WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxiliary power unit

  1. Hovercraft auxiliary power units (APUs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.J.

    1983-08-01

    Auxiliary power units (APU) manufactured by British firms for use in hovercraft are characterized. Both diesel and gas-turbine APUs are found to be well suited to the demands of this application. The design features, dimensions, performance data, and installation requirements are discussed for the SS 90, SS 923, DA-1, BA-1, HM 5, and Gevaudan 9 APUs, as well as the TRS 18 gas-turbine smoke generator. The progress made in improving the fuel efficiency of gas turbines and reducing the weight of diesel engines is considered significant.

  2. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Matthew D [Peoria, IL; Slone, Larry M [Washington, IL; Welter, James Milton [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  3. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the... power unit. [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18974, Apr. 9, 1993] ...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  6. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  7. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Tafoya, J. I. (Jose I.); Guidry, D. R. (Dennis Ray)

    2004-01-01

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is

  8. STARTER-GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Levin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a starter-generator system for an auxiliary power unit of an aircraft. A feature of the presented system is the use of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. The main problem of the system is the generation of electric energy of an aircraft on the basis of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets is the absence of the possibility of regulating the voltage and frequency of electrical energy, in this connection, a semiconductor converter that ensures the conversion of generated electric energy with significant mass-dimensions characteristics.The article proposes an approach to designing a starter-generator system with a parallel connection of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. This approach makes it possible to significantly reduce the part of the electrical energy that needs to be converted, as a consequence, the semiconductor converter has significantly smaller mass-and-batch characteristics.In the article the modes of generation of electric energy and the starter mode of operation of the starter-generator system are considered in detail, the circuit realization of the semiconductor converter is shown. A scheme for replacing one phase of the system for generating electric energy and calculating electric parameters is presented.The possibility of creating a highly efficient starter-generator system based on a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter for an auxiliary power plant of aircrafts is shown. Structural and basic schemes for constructing a system for generating electrical energy are proposed. The approach to the choice of rational circuit solutions is substantiated, basic estimates of the electrical parameters of the system are obtained. The possibility of achieving a specific mass of a semiconductor converter for synchronous

  9. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.96 Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which...

  10. 77 FR 11421 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Canada, Auxiliary Power Units AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... serial numbers of Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC) PW901A auxiliary power units (APUs) approved under... address above between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Fax: 202-493-2251...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... radial or a red line; (b) Each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc or green line, not... marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; and (d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller range...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc or green line, not extending beyond the... or a yellow line; and (d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller speed range that is...

  13. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high capacity is required.

  14. Study of transients in the auxiliary power circuits of the BN-600 power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychev, Yu.P.; Lebedev, A.T.; Elsukov, V.I.; Vitkov, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    To test the efficiency of the generating station auxiliary power (AP) supply circuits of the BN-600 power unit and to develop measures for the increase of their operation reliability, the calculations and experiments on studying the source behaviour and power consumers in various emergency situations have been carried out. The maximum permissible break in power supply for AP section is found to be 1.2 s. The frequency method for the AP mechanisms start up from diesel generators (DG), with preliminary excitation current supply to the rotor winding from an independent source, reduces considerably the time of AP mechanisms entering into productive operation. The use of the running-down energy of 200 MW turboaggregate enables to reliably supply the AP mechanisms in the regime of emergency cool-down of the BN-600 reactor to the moment of transition to power supply from a DG

  15. A diesel fuel processor for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krekel, Daniel; Pasel, Joachim; Prawitz, Matthias; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    Producing a hydrogen-rich gas from diesel fuel enables the efficient generation of electricity in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in diesel reforming. One issue encountered is the stable operation of water-gas shift reactors with real reformates. A new fuel processor is developed using a commercial shift catalyst. The system is operated using optimized start-up and shut-down strategies. Experiments with diesel and kerosene fuels show slight performance drops in the shift reactor during continuous operation for 100 h. CO concentrations much lower than the target value are achieved during system operation in auxiliary power unit mode at partial loads of up to 60%. The regeneration leads to full recovery of the shift activity. Finally, a new operation strategy is developed whereby the gas hourly space velocity of the shift stages is re-designed. This strategy is validated using different diesel and kerosene fuels, showing a maximum CO concentration of 1.5% at the fuel processor outlet under extreme conditions, which can be tolerated by a high-temperature PEFC. The proposed operation strategy solves the issue of strong performance drop in the shift reactor and makes this technology available for reducing emissions in the transportation sector.

  16. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  17. 75 FR 34347 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R) and GTCP36-150...) models GTCP36- 150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR). This AD requires inspecting the fuel control unit (FCU...-150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR). We published the proposed AD in the Federal Register on December 23, 2009...

  18. Evaluation of fuel cell auxiliary power units for heavy-duty diesel trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Farshchi, Mohammad; Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Sperling, Daniel [California Univ., Inst. of Transportation Studies, Davis, CA (United States); Gouse, S. William III [Freightliner LLC, Portland, OR (United States); Harris, D. Bruce; King, Foy G. Jr. [US Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Lipman, Timothy E. [California Univ., Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab. (RAEL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 20-40% of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, and televisions) and to avoid start-up problems in cold weather. Idling increases air pollution and energy use, as well as wear and tear on engines. Efforts to reduce truck idling in the US have been sporadic, in part because it is widely viewed in the trucking industry that further idling restrictions would unduly compromise driver comfort and truck operations. The auxiliary power units (APUs) available to replace the idling of the diesel traction engine all have had limited trucking industry acceptance. Fuel cells are a promising APU technology. Fuel cell APUs have the potential to greatly reduce emissions and energy use and save money. In this paper, we estimate costs and benefits of fuel cell APUs. We calculate the payback period for fuel cell APUs to be about 2.6-4.5 years. This estimate is uncertain since future fuel cell costs are unknown and cost savings from idling vary greatly across the truck fleet. The payback period is particularly sensitive to diesel fuel consumption at idle. Given the large potential environmental and economic benefits of fuel cell APUs, the first major commercial application of fuel cells may be as truck APUs. (Author)

  19. Analysing the Possible Ways for Short-Term Forcing Gas Turbine Engines in Auxiliary Power Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Trotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a gas turbine energy unit as an example, the article discusses possible ways for forcing the short-term gas turbine engines (GTE. The introduction explains the need for forcing the air transport and marine GTE in specific driving conditions and offers the main methods. Then it analyzes the three main short-term forcing methods according to GTE power, namely: precompressor water injection, a short-term rise in temperature after the combustion chamber, and feeding an additional compressed air into combustion chamber from the reserve cylinders.The analysis of the water injection method to force a GTE presents the main provisions and calculation results of the cycle, as a function of engine power on the amount of water injected into compressor inlet. It is shown that with water injection into compressor inlet in an amount of 1% of the total airflow there is a 17% power increase in the compressor. It also lists the main implementation problems of this method and makes a comparison with the results of other studies on the water injection into compressor.Next, the article concerns the GTE short-term forcing method through the pre-turbine short-term increase in the gas temperature. The article presents the calculation results of the cycle as a function of the power and the fuel-flow rate on the gas temperature at the turbine inlet. It is shown that with increasing temperature by 80 degrees the engine power increases by 11.2% and requires 11% more fuel. In the analysis of this method arises an issue of thermal barrier coating on the blade surface. The article discusses the most common types of coatings and their main shortcomings. It lists the main challenges and some ways of their solving when using this method to implement the short-term forcing.The last method under consideration is GTE short-term forcing by feeding the compressed air into the combustion chamber from the additional reserve cylinders. It should be noted that this method is

  20. A review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (HT-PEMFC)-based auxiliary power units for diesel-powered road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Lehnert, Werner; Janßen, Holger; Samsun, Remzi Can; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive review of research on the development of auxiliary power units with enhanced reformate tolerance for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). Developments in diesel reforming for fuel cells as auxiliary power units (APUs), single fuel cells and stacks and systems are outlined in detail and key findings are presented. Summaries of HT-PEMFC APU applications and start-up times for HT-PEMFC systems are then given. A summary of cooling HT-PEMFC stacks using a classic schematic diagram of a 24-cell HT-PEMFC stack, with a cooling plate for every third cell, is also presented as part of a stack analysis. Finally, a summary of CO tolerances for fuel cells is given, along with the effects of different CO volume fractions on polarization curves, the fraction of CO coverage, hydrogen coverage, anode overpotential and cell potential.

  1. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  2. Free-Piston Diesel-Fueled Linear Alternator for Auxiliary Power Unit Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkinson, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    .... Previous studies of free-piston engine designs have indicated that they would be useful where linear power delivery could be used, such as in fluid power delivery, or in electrical energy applications.

  3. BIOFEAT: Biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Study of the feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, M.; Bollito, G.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, S.

    An integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a 10 kW e integrated biodiesel fuel processor has been designed and is being developed. Auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and thermal cracking (TC) were considered for converting the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells. The fuel processor includes also a gas clean-up system that will reduce the carbon monoxide in the primary processor exit gas to below 10 ppm via a new heat-integrated CO clean-up unit, based on the assembly of catalytic heat exchange plates, so as to meet the operational requirements of a PEMFC stack. This article is devoted to the study and selection of the proper feed strategy for the primary fuel processor. Different pre-treatment and feed alternatives (e.g. based on nozzles or simple coils) were devised and tested for the ATR processors, which turned out to be the preferred primary processing route. A nozzle-based strategy was finally selected along with special recommendations about the constituent materials and the operating procedures to be adopted to avoid coking and nozzle corrosion as well as to allow a wide turn down ratio.

  4. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  5. Development and experimental testing of a hybrid Stirling engine-adsorption chiller auxiliary power unit for heavy trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, Barry; Lattin, Robert; Finckh, Oliver; Berresheim, Harald; Monaghan, Rory F.D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Free-piston Stirling engine for truck APU. • Waste heat driven adsorption chiller for cab air conditioning. • Reduced-order model comparing proposed system to existing technology. • Experimental test data from prototype test rig. - Abstract: This paper identifies the key technical requirements for a heavy truck auxiliary power unit (APU) and explores a potential alternative technology for use in a next-generation APU which could eliminate key problems related to emissions, noise and maintenance experienced today by conventional diesel engine-vapour compression APUs. The potential performance of a novel hybrid Stirling engine-adsorption chiller concept is investigated and benchmarked against the incumbent technology using a reduced-order model based on experimental data. Experimental results from a Stirling-adsorption system (SAS) prototype test rig are also presented which highlight system integration dynamics and overall performance. The adsorption chiller achieved an average COP of 0.42 ± 0.06 and 2.3 ± 0.1 kW t of cooling capacity at the baseline test condition. The prototype SAS test rig demonstrates that there appear to be no major technology barriers remaining that would prevent adoption of the SAS concept in a next-generation APU. Such a system could offer a reduction of exhaust emissions, greenhouse gases (GHG), ozone-depleting substances, noise, low maintenance and the potential for fuel flexibility and higher reliability. Preliminary modelling results indicate that the proposed system could offer superior overall electrical and cooling efficiencies compared to incumbent APUs and demonstrate a payback period of 4.6 years.

  6. ALTERNATIVE AVIATION FUELS FOR USE IN MILITARY APUS AND ENGINES VERSATILE AFFORDABLE ADVANCED TURBINE ENGINE (VAATE), PHASE II AND III. Delivery Order 0007: Alternative Aviation Fuels for Use in Military Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) and Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-03

    PHASE II AND III Delivery Order 0007: Alternative Aviation Fuels for Use in Military Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) and Engines Brad Culbertson and Randy...PHASE II AND III Delivery Order 0007: Alternative Aviation Fuels for Use in Military Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) and Engines 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the entire exit annulus. The fast-scan method was employed for all cases using both forward and reverse traverses in order to ensure repeatable

  7. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Beaver Valley, Units 1 and 2 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Vehec, T.A.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Rossbach, L.W.; Sena, P.P. III

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2 were selected as two of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2

  8. CIT burn control using auxiliary power modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniotakis, E.A.; Freidberg, J.P.; Cohn, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is predicted that ignited tokamaks such as CIT will experience a thermal instability. In this work a zero dimensional transport model is used as a means of examining this thermal instability. In order to solve the problems associated with the uncertainty in predicting the behavior of an ignited tokamak plasma, auxiliary power may be used for mapping the tokamak operating space, both in the low temperature stable regime and in the high temperature unstable regime. Auxiliary power modulation as a means of burn control is the most reliable method, especially during the initial stages of CIT operation. By modulating the auxiliary power stable thermal equilibria can be created at relatively high values of Q (∼65). 20 refs., 28 figs

  9. Commonality Study of the Pressure-Volume-Temperature Based Propellant Gaging Software Modules for the Auxiliary Power Unit, Reaction Control System, and Orbital Maneuvering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhon, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer storage requirements can be reduced if areas of commonality exist in two or more programs placed in the same computer and identical code can be used by more than one program. The pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) relationship for the propellant tank pressurant agent is utilized as the basis for either a primary of a backup propellant gaging program for the auxiliary power unit (APU), the reaction control system (RCS), and the orbital maneuvering system (OMS). These three propellant gaging programs were investigated. It was revealed that a very limited degree of software commonality exits among them. An examination of this common software indicated that only the computation of the helium compressibility factor in an external function subprogram accessible to both the RCS and OMS propellant gaging programs appears to offer a savings in computer storage requirements.

  10. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations. 74.6 Section 74.6 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to Al...

  11. Ferroresonance Phenomenon in Power Plant Auxiliary Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Łosiński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the ferroresonance phenomenon occurring in a medium voltage grid with an ungrounded neutral point of the supply transformer. Results of a study of ferroresonance in the auxiliary grid at Żarnowiec Pumped Storage Power Plant are presented. Analysis of the study results has led to the development and implementation of an effective method of preventing the adverse ferroresonance phenomenon.

  12. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Harrison, D.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document presents a compilation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system failure information which has been screened for risk significance in terms of failure frequency and degradation of system performance. It is a risk-prioritized listing of failure events and their causes that are significant enough to warrant consideration in inspection planning at Diablo Canyon. This information is presented to provide inspectors with increased resources for inspection planning at Diablo Canyon. The risk importance of various component failure modes was identified by analysis of the results of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for many pressurized water reactors (PWRs). However, the component failure categories identified in PRAs are rather broad, because the failure data used in the PRAs is an aggregate of many individual failures having a variety of root causes. In order to help inspectors to focus on specific aspects of component operation, maintenance and design which might cause these failures, an extensive review of component failure information was performed to identify and rank the root causes of these component failures. Both Diablo Canyon and industry-wide failure information was analyzed. Failure causes were sorted on the basis of frequency of occurrence and seriousness of consequence, and categorized as common cause failures, human errors, design problems, or component failures. This information permits an inspector to concentrate on components important to the prevention of core damage. Other components which perform essential functions, but which are not included because of high reliability or redundancy, must also be addressed to ensure that degradation does not increase their failure probabilities, and hence their risk importances. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain-source......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple...

  14. Evaluation of Transmission Grid Voltage Impact on the Operation of Power Units’ Auxiliary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the low voltage impact on the operation of critical auxiliaries of selected generation units in the national power system. Time limits are determined for the operation of these auxiliaries at low voltage in the power system and the acceptable reduced voltages in their secondary circuits at which the generation unit is capable of interoperation with the system. Upgrades of auxiliary systems are proposed which would enable interoperation of the unit and the system at significantly reduced system voltages.

  15. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    totally decouple the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin source connection does, because they are still in the loop of power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary source connection are investigated and analyzed: common source stray inductance reduction, transient drain-source current......Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...... imbalance mitigation and influence on the steady state bond wire current distribution. Simulation and experimental results validate the working mechanism analysis and the effects of the auxiliary source connections....

  16. SNAP (Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power) Reactor Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    power l evel 8070C Peak Cladding temperature at design power level 742C Average fuel burnup (12,000 h at 600 kW) 0.22 metal atom % Control Drums Number ...Experiments. 9 8. Results. 14 9. Theoretical Predictions. 20 10. The Optimum Bow. 25 11. Conclusions. 26 12. Acknowledgements. 27 References. 29...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER (S) L. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER (S) Go. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 74. NAME OF

  17. Common-cause failure analysis of McGuire Unit 2 auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.; Shepherd, J.C.; Fowler, R.D.; Summitt, R.L.; Logan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    A powerful method for qualitative common cause failure analysis (CCFA) of nuclear power plant systems was developed by EG and G Idaho at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. As a cooperative project to demonstrate and evaluate the usefulness of the method, the Duke Power Company agreed to allow a CCFA of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) in their McGuire Nuclear Station Unit 2. The results of the CCFA are the subject of this discussion

  18. Analysis of the market for diesel PEM fuel cell auxiliary power units onboard long-haul trucks and of its implications for the large-scale adoption of PEM FCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contestabile, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM FCs) offer a promising alternative to internal combustion engines in road transport. During the last decade PEM FC research, development and demonstration (RD and D) activities have been steadily increasing worldwide, and targets have been set to begin their commercialisation in road transport by 2015-2020. However, there still is considerable uncertainty on whether these targets will actually be met. The picture is complex and market and technology issues are closely interlinked; investment in RD and D projects is essential but not sufficient; the development of suitable early markets is also necessary and policy is set to play an important role. Auxiliary power units (APUs) are generally regarded as one important early market for FCs in transport. This paper analyses the possible future market for diesel PEM FC APUs onboard long-haul trucks and its implications for the development of PEM FCs in general. The analysis, part of the project HyTRAN (EC Contract no. 502577), is aided by the use of a dynamic simulation model of technology and markets developed by the author. Results suggest that an interesting window of opportunity for diesel PEM FC APUs exists but this is subject to additional research particularly targeted at the rapid development of fuel processors.

  19. Importance of continuous monitoring and control of auxiliary power consumption in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the conceptual solution on the basis of which a system for continuous monitoring and control of auxiliary power consumption is defined in the four most important thermal power plants within the Electric Power Industry of Serbia (TENT A and B, TE Kostolac A and B. A unique system of measuring of auxiliary power consumption at the level of EPS is established in order to perform the appropriate measurement in the following phases, whose data would be archived for the purpose of further analyzes of energy balances. The results of these measurements should be used to define the concrete measures for auxiliary power consumption reduction in power plants, which, in addition to improving energy efficiency, would directly affect the cost reduction.

  20. RWE Power and Siemens implement IEC 61850 in power plant auxiliary power supply; RWE Power und Siemens realisieren IEC 61850 im Kraftwerkseigenbedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuches, J. [RWE Power AG, Kraftwerksneubau Braunkohlenkraftwerke, Kraftwerk Neurath, Essen (Germany); Ostertag, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Energy Sector Fossil Power Generation, Kraftwerksleittechnik/E-Technik

    2008-07-01

    RWE Power is currently building the two most modern lignite-fired generating units in the world at its Neurath site. The technical solutions are built upon the good results with the BoA technology (lignite-fired power station with optimised plant engineering) at the RWE Niederaussem power plant. One innovation is the direct integration of the electrical auxiliary power in the main C and I system technology utilising IEC61850 standards. For the first time with IEC 61850, there is a standardised Ethernet and TCP/IP based solution in power distribution systems. (orig.)

  1. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  2. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  3. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.; Costamagna, P.; Traverso, A.; Santin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs.

  4. Integration of thermoelectrics and photovoltaics as auxiliary power sources in mobile computing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtaroglu, Ali; Yokochi, Alex; von Jouanne, Annette

    The inclusion of renewable technologies as auxiliary power sources in mobile computing platforms can lead to improved performance such as the extension of battery life. This paper presents sustainable power management characteristics and performance enhancement opportunities in mobile computing systems resulting from the integration of thermoelectric generators and photovoltaic units. Thermoelectric generators are employed for scavenging waste heat from processors or other significant components in the computer's chipset while the integration of photovoltaic units is demonstrated for generating power from environmental illumination. A scalable and flexible power architecture is also verified to effectively integrate these renewable energy sources. This paper confirms that battery life extension can be achieved through the appropriate integration of renewable sources such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic devices.

  5. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  6. Auxiliary System Load Schemes in Large Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzle, I.; Bosnjak, D.; Pandzic, H.

    2010-01-01

    Uninterrupted auxiliary system power supply in large power plants is a key factor for normal operation, transient states, start-ups and shutdowns and particularly during fault conditions. Therefore, there are many challenges in designing the main electrical system as well as the auxiliary systems power supply. Depending upon the type of fuel used and the environmental control system required, a thermal power plant may consume as much as 10% of its total generation for auxiliary power, while a nuclear power plant may require only 4 - 6% auxiliaries. In general, the larger the power generating plant, the higher the voltage selected for the AC auxiliary electric system. Most stations in the 75 to 500 MW range utilize 4,2 kV as the base auxiliary system voltage. Large generating stations 500 - 1000 MW and more use voltage levels of 6,9 kV and more. Some single dedicated loads such as electric driven boiler feed pumps are supplied ba a 13,8 kV bus. While designing the auxiliary electric system, the following areas must be considered: motor starting requirements, voltage regulation requirements, short-circuit duty requirements, economic considerations, reliability and alternate sources. Auxiliary power supply can't be completely generalized and each situation should be studied on its own merits to determine the optimal solution. Naturally, nuclear power plants have more reliability requirements and safety design criteria. Main coolant-pump power supply and continuity of service to other vital loads deserve special attention. This paper presents an overview of some up-to-date power plant auxiliary load system concepts. The main types of auxiliary loads are described and the electric diagrams of the modern auxiliary system supply concepts are given. Various alternative sources of auxiliary electrical supply are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of these are compared and proposals are made for high voltage distribution systems around the thermal and nuclear plant

  7. Methods for analysis and synthesis of technological schemes of thermal power plants based on solving auxiliary problems of linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Maximov, A. S.; Epishkin, N. O.

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the developed method for analyzing technological schemes of thermal power plants based on solving problems of auxiliary linear programming. This method involves solving the linear programming problems to evaluate the effect of supply and removal of heat or material flows of various sizes at different points of the technological scheme of a thermal power plant (TPP). The method effectiveness is demonstrated by the example of the coaldust steam turbine unit with nominal electrical output of 660 MW. As a result of its application, the change of the technological scheme of the unit was found to provide reduction in electricity cost by 0.3%.

  8. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  9. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  10. Disturbance in the power system caused by auxiliary DC installation failure of switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesic, M. [HEP Transmission System Operator, Zagreb (Croatia); Tesnjak, S.; Skok, S. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2008-07-01

    Auxiliary direct current (DC) installation failures can lead to outages in power plants and compromise the security of power systems. In this study, a simplified stationary model was used to simulate an auxiliary DC installation in a switchyard. The aim of the study was to evaluate new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for auxiliary DC installation dimensioning and analysis. Criteria included the dimensioning and selection of batteries; the calculation of conductor heating; voltage drop calculations; conductor squares in relation to permanent currents; and the evaluation of protection elements. The new standards were compared with the previous auxiliary system installation methodology. Results of the study suggested that the new standard has introduced significant improvements in short circuit current calculation. Laboratory tests for the measurement of short circuits showed that the active network has less of an impact on the auxiliary system than previous measuring methods. Alterations to the IEC standard will be required as a result of limitations to the short circuit current and new rectifier technology. Results of the study will be used to develop a new model and scheme for dimensioning and analyzing auxiliary DC installations. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  13. Airborne Power Supply Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Airborne Power Supply Unit (APSU) is a programmable DC/DC converter that can supply multiple constant voltage or constant current outputs in a small enclosure,...

  14. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  15. Coordinated application of electrical auxiliaries equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appiarius, J.C.; Krug, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    As the power requirements of auxiliaries continue to increase, both in total and as a percentage of generating unit capacity, coordinated application of auxiliaries system components demands more sophisticated approaches to system design. Among the techniques developed to assist system designers is a method which separates the auxiliaries system into modules for conceptual design, with analyses which consider design criteria, equipment capability, and expected operating constraints. This and other techniques, intended to optimize application of metalclad switchgear and auxiliaries transformers, can provide the designer with tools for proper selection and application of equipment which can contribute significantly to overall system performance.

  16. Considerations on safety against seismic excitations in the project of reactor auxiliary building and control building in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.H.C.; Castro Monteiro, I. de

    1986-01-01

    The seismic requests to be considered in the project of main buildings of a nuclear power plant are discussed. The models for global seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures, as well as models for global strength distribution are presented. The models for analysing reactor auxiliary building and control building, which together with the reactor building and turbine building form the main energy generation complex in a nuclear power plant, are described. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. 47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.216 Disclosure requirements for... following disclosure requirements: (1) Such persons must display the consumer disclosure text, as specified... point of sale or lease of each such low power auxiliary station. The text must be displayed in a clear...

