for a market of 150 units the proposed unit commitment can be accurately solved in a reasonable time by using the normal, Edgeworth, or Monte Carlo approximation methods.

  14. Phasor Measurement Units in the Eastern Danish power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Jørgensen, Preben;

    2006-01-01

    Technology. After power system events data can be extracted and analyzed offline. The purpose of the project is to do research within various utilizations of PMU data. On 8 January 2005 a severe storm passed Denmark, and wind speeds were so high, that wind turbines disconnected from the transmission grid......In the Eastern Danish transmission system four Phasor Measurement Units (PMU’s) are installed at 400 kV and 132 kV voltage level. The PMU’s continuously record voltage and current phasors each 20 ms. Data are stored locally on the PMU’s and are also transferred to a database at Centre for Electric...... because of their self protection. Nysted offshore wind farm was among the wind power units that disconnected from the grid, and PMU data from that event are analyzed. The case illustrates the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area. The voltage phase angle...

  15. Unit stream power, minimum energy dissipation rate, and river engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih Ted Yang

    2010-01-01

    Unit stream power is the most important and dominant parameter for the determination of transport rate of sand,gravel, and hyper-concentrated sediment with wash load.Minimum energy dissipation rate theory, or its simplified minimum unit stream power and minimum stream power theories,can provide engineers the needed theoretical basis for river morphology and river engineering studies.The Generalized Sediment Transport model for Alluvial River Simulation computer mode series have been developed based on the above theories.The computer model series have been successfully applied in many countries.Examples will be used to illustrate the applications of the computer models to solving a wide range of river morphology and river engineering problems.

  16. Design of Auxiliary Power Supply for Multi-Axis Motion Platform of Linear Motor%直线电机多轴联动平台辅助电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 余海涛; 沈蛟骁; 王亚鲁; 徐鸣飞

    2015-01-01

    基于单端反激电路,设计了一款85~265VAC输入、24VDC输出的控制系统辅助电源.阐述了单端反激变换器的变压器设计过程,对反馈环路进行了小信号分析,并进行补偿网络优化.经制作样机测试,实验结果表明,该电源工作稳定,动态性能良好,整机效率可达89.4%,满足直线电机多轴联动平台辅助电源的要求.%Based on the single-ended flyback circuit, this paper designed an auxiliary power supply of control system with alternating cur-rent input voltage from 85 to 265 and 24 voltage of direct current output and expounded the transformer design process of single-ended lfyback converter, carrying out the small signal analysis of feedback loops and compensation network optimization. The prototype was produced and comprehensive experiments were conducted. The experimental results show that the power supply is stable and has good dynamic performance, whose overall efficiency reaches 89.4%, which can meet the auxiliary power supply requirements for the multi-axis motion platform of linear mo-tor.

  17. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  19. Fault tree modeling of AAC power source in multi-unit nuclear power plants PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dependencies between units are important to estimate a risk of a multi-unit site. One of dependencies is a shared system such as an alternating AC (AAC) power source. Because one AAC can support a single unit, it is necessary to appropriately treat such behavior of the AAC in multi-unit probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The behavior of AAC in multi-unit site would show dynamic characteristics. For example, several units require the AAC at the same time. It is hard to decide which unit the AAC is connected to. It can vary depending on timing of station blackout (SBO), with time delay when emergency diesel generators fail while running. It is not easy to handle dynamic behavior using the static fault tree methodology. Typical way of estimating risk for multi-unit regarding to AAC is to assume that only one unit has AAC and the others does not. KIM calculates the risk for each unit and uses the average value from the results. Jung derives an equation to calculate the SBO frequency by considering all the combination of loss of offsite power and failure of emergency diesel generators in multi-unit site. It is also assumed that the AAC is connected to a pre-decided unit. We are developing a PSA model for multi-unit site for internal and external events. An extreme external hazard may result in loss of all offsite power in a site, where the appropriate modeling of an AAC becomes important. The static fault tree methodology is not good for dynamic situation. But, it can turn into a simple problem if an assumption is made: - The connecting order of AAC is pre-decided. This study provides an idea how to model AAC for each unit in the form of a fault tree, assuming the connecting order of AAC is given. This study illustrates how to model a fault tree for AAC in a multi-unit site. It provides an idea how to handle a shared system in multi-unit PSA, for such a case as loss of all offsite power in a site due to an extreme external hazard.

  20. Cost based reactive power participation for voltage control in multi units based isolated hybrid power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Saxena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi units of wind and diesel based generators in isolated hybrid power system have technical and operational advantages over single units system. They require dynamic reactive power compensation for fast recovery of voltage under load and input changes. In developing countries like India, investors’ prime concern is to provide continuous electricity at low rate while quality degradation can be permitted within pre defined acceptable range. The use of static compensator along with dynamic compensator may give cost effective reactive power participation for system. This paper presented pricing of reactive power compensation under steady state and transient conditions of system with fixed capacitor and STATCOM. The main contributions of the paper are; (i evaluating reactive power balance equation for generalized multi units of wind and diesel based isolated hybrid power system, (ii reactive power compensation using fixed capacitor and STATCOM in presence of composite load model, (ii fast recovery of voltage response using genetic algorithm based tuning of STATCOM controller, (iii evaluation of reactive power compensation cost for steady and dynamic conditions due to probabilistic change in load and/or input demand and (iv comparison of results with existing reference compensation method.

  1. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  2. Counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit cooperating with wind power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tengen; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    2013-02-01

    This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In this paper, the tandem impellers of the counter-rotating type pumping unit was operated at the turbine mode, and the performances and the flow conditions were investigated numerically and experimentally. The 3-D turbulent flows in the runners were simulated at the steady state condition by using the commercial CFD code of ANSYS-CFX ver.12 with the SST turbulence model. While providing the pump unit for the turbine mode, the maximum hydraulic efficiency is close to one of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. Besides, the runner/impeller of the unit works evidently so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that through the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes. These results show that this type of unit is effective to work at not only the pumping but also the turbine modes.

  3. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... by simulation. Furthermore, our own simulation results suggest that the user-specied adjustment scheme for deterministic components (e.g. OLS, GLS, or recursive adjustment) has a much higher impact on the power of unit root tests than accounting for nonlinearity, at least under local (linear or nonlinear......This article extends the analysis of local power of unit root tests in a nonlinear direction by considering local nonlinear alternatives and tests built specically against stationary nonlinear models. In particular, we focus on the popular test proposed by Kapetanios et al. (2003, Journal...

  4. AN AIRPLANE WITH UNCONVENTIONALLY PLACED PROPELLER POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Červinka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the influence of operating propellers on the aircraft aerodynamic characteristics is well-known. Wind tunnel testing of an airplane model with operating propellers is a complex task regarding the required similarity of the full-scale and the model case. Matching sufficient similarity in axial and rotational velocities in the propeller slipstream is the primordial condition for the global aerodynamic similarity of the windtunnel testing. An example of the model power units with related devices is presented. Examples of the wind tunnel testing results illustrate the extent of the propeller influence on aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft of unconventional configuration with power units positioned at the fuselage afterbody.

  5. Dynamic Analysis & Characterization of Conventional Hydraulic Power Supply Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Liedhegener, Michael; Bech, Michael Møller

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic power units operated as constant supply pres-sure systems remain to be widely used in the industry, to supply valve controlled hydraulic drives etc., where the hydraulic power units are constituted by variable pumps with mechanical outlet pressure control, driven by induction motors....... In the analysis of supplied drives, both linear and rotary, emphasis is commonly placed on the drives themselves and the related loads, and the supply system dynamics is often given only little attention, and usually neglected or taken into account in a simplified fashion. The simplified supply system dynamics...... such that limited impact on the drive dynamics is observed. Such ideal properties however, are not necessarily present in industrial hydraulic applications for various reasons, with the most common being large volumes of supply lines. Long supply lines, hence large supply line volumes, between the sup-ply system...

  6. QUALITY EVALUATION OF THE TPP POWER GENERATING UNITS WEAR RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconditioning of the power generating unit worn equipment and devices is conducted during the scheduled repair period. Quality of wear reconditioning is evaluated by technical state and repair work implementation. Quality of the repair work execution characterizes logistical activities of the power station and the repair services and is rated by a five-grade scale. There are three technical conditions: adequate, subject to reservations, falling short of the technical standard documentation requirements. In practical work these constraints give place to essential ambiguity of the decision. Further to regulating techniques by way of informational support, the authors propose conducting the wear-reconditioning quality evaluation (repair quality accordingly the technical-and-economic indexes pattern of change. The paper recommends applying similarly the fivegrade system in evaluating the power generating unit technical state and distinguishes intolerable, dissatisfactory, fair, good and model estimates. The study demonstrates the assessment criteria dependence on the character of reliability and economical efficiency of performance variation after the repair with increase or decrease of the technical-and-economic indexes in reference to their mean, minimum and maximum values before the repair. The cases ascribed to intolerable quality of the wear reconditioning are those with one or more technical-and-economic indexes that not only failed to improve their values but deteriorated, and at that they became the worst amongst observable values. The model quality estimate of the wear reconditioning is allotted under condition that the power unit technical-and-economic index valuations after the repair not merely improved but also exceeded the best among those under observation. The developed method and algorithm for quality evaluation of the scheduled repair implementation contribute to practical realization of the independent monitoring. This monitoring

  7. The Power Unit Coordinated Control via Uniform Differential Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zain Abdalla Zahran; Rui Feng Shi; Xiang Jie Liu

    2013-01-01

    This paper modified the differential evolution (DE) algorithm adaptively to solve the power unit coordinated control (PUCC) problem. It was modified in two aspects: 1) a uniform initialization, which was controlled and regulated by a zone factor (m), 2) a regular mutation process, to develop an effective searching process and improve the convergence of the basic DE algorithm. A numerical case study was employed to verify the performance of our proposed uniform differential evolution (UDE) a...

  8. AN AIRPLANE WITH UNCONVENTIONALLY PLACED PROPELLER POWER UNIT

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Červinka; Robert Kulhánek; Zdeněk Pátek

    2017-01-01

    The significance of the influence of operating propellers on the aircraft aerodynamic characteristics is well-known. Wind tunnel testing of an airplane model with operating propellers is a complex task regarding the required similarity of the full-scale and the model case. Matching sufficient similarity in axial and rotational velocities in the propeller slipstream is the primordial condition for the global aerodynamic similarity of the windtunnel testing. An example of the model power units ...

  9. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  10. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  11. Selection of Unit Parameters and Auxiliary Equipments of Lunzua Hydropower Station in Zambia%赞比亚LUNZUA水电站机组参数及附属设备选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晓明; 逯鹏

    2013-01-01

    ∶为了合理选择赞比亚LUNZUA水电站的机组参数及其附属设备,在电站的基本参数的基础上做了一系列的比较和论证。通过详细的分析选定该电站水轮发电机组的主要参数和附属设备,为下一阶段的工作提供了依据。%The basic parameters of Lunzua hydropower station in Zambia are compared and demonstrated so as to reasonably select the unit parameters and the auxiliary equipments,which provides a reference for the next-stage work.

  12. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  13. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, T [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, T, E-mail: turbo@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  14. Floating type ocean wave power station equipped with hydroelectric unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shun; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Umekage, Toshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The authors have invented the unique ocean wave power station, which is composed of the floating type platform with a pair of the floats lining up at the interval of one wave pitch and the counter-rotating type wave power unit, its runners are submerged in the seawater at the middle position of the platform. Such profiles make the flow velocity at the runner is twice faster than that of the traditional fixed/caisson type OWC, on the ideal flow conditions. Besides, the runners counter-rotate the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively, and the relative rotational speed is also twice faster than the speed of the single runner/armature. Such characteristics make the runner diameter large, namely the output higher, as requested, because the torque of the power unit never act on the floating type platform. At the preliminary reseach, this paper verifies to get the power using a Wells type single runner installed in the model station. The runner takes the output which is affected by the oscillating amplitude of the platform, the rotational speed and the inertia force of the runner, etc.

  15. Pipe rupture incident of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yushi; Nakagami, Motonori; Hayashi, Haruhisa; Ichikawa, Yoshihiro [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    At the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 (540 MWe of electric output; BWR-4 type) of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd., an incident of pipe rupture of residual heat removal system on steam condenser system occurred on November, 2001. This incident gave no effects on outer parts of the station, because safety system apparatuses in the station worked adequately from a standpoint of accidental phenomenon. On the other hand, on its forming processes, as it is no similar case at the nuclear power stations in and out of Japan, to securely carry out countermeasures for preventing a recurrence of the incidence, its cause was striven to elucidate thoroughly. This paper was introduced about contents and results on site surveys, and surveys such as tests, analysis, and so on performed for about a half year after the incident, for preventing a recurrence of similar incidents. (G.K.)

  16. Power regulating range broadening of the WWER-type reactor power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dement' ev, B.A.; Petrov, V.A.; Proskuryakov, A.G.; Puchkov, V.V. (Moskovskij Ehnergeticheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-02-01

    Calculational studies on the use of sliding pressure (SP) regime to expand the regulating range of the WWER-440 reactor power units are presented. Two operation regimes of a power unit have been considered: according to weekly and daily load swings in electrical grids. The conclusion is made that the use of SP regime in the secondary circuit improves manoeuvable characterstics of the power unit in the second half of operating cycle. T of the reactor (0.6 power regulating range broadening of the reactor. Besides, the use of SP regime during power unit operation with decreased loadings is the more efficient the smaller is the load. The range of operating cycle 0.8 <= T <= 1 makes the greatest contribution to regulating range broadening as a result of SP regime use. Conclusions of the calculational studies can be also applied to WWER reactors of other types as well as to RBMK reactors.

  17. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  18. A simple approach to calculate active power of electrosurgical units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Regis Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Despite of more than a hundred years of electrosurgery, only a few electrosurgical equipment manufacturers have developed methods to regulate the active power delivered to the patient, usually around an arbitrary setpoint. In fact, no manufacturer has a method to measure the active power actually delivered to the load. Measuring the delivered power and computing it fast enough so as to avoid injury to the organic tissue is challenging. If voltage and current signals can be sampled in time and discretized in the frequency domain, a simple and very fast multiplication process can be used to determine the active power. Methods This paper presents an approach for measuring active power at the output power stage of electrosurgical units with mathematical shortcuts based on a simple multiplication procedure of discretized variables – frequency domain vectors – obtained through Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT applied on time-sampled voltage and current vectors. Results Comparative results between simulations and a practical experiment are presented – all being in accordance with the requirements of the applicable industry standards. Conclusion An analysis is presented comparing the active power analytically obtained through well-known voltage and current signals against a computational methodology based on vector manipulation using DFT only for time-to-frequency domain transformation. The greatest advantage of this method is to determine the active power of noisy and phased out signals with neither complex DFT or ordinary transform methodologies nor sophisticated computing techniques such as convolution. All results presented errors substantially lower than the thresholds defined by the applicable standards.

  19. Power unit impedance and distance protection functions during faults in the external power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lizer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the risk of an unnecessary tripping of a generation unit’s underimpedance protection functions in circumstances of generator power swings following elimination of long-lasting fault in the external power grid. The fi rst part describes typical solutions of a generator impedance protection function (21e and unit distance protection function (21s. Starting characteristics of these protection functions are shown, as well as their typical operating logics and ways of calculating their settings. Then exemplary (the most common solutions of unit under-impedance relays power swing blocking functions are described. Following this introduction, the issues of the threat of unnecessary operation of fast-tripping protection zones of 21e and 21s protection functions are described, which arises in the circumstances of generator asynchronous power swings occurring after elimination of long-lasting faults in the grid supplied by the power unit. The paper also shows that the available power swing blocking functions may not be able to correctly detect the described conditions, thus allowing the unnecessary operation of under-impedance relays. How an impedance calculation algorithm affects the impedance trajectory seen by a protection relay is also resented.

  20. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  1. Development of High-Power Hall Thruster Power Processing Units at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bozak, Karin E.; Santiago, Walter; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested four different power processor concepts for high power Hall thrusters. Each design satisfies unique goals including the evaluation of a novel silicon carbide semiconductor technology, validation of innovative circuits to overcome the problems with high input voltage converter design, development of a direct-drive unit to demonstrate potential benefits, or simply identification of lessonslearned from the development of a PPU using a conventional design approach. Any of these designs could be developed further to satisfy NASA's needs for high power electric propulsion in the near future.

  2. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Sanzi, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power (FSP) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is a system-level demonstration of fission power technology intended for use on manned missions to Mars. The Baseline FSP systems consists of a 190 kWt UO2 fast-spectrum reactor cooled by a primary pumped liquid metal loop. This liquid metal loop transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal loops designed to isolate fission products in the primary loop from the balance of plant. The intermediate liquid metal loops transfer heat to four Stirling Power Conversion Units (PCU), each of which produce 12 kWe (48 kW total) and reject waste heat to two pumped water loops, which transfer the waste heat to titanium-water heat pipe radiators. The FSP TDU simulates a single leg of the baseline FSP system using an electrically heater core simulator, a single liquid metal loop, a single PCU, and a pumped water loop which rejects the waste heat to a Facility Cooling System (FCS). When operated at the nominal operating conditions (modified for low liquid metal flow) during TDU testing the PCU produced 8.9 kW of power at an efficiency of 21.7 percent resulting in a net system power of 8.1 kW and a system level efficiency of 17.2 percent. The reduction in PCU power from levels seen during electrically heated testing is the result of insufficient heat transfer from the NaK heater head to the Stirling acceptor, which could not be tested at Sunpower prior to delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The maximum PCU power of 10.4 kW was achieved at the maximum liquid metal temperature of 875 K, minimum water temperature of 350 K, 1.1 kg/s liquid metal flow, 0.39 kg/s water flow, and 15.0 mm amplitude at an efficiency of 23.3 percent. This resulted in a system net power of 9.7 kW and a system efficiency of 18.7 percent.

  3. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  4. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  5. DESIGNING FEATURES OF POWER OPTICAL UNITS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Afanasiev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the question of an optical unit designing for transmitting power laser radiation through an optical fiber. The aim of this work is designing a simple construction unit with minimized reflection losses. The source of radiation in the optical unit described below is an ultraviolet laser with diode pumping. We present the general functioning scheme and designing features for the three main parts: laser beam deflecting system, laser beam dump and optical unit control system. The described laser beam deflection system is composed of a moving flat mirror and a spherical scattering mirror. Comparative analysis of the production technology for such mirrors was carried out, and, as a result, the decision was made to produce both mirrors of 99.99 % pure molybdenum without coating. A moving mirror deflects laser emission from a source through a fiber or deflects it on a spherical mirror and into the laser beam dump, moreover, switching from one position to another occurs almost immediately. It is shown that a scattering mirror is necessary, otherwise, the absorbing surface of the beam dump is being worn out irregularly. The laser beam dump is an open conical cavity, in which the conical element with its spire turned to the emission source is placed. Special microgeometry of the internal surface of the beam dump is suggested for the better absorption effect. An optical unit control system consists of a laser beam deflection system, laser temperature sensor, deflection system solenoid temperature sensor, and deflection mirror position sensor. The signal processing algorithm for signals coming from the sensors to the controller is described. The optical unit will be used in special technological equipment.

  6. Performance/Power Space Exploration for Binary64 Division Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The digit-recurrence division algorithm is used in several high-performance processors because it provides good tradeoffs in terms of latency, area and power dissipation. In this work we develop a minimally redundant radix-8 divider for binary64 (double-precision) aiming at obtaining better energy...... efficiency in the performance-per-watt space. The results show that the radix-8 divider, when compared to radix-4 and radix-16 units, requires less energy to complete a division for high clock rates....

  7. Multi-Functional Distributed Generation Unit for Power Quality Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zheng; Yang, Huan; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    A multi-functional distributed generation unit (MFDGU) and its control strategy are proposed in this paper for the purpose of enhancing power quality in low-voltage networks. By using the 3H-bridge converter structure, an MFDGU can be applied in 3-phase 4-wire low-voltage distribution networks...... reference of the MFDGU, which can be easily implemented in three-phase networks. A 15kVA prototype consisting of three full bridge converters has been built and tested. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and control strategy....

  8. Zero loss magnetic metamaterials using powered active unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2009-08-31

    We report the design and experimental measurement of a powered active magnetic metamaterial with tunable permeability. The unit cell is based on the combination of an embedded radiofrequency amplifier and a tunable phase shifter, which together control the response of the medium. The measurements show that a negative permeability metamaterial with zero loss or even gain can be achieved through an array of such metamaterial cells. This kind of active metamaterial can find use in applications that are performance limited due to material losses.

  9. A high power, Coated Particle Fuel Compact Radioisotope Heat Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2001-02-01

    A Coated Particle Fuel Compact, Radioisotope Heater Unit (CPFC-RHU) is proposed, which is capable of generating thermal power in excess of 27 W. This power output is more than four times that of a Hexa-RHU, which generates only six watts of thermal power. The design of the CPFC-RHU is identical to that of the Hexa-RHU, except that the six Pt-30Rh clad fuel pellets and the POCO graphite support in the latter are replaced with single-sized, ZrC coated, 238PuO2 fuel particles ~500 μm in diameter. In addition to fully retaining the helium gas generated by the radioactive decay of the fuel, the CPFC offers promise for enhanced safety. Thermal analyses of the CPFC-RHU show that while the Hexa-RHU is suitable for use in a radioisotope power system (RPS) operating at a converter hot-side temperature of 473 K, the CPFC-RHU could also be used at higher temperatures of 773 K and 973 K with a thermal efficiency >60%. Even at a 473 K converter hot-side temperature, the CPFC-RHU offers higher thermal efficiency (>90%) than the Hexa-RHU (~75%). The CPFC-RHU final design provides constant temperature, with almost uniform radial heat flux to the converter, for enhanced performance, better integration, and higher overall efficiency of the RPS. The present CPFC-RHU fills a gap in the power needs for future space missions requiring electric power of 1-15 W, from a single RPS. .

  10. Analysis and Measurement of NOx Emissions in Port Auxiliary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German de Melo Rodriguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is made NOx pollution emitted by port auxiliary vessels, specifically by harbour tugs, due to its unique operating characteristics of operation, require a large propulsion power changes discontinuously, also possess some peculiar technical characteristics, large tonnage and high propulsive power, that differentiate them from other auxiliary vessels of the port. Taking into account all the above features, there are no studies of the NOx emission engines caused by different working regimes of power because engine manufacturers have not measured these emissions across the range of operating power, but usually we only report the pollution produced by its engines to a maximum continuous power.

  11. Design of a Wide-input Auxiliary Power Supply in the PV Inverter System%一种光伏并网系统用的宽输入辅助电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天友; 张晓博; 王海; 刘洋

    2012-01-01

    根据光伏并网逆变系统的供电需求,设计了一种120 ~ 850 V宽输入的辅助电源.为防止在输入电压过高时丢失开通脉冲,在传统的单端反激式拓扑电路的基础上加入了变频电路.输入电压升高时,降低开关频率,保证导通时间大于开关管的最小导通时间,实现了宽输入范围电压的要求.采用DCM工作模式,峰值电流控制,在反馈电路中加入了2型补偿网络,保证了输出电压快速调节性和稳定性.样机实验结果表明,该电源能够适应输入电压在大范围波动,可靠地为光伏并网实验系统供电.%According to the requirement of the PV grid-connected inverter system, an auxiliary power supply with an input voltage of 120 -850 V is designed. To avoid losing the opening pulse at a high input voltage, a circuit that can change switching frequency based on the input voltage is introduced. The peak current control and DCM work mode is used, and the type-2 compensation circuit in the feedback loop guarantees the rapid adjustment of output voltage and stability of the system. Experimental results show that this auxiliary power supply can adapt to a wide fluctuation of input voltage and provide long-term reliable DC voltage to the PV system.

  12. Estimating overland flow erosion capacity using unit stream power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ming SHIH; Chih Ted YANG

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion caused by water flow is a complex problem.Both empirical and physically based approaches were used for the estimation of surface erosion rates.Their applications are mainly limited to experimental areas or laboratory studies.The maximum sediment concentration overland flow can carry is not considered in most of the existing surface erosion models.The lack of erosion capacity limitation may cause over estimations of sediment concentration.A correlation analysis is used in this study to determine significant factors that impact surface erosion capacity.The result shows that the unit stream power is the most dominant factor for overland flow erosion which is consistent with experimental data.A bounded regression formula is used to reflect the limits that sediment concentration cannot be less than zero nor greater than a maximum value.The coefficients used in the model are calibrated using published laboratory data.The computed results agree with laboratory data very well.A one dimensional overland flow diffusive wave model is used in conjunction with the developed soil erosion equation to simulate field experimental results.This study concludes that the non-linear regression method using unit stream power as the dominant factor performs well for estimating overland flow erosion capacity.

  13. Development Status of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, Jon Boise; Godfoy, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the development of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The reactor simulator core and Annular Linear Induction Pump have been fabricated and assembled into a test loop at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A 12 kWe Power Conversion Unit (PCU) is being developed consisting of two 6 kWe free-piston Stirling engines. The two 6 kWe engines have been fabricated by Sunpower Inc. and are currently being tested separately prior to integration into the PCU. The Facility Cooling System (FCS) used to reject convertor waste heat has been assembled and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The structural elements, including a Buildup Assembly Platform (BAP) and Upper Truss Structure (UTS) have been fabricated, and will be used to test cold-end components in thermal vacuum prior to TDU testing. Once all components have been fully tested at the subsystem level, they will be assembled into an end-to-end system and tested in thermal vacuum at GRC.

  14. Construction of two 1000-MW units launched in Laizhou Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 10, the f irst construction phase of Huadian International Laizhou Power Plant with two 1 000-MW class generating units was formally started. This power plant is a key power source project of Shandong Province

  15. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  16. Financial issues for hospital auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, L A

    1986-01-01

    Auxiliaries can serve a more important financial role in today's environment than ever before. Hospitals are searching for positive avenues to promote themselves to the community and to generate more financial support to help offset the losses created by decreasing inpatient utilization and payments from third-party payers. Auxiliaries should recognize that their financial role has never been more important to the financial viability of their hospitals. Auxiliaries should communicate closely with hospital administration so that both organizations work to achieve compatible goals. Auxiliaries should be operated more like businesses, which means establishing goals and objectives, preparing effective budgets and interim financial statements, thinking and planning innovatively, and establishing adequate inventory controls, investment policies, and pricing structures. If auxiliaries follow these steps, they will not only succeed in providing more financial support to hospitals than ever before but will also receive the recognition and support they deserve for their effort.

  17. Design of Power Shift Auxiliary Gearbox in Transmission for Tractor%拖拉机负载增扭/梭行换挡副变速器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 王志晨

    2016-01-01

    动力换挡变速器换挡时动力不中断,且能够将复杂的换挡过程简化为按钮操作,在国外的拖拉机上已得到了广泛应用。为此,设计了一种新型的负载换挡行星齿轮副变速器,增加了原变速箱的挡位数,并实现了增扭负载换挡与梭行换挡。在分析了整体功能要求的基础上,确定了变速器的传动方案及结构,设计了副变速器液压控制系统,并对拖拉机各挡总传动比及理论车速进行了设计计算。同时,绘制了拖拉机牵引力和比油耗曲线,定义拖拉机牵引功率利用率和比油耗损失率用以评价拖拉机动力性和燃油经济性,并通过计算比较了改进前后拖拉机的动力性和燃油经济性情况。%With the advantage of uninterrupted output power in the process of gear shift, power shift transmission is wide-ly used on Tractor abroad.In this paper, a new type power shift auxiliary gearbox is developed.The new type auxiliary gearbox increases the number of gear positions and has the function of torque booster and shuttle shift.Based on the anal-ysis of function requirements, the general drive scheme and structural style is obtained.The hydraulic control system is designed, and gear ratios and theoretical travel speeds are calculated.The tractor traction and specific fuel consumption curves are drawn.The traction power utilization and specific fuel consumption loss rate is defined to evaluate the tractor dynamic and fuel economy performance .The tractor dynamic and fuel economy performance of original tractor and im-proved tractor is compared through calculation.

  18. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  19. Integration issues of a plasma contactor Power Electronics Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; York, Kenneth W.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1995-06-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor is baselined on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) for spacecraft charge control. The plasma contactor system consists of a hollow cathode assembly (HCA), a power electronics unit (PEU), and an expellant management unit (EMU). The plasma contactor has recently been required to operate in a cyclic mode to conserve xenon expellant and extend system life. Originally, a DC cathode heater converter was baselined for a continuous operation mode because only a few ignitions of the hollow cathode were expected. However, for cyclic operation, a DC heater supply can potentially result in hollow cathode heater component failure due to the DC electrostatic field. This can prevent the heater from attaining the proper cathode tip temperature for reliable ignition of the hollow cathode. To mitigate this problem, an AC cathode heater supply was therefore designed, fabricated, and installed into a modified PEU. The PEU was tested using resistive loads and then integrated with an engineering model hollow cathode to demonstrate stable steady-state operation. Integration issues such as the effect of line and load impedance on the output of the AC cathode heater supply and the characterization of the temperature profile of the heater under AC excitation were investigated.

  20. Integration issues of a plasma contactor Power Electronics Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; York, Kenneth W.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1995-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor is baselined on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) for spacecraft charge control. The plasma contactor system consists of a hollow cathode assembly (HCA), a power electronics unit (PEU), and an expellant management unit (EMU). The plasma contactor has recently been required to operate in a cyclic mode to conserve xenon expellant and extend system life. Originally, a DC cathode heater converter was baselined for a continuous operation mode because only a few ignitions of the hollow cathode were expected. However, for cyclic operation, a DC heater supply can potentially result in hollow cathode heater component failure due to the DC electrostatic field. This can prevent the heater from attaining the proper cathode tip temperature for reliable ignition of the hollow cathode. To mitigate this problem, an AC cathode heater supply was therefore designed, fabricated, and installed into a modified PEU. The PEU was tested using resistive loads and then integrated with an engineering model hollow cathode to demonstrate stable steady-state operation. Integration issues such as the effect of line and load impedance on the output of the AC cathode heater supply and the characterization of the temperature profile of the heater under AC excitation were investigated.

  1. Estimation of lifespan and economy parameters of steam-turbine power units in thermal power plants using varying regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The use of potent power units in thermal and nuclear power plants in order to regulate the loads results in intense wear of power generating equipment and reduction in cost efficiency of their operation. We review the methodology of a quantitative assessment of the lifespan and wear of steam-turbine power units and estimate the effect of various operation regimes upon their efficiency. To assess the power units' equipment wear, we suggest using the concept of a turbine's equivalent lifespan. We give calculation formulae and an example of calculation of the lifespan of a steam-turbine power unit for supercritical parameters of steam for different options of its loading. The equivalent lifespan exceeds the turbine's assigned lifespan only provided daily shutdown of the power unit during the night off-peak time. We obtained the engineering and economical indices of the power unit operation for different loading regulation options in daily and weekly diagrams. We proved the change in the prime cost of electric power depending on the operation regimes and annual daily number of unloading (non-use) of the power unit's installed capacity. According to the calculation results, the prime cost of electric power for the assumed initial data varies from 11.3 cents/(kW h) in the basic regime of power unit operation (with an equivalent operation time of 166700 hours) to 15.5 cents/(kW h) in the regime with night and holiday shutdowns. The reduction of using the installed capacity of power unit at varying regimes from 3.5 to 11.9 hours per day can increase the prime cost of energy from 4.2 to 37.4%. Furthermore, repair and maintenance costs grow by 4.5% and by 3 times, respectively, in comparison with the basic regime. These results indicate the need to create special maneuverable equipment for working in the varying section of the electric load diagram.

  2. Research and Application of Auxiliary Optimization Technology of Power Grid Accident Processing Based on the Mode of Regulation and Control Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Houzhen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident processing is the most important link of the scheduling of daily monitoring. The improvement of intelligent level is of great significance for improving the efficiency of accident processing scheduling, shortening the time of accident processing and preventing further deterioration of accidents. According to features of accident processing scheduling, this paper puts forward an integrated framework of aid decision-making of online accident processing based on large power grid, and carries out a study from five aspects, namely integrated information support platform, risk perception in advance, online fault diagnosis, aid decision-making afterwards and visual display, so as to conduct real-time tracking on operating state of power grid, eliminate potential safety hazards of power grid and upgrade power grid from “manual analysis” scheduling to “intelligent analysis” scheduling.

  3. The medical auxiliary in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P C

    1973-05-05

    One of the steps taken by the government to break the cycle of poverty and ill-health in rural Malaysia is the establishment of a rural health service. Initially, the health unit served 50,000 people; it consisted of 1 main health center; 4 health subcenters, and 20 midwife stations. By the end of 1970, 44 main health centers, 180 health subcenters, and 943 midwife stations were in operation, creating a great demand for all types of health personnel: professional, paramedical, and auxiliary. Doctors are unevenly distributed in West Malaysia: in urban areas, the ratio of doctors to population is 1 to 1500; in rural areas, the ratio is 1 to 25,000. Paramedicals are unevenly distributed too. The scarcity of professionals in rural areas is attributed to professionals' demand for high salaries and the corresponding requirement of professional and social settings which rural areas cannot provide. The rural health unit utilized the tiered pyramidal system for staffing, with heavy reliance on auxiliary personnel. This system enabled the rapid expansion of rural health services, helping reach over a third of the population in just 15 years. As a consequence, infant, toddler and maternal mortality rates declined substantially. Traditional birth attendants, or kampong bidans, are currently being trained, on an experimental basis, simple principles of hygiene and family planning. With the enforcement of the Midwives Act in 1971, indigenous midwives have not been permitted to register as legitimate midwives and are now subject to supervision by health authorities. Future plans include retraining single-purpose midwives in child health and nursing, and giving all assistant nurses midwifery training. The aim is to make these 2 auxiliaries multipurpose community nurse-midwives. Experiences of developed countries show that demand for auxiliaries will continue to increase with the growth of professional personnel.

  4. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  5. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  6. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  7. 77 FR 52765 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Millstone Power Station Unit 1, a permanently defueled boiling water reactor nuclear unit, and Millstone...-water nuclear power reactors,'' requires that each power reactor meet the acceptance criteria for ECCS... Reactions at High Temperatures, III. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Zirconium-Water...

  8. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  9. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  10. Characterization of wind power resource in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Gunturu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind resource in the continental and offshore United States has been reconstructed and characterized using metrics that describe, apart from abundance, its availability, persistence and intermittency. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA boundary layer flux data has been used to construct wind profile at 50 m, 80 m, 100 m, 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density (WPD estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar to those in the US wind atlas developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, but quantitatively a class less in some regions, but are within the limits of uncertainty. The wind speeds at 80 m were quantitatively and qualitatively close to the NREL wind map. The possible reasons for overestimation by NREL have been discussed. For long tailed distributions like those of the WPD, the mean is an overestimation and median is suggested for summary representation of the wind resource.

    The impact of raising the wind turbine hub height on metrics of abundance, persistence, variability and intermittency is analyzed. There is a general increase in availability and abundance of wind resource but there is an increase in intermittency in terms of level crossing rate in low resource regions.

  11. New power plant units in Russia; Neue Kraftwerksbloecke fuer Russland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Horst; Kraemer, Ralph [TETRA ENERGIE GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Bull, Thomas; Sperling, Dietmar [EON Russian Power (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the privatisation of the Russian electricity industry, the power stations were liberated from the power supply company RAO EES ROSSII. Six power station combinations and ten power station federations were created. In order to ensure a fair competition between the power station combinations, special attention was given to a comparable priority with respect to age, fuel fundamentals and efficiency. This principle resulted in a technical differentiation and in a territorially scattered situation of the individual power stations. The individual power stations are described in the contribution under consideration.

  12. Solar Power Constellations Implications for the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Ralph Nansen, who worked on the first government sponsored solar power satellite studies, and is the author of Sun Power : The Global Solution for the...Ad Astra (Jan/Feb 1998). 36. 7 Nansen, Ralph. Sun Power : The Global Solution for the Coming Energy Crisis. (Canada: Ocean Press, 1995) 206. 8...Lasers that Beam Power to Earth.” Aerospace America (July 1999): 50. 18 Nansen, Ralph. Sun Power : The Global Solution for the Coming Energy Crisis

  13. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  14. 核电厂辅助冷却水系统水锤计算与防护%Water Hammer Calculation and Prevention of Auxiliary Cooling Water System in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学华; 熊兴才; 薛海青

    2014-01-01

    对核电厂常规岛辅助冷却水系统由板式换热器改为管壳式换热器并取消升压泵的方案特点进行了定性分析,指出了系统方案改进后的辅助冷却水系统正常停运时会产生水锤现象。通过对辅助冷却水系统建模定量计算了循环水泵停泵工况时的水锤最大压力,提出了通过调整阀门关闭时间消除水锤现象的防护方案并进行了计算验证。%ABSTRACT:This paper,first of all,qualitatively analyzes the characteristic of the auxiliary cooling water system of the conventional island of the nuclear power plant which uses the tube heater instead of the plate heater,pointing out that water hammer phenomena may be caused in the improved system. The maximum pressure of the water hammer when the circulating water pump is shut down is simulated and calculated. Finally the paper proposes the water hammer prevention solution of regulating the valve closing time and certifies the scheme by calculation.

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  16. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  17. Analysis on Auxiliary Decision-Making for Start-up of Power Emergency Command Center Under Sudden Events%突发事件下电力应急指挥中心启动辅助决策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗华峰; 房鑫炎; 俞国勤; 赵彤彤

    2014-01-01

    针对电力应急指挥中心启动没有明确的决策依据且指挥中心时常用于应急指挥外其他工作场景的情况,提出了分级预备状态方案和触发因子方案用于实现突发事件下应急指挥中心的启动辅助决策分析,并重点讨论了分级预备状态方案。设置了三级预备状态,分别对应不同的工作模式。在进行停电严重程度预估的基础上,利用TOPSIS法判断应该进入哪一级预备状态。该方案丰富和完善了电力应急管理运行机制,使得应急指挥中心能够根据决策提前做好相应准备工作,达到资源的合理利用。最后用基于39节点系统的两个算例验证了该方案的合理性和有效性。%In allusion to the situation that there is not definite basis of decision-making for the start-up of power emergency command center and the power emergency command center is often utilized for working scenes other than emergency command, a hierarchical preparation status scheme and a trigger factor scheme are proposed to implement the analysis on auxiliary decision-making for start-up of power emergency command center under sudden events, and the hierarchical preparation status scheme is emphatically discussed. Three levels of preparation status that correspond to different working modes are set. On the basis of predicting the severity degree of power outage, the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is used to judge which level of preparation state should be entered into. The proposed schemes enrich and improve the power emergency management operation mechanism and make the power emergency command center enable to prepare accordingly, thus the rational use of resources can be achieved. The reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed schemes are validated by simulation results of two cases based on a certain 39-bus system.

  18. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

  19. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A power supply concept capable of operation over 25:1 and 64:1 impedance ranges at full power has been successfully demonstrated in our Phase I effort at...

  20. Advanced technology components for model GTP305-2 aircraft auxiliary power system. Final report 6 May 75-15 Jul 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Large, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The GTP305-2 Advanced APU is a single shaft, all shaft power engine incorporating an axial-centrifugal compressor, a reverse flow annular combustor and a radial-axial turbine. Cycle analyses indicated a 10-percent high pressure compressor flow increase improved matching characteristics with the low pressure compressor. The combustion system is a reverse flow annular combustor with an air-assist/airblast fuel injection system. The radial-axial turbine stage is characterized by an integrally cast turbine rotor and a cast exhaust duct assembly. The Integrated Components Assembly (ICA) rig consists of the combustor and turbines with a dummy mass on the shaft to simulate the compressor. ICA testing was conducted to establish component performance at design operating conditions. ICA and cold air aerodynamic testing of the turbine stage and cooling flow effects, indicates design efficiency goals were exceeded. ICA test results, cold-air testing and combustion system parameters were input to the cycle model. Room temperature strain-control LCF tests were performed and results analyzed on a Weibull distribution. Data analysis indicated LCF life improvement was obtained through HIP and heat treatment.

  1. 机器人及智能设备辅助电厂生产研究%Research on the production of robot and intelligent equipment auxiliary power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晖

    2016-01-01

    With theincreasingly fierce competition in the industry,labor costs become more expensive,the application of industrial robots has become the effective way for enterprises to reduce costs and improve the competitiveness.This thesis mainly includes four aspects:Maintenance robot,Inspection robot,Intelligent equipment how to application for power and Research and development of cloud platform of robot cluster collaborative work.Finally,elaborate the significance of the research.%随着行业竞争日趋激烈、人工成本日益昂贵,工业机器人的应用已经成为各企业降低成本、提升自身竞争力的有效手段。本论文主要研究检修机器人、巡检机器人、智能设备在电站应用以及机器人集群协同工作云平台的研发,最后阐述研究意义。

  2. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  3. 一种高压宽范围输入辅助电源的设计%The Design of Auxiliary Power Supply with Wide Range and High Input Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 郑晟; 张军明

    2011-01-01

    Based on input-series and output-parallel(ISOP) converter and multiple output flyback converter,a kind of auxiliary power supply applicated to high power system is proposed.In the proposed scheme,a new control method with primary side current feedback is presented,so it ensures input voltage sharing and output current sharing of the modules among the ISOP converter,improves the degree of isolation between primary side and secondary side,and e-liminates the opto-coupler from the circuit.Some problems of the new method of control and the design of transformer are analysed.Finally the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method and the design.%基于输入串联输出并联(ISOP)变换器和多路输出反激变换器,提出了一种应用于中大功率系统的辅助电源.该电源采用一种初级电流反馈的输入均压输出均流的控制方法,保证了输入电压均压与输出电流均流,提高了初、次级电路之间的绝缘等级,省掉了光耦.分析了电源系统的控制方法和变压器的设计等问题,实验结果验证了控制和设计的正确性.

  4. 机车辅助供电系统状态在线检测系统设计与实现%Design and implementation of Locomotive Auxiliary Power System of State-line Inspection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小飞

    2011-01-01

    As a back-up power supply of locomotive control circuit, VRLA was to ensure the defense for the normal operation of locomotive equipment. In order to protect the batteries work, it was designed and implemented a Locomotive Auxiliary Power System of State-line Detection System. The System could detect the battery status of work by the ratio of voltage difference and time difference, which was able to real-time monitor the battery. Data was stored in the U disk through the USB module. In order to establish the appropriate management and maintenance files, it could be used host computer software to analyze the data and find faulty batteries timely. It might be ensure the normal use of locomotive of great significance.%免维护铅酸蓄电池作为机车控制电路的后备电源,是确保机车各项设备正常运行的一道防线.为保障蓄电池正常工作,设计并实现一种机车辅助供电系统状态在线检测系统.该系统通过电压差与时间差的比值来检测蓄电池的工作状况,实时监控蓄电池,并且通过USB模块将数据储存在U盘中,利用上位机软件对数据进行分析,建立相应的管理维修档案,及时找出故障电池,对确保机车的正常运用具有十分重要的意义.

  5. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P. [Bechtel Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  6. 78 FR 37592 - Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License, which authorizes operation of Fort Calhoun Station (FCS), Unit 1....

  7. 76 FR 28481 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental... Nos. DPR 71 and DPR-62, issued to Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), for operation of the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant (BSEP), Units 1 and 2, located in Brunswick County, North Carolina....

  8. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  9. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  10. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  11. Novel Chiral Auxiliaries of BIAZOLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Arh-Hwang

    2001-01-01

    Asymmetric catalysis is one of the most challenging and formidable endeavor in organic synthesis. The development of chiral auxiliaries is a key in the asymmetric catalysis. Azulenoids, a parent structure of bicyclo[5.3.0]decapentaene with 10 πelectrons, are useful as dye materials, medical treatment of inflammation and hypertension, and the development of liquid crystals. In continuing to investigate synthetic application of azulenoids, we have studied to develop novel chiral auxiliaries of BIAZOLs. The BIAZOLs were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene and characterized using spectroscopies.  ……

  12. Novel Chiral Auxiliaries of BIAZOLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Arh-Hwang; YUAN Shou-Bin; CHIU Shu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    @@ Asymmetric catalysis is one of the most challenging and formidable endeavor in organic synthesis. The development of chiral auxiliaries is a key in the asymmetric catalysis. Azulenoids, a parent structure of bicyclo[5.3.0]decapentaene with 10 πelectrons, are useful as dye materials, medical treatment of inflammation and hypertension, and the development of liquid crystals. In continuing to investigate synthetic application of azulenoids, we have studied to develop novel chiral auxiliaries of BIAZOLs. The BIAZOLs were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene and characterized using spectroscopies.

  13. Tight MIP formulations of the power-based unit commitment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Espana, G.A.; Gentile, C.; Ramos, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the convex hull description for the basic operation of slow- and quick-start units in power-based unit commitment (UC) problems. The basic operating constraints that are modeled for both types of units are (1) generation limits and (2) minimum up and down times. Apart from this,

  14. 田阳县那坡镇宝美村龙达屯水利配套工程隧洞设计%The Tunnel Design of Water & Power Auxiliary Project in Longda Village of Baomei Hamlet in Napo Town of Tianyang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺钠

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the tunnel condition of water&power auxiliary project in Longda village of Baomei hamlet in Napo town of Tianyang county, and explains the design description of the drainage tunnel.%  文章介绍了田阳县那坡镇宝美村龙达屯水利配套工程隧洞概况,并对其排涝隧洞进行设计说明。

  15. Diplomacy as National Power: United States Policy on South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliker, Grant

    Power in general theory is defined as having three forms: coercive, utilitarian, and normative. In international relations, emphasis is placed on the first two to the neglect of the third. In this paper, the term "diplomacy" is used for normative power in international relations. Diplomacy is related to three policy making stages and to five…

  16. Diplomacy as National Power: United States Policy on South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliker, Grant

    Power in general theory is defined as having three forms: coercive, utilitarian, and normative. In international relations, emphasis is placed on the first two to the neglect of the third. In this paper, the term "diplomacy" is used for normative power in international relations. Diplomacy is related to three policy making stages and to…

  17. Shadow Radiation Shield Required Thickness Estimation for Space Nuclear Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodina, E. V.; Martishin, V. M.; Ivanovsky, V. A.; Prasolova, N. O.

    The paper concerns theoretical possibility of visiting orbital transport vehicles based on nuclear power unit and electric propulsion system on the Earth's orbit by astronauts to maintain work with payload from the perspective of radiation safety. There has been done estimation of possible time of the crew's staying in the area of payload of orbital transport vehicles for different reactor powers, which is a consistent part of nuclear power unit.

  18. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dagher, Leila [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  20. 76 FR 36864 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 14, 2011 (76 FR 8314). Only one comment was received, which... normal sources of engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) generated electrical power inoperative. Service experience has shown that loss of all electrical power from the airplane's engine and APU driven...

  1. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired...

  2. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters can be operated over a wide range of specific impulse while maintaining high efficiency. However S/C power system constraints on electric propulsion...

  3. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...... auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest...

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  5. Optimal control system design of an acid gas removal unit for an IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture should be operated optimally in the face of disturbances without violating operational and environmental constraints. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach is taken in this work to design the control system of a selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for a commercial-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The control system design is performed in two stages with the objective of minimizing the auxiliary power while satisfying operational and environmental constraints in the presence of measured and unmeasured disturbances. In the first stage of the control system design, a top-down analysis is used to analyze degrees of freedom, define an operational objective, identify important disturbances and operational/environmental constraints, and select the control variables. With the degrees of freedom, the process is optimized with relation to the operational objective at nominal operation as well as under the disturbances identified. Operational and environmental constraints active at all operations are chosen as control variables. From the results of the optimization studies, self-optimizing control variables are identified for further examination. Several methods are explored in this work for the selection of these self-optimizing control variables. Modifications made to the existing methods will be discussed in this presentation. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for control variables and due to the complexity of the underlying optimization problem, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. The second stage is a bottom-up design of the control layers used for the operation of the process. First, the regulatory control layer is

  6. Dynamics and design of a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyurin, S. Yu.; Kreinin, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of the preselection of parameters of a power unit of a mechatronic complex on the basis of the condition for providing a required control energy has been discussed. The design of the unit is based on analysis of its dynamics under the effect of a special-type test conditional control signal. The specific features of the approach used are a reasonably simplified normalized dynamic model of the unit and the formation of basic similarity criteria. Methods of designing a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator that operates in point-to-point and oscillatory modes have been considered.

  7. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary facilities. 57.6161 Section 57.6161...-Underground Only § 57.6161 Auxiliary facilities. (a) Auxiliary facilities used to store explosive material near work places shall be wooden, box-type containers equipped with covers or doors, or...

  8. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  9. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  11. Mathematical model of a FAZOS-17/27-POp powered support unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K.; Losiak, S.; Ptak, J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a mathematical model of the FAZOS-17/27-POp powered support for strata control at longwall faces 1.7-2.7 m high mined with caving or hydraulic stowing. A powered support unit consists of a base, 4 hydraulic legs in 2 rows, a canopy, a telescopic canopy for increasing canopy length, and a rear lemniscate shield. The mathematical models developed by the authors describe operation of the powered support unit with extended telescopic canopy and with a closed telescopic canopy. Factors which decisively influence powered support operation and methods for increasing support stability are discussed. 3 refs.

  12. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  13. The concept of extending the service life of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmolov, V. G.; Povarov, V. P.; Vitkovskii, S. L.; Berkovich, V. Ya.; Chetverikov, A. E.; Mozul', I. A.; Semchenkov, Yu. M.; Suslov, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Basic statements of the Concept of Extending the Service Life of the VVER-440-Based Power Units at the Novovoronezh NPP beyond 45 years are considered. This topic is raised in connection with the fact that that in December 2016 and in December 2017 the extended service lives of Units 3 and 4 at this NPP will expire. The adopted concept of repeatedly extending the service life of the Novovoronezh NPP Unit 4 implies fitting the power unit with additional reactor core cooling systems with a view to extend the (ultimate) design-basis accidents (which have hitherto been adopted to be a loss of coolant accident involving a leak of reactor coolant through a break with a nominal diameter of 100 mm) to a reactor coolant leak equivalent to rupture of the main reactor coolant pipeline. The modified Unit 4 will also use the safety systems of Unit 3 that is going to be decommissioned. Preliminary calculated assessments of the new design-basis accident scenario involving rupture of the reactor coolant pipeline in Unit 4 fitted with a new configuration of safety systems confirmed the correctness of the adopted concept of repeatedly extending the service life of Unit 4.

  14. Design Analysis of Power Extracting Unit of an Onshore OWC Based Wave Energy Power Plant using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Suleman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes design and analysis of power extracting unit of an onshore OWC (Oscillating Water Column based wave energy power plant of capacity about 100 kilowatts. The OWC is modeled as solid piston of a reciprocating pump. The power extracting unit is designed analytically by using the theory of reciprocating pumps and principles of fluid mechanics. Pro-E and ANSYS workbench softwares are used to verify the analytical design. The analytical results of the flow velocity in the turbine duct are compared with the simulation results. The results are found to be in good agreement with each other. The results achieved by this research would finally assist in the overall design of the power plant which is the ultimate goal of this research work.

  15. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): High Temperature Boost Power Processing Unit (PPU) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task is to investigate the technology path to develop a 10kW modular Silicon Carbide (SiC) based power processing unit (PPU). The PPU utilizes the high...

  16. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  17. Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    prototype tool motivated by Google Scholar which uses the DST Group for-official-use-only (FOUO) internal report database as its input. It provides DST...DST Group internal report database . The major output of the scholarship is the Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) which is, at the time of writing...Bunting. ALEX is a prototype tool motivated by Google Scholar which uses the DST Group for-official-use-only (FOUO) internal report database as its

  18. Assessment of Economic Efficiency Pertaining to Application of Energy Storage Units in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chernetsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some aspects pertaining to an application of technologies for energy storage in electric power. Review of technical and cost characteristics of energy storage units has been given in the paper. The review reflects data of the energy storage units which are available and which are under development. The paper proposes an approach that permits to assess boundaries of economically reasonable application of energy storage systems in order to balance daily load curve of a power system.