  18. Full scale vibration test on nuclear power plant auxiliary building: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, V.; Tinic, S.; Berger, E.; Zwicky, P.; Prater, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with the construction of the reinforced concrete auxiliary building housing the two boric water tanks (so-called BOTA building) of the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant in Switzerland the opportunity was given to carry out full scale vibration tests in November 1985. The overall aim of the tests was to validate computational models and parameters widely used in the seismic analysis of the structures and critical components of nuclear power plants. The scope of the experimental investigation was the determination of the eigenfrequencies and damping values for the fundamental soil-structure interaction (SSI) modes. The excitation level was aimed to be as high as feasibly possible. A working group was formed of representatives of the owner, NOK, the consulting firm Basler and Hofmann and the ETH to supervise the project. The project's main phases were the planning and execution of the tests, the evaluation of recorded data, numerical simulation of the tests using different computer models and finally the comparison and interpretation of measured and computed results

  19. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Testa, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  20. A New Online Secondary Path Modeling Method with An Auxiliary Noise Power Scheduling Strategy for Narrowband Active Noise Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the online secondary path modeling (SPM method with an auxiliary noise power scheduling strategy has been crucial for active noise control (ANC systems and has also become a popular research topic. However, most scheduling strategies have been designed for broadband active noise control (BANC, and these ideas may not be directly applied to narrowband active noise control (NANC systems due to the difference in structure between BANC and NANC systems. In this paper, a new online SPM method with auxiliary noise power scheduling is proposed. Here, the controlled system is adapted using the filtered-x weighted accumulated least mean square (FXWALMS algorithm proposed by the authors. Moreover, the auxiliary noise power is scheduled based on the convergence status of the forgetting factor to accurately track the change in the NANC system. As a result, the proposed method not only achieves good modeling accuracy and fast convergence but also considerably increases noise attenuation. Extensive simulations are conducted to prove the superior performance of the proposed method in various scenarios.

  1. A general purpose diagnostic technique for marine diesel engines - Application on the main propulsion and auxiliary diesel units of a marine vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaris, V.T.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in marine applications (i.e. propulsion and auxiliaries) except from a few cases where gas or steam turbines are used. This is the result of their high efficiency, power concentration and reliability compared to other compatible or alternative power sources. The proper and efficient operation of the engines (main engine and diesel generator units) in marine applications is critical, and therefore techniques or systems that determine engine current condition and detect potential faults are extremely important. Furthermore, it is advantageous when such techniques can be applied on different engine configurations and provide reliable results, because on a vessel usually exist diesel engines of different type, i.e. the main propulsion unit is a large low-speed two-stroke diesel engine while the diesel generators are four-stroke medium or high speed engines. In the present work is described and evaluated for the first time the application of an improved diagnostic technique, developed by the authors, on both the main engine and the auxiliary units of a commercial marine vessel. The diagnostic technique is based on a thermodynamic simulation model. The simulation model embedded in the technique has been modified, namely an existing two-zone model is replaced by a multi-zone one. With this modification it is avoided model constant tuning with the operating conditions. This is extremely important for the diagnostic philosophy of the proposed technique. Using data from engine shop tests, the simulation model is calibrated (i.e. model constants are determined) and the engine reference condition is obtained. The simulation model is then used to estimate the current engine condition, using field measurements (i.e. cylinder pressure measurements, periphery data, etc.). From the results it is revealed that the diagnosis method provides detailed information for the operating condition of both engines and the values of parameters that cannot be

  2. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  3. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources - a nominal 300-Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28-Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power supplies that provide power to the thruster auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300-Volts to 500-Volts to the thruster discharge supply. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall Effect Thruster. The performance of unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate the exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97. With a space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power device, this design could evolve into a flight design for future missions that require high power electric propulsion systems.

  4. Comparative Study of Electric Energy Storages and Thermal Energy Auxiliaries for Improving Wind Power Integration in the Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In regards to the cogeneration system in Northern China, mainly supported by combined heat and power (CHP plants, it usually offers limited operation flexibility due to the joint production of electric and thermal power. For that large-scale wind farms included in the cogeneration system, a large amount of wind energy may have to be wasted. To solve this issue, the utilization of the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries are recommended, including pumped hydro storage (PHS, compressed air energy storage (CAES, hydrogen-based energy storage (HES, heat storage (HS, electric boilers (EB, and heat pumps (HP. This paper proposes a general evaluation method to compare the performance of these six different approaches for promoting wind power integration. In consideration of saving coal consumption, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing investment cost, the comprehensive benefit is defined as the evaluation index. Specifically, a wind-thermal conflicting expression (WTCE is put forward to simplify the formulation of the comprehensive benefit. Further, according to the cogeneration system of the West Inner Mongolia (WIM power grid, a test system is modelled to perform the comparison of the six different approaches. The results show that introducing the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries can both contribute to facilitating wind power integration, and the HP can provide the best comprehensive benefit.

  5. Contingency planning at the flotilla level in the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary: flotilla 81-a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, Shawn Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 81. Flotilla 81 created its first formal, single agency contingency plan. The research question addressed is "How can a flotilla successfully develop a contingency plan?" Five emergent themes are identified. They are offered as suggested promising practices for other flotillas in need of creating a contingency plan. Findings suggest successful contingency planning is a result of effective collaboration with community partners. Network management theory is a key to an effective contingency planning process.

  6. Experimental simulation of a light aircraft crash on to a nuclear power plant auxiliary building roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Barr, P.; Garton, G.; Howe, W.D.; Neilson, A.J.

    1984-08-01

    The experiments described were conducted at a reduced scale with geometric dimensions of prototype structures of one-fifth full size. The target was based on the auxiliary buildings for the proposed Sizewell PWR. Descriptions of the simulated aircraft model and the test panels are given, together with the instrumentation. Details are given of the test programme and the results are summarized and discussed. Comparison is made of the model aircraft tests with an equivalent hard missile impact. (U.K.)

  7. Power Supply Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  8. Green Applications for Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit...

  9. Procedure of qualification applied to motors driving auxiliaries in fossil fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coperchini, C.; Fises, A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty year operation have enabled EDF to better understand the factors improving the reliability of powerhouse auxiliary drive induction motors. Progress in the behaviour of such machines are mainly due to analysis and handling of full size test results achieved in the Saint-Denis Motor Test Laboratory. This work led to the printing of recommendations and technical specifications. Service and safety requirements of the nuclear plant new generation lead to examine again the procedures of qualification. The analysis made in this report let appear the justification to maintain the present EDF policy with some necessary adjustments, especially as far as the nuclear safety motors are concerned [fr

  10. Aging and service wear of auxiliary feedwater pumps for PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes investigations on auxiliary feedwater pumps being done under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Objectives of these studies are: to identify and evaluate practical, cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging and service wear); recommend inspection and maintenance practices; establish acceptance criteria; and help facilitate use of the results. Emphasis is given to identifying and assessing methods for detecting failure in the incipient stage and to developing degradation trends to allow timely maintenance, repair or replacement actions. 3 refs

  11. Chemistry control approach of pre commissioning and power operation of primary and auxiliary system of KGS-3 and 4 and trouble shooting made

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennet Raj, N.; Sahu, B.S.; Kumar, Vineet; Valluri, J.

    2008-01-01

    KGS (Kaiga Generating Station) 3 and 4 is a 220 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) using heavy water (D 2 O) as moderator and primary heat coolant and the secondary system is light water which is used to make the steam for generating the power. The chemistry control approach made for the successful commissioning and subsequent power operation of the unit is discussed here. The chemistry control is of two parts first part covers the pre commissioning chemistry control and the second part covers the commissioning chemistry control. During commissioning all systems were preserved by proper chemistry control and regular recirculation of system to avoid stagnancy. The major pre commissioning and commissioning chemistry control are depicted below: Pre commissioning chemistry control of primary heat transport (PHT) system and auxiliaries; Pre commissioning chemistry control of moderator system; Primary heat transport system hot conditioning with light water; Commissioning chemistry control of End Shield System (ESC) and Calandria Vault Cooling (CVC) system; Heavy water addition and its chemistry control in moderator system; and Heavy water addition and its chemistry control in PHT system. During power operation dew point in annular gas monitoring system (AGMS) of KGS unit 3 was maintaining in higher side under recirculation. The increase of dew point could be due to ingress of heavy water or light water. A new device was developed to collect condensate and the chemistry of the condensate was checked. The result indicated the ingress of light water. (author)

  12. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  13. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolich, J.; Santome, D.; Drexler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author) [es

  14. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the South Texas Project nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1993-12-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. South Texas Project was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the South Texas Project plant

  15. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the McGuire nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1994-05-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. McGuire was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the McGuire plant

  16. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Vehec, T.A.

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant

  17. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Lloyd, R.C.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Garner, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. H. B. Robinson was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the H. B. Robinson plant

  18. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Byron and Braidwood nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1991-07-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Byron and Braidwood were selected for the fourth study in this program. The produce of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plants and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Byron/Braidwood plants. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.; Tinic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system

  20. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  1. Power enhancing by reversing mode sequence in tuned mass-spring unit attached vibration energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a vibration energy harvester consisting of an auxiliary frequency-tuned mass unit and a piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting unit for enhancing output power. The proposed integrated system is so configured that its out-of-phase mode can appear at the lowest eigenfrequency unlike in the conventional system using a tuned unit. Such an arrangement makes the resulting system distinctive: enhanced output power at or near the target operating frequency and very little eigenfrequency separation, not observed in conventional eigenfrequency-tuned vibration energy harvesters. The power enhancement of the proposed system is theoretically examined with and without tip mass normalization or footprint area normalization.

  2. Synergistic Effect Evaluation of Main and Auxiliary Industry of Power Grid Based on the Information Fusion Technology from the Perspective of Sustainable Development of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the diversified economic union, the power grid enterprises’ auxiliary industries are continuing to grow and develop faster. However, in the process of development, power grid enterprises are still faced with the problem of low efficiency of the management of main and auxiliary and resource allocation and utilization. Thus, the synergistic development evaluation for power grid enterprises’ main and auxiliary industries has a strong practical significance. It can help the managers to find the short board of each industry and search for the exploration direction for improvement to promote the sustainable development of the main and auxiliary industries comprehensively. It can also provide the reference for improving the management level of power grid enterprises. Information fusion technology, as a process of information processing for decision making, can make use of multi-source information synergistically to get a more objective and more essential understanding of the same thing or the same goal. It has been applied to many fields in a mature way. Based on the characteristics of each industry, this paper constructs a synergistic effect evaluation index system of the main and auxiliary industries from the aspects of management foundation, resource integration, operational efficiency and effectiveness. The variable precision fuzzy rough set (VPFRS is introduced to screen the index system, eliminate redundant indexes, retain key indexes and improve the efficiency and accuracy of evaluation effectively. Meanwhile, based on the characteristic of dealing with the imprecise problem of the vague set, this paper establishes the evaluation model based on information fusion technology of the variable precision fuzzy rough set and vague set (VPFRS-Vague. In order to verify the validity of the model, five typical companies belonging to power grid enterprises are selected as examples for analysis to prove the validity and

  3. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  4. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, A.; Ramilo, L.; Santecchia, A.; Vindrola, C.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100MWt, about 25MWe).CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium.In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented.Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor

  5. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Santecchia, Alberto; Vindrola, Carlos; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100 M Wt, about 25 M We). CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium. In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented. Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor. (author)

  6. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  7. Parallel island genetic algorithm applied to a nuclear power plant auxiliary feedwater system surveillance tests policy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Lapa, Celso M.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we focus the application of an Island Genetic Algorithm (IGA), a coarse-grained parallel genetic algorithm (PGA) model, to a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) surveillance tests policy optimization. Here, the main objective is to outline, by means of comparisons, the advantages of the IGA over the simple (non-parallel) genetic algorithm (GA), which has been successfully applied in the solution of such kind of problem. The goal of the optimization is to maximize the system's average availability for a given period of time, considering realistic features such as: i) aging effects on standby components during the tests; ii) revealing failures in the tests implies on corrective maintenance, increasing outage times; iii) components have distinct test parameters (outage time, aging factors, etc.) and iv) tests are not necessarily periodic. In our experiments, which were made in a cluster comprised by 8 1-GHz personal computers, we could clearly observe gains not only in the computational time, which reduced linearly with the number of computers, but in the optimization outcome

  8. 75 FR 3682 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones, and the Digital Television Transition AGENCY: Federal... seeks comment on the adoption in its rules marketing and labeling requirements, including possible... in part on technological innovation such as digital technology, that would enable wireless...

  9. CFD simulations of power coefficients for an innovative Darrieus style vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary straight blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, F.; Cortellessa, G.; Dell'Isola, M.; Scungio, M.; Focanti, V.; Profili, M.; Rotondi, M.

    2017-11-01

    The increasing price of fossil derivatives, global warming and energy market instabilities, have led to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources such as wind energy. Amongst the different typologies of wind generators, small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) present the greatest potential for off grid power generation at low wind speeds. In the present work, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed in order to investigate the performance of an innovative configuration of straight-blades Darrieus-style vertical axis micro wind turbine, specifically developed for small scale energy conversion at low wind speeds. The micro turbine under investigation is composed of three pairs of airfoils, consisting of a main and auxiliary blades with different chord lengths. The simulations were made using the open source finite volume based CFD toolbox OpenFOAM, considering different turbulence models and adopting a moving mesh approach for the turbine rotor. The simulated data were reported in terms of dimensionless power coefficients for dynamic performance analysis. The results from the simulations were compared to the data obtained from experiments on a scaled model of the same VAWT configuration, conducted in a closed circuit open chamber wind tunnel facility available at the Laboratory of Industrial Measurements (LaMI) of the University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale (UNICLAM). From the proposed analysis, it was observed that the most suitable model for the simulation of the performances of the micro turbine under investigation is the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras, even if under the conditions analysed in the present work and for TSR values higher than 1.1, some discrepancies between numerical and experimental data can be observed.

  10. Stabilization of gas turbine unit power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolotovskii, I.; Larin, E.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new cycle air preparation unit which helps increasing energy power of gas turbine units (GTU) operating as a part of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units of thermal power stations and energy and water supply systems of industrial enterprises as well as reducing power loss of gas turbine engines of process blowers resulting from variable ambient air temperatures. Installation of GTU power stabilizer at CCGT unit with electric and thermal power of 192 and 163 MW, respectively, has resulted in reduction of produced electrical energy production costs by 2.4% and thermal energy production costs by 1.6% while capital expenditures after installation of this equipment increased insignificantly.

  11. Determination of power and power descriptions at walking with auxiliary facilities of pushing (by sticks away from lower support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adashevskiy V.M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of work is a design of motions in Nordic walking, and analysis of power and power descriptions of motion. The basic aspects of walking with sticks and their influence on quality of life of people of different age are considered. Directions of the use of physical exercises for the people of senior age are selected. Possibilities of the use of walking in the physical rehabilitation of patients and people with a hyposthenic health is shown. It is set that, walking extend the use of models of Nordic possibility of leadthrough of researches and theoretical ground for more deep study of features of such type of movements. It is marked that the model of motion is expedient to utillize in combination with cinegram walking and by the indexes of dynamometry. It is recommended at lowering to observe the rules of technique of motion and safety.

  12. Auxiliary variables for the mapping of the drainage network: spatial correlation between relieve units, lithotypes and springs in Benevente River basin-ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Vinicius Moreira Sampaio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of the drainage network mapping present methodological limitations re- sulting in inaccurate maps, restricting their use in environmental studies. Such problems demand the realization of long field surveys to verify the error and the search for auxiliary variables to optimize this works and turn possible the analysis of map accuracy. This research aims at the measurement of the correlation be- tween springs, lithotypes and relieve units, characterized by Roughness Concentration Index (RCI in River Basin Benevente-ES, focusing on the operations of map algebra and the use of spatial statistical techniques. These procedures have identified classes of RCI and lithotypes that present the highest and the lowest correlation with the spatial distribution of springs, indicating its potential use as auxiliary variables to verify the map accuracy.

  13. Electric power plant technology. Generators, transformers, auxiliary installations, protective systems. Lecture notes. 5. rev. ed.; Elektrische Kraftwerkstechnik. Generatoren, Transformatoren, Eigenbedarfsanlagen, Schutzeinrichtungen. Vorlesungsskript

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ulrich

    2009-07-01

    The lecture series on electric power plant engineering was initiated in 1969 by Prof. Helmut Schaefer, founder of the then department of power economy and power plant engineering. The lecture series was continuously updated in its contents and didactic approach, e.g. by integrating innovative power generation concepts like micro cogeneration plants and fuel cell systems. The focus is on the fundamentals and function of generators, main transformers, auxiliary installations and protective systems in power plant. Apart from the electrotechnical aspects, also aspects of mechanical engineering are gone into. Also discussed are energy conversion concepts fo renewable power generation plants like wind turbines and PV systems. This is the 5th, completely revised edition. It addresses primarily attendants of the lectures but may also serve as a textbook and reference manual for interested experts.

  14. Modeling Small Scale Solar Powered ORC Unit for Standalone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bocci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When the electricity from the grid is not available, the generation of electricity in remote areas is an essential challenge to satisfy important needs. In many developing countries the power generation from Diesel engines is the applied technical solution. However the cost and supply of fuel make a strong dependency of the communities on the external support. Alternatives to fuel combustion can be found in photovoltaic generators, and, with suitable conditions, small wind turbines or microhydroplants. The aim of the paper is to simulate the power generation of a generating unit using the Rankine Cycle and using refrigerant R245fa as a working fluid. The generation unit has thermal solar panels as heat source and photovoltaic modules for the needs of the auxiliary items (pumps, electronics, etc.. The paper illustrates the modeling of the system using TRNSYS platform, highlighting standard and “ad hoc” developed components as well as the global system efficiency. In the future the results of the simulation will be compared with the data collected from the 3 kW prototype under construction in the Tuscia University in Italy.

  15. Hydraulic modeling test of intake pump in Ulchin nuclear power plant 5 and 6 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. W.; Lee, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    In the intake structure of a nuclear power plant, undesirable pump operating characteristics such as vortices and non-uniform pump-approach flow around the pump bells take place frequently due to poorly-arranged intake geometry. Therefore, prior to the construction of intake structure or internal auxiliary facilities, hydraulic modeling test should be performed to predict the undesirable hydraulic phenomenon. In this study, a 1:10-scale, geometrically undistorted physical model was employed to investigate the hydraulic behavior and flow control devices were proposed to assure stable suction condition of pumps in the intake structure of Ulchin nuclear power plant 5,6 Units

  16. Robust unit commitment with dispatchable wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Espana, G.; Lorca, Álvaro; de Weerdt, M.M.

    The increasing penetration of uncertain generation such as wind and solar in power systems imposes new challenges to the unit commitment (UC) problem, one of the most critical tasks in power systems operations. The two most common approaches to address these challenges — stochastic and robust

  17. Test facility for auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of fast breeder reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In preparation of constructing ''Monju'', a prototype fast breeder reactor, PNC has been pushing forward its research and development projects and the ACS was constructed under these projects. The auxiliary cooling system is an important engineered safety feature, and is used for safe removal of heat from the reactor at the shutdown. The ACS serves as a means of testing and assessing the auxiliary cooling system for the ''Monju'' and is designed and manufactured to have one fifth capacity of the Monju. The air heat exchanger and the ACS system was designed to withstand higher temperature range of the conventional design code (MITI-501), and finned tubes were applied for effective heat removal. Preheating system was designed to heat up the whole system over 200 0 C within 20 hours to prevent sodium from freezing. Basic performance of ACS was verified satisfactorily by a series of performance tests, such as start up test, flow rate measurement and preheating test before delivery. The experience from designing and construction of ACS and data obtained by these tests will be very instructive for designing and construction of the ''Monju''. (author)

  18. Optimization of cogeneration thermal power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Marinchenko, A. Yu.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2009-09-01

    We present a procedure for comparing the efficiencies of cogeneration thermal power units that takes variable conditions of their operation into account. A combined-cycle plant operating in accordance with the STIG cycle (i.e., with mixing of working fluids), a gas turbine unit equipped with a gas economizer, and a steam turbine unit equipped with a backpressure turbine are compared during their operation as part of a cogeneration station.

  19. Improving Readiness with a Public-Private Partnership: NAVAIR's Auxiliary Power Unit Total Logistics Support Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucyshyn, William; Rendon, Rene; Novello, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    .... At the depot level, as well, staff knew that a reengineering of logistics support processes, to reflect a more performance-based approach, was needed to reduce the cost of managing and distributing...

  20. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  1. Solar power water distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  2. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Muzammil; Ateeq, Ijlal Shahrukh; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  3. Aging and service wear of auxiliary feedwater pumps for PWR nuclear power plants. Volume 1. Operating experience and failure identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Makay, E.

    1986-07-01

    This report was produced under the Detection of Defects and Degradation Monitoring element of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. Typical auxiliary feedwater pump (AUXFP) configurations are described in terms of configuration details, materials of construction, operating requirements, and modes of operation. AUXFP failure modes and causes due to aging and service wear are identified and explained, and measurable parameters (including functional indicators) for potential use in assessing operational readiness, establishing degradation trends, and detecting incipient failures are given. A series of measures to correct present deficiencies in surveillance, monitoring, and in-service testing practices is discussed. The main body of the report is supplemented by a number of relevant appendixes; in particular, a major appendix is included on engineering and design information useful to assess AUXFP operational readiness. 17 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Determination of technical and economic parameters of an ionic transport membrane air separation unit working in a supercritical power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an air separation unit was analyzed. The unit consisted of: an ionic transport membrane contained in a four-end type module, an air compressor, an expander fed by gas that remains after oxygen separation and heat exchangers which heat the air and recirculated flue gas to the membrane operating temperature (850 °C. The air separation unit works in a power plant with electrical power equal to 600 MW. This power plant additionally consists of: an oxy-type pulverized-fuel boiler, a steam turbine unit and a carbon dioxide capture unit. Life steam parameters are 30 MPa/650 °C and reheated steam parameters are 6 MPa/670 °C. The listed units were analyzed. For constant electrical power of the power plant technical parameters of the air separation unit for two oxygen recovery rate (65% and 95% were determined. One of such parameters is ionic membrane surface area. In this paper the formulated equation is presented. The remaining technical parameters of the air separation unit are, among others: heat exchange surface area, power of the air compressor, power of the expander and auxiliary power. Using the listed quantities, the economic parameters, such as costs of air separation unit and of individual components were determined. These quantities allowed to determine investment costs of construction of the air separation unit. In addition, they were compared with investment costs for the entire oxy-type power plant.

  5. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...... shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages...

  6. Unit Commitment Taking into Account Reactive Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangjun; Yamashiro, Susumu

    In this paper, a Voltage Magnitude Constrained OPF (VMC-OPF) algorithm to determine the reactive power injection from compensating equipment to load bus is developed. By introducing the proposed VMC-OPF to the real power related Unit Commitment (UC)(1), a novel daily UC method taking into account the reactive power to secure bus voltage magnitude is presented. The Transmission Access Charge (TAC) and Ancillary Services Charge (ASC) are included in the objective function for considering costs of using transmission network and supplying reactive power to maintain the voltage. Using the proposed UC, the difference between two schedules based on benefit maximization and cost minimization is also discussed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed UC method, we demonstrate various simulation results for a model power system of IEEE-118 bus system.

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  8. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: Energy and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Problems associated with energy production and power are studied in this teacher's guide to better understand the impact of man's energy production on the environment, how he consumes energy, and in what quantities. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. Topics…

  9. The 3rd power unit roofing decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The most features of the 3rd power unit (PU) roofing decontamination are described: 1) the most active materials were thrown into the 4th PU ruins before the Ukrytie construction completion; 2) the decontamination was fulfilled using remote-controlled mechanisms and manual devices (the main part). 6 figs.; 1 tab

  10. A decision theoretic approach to an accident sequence: when feedwater and auxiliary feedwater fail in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenson, Ola

    1998-01-01

    This study applies a decision theoretic perspective on a severe accident management sequence in a processing industry. The sequence contains loss of feedwater and auxiliary feedwater in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR), which necessitates manual depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel to enable low pressure cooling of the core. The sequence is fast and is a major contributor to core damage in probabilistic risk analyses (PRAs) of this kind of plant. The management of the sequence also includes important, difficult and fast human decision making. The decision theoretic perspective, which is applied to a Swedish ABB-type reactor, stresses the roles played by uncertainties about plant state, consequences of different actions and goals during the management of a severe accident sequence. Based on a theoretical analysis and empirical simulator data the human error probabilities in the PRA for the plant are considered to be too small. Recommendations for how to improve safety are given and they include full automation of the sequence, improved operator training, and/or actions to assist the operators' decision making through reduction of uncertainties, for example, concerning water/steam level for sufficient cooling, time remaining before insufficient cooling level in the tank is reached and organizational cost-benefit evaluations of the events following a false alarm depressurization as well as the events following a successful depressurization at different points in time. Finally, it is pointed out that the approach exemplified in this study is applicable to any accident scenario which includes difficult human decision making with conflicting goals, uncertain information and with very serious consequences

  11. Satellite auxiliary-propulsion selection techniques. Addendum: A survey of auxiliary electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A review of electric thrusters for satellite auxiliary propulsion was conducted at JPL during the past year. Comparisons of the various thrusters for attitude propulsion and east-west and north-south stationkeeping were made based upon performance, mass, power, and demonstrated life. Reliability and cost are also discussed. The method of electrical acceleration of propellant served to divide the thruster systems into two groups: electrostatic and electromagnetic. Ion and colloid thrusters fall within the electrostatically accelerated group while MPD and pulsed plasma thrusters comprise the electromagnetically accelerated group. The survey was confined to research in the United States with accent on flight and flight prototype systems.