  19. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Stephen R

    2003-07-01

    The basic question asked in the beginning of this article was whether the evidence from research is persuasive enough to conclude that competition in the meatpacking industry is deficient. The literature review led to the conclusion that the answer is no. Research varies widely in terms of data and methodologic approaches. The research, however, clearly finds evidence of market power. Many SCP studies indicated the existence and exercise of market power, but the failure of the paradigm makes definitive conclusions dangerous. The NEIO studies showed a persistent gap between the price of livestock and marginal costs but the studies did not incorporate sufficient detail to prove specific behavior. Azzam and Anderson [4] conducted an extensive review of competition in meatpacking. In their summary, they offered criticisms of the SCP approach and the conduct parameter approach. These investigators concluded that the body of empiric evidence was insufficient to persuasively argue that the meatpacking industry was not competitive. Sexton [69] discussed more recent critiques of the conduct parameter appraoch. Despite its weaknesses, he concluded that market power estimates in meatpacking are modest but that structural changes on balance are beneficial, from an efficiency viewpoint. Examining the evidence either by data aggregation, methodology, or time period results in little difference in the qualitative interpretation. The research community has done what Nicholls [2] said was needed. The need remains relevant. The research leaves us with a clear picture and nagging questions. Azzam and Anderson [4] recommended that further research focus on the process of competition or the rivalrous interaction between competitors, and on competitors' strategies for responding to technologic and market forces, as the business history of the industry suggests. Specifically, they recommended two approaches. First, to develop empiric pricing models for short-term monitoring. Such models

  20. A Comprehensive Design Approach of Power Electronic-Based Distributed Generation Units Focused on Power Quality Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza, Miguel; Segundo-Ramirez, Juan; Nunez, Ciro

    2017-01-01

    The undesirable harmonic distortion produced by distributed generation units (DGUs) based on power electronic inverters presents operating and power quality challenges in electric systems. ‡e level of distortion depends on the internal elements of the DGUs as well as on the characteristics...... of the grid, loads, controls, among others. ‡is paper presents a comprehensive method, focused on power quality indexes and e�ciency for the design of micro-grids with multiple DGUs interconnected to the AC grid through three phase multi-Megawatt medium-voltage PWM voltage source inverters (PWM-VSI). ‡e...

  1. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Gail E. [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Gillingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  2. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) power supply for the Power Processing Unit (PPU) of...

  3. Construction and preoperational test of Kashiwasaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Nobuo; Noda, Hiroshi [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Unit 6 of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the world`s first advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), is progressing ahead of the originally established schedule since the start of its construction in September 1991, and commercial operation is scheduled to start before the end of 1996.

  4. 78 FR 66385 - Omaha Public Power District Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-40, which authorizes operation of Fort Calhoun Station...

  5. 75 FR 15744 - Omaha Public Power District; Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District; Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-40 which authorizes operation of the Fort...

  6. VECTOR-VALUED RANDOM POWER SERIES ON THE UNIT BALL OF Cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors study the vector-valued random power series on the unit ball of Cn and get vector-valued Salem-Zygmund theorem for them by using martingale technique. Further, the relationships between vector-valued random power series and several function spaces are also studied.

  7. Isolated battery charger with unit power factor; Carregador de baterias isolado com fator de potencia unitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co, Marcio Almeida

    1993-05-01

    This work presents a single phase, isolated AC/DC converter (Battery Charger) with active power factor correction in a single stage of power processing. the topology studied is the fed-current full-bridge, in boost mode operation, at fixed switching frequency. After a complete design of converter and simulations, the results of a 1.500 W e 50 kHz prototype are shown. a Unit Power Factor and Total Harmonic Distortion less than 5% were obtained. (author)

  8. Semiconductor laser diodes and the design of a D.C. powered laser diode drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccio, Joseph C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses the design, development and operational analysis of a D.C. powered semiconductor laser diode drive unit. A laser diode requires an extremely stable power supply since a picosecond spike of current or power supply switching transient could result in permanent damage. The design offers stability and various features for operational protection of the laser diode. The ability to intensity modulate (analog) and pulse m...

  9. Program documentation. Program description and user information for the hydraulics/auxiliary power unit (HYDRA) computer program. [for the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A timeline containing altitude, control surface deflection rates and angles, hinge moment loads, thrust vector control gimbal rates, and main throttle settings is used to derive the model. The timeline is constructed from the output of one or more trajectory simulation programs.

  10. 基于FADEC的辅助动力装置半实物仿真系统%HILS System of Auxiliary Power Unit Based on FADEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱小娟

    2009-01-01

    以某型辅助动力装置(APU)为控制对象,设计了全权限数字电子控制器,基于该控制器设计了APU的控制软件,通过接入仿真监控系统、传感器、执行机构等实物建立了APU的半实物仿真平台.对APU实际工作过程的半实物仿真结果表明,该系统能有效地控制APU,并实时反映APU的运行情况,为APU系统的研制提供了良好的试验手段.

  11. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  12. Power developed by motor units of the peroneus tertius muscle of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnes; Gioux, Maxime

    2003-11-01

    The mechanical properties of motor units have been extensively studied under isometric conditions. Under dynamic conditions, the relationship between the force developed by single motor units and the muscle shortening velocity was determined for relatively high frequencies of activation. However, the interaction between the force-shortening velocity relation and the force-rate of activation relation was still unknown. We studied the power (which is the product of force and velocity) developed by single or groups of motor units during sinusoidal muscle stretches of 1-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-Hz frequency. Motor units were stimulated with frequencies of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Hz during the shortening phase of the muscle stretch. The relationships, for different shortening velocities, between the power developed by single or groups of motor units and the frequency of stimulation were sigmoidal. However, these relations were not proportional to the shortening velocity. The relationships, for different frequencies of stimulation, between the power and the shortening velocity exhibited a maximum. The shortening velocity at which this maximum occurred increased with the frequency of stimulation. Slow motor units showed the lowest of those shortening velocities, whereas the fast fatigable motor units showed the highest. Groups of slow (or fast fatigue resistant) motor units had similar shortening velocities to those of single slow (or fast fatigue resistant) motor units. A mathematical function was fitted, using regression analysis, for all single and groups of motor units to the relationship among the power, the shortening velocity, and the frequency of activation. This function allowed examination, for different shortening velocity-frequency of activation combinations, of the relationship between the power developed by single and groups of motor units and the maximal isometric tetanic force they developed. These relationships were usually not monotonic but a monotonic

  13. The Future Potential of Waver Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic; Jeff Epler; Maureen Hand; Donna Heimiller; Walter Short; Kelly Eurek

    2012-09-20

    The theoretical ocean wave energy resource potential exceeds 50% of the annual domestic energy demand of the United States, is located close to coastal population centers, and, although variable in nature, may be more consistent and predictable than some other renewable generation technologies. As a renewable electricity generation technology, ocean wave energy offers a low air pollutant option for diversifying the U.S. electricity generation portfolio. Furthermore, the output characteristics of these technologies may complement other renewable technologies. This study addresses the following: (1) The theoretical, technical and practical potential for electricity generation from wave energy (2) The present lifecycle cost profile (Capex, Opex, and Cost of Electricity) of wave energy conversion technology at a reference site in Northern California at different plant scales (3) Cost of electricity variations as a function of deployment site, considering technical, geo-spatial and and electric grid constraints (4) Technology cost reduction pathways (5) Cost reduction targets at which the technology will see significant deployment within US markets, explored through a series of deployment scenarios RE Vision Consulting, LLC (RE Vision), engaged in various analyses to establish current and future cost profiles for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies, quantified the theoretical, technical and practical resource potential, performed electricity market assessments and developed deployment scenarios. RE Vision was supported in this effort by NREL analysts, who compiled resource information, performed analysis using the ReEDSa model to develop deployment scenarios, and developed a simplified assessment of the Alaska and Hawaii electricity markets.

  14. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1996-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  15. Effect of Modifications to Induction System on Altitude Performance of V-1710-93 Engine III : Use of Parabolic Rotating Guide Vanes and NACA Designed Auxiliary-stage Inlet Elbow and Interstage Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standahar, Ray M; Mccarty, James S

    1947-01-01

    Bench runs of a modified V-1710-93 engine equipped with a two-stage supercharger, interstage carburetor, aftercooler assembly, and backfire screens have been made at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet to determine the effect of several induction-system modifications on the engine and supercharger performance. The standard guide vanes on the auxiliary- and engine-stage superchargers were replaced by rotating guide vanes with a parabolic blade profile. The auxiliary-stage inlet elbow and interstage duct were replaced with new units of NACA design. These modifications were made one at a time and data were obtained after each change to determine the effect of each modification. All runs were made at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet and all changes in engine power were made by varying the speed of the auxiliary-stage supercharger.

  16. A variant of the dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2008-01-01

    in the system, the number of periods over the planning horizon and the time for solving a single-period economic dispatch problem. We have compared the DP-RSC1 algorithm with realistic power plants against the unit decommitment algorithm and the traditional priority listing method. The results show that the DP...... introduce in this paper the DP-RSC1 algorithm, which is a variant of the dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units and sequential commitment of units one by one. The time complexity of DP-RSC1 is proportional to the number of generating units...

  17. ASP - Grid connections of large power generating units; ASP - Anslutning av stoerre produktionsanlaeggningar till elnaetet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Aake; Larsson, Richard [Vattenfall Power Consultants, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Grid connections of large power generating units normally require more detailed studies compared to small single units. The required R and D-level depends on the specific characteristics of the production units and the connecting grid. An inquiry for a grid connection will raise questions for the grid owner regarding transmission capability, losses, fault currents, relay protection, dynamic stability etc. Then only a few larger wind farms have been built, the experiences from these types of grid connections are limited and for that reason it can be difficult to identify issues appropriate for further studies. To ensure that electric power generating units do not have unacceptable impact on the grid, directions from the Swedish TSO (Svenska Kraftnaet) have been stated. The directions deal, for example, with power generation in specific ranges of voltage level and frequency and the possibility to remain connected to the grid when different faults occur. The requirements and the consequences of these directions are illustrated. There are three main issues that should be considered: Influence on the power flow from generating units regarding voltage level, currents, losses etc.; Different types of electric systems in generating units contribute to different levels of fault currents. For that reason the resulting fault current levels have to be studied; It is required that generating units should remain connected to the grid at different modes of operation and faults. These modes have to be verified. Load flow and dynamic studies normally demand computer models. Comprehensive models, for instance of wind farms, can bee difficult to design and normally large computer capacity is required. Therefore simplified methods to perform relevant studies are described. How to model an electric power generating unit regarding fault currents and dynamic stability is described. An inquiry for a grid connection normally brings about a discussion concerning administration. To make it

  18. A novel arc welding inverter with unit power factor based on DSP control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shujun; Zeng Hua; Du Li; Yin Shuyan; Chen Yonggang

    2006-01-01

    A novel inverter power source is developed characterized with constant output current and unit power factor input.Digital signal processor (DSP) is used to realize power factor correction and control of back-stage inverter bridge of the arc welding inverter. The fore-stage adopts double closed loop proportion and integration (PI) rectifier technique and the backstage adopts digital pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. Simulated waves can be obtained in Matlab/Simulink and validated by experiments. Experiments of the prototype showed that the total harmonic distortion (THD) can be controlled within 10% and the power factor is approximate to 1.

  19. Influence of nuclear power unit on decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of selected power technologies from the point of view of emissions of greenhouse gases. Such evaluation is most often based only on analysis of direct emissions from combustion. However, the direct analysis does not show full picture of the problem as significant emissions of GHG appear also in the process of mining and transportation of fuel. It is demonstrated in the paper that comparison of power technologies from the GHG point of view has to be done using the cumulative calculus covering the whole cycle of fuel mining, processing, transportation and end-use. From this point of view coal technologies are in comparable level as gas technologies while nuclear power units are characterised with lowest GHG emissions. Mentioned technologies are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions in full cycle. Specific GHG cumulative emission factors per unit of generated electricity are determined. These factors have been applied to simulation of the influence of introduction of nuclear power units on decrease of GHG emissions in domestic scale. Within the presented simulations the prognosis of domestic power sector development according to the Polish energy policy till 2030 has been taken into account. The profitability of introduction of nuclear power units from the point of view of decreasing GHG emissions has been proved.

  20. A Reliability Improvement Program Planning Report for the SNAP 10A Space Nuclear Power Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, M. G.; Smith, C. K.; Wilson, L. A.

    1961-03-14

    The estimated achieved reliability of SNAP 10A space nuclear power units will be relatively low at the timeof the first SNAPSHOT flight test in April 1963 and the existing R&D program does not provide a significant reliabiity growth thereafter. The total costs of an 8-satellite network using SNAP 10A units over a 5-year period has been approximated for the case where the total cost of a single satellite launched is 8 million dollars.

  1. Power conversion unit for linear motor drive for electric railcar; Linear motor kudo denshayo shuhenkan sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Power conversion units have been delivered, designed for use aboard linear motor-driven electric railcars to connect JFK Airport, New York City, and its outskirts. Using this system, 750VDC power is collected from a third rail, and AC power is supplied from two power conversion units installed on each railcar to linear motors mounted on two sets of bogies, one for each bogie set. The railcar may be operated singly, and its maximum speed is 110km/h. This is the first linear motor-driven railcar ever to run by vector control. It is found that the railcar is highly responsive to control across the whole speed range including sudden changes in load. The railcars will come into service operation upon completion of the railroads now being constructed. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

  3. Optimization models of the supply of power structures’ organizational units with centralized procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysoiev Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of the state power structures’ organizational units for materiel and technical support requires the use of effective tools for supporting decisions, due to the complexity, interdependence, and dynamism of supply in the market economy. The corporate nature of power structures is of particular interest to centralized procurement management, as it provides significant advantages through coordination, eliminating duplication, and economy of scale. This article presents optimization models of the supply of state power structures’ organizational units with centralized procurement, for different levels of simulated materiel and technical support processes. The models allow us to find the most profitable options for state power structures’ organizational supply units in a centre-oriented logistics system in conditions of the changing needs, volume of allocated funds, and logistics costs that accompany the process of supply, by maximizing the provision level of organizational units with necessary material and technical resources for the entire planning period of supply by minimizing the total logistical costs, taking into account the diverse nature and the different priorities of organizational units and material and technical resources.

  4. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 1: Auxiliary BE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna L.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The question of how and when English-speaking children acquire auxiliaries is the subject of extensive debate. Some researchers posit the existence of innately given Universal Grammar principles to guide acquisition, although some aspects of the auxiliary system must be learned from the input. Others suggest that auxiliaries can be…

  5. Optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units to Improve Parallel Power System Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) across the weak areas of the power system to monitor the status of the boundary buses during Parallel Power System Restoration (PPSR). The proposed PMU placement method is based on an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) methodology. For validation purposes, the proposed method is implemented across the weak areas of the following two test systems: New England 39-bus test system and IEEE 118-bus test system.

  6. Shortening start-up and an extension of the power unit load range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A power plant with additional water pressure tanks was proposed. The maximum rise in the block electric power resulting from the shut-off of low-pressure regenerative heaters was determined. At that time, the boiler is fed with hot water from water pressure tanks acting as heat accumulators. Accumulation of hot water in water tanks is also proposed in the periods of the power unit small load. In order to lower the plant electric power in the off-peak night hours, water heated to the nominal temperature in low-pressure regenerative heaters is directed from the feed water tank to pressure tanks. The water accumulated during the night is used to feed the boiler during the period of peak demand for electricity. Pressure accumulators are proposed to be used for the rapid start-up of the boiler from a cold state. The evaporator of the boiler is filled at the beginning of start-up with hot water from the accumulators. Drops in the power block electric power were determined for different capacities of the tanks and periods when they are charged. The tanks may also be used to ensure a sudden increase in the electric power of the unit that is operating in the automatic system of frequency and power control (in Polish: ARCM.

  7. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  8. The effects of electric power industry restructuring on the safety of nuclear power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas S.

    Throughout the United States the electric utility industry is restructuring in response to federal legislation mandating deregulation. The electric utility industry has embarked upon an extraordinary experiment by restructuring in response to deregulation that has been advocated on the premise of improving economic efficiency by encouraging competition in as many sectors of the industry as possible. However, unlike the telephone, trucking, and airline industries, the potential effects of electric deregulation reach far beyond simple energy economics. This dissertation presents the potential safety risks involved with the deregulation of the electric power industry in the United States and abroad. The pressures of a competitive environment on utilities with nuclear power plants in their portfolio to lower operation and maintenance costs could squeeze them to resort to some risky cost-cutting measures. These include deferring maintenance, reducing training, downsizing staff, excessive reductions in refueling down time, and increasing the use of on-line maintenance. The results of this study indicate statistically significant differences at the .01 level between the safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants and boiling water reactor nuclear power plants. Boiling water reactors exhibited significantly more problems than did pressurized water reactors.

  9. Energy saving in the auxiliaries consumption for circulation water pumps optimizing the thermal regime; Ahorro en el consumo de auxiliares por bombas de agua de circulacion optimando el regimen termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Martinez, Roni [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A methodology is proposed that should be followed in any thermal electric power plant to determine the load value at which a unit requires a second circulation water pump without affecting the thermal regime and avoiding an excessive auxiliaries consumption in partial loads. In applying this method the power plant would have an energy saving equivalent to the auxiliaries consumption during an hour, when the unit as operating at full load. [Espanol] Se propone una metodologia que debe seguirse en cualquier central termoelectrica para determinar el valor de la carga en la cual una unidad requiere de la segunda bomba de agua de circulacion sin afectar el regimen termico y evitadose un excesivo consumo de auxiliares en cargas parciales. Al aplicar este metodo la central tendria un ahorro de energia equivalente al consumo de auxiliares durante una hora cuando la unidad esta generando su maxima carga.

  10. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  11. Dynamic Placement of Wind Power Distributed Generation Units in Distribution Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Baghayipour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    process. Thereby, an accurate dynamic model of the active and reactive powers injected by Wind DG to the system is employed in which the interactions between the Wind DG and the distribution network are well regarded. Finally, simulation results are given to show the capability of proposed approach......The placement problem of Distributed Generators (DGs) in distribution networks becomes much more complicated in the case of using the DGs with renewable energy resources, due to several causes like their intermittent output powers, the interactions between DGs and the rest of distribution network......, and other involved uncertainties. This paper develops a new approach for optimal placement of Wind DGs in which all of such influences are perfectly handled. This method simultaneously considers the time variations of dynamic nodal demands, nodal voltage magnitudes, and wind speed in the Wind DG placement...

  12. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  13. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended.

  14. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1998. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions and generating unit changes. This report is prepared annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data or nonconfidential data of nonutilities are presented, it is specifically noted as nonutility data. 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  16. Water energy resources of the United States with emphasis on low head/low power resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Cherry, Shane J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Reeves, Kelly S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Lee, Randy D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Carroll, Gregory R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Verdin, Kristine L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A, and similar presentations for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  17. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...) (``The 1996 Act'') authorizing the Auxiliary organizational structure, extending civil liability..., status, and role in Coast Guard operations, and update provisions on liability protection for Auxiliary... Private Property H. Civil Justice Reform I. Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments K....

  18. United Nations deliberations of the use of nuclear power sources in space: 1978-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Sholtis, Joseph A., Jr.; Rashkow, Bruce C.

    1988-01-01

    The United Nations (U.N.) is continuing its deliberations on the use of nuclear power sources (NPS) in space. Although no complete set of legal principles has yet been agreed upon, certain scientific and technical criteria for the safe design and use of NPS have been accepted. In this respect, it should be noted that in its 1981 report, the Working Group on the Use of Power Sources in Outer Space concluded that power sources can be used safely in outer space, provided that all necessary safety requirements are met. This is also a succinct statement of the U.S. position.

  19. Power in the National Health Service: a case study of a unit considering NHS Trust status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, E

    1991-07-01

    There are a number of theoretical frameworks which aim to provide a language for understanding and discussing the nature of power and influence in organisational decision making. One of the most recent and comprehensive frameworks is that developed by Mintzberg. Following a resumé of the most pertinent sections of Mintzberg's framework, this paper uses it to investigate the power relationships in an NHS Mental Health Unit (MHU) considering NHS Trust status. This investigation reveals some important conclusions about the nature of power in the NHS but also explores some of the limitations of the framework as a descriptive and predictive tool.

  20. Incorporating Wind Power Forecast Uncertainties Into Stochastic Unit Commitment Using Neural Network-Based Prediction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, into power systems significantly increases the uncertainties on system operation, stability, and reliability in smart grids. In this paper, the nonparametric neural network-based prediction intervals (PIs) are implemented for forecast uncertainty quantification. Instead of a single level PI, wind power forecast uncertainties are represented in a list of PIs. These PIs are then decomposed into quantiles of wind power. A new scenario generation method is proposed to handle wind power forecast uncertainties. For each hour, an empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) is fitted to these quantile points. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate scenarios from the ECDF. Then the wind power scenarios are incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the stochastic SCUC problem. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies incorporated with interval forecasts of wind power are implemented. The results of these cases are presented and discussed together. Generation costs, and the scheduled and real-time economic dispatch reserves of different unit commitment strategies are compared. The experimental results show that the stochastic model is more robust than deterministic ones and, thus, decreases the risk in system operations of smart grids.

  1. Coalition of distributed generation units to virtual power players - a game theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Santos, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    and the existence of new management players such as several types of aggregators. This paper proposes a methodology to facilitate the coalition between distributed generation units originating Virtual Power Players (VPP) considering a game theory approach. The proposed approach consists in the analysis...

  2. Information as Power: An Anthology of Selected United States Army War College Student Papers. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Groh, Benjamin C. Leitzel, Lawrence E. Strobel, and Mark A. Van Dyke Information as Power is a refereed anthology of United States Army War College...is now the capitol of Serbia. 39. EL Quarantelli, “The Disaster Research Center ( DRC ) Field Studies of Organized Behavior in the Crisis Time Period of

  3. Using domain specific languages to improve the development of a power control unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the design of a power control unit at Philips, two Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) have been used. The first DSL provides a concise and readable notation for the essential state transitions. It is used to generate both configuration files and analysis models. In addition, we also generat

  4. 77 FR 59679 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    .... (DNC), Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS) and Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company (MMWE) (collectively ``the licensees'' or ``DNC, Inc., et al.'') are the co-holders of the Renewed... Power Station, Unit 3 (MPS3). CVPS is a non-operating owner of a 1.7303% interest in MPS3. DNC is...

  5. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... a permanently shut down nuclear reactor facility. PBAPS Unit 1 was a high-temperature, gas-cooled... nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' paragraph (b)(1) states, ``The licensee shall... its objective to provide high assurance that activities involving special nuclear material are...

  6. Validation of Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 Cycle 2 Refueling Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Cui-jie; XIA; Zhao-dong; ZHU; Qing-fu

    2015-01-01

    Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1Cycle 2refueling design was validated with the PWR core fuel management package CMS(CASMO5,CMSLINK5and SIMULATE5),including validating fuel management report,validating reload safety evaluation report,validating nuclear design report and validating physics tests report.

  7. Results from tests of the system for automatically controlling frequency and power of the PGU-450 power unit at the kaliningrad TETs-2 cogeneration station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, V. A.; Manevskaya, O. A.; Melamed, A. D.

    2008-10-01

    The structure of the system and the results of tests for checking the preparedness of the power unit for common primary control of the network frequency are described. An analysis of the results is presented, and an assessment is made of whether the PGU-450 unit can participate in selective primary and automatic secondary control of frequency and power.

  8. Unit commitment with wind power generation: integrating wind forecast uncertainty and stochastic programming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V. M.; Rocklin, M.; Lee, S.; Anitescu, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Chicago); (New York Univ.)

    2009-10-09

    We present a computational framework for integrating the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulations that account for wind power uncertainty. We first enhance the WRF model with adjoint sensitivity analysis capabilities and a sampling technique implemented in a distributed-memory parallel computing architecture. We use these capabilities through an ensemble approach to model the uncertainty of the forecast errors. The wind power realizations are exploited through a closed-loop stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulation. We discuss computational issues arising in the implementation of the framework. In addition, we validate the framework using real wind speed data obtained from a set of meteorological stations. We also build a simulated power system to demonstrate the developments.

  9. Strong Magnetic Units for a Wind Power Tower Inspection and Maintenance Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshan Gao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For developing a climbing robot which is used to inspect and maintain a wind power tower, the magnetic unit is one of the key components. Based on analysis of the working conditions of the robot, the approach in this paper is to use four common kinds of magnetic units for adapting to the conical surface. The magnetic circuit of these units is given by theory analysis and is simulated using ANSYS. Moreover, the magnetic force is analysed in detail and the results prove that the magnetic force is greatly influenced by the gap between the unit and the wall surface. In this paper, the design procedures and selection criteria based on the analytical results are given. Meanwhile, these units are compared with each other with the aid of ANSYS. From the results of this comparison, it can be ascertained that the unit using Installation C has the better performance. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the magnetic unit using Installation C is verified by a prototype. The simulations and experiments show that the magnetic unit can allow the robot to keep in contact with the conical wall surface as well as the plane wall surface.

  10. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  11. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  12. A Closed Brayton Power Conversion Unit Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude Russell; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt & Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level.

  13. Overview of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Power System Integration and Operation at Desert RATS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; George, Pat; Gambrell, Ronnie; Chapman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A habitat demonstration unit (HDU) was constructed at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and designed by a multicenter NASA team led out of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The HDU was subsequently utilized at the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) program held at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. This report describes the power system design, installation and operation for the HDU. The requirements for the power system were to provide 120 VAC, 28 VDC, and 120 VDC power to the various loads within the HDU. It also needed to be capable of providing power control and real-time operational data on the load's power consumption. The power system had to be capable of operating off of a 3 phase 480 VAC generator as well as 2 solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The system operated well during the 2 week Desert RATS campaign and met all of the main goals of the system. The power system is being further developed to meet the future needs of the HDU and options for this further development are discussed.

  14. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  15. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  16. New Developments in Auxiliary Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norreys, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The role of heating arising from the propagation of orthogonal petawatt-laser driven relativistic electron beams in dense plasma will be discussed. The energy cascade mechanism begins first with the rapid growth at 45 degrees to the two beams of electrostatic waves near the electron plasma frequency. These waves reach high amplitudes and break, which then results in the generation of a strongly driven turbulent Langmuir spectrum. Parametric decay of these waves, particularly via the modulational instability, then gives rise to a coupled turbulent ion acoustic spectrum. The resulting waves also give rise to ion heating through collisions via equilibration of both electrons and ions. In this talk, I will present the most recent analytic modelling, and particle-in-cell / Vlasov-Poisson simulation results from my team within Oxford Physics and the Central Laser Facility that explores the optimum parameter space for this process, focusing in particular on the requirements for auxiliary heating of the central hot spot in inertial confinement fusion target experiments. I will also describe new methods for hole-boring through the coronal plasma surrounding the fuel using strongly relativistic laser beams that demonstrates the strong suppression of the hosing instability under these conditions. Proof-of-concept experiments are under design for the Orion and OMEGA EP facilities.

  17. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  18. Energy Optimization Modeling of Geothermal Power Plant (Case Study: Darajat Geothermal Field Unit III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Darmanto, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    Darajat unit III geothermal power plant is developed by PT. Chevron Geothermal Indonesia (CGI). The plant capacity is 121 MW and load 110%. The greatest utilization power is consumed by Hot Well Pump (HWP) and Cooling Tower Fan (CTF). Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modelling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430.The possibility of energy saving is indicated by Specific Steam Consumption (SSC) net in relation to wet bulb temperature fluctuation from 9°C up to 20.5°C. Result shows that the existing daily operation reaches its optimum condition. The installation of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) could be applied to optimize both utility power of HWP and CTF. The highest gain is obtained by VFD HWP installation as much as 0.80% when wet bulb temperature 18.5 °C.

  19. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  20. One cutting plane algorithm using auxiliary functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabotin, I. Ya; Kazaeva, K. E.

    2016-11-01

    We propose an algorithm for solving a convex programming problem from the class of cutting methods. The algorithm is characterized by the construction of approximations using some auxiliary functions, instead of the objective function. Each auxiliary function bases on the exterior penalty function. In proposed algorithm the admissible set and the epigraph of each auxiliary function are embedded into polyhedral sets. In connection with the above, the iteration points are found by solving linear programming problems. We discuss the implementation of the algorithm and prove its convergence.

  1. H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-08-31

    This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.

  2. Oscillations in the power spectra of motor unit signals caused by refractoriness variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. L.; Tong, K. Y.; Hung, L. K.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory period of a motor unit is an important mechanism that regulates the motor unit firing, and its variation has been found in many physiological cases. In this study, a new observation that an increase in the motor unit refractoriness results in an enhancement of oscillations, or ripple effects, in the motor unit output power density spectra (PDS) has been identified and studied. The effects of the refractoriness variation on the PDS of motor unit firing were investigated on three levels: theoretical modeling, simulation and electromyographic (EMG) experimentation on human subjects. Both theoretical modeling and simulation showed the enhanced oscillations, ripple effects, in MUAPT PDS, given the increase in the refractoriness. It was also found that the extent of the increment in output PDS oscillation could be related to the motor unit size and the mean firing rate of the stimulation. A needle EMG experiment on biceps brachii muscles of five healthy human subjects was carried out during isometric contraction at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 20 s with a fatigue effort proceeded by MVC. The increased oscillations in the PDS of the real MUAPTs were observed with the rising of the motor unit refractoriness due to fatigue. The study gives new information for EMG spectra interpretation, and also provides a potential method for accessing neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF) due to fatigue during voluntary contraction.

  3. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  4. PENGARUH POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER PADA SISTEM TENAGA LISTRIK DENGAN UNIT PEMBANGKIT TERSEBAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Budi Muljono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Deregulasi pada sistem tenaga saat ini membawa kecenderungan untuk membangun unit-unit pembangkit yang letaknya tersebar dekat dengan pusat-pusat beban. Beroperasinya unit pembangkit tersebar membawa kecenderungan transfer daya inter dan antar area menjadi berkembang yang mengakibatkan perubahan titik operasi pembangkitan dan masalah pada stabilitas dinamis sistem. Perbaikan stabilitas dinamis sistem tenaga dapat ditingkatkan dengan pemasangan Power System Stabilizer (PSS. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemasangan PSS pada satu pusat pembangkit terhadap perbaikan stabilitas dinamis keseluruhan unit/pusat pembangkit lain termasuk unit pembangkit tersebar yang terkoneksi ke jaringan. Penelitian dilakukan secara simulasi dengan program aplikasi MatPower 3.0 dan MATLAB 7.0.4. Pembangkit tersebar (DG yang diteliti adalah PLTMH yang masuk ke salah satu bus pada sistem 14 bus dan 3 pusat pembangkit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan PSS yang dipasang di Pembangkit Ampenan memberikan perbaikan nilai eigen (AVR+PSS Pembangkit Ampenan, koefisien redaman dan koefisien sinkronisasi rata-rata berturut-turut sebesar 65.90%, 49.84% dan 78.04 % untuk berbagai operasi pembebaban. Perbaikan ini juga mempengaruhi unjuk kerja keseluruhan pembangkit termasuk DG, kecuali waktu steady state perubahan kecepatan sudut DG tetap (tidak mengalami perbaikan sebesar 1.80 detik.

  5. CTS United States experiments - A progress report. [Communications Technology Satellite for high power broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a high-power broadcast satellite launched by NASA on January 17, 1976. CTS is the first satellite to operate at a frequency of 12 gigahertz and incorporates technology making possible new satellite telecommunications services. CTS is a cooperative program of the United States and Canada. This paper presents the results of the United States experimental activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program, including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  6. Outlooks for Wind Power in the United States: Drivers and Trends under a 2016 Policy Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, wind power has become one of the fastest growing electricity generation sources in the United States. Despite this growth, the U.S. wind industry continues to experience year-to-year fluctuations across the manufacturing and supply chain as a result of dynamic market conditions and changing policy landscapes. Moreover, with advancing wind technologies, ever-changing fossil fuel prices, and evolving energy policies, the long-term future for wind power is highly uncertain. In this report, we present multiple outlooks for wind power in the United States, to explore the possibilities of future wind deployment. The future wind power outlooks presented rely on high-resolution wind resource data and advanced electric sector modeling capabilities to evaluate an array of potential scenarios of the U.S. electricity system. Scenario analysis is used to explore drivers, trends, and implications for wind power deployment over multiple periods through 2050. Specifically, we model 16 scenarios of wind deployment in the contiguous United States. These scenarios span a wide range of wind technology costs, natural gas prices, and future transmission expansion. We identify conditions with more consistent wind deployment after the production tax credit expires as well as drivers for more robust wind growth in the long run. Conversely, we highlight challenges to future wind deployment. We find that the degree to which wind technology costs decline can play an important role in future wind deployment, electric sector CO2 emissions, and lowering allowance prices for the Clean Power Plan.

  7. Job creation due to nuclear power resurgence in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenley, C.R.; Klingler, R.D.; Plowman, C.M.; Soto, R.; Turk, R.J. [R and D Support Services, Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3419 (United States); Baker, R.L.; Close, S.A.; McDonnell, V.L.; Paul, S.W.; Rabideau, L.R.; Rao, S.S.; Reilly, B.P. [Bechtel Power Corporation, Frederick, MD 21703 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent revival of global interest in the next generation of nuclear power reactors is causing a re-examination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current US industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. Key among the many questions currently being asked is what potential exists for the creation of new jobs as a result of developing and operating these new plants? Idaho National Laboratory and Bechtel Power Corporation collaborated to perform a Department of Energy-sponsored study that evaluated the potential for job creation in the United States should these new next generation nuclear power plants be built. The study focused primarily on providing an initial estimate of the numbers of new manufacturing jobs that could be created, including those that could be repatriated from overseas, resulting from the construction of these new reactors. In addition to the growth in the manufacturing sector, the study attempted to estimate the potential increase in construction trades necessary to accomplish the new construction. (author)

  8. An Ordinal Optimization Based Locating Scheme of Fast Cut Back Thermal Power Units%应用序优化理论的快速切负荷机组布点方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢恩; 宁健; 刘皓明; 刘明波; 侯云鹤

    2014-01-01

    具备快速切负荷(fast cut back,FCB)功能的火电机组能在外部电网发生故障时带厂用电运行,在故障消除之后迅速对外供电,是一种性能优异的黑启动电源。分析了 FCB机组对电网恢复的影响,以电网机组恢复时间最短为目标,考虑机组启动时间、启动功率、线路充电时间等约束条件,建立了FCB机组优化布点方案模型。在满足工程需要的前提下提高计算效率,引入序优化理论,确保以足够高的概率得到足够好的FCB机组的布点方案。通过经典IEEE-118节点算例和某实际系统算例验证了模型和算法的有效性。算例结果表明,合理的 FCB 机组布点方案能够减少系统恢复时间。%The thermal power generation units possessing the function of fast cut back (FCB) that they can serve for auxiliary power consumption during external faults in power grid and fast supply power after external faults cleared, so they are excellent power source for black start. The influences of FCB units on power grid restoration are analyzed, and taking the shortest restoration time of grid units as the objective and the startup time, starting power, energizing time of transmission lines as constraints, a model of optimal locating scheme for FCB units is established. To improve the computing efficiency, the ordinal optimization is led in to ensure obtaining good enough locating scheme for FCB units with as high as enough probability. The effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm is validated by simulation results of IEEE 118-bus system and a certain actual power grid. Simulation results show that reasonable locating scheme of FCB units can speed up the restoration of power grid.

  9. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  10. Main Power Distribution Unit for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Melissa R.

    2004-01-01

    Around the year 2011, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) will be launched and on its way to orbit three of Jupiter s planet-sized moons. The mission goals for the JIMO project revolve heavily around gathering scientific data concerning ingredients we, as humans, consider essential: water, energy and necessary chemical elements. The JIM0 is an ambitious mission which will implore propulsion from an ION thruster powered by a nuclear fission reactor. Glenn Research Center is responsible for the development of the dynamic power conversion, power management and distribution, heat rejection and ION thrusters. The first test phase for the JIM0 program concerns the High Power AC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Test Bed. The goal of this testing is to support electrical performance verification of the power systems. The test bed will incorporate a 2kW Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) to simulate the nuclear reactor as well as two ION thrusters. The first module of the PMAD Test Bed to be designed is the Main Power Distribution Unit (MPDU) which relays the power input to the various propulsion systems and scientific instruments. The MPDU involves circuitry design as well as mechanical design to determine the placement of the components. The MPDU consists of fourteen relays of four different variations used to convert the input power into the appropriate power output. The three phase system uses 400 Vo1ts(sub L-L) rms at 1000 Hertz. The power is relayed through the circuit and distributed to the scientific instruments, the ION thrusters and other controlled systems. The mechanical design requires the components to be positioned for easy electrical wiring as well as allowing adequate room for the main buss bars, individual circuit boards connected to each component and power supplies. To accomplish creating a suitable design, AutoCAD was used as a drafting tool. By showing a visual layout of the components, it is easy to see where there is extra room or where the

  11. Social Acceptance of Wind Power in the United States: Evaluating Stakeholder Perspectives (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.

    2009-05-01

    As the wind industry strives to achieve 20% wind energy by 2030, maintaining high levels of social acceptance for wind energy will become increasingly important. Wind Powering America is currently researching stakeholder perspectives in the U.S. market and reviewing findings from wind energy projects around the world to better understand social acceptance barriers. Results from European studies show that acceptance varies widely depending on local community values. A preliminary survey shows similar results in the United States. Further research will be conducted to refine our understanding of key social acceptance barriers and evaluate the best ways to mitigate negative perspectives on wind power.

  12. Climate Change Impacts on the Electric Power System in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, T. D.; Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L. A.; Wang, J.

    2007-12-01

    Future climate change is projected to vary substantially across regions. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation patterns may have significant implications on our existing and future power system infrastructure. In this paper, we use results from regional climate models to examine the impacts of projected changes in temperature and precipitation on the development and operations of the power system in the Western United States. We study three scenarios to evaluate potential effects of climate change on the electricity demand as well as on the power supply side. Impacts are measured in terms of changes in investment requirements, fuel and generation mix, emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants, and thermal power water withdrawals and consumption. We also identify potential issues regarding the western transmission grid. Our methodology includes a long-term investment algorithm that takes into account interdependencies between hydroelectric, thermal power, and non-dispatchable resources, such as wind turbines. We also include temporal aspects associated with hydropower energy constraints, wind variability, thermal power plant availability, and hourly load profiles. Thermal power plant availability and resulting generation and fuel consumption are based on maintenance outage schedules and a probabilistic dispatch algorithm that accounts for random forced outages. We conclude with some observations regarding the vulnerability of our electricity infrastructure to projected regional climate changes.

  13. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2005-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering "green power" options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The second section provides brief descriptions of utility green pricing programs. The third section describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renewable energy certificates nationally or regionally. The final section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including businesses, universities, and government agencies.

  14. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This... software elements if those systems include software. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing...

  15. 78 FR 49305 - Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Application... Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, respectively, located in Somervell County, Texas. The...

  16. 78 FR 14361 - In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving the... authorizes the possession, use, and operation of the Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (CPNPP... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  17. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  18. The use of propeller turbines in low head stand alone micro hydro electric power generation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetriades, G.M.; Williams, A.A.; Smith, N.P.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    The mountainous regions of developing countries offer a great potential for small scale hydroelectric schemes, running as stand alone units. Such schemes with power output less than 100 kW are usually referred to as micro-hydro power generation units. For low - head sites (available head less than 10 m), there is a vast number of suitable sites in countries with less mountainous areas and high rainfall, or extensive irrigation canals. The present paper introduces the design features of an appropriate propeller turbine design. The turbine will be directly coupled to an induction generator. The design requirements, materials selection and manufacturing processes are analysed with respect to experiences from pilot projects within the UK and abroad. (author)

  19. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  20. Ozonation of Common Textile Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Gulen; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    The treatability of four different commonly applied textile auxiliary chemicals, namely two tannin formulations (Tannin 1: a condensation product of aryl sulphonate; Tannin 2: natural tannic acid) and two biocidal finishing agents (Biocide 1: 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’- hydroxydiphenyl ether; Biocide 2: a nonionic diphenyl alkane derivative) with ozone was investigated. Increasing the ozone dose yielded higher COD removals for the natural tannin. Optimum ozone doses of 485 and 662 mg/h were obtained at a pH of 3.5 for natural and synthetic tannin carrying textile bath discharges, respectively. When the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0, a slight decrease in COD removal was observed for the natural tannin due to ozone selectivity towards its polyaromatic structure. The same increase in ozonation pH enhanced COD removals for the synthetic tannin as a result of enhanced ozone decomposition rendering free radical chain reactions dominant. Optimum ozone doses of 499 and 563 mg/h were established for Biocide 1 and 2, respectively. With the increase of ozonation, pH exhibited a positive influence on COD removals for both textile tannins. A substantial improvement in terms of TOC removals was observed as the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0 for the synthetic tannin, and from 7 to 12 for both textile biocides. Higher AOX removals were evident at pH 7 than at pH 12 for Biocide 1 as a result of the higher selectivity of the dehalogenation reaction at neutral pH.

  1. Performance and Qualification of the Power Supply and Control Unit for the HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brag, R.; Herty, F.

    2014-08-01

    In 2013, Astrium GmbH delivered several flight model electronics for Electric Propulsion (EP) systems or corresponding components. One of the elements is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP-T) (see Figure 1). This paper presents the PSCU specification and results of the qualification and acceptance phase of the EQM and the PFM.

  2. Effects of the Hot Alignment of a Power Unit on Oil-Whip Instability Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the results of the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a power unit, whose shaft-train alignment was significantly influenced by the machine thermal state, that was affected in operating condition by high subsynchronous vibrations caused by oil-whip instability phenomena. The dynamic stiffness coefficients of the oil-film journal bearings of the generator were evaluated considering the critical average journal positions that caused the instability onsets. By including these ...

  3. An immune-tabu hybrid algorithm for thermal unit commitment of electric power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LI; Hao-yu PENG; Wei-hang ZHU; De-ren SHENG; Jian-hong CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method based on an immune-tabu hybrid algorithm to solve the thermal unit commitment (TUC) problem in power plant optimization. The mathematical model of the TUC problem is established by analyzing the generating units in modern power plants. A novel immune-tabu hybrid algorithm is proposed to solve this complex problem. In the algorithm, the objective function of the TUC problem is considered as an antigen and the solutions are considered as antibodies,which are determined by the affinity computation. The code length of an antibody is shortened by encoding the continuous operating time, and the optimum searching speed is improved. Each feasible individual in the immune algorithm (IA) is used as the initial solution of the tabu search (TS) algorithm after certain generations of IA iteration. As examples, the proposed method has been applied to several thermal unit systems for a period of 24 h. The computation results demonstrate the good global optimum searching performance of the proposed immune-tabu hybrid algorithm. The presented algorithm can also be used to solve other optimization problems in fields such as the chemical industry and the power industry.

  4. Review on Thermal Power Automation Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zilian

    2005-01-01

    Areview on thermal power plant automation development in China over 50 years is presented.The level of thermal power automation is introduced, especially for 200 MW and above units which are clarified into three categories by grade. The conditions, existing problems, relevant solutions and policies are summarized chronologically in aspects of centralized control, automatic regulation and controllability of main and auxiliary units, turbine control system, furnace security protection, and computer application in thermal power plants. This paper also points out the development tendency of thermal power plant automation and concepts of some vocabularies.

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic power characteristics of competitive cyclists in the United States Cycling Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Bassett, D R; Swensen, T C; Sampedro, R M

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the aerobic and anaerobic capabilities of United States Cycling Federation cyclists in different categories. To determine aerobic and anaerobic power, 38 competitive road cyclists (32 males, 6 females) performed a VO2max test and a Wingate anaerobic test, respectively. Male cyclists in category II had the highest VO2max, both in absolute and relative terms. Their VO2max was 6% and 10% higher than category III and IV cyclists, respectively (4.98 +/- 0.14 vs 4.72 +/- 0.15 vs 4.54 +/- 0.12 l/min). A significant difference existed between category II and IV male cyclists (p < 0.05). VO2max for female cyclists (3.37 +/- 0.13 l/min) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those for males. The Wingate anaerobic test revealed that male cyclists in category II also had the highest anaerobic power output. The peak power output in category II, III and IV was 13.86 +/- 0.23, 13.55 +/- 0.25, and 12.80 +/- 0.41 W/kg, respectively. The mean power output in category II, III, and IV was 11.22 +/- 0.18, 11.06 +/- 0.15, and 10.40 +/- 0.30 W/kg, respectively. The difference in the mean power output between category II and IV was significant (p < 0.05). Female cyclists recorded significantly less peak and mean power output than their male counterparts (p < 0.05). However, when expressed relative to lean body mass, anaerobic power was similar for both sexes. No inter-correlation was found in any measurement between the aerobic and anaerobic power values. On the whole, category II male cyclists were characterized by higher aerobic and anaerobic power outputs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1208, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems... entitled ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

  7. Multi-model Predictive Control of Ultra-supercritical Coal-fired Power Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Wang; Weiwu Yan; Shihe Chen; Xi Zhang; Huihe Shao

    2014-01-01

    The control of ultra-supercritical (USC) power unit is a difficult issue for its characteristic of the nonlinearity, large dead time and coupling of the unit. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) based on multi-model and double layered optimization is introduced for coordinated control of USC unit. The linear programming (LP) com-bined with quadratic programming (QP) is used in steady optimization for computation of the ideal value of dynamic optimization. Three inputs (i.e. valve opening, coal flow and feedwater flow) are employed to control three outputs (i.e. load, main steam temperature and main steam pressure). The step response models for the dynamic matrix control (DMC) are constructed using the three inputs and the three outputs. Piecewise models are built at selected operation points. Double-layered multi-model predictive controller is implemented in sim-ulation with satisfactory performance.

  8. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  9. Annual preventive maintenance scheduling for thermal units in an electric power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonić Rodoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The system approach to the problem of preventive maintenance scheduling for thermal units in a large scale electric power system is considered in this paper. The maintenance scheduling program determines a set of thermal units maintenance switch off for a time period of one year. This paper considers the application of dynamic programming and successive approximations method in determination of annual thermal unit maintenance schedules. The objective function is multiple component and consists of system operation costs and system reliability indices (loss-of-load-probability and expected unserved energy. The evaluation of these costs is performed through a simulation method which uses a cumulant load model. The software package, developed in FORTRAN and integrated with an ORACLE data base, produces many useful outputs.

  10. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  11. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  12. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2006-11-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than half of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 600 utilities, or about 20% of utilities nationally, offer green power programs to customers. These programs allow customers to purchase some portion of their power supply as renewable energy--almost always at a higher price--or to contribute funds for the utility to invest in renewable energy development. The term ''green pricing'' is typically used to refer to these utility programs offered in regulated or noncompetitive electricity markets. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States.

  13. Specific ways to improve quality of control system for power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V.D.; Garbuzov, V.G.; Zhidkov, A.A.; Senyagin, Yu.V.

    1984-08-01

    Only a part of all automation equipment which has been designed for control of power units in power generating plants is actually used and must, moreover, be continuously inspected by station personnel. The two main reasons for this are an inadequate level of preparedness for automation and insufficiently high quality of the control system, characterized by steadily increasing complexity and decreasing reliability as well as high cost and poor accessibility. In order to remedy this situation, experimental studies on a correct approach to the problem in the planning and design stage already had begun in the Soviet Union in the early nineteen sixties and have continued ever since. The basic structure of a control system in a power plant consist of five subsystems: automatic control, logic control, protective shielding, remote control and data display. This structure has been modified by utilization of computer technology. With redundancy regarded as a tradeoff between cost of shutdown and cost of control hardware, a two-tier structure is so far found to be optimum. Here decentralized simple special-purpose equipment executes simple algorithms at the lower level, while the process control computer aids execution of complex algorithms at the upper level. Memory elements interface the two levels, for reducing the adverse economic consequences of computer failure. In a typical case of maneuvering with a process control computer, a 200 MW power unit under variable load conditions will reduce the total unpreparedness time over a 7500 hours operating period from 30 h to 2 h. 6 references, 4 figures.

  14. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  15. A simplified propeller turbine runner design for stand alone micro-hydro power generation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetriades, G.M.; Williams, A.A.; Smith, N.P.A. [Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom). Micro-Hydro Research Group

    1996-07-01

    In most developing countries, the vast majority of potential micro-hydro power generation sites, i.e. with power outputs up to 100 kW, are found in areas with high rainfall or extensive irrigation works with small canal drops. These sites, where the available head does not exceed 5 m, are usually referred to as low head sites. The present paper introduces a simplified design of a propeller turbine suitable for direct coupling to an induction generator. The use of such a unit is a promising technology for setting up low-head power generation schemes for village electrification in developing countries. Emphasis is given to the hydraulic design of the runner blades which are made of constant thickness sheets of metal. The use of such a shape is ideal for low cost manufacturing in developing countries as it enables local skills and materials to be used. (author)

  16. Geothermal power plants of the United States: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1978-04-01

    The development of geothermal energy as a source of electric power in the United States is reviewed. A thorough description is given of The Geysers geothermal power project in northern California. The recent efforts to exploit the hot-water resources of the Mexicali-Imperial Rift Valley are described. Details are given concerning the geology of the several sites now being used and for those at which power plants will soon be built. Attention is paid to the technical particulars of all existing plants, including wells, gathering systems, energy conversion devices, materials, environmental impacts, economics and operating characteristics. Specifically, plants which either exist or are planned for the following locations are covered: The Geysers, CA; East Mesa, CA; Heber, CA; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; Valles Caldera, NM; Salton Sea, CA; Westmorland, CA; Brawley, CA; Desert Peak, NV; and Raft River, ID. The growth of installed geothermal electric generating capacity is traced from the beginning in 1960 and is projected to 1984.

  17. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  18. Electrical Power Distribution and Control Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Johnny S.; Liffring, Mark; Mehdi, Ishaque S.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD&C) Modeling and how modeling can support analysis. The presentation discusses using the EASY5 model to simulate and analyze the Space Shuttle Electric Auxiliary Power Unit. Diagrams of the model schematics are included, as well as graphs of the battery cell impedance, hydraulic load dynamics, and EPD&C response to hydraulic load variations.

  19. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  20. Study of regeneration system of 300 MW power unit based on nondeaerating heat balance diagram at reduced load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S. B.; Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Snegin, I. P.; Zhivykh, D. A.; Medvedkin, A. V.; Ryabich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 30 power units of thermal power stations, based on the nondeaerating heat balance diagram, successfully operate in the former Soviet Union. Most of them are power units with a power of 300 MW, equipped with HTGZ and LMZ turbines. They operate according to a variable electric load curve characterized by deep reductions when undergoing night minimums. Additional extension of the range of power unit adjustment makes it possible to maintain the dispatch load curve and obtain profit for the electric power plant. The objective of this research is to carry out estimated and experimental processing of the operating regimes of the regeneration system of steam-turbine plants within the extended adjustment range and under the conditions when the constraints on the regeneration system and its equipment are removed. Constraints concerning the heat balance diagram that reduce the power unit efficiency when extending the adjustment range have been considered. Test results are presented for the nondeaerating heat balance diagram with the HTGZ turbine. Turbine pump and feed electric pump operation was studied at a power unit load of 120-300 MW. The reliability of feed pump operation is confirmed by a stable vibratory condition and the absence of cavitation noise and vibration at a frequency that characterizes the cavitation condition, as well as by oil temperature maintenance after bearings within normal limits. Cavitation performance of pumps in the studied range of their operation has been determined. Technical solutions are proposed on providing a profitable and stable operation of regeneration systems when extending the range of adjustment of power unit load. A nondeaerating diagram of high-pressure preheater (HPP) condensate discharge to the mixer. A regeneration system has been developed and studied on the operating power unit fitted with a deaeratorless thermal circuit of the system for removing the high-pressure preheater heating steam condensate to the mixer

  1. Thermal performance of direct illumination high-power LED backlight units with different assembling structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Cen, Jiwen; Cao, Wenjiong; Jiang, Fangming

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a detailed study about the heat dissipation performance of direct illumination high-power light emitting diode (LED) backlight units with two different assembling structures, one of which is traditional and the other is new. The traditional structure, referred to by structure-1, consists of multiple LEDs being directly welded to the printed circuit board (PCB), where the PCB is used as a physical support, an electrical connector and also as a heat dissipation medium. The new structure, referred to by structure-2, places the LEDs directly on the cooling boss; in this case the PCB plays mainly the role of an electrical connector. Thermal characteristics related to the two backlight units are analyzed in terms of thermal resistance network, numerically simulated and experimentally tested. The obtained results by different methods accord with each other reasonably well and all indicate that both structures can meet the requirements of heat dissipation for backlight units at an ambient temperature of 30 °C. Among the two structures, the LED junction temperature of structure-1 backlight unit is 7-8 °C higher and the temperature distribution in the back plane of the backlight unit is also more uniform.