  12. Control units for APS power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed

  13. Lecture 1. on auxiliary heating in 'Breakeven Tokamaks'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, John

    1978-01-01

    We may identify two main areas where auxiliary heating may be used in breakeven Tokamak reactors. (1) In the start up phase of a Tokamak reactor, having a thermal energy distribution, auxiliary heating is required to bridge the gap between the ohmic state where the temperature will probably be approximately 1 keV, and the ignited condition where T>5 keV. (2) In two component and three component systems, auxiliary power is required to maintain a non-thermal ion distribution. I will follow a similar line to that taken in the above papers and will assess the auxiliary heating requirements of a 'Breakeven Tokamak' producing approximately 500 MW of thermal power, using the D-T cycle. I will consider two and three component systems insofar as they may be used during the start up phase, but not as reactor systems in their own right. In the first lecture I will not discuss details of the heating methods. Symbols and units are given in the Appendix

  14. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  15. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond...... to adverbs in languages like English, while the rest are tense-aspect markers; and (iv) it is possible to combine several auxiliary verbs in a single clause. For some of the auxiliary verbs there are extant full verbs from which they have evolved. To some extent, therefore, it is possible to observe what...

  16. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ...] Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station, Units 1... the Emergency Plan, ``Conditions of licenses,'' for North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (NAPS), for Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. NPF-4 and NPF-7, and Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2...

  17. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  18. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...- 2010-0373] Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos... and DPR-25 for Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power...

  19. Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  20. Photovoltaic and thermal hybrid power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo; Chinen, Masanori; Inoue, Kotaro

    1988-10-21

    In the conventional technology, further utilization of the exhaust heat of the solar cell for power generation is not at all considered; power generation efficiency is not especially high although the reduction of the use amount of GaAs solar cell is possible. In addition, the heat dissipation is difficult when light collection yield is enhanced in the case of a trough type parabolic mirror. In this invention, the unit consists of plural number of light collecting mirrors and correspondinng power-generating parts wherein a heat-receiving part of the thermo-element is closely contacted to the non-light-receiving surface of the cell through the intermediary of an electric insulating layer; the power-generating part is located near to the focusing point of the light collector. In this invention, the solar light can be efficiently converted into electricity and most of the formerly unutilized exhaust heat can be efficiently converted into electricity by means of a thermo-element. In addition, enhancement of reliability and the output voltage are possible by increasing the redundancy. 14 figures.

  1. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant; Um modelo de manutencao centrada em confiabilidade aplicada ao sistema de agua de alimentacaco auxiliar de uma usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    1998-01-15

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 890.5950 - Powered heating unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered heating unit. 890.5950 Section 890.5950...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5950 Powered heating unit. (a) Identification. A powered heating unit is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  3. A data envelopment analysis for energy efficiency of coal-fired power units in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chenxi; Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Fan; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two kinds of energy efficiency (EE) indices are analyzed and compared. • The influence degrees of different uncontrollable factors on EE are compared. • The influence of load factor on special EE is 82.6% larger than capacity factor. • The influence of cooling method on special EE is 90.32% larger than steam pressure. • The generalized EE indicator is more recommended by the authors. - Abstract: In this article, the non-parametric data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is employed to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) of 34 coal-fired power units in China. Input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) model is used for EE analysis. Two efficiency indices, generalized EE and special EE are defined and analyzed. The generalized EE is calculated based on four input parameters: coal consumption, oil consumption, water consumption and auxiliary power consumption by power units. The special EE is only based on two input parameters: coal consumption and auxiliary power consumption. Relations between these two EE indices and non-comparable factors including quality of coal, load factor, capacity factor, parameters of main steam and cooling method are studied. Comparison between EE evaluation results of the two indices is conducted. Results show that these two kinds of EE are more sensitive to the load factor than the capacity factor. The influence of the cooling method on EE is larger than that of main steam parameter. The influence of non-comparable factors on the special EE is stronger than that on the generalized EE

  4. Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit No.1 at the implementation and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yuhua; Xiao Bo; He Liu; Huang Min

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.l purpose, range of experience, experiment preparation, implementation, feedback and response. Turn of nuclear steam turbo-generator set flush, using the main reactor coolant pump and regulator of the heat generated by the electric heating element and the total heat capacity in secondary circuit of reactor coolant system (steam generator secondary side) of saturated steam turbine rushed to 1500 RPM, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 implementation of the performance of the inspection of steam turbine and its auxiliary system, through the test problems found in the clean up in time, the nuclear steam sweep turn smooth realization has accumulated experience. At the same time, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 at turn is half speed steam turbine generator non-nuclear turn at the first, with its smooth realization of other nuclear power steam turbine generator set in the field of non-nuclear turn play a reference role. (authors)

  5. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  6. Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed is discussed. Present and future jet engine systems are compared. The role of auxiliary power units is evaluated. Details of secondary electric power generation systems with and without auxiliary power units are given. Advanced bleed systems are compared with minimum bleed systems. A cost model of ownership is given. The difference in the cost of ownership between a minimum bleed system and an advanced bleed system is given.

  7. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.; Barsukov, I. V.

    2009-01-01

    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests of the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.

  8. Take-Off and Flight Performance of an A-20A Airplane as Affected by Auxiliary Propulsion Supplied by Liquid Propellant Jet Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-06-30

    20i m&fct test« writ completely satisfactory from the nolnt of Tie« of reliability. A total of W* successive Jet motor rune ware nude without any »le...air- craft aa affected by Auxiliary Jet rtfonulalon haa teen carried out by Hillllcan and Sie»sirt In Reference 6. the analysis In based on the

  9. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-400; NRC-2010-0020] Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company... operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things...

  10. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-400; NRC-2010-0020] Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the... Operating License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1...

  11. Concentration of WWER-1000 unit power on one site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousek, J.; Kysel, J.; Sladek, V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of a suitable number of nuclear power plant units built on one site is discussed. Using an example of three sites being prepared now in Czechoslovakia, two alternatives - one with two WWER-1000 units, the other with four WWER-1000 units on one site - are evaluated from the viewpoint of long-range nuclear power development program in Czechoslovakia, costs, transmission of electric power and heat supply. (author). 10 tabs., 13 refs

  12. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-01-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  13. Experimental Research and Control Strategy of Pumped Storage Units Dispatching in the Taiwan Power System Considering Transmission Line Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s power system is isolated and not supported by other interconnected systems. Consequently, the system frequency immediately reflects changes in the system loads. Pumped storage units are crucial for controlling power frequency. These units provide main or auxiliary capacities, reducing the allocation of frequency-regulating reserve (FRR and further reducing generation costs in system operations. Taiwan’s Longmen Nuclear Power Plant is set to be converted for commercial operations, which will significantly alter the spinning reserves in the power system. Thus, this study proposes a safe and economic pumped storage unit dispatch strategy. This strategy is used to determine the optimal FRR capacity and 1-min recovery frequency in a generator failure occurrence at the Longmen Power Plant. In addition, this study considered transmission capacity constraints and conducted power flow analysis of the power systems in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The results indicated that, in the event of a failure at Longmen Power Plant, the proposed strategy can not only recover the system frequency to an acceptable range to prevent underfrequency load-shedding, but can also mitigate transmission line overloading.

  14. Anticorrosion and halobios control for tidal power generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J C; Ding, L X

    2012-01-01

    The anticorrosion and halobios control is the key techniquesrelated to the safety and durability of tidal power generating units. The technique of material application, antifouling coating and cathodic protection are often adopted. The technical research, application, updating and development are carried on Jiangxia Tidal Power Station, which is based on the old Unit 1-Unit 5 operated for nearly 30 years, and the new Unit 6 operated in 2007. It is found that stainless steeland the antifouling coating used in Unit 1- Unit 5 are very effective, but cathodic protection is often likely to fail because of the limitation of structure and installation. Analyses and studies for anticorrosion and halobios control techniques of tidal power generating units according to theory, experience and actual effects have been done, which can be for reference to the tidal power station designers and builders.

  15. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  16. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-461, Illinois Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria for structures, systems, and components; reactor coolant and connected systems; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power system; auxiliary systems; radiation protection; and conduct of operations

  17. United States Space Nuclear Electric Power Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The principal characteristics and design features of major systems and technological developments in U.S. space nuclear power activities are reviewed, covering radioisotope thermoelectric generators, reactor space electric power technology, and the advanced liquid metal cooled power reactor program. The topics also include heat source design and development, thermoelectric efficiency, high performance thermoelectric materials, and alloy developments. The U.S. Space Electric Power Program is described as one aimed at the development of a minimum number of standard components and power modules for both radioisotopes and reactor systems that will meet the widest possible range of future requirements. The need to reduce the high cost of the isotopic generators already used in space missions is stressed.

  18. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  19. Green Propellant Demonstration with Hydrazine Catalyst of F-16 Emergency Power Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Brechbill, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Some space vehicle and aircraft Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) use hydrazine propellant for generating power. Hydrazine is a toxic, hazardous fuel which requires special safety equipment and processes for handling and loading. In recent years, there has been development of two green propellants that could enable their use in APU's: the Swedish LMP-103S and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) AF-M315E. While there has been work on development of these propellants for thruster applications (Prisma and Green Propulsion Infusion Mission, respectively), there has been less focus on the application to power units. Beginning in 2012, an effort was started by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on the APU application. The MSFC plan was to demonstrate green propellants with residual Space Shuttle hardware. The principal investigator was able to acquire a Solid Rocket Booster gas generator and an Orbiter APU. Since these test assets were limited in number, an Air Force equivalent asset was identified: the F-16 Emergency Power Unit (EPU). In June 2013, two EPU's were acquired from retired aircraft located at Davis Monthan Air Force Base. A gas generator from one of these EPU's was taken out of an assembly and configured for testing with a version of the USAF propellant with a higher water content (AF-M315EM) to reduce decomposition temperatures. Testing in November 2014 has shown that this green propellant is reactive with the Hydrazine catalyst (Shell 405) generating 300 psi of pressure with the existing F-16 EPU configuration. This paper will highlight the results of MSFC testing in collaboration with AFRL.

  20. Mochovce power plant units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba, J.

    2003-01-01

    The report gives the basic technical data and history of the construction of the units 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP.The current status of the units completion according to the original plan is: civil part - 70%; mechanical part - 30%; electric and IC equipment - 1%. Strategic plan for the preservation of the units 3 and 4 has been developed in accordance with TECDOC-1110. In implementation of the plan preservation activities are performed for the components located and built-in on the site and in storehouses. Preservation with dryers and protective coatings is applied. The factors of possible component degradation are determined. Ventilation components are used for improving the climate conditions in the primary part of the reactor building. Temperature and humidity measurements are done and temperature control is set. Special pre-service inspections beyond the basic scope of preservation and protection works are conducted of steam generator and reactor pressure vessel. The implementation of the design data protection and enhancement is discussed. The feasibility study of units 3 and 4 completion funding has been developed in 2002

  1. Development, Fabrication, and Testing of Inverter Power System for Metroliner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    This report documents the development and subsequent fabrication of a solid state auxiliary power conditioning unit (APCU) for the upgraded Metroliner. The APCU is an inverter of the pulse width modulated type having multiple parallel transistors in ...

  2. Study on the power control system for NPP power unit with the WWER-440 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrova, N.D.; Naumov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    Results of model investigations into basic version of the power control systems (PCS) conformably to the WWER-440 NPP power unit are stated. Transient processes in the power unit system when being two PCS versions during perturbations of different parameters: unit power, vapour pressure or position of control rods have been simulated. Investigations into the different PCS versions show that quality of operation of a traditional scheme with a turbine power controller and reactor pressure controller can be significantly improved with the introduction of a high-speed signal of pressure into the reactor controller. The PCS version with the compensation of interrelations between the turbine and reactor controllers constructed according to the same principles as the standard schemes of power units of thermal electric power plant is perspective as well [ru

  3. Energic, Exergic, Exergo‐economic investigation and optimization of auxiliary cooling system (ACS equipped with compression refrigerating system (CRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Karimi Sadaghiyani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heller main cooling tower as air-cooled heat exchanger is used in the combined cycle power plants (CCPP to reduce the temperature of condenser. In extreme summer heat, the efficiency of the cooling tower is reduced and it lessens performance of Steam Turbine Generation (STG unit of Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP. Thus, the auxiliary cooling system (ACS is equipped with compression refrigerating system (CRS. This auxiliary system is linked with the Heller main cooling tower and improves the performance of power plant. In other words, this auxiliary system increases the generated power of STG unit of CCPP by decreasing the temperature of returning water from cooling tower Therefore, in the first step, the mentioned auxiliary cooling system (ACS as a heat exchanger and compression refrigerating system (CRS have been designed via ASPEN HTFS and EES code respectively. In order to validate their results, these two systems have been built and theirs experimentally obtained data have been compared with ASPEN and EES results. There are good agreements between results. After that, exergic and exergo-economic analysis of designed systems have been carried out. Finally, the compression refrigerating system (CRS has been optimized via Genetic Algorithm (GA. Increasing in exergy efficiency (ε from 14.23% up to 36.12% and decreasing the total cost rate (ĊSystem from 378.2 ($/h to 308.2 ($/h are as results of multi-objective optimization.

  4. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  5. Improved control system power unit for large parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, J. A.; Grubbs, T. M.

    1968-01-01

    Improved control system power unit drives the control surfaces of very large controllable parachutes. The design features subassemblies for determining control surface position and cable loading, and protection of the load sensor against the possibility of damage during manipulation.

  6. Power quality improvement of unbalanced power system with distributed generation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe; Excell, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a power electronic system for improving the power quality of the unbalanced distributed generation units in three-phase four-wire system. In the system, small renewable power generation units, such as small PV generator, small wind turbines may be configured as single phase...... generation units. The random nature of renewable power sources may result in significant unbalance in the power network and affect the power quality. An electronic converter system is proposed to correct the system unbalance and harmonics so as to deal with the power quality problems. The operation...... and control of the converter are described. Simulation results have demonstrated that the system can effectively correct the unbalance and enhance the system power quality....

  7. Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power system networks incorporated with FACTS controllers. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home ... networks incorporated with FACTS controllers for advanced power system monitoring, protection, and control. Also this ...

  8. Semiparametric Power Envelopes for Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael

    This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...

  9. Preoperation of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyo, Tadashi; Kurata, Satoshi

    1994-01-01

    Chubu Electric Power Co. finished preoperation of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 4 in September, 1993. Although unit 4 has the same reactor design as unit 3, its rated electrical output (1,137MW) is 37MW more than that of unit 3. This increase was achieved mainly by adopting a Moisture Separater Heater in the turbine system. We started preoperation of unit 4 in November 1992 and performed various tests at electrical outputs of 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. We finished preoperation without any scram or other major problems and obtained satisfactory results for the functions and performance of the plant. This paper describes the major results of unit 4 preoperation. (author)

  10. Loss of vital ac power and the residual heat removal system during mid-loop operations at Vogtle Unit 1 on March 20, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    On March 20, 1990, the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant Unit 1, located in Burke County, Georgia, about 25 miles southeast of Augusta, experienced a loss of all safety (vital) ac power. The plant was in cold shutdown with reactor coolant level lowered to ''mid-loop'' for various maintenance tasks. Both the containment building personnel hatch and equipment hatch were open. One emergency diesel generator and one reserve auxiliary transformer were out of service for maintenance, with the remaining reserve auxiliary transformer supplying both Unit 1 safety buses. A truck in the low voltage switchyard backed into the support column for an offsite power feed to the reserve auxiliary transformer which was supplying safety power. The insulator broke, a phase-to-ground fault occurred, and the feeder circuit breakers for the safety buses opened. The operable emergency diesel generator started automatically because of the undervoltage condition on the safety bus, but tripped off after about 1 minute. About 20 minutes later the diesel generator load sequencer was reset, causing the diesel generator to start a second time. The diesel generator operated for about 1 minute, and tripped off. The diesel generator was restarted in the manual emergency mode 36 minutes after the loss of power. The generator remained on line and provided power to its safety bus. During the 36 minutes without safety bus power, the reactor coolant system temperature rose from about 90 degree F to 136 degree F. This report documents the results of an Incident Investigation Team sent to Vogtle by the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine what happened, identify the probable causes, and make appropriate findings and conclusions. 79 figs., 16 tabs

  11. Power supply control units for APS ring magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.D.

    1990-01-01

    The APS storage ring (1104 meters) is divided into 40 sectors. Each sector has 38 magnet coils in five magnet bases. Every alternate sector has an additional quadrupole magnet for skew correction. AR the main dipole magnets, two in each sector are connected in series and fed from one power supply unit. A base is controlled by one power supply control unit (PSCU). Each PSCU is connected to the host computer via a local area network (LAN). This note discusses the hardware configuration of the typical power supply control system used by the APS magnets and the software commands supported by the PSCU

  12. Contingency-Constrained Unit Commitmentin Meshed Isolated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Vinter, Peter; Bærentsen, Runi

    2015-01-01

    and a modelling point of view. We compare the ORPP to a unit commitment problem that only considers the stationary behavior of the frequency. Simulations based on a Faroe Islands case study show that, without being overly conservative, potential blackouts and power outages can be avoided using the ORPP......This paper presents a mixed-integer linear optimization problem for unit commitment and economic dispatch of power generators in a meshed isolated power system. The optimization problem is referred to as the optimal reserve planning problem (ORPP). The ORPP guarantees that the system frequency...

  13. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  14. The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments that have been put forward in the United Kingdom to justify the contention by its opponents that nuclear power should not be seen as a safe, economic, strategically desirable and environmentally attractive energy source are examined. Counter arguments are presented to support the belief that these are wholly wrong. In the short to medium term, however, economic and political considerations suggest that the prospects for nuclear power in the United Kingdom are not optimistic. The long term evolution of nuclear power is uncertain but it is possible that the security of energy supply, comparative economics and environmental attractions associated with nuclear power will become more apparent and work in its favour eventually. The conviction is expressed that, by the middle of the next century, the United Kingdom will be reaping the benefits of the fast reactor on a significant scale. (UK)

  15. Knowledge acquisition for nuclear power plant unit diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Xi Shuren

    2003-01-01

    The process of acquiring knowledge and building a knowledge base is critical to realize fault diagnostic system at unit level in a nuclear power plant. It directly determines whether the diagnostic system can be applied eventually in a commercial plant. A means to acquire knowledge and its procedures was presented in this paper for fault diagnostic system in a nuclear power plant. The work can be carried out step by step and it is feasible in a commercial nuclear power plant. The knowledge base of the fault diagnostic system for a nuclear power plant can be built after the staff finish the tasks according to the framework presented in this paper

  16. Power Dissipation Challenges in Multicore Floating-Point Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    With increased densities on chips and the growing popularity of multicore processors and general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) power dissipation and energy consumption pose a serious challenge in the design of system-on-chips (SoCs) and a rise in costs for heat removal. In this work......-Raphson approximation algorithm to the implementation in a dedicated digit-recurrence unit. The results show a significant reduction of energy in a typical scientific application when the division digit-recurrence unit is used. In addition, we model the thermal behavior of the considered FP-units....

  17. Analysis and Measurement of NOx Emissions in Port Auxiliary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German de Melo Rodriguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is made NOx pollution emitted by port auxiliary vessels, specifically by harbour tugs, due to its unique operating characteristics of operation, require a large propulsion power changes discontinuously, also possess some peculiar technical characteristics, large tonnage and high propulsive power, that differentiate them from other auxiliary vessels of the port. Taking into account all the above features, there are no studies of the NOx emission engines caused by different working regimes of power because engine manufacturers have not measured these emissions across the range of operating power, but usually we only report the pollution produced by its engines to a maximum continuous power.

  18. Study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a LWR nuclear power plant through the Fault Tree and Bayesian Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lava, Deise Diana

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10 -3 . (author)

  19. Improving Size and Power in Unit Root Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Jansson, Michael

    A frequent criticism of unit root tests concerns the poor power and size properties that many of such testsexhibit. However, the past decade or so intensive research has been conducted to alleviate these problems and great advances have been made. The present paper provides a selective survey...... of recent contributions to improve upon both size and power of unit root tests and in so doing the approach of using rigorous statistical optimality criteria in the development of such tests is stressed. In addition to presenting tests where improved size can be achieved by modifying the standard Dickey......-Fuller class of tests, the paper presents theory of optimal testing and the construction of power envelopes for unit root tests underdifferent conditions allowing for serial correlation, deterministic components, assumptions regarding the initial condition, non-Gaussian errors, and the use of covariates....

  20. Dynamic Analysis & Characterization of Conventional Hydraulic Power Supply Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Liedhegener, Michael; Bech, Michael Møller

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic power units operated as constant supply pres-sure systems remain to be widely used in the industry, to supply valve controlled hydraulic drives etc., where the hydraulic power units are constituted by variable pumps with mechanical outlet pressure control, driven by induction motors...... such that limited impact on the drive dynamics is observed. Such ideal properties however, are not necessarily present in industrial hydraulic applications for various reasons, with the most common being large volumes of supply lines. Long supply lines, hence large supply line volumes, between the sup-ply system...... with internal pi-lot supply are used. This paper is concerned with the analysis and characterization of the coupled pump-induction motor dy-namics, confined to hydraulic power units constituted by an axial piston pump with mechanical outlet pressure control, driven by an induction motor operated at grid...

  1. High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Formulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Bradley, Arthur T.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Carr, Gregory A.; Mohammad, Mojarradi M.; Hunter, Don J.; DelCastillo, Linda; Stell, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    This technical memorandum is to summarize the Formulation Study conducted during fiscal year 2012 on the High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU). The effort is authorized and supported by the Game Changing Technology Division, NASA Office of the Chief Technologist. NASA center participation during the formulation includes LaRC, KSC and JPL. The Formulation Study continues into fiscal year 2013. The formulation study has focused on the power processing unit. The team has proposed a modular, power scalable, and new technology enabled High Temperature Boost (HTB) PPU, which has 5-10X improvement in PPU specific power/mass and over 30% in-space solar electric system mass saving.

  2. Wind Power Plant Evaluation Naval Auxiliary Landing Field, San Clemente Island, California: Period of Performance 24 September 1999--15 December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; Gulman, P.J.; McKenna, E.

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the wind power benefits and impacts to the San Clement Island wind power system, including energy savings, emissions reduction, system stability, and decreased naval dependence on fossil fuel at the island. The primary goal of the SCI wind power system has been to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system. The wind system is intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen oxide emissions and other pollutants.

  3. Evaluation of power commissioning of the Mochovce Unit 1 power level up to 100 % Nnom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvaic, I.; Mickolci, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document contains an evaluation of the power phase of power commissioning of the Mochovce Unit 1 in the phase up to the power level of 100 % N nom .In the document, the courses and results of tests in this phase of power commissioning are summarized, evaluation of the performance of important systems and equipment of the unit is carried out, and the compliance with Limits and Conditions in the course of the phase is assessed. On this basis, conclusions are drawn and recommendations for the unit to be ready for subsequent phases of the power commissioning. The evaluation was developed by the scientific management of the Mochovce commissioning providing an independent support for the operators for supervising the commissioning tasks from the point of nuclear safety

  4. High Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Robert J.; Santiago, Walter; Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested a technology-push power processing unit for electric propulsion applications that utilizes high voltage silicon carbide (SiC) technology. The development specifically addresses the need for high power electronics to enable electric propulsion systems in the 100s of kilowatts. This unit demonstrated how high voltage combined with superior semiconductor components resulted in exceptional converter performance.

  5. ADОPTIVE CONTROL OF THE HYBRID VEHICLE POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive control of the hybrid vehicle power unit, which makes it possible to minimize the quality criterion under constraints on the state parameters and the control vector is considered. A formal statement of the optimization problem is given. The solution of this problem by the method of neural network control based on the adaptive criticism is considered.

  6. Site selection and evaluation of nuclear power units in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefille, R.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of sites for nuclear power units in Egypt by SOFRATOME for Nuclear Plants Authority is carried on using a method based on interaction between different criteria. The method and the main results on criterion 'radio-ecological impact' are sketched briefly [fr

  7. Intersection auxiliary signal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    1995-12-01

    Many intersection accidents are related to drivers' inappropriate responses to an amber signal light, due to their misjudgment on the traffic situation and/or their aggressive behavior. To reduce intersection accidents of this nature, this paper proposes the Intersection Auxiliary Signal System (IAS). IAS can be installed at selected intersections, where information regarding signal phasing, intersection geometry and speed limit is transmitted from an ultrasonic/infra-red transmitter. An on-vehicle device receivers and processes the information, the provides the driver with explicit suggestions on the correct action to take (continue to pass or decelerate to stop), or warnings against on-going incorrect actions. IAS is expected to be more effective in suburban intersections, which are usually characterized by greater dimension, longer amber phases, and higher vehicle speeds. Both the intersection transmitters and the on-vehicle processors are expected to have simple structures and low costs. Simulation results show that IAS has a significant effect on reducing red signal violation, especially when there is no significant dilemma zones.