  2. Design of high-pressure direct contact heater for promising power supply units: Experimental substantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, E. V.; Shvarts, A. L.; Turkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of superheated steam condensation on feed water jets in a highpressure, direct-contact heat exchanger are presented. Direct contact feed water heater (DCFWH) can be used in a dual-flow diagram of a steam-power unit with ultrasupercritical steam parameters (35 MPa, 700/720°C). The direct contact feed water heater is included in the flow diagram of the II circuit in a promising power unit; it provides feed water heating to 340°C in all maintenance and emergency operation modes of the unit. The reliability of the high-pressure direct contact heater operation in this flow diagram is of major importance in relation to the danger of lead solidification in the tube space of the steam generator. Technical requirements to the design of the high-pressure direct contact heater for increasing the heat exchange efficiency are formulated based on the results of earlier studies with steam-water mixture as the heating medium. The results of studies of superheated steam condensation on jets presented in this study testify that feed water is additionally heated to the required temperature at the output of the installation. The influence of initial feed water parameters (outflow velocity and temperature) on the jet heating length is elucidated. The numerical approximation of the experimental data for determination of the jet heating length in the nominal and partial power unit loads is obtained. The results of the calculations are used to simplify the design of the water-supplying element for the direct contact feed water heater. The proposed design of direct contact feed water heater is characterized by simplicity and low metal intensity, which provides the installation reliability at the considered pressure level due to the minimum number of structural elements.

  3. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-10-01

    In response to the multiple and tighter operation requirements already placed on power plants, and anticipating everyday variations on their quantity and relevance due to competition on deregulated energy markets, this dissertation contributes the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm that establishes a reference framework for the design of overall control systems for fossil-fuel power units, and develops a minimum prototype (ICCS-MP) to show its feasibility. The ICCS consists of a multiagent system organization structured as an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchy. The upper level performs the supervisory functions needed to produce self-governing system behavior, while the lower level performs the fast reactive functions necessary for real-time control and protection. The ICCS-MP greatly extends the concept of current coordinated control schemes and embraces a minimum set of ICCS functions for the power unit to participate in load-frequency control in deregulated power systems; provides the means to achieve optimal wide-range load-tracking in multiobjective operating scenarios. The ICCS-MP preserves the ICCS structure. Supervisory functions include optimization and command generation, learning and control tuning, and performance and state monitoring. Direct level control functions realize a nonlinear multivariable feedforward-feedback scheme. These functions are implemented in three modules: reference governor, feedforward control processor (FFCP), and feedback control processor (FBCP). The reference governor provides set-point trajectories for the control loops by solving a multiobjective optimization problem that accommodates the operating scenario at hand. The FFCP facilitates achievement of wide-range operation; it is implemented as a fuzzy system that emulates the inverse static behavior of the power unit, and it is designed using neural networks. The FBCP provides disturbance and uncertainty compensation

  4. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  5. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Palac, Donald; Gibson, Marc; Houts, Michael; Warren, John; Werner, James; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Radel, Ross; Harlow, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  6. OPTIMAL SIZING OF DG UNITS USING EXACT LOSS FORMULA AT OPTIMAL POWER FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Sobha Rani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generators are beneficial in reducing the losses effectively compared to other methods of loss reduction. The challenge of identifying the optimal locations and sizes of DG has generated research interests all over the world and many efforts have been made in this direction. Studies have indicated that inappropriatelocations and sizes of DG may lead to higher system losses than the ones in the existing network. In this paper IEEE 33-bus system is selected for locating and sizing of optimal distributed generation source. The DG unit size is calculated using exact loss formula. With the optimal size of DG unit at a suitable location and at optimalpower factor, it resulted in reduction in power losses and improvement in voltage profile.

  7. Intense generation of respirable metal nanoparticles from a low-power soldering unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Virginia [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Irusta, Silvia [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center of Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Balas, Francisco [Networking Biomedical Research Center of Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Carboquímica – Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICB-CSIC), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Santamaria, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Santamaria@unizar.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center of Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Intense generation of nanoparticles in the breathing range from a flux-soldering unit is detected. • Coagulation in the aerosol phase leads to 200-nm respirable nanoparticles up to 30 min after operation. • Nanoparticle concentration in the working environment depends on the presence of ambient air. • Metal-containing nanoparticles are collected in TEM grids and filters in the hundreds of nanometer range. -- Abstract: Evidence of intense nanoparticle generation from a low power (45 W) flux soldering unit is presented. This is a familiar device often used in daily life, including home repairs and school electronic laboratories. We demonstrate that metal-containing nanoparticles may reach high concentrations (ca. 10{sup 6} particles/cm{sup 3}) within the breathing range of the operator, with initial size distributions centered at 35–60 nm The morphological and chemical analysis of nanoparticle agglomerates collected on TEM grids and filters confirms their multiparticle structure and the presence of metals.

  8. Commitment and dispatch of heat and power units via affinely adjustable robust optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The joint management of heat and power systems is believed to be key to the integration of renewables into energy systems with a large penetration of district heating. Determining the day-ahead unit commitment and production schedules for these systems is an optimization problem subject...... to uncertainty stemming from the unpredictability of demand and prices for heat and electricity. Furthermore, owing to the dynamic features of production and heat storage units as well as to the length and granularity of the optimization horizon (e.g., one whole day with hourly resolution), this problem...... approach. Secondly, we appraise the gain obtained by switching from linear to piecewise-linear decision rules within robust optimization. Furthermore, we give directions for selecting the parameters defining the uncertainty set (size, budget) and assess the resulting trade-off between average profit...

  9. A critical examination of the investment proposals for Unit 6 of the Sostanj Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.; Warringa, G.; Afman, M.; Croezen, H.

    2011-11-15

    The Holding Slovenske Elektrarne (HSE), owner of the Termoelektrarna Sostanj power plant (STPP) in Slovenia, has commissioned a plan to construct a new unit at this plant. The proposed Unit 6 will replace Units 4 and 5 and be fired using lignite from the nearby Velenje mine. The first investment plan was submitted in 2005 and subsequently adapted in 2006 and 2009 to qualify for loans from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). In 2011 a fourth revision of the investment plan was drafted, which was required as the EIB requested a state guarantee. The Slovenian 'Decree on the uniform methodology for the preparation and treatment of investment documentation in the field of public finance' requires certain rules to be followed for a state guarantee of this nature. One of these specific rules concerns the expected rate of return on investments, which must exceed 7%. As with any investment plan, calculations crucially depend on the assumptions made with respect to the future development of costs and benefits. The CEE Bankwatch Network and Focus, association for sustainable development, asked CE Delft to review the investment plan for the new lignite-fired unit of the Sostanj plant and investigate whether the crucial variables have been correctly assessed. This report analyses the investment plan and evaluates the assumptions regarding the future which underpin it.

  10. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  11. Extreme Environment Capable, Modular and Scalable Power Processing Unit for Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gregory A.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Chen, Yuan; Hunter, Don J.; Del Castillo, Linda; Bradley, Arthur T.; Stell, Christopher; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to present a concept of a modular and scalable High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) capable of operating at temperatures beyond the standard military temperature range. The various extreme environments technologies are also described as the fundamental technology path to this concept. The proposed HTB PPU is intended for power processing in the area of space solar electric propulsion, where the reduction of in-space mass and volume are desired, and sometimes even critical, to achieve the goals of future space flight missions. The concept of the HTB PPU can also be applied to other extreme environment applications, such as geothermal and petroleum deep-well drilling, where higher temperature operation is required.

  12. High temperature microbial corrosion in the condenser of a geothermal electric power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Sanchez, R.; Magana-Vazquez, A.; Sanchez-Yanez, J.M. [Univ. Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Gomez, L.M. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico]|[Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-03-01

    Field and experimental growth of microbiologically influenced corrosion at high temperatures in a geothermal electric power unit condenser is discussed. Four chambers containing polished and disinfected 304L stainless steel tubes were exposed for two, four, six, and eight months to the condenser environment at temperatures ranging from 150 C at the inlet to 40 C at the outlet. The tubes developed pitting where Desulfotomaculum Nigrificans and Desulfotomaculum Acetoxidans colonies were clearly identified by biochemical tests. There were also some indications of the presence of genus Desulfovibrio and genus Thermodesulfobacterium. The characteristics of pitting were studied employing SEM-EDS techniques and optical microscopy.

  13. Voith power transmission systems in diesel multiple units and railcars. A review on recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, W. [Voith Turbo GmbH und Co. KG, Heidenheim (Germany). Rail Div.

    1999-04-01

    Voith today offers complete transmission systems consisting of hydrodynamic and hydromechanical transmissions with integrated retarders, cardan shafts, final drives and cooling units. For DMUs with underfloor powerpacks, the hydrodynamic power transmission system currently is the pre-eminent drive system worldwide and meets the established standards for rail service, i.e. high availability, low operating costs and a reasonable purchasing price. In this article, the author describes Voith`s contribution to the further development of these transmission systems in several modern dieselhydraulic railcars and DMUs for regional and main-line operations. (orig.)

  14. Distribution Estimation with Smoothed Auxiliary Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Liu; Ahmad Ishfaq

    2011-01-01

    Distribution estimation is very important in order to make statistical inference for parameters or its functions based on this distribution. In this work we propose an estimator of the distribution of some variable with non-smooth auxiliary information, for example, a symmetric distribution of this variable. A smoothing technique is employed to handle the non-differentiable function. Hence, a distribution can be estimated based on smoothed auxiliary information. Asymptotic properties of the distribution estimator are derived and analyzed.The distribution estimators based on our method are found to be significantly efficient than the corresponding estimators without these auxiliary information. Some simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators.

  15. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  16. Refining estimates of bird collision and electrocution mortality at power lines in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Scott R; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Collisions and electrocutions at power lines are thought to kill large numbers of birds in the United States annually. However, existing estimates of mortality are either speculative (for electrocution) or based on extrapolation of results from one study to all U.S. power lines (for collision). Because national-scale estimates of mortality and comparisons among threats are likely to be used for prioritizing policy and management strategies and for identifying major research needs, these estimates should be based on systematic and transparent assessment of rigorously collected data. We conducted a quantitative review that incorporated data from 14 studies meeting our inclusion criteria to estimate that between 12 and 64 million birds are killed each year at U.S. power lines, with between 8 and 57 million birds killed by collision and between 0.9 and 11.6 million birds killed by electrocution. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the majority of uncertainty in our estimates arises from variation in mortality rates across studies; this variation is due in part to the small sample of rigorously conducted studies that can be used to estimate mortality. Little information is available to quantify species-specific vulnerability to mortality at power lines; the available literature over-represents particular bird groups and habitats, and most studies only sample and present data for one or a few species. Furthermore, additional research is needed to clarify whether, to what degree, and in what regions populations of different bird species are affected by power line-related mortality. Nonetheless, our data-driven analysis suggests that the amount of bird mortality at U.S. power lines is substantial and that conservation management and policy is necessary to reduce this mortality.

  17. Development Status of Power Processing Unit for 250mN-Class Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ozaki, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Suga, I.; Tamida, T.; Akuzawa, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Soga, Y.; Furuichi, T.; Maki, S.; Matui, K.

    2008-09-01

    Institute for Unmanned Space Experiment Free Flyer (USEF) and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) are developing the next generation ion engine system under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) within six years. The system requirement specifications are a thrust level of over 250mN and specific impulse of over 1500 sec with a less than 5kW electric power supply, and a lifetime of over 3,000 hours. These target specifications required the development of both a Hall Thruster and a Power Processing Unit (PPU). In the 2007 fiscal year, the PPU called Second Engineering Model (EM2) consist of all power supplies was a model for the Hall Thruster system. The EM2 PPU showed the discharge efficiency was over 96.2% for 250V and 350V at output power between 1.8kW to 4.5kW. And also the Hall Thruster could start up quickly and smoothly to control the discharge voltage, the inner magnet current, the outer magnet current and the xenon flow rate. This paper reports on the design and test results of the EM2 PPU.

  18. Design of area and power efficient Radix-4 DIT FFT butterfly unit using floating point fused arithmetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu E; Mangalam H; Karthick S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, power efficient butterfly unit based FFT architecture is presented. The butterfly unit is designed using floating-point fused arithmetic units. The fused arithmetic units include two-term dot product unit and add-subtract unit. In these arithmetic units, operations are performed over complex data values. A modified fused floating-point two-term dot product and an enhanced model for the Radix-4 FFT butterfly unit are proposed. The modified fused two-term dot product is designed using Radix-16 booth multiplier. Radix-16 booth multiplier will reduce the switching activities compared to Radix-8 booth multiplier in existing system and also will reduce the area required. The proposed architecture is implemented efficiently for Radix-4 decimation in time (DIT) FFT butterfly with the two floating-point fused arithmetic units. The proposed enhanced architecture is synthesized, implemented, placed and routed on a FPGA device using Xilinx ISE tool. It is observed that the Radix-4 DIT fused floating-point FFT butterfly requires 50.17% less space and 12.16% reduced power compared to the existing methods and the proposed enhanced model requires 49.82% less space on the FPGA device compared to the proposed design. Also, reduced power consumption is addressed by utilizing the reusability technique, which results in 11.42% of power reduction of the enhanced model compared to the proposed design.

  19. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  20. 78 FR 11904 - Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; ZionSolutions, LLC; Consideration of Indirect Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; ZionSolutions, LLC; Consideration of Indirect Transfer AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for license transfer; opportunity to...

  1. Substantiation of the cogeneration turbine unit selection for reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Bilan, V. N.; Kadkina, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The selection of a cogeneration steam turbine unit (STU) for the reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine is substantiated by the example of power unit no. 9 at the cogeneration power station no. 22 (TETs-22) of Mosenergo Company. Series T-250 steam turbines have been developed for combined heat and power generation. A total of 31 turbines were manufactured. By the end of 2015, the total operation time of prototype power units with the T-250/300-23.5 turbine exceeded 290000 hours. Considering the expiry of the service life, the decision was made that the reconstruction of the power unit at st. no. 9 of TETs-22 should be the first priority. The main issues that arose in developing this project—the customer's requirements and the request for the reconstruction, the view on certain problems of Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) as the manufacturer of the main power unit equipment, and the opinions of other project parties—are examined. The decisions were made with account taken of the experience in operation of all Series T-250 turbines and the results of long-term discussions of pressing problems at scientific and technical councils, meetings, and negotiations. For the new power unit, the following parameters have been set: a live steam pressure of 23.5 MPa and live steam/reheat temperature of 565/565°C. Considering that the boiler equipment will be upgraded, the live steam flow is increased up to 1030 t/h. The reconstruction activities involving the replacement of the existing turbine with a new one will yield a service life of 250000 hours for turbine parts exposed to a temperature of 450°C or higher and 200000 hours for pipeline components. Hence, the decision has been made to reuse the arrangement of the existing turbine: a four-cylinder turbine unit comprising a high-pressure cylinder (HPC), two intermediate pressure cylinders (IPC-1 & 2), and a low-pressure cylinder (LPC). The flow path in the new turbine will have active blading in LPC and IPC-1

  2. Analysis on Voltage Unbalance of Auxiliary Transformer in Fangjiashan Nuclear Power Project and Corresponding Countermeasures%方家山核电工程辅助变压器电压不平衡的分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢金平

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the voltage unbalance of auxiliary transformer under no-load operation, firstly the radial distributed capacitances of windings in the transformer are equivalently converted to concentrated capacitances at winding terminals and those between winding terminals by energy method, and it is found that the directly grounding of phase C in the balancing windings of the transformer leads to the unbalance of three-phase ground capacitances at low-voltage side of the transformer as well as the mutual capacitances between low-voltage windings and balancing windings; then a no-load circuit model of the transformer, in which the concentrated capacitance parameters are considered, is built by Matlab, and the simulation of no-load closing is performed. Simulation results show that three-phase ground capacitances at low-voltage side of the transformer are seriously unbalanced; finally technical countermeasures to solve the voltage unbalance are given.%为分析辅助变压器空载运行电压不平衡的现象,首先应用能量法将变压器各绕组的径向分布电容参数等效折算为各绕组端部和端部间的集中电容参数,发现由于变压器平衡绕组的C相直接接地,导致变压器低压侧三相对地电容不平衡,并且低压绕组与平衡绕组的互电容也不平衡.然后,应用Matlab建立了考虑集中电容参数的变压器空载电路模型,并进行空载合闸仿真试验,仿真试验结果表明变压器三相对地电压严重不平衡.最后,给出了解决电压不平衡问题的技术措施.

  3. Auxiliary mass damper for Cardan suspended gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, J.; Kahana, A.

    The paper describes a damping system for a spin-stabilized platform which involves the use of an auxiliary mass connected to the gimbal system by means of a spring and a viscous dash-pot. The damper inertia is insignificant in comparison with the platform inertia, resulting in a simplified model in which the nutational frequency is taken to be the forced frequency. An analysis is made of the interaction between the stabilized platform and the damper, which causes the appearance of three natural frequencies instead of the nutational frequency. The experimental realization of the auxiliary mass damper is discussed.

  4. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  5. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  6. Cold-end Subsystem Testing for the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell; Gibson, Marc; Ellis, David; Sanzi, James

    2013-01-01

    The Fission Power System (FPS) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) consists of a pumped sodium-potassium (NaK) loop that provides heat to a Stirling Power Conversion Unit (PCU), which converts some of that heat into electricity and rejects the waste heat to a pumped water loop. Each of the TDU subsystems is being tested independently prior to full system testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The pumped NaK loop is being tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; the Stirling PCU and electrical controller are being tested by Sunpower Inc.; and the pumped water loop is being tested at Glenn. This paper describes cold-end subsystem setup and testing at Glenn. The TDU cold end has been assembled in Vacuum Facility 6 (VF 6) at Glenn, the same chamber that will be used for TDU testing. Cold-end testing in VF 6 will demonstrate functionality; validated cold-end fill, drain, and emergency backup systems; and generated pump performance and system pressure drop data used to validate models. In addition, a low-cost proof-of concept radiator has been built and tested at Glenn, validating the design and demonstrating the feasibility of using low-cost metal radiators as an alternative to high-cost composite radiators in an end-to-end TDU test.

  7. RCGVS design improvement and depressurization capability tests for Ulchin nuclear power plant units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kang Sik; Seong, Ho Je; Jeong, Won Sang; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Keun Hyo; Choi, Kwon Sik; Oh, Chul Sung [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The Reactor Coolant Gas Vent System(RCGVS) design for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4) has been improved from the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) based on the evaluation results for depressurization capability tests performed at YGN 3 and 4. There has been a series of plant safety analyses for Natural Circulation Cooldown(NCC) event and thermo-dynamic analyses with RELAP5 code for the steam blowdown phenomena in order to optimize the orifice size of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS. Based on these analyses results, the RCGVS orifics size for UCN 3 and 4 has been reduced to 9/32 inch from the 11/32 inch for YGN 3 and 4. The depressurization capability tests, which were performed at UCN 3 in order to verify the FSAR NCC analysis results, show that the RCGVS depressurization rates are being within the acceptable ranges. Therefore, it is concluded that the orificed flow path of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS is adequately designed, and can provide the safety-grade depressurization capability required for a safe plant operation. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Mikosz, Dorota

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.

  9. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.

  10. United States nuclear regulatory commission program for inspection of decommissioning nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC or Commission) has been inspecting decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) since the first such facility permanently shutdown in September 1967. Decommissioning inspections have principally focused on the safe storage and maintenance of spent reactor fuel; occupational radiation exposure; environmental radiological releases; the dismantlement and decontamination of structures, systems, and components identified to contain or potentially contain licensed radioactive material; and the performance of final radiological survey of the site and remaining structures to support termination of the USNRC-issued operating license. Over the last 5 years, USNRC inspection effort in these areas has been assessed and found to provide reasonable confidence that decommissioning can be conducted safely and in accordance with Commission rules and regulations. Recently, the staff has achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with particular decommissioning accidents 1 and plans to apply these insights to amendments proposed to enhance decommissioning rules and regulations. The probabilities, scenarios, and conclusions resulting from this effort are being assessed as to their applicability to the inspection of decommissioning commercial power reactors. (author)

  11. Methods of the aerodynamical experiments with simulation of massflow-traction ratio of the power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokotko, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Modeling massflow-traction characteristics of the power unit (PU) may be of interest in the study of aerodynamic characteristics (ADC) aircraft models with full dynamic likeness, and in the study of the effect of interference PU. These studies require the use of a number of processing methods. These include: 1) The method of delivery of the high-pressure body of jets model engines on the sensitive part of the aerodynamic balance. 2) The method of estimate accuracy and reliability of measurement thrust generated by the jet device. 3) The method of implementation of the simulator SU in modeling the external contours of the nacelle, and the conditions at the inlet and outlet. 4) The method of determining the traction simulator PU. 5) The method of determining the interference effect from the work of power unit on the ADC of model. 6) The method of producing hot jets of jet engines. The paper examines implemented in ITAM methodology applied to testing in a supersonic wind tunnel T-313.

  12. Development of hydraulic power unit and accumulator charging circuit for electricity generation, storage and distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.N.Okoye; JIANG Ji-hai; LIU Hai-chang

    2008-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present paper to convert hydraulic energy to electric energy and saves both the pressure and electrical energy for re - use during the next system upstroke using two secondary units coupled to induction motor to drive cylinder loads. During upstroke operation, the variable pump/motor (P/M) driven by both electric motor and the second (P/M) works as hydraulic pump and output flow to the cylinders which drive the load. During load deceleration, the cylinders work as pump while the operation of the two secondary units are reversed, the variable (P/M) works as a motor generating a torque with the electric motor to drive the other(P/M) which transforms mechanical energy to hydraulic energy that is saved in the accumulator. When the en-ergy storage capacity of the accumulator is attained as the operation continues, energy storage to the accumulator is thermostatically stopped while the induction motor begins to work as a generator and generates electricity that is stored in the power distribution unit. Simulations were performed using a limited PT2 Block, I.e. 2nd-ordertransfer function with limitation of slope and signal output to determine suitable velocity of the cylinder which will match high performance and system stability. A mathematical model suited to the simulation of the hydrau-lic accumulator both in an open-or close-loop system is presented. The quest for improvement of lower energy capacity storage, saving and re-utilization of the conventional accumulator resulting in the short cycle time usage of hydraulic accumulators both in domestic and industrial purposes necessitates this research. The outcome of the research appears to be very efficient for generating fluctuation free electricity, power quality and reliability, energy saving/reutilization and system noise reduction.

  13. Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units with Droop Control and Virtual Impedance Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an improved power flow analysis algorithm for distributed generation (DG) units controlled with P/Q droop functions and virtual impedances in a low voltage (LV) microgrid is proposed. The proposed analysis provides in contrast to conventional power flow calculation techniques: (i......) consideration of virtual impedance parameters and (ii) higher accuracy in reactive power flow calculation. The improved power flow analysis algorithm proposed in this paper is validated by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. Case studies have been carried out...... by analyzing the effects of control parameter variation in the power flow results obtained by the proposed algorithm....

  14. A fuzzy chance-constrained program for unit commitment problem considering demand response, electric vehicle and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Hu, Zhaoguang; Han, Xue

    2015-01-01

    commitment model is proposed in this paper considering demand response and electric vehicles, which can promote the exploitation of wind power. On the one hand, demand response and electric vehicles have the feasi- bility to change the load demand curve to solve the mismatch problem. On the other hand......, they can serve as reserve for wind power. To deal with the unit commitment problem, authors use a fuzzy chance- constrained program that takes into account the wind power forecasting errors. The numerical study shows that the model can promote the utilization of wind power evidently, making the power...

  15. Low-power and Low-cost Design of Survival Memory Unit for 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet Transceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Types of hybrid architectures survivor memory unit (SMU) is presented,which are applicable to IEEE 802.3 ab 1000 Base-T Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) transceiver. Area, power and decoder latency were taken into account and most efficient architectures were compared to optimize area/power tradeoff in different kinds of applications. Suitable SMU architectures are given out respectively in area-restrict, power-restrict and latency-restrict designs. A power-efficient architecture was selected in our GbE project. It provides 48% improvement in area and 71% amelioration in power, compared to classical register exchange architecture (REA) SMU.

  16. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  17. Ejector Noise Suppression with Auxiliary Jet Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Charles H.; Andersen, Otto P., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental program to reduce aircraft jet turbulence noise investigated the interaction of small auxiliary jets with a larger main jet. Significant reductions in the far field jet noise were obtained over a range of auxiliary jet pressures and flow rates when used in conjunction with an acoustically lined ejector. While the concept is similar to that of conventional ejector suppressors that use mechanical mixing devices, the present approach should improve thrust and lead to lower weight and less complex noise suppression systems since no hardware needs to be located in the main jet flow. A variety of auxiliary jet and ejector configurations and operating conditions were studied. The best conditions tested produced peak to peak noise reductions ranging from 11 to 16 dB, depending on measurement angle, for auxiliary jet mass flows that were 6.6% of the main jet flow with ejectors that were 8 times the main jet diameter in length. Much larger reductions in noise were found at the original peak frequencies of the unsuppressed jet over a range of far field measurement angles.

  18. The Changing Face of Auxiliary Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    With tuition on the rise, Auxiliary Services departments at a variety of colleges and universities are proving that they can innovate and still save their parent institutions cash. Primary areas of innovation include: (1) With advancements in technology, institutions are moving campus purchasing programs into the wireless space; (2) As junk mail …

  19. Geostatistical modeling of topography using auxiliary maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengl, T.; Bajat, B.; Blagojević, D.; Reuter, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper recommends computational procedures for employing auxiliary maps, such as maps of drainage patterns, land cover and remote-sensing-based indices, directly in the geostatistical modeling of topography. The methodology is based on the regression-kriging technique, as implemented in the R pa

  20. Characteristics of organizational culture at the maintenance units of two Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu [VTT Industrial Systems, P.O. Box 1301, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)]. E-mail: teemu.reiman@vtt.fi; Oedewald, Pia [VTT Industrial Systems, P.O. Box 1301, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, Carl [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 325, SE-631 05 Eskilstuna (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    This study aims to characterize and assess the organizational cultures of two Nordic nuclear power plant (NPP) maintenance units. The research consisted of NPP maintenance units of Forsmark (Sweden) and Olkiluoto (Finland). The study strives to anticipate the consequences of the current practices, conceptions and assumptions in the given organizations to their ability and willingness to fulfill the organizational core task. The methods utilized in the study were organizational culture and core task questionnaire (CULTURE02) and semi-structured interviews. Similarities and differences in the perceived organizational values, conceptions of one's own work, conceptions of the demands of the maintenance task and organizational practices at the maintenance units were explored. The maintenance units at Olkiluoto and Forsmark had quite different organizational cultures, but they also shared a set of dimensions such as strong personal emphasis placed on safety. The authors propose that different cultural features and organizational practices may be equally effective from the perspective of the core task. The results show that due to the complexity of the maintenance work, the case organizations tend to emphasize some aspects of the maintenance task more than others. The reliability consequences of these cultural solutions to the maintenance task are discussed. The authors propose that the organizational core task, in this case the maintenance task, should be clear for all the workers. The results give implications that this has been a challenge recently as the maintenance work has been changing. The concepts of organizational core task and organizational culture could be useful as management tools to anticipate the consequences of organizational changes.

  1. Evaluation of electromagnetic interference environment of the instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Moon-Gi; Lee, Jae-Ki; Ji, Yeong-Haw; Jo, Sung-Han [Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 1312-70 Yuesong-daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Je, E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.kr [Pusan National University, 2, Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We surveyed the electromagnetic emissions at the location of I&C systems. • We assessed the electromagnetic levels on reactor types from thirteen nuclear plants. • We evaluated the margin between plant emission limits and the highest composite levels. • We presented the formula of radiated susceptibility test levels to non-safety-related I&C systems. - Abstract: The electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated from sources in power units can interfere with digital Instrument and Control (I&C) systems. When EMI is emitted with conducted and radiated noise, it interferes with the signals of the I&C systems. Since the digital I&C systems are efficient and competitively priced, the analogue I&C systems have been upgraded and replaced with digital I&C systems, but these systems have less EMI immunity. When safety-related I&C systems are installed in the units, the verification of equipment EMI should not be done in site-specific tests but in test facilities. There are needs to do the overall site-specific EMI assessment of I&C systems depending on the reactor types from thirteen operating units. This study evaluated the margin between plant emission limits and the highest composite plant emissions of the EMI. When the non-safety-related I&C equipment or systems are placed in the units, there are no individual test levels of the radiated electrical field. If need be, the level should comply with the test levels of the radiated electrical field on the safety-related I&C systems. This paper presents the test levels of radiated electrical fields to non-safety-related I&C equipment or systems.

  2. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StanislawSzweda

    2001-01-01

    In the article the results of measurements of the resultant force in the legs of a powered roof support unit, caused by a dynamic interaction bf the rock mass, are discussed. The measurements have been taken in the Iongwalls mined with a roof fall, characterized by the highest degree of bumping hazard. It has been stated that the maximal force in the legs Fro, recorded during a dynamic interaction of the rock mass, is proportional to the initial static force in the legs Fst.p Therefore a need for a careful selection of the initial load of the powered roof support, according to the local mining and geological conditions, results from such a statement. Setting the legs with the supporting load exceeding the indispensable value for keeping the direct roof solids in balance, deteriorating the operational parameters of a Iongwall system also has a disadvantageous influence on the value of the force in the legs and the rate of its increase, caused by a dynamic interaction of the rock mass. A correct selection of the initial load causes a decrease in the intensity of a dynamic interaction of the rock mass on powered roof supports, which also has an advanta igeous influence on their life, Simultaneously with the measurements of the resultant force in the legs, the vertical acceleration of the canopy was also recorded. It has enabled to prove that the external dynamic forces may act on the unit both from the roof as well as from the floor. The changes of the force in the legs caused by dynamic phenomena intrinsically created in the roof and changes of the force in the legs caused by blasting explosives in the roof of the working, have been analyzed separately. It has been stated that an increase in the loads of legs, caused by intrinsic phenomena is significantly higher than a force increase in the legs caused by blasting. It means that powered roof supports, to be operated in the workings, where the bumping hazard occurs, will also transmit the loads acting on a unit

  3. 1000 MW 二次再热机组抽汽参数确定与小汽机汽源研究%The Bleed Parameters Determination And Resource of Auxiliary Turbine Research of 1 000 MW Double Steam Reheat Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩中合; 田欢

    2015-01-01

    以二次再热机组为模型,蒸汽焓为变量建立回热系统效率与蒸汽抽汽焓值的关系方程,以回热系统效率最大为目标函数推导出相邻两级加热器抽汽焓值的递推关系,确定1000MW主蒸汽参数为35MPa/700℃/720℃/720℃二次再热机组再热前后各级最佳的抽汽焓值,结果表明:比采用给水等焓升方法确定机组效率高0.1%,加热器�损总值减少1.37kJ/kg。改变小汽机汽源抽汽口位置,进汽参数越高,机组效率越大。采用一次再热热段抽汽作为汽源时机组效率最大为55.52%,回热系统�损最小为82.76kJ/kg。%With secondary reheat unit , bleed enthalpy as variate for regenerative system analysis model , it develops the relationship equation between regenerative system efficiency and the bleed enthalpy , and derives the recursive relations between the adjacent bleed enthalpy for the maximal regenerative efficiency ,then determines the optimal bleed enthalpy of the 1 000MW unit whose main steam parameters is 35MPa/700℃/720℃/720℃.With the recursive equation ,determines the rational bleed enthalpy of the double reheat unit ,whose main steam parameters are 35MPa/700℃/720℃/720℃,The results show: the regenerative system efficiency is 0.1% higher than feed water equivalent heat rise method and the reheater exergy loss is 1.37kJ/kg lower.With the bleed location changes ,the higher of the inlet steam parameters of the auxiliary turbine ,the higher of the unit efficiency .When the steam source is the bleed steam after the first reheat ,the unit efficiency is the highest which is 55.52%and the regenerative system exergy loss is the least which is 82.76kJ/kg.

  4. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  5. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  6. A dynamic regrouping based sequential dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the unit commitment (UC) in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning under the deregulated power market. In CHP plants (units), generation of heat and power follows joint characteristics, which implies that it is difficult to determine the relative cost...... efficiency of the plants. We introduce in this paper the DRDP-RSC algorithm, which is a dynamic regrouping based dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units, sequential commitment of units in small groups. Relaxed states of the plants are used to reduce...... the dimension of the UC problem and dynamic regrouping is used to improve the solution quality. Numerical results based on real-life data sets show that this algorithm is efficient and optimal or near-optimal solutions with very small optimality gap are obtained....

  7. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems and heater units: status and future research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel; Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    Coated particle fuel has been proposed recently for use in Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) and Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) for a variety of space missions requiring power levels from mWs to 10's or even hundreds of Watts. It can be made into different shapes and sizes of solid compacts, heating tapes, or paints. Using a conservative design approach, this fuel form could increase by 2.3-2.4 times the thermal power output of a LWRHU, while offering promise of enhanced safety. These performance figures are based on using single-size (500 μm) compacts of ZrC coated 238PuO2 kernels and assuming 10% and 5% He release, respectively, at 1723 K, following 10 years of storage. Using binary-size (300 and 1200 μm) fuel kernels in the compact increases the thermal power output by an additional 15%. 238PuO2 fuel kernels are intentionally sized (>=300 μm in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects. They are non-respirable and non-inhalable and, if ingested, would simply be excreted with no radiological effects. The 238PuO2 fuel kernels are contained within a strong ZrC coating, which is designed to fully retain the fuel and the helium gas. Helium retention in large grain (>=300 μm) granular and polycrystalline fuel kernels is possible even at high temperatures (>1700 K). The former could be fabricated using binderless agglomeration or similar processes, while the latter could be fabricated using Sol-Gel or thermal plasma processes, with potentially less radioactive waste and fabrication contamination. In addition to summarizing the results of a recent effort investigating the performance of coated fuel particle compact (CPFC) and helium gas release, this paper identifies and discusses future research and testing needs. .

  8. Design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid switcher locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Liping, E-mail: lguo@niu.ed [Department of Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Yedavalli, Karthik; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper discusses the design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive. Different types of fuel cells for appropriate application to locomotives were compared, fuel cell and auxiliary storage devices were modeled, and a control strategy for the overall system was developed in this paper. By using the proposed control strategy, the power control system regulates the sharing of power demand between fuel cell and auxiliary storage units including batteries and ultracapacitors. Experimental data of the power duty cycle of a typical switcher locomotive is analyzed. The proposed control system is tested using the experimental data. Results show that the control system is able to maintain output voltage from different power sources within a certain range, keep the state of charge of the batteries within an optimal range and meet power demand of the locomotive at a high efficiency.

  9. Design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid switcher locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liping [Department of Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Yedavalli, Karthik; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper discusses the design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive. Different types of fuel cells for appropriate application to locomotives were compared, fuel cell and auxiliary storage devices were modeled, and a control strategy for the overall system was developed in this paper. By using the proposed control strategy, the power control system regulates the sharing of power demand between fuel cell and auxiliary storage units including batteries and ultracapacitors. Experimental data of the power duty cycle of a typical switcher locomotive is analyzed. The proposed control system is tested using the experimental data. Results show that the control system is able to maintain output voltage from different power sources within a certain range, keep the state of charge of the batteries within an optimal range and meet power demand of the locomotive at a high efficiency. (author)

  10. Testing of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Webster, K.; Godfoy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump that has been designed for integration into a fission surface power technology demonstration unit are presented. The pump electromagnetically pushes liquid metal (NaK) through a specially-designed apparatus that permits quantification of pump performance over a range of operating conditions. Testing was conducted for frequencies of 40, 55, and 70 Hz, liquid metal temperatures of 125, 325, and 525 C, and input voltages from 30 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.3 to 3.1 L/s (4.8 to 49 gpm), and pressure heads of <1 to 104 kPa (<0.15 to 15 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was 5.4%. At the technology demonstration unit operating temperature of 525 C the pump operated over a narrower envelope, with flow rates from 0.3 to 2.75 L/s (4.8 to 43.6 gpm), developed pressure heads from <1 to 55 kPa (<0.15 to 8 psi), and a maximum efficiency of 3.5%. The pump was supplied with three-phase power at 40 and 55 Hz using a variable-frequency motor drive, while power at 55 and 70 Hz was supplied using a variable-frequency power supply. Measured performance of the pump at 55 Hz using either supply exhibited good quantitative agreement. For a given temperature, the peak in efficiency occurred at different flow rates as the frequency was changed, but the maximum value of efficiency was relative insensitive within 0.3% over the frequency range tested, including a scan from 45 to 78 Hz. The objectives of the FSP technology project are as follows:5 • Develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. • Establish a nonnuclear hardware-based technical foundation for FSP design concepts to reduce overall development risk. • Reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. • Generate the key nonnuclear products to allow Agency

  11. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Kim, Yong Rae; Park, Yong Soo; Cho, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sang Keun; Ahn, Dawk Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 6 of Ulchin unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 64 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 32 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 6 amounts to 369 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 14850 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Park, Yong soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for Cycle 7 of Ulchin Unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 56 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 4.00 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s 36 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of Cycle 7 amounts to 355 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 14280 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ha; Park, Yong Soo; Cho, Byeong Ho; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Sang Keun; Ahn, Dawk Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 5 of Ulchin unit it 2. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 48 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.50 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 20 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 5 amounts to 293 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 11780 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Nuclear design report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1 cycle 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young chul; Kim, Jae Hak; Song, Jae Woong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for Cycle 6 of Yonggwng Unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 76 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 4.00 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 60 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of Cycle 9 amounts to 434 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 17470 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Nuclear design report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 4 cycle 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyoon; Jung, Yil Sub; Kim, Si Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 8 of Kori unit 4. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 76 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s 48 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 8 amounts to 421 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 16950 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2, cycle 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Oh; Park, Jin Ha; Kim, Yong Rae; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jong Chul; Baik, Joo Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 6 of Ulchin unit 2. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 64 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.80 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 36 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 6 amounts to 388 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 15610 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Nuclear design report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Moon, Bok Ja; Cho, Byeong Ho; Jung, Yil Sup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-04-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 13 of Kori unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 44 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 16 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 13 amounts to 355 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 13240 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Nuclear design report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jae Hak; Park, Sang Yoon; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Sang Keun; Ahn, Dawk Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 8 of Kori unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 76 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 56 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 8 amounts to 447 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 18020 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Effects of the Hot Alignment of a Power Unit on Oil-Whip Instability Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a power unit, whose shaft-train alignment was significantly influenced by the machine thermal state, that was affected in operating condition by high subsynchronous vibrations caused by oil-whip instability phenomena. The dynamic stiffness coefficients of the oil-film journal bearings of the generator were evaluated considering the critical average journal positions that caused the instability onsets. By including these bearing coefficients in a mathematical model of the fully assembled machine, the real part of the eigenvalue associated with the first balance resonance of the generator rotor became positive. This paper shows the successful results obtained by combining diagnostic techniques based on mathematical models of journal bearings and shaft train with detailed analyses of monitoring data aimed to investigate the effects of the hot alignment of rotating machines on the occurrence of oil-whip instability onsets.

  20. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  1. Methodology for carrying out energy diagnosis in auxiliaries systems in thermal electrical central stations; Metodologia para realizar un diagnostico energetico en sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebradt Garcia, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rojas Hidalgo, Ismael; Huante Perez, Liborio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    One of the potential areas for energy saving in Central Electric Power Plants are the auxiliaries system, so as to based in a preliminary energy diagnosis and considering that energy saving measures would be taken, going from the instrumentation, operational changes in equipment, as well as in using velocity variators in motors, it turns out to be that the energy consumption of auxiliaries at 75% load in a 150 MW thermal power plant varies from 3% to 4% and for the case of a 350 MW power plant the energy consumption of the auxiliaries represents 2 to 3.5%. Nowadays this consumption are above 6%. Considering that the country has 40 units with capacities varying from 150 to 350 MW, the economical and the fuel saving would be substantial. This paper will present a summary of the methodology to be used to carry out this type of projects. [Espanol] Una de las areas potenciales de ahorro de energia en centrales termoelectricas son los sistemas auxiliares, de tal manera que basados en un diagnostico energetico preliminar y considerando que se aplicarian las medidas de ahorro de energia que van desde la instrumentacion, cambios operativos en equipos, asi como el uso de variadores de velocidad en motores, se tienen que los consumos de auxiliares para un 75% de carga en una central termoelectrica de 150 MW varian desde un 3% hasta un 4% y para el caso de una central termoelectrica de 350 MW, el consumo de auxiliares representa del 2 al 3.5%. Hoy en dia dichos consumos estan por encima del 6%. Si consideramos que el pais cuenta con 40 unidades que varian desde 150 MW hasta 350 MW, entonces los ahorros economicos y de combustible serian impactantes. La presente ponencia mostrara un resumen de la metodologia a emplear para la realizacion de este tipo de proyectos.

  2. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  3. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...... to use low backup energy prices during the day if electricity is used. The storage function and both stratified charging and extraction of heat, are very important, to separate different temperature zones in the storage. This paper describes a step towards forecast control for electricity based auxiliary...

  4. An improved unit decommitment algorithm for combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, R.; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    heat and power must be done in coordination. We present an improved unit decommitment (IUD) algorithm that starts with an improved initial solution with less heat surplus so that the relative cost-efficiency of the plants can be determined more accurately. Then the subsequent decommitment procedures...... and a linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the plants. We compare the IUD algorithm with realistic test data against a generic unit decommitment (UD) algorithm. Numerical results show that IUD is an overall improvement of UD. The solution quality of IUD is better than that of UD for almost all of tested...... cases. The maximum improvement is 11.3% and the maximum degradation is only 0.04% (only two sub-cases out of 216 sub-cases) with an average improvement of 0.3-0.5%, for different planning horizons. Moreover, IUD is more efficient (1.1-3 times faster on average) than UD. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights...

  5. LVP modeling and dynamic characteristics prediction of a hydraulic power unit in deep-sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xue-peng; Ye, Min; Deng, Bin; Zhang, Cui-hong; Yu, Zu-ying

    2013-03-01

    A hydraulic power unit (HPU) is the driving "heart" of deep-sea working equipment. It is critical to predict its dynamic performances in deep-water before being immerged in the seawater, while the experimental tests by simulating deep-sea environment have many disadvantages, such as expensive cost, long test cycles, and difficult to achieve low-temperature simulation, which is only used as a supplementary means for confirmatory experiment. This paper proposes a novel theoretical approach based on the linear varying parameters (LVP) modeling to foresee the dynamic performances of the driving unit. Firstly, based on the varying environment features, dynamic expressions of the compressibility and viscosity of hydraulic oil are derived to reveal the fluid performances changing. Secondly, models of hydraulic system and electrical system are accomplished respectively through studying the control process and energy transfer, and then LVP models of the pressure and flow rate control is obtained through the electro-hydraulic models integration. Thirdly, dynamic characteristics of HPU are obtained by the model simulating within bounded closed sets of varying parameters. Finally, the developed HPU is tested in a deep-sea imitating hull, and the experimental results are well consistent with the theoretical analysis outcomes, which clearly declare that the LVP modeling is a rational way to foresee dynamic performances of HPU. The research approach and model analysis results can be applied to the predictions of working properties and product designs for other deep-sea hydraulic pump.

  6. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2012-09-01

    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  7. Identification of unmeasured variables in the set of model constraints of the data reconciliation in a power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szega, Marcin; Nowak, Grzegorz Tadeusz

    2013-12-01

    In generalized method of data reconciliation as equations of conditions beside substance and energy balances can be used equations which don't have precisely the status of conservation lows. Empirical coefficients in these equations are traded as unknowns' values. To this kind of equations, in application of the generalized method of data reconciliation in supercritical power unit, can be classified: steam flow capacity of a turbine for a group of stages, adiabatic internal efficiency of group of stages, equations for pressure drop in pipelines and equations for heat transfer in regeneration heat exchangers. Mathematical model of a power unit was developed in the code Thermoflex. Using this model the off-design calculation has been made in several points of loads for the power unit. Using these calculations identification of unknown values and empirical coefficients for generalized method of data reconciliation used in power unit has been made. Additional equations of conditions will be used in the generalized method of data reconciliation which will be used in optimization of measurement placement in redundant measurement system in power unit for new control systems

  8. Curricular Units: Powerful Tools to Connect the Syllabus with Students’ Needs and Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza Ariza Aleida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A basic component of any language program is the construction of the curriculum. There is a variety of approaches to curriculum planning and implementation from the technical production perspective to the critical view. The current article emerged from the analysis of the syllabus in a Basic English course in the undergraduate program at Universidad Nacional de Colombia and the design and implementation of a curricular unit. Such unit proved to be a powerful tool to connect what was set in the program, what students needed in terms of language and what they were interested in terms of culture. Key words: Curriculum, Curricular Unit Platform, Constructivism, Teaching- Communicative Language, Task-Based Approach Un componente esencial en un programa de idiomas es la construcción del currículo. Existe una gran variedad de enfoques en términos del diseño y la implementación del currículo; desde una perspectiva reducida a la producción técnica, hasta una visión crítica y transformadora. El presente artículo se gesta a partir tanto del análisis de un programa correspondiente al curso Inglés Básico I en la licenciatura ofrecida por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, como del diseño y la implementación de una unidad curricular. Dicha unidad curricular se caracterizó por convertirse en una herramienta de conexión entre los contenidos y procedimientos planteados en un programa y las necesidades comunicativas e intereses culturales de los estudiantes. Palabras claves: Currículo, Plataforma Curricular, Unidad Curricular, Constructivismo, Lenguas Extranjeras-Enseñanza Comunicativa, Enfoque basado en Tareas

  9. Triboelectric Nanogenerator as a Self-Powered Communication Unit for Processing and Transmitting Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aifang; Chen, Xiangyu; Wang, Rui; Liu, Jingyu; Luo, Jianjun; Chen, Libo; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Wei; Liu, Caihong; Yuan, Hongtao; Peng, Mingzeng; Hu, Weiguo; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-26

    In this paper, we demonstrate an application of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) as a self-powered communication unit. An elaborately designed TENG is used to translate a series of environmental triggering signals into binary digital signals and drives an electronic-optical device to transmit binary digital data in real-time without an external power supply. The elaborately designed TENG is built in a membrane structure that can effectively drive the electronic-optical device in a bandwidth from 1.30 to 1.65 kHz. Two typical communication modes (amplitude-shift keying and frequency-shift keying) are realized through the resonant response of TENG to different frequencies, and two digital signals, i.e., "1001" and "0110", are successfully transmitted and received through this system, respectively. Hence, in this study, a simple but efficient method for directly transmitting ambient vibration to the receiver as a digital signal is established using an elaborately designed TENG and an optical communication technique. This type of the communication system, as well as the implementation method presented, exhibits great potential for applications in the smart city, smart home, password authentication, and so on.

  10. Selection of organic Rankine cycle working fluid based on unit-heat-exchange-area net power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美茹; 朱启的; 孙志强; 周天; 周孑民

    2015-01-01

    To improve energy conversion efficiency, optimization of the working fluids in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) was explored in the range of low-temperature heat sources. The concept of unit-heat-exchange-area (UHEA) net power, embodying the cost/performance ratio of an ORC system, was proposed as a new indicator to judge the suitability of ORC working fluids on a given condition. The heat exchange area was computed by an improved evaporator model without fixing the minimum temperature difference between working fluid and hot fluid, and the flow pattern transition during heat exchange was also taken into account. The maximum UHEA net powers obtained show that dry organic fluids are more suitable for ORCs than wet organic fluids to recover low-temperature heat. The organic fluid 1-butene is recommended if the inlet temperature of hot fluid is 353.15−363.15 K or 443.15−453.15 K, heptane is more suitable at 373.15−423.15 K, and R245ca is a good option at 483.15−503.15 K.

  11. The US business cycle: power law scaling for interacting units with complex internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2002-11-01

    In the social sciences, there is increasing evidence of the existence of power law distributions. The distribution of recessions in capitalist economies has recently been shown to follow such a distribution. The preferred explanation for this is self-organised criticality. Gene Stanley and colleagues propose an alternative, namely that power law scaling can arise from the interplay between random multiplicative growth and the complex structure of the units composing the system. This paper offers a parsimonious model of the US business cycle based on similar principles. The business cycle, along with long-term growth, is one of the two features which distinguishes capitalism from all previously existing societies. Yet, economics lacks a satisfactory theory of the cycle. The source of cycles is posited in economic theory to be a series of random shocks which are external to the system. In this model, the cycle is an internal feature of the system, arising from the level of industrial concentration of the agents and the interactions between them. The model-in contrast to existing economic theories of the cycle-accounts for the key features of output growth in the US business cycle in the 20th century.

  12. Abortion in the United States' Bible Belt: organizing for power and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Mary Ann

    2011-01-05

    Over the last 30 years, conservative power in the United States, financed and organized by Christian fundamentalist sects, the Catholic Church, and conservative corporate and political leadership, has become more threatening and potentially destabilizing of progressive democratic principles and practices. Powerful interlocking political, financial and social forces are arrayed against women in many Southern and Western states. They are having destructive effects on women's ability to control their fertility and maintain bodily integrity and health. Poor women and women of color are disproportionately affected by restrictions on abortion services. Strategically developed interventions must be initiated and managed at every level in these localities. It is urgent to coordinate and empower individuals, multiple organizations and communities to engender effective changes in attitudes, norms, behavior and policies that will enable women to obtain reproductive health services, including abortion care. This paper describes contextual factors that continue to decimate U.S. women's right to health and, then, describes a community organizing-social action project in a number of US' states aimed at reversing the erosion of women's right to have or not to have children.

  13. The System Power Control Unit Based on the On-Chip Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the on-chip wireless communication system (OWCS includes 2nd-generation (2G, 3rd-generation (3G, and long-term evolution (LTE communication subsystems. To improve the power consumption of OWCS, a typical architecture design of system power control unit (SPCU is given in this paper, which can not only make a 2G, a 3G, and an LTE subsystems enter sleep mode, but it can also wake them up from sleep mode via the interrupt. During the sleep mode period, either the real-time sleep timer or the global system for mobile (GSM communication sleep timer can be used individually to arouse the corresponding subsystem. Compared to previous sole voltage supplies on the OWCS, a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem can be independently configured with three different voltages and frequencies in normal work mode. In the meantime, the voltage supply monitor, which is an important part in the SPCU, can significantly guard the voltage of OWCS in real time. Finally, the SPCU may implement dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS for a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem, which is automatically accomplished by the hardware.

  14. The system power control unit based on the on-chip wireless communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiefeng; Ma, Caiwen; Li, WenHua

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the on-chip wireless communication system (OWCS) includes 2nd-generation (2G), 3rd-generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) communication subsystems. To improve the power consumption of OWCS, a typical architecture design of system power control unit (SPCU) is given in this paper, which can not only make a 2G, a 3G, and an LTE subsystems enter sleep mode, but it can also wake them up from sleep mode via the interrupt. During the sleep mode period, either the real-time sleep timer or the global system for mobile (GSM) communication sleep timer can be used individually to arouse the corresponding subsystem. Compared to previous sole voltage supplies on the OWCS, a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem can be independently configured with three different voltages and frequencies in normal work mode. In the meantime, the voltage supply monitor, which is an important part in the SPCU, can significantly guard the voltage of OWCS in real time. Finally, the SPCU may implement dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) for a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem, which is automatically accomplished by the hardware.