  8. Phasor Measurement Units in the Eastern Danish power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    Technology. After power system events data can be extracted and analyzed offline. The purpose of the project is to do research within various utilizations of PMU data. On 8 January 2005 a severe storm passed Denmark, and wind speeds were so high, that wind turbines disconnected from the transmission grid......In the Eastern Danish transmission system four Phasor Measurement Units (PMU’s) are installed at 400 kV and 132 kV voltage level. The PMU’s continuously record voltage and current phasors each 20 ms. Data are stored locally on the PMU’s and are also transferred to a database at Centre for Electric...... because of their self protection. Nysted offshore wind farm was among the wind power units that disconnected from the grid, and PMU data from that event are analyzed. The case illustrates the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area. The voltage phase angle...

  9. Thunderstorm Algorithm for Determining Unit Commitment in Power System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nur Afandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solving the unit commitment problem is an important task in power system operation for deciding a balanced power production between various types of generating units under technical constraints and environmental limitations. This paper presents a new intelligent computation method, called the Thunderstorm Algorithm (TA, for searching the optimal solution of the integrated economic and emission dispatch (IEED problem as the operational assessment for determining unit commitment. A simulation using the IEEE-62 bus system showed that TA has smooth convergence and is applicable for solving the IEED problem. The IEED’s solution is associated with the total fuel consumption and pollutant emission. The proposed TA method seems to be a viable new approach for finding the optimal solution of the IEED problem.

  10. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  11. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  12. Research and Application of Auxiliary Optimization Technology of Power Grid Accident Processing Based on the Mode of Regulation and Control Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Houzhen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident processing is the most important link of the scheduling of daily monitoring. The improvement of intelligent level is of great significance for improving the efficiency of accident processing scheduling, shortening the time of accident processing and preventing further deterioration of accidents. According to features of accident processing scheduling, this paper puts forward an integrated framework of aid decision-making of online accident processing based on large power grid, and carries out a study from five aspects, namely integrated information support platform, risk perception in advance, online fault diagnosis, aid decision-making afterwards and visual display, so as to conduct real-time tracking on operating state of power grid, eliminate potential safety hazards of power grid and upgrade power grid from “manual analysis” scheduling to “intelligent analysis” scheduling.

  13. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  14. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  15. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  16. Changing Perceptions of Nuclear Power in The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, John

    1989-01-01

    Although many new nuclear power plants have been brought on line in that time, resulting in a capacity of 110 plants with operating permits and another twelve in the last stages of completion, all of these plants were authorized before 1978. The fundamental reason for this moratorium in new orders was the precipitous reduction in electricity demand, arising from the OPEC embargo and Iran revolution, which created excess electric capacity throughout the United States. In fact, many nuclear and coal plants were cancelled to minimize the over capacity problem and no large base load generating units have been ordered of any kind in the past decade. So the 'moratorium' is not really unique to nuclear power. Progress, coupled with increased awareness that nuclear power is one of the keys to solving atmospheric environmental problems, will swing political and public acceptance back to being favorable. Successful progress in these matters will be of benefit to public acceptance around the world and, conversely, serious technical difficulties, particularly entailing any major incident with a nuclear power plants anywhere in the world, will adversely affect the improvement in political and public acceptance in the United States. It is vitally important, therefore, that we continue to further enhance international cooperation in nuclear power. We are pleased the Korea Electric power Corporation and the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute are participating in EPRI development programs, and hope that cooperation will increase in the future. We're most encouraged by the formation of the World Association of Nuclear Operators, which will be initiated in Moscow next month. The nuclear electric utilities and their governments around the world, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD should be commended for their initiative in international cooperation

  17. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  18. Nuclear power reactor licensing and regulation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The report is devoted to four subjects: an explanation of the origins, statutory basis and development of the present regulatory system in the United States; a description of the various actions which must be taken by a license applicant and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before a nuclear power plant can be constructed and placed on-line, an account of the current regulatory practices followed by the US NRC in licensing nuclear power reactors; an identification of some of the 'lessons learned' from the Three Mile Island accident and some proposed regulatory and legislative solutions. (NEA) [fr

  19. High Power Alternator Test Unit (ATU) Electrical System Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and it s interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the JIMO AC Power System Requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. Results of these tests will be used for the development and validation of analytical models for performance and lifetime prediction.

  20. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Calvert Cliffs.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed operator...

  1. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its... for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, located in Calvert County, MD. The...

  2. Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Power Supply Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Shehu AHMED

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and construction of an infrared remote controlled power supply-switching unit, which is a device that enables the user to operate or control the mains power supplied from approximately 5 to 10 meters away. The remote transmits a beam of light using an infrared light emitting diode; this light is picked and decoded by the receiver unit (Photodiode. The receiver only activates when it receives the beam of light, there are no accidental activations. The system was broken down into simpler functional parts namely: The transmitter stage, the detector (phototransistor stage, the NAND Schmitt trigger stage, the flip-flop stage and the relay stage. Details of the stages are described in the paper.

  3. Simulator of nuclear power plant with WWER-440 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcek, V.

    1985-01-01

    The use is discussed of simulators in the training of qualified personnel for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants. Simulators are used for training all activities and thinking processes related to the control of a nuclear reactor in the course of quasi-steady and non-steady states. The development and implementation is summed up of the construction of such a simulator for WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The main parts of the simulator include the unit control room, the computer system, the teacher's workplace and the interface system. The possibility of simulating the functions of the unit for personnel training is based on the description of the behaviour of the simulated object in form of mathematical models of its basic technological subsystems and their interrelations within the range of operating patterns. (J.C.)

  4. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    This article extends the analysis of local power of unit root tests in a nonlinear direction by considering local nonlinear alternatives and tests built specically against stationary nonlinear models. In particular, we focus on the popular test proposed by Kapetanios et al. (2003, Journal...... by simulation. Furthermore, our own simulation results suggest that the user-specied adjustment scheme for deterministic components (e.g. OLS, GLS, or recursive adjustment) has a much higher impact on the power of unit root tests than accounting for nonlinearity, at least under local (linear or nonlinear...... of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...

  5. Evaluation of Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the requirements of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Perry T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through telephone conversations with the staff reviewer and the utility representative. Pending completion of the resolutions noted in Parts 3 and 4 of this report, the Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  6. Inventory of power plants in the United States: December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    This 1979 inventory of power plants provides a comprehensive list of existing, standby, out-of-service, retired and projected electric generating plants in the U.S. Arranged under the broad sections of existing, jointly owned and projected units, tabulated data on individual plants in each state are presented. These data include unit name, location, type, MW rating, primary fuel, alternative fuel, status, year built, and whether or not it is jointly owned. Jointly owned plants are separately identified as to the percent of ownership belonging to named owners. Projected plants have data on plant characteristics, current status and scheduled completion date. Summaries of the total number of each type of power plant in each state are also provided

  7. QUALITY EVALUATION OF THE TPP POWER GENERATING UNITS WEAR RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconditioning of the power generating unit worn equipment and devices is conducted during the scheduled repair period. Quality of wear reconditioning is evaluated by technical state and repair work implementation. Quality of the repair work execution characterizes logistical activities of the power station and the repair services and is rated by a five-grade scale. There are three technical conditions: adequate, subject to reservations, falling short of the technical standard documentation requirements. In practical work these constraints give place to essential ambiguity of the decision. Further to regulating techniques by way of informational support, the authors propose conducting the wear-reconditioning quality evaluation (repair quality accordingly the technical-and-economic indexes pattern of change. The paper recommends applying similarly the fivegrade system in evaluating the power generating unit technical state and distinguishes intolerable, dissatisfactory, fair, good and model estimates. The study demonstrates the assessment criteria dependence on the character of reliability and economical efficiency of performance variation after the repair with increase or decrease of the technical-and-economic indexes in reference to their mean, minimum and maximum values before the repair. The cases ascribed to intolerable quality of the wear reconditioning are those with one or more technical-and-economic indexes that not only failed to improve their values but deteriorated, and at that they became the worst amongst observable values. The model quality estimate of the wear reconditioning is allotted under condition that the power unit technical-and-economic index valuations after the repair not merely improved but also exceeded the best among those under observation. The developed method and algorithm for quality evaluation of the scheduled repair implementation contribute to practical realization of the independent monitoring. This monitoring

  8. Hidden power system inflexibilities imposed by traditional unit commitment formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-España, Germán; Ramírez-Elizondo, Laura; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Quality and accuracy of traditional-energy- and power-based UCs are evaluated. • Real-time performance evaluation simulating “perfect” stochastic UCs. • Ideal energy-based stochastic UC formulations impose hidden system inflexibilities. • A deterministic power-based UC may outperform an ideal energy-based stochastic UC. • Power-based UC overcomes flaws of energy-based UC: lower cost and wind curtailment. - Abstract: Approximations made in traditional day-ahead unit commitment model formulations can result in suboptimal or even infeasible schedules for slow-start units and inaccurate predictions of actual costs and wind curtailment. With increasing wind penetration, these errors will become economically more significant. Here, we consider inaccuracies from three approximations: the use of hourly intervals in which energy production from each generator is modeled as being constant; the disregarding of startup and shutdown energy trajectories; and optimization based on expected wind profiles. The results of unit commitment formulations with those assumptions are compared to models that: (1) use a piecewise-linear power profiles of generation, load and wind, instead of the traditional stepwise energy profiles; (2) consider startup/shutdown trajectories; and (3) include many possible wind trajectories in a stochastic framework. The day-ahead hourly schedules of slow-start generators are then evaluated against actual wind and load profiles using a model real-time dispatch and quick-start unit commitment with a 5 min time step. We find that each simplification usually causes expected generation costs to increase by several percentage points, and results in significant understatement of expected wind curtailment and, in some cases, load interruptions. The inclusion of startup and shutdown trajectories often yielded the largest improvements in schedule performance.

  9. Power auxiliaries and research reactors. Section 3 of Symposium on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in Australia, 1958, held in Sydney, in June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-10-15

    The problems of disposing of the large amounts of highly-radioactive waste resulting from a large-scale nuclear power program are reviewed. The Canadian research reactor NRX is discussed. The DIDO reactor is briefly described and operating experience for the first year at high flux is summarized. The core of the High Flux Australian Research Reactor (HIFAR) is described, and some reactivity balance data are given (T.R.H.)

  10. Power unit impedance and distance protection functions during faults in the external power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lizer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the risk of an unnecessary tripping of a generation unit’s underimpedance protection functions in circumstances of generator power swings following elimination of long-lasting fault in the external power grid. The fi rst part describes typical solutions of a generator impedance protection function (21e and unit distance protection function (21s. Starting characteristics of these protection functions are shown, as well as their typical operating logics and ways of calculating their settings. Then exemplary (the most common solutions of unit under-impedance relays power swing blocking functions are described. Following this introduction, the issues of the threat of unnecessary operation of fast-tripping protection zones of 21e and 21s protection functions are described, which arises in the circumstances of generator asynchronous power swings occurring after elimination of long-lasting faults in the grid supplied by the power unit. The paper also shows that the available power swing blocking functions may not be able to correctly detect the described conditions, thus allowing the unnecessary operation of under-impedance relays. How an impedance calculation algorithm affects the impedance trajectory seen by a protection relay is also resented.

  11. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, T; Suzuki, T

    2010-01-01

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  12. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  13. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  14. A simple approach to calculate active power of electrosurgical units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Regis Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Despite of more than a hundred years of electrosurgery, only a few electrosurgical equipment manufacturers have developed methods to regulate the active power delivered to the patient, usually around an arbitrary setpoint. In fact, no manufacturer has a method to measure the active power actually delivered to the load. Measuring the delivered power and computing it fast enough so as to avoid injury to the organic tissue is challenging. If voltage and current signals can be sampled in time and discretized in the frequency domain, a simple and very fast multiplication process can be used to determine the active power. Methods This paper presents an approach for measuring active power at the output power stage of electrosurgical units with mathematical shortcuts based on a simple multiplication procedure of discretized variables – frequency domain vectors – obtained through Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT applied on time-sampled voltage and current vectors. Results Comparative results between simulations and a practical experiment are presented – all being in accordance with the requirements of the applicable industry standards. Conclusion An analysis is presented comparing the active power analytically obtained through well-known voltage and current signals against a computational methodology based on vector manipulation using DFT only for time-to-frequency domain transformation. The greatest advantage of this method is to determine the active power of noisy and phased out signals with neither complex DFT or ordinary transform methodologies nor sophisticated computing techniques such as convolution. All results presented errors substantially lower than the thresholds defined by the applicable standards.

  15. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  16. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  17. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Sanzi, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power (FSP) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is a system-level demonstration of fission power technology intended for use on manned missions to Mars. The Baseline FSP systems consists of a 190 kWt UO2 fast-spectrum reactor cooled by a primary pumped liquid metal loop. This liquid metal loop transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal loops designed to isolate fission products in the primary loop from the balance of plant. The intermediate liquid metal loops transfer heat to four Stirling Power Conversion Units (PCU), each of which produce 12 kWe (48 kW total) and reject waste heat to two pumped water loops, which transfer the waste heat to titanium-water heat pipe radiators. The FSP TDU simulates a single leg of the baseline FSP system using an electrically heater core simulator, a single liquid metal loop, a single PCU, and a pumped water loop which rejects the waste heat to a Facility Cooling System (FCS). When operated at the nominal operating conditions (modified for low liquid metal flow) during TDU testing the PCU produced 8.9 kW of power at an efficiency of 21.7 percent resulting in a net system power of 8.1 kW and a system level efficiency of 17.2 percent. The reduction in PCU power from levels seen during electrically heated testing is the result of insufficient heat transfer from the NaK heater head to the Stirling acceptor, which could not be tested at Sunpower prior to delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The maximum PCU power of 10.4 kW was achieved at the maximum liquid metal temperature of 875 K, minimum water temperature of 350 K, 1.1 kg/s liquid metal flow, 0.39 kg/s water flow, and 15.0 mm amplitude at an efficiency of 23.3 percent. This resulted in a system net power of 9.7 kW and a system efficiency of 18.7 percent.

  18. Power systems simulations of the western United States region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

  19. Development of a method to evaluate shared alternate AC power source effects in multi-unit nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Yang, Joon Eun

    2003-07-01

    In order to evaluate accurately a Station BlackOut (SBO) event frequency of a multi-unit nuclear power plant that has a shared Alternate AC (AAC) power source, an approach has been developed which accommodates the complex inter-unit behavior of the shared AAC power source under multi-unit Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) conditions. The approach is illustrated for two cases, 2 units and 4 units at a single site, and generalized for a multi-unit site. Furthermore, the SBO frequency of the first unit of the 2-unit site is quantified. The SBO frequency at a target unit of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) could be underestimated if the inter-unit dependency of the shared AAC power source is not properly modeled. The effect of the inter-unit behavior of the shared AAC power source on the SBO frequency is not negligible depending on the Common Cause Failure (CCF) characteristics among AC power sources. The methodology suggested in the present report is believed to be very useful in evaluating the SBO frequency and the core damage frequency resulting from the SBO event. This approach is also applicable to the probabilistic evaluation of the other shared systems in a multi-unit nuclear power plant

  20. Cleaning device for steam units in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamuro, Takemi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactive contamination upon dismantling and inspection of steam units such as a turbine to a building containing such units and the peripheral area. Constitution: A steam generator indirectly heated by steam supplied from steam generating source in a separate system containing no radioactivity is provided to produce cleaning steam. A cleaning steam pipe is connected by way of a stop valve between separation valve of a nuclear power plant steam pipe and a high pressure turbine. Upon cleaning, the separation valve is closed, and steam supplied from the cleaning steam pipe is flown into a condenser. The water thus condensated is returned by way of a feed water heater and a condenser to a water storage tank. (Nakamura, S.)

  1. DESIGNING FEATURES OF POWER OPTICAL UNITS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Afanasiev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the question of an optical unit designing for transmitting power laser radiation through an optical fiber. The aim of this work is designing a simple construction unit with minimized reflection losses. The source of radiation in the optical unit described below is an ultraviolet laser with diode pumping. We present the general functioning scheme and designing features for the three main parts: laser beam deflecting system, laser beam dump and optical unit control system. The described laser beam deflection system is composed of a moving flat mirror and a spherical scattering mirror. Comparative analysis of the production technology for such mirrors was carried out, and, as a result, the decision was made to produce both mirrors of 99.99 % pure molybdenum without coating. A moving mirror deflects laser emission from a source through a fiber or deflects it on a spherical mirror and into the laser beam dump, moreover, switching from one position to another occurs almost immediately. It is shown that a scattering mirror is necessary, otherwise, the absorbing surface of the beam dump is being worn out irregularly. The laser beam dump is an open conical cavity, in which the conical element with its spire turned to the emission source is placed. Special microgeometry of the internal surface of the beam dump is suggested for the better absorption effect. An optical unit control system consists of a laser beam deflection system, laser temperature sensor, deflection system solenoid temperature sensor, and deflection mirror position sensor. The signal processing algorithm for signals coming from the sensors to the controller is described. The optical unit will be used in special technological equipment.

  2. Computer-aided design systems (CADS) for power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozov, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Main functions and peculiarities of the computer-aided design system (CADS) used in NPP power unit design are considered. The to-day CADS are based on the developed computer complexes (for example, 2VAX type computers with up to 100 M byte immediate ecess memory and with few tens of terminals). Efficiency of such CADS constitutes 3000-5000 drawings a month. CADS includes all the design steps, beginning from the preliminary project up to economical justification. Selection of the plant type, its site, justification of safety, reliability and economical efficiency of some subsystems under normal and emergency conditions are included there

  3. Converter Monitoring Unit for Retrofit of Wind Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjorn; Maarbjerg, Anders Eggert; Frederiksen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    A Converter Monitoring Unit (CMU), which will enable condition monitoring of wind turbine converters is presented in this paper. Reducing the cost of corrective maintenance by means of condition monitoring is a way of lowering Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs for wind turbine systems....... The CMU must be able to detect a broad range of failure modes related to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules and associated gate drives. IGBT collector-emitter on-state voltage (vceon) and current (ic) is sampled in the CMU and used for detection of emerging failures. A new method...

  4. Nuclear power plant life extension in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodison, D.; Seddon, J.W.; Pape, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The safety cases for the United Kingdom's older nuclear power plant have been reviewed by their utilities in order to justify continued operation of the reactors up to an age of at least 30 year. These 'long term safety reviews' have identified worthwhile plant modifications and aspects where further studies or plant inspections are required. As the plants approach the age of 30 years, 'life extension reviews' are now being undertaken, concentrating on management of ageing, to support operation to at least 40 years. (author)

  5. Performance/Power Space Exploration for Binary64 Division Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The digit-recurrence division algorithm is used in several high-performance processors because it provides good tradeoffs in terms of latency, area and power dissipation. In this work we develop a minimally redundant radix-8 divider for binary64 (double-precision) aiming at obtaining better energy...... efficiency in the performance-per-watt space. The results show that the radix-8 divider, when compared to radix-4 and radix-16 units, requires less energy to complete a division for high clock rates....

  6. Multi-Functional Distributed Generation Unit for Power Quality Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zheng; Yang, Huan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-functional distributed generation unit (MFDGU) and its control strategy are proposed in this paper for the purpose of enhancing power quality in low-voltage networks. By using the 3H-bridge converter structure, an MFDGU can be applied in 3-phase 4-wire low-voltage distribution networks...... reference of the MFDGU, which can be easily implemented in three-phase networks. A 15kVA prototype consisting of three full bridge converters has been built and tested. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and control strategy....

  7. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  8. Evaluation of the performance of combined cooling, heating, and power systems with dual power generation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizley, Alta A.; Mago, Pedro J.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of using a combined cooling, heating, and power system with dual power generation units (D-CCHP) is examined in nine different U.S. locations. One power generation unit (PGU) is operated at base load while the other is operated following the electric load. The waste heat from both PGUs is used for heating and for cooling via an absorption chiller. The D-CCHP configuration is studied for a restaurant benchmark building, and its performance is quantified in terms of operational cost, primary energy consumption (PEC), and carbon dioxide emissions (CDE). Cost spark spread, PEC spark spread, and CDE spark spread are examined as performance indicators for the D-CCHP system. D-CCHP system performance correlates well with spark spreads, with higher spark spreads signifying greater savings through implementation of a D-CCHP system. A new parameter, thermal difference, is introduced to investigate the relative performance of a D-CCHP system compared to a dual PGU combined heat and power system (D-CHP). Thermal difference, together with spark spread, can explain the variation in savings of a D-CCHP system over a D-CHP system for each location. The effect of carbon credits on operational cost savings with respect to the reference case is shown for selected locations. - Highlights: • We investigate benefits from using combined cooling, heating, and power systems. • A dual power generation unit configuration is considered for CCHP and CHP. • Spark spreads for cost, energy, and emissions correlate with potential savings. • Thermal difference parameter helps to explain variations in potential savings. • Carbon credits may increase cost savings where emissions savings are possible

  9. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  10. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Let him always come' e. á vá hátl-é vá yá étlélà. OPT 3PL quickly-OPT 3PL go sleep. 'Let them quickly go to bed'. 3.4 Negative markers. Negation is marked on AA verbs. The auxiliary verb hatla 'quickly' is negated in three tenses.

  11. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power unit...

  12. Public acceptance of nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liverman, J.L.; Thorne, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Within the United States environmental awareness has spread and matured since the early 1960's. Evidence of this is found in cautious attitudes toward the installation of nuclear power reactors and other components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Hazards associated with nuclear energy technologies appear to attract a greater share of public attention than the hazards of nonnuclear counterparts. The association of nuclear power with nuclear weapons may be at the root of this concern. The explicit identification of increased incidences of cancer and genetic effects in humans as potential consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation and knowledge that radiation exposures and health consequences arising from nuclear power operations might occur many generations after operations cease also underlie this concern. Based in large part on these concerns, a number of actions have been taken in the United States to prevent and to delay installation and development of nuclear technology. These actions are reviewed and analyzed with emphasis on the 1976 California nuclear moratorium referendum and other more recent actions at state and national levels. They are compared with the status and outcome of similar actions in other nations as is possible. Additionally, ERDA's current approaches to public involvement in the decision making process is discussed, including the value of comprehensive analyses of health, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects of alternative energy sources in responding to public needs. U.S. plans for providing such analyses for all installed and developing energy technologies are presented with special reference to areas which require international cooperation for implementation. The value of international analysis and internationally accepted environmental control strategies for all energy technologies is also addressed

  13. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Operable capacity at US electric power plants totaled 693,016 megawatts, as of year-end 1991. Coal-fired capacity accounted for 43 percent (299,849 megawatts) of the total US generating capacity, the share it has essentially maintained for the past decade. Gas-fired capacity accounted for 18 percent (125,683 megawatts); nuclear, 14 percent (99,589 megawatts); water, 13 percent (92,031 megawatts); petroleum, 10 percent (72,357 megawatts); other, one percent (3,507 megawatts). The 693,016 megawatts of operable capacity includes 3,627 megawatts of new capacity that came on line during 1991 (Table 2). This new capacity is 42 percent less than capacity in new units reported for 1990. Gas-fired capacity accounted for the greatest share of this new capacity. It represents 38 percent of the new capacity that started operation in 1991. The surge in new gas-fired capacity is the beginning of a trend that is expected to exist over the next 10 years. That is, gas-fired capacity will dominate new capacity additions. Gas-fired capacity additions during the next 10 years will primarily be in simple cycle gas turbines and gas turbines operating as combined cycle units. These planned gas turbine and combined cycle units, whose capacity totals over 21,000 megawatts, are expected to serve peak and intermediate loads of electric utilities

  14. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree angle, rising away from the hoist. (c) The Auxiliary emblem consists of a disk with the shield of the Coat of...

  15. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...... auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest...

  16. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary to...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...

  18. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...--Auxiliary emblem: We propose to revise this section. Provisions of the existing Sec. 5.41 would be... existing Sec. 5.47(c) describing the Auxiliary emblem and explain the use of the emblem as identification...), and 5.36(c). Added language to describe the Auxiliary emblem and discuss when it can be worn and used...