  15. The System Power Control Unit Based on the On-Chip Wireless Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiefeng; Ma, Caiwen; Li, WenHua

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the on-chip wireless communication system (OWCS) includes 2nd-generation (2G), 3rd-generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) communication subsystems. To improve the power consumption of OWCS, a typical architecture design of system power control unit (SPCU) is given in this paper, which can not only make a 2G, a 3G, and an LTE subsystems enter sleep mode, but it can also wake them up from sleep mode via the interrupt. During the sleep mode period, either the real-time sleep timer or the global system for mobile (GSM) communication sleep timer can be used individually to arouse the corresponding subsystem. Compared to previous sole voltage supplies on the OWCS, a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem can be independently configured with three different voltages and frequencies in normal work mode. In the meantime, the voltage supply monitor, which is an important part in the SPCU, can significantly guard the voltage of OWCS in real time. Finally, the SPCU may implement dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) for a 2G, a 3G, or an LTE subsystem, which is automatically accomplished by the hardware. PMID:23818835

  16. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  17. Inferring Muscle-Tendon Unit Power from Ankle Joint Power during the Push-Off Phase of Human Walking: Insights from a Multiarticular EMG-Driven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs). However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint) musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which ankle joint power overestimates net plantarflexor MTU power during the Push-off phase of walking, due to the behavior of the flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FDHL)–multiarticular MTUs crossing the ankle and metatarsophalangeal (toe) joints. Methods We performed a gait analysis study on six healthy participants, recording ground reaction forces, kinematics, and electromyography (EMG). Empirical data were input into an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model to estimate ankle power. This model enabled us to parse contributions from mono- and multi-articular MTUs, and required only one scaling and one time delay factor for each subject and speed, which were solved for based on empirical data. Net plantarflexing MTU power was computed by the model and quantitatively compared to inverse dynamics ankle power. Results The EMG-driven model was able to reproduce inverse dynamics ankle power across a range of gait speeds (R2 ≥ 0.97), while also providing MTU-specific power estimates. We found that FDHL dynamics caused ankle power to slightly overestimate net plantarflexor MTU power, but only by ~2–7%. Conclusions During Push-off, FDHL MTU dynamics do not substantially confound the inference of net plantarflexor MTU power from inverse dynamics ankle power. However, other methodological limitations may cause inverse dynamics to overestimate net MTU power; for instance, due to rigid-body foot assumptions. Moving

  18. Report of examination of the ruptured pipe at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    In order to investigate root cause of the pipe rupture, which took place at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company on November 7, 2001, a task force was established within the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and initiated a detailed investigation of the ruptured pipe. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was asked from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in response to the request from NISA to cooperate as an independent neutral organization with NISA and perform an examination of the ruptured pipe independently from Chubu Electric Power Company. JAERI accepted the request by considering the fact that JAERI is an integrated research institution for nuclear research and development, a prime research institution for nuclear safety research, a research institution with experience of root-cause investigation of various nuclear incidents and accidents of domestic as well as overseas, and a research institution provided with advanced examination facilities necessary for examination of the ruptured pipe. The JAERI examination group was formed at the Tokai Research Establishment and conducted detailed and thorough examination of the pieces taken from the ruptured pipe primarily in the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) with the use of tools such as scanning electron microscopes and other equipments. Purpose of examination was to provide technical information in order to identify causes of the pipe rupture through examination of the pieces taken from the ruptured region of the pipe. The following findings and conclusion were made as the result of the present examination. (1) Wall thickness of the pipe was significantly reduced in the ruptured region. (2) Dimple pattern resulting from ductile fracture by shearing was observed in the fracture surfaces of nearly all of the pieces and no indication of fatigue crack growth was found. (3) Microstructure showed a typical carbon

  19. Assessment of the feasibility of an improvement programme enabling operation of units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amri, A.; Aronov, J.; Bonino, F.; Cortes, P.; Gorbatchev, A.; Kanev, K.; Mattei, J.M.; Milhem, J.L.; Rollinger, F.; Sabotinov, L.; Samier, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR). Inst. de Protection et de Securete Nucleaire (IPSN)

    2001-07-01

    Since ten years, different western assessments have been made of the safety of VVER 440/230 units, including those of the KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant located in Bulgaria. Concerning the latter, reference can be made to the work of an European Consortium (GRS/Germany, IPSN/France, AEA/England, AVN/ Belgium), in 1992 and 1993, during examination of restart conditions for Units 1 and 2. The objective of these assessments was the improvement of the overall level of safety with a view to maintain these units in service with satisfactory safety level for a limited period. The work identified their main deficiencies. At the present time, all the modifications decided upon for Units 1 and 2 of the KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant in 1992 and 1993 have been adopted and implemented for Units 3 and 4. In 1999, considering that these units would probably not be definitively shutdown before about ten years, IPSN decided to perform an internal assessment of the feasibility of an improvement programme enabling continued operation of units 3 and 4 of KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant during this delay. (orig.)

  20. Visualization Design and Auxiliary Decision-making of Maintenance Scheduling for the Provincial Power Grid%面向省级电网的检修可视化设计和辅助决策实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖胜利; 应小诚; 李刚; 程春田; 蔡华祥; 杨后东

    2011-01-01

    In view of the provincial grid's complex structure,close connection between the elements,and difficulty in maintenance scheduling planning,a decision support system(DSS) based on rich Internet applications(RIA) technique is presented to monitor and dynamically display maintenance scheduling.The object-oriented method is adopted to Abstract and describe the primary components' characteristics of the electric power system.The RIA technique is used to display the whole electric power topological structure.More important,the DSS is capable of detecting the "detached islands" of automatic maintenance scheduling using the breadth-first search approach.Meanwhile,the incorrect maintenance arrangements detected will be automatically presented to users together with suggestions for correct and rational scheduling,effectively enhancing the accuracy and reliability of maintenance scheduling.The practicality and flexibility of the DSS proposed are verified in Yunnan power grid. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China(No.50909011),Special Fund of National Basic Research Program of China(No.2009CB226111),and National Natural Science Foundation of China for National Outstanding Young Investigator(No.51025934).%针对省网电力系统拓扑结构复杂、各要素间联系紧密、检修计划安排困难等问题,设计了一种基于富互联网应用(rich Internet applications,RIA)技术的检修计划监测和动态显示辅助决策系统。通过深入分析网络元件特点,采用面向对象思想对拓扑结构进行抽象和描述,应用RIA技术对电网结构进行可视化展示,结合广度优先搜索技术对各元件进行遍历,找出检修过程中存在的"孤立岛",对可能存在的错误检修安排进行自动提示,同时给出建议的检修计划,有效地提高了电网检修的准确性和可靠性。结合云南电网实际检修安排过程,验证了系统的实用性和灵活性。

  1. Computer Auxiliary Analysis for Stochasticity of Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOGeng; FANGJin-qing

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we propose a mathematics-physical statistic analytical method for stochastic process of chaos, based on stochastic test via combination measurement of Monobit and Runs. Computer auxiliary analysis shows that it is of stochasticity for stochastic number produced from the chaotic circuit. Our software is written by VB and C++, the later can be tested by the former, and at the same time it is verified by stochastic number produced by the computer. So the data treatment results are reliable.

  2. 78 FR 69367 - Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit #2 Restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... the restart of Unit 2 and for improvements to the Healy Plant, which include installing additional emissions control to both Unit 1 and Unit 2. Unit 1 is a 25 MW coal-fired boiler and Unit 2 is a 50 MW coal-fired boiler that was constructed in the late 1990s with funding from DOE and AIDEA. The...

  3. As representações dos técnicos e auxiliares de enfermagem acerca do trabalho em equipe na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Las representaciones de técnicos y auxiliares de enfermería sobre trabajos en equipo en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos The representations of nursing auxiliaries and technicians about team work at an Intensive-Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Eri Shimizu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivos explicitar e analisar as representações dos técnicos e auxiliares de enfermagem acerca do trabalho em equipe em UTI. Foi utilizada a abordagem qualitativa e, como referencial teórico metodológico, a Teoria das Representações Sociais. O material empírico constou de entrevistas com quatro técnicos e doze auxiliares de enfermagem que atuam nas UTIs de Clínica Médica, Cirúrgica e Pediátrica. Na análise dos dados, foi utilizada a técnica de análise de conteúdo, na modalidade de análise temática. Os resultados evidenciaram que os trabalhadores de enfermagem mantêm interação conflituosa, indicando a necessidade de adoção de modelos de gerenciamento de pessoal mais eficientes que contemplem a gestão de conflitos entre as equipes de enfermagem.La finalidad de este trabajo es explicar y analizar las representaciones de técnicos y auxiliares de enfermería sobre trabajo en equipo en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Fue utilizado el abordaje cualitativo y, como referencia teórica-metodológica, la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. El material empírico fue formado por entrevistas con cuatro técnicos y doce auxiliares de enfermería que actúan en unidades de cuidados intensivos en Clínica Médica, Quirúrgica y Pediátrica. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando la técnica de análisis de contenido, en la modalidad de análisis temática. Los resultados mostraron que la interacción entre los mencionados trabajadores es conflictiva, indicando que es necesario adoptar modelos más eficaces de administración de personal que contemplen la administración de conflictos entre los equipos de enfermería.This study aims to explain and analyze the representations of nursing auxiliaries and technicians about team work at an intensive-care unit. The qualitative approach was used and the Theory of Social Representations was adopted as a theoretical-methodological reference framework. The empirical

  4. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  5. Repacking practice for G-3 engineering driller power unit with drive shaft of dual channel reverse circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong ZHU; Kun YIN; Qingyan WANG; Yong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to satisfy operating requirements for constant core drilling technology in reverse circulation with hollow-through DTH,the power unit of G-3 engineering driller was ameliorated. The new one with dual channel drive shaft, achieved the perfect assemble with transmission structure of the original power unit. It could interconvert according to need by using two sets of drive shafts with direct and reverse circulation. The repacked G-3 engineering driller carried on experiment in the field test in Luanchuan molybdenum mine of Henan, whose effect was very good.

  6. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw Szweda

    2001-01-01

    In the article the results of measurements of the resultant force in th e legs of a powered roof support unit, caused by a dynamic interaction of the ro ck mass, are discussed. The measurements have been taken in the longwalls mined with a roof fall, characterized by the highest degree of bumping hazard. It has been stated that the maximal force in the legs Fm, recorded during a dynam ic interaction of the rock mass, is proportional to the initial static force in the legs Fst,p. Th erefore a need for a careful selection of the initial load of the powered roof s upport, according to the local mining and geological conditions, results from su ch a statement. Setting the legs with the supporting load exceeding the indispen sable value for keeping the direct roof solids in balance, deteriorating the ope rational parameters of a longwall system also has a disadvantageous influence on the value of the force in the legs and the rate of its increase, caused by a dy namic interaction of the rock mass. A correct selection of the initial load caus es a decrease in the intensity of a dynamic interaction of the rock mass on powe red roof supports, which also has an advantageous influence on their life.   Simultaneously with the measurements of the resultant force in the legs, the vertical acceleration of the canopy was also recorded. It has enabled to prove that the exte rnal dynamic forces may act on the unit both from the roof as well as from the f loor. The changes of the force in the legs caused by dynamic phenomena intrinsic ally created in the roof and changes of the force in the legs caused by blasting explosives in the roof of the working, have been analyzed separately. It has been stated that an increase in the loads of legs, caused by intrinsi c phenomena is significantly higher than a force increase in the legs caused by blasting. It means that powered roof supports, to be operated in the workings, w here the bumping hazard occurs, will also transmit the loads

  7. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  8. LVP Modeling and Dynamic Characteristics Prediction of A Hydraulic Power Unit in Deep-Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-peng; YE Min; DENG Bin; ZHANG Cui-hong; YU Zu-ying

    2013-01-01

    A hydraulic power unit (HPU) is the driving "heart" of deep-sea working equipment.It is critical to predict its dynamic performances in deep-water before being immerged in the seawater,while the experimental tests by simulating deep-sea environment have many disadvantages,such as expensive cost,long test cycles,and difficult to achieve low-temperature simulation,which is only used as a supplementary means for confirmatory experiment.This paper proposes a novel theoretical approach based on the linear varying parameters (LVP) modeling to foresee the dynamic performances of the driving unit.Firstly,based on the varying environment features,dynamic expressions of the compressibility and viscosity of hydraulic oil are derived to reveal the fluid performances changing.Secondly,models of hydraulic system and electrical system are accomplished respectively through studying the control process and energy transfer,and then LVP models of the pressure and flow rate control is obtained through the electro-hydraulic models integration.Thirdly,dynamic characteristics of HPU are obtained by the model simulating within bounded closed sets of varying parameters.Finally,the developed HPU is tested in a deep-sea imitating hull,and the experimental results are well consistent with the theoretical analysis outcomes,which clearly declare that the LVP modeling is a rational way to foresee dynamic performances of HPU.The research approach and model analysis results can be applied to the predictions of working properties and product designs for other deep-sea hydraulic pump.

  9. Comparison of Bond Strength of Metal and Ceramic Brackets Bonded with Conventional and High-Power LED Light Curing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalipa, Javad; Jalali, Yasamin Farajzadeh; Gorjizadeh, Fatemeh; Baghaeian, Pedram; Hoseini, Mohammad Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and high-power light emitting diode (LED) light curing units on shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets to tooth surface. Materials and Methods: Forty sound bovine maxillary central incisors were used for the study. The teeth were divided into four groups (n=10). Teeth surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 20 seconds. After applying a uniform layer of adhesive primer on the etched enamel, composite was placed on the base of brackets. The samples were light cured according to the manufacturer’s instructions and thermocycled. The SBS was measured. The failure mode was scored using the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Results: The mean SBS of samples in groups A (high-power LED, metal bracket), B (high-power LED, ceramic bracket), C (conventional LED, metal bracket) and D (conventional LED, ceramic bracket) was 23.1±3.69, 10.7±2.06, 24.92±6.37 and 10.74±3.18MPa, respectively. The interaction effect of type of LED unit (high-power/conventional) and bracket type on SBS was not statistically significant (P=0.483). In general, type of LED unit did not affect SBS. Type of bracket significantly affected SBS (P<0.001). The ARI score was not significantly influenced by the interaction between the type of LED unit and bracket. Conclusions: The obtained SBS is the same for both bracket types by use of high-power and conventional LED light curing units. Regardless of the type of LED unit, SBS of ceramic brackets was significantly lower than that of metal brackets.

  10. Reexamination of molecular integrals arising from the Dirac equation. Analytical evaluation of molecular auxiliary functions integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, A

    2016-01-01

    The author in his previous works were presented a numerical integration method, namely, global-adaptive with the Gauss-Kronrod numerical integration extension in order to accurate calculation of molecular auxiliary functions integrals involve power functions with non-integer exponents. They are constitute elements of molecular integrals arising in Dirac equation when Slater-type orbitals with non-integer principal quantum numbers are used. Binomial series representation of power functions method, so far, is used for analytical evaluation of the molecular auxiliary function integrals however, intervals of integration cover areas beyond the condition of convergence. In the present study, analytical evaluation of these integrals is re-examined. They are expressed via prolate spheroidal coordinates. An alternative analytical approximation are derived. Slowly convergent binomial series representation formulae for power functions is investigated through nonlinear sequence transformations for the acceleration of con...

  11. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are illustrated. The final choice consisted in an MR clutch with permanent magnet, which satisfied size, torque and fail-safe specifications. The clutch characteristics, in terms of torque versus slip, were obtained experimentally for three different clutch prototypes on an ad-hoc developed test bench.As result of a preliminary simulation, a comparison between the power absorption of a current production vacuum pump, an innovative vacuum pump and both vacuum pumps coupled with the MR clutch is presented. The New European Driving Cycle is considered for simulating the vacuum pump operation both in urban and highway driving. Results show that the use of the innovative vacuum pump reduces the device consumption of about 35%, whereas the use of MR clutch coupled with the innovative vacuum pump reduces it up to about 44% in urban driving and 50% in highway driving.

  12. Pragmatic Approach for Multistage Phasor Measurement Unit Placement: A Case Study of Danish Power System and Inputs from Practical Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thoegersen, Poul

    2017-01-01

    Effective phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement is a key to the implementation of efficient and economically feasible wide area measurement systems in modern power systems. This paper proposes a pragmatic approach for cost-effective stage-wise deployment of PMUs while considering realistic...... on the Danish power system projected for the year 2040. Furthermore, practical experience learnt from an optimal PMU placement project aimed at PMU placement in the Danish power system is presented, which is expected to provide insight of practical challenges at ground level that could be considered by PMU...

  13. Nuclear design report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Oh; Kim, Joo Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Song, Jae Woong; Lee, Chong Chul; Baik, Joo Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 14 of Kori unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 44 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 16 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 14 amounts to 366 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 13680 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs. nozzle by vortex formation during mid-loop operation condition are experimentally investigated. The critical submergence is determined for various types of suction nozzle, and the measurements of velocity distribution are performed in the flow fields near the t-shaped suction nozzle. (Author) 11 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  15. State Feedback H∞ Control of Power Units Based on an Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new state feedback H∞ control scheme is presented used in the boiler-turbine power units based on an improved particle swarm optimizing algorithm. Firstly, the nonlinear system is transformed into a linear time-varying system; then the H∞ control problem is transformed into the solution of a Riccati equation. The control effect of H∞ controller depends on the selection of matrix P, so an improved particle swarm optimizing (PSO algorithm by introducing differential evolution algorithm is used to solve the Riccati equation. The main purpose is that mutation and crossover are introduced for a new population, and the population diversity is improved. It is beneficial to eliminate stagnation caused by premature convergence, and the algorithm convergence rate is improved. Finally, the real-time optimizing of the controller parameters is realized. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that a state feedback H∞ controller can be obtained, which can ensure asymptotic stability of the system, and the double objectives of stabilizing system and suppressing the disturbance are got. The system can work well over a large range working point.

  16. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1999-01-01

    Coated particle fuel offers great promise for advanced radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs) being pursued for future U.S. solar system exploration missions. Potential benefits of this fuel include improved design flexibility and materials compatibility, enhanced safety and performance, and reduced specific mass and volume. This paper describes and discusses coated particle fuel, with emphasis on its applicability, attributes, and potential benefits to future RPSs and RHUs. Additionally, this paper identifies further analyses and verification testing that should be conducted before a commitment is made to fully develop this fuel. Efforts to date indicate there is every reason to believe that the potential benefits of coated particle fuel to future RPSs and RHUs can be demonstrated with a modest, phased analytical and verification test effort. Thus, developmental risk appears minimal, while the potential benefits are substantial. If coated particle fuel is pursued and ultimately developed successfully, it could revolutionize the design and space use of future RPSs and RHUs.

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  18. Power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm using a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, S. S.; Wang, L.; Lee, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scheme using a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to perform both power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm (WF) feeding to a utility grid is presented. The studied WF consisting of forty 2 MW wind induction generators (IGs) is simulated by an equiva...

  19. System and Software Design for the Plant Protection System for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Seok; Kim, Young Geul; Choi, Woong Seock; Sohn, Se Do [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Reactor Protection System(RPS) protects the core fuel design limits and reactor coolant system pressure boundary for Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOOs), and provides assistance in mitigating the consequences of Postulated Accidents (PAs). The ESFAS sends the initiation signals to Engineered Safety Feature - Component Control System (ESF-CCS) to mitigate consequences of design basis events. The Common Q platform Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) was used for Shin-Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 and Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Units 1, 2, 3 and 4 since Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) based on Common Q PLC was applied for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 5 and 6. The PPS for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SHN 1 and 2) was developed using POSAFE-Q PLC for the first time for the PPS. The SHN1 and 2 PPS was delivered to the sites after completion of Man Machine Interface System Integrated System Test (MMIS-IST). The SHN1 and 2 PPS was developed to have the redundancy in each channel and to use the benefits of POSAFE-Q PLC, such as diagnostic and data communication. The PPS application software was developed using ISODE to minimize development time and human errors, and to improve software quality, productivity, and reusability.

  20. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  1. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC...

  2. 78 FR 79017 - Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Physical... shut down facility and responsibility for its decommissioning was transferred to ZionSolutions (ZS), a subsidiary of EnergySolutions. ZS was established solely for the purpose of acquiring and decommissioning...

  3. Conceptions of Power among Senior Women Administrators at Liberal Arts Colleges in the Upper Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in senior-level leadership positions in higher education institutions, and their experiences are underrepresented in research about leadership and power in higher education. This qualitative study engaged women senior administrators at liberal arts colleges in the Upper Midwestern United States to better understand how…

  4. Power, Control, and Gender: Training as Catalyst for Dysfunctional Behavior at the United States Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    I explore the role of training practices at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) in perpetuating power and control issues and the potential consequences of those practices. I argue that trainee responses to control deprivation may have resulted in alleged sexual assaults by male cadets and the eating disorders manifested by female cadets.…

  5. 75 FR 75704 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of... Dr. Tianqing Cao, Senior Seismologist, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, has...

  6. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    electricity prices for indirect control of active power. The local, dynamic electricity prices are realised as dynamic adjustments of the quasi-stationary global power price. The aims of the dynamic price adjustments are to prevent overloading of the grid, to reduce the grid power losses and to regulate...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...

  7. Homotopy Perturbation Method with an Auxiliary Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most important steps in application of the homotopy perturbation method are to construct a suitable homotopy equation and to choose a suitable initial guess. The homotopy equation should be such constructed that when the homotopy parameter is zero, it can approximately describe the solution property, and the initial solution can be chosen with an unknown parameter, which is determined after one or two iterations. This paper suggests an alternative approach to construction of the homotopy equation with an auxiliary term; Dufing equation is used as an example to illustrate the solution procedure.

  8. Past, present, and future activities in space power technology in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Judith H.

    1987-01-01

    Space power technology research in the U.S. is examined. The objectives for advanced power systems are long life, safety, flexibility, modularity, growth capability, and autonomy. Research in the areas of photovoltaic arrays, electrical energy storage, and the development of solar dynamic power systems and radio thermal generators is described. The applications of advances in power generation, energy storage, and power management and distribution to the Space Station are discussed.

  9. The experience in the Cernavoda Unit 1 operation - a stimulating argument for future nuclear power development in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, I. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania); Bucur, I. [CNE - PROD, Cernavoda Unit 1 (Romania); Galeriu, A.C. [FCN, Pitesti, Nuclear Fuel Plant (Romania); Budan, O. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    The Romanian nuclear program has been developed based on the option for CANDU type reactors. At the beginning, this program was unrealistically conceived and its management was inappropriate. The program was reconsidered in 1990 and the management policy and organization structure were also adapted accordingly. The paper presents, in the first part, the actual organization structure, adapted for the execution of the current and future activities, related to the nuclear power program. The performance achieved by Cernavoda Unit 1 constitutes the main part of the paper. The performances described demonstrate that the Cernavoda Unit 1 is a success and the Romania's electricity needs are satisfied in a proportion of about 12% by the nuclear power. The paper also presents a general view on Cernavoda Unit 2 perspectives. The essential conclusion of the paper is that the continuation of the nuclear program appears to be a logical option, generally accepted in Romania, limited only by financial restraints. (author)

  10. The Optimized Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Heat and Power Units Oriented for the Grid-Connected Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shu; Ge, Xiaolin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, according to various grid-connected demands, the optimization scheduling models of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units are established with three scheduling modes, which are tracking the total generation scheduling mode, tracking steady output scheduling mode and tracking peaking curve scheduling mode. In order to reduce the solution difficulty, based on the principles of modern algebraic integers, linearizing techniques are developed to handle complex nonlinear constrains of the variable conditions, and the optimized operation problem of CHP units is converted into a mixed-integer linear programming problem. Finally, with specific examples, the 96 points day ahead, heat and power supply plans of the systems are optimized. The results show that, the proposed models and methods can develop appropriate coordination heat and power optimization programs according to different grid-connected control.

  11. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-23

    The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. The Summary Statistics chapter contains aggregate capacity statistics at the national and various regional levels for operable electric generating units and planned electric generating unit additions. Aggregate capacity data at the national level are presented by energy source and by prime mover. Aggregate capacity data at the various regional levels are presented by prime energy source. Planned capacity additions in new units are summarized by year, 1991 through 2000. Additionally, this chapter contains a summary of electric generating unit retirements, by energy source and year, from 1991 through 2000. The chapter on Operable Electric Generating Units contains data about each operable electric generating unit and each electric generating unit that was retired from service during the year. Additionally, it contains a summary by energy source of electric generating unit capacity additions and retirements during 1990. Finally, the chapter on Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions contains data about each electric generating unit scheduled by electric utilities to start operation between 1991 and 2000. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-08-01

    This research present a methodology to design a generalized overall unit control system for a fossil fuel power unit (FFPU), and develops a minimum prototype to demonstrate its feasibility. Toward the above goal, the associated research project was undertaken as a technology innovation process with its two ends identified as follows. First, it is recognized that the coordinated control strategies constitute the uppermost control level in current FFPUs, and so, are responsible for driving the boiler-turbine-generator set as a single entity. Second, a FFPU is envisioned as a complex process, subject to multiple changing operating conditions, that should perform as an intelligent system, for which an advanced integral control concept is needed. Therefore, as an outcome of the innovation process, a generalized unit control concept that extends the capabilities of current coordinated control schemes is proposed. This concept is presented as the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm, which establishes an open reference framework for the development of overall unit control schemes. The ICCS's system goals are identified using power plant process engineering concepts, and intelligent control systems engineering concepts are used to identify main tasks and to achieve system functional decomposition. A software engineering agency concept is used to identify and group agents according to their knowledge and purpose interactions. The resultant ICCS structure is an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchical system. The upper level, mainly characterized for knowledge-driven processes, performs the supervisory functions needed to provide self governing operation characteristics, while the lower level, mainly characterized for data-driven processes, performs the fast reactive behavior functions necessary for hybrid real-time control and protection. Developed through several stages, the ICCS-MP finally implements a two

  13. 78 FR 285 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for Healy Power Generation Unit #2, Healy, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ..., now known as Healy Unit 1. Healy Unit 1 is a 25 megawatt (MW) coal-fired boiler that has been owned...- fired steam generator owned by AIDEA, which underwent test operation for two years as part of...

  14. Control structures design for fossil power station units; Diseno de estructuras de control para unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel; Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this paper are designed an analyzed the control ties of a 300MW fossil unit at different operation levels. The design and analysis were developed on an operation range of 50% to 100% load. The main control ties were studied among which are the feedwater flow, the superheating zone temperatures and the generated output. The technique used for the design is the decomposition in singular values (DSV) of the plant transference matrix. This is a recent technique that permits finding the most important interactions among output-input variables, over a significative frequencies range for the transference matrix of the plant. For this purpose utilizes the control properties of the transference matrix, such as: control effort, output-input interaction and ruggedness with respect to uncertainties. The control structures obtained were tested in a digital model of a fossil plant unit. A comparison study of both structures (original and modified) showed enhancement in the performance of the power plant with modified structure. [Espanol] En este trabajo se disenan y analizan los lazos de control de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 MW, a diferentes niveles de operacion. El diseno y analisis se desarrollo sobre un rango de operacion de 50 a 100 por ciento de carga. Se estudiaron los principales lazos de control entre los que se encuentran el flujo de agua de alimentacion, las temperaturas de la zona de sobrecalentamiento y la potencia generada. La tecnica utilizada para el diseno es la descomposicion en valores singulares (DVS) de la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Esta es una tecnica reciente que permite encontrar las interacciones mas importantes entre variables entrada-salida, sobre un rango de frecuencias significativas para la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Utiliza para ello las propiedades de control de la matriz de transferencia, como son: esfuerzo de control, interaccion entrada-salida y robustez con respecto a incertidumbres. Las estructuras de control

  15. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  16. 75 FR 80546 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and Appendix K to 10 CFR Part 50, ``ECCS Evaluation... or ZIRLO TM fuel rod cladding. Thus, an exemption from the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K is needed to support the use of different fuel rod cladding material. Therefore, the...