  19. Computer Simulation of Auxiliary Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    EFFICIENCY (1.0) ETAM - MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY (1.0) * HV - MAIN COMBUSTOR FUEL HEATING VALUE AT T4 FOR JP-4 (Optional. If omitted, it is calculated by...2559.67, DPT=0.O, M-2, N=2, WrF4DS=0., ETAHPC-.746, HPACC=g*5, PRLPT=9.418, HPDS=200., IV-18400., ITITLE=1, DPIN=.04, ETAM =. 98, ETAHPT=.8, PRHPT-1 .5...OPT, cP’E, OPINV DO-, HPACC, HODS, S LCSL, HCSL, 2 PCBLC, TI., ETAM $ IMcENSION ANUM (2), AWORO (?), 3W1’RO (?), TITLE REAL LCSL DATA AWORD / 3rlATI

  20. Deadbeat control of power leveling unit with bidirectional buck/boost DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasaki, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Ryosuke; Yano, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    As a distributed generation system increases, a stable power supply becomes difficult. Thus control of power leveling (PL) unit is required to maintain the balance of power flow for irregular power generation. The unit is required to respond to change of voltage and bidirectional power flow. So the bidirectional buck/boost DC/DC converter is applied for the control of PL unit in this research. The PL unit with Electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) is able to absorb change of power, and it is...

  1. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-05-15

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  2. Power from Perspective: Potential future United States energy portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce [University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37831-6038 (United States)], E-mail: btonn@utk.edu; Healy, K.C. [Deloitte Touche (United States); Gibson, Amy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37831-6038 (United States); Ashish, Ashutosh [Independent Consultant (United States); Cody, Preston; Beres, Drew [Deloitte Touche (United States); Lulla, Sam; Mazur, Jim [Independent Consultant (United States); Ritter, A.J. [Deloitte Touche (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents United States energy portfolios for the year 2030, developed from seven different Perspectives. The Perspectives are characterized by different weights placed on fourteen defining values (e.g., cost, social acceptance). The portfolios were constructed to achieve three primary goals, energy independence, energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. The portfolios are also evaluated over a comprehensive set of secondary criteria (e.g., economic growth, technical feasibility). It is found that very different portfolios based on very different defining values can achieve the three primary goals. Commonalities among the portfolios include reliance upon cellulosic ethanol, nuclear power, and energy efficiency to meet year 2030 energy demands. It is concluded that the US energy portfolio must be diverse and to achieve national energy goals will require an explicit statement of goals, a strong role for government, and coordinated action across society.

  3. Power from Perspective. Potential future United States energy portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce; Gibson, Amy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37831-6038 (United States); Healy, K.C.; Cody, Preston; Beres, Drew; Ritter, A.J. [Deloitte Touche (United States); Ashish, Ashutosh; Lulla, Sam; Mazur, Jim [Independent Consultant (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents United States energy portfolios for the year 2030, developed from seven different Perspectives. The Perspectives are characterized by different weights placed on fourteen defining values (e.g., cost, social acceptance). The portfolios were constructed to achieve three primary goals, energy independence, energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. The portfolios are also evaluated over a comprehensive set of secondary criteria (e.g., economic growth, technical feasibility). It is found that very different portfolios based on very different defining values can achieve the three primary goals. Commonalities among the portfolios include reliance upon cellulosic ethanol, nuclear power, and energy efficiency to meet year 2030 energy demands. It is concluded that the US energy portfolio must be diverse and to achieve national energy goals will require an explicit statement of goals, a strong role for government, and coordinated action across society. (author)

  4. The auxiliary activities for segmentation of internals reactor. Plan of dismantling and decommissioning of the Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Station; Trabajos auxiliares para la segmentacion de los internos del reactor. Plan de desmantelamiento y clausura de la central nuclear Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurita, A.; Curiel, M.; Cabanillas, S. V.; Herreruela, C.

    2012-11-01

    As part of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant Dismantling and Decommissioning Plan one of the main activities is the Reactor Vessel Internals Segmentation. ENRESA as utility has been awarded these Project to Westinghouse after International bidding process. The auxiliary and support activities are subcontracted from Westinghouse to MONCASA-LAINSA Joint venture (Monlain ASI-CNJC), as the most experienced company on previous dismantling projects of nuclear power plants in Spain. The main previous activities related to segmentation are described below. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. Constraints on nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. nuclear option appears, at this time, to be disappearing. Determinants of energy supply seem to be changing from engineering and economic factors to other considerations. Regulatory and financial constraints now appear to be dominating the guidelines for electrical energy expansion. American electric utilities, for the most part, have not been able to obtain sufficient revenues to cover their costs of production. What price increases that they are being allowed to charge their customers come too late to keep up with inflation. They require increasing quantities of outside funding in the form of debt and equity capital. This they can only obtain at record high rates, if at all. Most utilities are not even earning what their regulators have determined are fair returns. Financial problems and regulatory tangles severely affect nuclear power, despite its proven technology and environmental and economic benefits. If the United States loses the nuclear alternative, the economic consequences of limiting fuels for electric base load generation to coal only will be severe; analogous to a monopoly situation in fuel supply. It is doubtful, despite the huge resources of coal, that the coal industry can satisfy even a reduced future demand. The question then becomes whether the technological leader of the world may in the future be faced with blackouts and rationing of electricity

  6. Suitableness substantiation of the power units no. 5 and 6 construction in Opole. Power Plant for supercritical steam parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, I.

    1995-01-01

    The needs of Polish power system up to 2020 are presented in 2 version: stagnation and prosperity. On the base of this prognosis the necessary power growth is calculated and the power balance for both scenarios is given. Against this background the need of construction of 2 450-460 MW units for supercritical steam parameters in Opole Power Plant is discussed in detail mainly from economical point of view. The present state of power plant construction and operation is shortly described. The power plants for supercritical steam parameters operated (or under construction) in the world are listed. (A.S.). 6 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  8. Requirements under decree 430 UJD for unit outlet and standby power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanco, K.

    2012-01-01

    At present, the nuclear power plants are only sufficient resources, which can cover a huge demand for electricity. Concentration so huge power in one place require adequate security from the perspective lead power outlet and standby power supply of reactor unit. (Author)

  9. Power Generation Unit of Nano-Satellites STUDSAT 2A/2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Sneha; Bhavana, K. H.; Ravi Kumar, H. M.; Ranjith, H. G.; Ghosh, Sujay

    2014-08-01

    STUDSAT 2A/2B [8] are the twin nano-satellites. Electrical power system is one of the most important subsystems of STUDSAT 2A/2B which provides conditioned power to all the subsystem. Power generating unit is one of the most important units in Electrical Power system. The power generation unit of STUDSAT-2A/2B consists of 3 solar panels out of which 2 are deployable and 1 is body mounted and a maximum Power point Tracker(MPPT).The total orbital period of STUDSAT-2A/2B is 98min.The sunlit period is about 63.8min.The power can be generated by the solar panels only during this period. Since the power generated by the solar panel is affected by the solar irradiation, temperature etc. It's difficult to generate the maximum power at all the point in an orbit, hence maximum power point trackers are used. These maximum power point trackers track the maximum power point on the solar panel using perturb and observe algorithm and hence maximum power is generated at all the points in an orbit.This paper presents the power profile for both body mounted and deployable solar panels. It gives a brief description of how the power generated by the solar cells is conditioned and the power protection unit with simulation results and testing results for the solar panel used in STUDSAT-2A/2B.

  10. 78 FR 69367 - Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit #2 Restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/UWP-HealyPowerPlan.html or you may contact Ms. Remley for a hard copy... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power... restart and commercial operation of Healy Unit 2, a power generation facility at the Healy Power Plant...

  11. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  12. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  13. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Net electric power generated by Unit 1 was 2,315,124 MWH(e) and Unit 2 generated 2,062,954 MWH(e) with Unit 1 generator on line for 3,157.8 hrs and Unit 2 on line for 2,881.2 hrs. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, abnormal occurrences, and environmental monitoring. (FS)

  14. Electric Utility Generating Units: Repealing the Clean Power Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Power Plan established emission guidelines for states to follow in limiting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from existing power plants. EPA is proposing to repeal the CPP and rescind the accompanying legal memorandum.

  15. Low power data acquisition unit for autonomous geophysical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystai, Andrii

    2017-04-01

    The development of an autonomous instrumentation for field research is always a challenge which needs knowledge and application of recent advances in technology and components production. Using this information a super-low power, low-cost, stand-alone GPS time synchronized data acquisition unit was created. It comprises an extended utilization of the microcontroller modules and peripherals and special firmware with flexible PLL parameters. The present report is devoted to a discussion of synchronization mode of data sampling in autonomous field instruments with possibility of GPS random breaks. In the result the achieved sampling timing accuracy is better than ± 60 ns without phase jumps and distortion plus fixed shift depending on the sample rate. The main application of the system is for simultaneous measurement of several channels from magnetic and electric sensors in field conditions for magneto-telluric instruments. First utilization of this system was in the new developed versions of LEMI-026 magnetometer and LEMI-423 field station, where it was applied for digitizing of up to 6 analogue channels with 32-bit resolution in the range ± 2.5V, digital filtration (LPF) and maximum sample rate 4kS/s. It is ready for record in 5 minutes after being turned on. Recently, this system was successfully utilized with the drone-portable magnetometers destined for the search of metallic objects, like UXO, in rural areas, research of engineering underground structure and for mapping ore bodies. The successful tests of drone-portable system were made and tests results are also discussed.

  16. Smart Power: The United States, Iran, and a Nuclear Deal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    U.S. guided missile frigate Stark was nearly sunk by an Iraqi Exocet killing thirty- seven crewmembers.107 Baghdad apologized and claimed that the...American action.131 Diplomacy: Soft Power Soft power is not merely the same as influence ... And soft power is more than just persuasion or the

  17. Simulation of main steam and feedwater system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyu

    1996-01-01

    The simulation of main steam and feedwater system is the most important and maximal part in secondary circuit model, including all of main steam and feedwater's thermal-hydraulic properties, except heat-exchange of secondary side of steam generator. It simulates main steam header, steam power in each stage of turbine, moisture separator-reheater, deaerator, condenser, high pressure and low pressure heater, auxiliary feedwater and main steam bypass in full scope

  18. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at Multi...

  19. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P. [Bechtel Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  20. Effect of Modifications to Induction System on Altitude Performance of V-1710-93 Engine III : Use of Parabolic Rotating Guide Vanes and NACA Designed Auxiliary-stage Inlet Elbow and Interstage Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standahar, Ray M; Mccarty, James S

    1947-01-01

    Bench runs of a modified V-1710-93 engine equipped with a two-stage supercharger, interstage carburetor, aftercooler assembly, and backfire screens have been made at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet to determine the effect of several induction-system modifications on the engine and supercharger performance. The standard guide vanes on the auxiliary- and engine-stage superchargers were replaced by rotating guide vanes with a parabolic blade profile. The auxiliary-stage inlet elbow and interstage duct were replaced with new units of NACA design. These modifications were made one at a time and data were obtained after each change to determine the effect of each modification. All runs were made at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet and all changes in engine power were made by varying the speed of the auxiliary-stage supercharger.

  1. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  2. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  3. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun J Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Xitsonga, certain Aspectual Auxiliary verbs (AA verbs appear with double subject agreement. While these AA verbs have been reported in the description of Xitsonga (Baumbach 1987: 250-252, a systematic morphosyntactic study of these constructions has not been undertaken. This study aims to fill this gap. An AA verb is marked with tense, aspect, mood, negation and relative clause markers and may occur in wh-questions. The lexical verb following the AA verb may be the target of verbal extensions (applicative and reciprocal, reflexive, causative and passive markers. [Please click on "Supplementary files" in the ARTICLE TOOLS sidebar on the right for the accompanying sound files.

  4. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  5. Improvement of nuclear core power distribution analysis for Ulchin unit 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Zee, Sung Kyoon; Lee, Sang Ho; Park, Yong Soo; Lee, Chang Ho; Choi, Young Kil; Kim, Hee Kyung; Cho, Young Sik; Cho, In Hang

    1994-12-01

    The FMCP package which does the power shape analysis of Framatom type of reactors on IBM mainframe, is migrated to an IBM-PC system. This report describes the related technique and works. An IBM-PC software DAP is developed to replace the plant computer attached 8 inch floppy disk driver to an IBM-PC. Other programs of FMCP, such as CEDRIC, CARIN and ESTHER, are also migrated to an IBM-PC using Lahey Fortran 77 compiler. A few auxiliary programs are also developed for easy handling of FMCP in the IBM-PC environment. This report describes the usage of the developed system as well as the migration related techniques. (Author) 4 figs

  6. 77 FR 50533 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ....; Millstone Power Station, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and... search, select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems... Optimized ZIRLO\\TM\\ fuel rod cladding in future core reload applications for Millstone Power Station, Unit 3...

  7. 77 FR 11596 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-423; NRC-2012-0044] Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of Consideration of Approval of Application Regarding... License (No. NPF- 49) for the Millstone Power Station, Unit 3 (MPS3) to the extent held by Central Vermont...

  8. The Role of United States Air Power in Peacekeeping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bash, Brooks

    1994-01-01

    .... Recognizing this trend and the fact that peacekeeping can serve US national security interests, US policymakers have earmarked military peacekeeping involvement, the employment of air power will...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  10. Program documentation. Program description and user information for the hydraulics/auxiliary power unit (HYDRA) computer program. [for the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A timeline containing altitude, control surface deflection rates and angles, hinge moment loads, thrust vector control gimbal rates, and main throttle settings is used to derive the model. The timeline is constructed from the output of one or more trajectory simulation programs.

  11. Optimal Solutions for Load Sharing between Units of a Combined Heat and Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchinnikov P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the optimization method of load division between combined heat and power plant units. The method used the power unit division into functioning parts and the differential-exergy method. This method allowed presenting the unit as a structural diagram where exergetic subsystems are fuel supply, steam generator, turbine, generator and electrical equipment, water supply and regeneration, heat supply to the consumer. The differential-exergy method was based on a combination of exergy analysis and optimization method of economic efficiency criteria using uncertain Lagrange multipliers. The use of the exergy function of goal allowed avoiding the problem of division of fuel costs for each type of product that was important at optimization. The optimization criterion, its parameters and limitations were developed as well. These parameters can extend traditional technical and economic analysis of the combined heat and power plants operating mode, as they take into account thermodynamically rigorous division of fuel costs between heat and electric power at their complex production on the combined heat and power plants. The use of the differential-exergy method in optimizing the load distribution of the power units of the combined heat and power plants makes possible obtaining of fuel savings of 1.5 to 3%. It has been shown that if the parameters of power units deteriorate, the application of the method makes it possible to have the best performance of the power plant when it is compared with functioning of combined heat and power units at proportional loading.

  12. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Class A TV licensees may request a decrease from the authorized facility's ERP in the license application. An FM, TV or Class A TV licensee may also increase the ERP of the auxiliary facility in a license... licensed main facility as an auxiliary facility with an ERP less than or equal to the ERP specified on the...

  13. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  15. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 2,587,248 MWH(e) with the reactor on line 6,242.4 hr. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and reportable occurrences

  16. Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2. 1976 annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Power ascension testing continued from the first of the year to May 8, 1976, with 100 percent power achieved for the first time on March 18. Information is presented concerning safety related maintenance, outages, procedure and design changes, tests other than start-up tests, and radiation exposures

  17. Improved Power Quality Monitoring through Phasor Measurement Unit Data Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Marinelli, Mattia; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    and wind power production on the voltage unbalance was analyzed. PMU data and NTP-synchronized data from two different MV networks were used. It has been found that PV production has only a minor negative impact on the voltage unbalance whereas the wind power production has a great positive impact...

  18. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  19. A variant of the dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the unit commitment in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning under the deregulated power market. In CHP plants (units), generation of heat and power follows joint characteristics, which means that production planning must be done in coordination. We...... in the system, the number of periods over the planning horizon and the time for solving a single-period economic dispatch problem. We have compared the DP-RSC1 algorithm with realistic power plants against the unit decommitment algorithm and the traditional priority listing method. The results show that the DP...... introduce in this paper the DP-RSC1 algorithm, which is a variant of the dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units and sequential commitment of units one by one. The time complexity of DP-RSC1 is proportional to the number of generating units...

  20. Hidden Power System Inflexibilities imposed by traditional unit commitment formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Espana, G.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Approximations made in traditional day-ahead unit commitment model formulations can result in suboptimal or even infeasible schedules for slow-start units and inaccurate predictions of actual costs and wind curtailment. With increasing wind penetration, these errors will become economically more

  1. Grid support by power electronic converters of distributed generation units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, J.

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of small Distributed Generation (DG) units are connected to the grid. The introduction of DG causes several problems, which are mainly related to the differences between DG units and conventional generators. Four problems have been considered in this thesis: damping of

  2. Shadow Radiation Shield Required Thickness Estimation for Space Nuclear Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodina, E. V.; Martishin, V. M.; Ivanovsky, V. A.; Prasolova, N. O.

    The paper concerns theoretical possibility of visiting orbital transport vehicles based on nuclear power unit and electric propulsion system on the Earth's orbit by astronauts to maintain work with payload from the perspective of radiation safety. There has been done estimation of possible time of the crew's staying in the area of payload of orbital transport vehicles for different reactor powers, which is a consistent part of nuclear power unit.

  3. A Memetic Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization Method for Environmental Power Unit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Li , Yan-Fu; Pedroni , Nicola; Zio , Enrico

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A multi-objective power unit commitment problem is framed to consider simultaneously the objectives of minimizing the operation cost and minimizing the emissions from the generation units. To find the solution of the optimal schedule of the generation units, a memetic evolutionary algorithm is proposed, which combines the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and a local search algorithm. The power dispatch sub-problem is solved by the weighed-sum lambda...

  4. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  5. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dagher, Leila [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  7. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...

  8. Nuclear power and deregulation in the United Kingdom. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter Three) reviews the development of the British nuclear industry and the country's experience with privatised and liberalized electricity markets - an experience that is much earlier than Canada's. The U.K. industry is of special interest because a British firm, British Energy, has leased the Bruce A and B nuclear stations until 2018. This article tries to explain how the economic transformation of nuclear power has been achieved, and why nuclear power and a competitive electricity market are so hard to reconcile. The article gives a brief history of nuclear power in Britain up to 1987; a summary of the main events relating to nuclear power; a discussion of why nuclear power could not be privatised in 1990, but could be in 1996; examines the improvements in cost and competitiveness since 1990; a discussion of the issues surrounding the discharge of nuclear liabilities; the future for British Energy, Britain's leading nuclear company, and nuclear power in Britain; and finally, changes to other nuclear companies in Britain

  9. The Future of Solar Power in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Reid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used detailed industry data to analyse the impacts of expected further cost reductions on the competitiveness of solar power in Britain, and assess whether the solar market can survive without support in the near future. We investigated three solar power markets: large-scale, ground-mounted “solar farms” (defined in our analysis as larger than a 5000 kilowatt system; commercial roof-top (250 kW; and residential rooftop (3 kW. We found that all three would be economic without support in the next decade. Such an outcome assumes progressively falling support under a stable policy regime. We found that unsubsidised residential solar power may be cheaper with battery storage within the next five to 10 years. Unsupported domestic solar battery packs achieve payback periods of less than 10 years by 2025. That could create an inflexion point driving adoption of domestic solar systems. The variability of solar power will involve some grid integration costs at higher penetration levels, such as more frequent power market scheduling; more interconnector capacity; storage; and backup power. These costs and responses could be weighed against non-market benefits including the potential for grid balancing; lower carbon and particulate emissions; and energy security.

  10. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  11. A new low-frequency power unit based on principle of converting phase condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lianye; Zhu Yulong

    1988-02-01

    While a magnetic reluctance motor is used for driving a reactor control rod, it needs a low-frequency power unit. In this case it's phase sequence can be positive or negative. In a project this power unit is a frequency converter based on principle of converting phase resistance from a alternative current frequency to another one controlled by silicon controlled rectifier. But in practical use, it often broke down due to fusing of fuses or malfunction of silicon controlled rectifiers and converting phase resistances and so on. A new low-frequency power unit based on principle of converting phase condenser instead of converting phase resistance is described. It stood up to all tests of laboratory and actual application, it is proved that the new low-frequency power unit has the advantage over the old one in many sides, such as simpler circuit, smaller heat generating, higher lifting power of drive mechanism, and increased reliability

  12. North Anna Power Station - Unit 1: Overview of steam generator replacement project activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettler, M.W.; Bayer, R.K.; Lippard, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The original steam generators at Virginia Electric and Power Company's (Virginia Power) North Anna Power Station (NAPS) Unit 1 have experienced corrosion-related degradation that require periodic inspection and plugging of steam generator tubes to ensure their continued safe and reliable operation. Despite improvements in secondary water chemistry, continued tube degradation in the steam generators necessitated the removal from service of approximately 20.3 percent of the tubes by plugging, (18.6, 17.3, and 25.1 for steam generators A, B, and C, respectively). Additionally, the unit power was limited to 95 % during, its last cycle of operation. Projections of industry and Virginia Power experience indicated the possibility of mid-cycle inspections and reductions in unit power. Therefore, economic considerations led to the decision to repair the steam generators (i.e., replace the steam generator lower assemblies). Three new Model 51F Steam Generator lower assembly units were ordered from Westinghouse. Virginia Power contracted Bechtel Power Corporation to provide the engineering and construction support to repair the Unit 1 steam generators. On January 4, 1993, after an extended coastdown period, North Anna Unit 1 was brought off-line and the 110 day (breaker-to-breaker) Steam Generator Replacement Project (SGRP) outage began. As of this paper, the outage is still in progress

  13. Energy saving in the auxiliaries consumption for circulation water pumps optimizing the thermal regime; Ahorro en el consumo de auxiliares por bombas de agua de circulacion optimando el regimen termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Martinez, Roni [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A methodology is proposed that should be followed in any thermal electric power plant to determine the load value at which a unit requires a second circulation water pump without affecting the thermal regime and avoiding an excessive auxiliaries consumption in partial loads. In applying this method the power plant would have an energy saving equivalent to the auxiliaries consumption during an hour, when the unit as operating at full load. [Espanol] Se propone una metodologia que debe seguirse en cualquier central termoelectrica para determinar el valor de la carga en la cual una unidad requiere de la segunda bomba de agua de circulacion sin afectar el regimen termico y evitadose un excesivo consumo de auxiliares en cargas parciales. Al aplicar este metodo la central tendria un ahorro de energia equivalente al consumo de auxiliares durante una hora cuando la unidad esta generando su maxima carga.

  14. A pilot application of risk-based methods to establish in-service inspection priorities for nuclear components at Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, T.; Gore, B.; Simonen, F.; Doctor, S.

    1994-08-01

    As part of the Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a method that uses risk-based approaches to establish in-service inspection plans for nuclear power plant components. This method uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FEMA) techniques to identify and prioritize the most risk-important systems and components for inspection. The Surry Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was selected for pilot applications of this method. The specific systems addressed in this report are the reactor pressure vessel, the reactor coolant, the low-pressure injection, and the auxiliary feedwater. The results provide a risk-based ranking of components within these systems and relate the target risk to target failure probability values for individual components. These results will be used to guide the development of improved inspection plans for nuclear power plants. To develop inspection plans, the acceptable level of risk from structural failure for important systems and components will be apportioned as a small fraction (i.e., 5%) of the total PRA-estimated risk for core damage. This process will determine target (acceptable) risk and target failure probability values for individual components. Inspection requirements will be set at levels to assure that acceptable failure probabilistics are maintained

  15. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  16. A study of the public opinion concerning nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, I surveyed the outcome of opinion poll about people's attitude toward nuclear power and analysed their awareness of nuclear power generation in the United States. As a result, it was found that percentage of the people who have positive attitude toward nuclear power has been over 60% since 1998. This result corresponds to the fact that people's preference is tending more toward nuclear power generation which is called the nuclear power Renaissance in the United States. Furthermore, analysis of the outcome of the opinion poll in power stations site region was also conducted and it was found that attitude of the people in the site region was more positive than that of average level in the United States. (author)

  17. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  18. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  1. Subsidence analysis Forsmark nuclear power plant - unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bono, Nancy; Fredriksson, Anders; Maersk Hansen, Lars

    2010-12-01

    On behalf of SKB, Golder Associates Ltd carried out a risk analysis of subsidence during Forsmark nuclear power plant in the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel near and below existing reactors. Specifically, the effect of horizontal cracks have been studied

  2. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electric power generated in 1975 was 1,074,401 MW(e) with the generator on line 4,680.7 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, radioactive effluents and waste shipments, health physics, shutdowns, and personnel exposures

  3. The United States and China in Power Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    through a study by the high- powered American Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., enti- tled Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050. The report argues that these...National Security Council Jeffrey Bader visited Beijing with an attempt to “bring U.S.- China relations back on track.” Their meeting with the Chinese

  4. Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    networks incorporated with FACTS controllers for advanced power system monitoring, protection, and control. Also this paper ..... its impact on the number of PMU placements is explained. Initially, we ... estimations. These procedures will enable PMUs to report, with each measurement, the quality of the estimated phasor.

  5. Innovations in United States Marine Corps Expeditionary Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    support the Regimental Commanders’ Unit Operations Center ( UOC ). Traditional tactics and the size and weight of existing equip- ment would normally...place generators and ECUs on tactical transport trucks and trailers buried within the logistics lines of combat service support, but the UOC needed to

  6. Electrical Power Generation. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Four classroom activities are included in this 8-10 period unit suitable for high school chemistry and physics classes. The first activity is a reading (12th-grade readability level determined by the Fry procedure) which explains electricity conversion, transportation, and efficiency ratings. The second and third activities are electrical energy…

  7. The Hydroelectric Business Unit of Ontario Power Generation Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboury, J.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this presentation was on the generation and sale of electricity. Prior to deregulation, companies that generated electricity had a readily available customer base to whom the electricity could be sold. The author discussed some of the changes affecting the industry as a result of deregulation of the electricity market in Ontario: the increasing number of companies, as well as the increased number of generators supplying power within the province. Currently 85 per cent of the generation in Ontario is met by Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and this percentage will decrease through de-control. De-control can be achieved in a variety of ways, either through the sale of assets, leases, asset swaps. The market rules dictate that OPG not control in excess of 35 per cent of the generation supply in Ontario, OPG is examining the situation. New supply being constructed or new interconnections with neighboring markets could affect the total assets that would have to be de-controlled. OPG has a mix of generation that includes hydroelectric, fossil, and nuclear, as well as a single wind turbine. Green power, defined as electricity generation deemed less intrusive environmentally than most traditional generation, includes wind, water, landfill gas, solar and others, and could affect the mix of generation. It is expected that there will be a niche market for green power, especially when one considers the reduction in emissions. It could represent a viable option for smaller startup companies, as less capital is required. The options for selling the power, either to the spot market or by entering into a bilateral contract with another customer, were explained

  8. The economic aspect of transition to power units with supercritical steam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.R. Kotler

    2007-09-15

    Information on the development and use of power units for supercritical and ultrasupercritical steam parameters in the United States, as well as in Europe and Japan, is presented. It is shown that increasing the parameters of steam reduces not only the fuel consumption, but also the specific emissions of toxic and greenhouse gases. Results of a calculation carried out at the EPRI (the United States) are presented, which show that it is advisable to construct power units for supercritical parameters only at certain (sufficiently high) price of the fuel being fired.

  9. Safstor decommissioning of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Humboldt Bay Power Plant is located near Eureka, California, about 265 miles north of San Francisco. The plant consists of two fossil fueled units, two mobil gas turbine peaking units, and a nuclear unit - Unit No. 3. Unit No. 3, which utilized a boiling water reactor, was constructed between 1960 and 1963. The unit began commercial operation in August 1963 and operated until July 2, 1976 when it was shutdown for refueling, seismic modifications, and additional seismic and geologic studies. During the years Unit 3 operated it had one of the best operating records of any nuclear power plant in the United States. For its operating lifetime Unit 3 had an overall capacity factor of 63.0% and an availability factor of 85.9%. The unit included certain design features which made it unique among nuclear power plants of its era. Some of these unique features included natural circulation recirculation flow which eliminated the need for costly recirculation pumps, utilization of a pressure suppression containment system which had been developed jointly by PG and E and the General Electric Company, and the fact that the reactor vessel and the containment system were constructed in a caisson below ground level. These design features reduced the overall construction cost of the unit and improved its inherent safety

  10. Residential green power demand in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Leila; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the demand determinants of green power in the U.S. residential sector. The data employed were collected by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and consist of a cross-section of seven utilities observed over 13 years. A series of tests are performed that resulted in estimating a demand equation using the one-way cross-section random effects model. As expected, we find that demand is highly price inelastic. More interestingly though, is that elasticity with respect to number of customers is 0.52 leading to the conclusion that new subscribers tend to purchase less green power on average than the existing customers. Another compelling finding is that obtaining accreditation will have a 28.5% positive impact on consumption. Knowing that gaining green accreditation is important to the success of programs, utilities may want to seek certification and highlight it in their advertising campaigns.

  11. Geothermal power generation in the United States 1985 through 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannels, J.E.; McLarty, L.

    1990-01-01

    The United States has used geothermal energy for the production of electricity since 1960 and has the largest installed capacity of any country in the world. During the 1980s, expansion at The Geysers and emergence of the hot water segment of the industry fueled explosive growth in generating capacity. In this paper geothermal development in the U.S. during the second half of the decade is reviewed, and development over the next five years is forecast

  12. Summary revaluation of energetic start-up of the unit 1 of nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvaic, I.; Miskolci, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document contents stage revaluation of energetic start-up of the unit 1 of nuclear power plant Mochovce. Test results of the stage of energetic start-up are summarized in the document, valuation of important systems and block devices as well as fulfilling the operation limits and conditions has been performed. On that base conclusions and recommendations for start-up the unit 2 and for commercial operation of the unit 1 are elaborated. The valuation has been elaborated by a scientific management for start-up nuclear power plant Mochovce of nuclear safety of nuclear power facilities. Scientific management for start-up of nuclear power plant Mochovce performed continuous valuation of individual power levels after ending of each individual level and it gave its valuation to energy power level with recommendations and conditions for further start-up process and operation. Scientific management finished its activity at the unit 1 of nuclear power plant Mochovce according to a statute of scientific management for start-up after successful completion of conclusive block run. Scientific management group was founded in February 1998 at nuclear power plant Mochovce. Its members are experts from Slovak, Czech, Russian and French organizations which are participating in power plant completion. Members are listed in a supplement No. 2

  13. Design of kicker magnet and power supply unit for synchrotron beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ju.

    1991-03-01

    To inject beams from the positron accumulator ring (PAR) into the synchrotron, a pulsed kicker magnet is used. The specifications of this kicker magnet and the power supply unit are listed and discussed in this report

  14. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  15. Economic, political, and public acceptance factors influencing the future of nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Views are presented on the economic, political, and public acceptance factors influencing the future of nuclear power in the United States. Electricity has been the preferred energy choice throughout the world. Nuclear energy must produce a competitive economic result along with energy supply security and environmental impacts. In the United States there exists ample experience and capacity to plan, design, construct, and operate new large nuclear power plants which could be competitive. Even at the lowest level of apparent safety and acceptance there was on the whole enough economic incentive and political support to keep the enterprise going. According to the United States Council for Energy Awareness polls, public acceptance is positive. The long-term outlook of nuclear power should be favorable. The one thing which would preclude nuclear power having a future in the United States would be for all parties to insist on eliminating all risks

  16. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): High Temperature Boost Power Processing Unit (PPU) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task is to investigate the technology path to develop a 10kW modular Silicon Carbide (SiC) based power processing unit (PPU). The PPU utilizes the high...

  17. Start-up and commercial operation of the Laguna Verde power plants, unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres R, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The main features of the unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Power Plant is presented as well as the phases of the start-up process. The process includes various steps and tests up to start the commercial operation. (author)

  18. An improved unit decommitment algorithm for combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, R.; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    and a linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the plants. We compare the IUD algorithm with realistic test data against a generic unit decommitment (UD) algorithm. Numerical results show that IUD is an overall improvement of UD. The solution quality of IUD is better than that of UD for almost all of tested......This paper addresses the unit commitment in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning, considering the possibility to trade power on the spot market. In CHP plants (units), generation of heat and power follows joint characteristics, which means that production planning for both...... heat and power must be done in coordination. We present an improved unit decommitment (IUD) algorithm that starts with an improved initial solution with less heat surplus so that the relative cost-efficiency of the plants can be determined more accurately. Then the subsequent decommitment procedures...

  19. Planning for decommissioning of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, P.; Poskas, R.; Zujus, R.

    2002-01-01

    In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law, the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate the negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, on the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned radioactive waste management technologies, licensing documents for decommissioning, other technical-environmental and also social-economic measures is presented. Specific conditions in Lithuania important for defining the decommissioning strategy are highlighted. (author)

  20. A Comprehensive Design Approach of Power Electronic-Based Distributed Generation Units Focused on Power-Quality Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza, Miguel; Segundo, Juan; Nunez, Ciro

    2017-01-01

    The undesirable harmonic distortion produced by distributed generation units (DGUs) based on power-electronic inverters presents operating and power-quality challenges in electric systems. The level of distortion depends on the internal elements of the DGUs as well as on the characteristics...... of the grid, loads, and controls, among others. This paper presents a comprehensive method, focused on power-quality indexes and efficiency for the design of microgrids with multiple DGUs interconnected to the ac grid through three-phase multi-Megawatt medium-voltage pulsewidth...

  1. Energy indicators impact in multi-criteria sustainability analyse of thermal power plant unit

    OpenAIRE

    Škobalj Predrag D.; Kijevčanin Mirjana Lj.; Jovanović Marina P.; Afgan Naim H.; Erić Milić D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents method for sustainability assessment of thermal power plant unit using multi-criteria analysis with aim to create base for business decision. Seven options of possible status of thermal power plant „Kolubara A” unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development were shown. Energy indicators of sustainable development consists of sets of resource preservation, economic, environmental, and social indicators. Sustainability assessment often fails to account for soci...

  2. Condition Monitoring for hydraulic Power Units – user-oriented entry in Industry 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Laube, Martin; Haack, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    One of Bosch Rexroth’s newest developments is the ABPAC power unit, which is both modular and configurable. The modular design of the ABPAC is enhanced by a selfcontained Condition Monitoring System (CMS), which can also be used to retrofit existing designs. This dissertation shows how Industry 4.0-Technology provides special advantages for the diverse user profiles. Today, Hydraulic Power Units have either scheduled intervals for preventive maintenance or are repaired in case of component fa...

  3. Assessment of Economic Efficiency Pertaining to Application of Energy Storage Units in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernetsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some aspects pertaining to an application of technologies for energy storage in electric power. Review of technical and cost characteristics of energy storage units has been given in the paper. The review reflects data of the energy storage units which are available and which are under development. The paper proposes an approach that permits to assess boundaries of economically reasonable application of energy storage systems in order to balance daily load curve of a power system.

  4. Autonomous Electrothermal Facility for Oil Recovery Intensification Fed by Wind Driven Power Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Aleksey A.; Dobush, Vasiliy S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the structure of autonomous facility fed by wind driven power unit for intensification of viscous and heavy crude oil recovery by means of heat impact on productive strata. Computer based service simulation of this facility was performed. Operational energy characteristics were obtained for various operational modes of facility. The optimal resistance of heating element of the downhole heater was determined for maximum operating efficiency of wind power unit.

  5. Design study on the efficiency of the thermal scheme of power unit of thermal power plants in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlov, A.; Dorokhov, Y.; Rybakov, B.; Nenashev, A.

    2017-11-01

    At the stage of pre-proposals unit of the thermal power plants for regions with a hot climate requires a design study on the efficiency of possible options for the structure of the thermal circuit and a set of key parameters. In this paper, the thermal circuit of the condensing unit powerfully 350 MW. The main feature of the external conditions of thermal power plants in hot climates is the elevated temperature of cooling water of the turbine condensers. For example, in the Persian Gulf region as the cooling water is sea water. In the hot season of the year weighted average sea water temperature of 30.9 °C and during the cold season to 22.8 °C. From the turbine part of the steam is supplied to the distillation-desalination plant. In the hot season of the year heat scheme with pressure fresh pair of 23.54 MPa, temperature 570/560 °C and feed pump with electric drive (EDP) is characterized by a efficiency net of 0.25% higher than thermal schem with feed turbine pump (TDP). However, the supplied power unit with PED is less by 11.6 MW. Calculations of thermal schemes in all seasons of the year allowed us to determine the difference in the profit margin of units of the TDP and EDP. During the year the unit with the TDP provides the ability to obtain the profit margin by 1.55 million dollars more than the unit EDP. When using on the market subsidized price of electricity (Iran) marginal profit of a unit with TDP more at 7.25 million dollars.

  6. Station black out of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was not caused by tsunamis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Station black out (SBO) of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 would be concluded to be caused before 15:37 on March 11, 2011 because losses of emergency ac power A system was in 15:36 and ac losses of B system in 15:37 according to the data published by Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) in May 10, 2013. Tsunami attacked the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station passed through the position of wave amplitude meter installed at 1.5 km off the coast after 15:35 and it was also recognized tsunami arrived at the coast of Unit 4 sea side area around in 15:37 judging from a series of photographs taken from the south side of the site and general knowledge of wave propagation. From a series of photographs and witness testimony, tsunami didn't attack Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station uniformly and tsunami's arrival time at the site of Unit 1 would be far later than arrival time at the coast of Unit 4 sea side area, which suggested it would be around in 15:39. TEPCO insisted tsunami passed through 1.5 km off the coast around in 15:33 and clock of wave amplitude meter was incorrect, which might be wrong. Thus SBO of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 occurred before tsunami's arrival at the site of Unit 1 and was not caused by tsunami. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Situation and development trend of nuclear power and uranium industry in the united states and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the situation, trend of nuclear electrical and uranium industry in the United States and Russia. The United States and Russia are the two biggest countries in the world which generated nuclear power earliest. After 40 years' development, nuclear power in the United States and Russia are approximately 20%, 11% respectively of the total generation capacity in 2001. In the United States, only 6% of the nuclear power consumed uranium resource is domestic, in Russia about half of its uranium production is for export. Due to the collision between the energy development and environment protection, nuclear power in USA is still strong, but the uranium industry declines. In the future, uranium production for nuclear power in the United States will depend on the international market and the uranium storage of different levels. On the basis of pacifying people and making the country prosper, Russia has established their great plans for nuclear power with their substantial uranium resources. The author considers the supply and demand of uranium industry will remain balanced in the future decade on the whole, despite the United States and Russia's trend of uranium industry could take a major effect on uranium industry to the world. (authors)

  8. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Stephen R

    2003-07-01

    The basic question asked in the beginning of this article was whether the evidence from research is persuasive enough to conclude that competition in the meatpacking industry is deficient. The literature review led to the conclusion that the answer is no. Research varies widely in terms of data and methodologic approaches. The research, however, clearly finds evidence of market power. Many SCP studies indicated the existence and exercise of market power, but the failure of the paradigm makes definitive conclusions dangerous. The NEIO studies showed a persistent gap between the price of livestock and marginal costs but the studies did not incorporate sufficient detail to prove specific behavior. Azzam and Anderson [4] conducted an extensive review of competition in meatpacking. In their summary, they offered criticisms of the SCP approach and the conduct parameter approach. These investigators concluded that the body of empiric evidence was insufficient to persuasively argue that the meatpacking industry was not competitive. Sexton [69] discussed more recent critiques of the conduct parameter appraoch. Despite its weaknesses, he concluded that market power estimates in meatpacking are modest but that structural changes on balance are beneficial, from an efficiency viewpoint. Examining the evidence either by data aggregation, methodology, or time period results in little difference in the qualitative interpretation. The research community has done what Nicholls [2] said was needed. The need remains relevant. The research leaves us with a clear picture and nagging questions. Azzam and Anderson [4] recommended that further research focus on the process of competition or the rivalrous interaction between competitors, and on competitors' strategies for responding to technologic and market forces, as the business history of the industry suggests. Specifically, they recommended two approaches. First, to develop empiric pricing models for short-term monitoring. Such models

  9. Optimal unit commitment of the power system in Bulgaria during the transitional period to power wholesale market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilov, D.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a procedure for optimal one year unit commitment in Bulgarian electric power system during the transitional period to wholesale market, combining certain classical theoretical models with heuristic methods. Comments are made on the transition from yearly commitment to weekly and daily dispatching control. The stages of the theory and practices for results optimality

  10. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  11. 20 kHz main inverter unit. [for space station power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, S.

    1989-01-01

    A proof-of-concept main inverter unit has demonstrated the operation of a pulse-width-modulated parallel resonant power stage topology as a 20-kHz ac power source driver, showing simple output regulation, parallel operation, power sharing and short-circuit operation. The use of a two-stage dc input filter controls the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) characteristics of the dc power bus, and the use of an ac harmonic trap controls the EMC characteristics of the 20-kHz ac power bus.

  12. A comparative thermodynamic, economic and risk analysis concerning implementation of oxy-combustion power plants integrated with cryogenic and hybrid air separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Bartela, Łukasz; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical model of an integrated oxy-combustion power plant. • Comparison of a hybrid membrane–cryogenic oxygen generation plant with a cryogenic plant. • Thermodynamic analysis of the modeled cases of the plant. • Comparative economic analysis of the power plant with cryogenic and hybrid ASU. • Comparative risk analysis using a Monte Carlo method and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of two types of oxy-combustion power plant that differ from each other in terms of the method of oxygen separation. For the purpose of the analysis, detailed thermodynamic models of oxy-fuel power plants with gross power of approximately 460 MW were built. In the first variant (Case 1), the plant is integrated with a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). In the second variant (Case 2), the plant is integrated with a hybrid membrane–cryogenic installation. The models were built and optimized using the GateCycle, Aspen Plus and Aspen Custom Modeller software packages and with the use of our own computational codes. The results of the thermodynamic evaluation of the systems, which primarily uses indicators such as the auxiliary power and efficiencies of the whole system and of the individual components that constitute the unit, are presented. Better plant performance is observed for Case 2, which has a net efficiency of electricity generation that is 1.1 percentage points greater than that of Case 1. For the selected structure of the system, an economic analysis of the solutions was made. This analysis accounts for different scenarios of the functioning of the Emission Trading Scheme and includes detailed estimates of the investment costs in both cases. As an indicator of profitability, the break-even price of electricity was used primarily. The results of the analysis for the assumptions made are presented in this paper. A system with a hybrid air separation unit has slightly better economic performance. The break-even price

  13. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) power supply for the Power Processing Unit (PPU) of...

  14. 75 FR 16871 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating Renewed License Nos. DPR-71 and DPR-62, which authorize...

  15. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Gail E. [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Gillingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  16. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-171; NRC-2011-0141] Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background Exelon Nuclear... nuclear reactor facility. PBAPS Unit 1 was a high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor that was operated from...

  17. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Emergency Power Unit Overhaul Complex at Little Mountain Test Annex, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Protection Agency (United States) EPU Emergency Power Unit FQI Floristic Quality Index ft2 Square Feet HAP Hazardous Air Pollutant HWCF Hazardous...wildlife community index, or WCI), and the encroachment of invasive species ( floristic quality index, or FQI). Site surveys quantify the health of

  18. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main...

  20. Semiconductor laser diodes and the design of a D.C. powered laser diode drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccio, Joseph C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses the design, development and operational analysis of a D.C. powered semiconductor laser diode drive unit. A laser diode requires an extremely stable power supply since a picosecond spike of current or power supply switching transient could result in permanent damage. The design offers stability and various features for operational protection of the laser diode. The ability to intensity modulate (analog) and pulse m...

  1. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has therefore been developed. The system is implemented as a complement, producing control signals to be added to those of the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advanta...

  2. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  3. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  4. Ejectors of power plants turbine units efficiency and reliability increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Kuptsov, V. K.; Murmanskii, I. B.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Khaet, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The functioning of steam turbines condensation systems influence on the efficiency and reliability of a power plant a lot. At the same time, the condensation system operating is provided by basic ejectors, which maintain the vacuum level in the condenser. Development of methods of efficiency and reliability increasing for ejector functioning is an actual problem of up-to-date power engineering. In the paper there is presented statistical analysis of ejector breakdowns, revealed during repairing processes, the influence of such damages on the steam turbine operating reliability. It is determined, that 3% of steam turbine equipment breakdowns are the ejector breakdowns. At the same time, about 7% of turbine breakdowns are caused by different ejector malfunctions. Developed and approved design solutions, which can increase the ejector functioning indexes, are presented. Intercoolers are designed in separated cases, so the air-steam mixture can’t move from the high-pressure zones to the low-pressure zones and the maintainability of the apparatuses is increased. By U-type tubes application, the thermal expansion effect of intercooler tubes is compensated and the heat-transfer area is increased. By the applied nozzle fixing construction, it is possible to change the distance between a nozzle and a mixing chamber (nozzle exit position) for operating performance optimization. In operating conditions there are provided experimental researches of more than 30 serial ejectors and also high-efficient 3-staged ejector EPO-3-80, designed by authors. The measurement scheme of the designed ejector includes 21 indicator. The results of experimental tests with different nozzle exit positions of the ejector EPO-3-80 stream devices are presented. The pressure of primary stream (water steam) is optimized. Experimental data are well-approved by the calculation results.

  5. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  6. Estimation Method for Turn-off Collector Voltage of IGBTs Using Emitter-auxiliary Inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating the instantaneous turn-off collector voltage of high-power IGBT modules. Because of the parasitic inductors in circuit, the fast turn-off collector current usually leads to a voltage overshoot on IGBT modules during the turn-off transition. In terms...... of high-voltage and high-power IGBT module, there exists an emitter-auxiliary inductor between the power emitter and Kelvin emitter. The same variable dic/dt during turn-off transition will also induce a measurable voltage veE across the emitter-auxiliary inductor LeE. As a result, the hazardous turn......-off peak collector voltage can be reflected by the induced νeE in the case of fixed commutation loop inductors and emitter auxiliary inductor. Finally, a double pulse test platform is used to validate the effectiveness of estimation method. The estimation curves of turn-off collector voltage...

  7. Development of the APR+ Auxiliary Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Park, Young Sheop; Kang, Yong Chul

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing which contains all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a succeeding model of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Auxiliary Building (AB) is one of the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the AB

  8. Start up and commercial operation of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Ramirez, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Prior to start up of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant preoperational tests and start tests were performed and they are described in its more eminent aspects. In relation to commercial operation of nuclear station a series of indicator were set to which allow the measurement of performance in unit 1, in areas of plant efficiency and personal safety. Antecedents. Laguna Verde station is located in Alto Lucero municipality in Veracruz state, 70 kilometers north-northeast from port of Veracruz and a 290 kilometers east-northeast from Mexico city. The station consist of two units manufactured by General Electric, with a nuclear system of vapor supply also called boiling water (BWR/5), and with a system turbine-generator manufactured by Mitsubishi. Each unit has a nominal power of 1931 MWt and a level design power of 675 Mwe and a net power of 654 Electric Megawatts

  9. Effects of the accident at Mihama Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 on the public's attitude to nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2005-01-01

    As part of an ongoing public opinion survey regarding nuclear power generation, which started in 1993, a survey was carried out in the Kansai and Kanto regions two months after the accident at Unit 3 of the Mihama Nuclear Power Plant. In addition to analyzing the statistically significant changes that have taken place since the previous survey (taken in 2003), increase and decrease of the ratio of answers to all the questions related to nuclear power before and after the two accidents were compared in the case of the accidents which occurred in the Mihama Unit 3 and the JCO company's nuclear-fuel plant. In the Kansai region, a feeling of uneasiness about the risky character of nuclear power generation increased to some extent, while the public's trust in the safety of nuclear power plants decreased somewhat. After a safety-related explanation on ''Early detection of troubles'' and Accident prevention'' was given from a managerial standpoint, people felt a little less at ease than they had before. Uneasiness, however, did not increase in relation to the overall safety explanation given about the engineering and technical functioning of the plant. There was no significant negative effect on the respondents' evaluation of or attitude toward nuclear power generation. It was found that the people's awareness about the Mihama Unit 3 accident was lower and the effect of the accident on their awareness of nuclear power generation was more limited and smaller when compared with the case of the JCO accident. In the Kanto region, people knew less about the Mihama Unit 3 accident than those living in the Kansai region, and they remembered the JCO accident, the subsequent cover-up by Tokyo Electric Power Company, and the resulting power shortage better than those living in Kansai. This suggested that there was a little difference in terms of psychological distance in relation to the accidents an incidents depending on the place where the events occurred and the company which

  10. [A survey of power density of clinical curing-light units used in Changchun].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xin-qing; Luo, Meng; Leng, Xin; Zhu, Song

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the power density and other relevant data of clinical curing-light units used in Changchun, and to provide practice recommendations to clinical dentists about maintaining of cuing-light units. Stomatology hospitals, departments of stomatology in general hospitals, and private dental offices in Changchun were randomly selected to participate in the Survey. The investigation analyzed 270 curing-light units. The following data of curing-light units were gathered: brand, type, operation ages, numbers and types of light guide, resin build-ups on light guides, damages of light guides, use frequency, monitor and maintenance of curing lights, and unit numbers/chair numbers. There were 174 QTH and 96 LED units. The distribution of power density was from 0 to 1702 mW/cm(2). The mean power density was 413.2 mW/cm(2). The power densities of 73 lights were less than 200 mW/cm(2) and could not polymerize resin composites adequately. The mean number of operation age of the light units was 4.74 years. Most of clinical dentists didn't monitor the light-curing units and the situation of build-up from composite resin or damages on light guides was very severe. Most of the light-curing units used in Changchun were QTH. Some QTH units degenerate severely and need to be replaced with the new ones. Most of the clinical doctors lack the knowledge of how to properly monitor and maintain the light-curing units.