  17. Development of the Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit Extravehicular Activity Data Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based device designed to collect high-rate EMU Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) data for download at a later time. During EVA, the existing EMU PLSS data downlink capability is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. Higher-rate PLSS data is generated by the Enhanced Caution and Warning System but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to higher-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Space Shuttle flights post Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11), and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both intravehicular activity (IVA) and EVA operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other International Space Station subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require store then forward methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer Universal Serial Bus (USB) port while data are being downloaded.

  18. Evaluation of System Architectures for the Army Aviation Ground Power Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    costs. The research concludes that architectures with diesel engine power plants are p refetTed even though these architectures have an inherent mass...maintenance costs were the largest contributors to system life cycle costs. The research concludes that architectures with diesel engine power...27  2.  Diesel Engine Pneumatic Power Architecture ................................29  a.  Positive Displacement Compressors

  19. Control system for high power laser drilling workover and completion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S; Makki, Siamak; Faircloth, Brian O; DeWitt, Ronald A; Allen, Erik C; Underwood, Lance D

    2015-05-12

    A control and monitoring system controls and monitors a high power laser system for performing high power laser operations. The control and monitoring system is configured to perform high power laser operation on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  20. Active harmonic filtering using current-controlled, grid-connected DG units with closed-loop power control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    The increasing application of nonlinear loads may cause distribution system power quality issues. In order to utilize distributed generation (DG) unit interfacing converters to actively compensate harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach, which seamlessly integrates...... system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function. As the proposed current controller has two well-decoupled control branches to independently control fundamental and harmonic DG currents, local nonlinear load harmonic current detection and distribution system harmonic...... voltage detection are not necessary for the proposed harmonic compensation method. Moreover, a closed-loop power control scheme is employed to directly derive the fundamental current reference without using any phase-locked loops (PLL). The proposed power control scheme effectively eliminates the impacts...

  1. Simulation of Multi output Fly back Converter with Integrated Auxiliary Buck Converter with reduced components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.KOMATHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The fly back converter has been widely used for multi outputs due to the simple structure and low cost in low-power applications. This paper presents a new multi output converter. It consists of a half-bridge inverter with boost converter in primary side and a fly back rectifier that is integrated with an auxiliary buck converter in secondary side. The boost converter is used to generate high voltage dc from Low voltage PV cells. The primary switches control the main output voltage and the secondary synchronous switches control the auxiliary output voltage. The main advantages of the proposed converter are that the transformer size can be reduced due to the less magnetizing offset current, all the power switches including synchronous ones can achieve the zero-voltage switching (ZVS and it has no output cross regulation problems. The circuit is simulated using MATLAB. The performance is verified with simulation results.

  2. The NRC staff evaluation of shutdown and low-power operation at nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's recent evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants are summarized in this paper. The NRC staff's evaluation was initiated following their investigation of the loss during shutdown of all vital alternating current power on March 20, 1990, at the Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant. The objective of the evaluation has been to assess risk broadly during shutdown, refueling, and startup, addressing not only issues raised by the Vogtle event, but also a number of other shutdown-related issues that had been identified by foreign regulatory organizations as well as the NRC and any new issues uncovered in the evaluation process. The key issues concerning shutdown risk identified in the integration process described earlier and subsequently addressed by the staff include the following: (1) outage planning and control; (2) stress on personnel and programs; (3) the need to improve training and procedures; (4) technical specifications; and (5) PWR safety during midloop operation. Other technical topics identified for further study by the staff included loss of RHR, containment capability, rapid boron dilution, fire protection, instrumentation, emergency core cooling system recirculation capability, effect of PWR upper internals, on-site emergency planning, fuel handling and heavy loads, potential for draining the BWR reactor vessel, reporting requirements for shutdown events, and need to strengthen inspection program.

  3. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV...... and battery units, and power flow among different phases is performed automatically through three-phase units. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them. To cover all possible conditions of the microgrid, the operation...... in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  4. A study on the transient piping vibration of power plant. Secondary piping system of Wolsung 1 unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Yeon Whan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-08-01

    In order to maintain a safe operation and availability of generating facilities, qualitative and quantitative assessment of piping vibration was performed vibration sources and damages of piping support was identified on the second piping system of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 .Inspected piping supports and structures in both hot and cold condition .Established evaluation procedures of piping vibration .Performed the static analysis of 2 nd piping system .Established optimal vibration reducing method .The measured vibration level after installing rigid supports and energy absorbing type restraint was reduced about 7 times in velocity unit (author). 24 refs., 95 figs.

  5. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.

    2014-08-01

    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  6. Railcar mounted gas turbines serve Chinese power needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-03-01

    The Orenda Division of Hawker Siddeley Canada Ltd. has just completed an order by the China National Technical Import Corp., Peking, for 2 railcar-mounted 9000-kW mobile generating sets. The gas-turbine-powered units, spares, etc., made up a package valued at approximately $4 million. The overall design concept called for a 2-car unit with the gas turbine and generator in one car and the switch gear, control panels, and an auxiliary power unit in the other. At the operating site, the cars are separated by distances of 10 ft (3 m), and the power car is leveled using mechanically operated leveling jacks and a system of liquid-level sight glasses located along the walls of the car. Cable connections between the control and power cars are made through drop-down doors at the facing car ends.

  7. EMG power spectrum and motor unit characteristics in the masseter muscle of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkawski, S J; van Eijden, T M

    2000-04-01

    Masticatory muscles contain a large variety of motor units with different physiological and morphological properties. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a relationship exists between the mechanical and myo-electric properties of single motor units in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. It was expected that faster-contracting motor units, which usually have a relatively large number of fibers with large diameters, should have faster action potentials with larger amplitudes than slower motor units. Single motor units were stimulated. A two-dimensional force transducer registered mechanical parameters of the units. EMG electrodes were used to determine amplitude and frequency parameters of the action potentials of the same units. The results showed that faster-contracting motor units indeed produced action potentials with higher conduction velocities. However, faster motor units had no significant larger amplitude of the action potential. Small but significant positive correlations were found between the tetanic peak force and the amplitude of the action potentials. Little difference was found among the various frequency and amplitude parameters, respectively, making them equally suitable to describe the action potential. Surprisingly, a negative correlation between the amplitude and frequency parameters of the action potential was found, which may result from variability in arrival times of action potentials at the electrode site. Regional differences in the frequency parameters were found between the anterior and posterior parts of the superficial masseter.

  8. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...... improvement in GPU dynamic performances. This progress is achieved by utilising the proposed FCHB converter to an ANPC converter and using the suggested modulation method. This leads to diminish the size and cost and enhance the feasibility and reliability of the converter. Applying the proposed modulation...

  9. Operative and technological management of super-large united power grids: lessons of major world's blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkis, K.; Kreslins, V.; Mutule, A.

    2014-02-01

    Power system (PS) blackouts still persist worldwide, evidencing that the existing protective structures need to be improved. The discussed requirements and criteria to be met for joint synchronous operation of large and super-large united PSs should be based on close co-ordination of operative and technological management of all PSs involved in order to ensure secure and stable electricity supply and minimise or avoid the threat of a total PS blackout. The authors analyse the July 2012 India blackout - the largest power outage in history, which affected over 620 million people, i.e. half of India's population and spread across its 22 states. The analysis is of a general character, being applicable also to similar blackouts that have occurred in Europe and worldwide since 2003. The authors summarise and develop the main principles and methods of operative and technological management aimed at preventing total blackouts in large and super-large PSs. Neskatoties uz sasniegumiem elektroenerģētikas jomā un energosistēmu nepārtrauktu modernizāciju, pasaulē regulāri notiek sabrukumu avārijas. Rakstā apskatīti lielu un superlielu energosistēmu apvienību savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasības un kritēriji, kas pamatojas uz operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības ciešu koordināciju starp energosistēmām. Savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasībām un kritērijiem ir izšķiroša nozīme, lai panāktu elektroapgādes drošumu un stabilitāti katrā energosistēmā, kas darbojas apvienotas energosistēmas sastāvā. Šo prasību un kritēriju ievērošana sekmē totālo avāriju izcelšanās iespēju samazināšanu un to novēršanu. Indijas 2012.gada totālo avāriju un citu analogo avāriju Eiropā un Amerikā analīze un izvērtējums laika posmā no 2003.gada, deva iespēju apkopot un izstrādāt lielu un superlielu energosistēmu operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības principus un metodoloģiju, lai novērstu vai

  10. Rotor scale model tests for power conversion unit of GT-MHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxi, C.B., E-mail: baxicb1130@hotmail.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Telengator, A.; Razvi, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) combines a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear heat source with a closed Brayton gas-turbine cycle power conversion unit (PCU) for thermal to electric energy conversion. The PCU has a vertical orientation and is supported on electromagnetic bearings (EMB). The rotor scale model (RSM) tests are intended to directly model the control of EMB and rotor dynamic characteristics of the full-scale GT-MHR turbo-machine (TM). The objectives of the RSM tests are to: Bullet Confirm the EMB control system design for the GT-MHR turbo machine over the full-range of operation. Bullet Confirm the redundancy and on-line maintainability features that have been specified for the EMBs. Bullet Provide a benchmark for validation of analytical tools that will be used for independent analyses of the EMB subsystem design. Bullet Provide experience with the installation, operation and maintenance of EMBs supporting multiple rotors with flexible couplings. As with the full-scale TM, the RSM incorporates two rotors that are joined by a flexible coupling. Each of the rotors is supported on one axial and two radial EMBs. Additional devices, similar in concept to radial EMBs, are installed to simulate magnetic and/or mechanical forces representing those that would be seen by the exciter, generator, compressors and turbine. Overall, the lengths of the RSM rotor is about 1/3rd that of the full-scale TM, while the diameters are approximately 1/5th scale. The design and sizing of the rotor is such that the number and values of critical speeds in the RSM are the same as in the full-scale TM. The EMBs are designed such that their response to rotor dynamic forces is representative of the full-scale TM. The fabrication and assembly of the RSM was completed at the end of 2008. All start up adjustments were finished in December 2009. To-date the generator rotor has been supported in the EMBs and rotated up to 1800 rpm. Final tests are

  11. Saddle Points in the Auxiliary Field Method

    CERN Document Server

    Aono, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Investigations are made on the saddle point calculations (SPC) under the auxiliary field method in path integrations. Two different ways of SPC are considered, Method(I) and Method(II), to be checked in an integral representation of the Gamma function, \\Gamma (N), as a bosonic example and in a four-fermi type of Grassmann integral where one "fermion mass" \\omega_0 differs from the other N-degenerate species. The recipe of Method(I) seems rather complicated than that of (II) superficially, but the case turns out to be opposite in the actual situation. A general formalism allows us to calculate for \\Gamma (N) up to O(1/N^{14}). It is found that both happen to coincide in the bosonic case but in the fermionic case Method(II) shows a huge deviation in the weak coupling region where \\omega_0 \\ll 1.

  12. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  13. Tall, Grande, or Venti: Presidential Powers in the United States and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Morgenstern; University of Pittsburgh; John Polga-Hecimovich; University of Pittsburgh; Sarah Shair-Rosenfield; Arizona State University

    2013-01-01

    Comparative constitutional studies rank the US president as relatively weak and most Latin American presidents as strong. However, specialized studies suggest that US presidents have great abilities to implement their agendas. We argue that presidents with weak formal powers “reinforce” their ability to impose an agenda (scope), as well as their ability to make those decisions stick (force). These reinforced powers, however, have diminishing returns as formal powers rise. As a result, the sum...

  14. Morphological topology generation of a digital fluid power displacement unit using Chebychev-Grübler-Kutzbach constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2015-01-01

    piston topologies. The morphological approach is combined with the Chebychev- Grübler-Kutzbach criterion, a fully rotatable shaft condition and a straight line path generation condition in order to obtain one degree of freedom single closed chain mechanisms applicable for wind turbines and wave energy...... converters. In conclusion it follows, that six single closed chain planar, one degree of freedom, mechanisms are suitable for digital fluid power displacement units in wind and wave energy applications....

  15. Using principal components as auxiliary variables in missing data estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, W.J.; Rhemtulla, M.; Little, T.D.

    2015-01-01

    To deal with missing data that arise due to participant nonresponse or attrition, methodologists have recommended an "inclusive" strategy where a large set of auxiliary variables are used to inform the missing data process. In practice, the set of possible auxiliary variables is often too large. We

  16. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Automatic Bus Transfer Equipment and Service Power Fast Cutting Device%“备自投装置”、“厂用电快切装置”比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王如平

    2013-01-01

      厂用电切换装置作为电厂厂用电系统的一个重要装置,它的性能好坏对电厂来说尤为重要,本文结合山西阳煤集团发供电分公司第三热电厂实际情况,就微机备自投装置、微机厂用电快切装置进行了全面比较和深入分析。%Auxiliary power switching device as an important unit of the power plant auxiliary power system, it is particularly important for the power plant. Combined with No.3 Thermal Power Plant of Yangquan Coal Industry Group Power Generating and Supplying Company, the paper makes an in-depth comparative analysis on microcomputer automatic bus transfer equipment and microprocessor service power fast cutting device.

  18. Influence of motor unit firing statistics on the median frequency of the EMG power spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, Anton; Schomaker, L R

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the EMG power spectrum during static fatiguing contractions are often attributed to changes in muscle fibre action potential conduction velocity. Mathematical models of the EMG power spectrum, which have been empirically confirmed, predict that under certain conditions a distinct maximum

  19. Counter-rotating type tidal stream power unit boarded on pillar (performances and flow conditions of tandem propellers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yuta; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Hiraki, Koju

    2013-12-01

    The authors have invented the unique counter-rotating type tidal stream power unit composed of the tandem propellers and the double rotational armature type peculiar generator without the traditional stator. The front and the rear propellers counter-drive the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively. The unit has the fruitful advantages that not only the output is sufficiently higher without supplementary equipment such as a gearbox, but also the rotational moment hardly act on the pillar because the rotational torque of both propellers/armatures are counter-balanced in the unit. This paper discusses experimentally the performances of the power unit and the effects of the propeller rotation on the sea surface. The axial force acting on the pillar increases naturally with the increase of not only the stream velocity but also the drag of the tandem propellers. Besides, the force vertical to the stream also acts on the pillar, which is induced from the Karman vortex street and the dominant frequencies appear owing to the front and the rear propeller rotations. The propeller rotating in close to the sea surface brings the abnormal wave and the amplitude increases as the stream velocity is faster and/or the drag is stronger.

  20. An Active Power Sharing Method among Distributed Energy Sources in an Islanded Series Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Man Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Active power-sharing among distributed energy sources (DESs is not only an important way to realize optimal operation of micro-grids, but also the key to maintaining stability for islanded operation. Due to the unique configuration of series micro-grids (SMGs, the power-sharing method adopted in an ordinary AC, DC, and hybrid AC/DC system cannot be directly applied into SMGs. Power-sharing in one SMG with multiple DESs involves two aspects. On the one hand, capacitor voltage stability based on an energy storage system (ESS in the DC link must be complemented. Actually, this is a problem of power allocation between the generating unit and the ESS in the DES; an extensively researched, similar problem has been grid-off distributed power generation, for which there are good solutions. On the other hand, power-sharing among DESs should be considered to optimize the operation of a series micro-grid. In this paper, a novel method combining master control with auxiliary control is proposed. Master action of a quasi-proportional resonant controller is responsible for stability of the islanded SMG; auxiliary action based on state of charge (SOC realizes coordinated allocation of load power among the source. At the same time, it is important to ensure that the auxiliary control does not influence the master action.

  1. Transformer failure and common-mode loss of instrument power at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 on August 13, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    On August 13, 1991, at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 nuclear power plant, located near Scriba, New York, on Lake Ontario, the main transformer experienced an internal failure that resulted in degraded voltage which caused the simultaneous loss of five uninterruptible power supplies, which in turn caused the loss of several nonsafety systems, including reactor control rod position indication, some reactor power and water indication, control room annunciators, the plant communications system, the plant process computer, and lighting at some locations. The reactor was subsequently brought to a safe shutdown. Following this event, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission dispatched an Incident Investigation Team to the site to determine what happened, to identify the probable causes, and to make appropriate findings and conclusions. This report describes the incident, the methodology used by the team in its investigation, and presents and the team's findings and conclusions. 59 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. U.S. Job Creation Due to Nuclear Power Resurgence in The United States — Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine M. Plowman

    2004-11-01

    The recent revival of interest in nuclear power is causing a reexamination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current U.S. industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. This study was conducted to provide an initial estimate of jobs to be gained in the U.S. through the repatriation of the nuclear manufacturing industry. In the course of the study, related job categories were also modeled to provide an additional estimate of the potential expansion of existing industries (i.e., plant construction and operations) in conjunction with the repatriation of manufacturing jobs.

  3. A Convex Model of Risk-Based Unit Commitment for Day-Ahead Market Clearing Considering Wind Power Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Kang, Chongqing; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The integration of wind power requires the power system to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate its forecast errors. In the market clearing process, the scheduling of flexibility relies on the manner in which the wind power uncertainty is addressed in the unit commitment (UC) model. This paper...... and are considered in both the objective functions and the constraints. The RUC model is shown to be convex and is transformed into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem using relaxation and piecewise linearization. The proposed RUC model is tested using a three-bus system and an IEEE RTS79 system...... that the risk modeling facilitates a strategic market clearing procedure with a reasonable computational expense....

  4. Study on Commercial Application of FCC with Auxiliary Gasoline Reactor for Improving FCC Naphtha Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Qiang

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the commercial application of FCC technology equipped with a gasoline auxiliary reactor in the RFCC unit at PetroChina Harbin Petrochemical Branch Company.Test results have shown the excellent outcome for commercial application of the gasoline upgrading in the auxiliary reactor to reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha.Application of this technology can reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha to less than 35v%.Adjustment of the FCC operation towards more severg conditions can further reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha to less than 20 v%.so that the FCC naphtha can meet the current standard or meet more stringent specification requirements in the future to achieve compelling economic and social benefits.

  5. Description of photovoltaic village power systems in the United States and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, A. F.; Bifano, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the designs, hardware, and installations of NASA photovoltaic power systems in the village of Schuchuli in Arizona and Tangaye in Upper Volta, Africa. The projects were designed to demonstrate that current photovoltaic system technology can provide electrical power for domestic services for small, remote communities. The Schuchuli system has a 3.5 kW peak solar array which provides power for water pumping, a refrigerator for each family, lights, and community washing and sewing machines. The 1.8 kW Tangaye system provides power for pumping, flour milling, and lights in the milling building. Both are stand-alone systems operated by local personnel, and they are monitored by NASA to measure design adequacy and refine future designs.

  6. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI), Inc., is developing a high-efficiency, radiation-hardened 3.8-kW SiC power supply for the PPU of Hall effect thrusters. This project specifically targets the design of a PPU for the high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, with target specifications of 80- to 160-V input, 200- to 700-V/5A output, efficiency greater than 96 percent, and peak power density in excess of 2.5 kW/kg. The PPU under development uses SiC junction field-effect transistor power switches, components that APEI, Inc., has irradiated under total ionizing dose conditions to greater than 3 MRad with little to no change in device performance.

  7. Microprocessor supervised stability control system for the united power system of Middle Volga in fault conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdnikov, V.I.; Birgel, E.R.; Kovalev, V.D.; Kuznestov, A.N.

    1994-12-31

    The development of the 500 kV UPS of Middle Volga, the complication of its configuration and operating conditions particularly in connection with concentration of the generating power at Balakovo NPS have aggravated the problem of stability of the Middle Volga UPS when high power is transmitted along the 500 kV transient system. In this case the necessity for improving control actions` dosage accuracy has also appeared. This work discusses solution to the above mentioned issue. (author) 3 figs.

  8. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufacturing companies and their suppliers. through continued government and private sector support, fuel cell systems are emerging power generation technologies which are expected to have significant worldwide impacts. An industry with annual sales of over a billion dollars is envisioned early in the 21st century. PAFC power plants have begun to enter the marketplace and MCFC and SOFC power plants are expected to be ready to enter the marketplace in the late 1990s. In support of the efficient and effective use of our natural resources, the fuel cell program seeks to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness of power generation. This is to be accomplished through effectiveness of power generation. This is accomplished through the development and commercialization of cost-effective, efficient and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems which will operate on fossil fuels in multiple and end use sectors.

  9. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING ELECTRIC ENERGY QUALITY ON HEATING OF THE AUXILIARY MA-CHINES OF AC ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. YU. Baliichuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to study the problem of increase the reliability of auxiliary machines for AC electric trains during operation in real conditions. Methodology. The peculiarity of system construction of auxiliary machines for AC electric rolling stock is the use of asynchronous motors for general industrial purpose. An engineering method of influence determination on the feeding voltage asymmetry and its deviation from the nominal value on heating of auxiliary machines insulation was proposed. Findings. It is found out that in case when the auxiliary machines of AC electric trains work under asymmetry factor of the voltage 10% or more and feeding voltage deviation from the nominal order 0.6 relative unit then it is possible the overheat of their isolation, even if it has class H. Originality. For the first time the issue of the total insulation heating under such boundary parameters combinations of energy quality, when each of them contributes to the heating insulation increase as compared to the nominal regime of the "rotating phase splitter−auxiliary machinery" system was illuminated. Practical value. Conducted research allow us to establish the boundary parameter values of feeding energy quality (asymmetry factor, feeding voltage deviations from the nominal value, at which additional isolation overheating of this class under the effect of specified factors will not exceed the agreed value.

  10. Prospective gas turbine and combined-cycle units for power engineering (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2013-02-01

    The modern state of technology for making gas turbines around the world and heat-recovery combined-cycle units constructed on their basis are considered. The progress achieved in this field by Siemens, Mitsubishi, General Electric, and Alstom is analyzed, and the objectives these companies set forth for themselves for the near and more distant future are discussed. The 375-MW gas turbine unit with an efficiency of 40% produced by Siemens, which is presently the largest one, is subjected to a detailed analysis. The main specific features of this turbine are that the gas turbine unit's hot-path components have purely air cooling, due to which the installation has enhanced maneuverability. The single-shaft combined-cycle plant constructed on the basis of this turbine has a capacity of 570 MW and efficiency higher than 60%. Programs adopted by different companies for development of new-generation gas turbine units firing synthesis gas and fitted with low-emission combustion chambers and new cooling systems are considered. Concepts of rotor blades for new gas turbine units with improved thermal barrier coatings and composite blades different parts of which are made of materials selected in accordance with the conditions of their operation are discussed.

  11. LIFAC demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2. Final report, Volume 1 - public design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report discusses the demonstration of LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s (RP&L) Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North American (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and several other organizations including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Final Report Volume 1: Public Design is to consolidate, for public use, all design and cost information regarding the LIFAC Desulfurization Facility at the completion of construction and startup.

  12. A comparative analysis of business structures suitable for farmer-owned wind power projects in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 90-4000, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: mabolinger@lbl.gov; Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 90-4000, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts' ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned wind power development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for wind power. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus 'cooperative' ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  13. A comparative analysis of business structures suitable forfarmer-owned wind power projects in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-11-11

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts' ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned wind power development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for wind power. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus ''cooperative'' ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  14. LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-04-01

    The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.

  15. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  16. Economic institutions and institutional change in the United States electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lorel Elaine

    Historical data from the U.S. electric power industry was used to test two theories of institutional change. A transactions costs theory based on the neoclassical model was tested against a strategic bargaining model of institutional change. A comparative test of the two models supports the strategic bargaining theory, finding that relative bargaining power can influence the course of institutional change when the power advantage is held by a player who expects to reap economic gains from the change. This result has implications for expectations regarding the nature of economic institutions in that efficient institutions would not be expected to emerge if outcomes are determined by asymmetries in bargaining power. Estimation of a cost function using recent firm-level panel data from the electric power industry found no statistically significant cost differentials between publicly owned and privately owned electric utilities. Transactions costs, measured at the level of the firm, were included as an explanatory variable. The model was estimated as a one-way, fixed effects model to account for institutional variation between firms. Institutional variation was found to lead to cost differentials between individual firms, but not by ownership sector. The cost functions estimated were found to differ structurally by ownership sector, suggesting that public and private electric utilities may utilize different input combinations.

  17. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging.

  18. Research on a Power Management System for Thermoelectric Generators to Drive Wireless Sensors on a Spindle Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle.

  19. Research on a power management system for thermoelectric generators to drive wireless sensors on a spindle unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Yao, Xinhua; Fu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-16

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle.

  20. Improvement of the Power Control Unit for Ion Thruster to Cope with Milli-Newton Range RIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruti, Luca; Polli, Aldo; Galantini, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    The recent development and testing activities of a miniaturized Radio-Frequency Ion Thruster, with relevant ancillary elements, in the range of 10 to 100 micro-Newtons, joined with past flight heritage in the milli-Newton range (RIT-10 for Artemis), shows an appealing capability of such an electrical propulsion technology to support thrust in a wide range of space applications from very fine attitude control up to deorbiting of small-medium satellites. As expectable, this implies that the mentioned ancillary elements (mainly Radio-Frequency Generator and Power Control Unit) require adaptation to the different requirements imposed to different missions and thrust ranges. Regarding the Power Control Unit different power levels, both the controllability requirements and the spacecraft interfaces impose non negligible adaptation leading to significant increase of development activities and associated cost (nonrecurring) increase. From that and with the main purpose to minimize such impacts and provide reliable equipments, Selex ES since a few years is devoting maximum attention in the incremental innovation of the existing design in order to maximize their reuse.