  11. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1996-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  12. The Future Potential of Waver Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic; Jeff Epler; Maureen Hand; Donna Heimiller; Walter Short; Kelly Eurek

    2012-09-20

    The theoretical ocean wave energy resource potential exceeds 50% of the annual domestic energy demand of the United States, is located close to coastal population centers, and, although variable in nature, may be more consistent and predictable than some other renewable generation technologies. As a renewable electricity generation technology, ocean wave energy offers a low air pollutant option for diversifying the U.S. electricity generation portfolio. Furthermore, the output characteristics of these technologies may complement other renewable technologies. This study addresses the following: (1) The theoretical, technical and practical potential for electricity generation from wave energy (2) The present lifecycle cost profile (Capex, Opex, and Cost of Electricity) of wave energy conversion technology at a reference site in Northern California at different plant scales (3) Cost of electricity variations as a function of deployment site, considering technical, geo-spatial and and electric grid constraints (4) Technology cost reduction pathways (5) Cost reduction targets at which the technology will see significant deployment within US markets, explored through a series of deployment scenarios RE Vision Consulting, LLC (RE Vision), engaged in various analyses to establish current and future cost profiles for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies, quantified the theoretical, technical and practical resource potential, performed electricity market assessments and developed deployment scenarios. RE Vision was supported in this effort by NREL analysts, who compiled resource information, performed analysis using the ReEDSa model to develop deployment scenarios, and developed a simplified assessment of the Alaska and Hawaii electricity markets.

  13. Cross-connected onsite emergency A.C. power supplies for multi-unit nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martore, J.A.; Voss, J.D.; Duncil, B.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, utility management, both at the corporate and plant operations levels, have reinforced their commitment to assuring increased plant reliability and availability. One means of achieving this objective involves an effective preventive maintenance program with technical specifications which allow implementation of certain preventive maintenance without plant shutdown. To accomplish this, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has proposed a design change for San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) units 2 and 3 to permit on emergency diesel generator for one unit to perform as an available AC power source for both units. Technical specifications for SCE's SONGS units 2 and 3, as at most nuclear power plants, currently require plant shutdown should one of the two dedicated onsite emergency AC power sources (diesel generators) become inoperable for more than 72 hours. This duration hinders root cause failure analysis, tends to limit the flexibility of preventive maintenance and precludes plant operation in the event of component failure. Therefore, this proposed diesel generator cross-connect design change offers an innovative means for averting plant shutdown should a single diesel generator become inoperable for longer than 72 hours. (orig./GL)

  14. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  15. Test Results from a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Component level testing of power conversion units proposed for use in fission surface power systems has typically been done using relatively simple electric heaters for thermal input. These heaters do not adequately represent the geometry or response of proposed reactors. As testing of fission surface power systems transitions from the component level to the system level it becomes necessary to more accurately replicate these reactors using reactor simulators. The Direct Drive Gas-Brayton Power Conversion Unit test activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center integrates a reactor simulator with an existing Brayton test rig. The response of the reactor simulator to a change in Brayton shaft speed is shown as well as the response of the Brayton to an insertion of reactivity, corresponding to a drum reconfiguration. The lessons learned from these tests can be used to improve the design of future reactor simulators which can be used in system level fission surface power tests.

  16. Assess and Predict Automatic Generation Control Performances for Thermal Power Generation Units Based on Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Zijiang; Gao, Song; Liu, Jinbiao

    2018-02-01

    Automatic generation control(AGC) is a key technology to maintain real time power generation and load balance, and to ensure the quality of power supply. Power grids require each power generation unit to have a satisfactory AGC performance, being specified in two detailed rules. The two rules provide a set of indices to measure the AGC performance of power generation unit. However, the commonly-used method to calculate these indices is based on particular data samples from AGC responses and will lead to incorrect results in practice. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the AGC performance indices via system identification techniques. In addition, a nonlinear regression model between performance indices and load command is built in order to predict the AGC performance indices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through industrial case studies.

  17. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, Sixth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2003-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, nearly 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 350 investor-owned utilities, rural electric cooperatives, and other publicly owned utilities in 33 states offer green power programs. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. It describes green power product offerings, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The three distinct markets for green power are discussed in turn.

  18. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 power plant containment analysis using GOTHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Ozkan Emre; George, Thomas L.; Marshall, Mervin D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The inclusion of vent heat transfer had a significant impact on the overall containment response. • The vent heat transfer and condensation results in lower containment pressure. • The reduced gas transfer to the wetwell via the vents results in higher hydrogen concentration in the drywell. - Abstract: This paper is a part of Fukushima Technical Evaluation Project (EPRI, 2013a, 2014a, 2015) which investigates various aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi event using the GOTHIC code. The analysis takes advantage of the capability of GOTHIC to model certain aspects of the system geometry and behavior in more detail than typically considered in containment performance analysis. GOTHIC is a general purpose thermal hydraulics code that is used extensively in the nuclear industry for system design support, licensing support and safety analysis. It has the capability to model 3-dimensional flow behavior including the effects of turbulence, diffusion and buoyancy (EPRI, 2014b). This allows GOTHIC to be used in cases where mixing effects and stratification are important. The analysis presented here considers the events at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1) following the tsunami and leading up to the time of the hydrogen detonation in the 1F1 Reactor Building. The 1F1 MAAP5 Baseline Scenario (EPRI, 2013b) is used to define the steam, hydrogen and carbon-monoxide source terms from the primary system and the core concrete interaction. The model incorporates three dimensional modeling of the drywell, wetwell and connecting vent system that can predict the 3-dimensional flow patterns and the temperature and gas distributions. The model also includes leakage to the surrounding reactor building and the wetwell vent to the stack. The 3D containment model includes models for the heat transfer from the steam and gas in the drywell vent system to the torus room, wetwell gas space and pool. Inclusion of vent heat transfer had a significant impact on the overall containment

  19. ASP - Grid connections of large power generating units; ASP - Anslutning av stoerre produktionsanlaeggningar till elnaetet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Aake; Larsson, Richard [Vattenfall Power Consultants, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Grid connections of large power generating units normally require more detailed studies compared to small single units. The required R and D-level depends on the specific characteristics of the production units and the connecting grid. An inquiry for a grid connection will raise questions for the grid owner regarding transmission capability, losses, fault currents, relay protection, dynamic stability etc. Then only a few larger wind farms have been built, the experiences from these types of grid connections are limited and for that reason it can be difficult to identify issues appropriate for further studies. To ensure that electric power generating units do not have unacceptable impact on the grid, directions from the Swedish TSO (Svenska Kraftnaet) have been stated. The directions deal, for example, with power generation in specific ranges of voltage level and frequency and the possibility to remain connected to the grid when different faults occur. The requirements and the consequences of these directions are illustrated. There are three main issues that should be considered: Influence on the power flow from generating units regarding voltage level, currents, losses etc.; Different types of electric systems in generating units contribute to different levels of fault currents. For that reason the resulting fault current levels have to be studied; It is required that generating units should remain connected to the grid at different modes of operation and faults. These modes have to be verified. Load flow and dynamic studies normally demand computer models. Comprehensive models, for instance of wind farms, can bee difficult to design and normally large computer capacity is required. Therefore simplified methods to perform relevant studies are described. How to model an electric power generating unit regarding fault currents and dynamic stability is described. An inquiry for a grid connection normally brings about a discussion concerning administration. To make it

  20. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  1. Influence of nuclear power unit on decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of selected power technologies from the point of view of emissions of greenhouse gases. Such evaluation is most often based only on analysis of direct emissions from combustion. However, the direct analysis does not show full picture of the problem as significant emissions of GHG appear also in the process of mining and transportation of fuel. It is demonstrated in the paper that comparison of power technologies from the GHG point of view has to be done using the cumulative calculus covering the whole cycle of fuel mining, processing, transportation and end-use. From this point of view coal technologies are in comparable level as gas technologies while nuclear power units are characterised with lowest GHG emissions. Mentioned technologies are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions in full cycle. Specific GHG cumulative emission factors per unit of generated electricity are determined. These factors have been applied to simulation of the influence of introduction of nuclear power units on decrease of GHG emissions in domestic scale. Within the presented simulations the prognosis of domestic power sector development according to the Polish energy policy till 2030 has been taken into account. The profitability of introduction of nuclear power units from the point of view of decreasing GHG emissions has been proved.

  2. Computation within the auxiliary field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baeurle, S A

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the classical auxiliary field methodology has been developed as a new simulation technique for performing calculations within the framework of classical statistical mechanics. Since the approach suffers from a sign problem, a judicious choice of the sampling algorithm, allowing a fast statistical convergence and an efficient generation of field configurations, is of fundamental importance for a successful simulation. In this paper we focus on the computational aspects of this simulation methodology. We introduce two different types of algorithms, the single-move auxiliary field Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm and two new classes of force-based algorithms, which enable multiple-move propagation. In addition, to further optimize the sampling, we describe a preconditioning scheme, which permits to treat each field degree of freedom individually with regard to the evolution through the auxiliary field configuration space. Finally, we demonstrate the validity and assess the competitiveness of these algo...

  3. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  4. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays with modified layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Ok; Oh, Yonghui; Min, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Bin-Na; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to enhance curing light penetration through resin inlays by modifying the thicknesses of the dentin, enamel, and translucent layers. Materials and Methods To investigate the layer dominantly affecting the power density of light curing units, resin wafers of each layer with 0.5 mm thickness were prepared and power density through resin wafers was measured with a dental radiometer (Cure Rite, Kerr). The dentin layer, which had the dominant effect on power density reduction, was decreased in thickness from 0.5 to 0.1 mm while thickness of the enamel layer was kept unchanged at 0.5 mm and thickness of the translucent layer was increased from 0.5 to 0.9 mm and vice versa, in order to maintain the total thickness of 1.5 mm of the resin inlay. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays was measured. Results Power density measured through 0.5 mm resin wafers decreased more significantly with the dentin layer than with the enamel and translucent layers (p inlays increased when the dentin layer thickness was reduced and the enamel or translucent layer thickness was increased. The highest power density was recorded with dentin layer thickness of 0.1 mm and increased translucent layer thickness in all light curing units. Conclusions To enhance the power density through resin inlays, reducing the dentin layer thickness and increasing the translucent layer thickness would be recommendable when fabricating resin inlays. PMID:23431061

  5. Uranium metalla-allenes with carbene imido R{sub 2}C=U{sup IV}=NR' units (R=Ph{sub 2}PNSiMe{sub 3}; R'=CPh{sub 3}): alkali-metal-mediated push-pull effects with an amido auxiliary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Erli; Tuna, Floriana; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Lewis, William [School of Chemistry, The University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    We report uranium(IV)-carbene-imido-amide metalla-allene complexes [U(BIPM{sup TMS})(NCPh{sub 3})(NHCPh{sub 3})(M)] (BIPM{sup TMS}=C(PPh{sub 2}NSiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}; M=Li or K) that can be described as R{sub 2}C=U=NR' push-pull metalla-allene units, as organometallic counterparts of the well-known push-pull organic allenes. The solid-state structures reveal that the R{sub 2}C=U=NR' units adopt highly unusual cis-arrangements, which are also reproduced by gas-phase theoretical studies conducted without the alkali metals to remove their potential structure-directing roles. Computational studies confirm the double-bond nature of the U=NR' and U=CR{sub 2} interactions, the latter increasingly attenuated by potassium then lithium when compared to the hypothetical alkali-metal-free anion. Combined experimental and theoretical data show that the push-pull effect induced by the alkali metal cations and amide auxiliary gives a fundamental and tunable structural influence over the C=U{sup IV}=N units. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  7. Grid impacts of wind power: a summary of recent studies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brian; Milligan, Michael; Zavadil, Bob; Brooks, Daniel; Kirby, Brendan; Dragoon, Ken; Caldwell, Jim

    2004-04-01

    Several detailed technical investigations of grid ancillary service impacts of wind power plants in the United States have recently been performed. These studies were applied to Xcel Energy (in Minnesota) and PacifiCorp and the Bonneville Power Administration (both in the northwestern United States). Although the approaches vary, three utility time frames appear to be most at issue: regulation, load following and unit commitment. This article describes and compares the analytic frameworks from recent analysis and discusses the implications and cost estimates of wind integration. The findings of these studies indicate that relatively large-scale wind generation will have an impact on power system operation and costs, but these impacts and costs are relatively low at penetration rates that are expected over the next several years. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Loss Model and Efficiency Analysis of Tram Auxiliary Converter Based on a SiC Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the auxiliary converter in the auxiliary power supply system of a modern tram adopts Si IGBT as its switching device and with the 1700 V/225 A SiC MOSFET module commercially available from Cree, an auxiliary converter using all SiC devices is now possible. A SiC auxiliary converter prototype is developed during this study. The author(s derive the loss calculation formula of the SiC auxiliary converter according to the system topology and principle and each part loss in this system can be calculated based on the device datasheet. Then, the static and dynamic characteristics of the SiC MOSFET module used in the system are tested, which aids in fully understanding the performance of the SiC devices and provides data support for the establishment of the PLECS loss simulation model. Additionally, according to the actual circuit parameters, the PLECS loss simulation model is set up. This simulation model can simulate the actual operating conditions of the auxiliary converter system and calculate the loss of each switching device. Finally, the loss of the SiC auxiliary converter prototype is measured and through comparison it is found that the loss calculation theory and PLECS loss simulation model is valuable. Furthermore, the thermal images of the system can prove the conclusion about loss distribution to some extent. Moreover, these two methods have the advantages of less variables and fast calculation for high power applications. The loss models may aid in optimizing the switching frequency and improving the efficiency of the system.

  9. Evaluation of the control system checkout test at 100% power for Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Whan; Lee, Joo Han; Baek, Jong Man; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun; Kang, In Koo; Ju, Hee Wan; Min, Kyung Soo; Kim, Byung Gon

    1995-01-01

    Control system checkout tests at various powers for Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3(YGN3) were performed to demonstrate the accuracies and proper performances of the control systems of the plant. Tested control systems included the feedwater control system, steam bypass control system, reactor regulation system, control element drive mechanism control system, pressurizer level control system, and pressurizer pressure control system. The measured test data during the control system checkout test at 100% power are evaluated. The test results showed that the control systems of YGN 3 properly control system was simulated by using the LTC code which is the performance analysis code for YGN 3 and 4 design. Comparisons of the predicted results with the measured data confirmed that the feedwater control system controls the steam generator level as designed

  10. The effects of electric power industry restructuring on the safety of nuclear power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas S.

    Throughout the United States the electric utility industry is restructuring in response to federal legislation mandating deregulation. The electric utility industry has embarked upon an extraordinary experiment by restructuring in response to deregulation that has been advocated on the premise of improving economic efficiency by encouraging competition in as many sectors of the industry as possible. However, unlike the telephone, trucking, and airline industries, the potential effects of electric deregulation reach far beyond simple energy economics. This dissertation presents the potential safety risks involved with the deregulation of the electric power industry in the United States and abroad. The pressures of a competitive environment on utilities with nuclear power plants in their portfolio to lower operation and maintenance costs could squeeze them to resort to some risky cost-cutting measures. These include deferring maintenance, reducing training, downsizing staff, excessive reductions in refueling down time, and increasing the use of on-line maintenance. The results of this study indicate statistically significant differences at the .01 level between the safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants and boiling water reactor nuclear power plants. Boiling water reactors exhibited significantly more problems than did pressurized water reactors.

  11. Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

  12. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  13. MPPT Algorithm Development for Laser Powered Surveillance Camera Power Supply Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yungui; Dushantha Chaminda, P. R.; Zhao, Kun; Cheng, Lin; Jiang, Yi; Peng, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) cells, modules which are semiconducting materials, convert light energy into electricity. Operation of a PV cell requires 3 basic features. When the light is absorbed it generate pairs of electron holes or excitons. An external circuit carrier opposite types of electrons irrespective of the source (sunlight or LASER light). The PV arrays have photovoltaic effect and the PV cells are defined as a device which has electrical characteristics: such as current, voltage and resistance. It varies when exposed to light, that the power output is depend on direct Laser-light. In this paper Laser-light to electricity by direct conversion with the use of PV cells and its concept of Band gap Energy, Series Resistance, Conversion Efficiency and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) methods [1].

  14. Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Semiannual report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Browns Ferry units 1 and 2 operated at maximum power from January 1 to March 22 except as limited by thermal margins, fuel preconditioning, optimum power shape, maintenance, and Unit 2 start-up tests. On March 22 a cable tray fire started causing spurious starting of equipment due to faulted control cables. The reactors were manually scrammed and placed in cold shutdown for fire investigation, clean up, and fuel removal. Information is also presented concerning maintenance, radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and non-radiological environmental monitoring

  15. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Net electric power generated by Surry Unit 1 was 6,930,353 MWH with the generator on line for 10,417.7 hours. Net electric power generated by Unit 2 was 5,699,299 MWH with the generator on line for 8,384.2 hours. Information is presented concerning operation, radioactive effluent releases, solid radioactive wastes, fuel shipments, occurrences in which temperature limitations on the condenser cooling water discharge were exceeded, changes in station organization, occupational personnel radiation exposure, nonradiological monitoring including thermal, physical, and biological programs, and the radiological environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  16. Purchasing power parity in OECD countries: nonlinear unit root tests revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Paulo José Regis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide additional evidence on the purchasing power parity empirical fulfillment in a pool of OECD countries. We apply the Harvey et al. (2008) linearity test and the Kruse (2010) nonlinear unit root test. The results point to the fact that the purchasing power parity theory holds in a greater number of countries than has been reported in previous studies.

  17. Low-noise hydraulic power unit design based on vibration modal and transfer function analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SUN Yinghui; LI Zhiyin; LI Jia; PENG Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    The hydraulic power unit is the power source of a hydraulic system, and also the source causing hydraulic system vibration and noise. In order to further reduce the vibration and noise level of hydraulic systems, this paper presents a low-noise hydraulic station design method based on modal analysis and Vibration Transfer Function(VTF) analysis. The finite element model of the hydraulic station is established, the mode of the oil station solved and the modal superposition method used to optim...

  18. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (CCNPP3) and located at a site in Calvert County, Maryland. The CCNPP3 COL...

  19. In core reload design for cycle 4 of Daya Bay nuclear power station both units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zongyao; Liu Xudong; Xian Chunyu; Li Dongsheng; Zhang Hong; Liu Changwen; Rui Min; Wang Yingming; Zhao Ke; Zhang Hong; Xiao Min

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles and the contents of the reload design for Daya Bay nuclear power station are briefly introduced. The in core reload design results, and the comparison between the calculated values and the measured values of both units the fourth cycle are also given. The reload design results of the two units satisfy all the economic requirements and safety criteria. The experimented results shown that the predicated values are tally good with all the measurement values

  20. Safety review on unit testing of safety system software of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Le; Zhang Qi

    2013-01-01

    Software unit testing has an important place in the testing of safety system software of nuclear power plants, and in the wider scope of the verification and validation. It is a comprehensive, systematic process, and its documentation shall meet the related requirements. When reviewing software unit testing, attention should be paid to the coverage of software safety requirements, the coverage of software internal structure, and the independence of the work. (authors)

  1. VLTI auxiliary telescopes: a full object-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Duhoux, Philippe; Karban, Robert

    2000-06-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Telescope Control Software (TCS) is a portable system. It is now in use or will be used in a whole family of ESO telescopes VLT Unit Telescopes, VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes, NTT, La Silla 3.6, VLT Survey Telescope and Astronomical Site Monitors in Paranal and La Silla). Although it has been developed making extensive usage of Object Oriented (OO) methodologies, the overall development process chosen at the beginning of the project used traditional methods. In order to warranty a longer lifetime to the system (improving documentation and maintainability) and to prepare for future projects, we have introduced a full OO process. We have taken as a basis the United Software Development Process with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and we have adapted the process to our specific needs. This paper describes how the process has been applied to the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes Control Software (ATCS). The ATCS is based on the portable VLT TCS, but some subsystems are new or have specific characteristics. The complete process has been applied to the new subsystems, while reused code has been integrated in the UML models. We have used the ATCS on one side to tune the process and train the team members and on the other side to provide a UML and WWW based documentation for the portable VLT TCS.

  2. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  3. Monitoring process variability using auxiliary information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a Shewhart type control chart namely V (r) chart is proposed for improved monitoring of process variability (targeting large shifts) of a quality characteristic of interest Y. The proposed control chart is based on regression type estimator of variance using a single auxiliary variable

  4. 75 FR 53984 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Regulations (10 CFR), Part 50, Section 50.46 ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and Appendix K to 10 CFR part 50, ``ECCS (emergency core cooling... threatened, endangered, or protected species under the Endangered Species Act, or impacts to essential fish...

  5. Photovoltaic power stations in Germany and the United States: A comparative study by data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2014-01-01

    This study compares Photovoltaic (PV) power stations between Germany and the United States to examine which country more efficiently provides renewable energy in their usages. For the comparative analysis, this study utilizes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) as a methodology to evaluate the performance of PV power stations from the perspective of both solar and land usages. A total of one hundred sixty PV power stations (eighty in Germany and eighty in the United States) are used for this comparison. The demand for sustainable energy and energy security has been rapidly increasing over the past decade because of concerns about environment and limited resources. PV solutions are one of many renewable technologies that are being developed to satisfy a recent demand of electricity. Germany is the world's top installer and consumer of PV power and the United States is one of the top five nations. Germany leads the way in installed PV capacity even though the nation has less solar resources and land area. Due to limited solar resources, low insolation and sunshine, and land area, the United States should have a clear advantage over Germany. However, the empirical result of this study exhibits that PV power stations in Germany operate more efficiently than those of the United States even if the latter has many solar and land advantages. The surprising result indicates that the United States has room for improvement when it comes to utilizing solar and land resources and needs to reform the solar policy. For such a purpose, Feed-In Tariff (FIT) may be an effective energy policy at the state level in the United States because the FIT provides investors such as utility companies and other types of energy firms with financial incentives to develop large PV power stations and generation facilities for other renewable energy. It may be true that the FIT is a powerful policy tool to promote PV and other renewable installation and support a reduction of an amount of greenhouse

  6. Reactor units for power supply of remote and inaccessible regions: Selection issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov N.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly presents the problem aspects on power supply for the remote and inaccessible regions of Russia. Reactor units of different type and installed electric capacity have been considered in relation to the issue of power supply during mineral deposit development in the Chukotka autonomous region, Yakutia and Irkutsk region. Some preliminary assessment of the possible options for use of small nuclear power plants in various sectors of energy consumption have been carried out based on the analysis of different scenarios for economic development of the regions considered

  7. Characterization of RNS multiply-add units for power efficient DSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto; Petricca, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been adopted in DSP as an alternative to the traditional two's complement number system (TCS) because of the savings in area, higher speed and reduced power dissipation. In this work, we perform a comprehensive Design Space Exploration (DSE...... two design corners: maximum speed and minimum area. The experimental results demonstrate that for high data rates and high order filters, the RNS implementation is more power efficient than the TCS because of the reduced switching activity and the larger amount of low-power cells placed in the unit....

  8. Evaluation of power commissioning of the Mochovce Unit 1 demonstration run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvaic, I.; Miskolci, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document contains evaluation of the 144 hour demonstration run of the Mochovce Unit 1. In the document, the courses and results of additional tests in this phase of power commissioning are summarized, evaluation of the performance of important systems and equipment of the unit is carried out, as well as of the compliance with Limits and Conditions in the course of the demonstration run. On this basis, conclusions are drawn and recommendations given for the unit to by ready for trial operation. The evaluation was developed by the scientific management of the Mochovce commissioning providing an independent support for the operators for supervising the commissioning tasks from the point of nuclear safety

  9. Evaluation of Redundancy for Power Generating Unit in a Cogeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshid Meseret Nasir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Redundancy system is very useful to enhance the performance and reliability of the power generation system of a cogeneration plant. However, the associated operating cost of redundancy system is very high. The common redundancies used in a cogeneration power plant are public utility and generator set. In order to select the best redundancy options which incurs minimum operating cost, it is required to evaluate the cost of different redundancy options. In this paper, net present value model (NPV is developed to evaluate the cost of redundancy considering availability and reliability of the cogeneration system. Two steps applied to evaluate the redundancy cost of the cogeneration system. The first step is predicting the number of failures and downtime hours using availability and reliability analysis because redundancy is frequently used when the system failed. The second step is evaluating the cost of redundancy using NPV model. The results indicate that the use of public utility as redundancy option is costly compared to generator set option for long period of time. The major operation cost of public utility is contributed by the maximum demand charge cost which is about 57.9% of the total cost of redundancy. The study will be useful as a guide for the cogeneration operation to evaluate and select the redundancy option.

  10. Incorporating Wind Power Forecast Uncertainties Into Stochastic Unit Commitment Using Neural Network-Based Prediction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, into power systems significantly increases the uncertainties on system operation, stability, and reliability in smart grids. In this paper, the nonparametric neural network-based prediction intervals (PIs) are implemented for forecast uncertainty quantification. Instead of a single level PI, wind power forecast uncertainties are represented in a list of PIs. These PIs are then decomposed into quantiles of wind power. A new scenario generation method is proposed to handle wind power forecast uncertainties. For each hour, an empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) is fitted to these quantile points. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate scenarios from the ECDF. Then the wind power scenarios are incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the stochastic SCUC problem. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies incorporated with interval forecasts of wind power are implemented. The results of these cases are presented and discussed together. Generation costs, and the scheduled and real-time economic dispatch reserves of different unit commitment strategies are compared. The experimental results show that the stochastic model is more robust than deterministic ones and, thus, decreases the risk in system operations of smart grids.

  11. The comparison of license management procedure for nuclear power plant in China and United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zusheng

    2006-01-01

    'Tow steps' license management procedure for nuclear power plant has been performed bas- ted on the requirement of 10CFR Part50-DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES in United States since last century fifties. In order to ulterior reduce the risk of investment and technical for new construction nuclear power plants, new regulations 'One step' license management procedure-10CFR Part52-EARLY SITE PERMITS; STANDARD DESIGN CERTIFICATIONS; AND COMBINED LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS issued in 1989. The new regulations has been adopted by new design of nuclear power plant, for example AP1000. ‘The similar tow steps’ license management procedure for nuclear power plant has been performed basted on the requirement of HAFO01/01 Rules for the Implementation of Regulations on the Safety Regulation for Civilian Nuclear Installations of the People's Re- public of China Part One: Application and Issuance of Safety License for Nuclear Power Plant (December 1993) in China since last century nineties. This article introduces and compares the requirements and characteristics of above license management procedure for nuclear power plant in China and United States. (author)

  12. Hydro turbine governor’s power control of hydroelectric unit with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Wu, Changli; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-01

    The primary frequency regulation and load regulation transient process when the hydro turbine governor is under the power mode of hydropower unit with sloping ceiling tailrace are analysed by field test and numerical simulation in this paper. A simulation method based on “three-zone model” to simulate small fluctuation transient process of the sloping ceiling tailrace is proposed. The simulation model of hydraulic turbine governor power mode is established by governor’s PLC program identification and parameter measurement, and the simulation model is verified by the test. The slow-fast-slow “three-stage regulation” method which can improve the dynamic quality of hydro turbine governor power mode is proposed. The power regulation strategy and parameters are optimized by numerical simulation, the performance of primary frequency regulation and load regulation transient process when the hydro turbine governor is under power mode are improved significantly.

  13. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  14. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1998. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions and generating unit changes. This report is prepared annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data or nonconfidential data of nonutilities are presented, it is specifically noted as nonutility data. 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  17. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended.

  18. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended

  19. A decomposition method for network-constrained unit commitment with AC power flow constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Zhong, Haiwang; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing; Xie, Le

    2015-01-01

    To meet the increasingly high requirement of smart grid operations, considering AC power flow constraints in the NCUC (network-constrained unit commitment) is of great significance in terms of both security and economy. This paper proposes a decomposition method to solve NCUC with AC power flow constraints. With conic approximations of the AC power flow equations, the master problem is formulated as a MISOCP (mixed integer second-order cone programming) model. The key advantage of this model is that the active power and reactive power are co-optimised, and the transmission losses are considered. With the AC optimal power flow model, the AC feasibility of the UC result of the master problem is checked in subproblems. If infeasibility is detected, feedback constraints are generated based on the sensitivity of bus voltages to a change in the unit reactive power generation. They are then introduced into the master problem in the next iteration until all AC violations are eliminated. A 6-bus system, a modified IEEE 30-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system are used to validate the performance of the proposed method, which provides a satisfactory solution with approximately 44-fold greater computational efficiency. - Highlights: • A decomposition method is proposed to solve the NCUC with AC power flow constraints • The master problem considers active power, reactive power and transmission losses. • OPF-based subproblems check the AC feasibility using parallel computing techniques. • An effective feedback constraint interacts between the master problem and subproblem. • Computational efficiency is significantly improved with satisfactory accuracy

  20. Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The unit was paralleled to the grid 83.1 percent of the time and 7,073,200 MWH gross was generated. There were six scheduled outages and 14 forced outages/load reductions. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, power reductions, inservice maintenance, personnel radiation exposures, fuel history, and facility changes

  1. 76 FR 30204 - Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-010; NRC-2011-0108] Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background Exelon Nuclear is the... nuclear material are not inimical to the common defense and security and do not constitute an unreasonable...

  2. A comparison between regulation of nuclear power in Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahearne, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The agencies that regulate commercial nuclear power in Canada and the United States differ in five significant characteristics: size and responsibility; use of legalism and formality; inspection and enforcement approaches; relationships to the government, public and industry; and the basic philosophy of regulation. Examination shows strengths and weaknesses in each approach, tied to basic differences in philosophy of government. (author)

  3. 77 FR 59679 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0044; Docket No. 50-423] Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving Application Regarding Corporate Restructuring and Conforming Amendment I Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. (DNC), Central Vermont Public Service...

  4. 77 FR 42768 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-423; NRC-2012-0044] Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of Consideration of Approval of Transfer of Facility... Public Service Corporation (CVPS)' interest in the Renewed Facility Operating License (No. NPF-49) for...

  5. Brief introduction to project management of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jie

    1996-01-01

    The key points in development and engineering project management of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit are briefly introduced. The Gantt chart, some project management methods and experience are presented. The key points analysis along with the project procedure will be useful to the similar project

  6. ABOUT NOTION OF MEASUREMENT RELIABILITY WHEN MONITORING OPERATION MODES OF POWER UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anishchenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring process of measurement reliability in respect of variables that characterize operation modes of power units is investigated in the paper. Control algorithms based on the minimax criterion have been developed. These algorithms take into account the uncertainty in the notion of measurement reliability, the probability distribution laws for the variables under control, and the values of monitoring errors.

  7. Design data and safety features of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States: thermal hydraulic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Minoru; Morishima, Atsuyoshi

    1975-02-01

    The thermal-hydraulic data of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States are presented for 85 PWRs and 52 BWRs. Covered are the temperature, pressure, heat flux, flow rate, etc. of coolant and/or fuel cladding; the diffinitions are also given for some of these items. (auth.)

  8. Using domain specific languages to improve the development of a power control unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the design of a power control unit at Philips, two Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) have been used. The first DSL provides a concise and readable notation for the essential state transitions. It is used to generate both configuration files and analysis models. In addition, we also

  9. 76 FR 28481 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an exemption, pursuant to Title 10...

  10. 75 FR 8753 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of exemptions, pursuant to Title 10 o...

  11. Modelling and simulation of containment on full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Tingyun

    1996-01-01

    A multi-node containment thermal-hydraulic model has been developed and adapted in Full Scope Simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit with good realtime simulation effects. Containment pressure for LBLOCA calculated by the model is well agreed with those of CONTEMPT-4/MOD3

  12. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays with modified layer thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to enhance curing light penetration through resin inlays by modifying the thicknesses of the dentin, enamel, and translucent layers. Materials and Methods To investigate the layer dominantly affecting the power density of light curing units, resin wafers of each layer with 0.5 mm thickness were prepared and power density through resin wafers was measured with a dental radiometer (Cure Rite, Kerr. The dentin layer, which had the dominant effect on power density reduction, was decreased in thickness from 0.5 to 0.1 mm while thickness of the enamel layer was kept unchanged at 0.5 mm and thickness of the translucent layer was increased from 0.5 to 0.9 mm and vice versa, in order to maintain the total thickness of 1.5 mm of the resin inlay. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays was measured. Results Power density measured through 0.5 mm resin wafers decreased more significantly with the dentin layer than with the enamel and translucent layers (p < 0.05. Power density through 1.5 mm resin inlays increased when the dentin layer thickness was reduced and the enamel or translucent layer thickness was increased. The highest power density was recorded with dentin layer thickness of 0.1 mm and increased translucent layer thickness in all light curing units. Conclusions To enhance the power density through resin inlays, reducing the dentin layer thickness and increasing the translucent layer thickness would be recommendable when fabricating resin inlays.

  13. Control of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Units in Multi-Machine Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, Aruna

    A new scheme, in which a synchronous generator connected to the SMES busbar is used as a feedback generator, is proposed to control superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units in multi-machine power systems, in this dissertation. The speed and the load angle changes of the feedback generator are used to calculate the necessary real power transfers to the SMES, while the necessary reactive power transfers are calculated from the voltage changes of the common busbar. Expressions are derived for the direct and quadrature axis components of the current drawn by the SMES, for unequal firing angles in the converter bridge, and the relationships of the two currents to the total real and reactive power transfers to the SMES are shown. The expressions derived are valid for small or large systems, under steady state or transient conditions, and it is shown through computer simulations in a small power system that, the proposed scheme is quite effective in stabilizing electromechanical oscillations caused by small as well as large disturbances. It is also shown that, the SMES can improve the power output of wind turbine induction generators, and also stabilize the oscillations caused by wind power losses in a steam turbine generator system, and thereby eliminate the need to use diesel turbine generators for the same purpose. Finally, equations are derived to represent the synchronous machine in terms of its d-q circuits, while it is connected to the network which is described by complex quantities, and the formulations done for the proposed scheme are extended to study the use of SMES units with proposed control in power systems of large and complex configurations. The proposed scheme of control is simple, and does not call for a special design of a controller requiring simplifying assumptions such as the presence of an infinite busbar or steady state operating conditions on the system, and therefore, would help in the widespread use of SMES units in electric

  14. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi; Majid Moazzami

    2015-01-01

    In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC) in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested...

  15. Design and scope of impact of auxiliary lanes : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Texas Department of Transportation districts have constructed auxiliary lanes to support interchange : ramp operations and to resolve congestion proximate to freeway entrance and exit ramps. While auxiliary lanes are : built throughout T...

  16. Disciplinary power and the process of training informal carers on stroke units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Euan; Hawkins, Rebecca; Clarke, David J; Godfrey, Mary; Dickerson, Josie; McKevitt, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the process of training informal carers on stroke units using the lens of power. Care is usually assumed as a kinship obligation but the state has long had an interest in framing the carer and caring work. Training carers in healthcare settings raises questions about the power of the state and healthcare professionals as its agents to shape expectations and practices related to the caring role. Drawing on Foucault's notion of disciplinary power, we show how disciplinary forms of power exercised in interactions between healthcare professionals and carers shape the engagement and resistance of carers in the process of training. Interview and observational field note extracts are drawn from a multi-sited study of a training programme on stroke units targeting family carers of people with stroke to consider the consequences of subjecting caring to this intervention. We found that the process of training informal carers on stroke units was not simply a matter of transferring skills from professional to lay person, but entailed disciplinary forms of power intended to shape the conduct of the carer. We interrogate the extent to which a specific kind of carer is produced through such an approach, and the wider implications for the participation of carers in training in healthcare settings and the empowerment of carers. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  17. Standardization of nuclear power plants in the United States: recent regulatory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, B.Z.; Tourtellotte, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    On April 18, 1989, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended the regulations governing the process for licensing nuclear power plants in the United States to provide for issuance of early site permits, standard design certifications and combined construction permits and operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. The new regulations are designed to achieve early resolution of licensing issues and facilitate standardization of nuclear power plants in the United States. The program for design standardization is central to efforts mounted by the U.S. government and industry to ensure that there will be a next generation of nuclear power facilities in the U.S. The most significant changes are provisions for certification of standard designs and for issuance prior to start of construction of combined licenses which incorporate a construction permit and an operating license with conditions. Such certifications and combined licenses must contain tests, inspections and analyses, and acceptance criteria, which are necessary and sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the facility has been constructed and will operate in accordance with the combined license. A number of significant implementation issues have arisen. In addition a major court case brought by several anti-nuclear groups is pending, challenging NRC authority to issue combined licenses. It is the goal of the U.S. nuclear industry to have the first of the next generation of standardized nuclear power plants ordered, licensed, constructed and on-line by the year 2000. (author)

  18. Auxiliary VHF transmitter to aid recovery of solar Argos/GPS PTTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2014-01-01

    While conducting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) research, we found that solar-powered global positioning systems platform transmitter terminals (GPS PTTs) can be lost if the solar panel does not receive adequate sunlight. Thus, we developed 5-g (mortality sensor included; Prototype A) and 9.8-g (no mortality sensor; Prototype B) auxiliary very high...

  19. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heating boilers. 52.01-35 Section 52.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers. (a) To determine the appropriate part of the regulations where...

  20. Computer determination of event maps with application to auxiliary supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wredenberg, L.; Billinton, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method of evaluating the reliability of sequential operations in systems containing standby and alternate supply facilities is presented. The method is based upon the use of a digital computer for automatic development of event maps. The technique is illustrated by application to a nuclear power plant auxiliary supply system. (author)

  1. A fuzzy chance-constrained program for unit commitment problem considering demand response, electric vehicle and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Hu, Zhaoguang; Han, Xue

    2015-01-01

    , they can serve as reserve for wind power. To deal with the unit commitment problem, authors use a fuzzy chance- constrained program that takes into account the wind power forecasting errors. The numerical study shows that the model can promote the utilization of wind power evidently, making the power...

  2. 77 FR 29564 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Auxiliary and Miscellaneous Items That No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Administration Regulations: Auxiliary and Miscellaneous Items That No Longer Warrant Control Under the United... articles that the President determines, as part of the Administration's Export Control Reform Initiative...: Background On July 15, 2011, as part of the Administration's ongoing Export Control Reform Initiative, the...

  3. A deterministic approach for performance assessment and optimization of power distribution units in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Omrani, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a deterministic approach for performance assessment and optimization of power distribution units in Iran. The deterministic approach is composed of data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation techniques. Seventeen electricity distribution units have been considered for the purpose of this study. Previous studies have generally used input-output DEA models for benchmarking and evaluation of electricity distribution units. However, this study considers an integrated deterministic DEA-PCA approach since the DEA model should be verified and validated by a robust multivariate methodology such as PCA. Moreover, the DEA models are verified and validated by PCA, Spearman and Kendall's Tau correlation techniques, while previous studies do not have the verification and validation features. Also, both input- and output-oriented DEA models are used for sensitivity analysis of the input and output variables. Finally, this is the first study to present an integrated deterministic approach for assessment and optimization of power distributions in Iran

  4. Start-up test of Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station Unit No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Toshio; Umezu, Akira; Kajikawa, Makoto; Koibuchi, Hiroshi; Netsu, Nobuhiko.

    1986-01-01

    In Unit 3 of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station II (daini), a BWR power plant of output 1,100 MW, commercial operation was started in June 1985. Its start-up test was finished successfully in about nine months. That is, new equipments introduced were demonstration tested. Though the items of testing are increased, the start-up test took short time, resulting in construction period only 54.7 months of the Unit 3, the shortest in the world. During the test, there was no scramming other than the planned. Described are the following: an outline of the Unit 3, the items of its improvement and standardization, including the new equipments, preparations for the start-up test, the start-up test and its evaluation. (Mori, K.)

  5. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  6. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...

  7. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  8. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  9. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  10. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    words, because the English primary auxiliary verbs are so important in our communication, speakers must consider the various ways thus type of auxiliary verbs can be grammatically used in sentences. Traditional Grammar Approach to the Use of English Auxiliaries. Greenbaum (1988) defines grammar as a general theory ...

  11. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as outboard fins and winglets, and their supporting aerodynamic...

  12. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  13. Overview of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Power System Integration and Operation at Desert RATS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; George, Pat; Gambrell, Ronnie; Chapman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A habitat demonstration unit (HDU) was constructed at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and designed by a multicenter NASA team led out of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The HDU was subsequently utilized at the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) program held at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. This report describes the power system design, installation and operation for the HDU. The requirements for the power system were to provide 120 VAC, 28 VDC, and 120 VDC power to the various loads within the HDU. It also needed to be capable of providing power control and real-time operational data on the load's power consumption. The power system had to be capable of operating off of a 3 phase 480 VAC generator as well as 2 solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The system operated well during the 2 week Desert RATS campaign and met all of the main goals of the system. The power system is being further developed to meet the future needs of the HDU and options for this further development are discussed.

  14. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  15. Decision making by auxiliary nurses to assess postpartum bleeding in a Dominican Republic maternity ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Regueira, Yadira; Heath, AnneMarie

    2006-01-01

    To understand the process of decision making by auxiliary nurses regarding postpartum bleeding among women in the Dominican Republic. An ethnographic qualitative design of semistructured interviews and participant observation. Twenty four auxiliary nurses on a maternity unit of a referral hospital in the Dominican Republic. Auxiliary nurses use specific criteria and logic to decide if postpartum maternal bleeding is excessive. However, systematic postpartum assessments are not routinely conducted on every woman. A decision tree that traces how auxiliary nurses evaluate postpartum bleeding indicates that they have knowledge of contemporary obstetric nursing care, but the organization of care delivery is not structured for them to apply it routinely. A collaboration of U.S. midwives and Dominican nurses will build on the assets of the auxiliary nurses. Rather than focusing the content of educational conferences on current knowledge of labor and delivery, an important next step is modeling woman- and family-centered care. The U.S. midwives and Dominican nurses are committed to finding empowering and effective ways to improve maternity care.

  16. Human resource development for the new nuclear power plant unit in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.; Galstyan, A.; Donovan, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of a study to define the programs for development of the human resource infrastructure needed for a new nuclear power plant unit in the Republic of Armenia. While Armenia has a workforce experienced in operation and regulation of a nuclear power plant (NPP), a significant portion of the current Armenia Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) workforce is approaching retirement age and will not be available for the new plant. The Government of Armenia is performing a human resource infrastructure study in cooperation with the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), sponsored by the JAEA. The study of Human Resource Development for Armenia uses the INPRO methodology for assessment of human resources. The results of this study will provide the basis for decisions on human resource development programs for nuclear power in Armenia and provide a model for countries with the limited resources that are working to develop nuclear energy in the future. (authors)

  17. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  18. Review of tokamak power reactor and blanket designs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Gohar, Y.; Smith, D.; Sze, D.

    1986-01-01

    The last major conceptual design study of a tokamak power reactor in the United States was STARFIRE which was carried out in 1979-1980. Since that time US studies have concentrated on engineering test reactors, demonstration reactors, parametric systems studies, scoping studies, and studies of selected critical issues such as pulsed vs. steady-state operation and blanket requirements. During this period, there have been many advancements in tokamak physics and reactor technology, and there has also been a recognition that it is desirable to improve the tokamak concept as a commercial power reactor candidate. During 1984-1985 several organizations participated in the Tokamak Power Systems Study (TPSS) with the objective of developing ideas for improving the tokamak as a power reactor. Also, the US completed a comprehensive Blanket Comparison and Selection Study which formed the basis for further studies on improved blankets for fusion reactors

  19. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  20. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  1. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  2. Modified Darboux transformations with foreign auxiliary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct a new type of first-order Darboux transformations for the stationary Schroedinger equation. In contrast to the conventional case, our Darboux transformations support arbitrary (foreign) auxiliary equations. We show that among other applications, our formalism can be used to systematically construct Darboux transformations for Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials, including a recent result (Lin et al., 2007) as a special case. -- Highlights: → We generalize the Darboux transformation for the Schroedinger equation. → By admitting arbitrary auxiliary functions, we provide a new tool for generating solutions. → As a special case we recover a recent result on energy-dependent potentials. → We extend the latter result to very general energy-dependence.

  3. Simulating the Water Use of Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States: Model Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, G.; Yan, E.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use the highest amount of freshwater second to the agriculture sector. However, there is scarcity of information that characterizes the freshwater use of these plants in the United States. This could be attributed to the lack of model and data that are required to conduct analysis and gain insights. The competition for freshwater among sectors will increase in the future as the amount of freshwater gets limited due climate change and population growth. A model that makes use of less data is urgently needed to conduct analysis and identify adaptation strategies. The objectives of this study are to develop a model and simulate the water use of thermoelectric power plants in the United States. The developed model has heat-balance, climate, cooling system, and optimization modules. It computes the amount of heat rejected to the environment, estimates the quantity of heat exchanged through latent and sensible heat to the environment, and computes the amount of water required per unit generation of electricity. To verify the model, we simulated a total of 876 fossil-fired, nuclear and gas-turbine power plants with different cooling systems (CS) using 2010-2014 data obtained from Energy Information Administration. The CS includes once-through with cooling pond, once-through without cooling ponds, recirculating with induced draft and recirculating with induced draft natural draft. The results show that the model reproduced the observed water use per unit generation of electricity for the most of the power plants. It is also noticed that the model slightly overestimates the water use during the summer period when the input water temperatures are higher. We are investigating the possible reasons for the overestimation and address it in the future work. The model could be used individually or coupled to regional models to analyze various adaptation strategies and improve the water use efficiency of thermoelectric power plants.

  4. Draft environmental impact statement. River Bend Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Federal financing of an undivided ownership interest of River Bend Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 on a 3293-acre site near St. Francisville, Louisiana is proposed in a supplement to the final environmental impact statement of September 1974. The facility would consist of a boiling-water reactor that would produce a maximum of 2894 megawatts (MW) of electrical power. A design level of 3015 MW of electric power could be realized at some time in the future. Exhaust steam would be cooled by mechanical cooling towers using makeup water obtained from and discharged to the Mississippi River. Power generated by the unit would be transmitted via three lines totaling 140 circuit miles traversing portions of the parishes of West Feliciana, East Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Pointe Coupee, and Iberville. The unit would help the applicant meet the power needs of rural electric consumers in the region, and the applicant would contribute significanlty to area tax base and employment rolls during the life of the unit. Construction related activities would disturb 700 forested acres on the site and 1156 acres along the transmission routes. Of the 60 cubic feet per second (cfs) taken from the river, 48 cfs would evaporate during the cooling process and 12 cfs would return to the river with dissolved solids concentrations increased by 500%. The terrace aquifer would be dewatered for 16 months in order to lower the water table at the building site, and Grants Bayou would be transformed from a lentic to a lotic habitat during this period. Fogging and icing due to evaporation and drift from the cooling towers would increase slightly. During the construction period, farming, hunting, and fishing on the site would be suspended, and the social infractructure would be stressed due to the influx of a maximum of 2200 workers

  5. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  6. Outlooks for Wind Power in the United States: Drivers and Trends under a 2016 Policy Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, wind power has become one of the fastest growing electricity generation sources in the United States. Despite this growth, the U.S. wind industry continues to experience year-to-year fluctuations across the manufacturing and supply chain as a result of dynamic market conditions and changing policy landscapes. Moreover, with advancing wind technologies, ever-changing fossil fuel prices, and evolving energy policies, the long-term future for wind power is highly uncertain. In this report, we present multiple outlooks for wind power in the United States, to explore the possibilities of future wind deployment. The future wind power outlooks presented rely on high-resolution wind resource data and advanced electric sector modeling capabilities to evaluate an array of potential scenarios of the U.S. electricity system. Scenario analysis is used to explore drivers, trends, and implications for wind power deployment over multiple periods through 2050. Specifically, we model 16 scenarios of wind deployment in the contiguous United States. These scenarios span a wide range of wind technology costs, natural gas prices, and future transmission expansion. We identify conditions with more consistent wind deployment after the production tax credit expires as well as drivers for more robust wind growth in the long run. Conversely, we highlight challenges to future wind deployment. We find that the degree to which wind technology costs decline can play an important role in future wind deployment, electric sector CO2 emissions, and lowering allowance prices for the Clean Power Plan.

  7. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  8. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2005-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering "green power" options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The second section provides brief descriptions of utility green pricing programs. The third section describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renewable energy certificates nationally or regionally. The final section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including businesses, universities, and government agencies.

  9. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report; Seventh Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. Section 2 provides brief descriptions of the utility green pricing programs available nationally. Section 3 describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renew able energy certificates nationally or regionally. The last section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including governmental agencies, universities, and businesses.

  10. Estimating Energy Consumption of Mobile Fluid Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zigler, Bradley T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This report estimates the market size and energy consumption of mobile off-road applications utilizing hydraulic fluid power, and summarizes technology gaps and implementation barriers. Mobile fluid power is the use of hydraulic fluids under pressure to transmit power in mobile equipment applications. The mobile off-road fluid power sector includes various uses of hydraulic fluid power equipment with fundamentally diverse end-use application and operational requirements, such as a skid steer loader, a wheel loader or an agriculture tractor. The agriculture and construction segments dominate the mobile off-road fluid power market in component unit sales volume. An estimated range of energy consumed by the mobile off-road fluid power sector is 0.36 - 1.8 quads per year, which was 1.3 percent - 6.5 percent of the total energy consumed in 2016 by the transportation sector. Opportunities for efficiency improvements within the fluid power system result from needs to level and reduce the peak system load requirements and develop new technologies to reduce fluid power system level losses, both of which may be facilitated by characterizing duty cycles to define standardized performance test methods. There are currently no commonly accepted standardized test methods for evaluating equipment level efficiency over a duty cycle. The off-road transportation sector currently meets criteria emissions requirements, and there are no efficiency regulations requiring original equipment manufacturers (OEM) to invest in new architecture development to improve the fuel economy of mobile off-road fluid power systems. In addition, the end-user efficiency interests are outweighed by low equipment purchase or lease price concerns, required payback periods, and reliability and durability requirements of new architecture. Current economics, low market volumes with high product diversity, and regulation compliance challenge OEM investment in commercialization of new architecture development.

  11. PENGARUH POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER PADA SISTEM TENAGA LISTRIK DENGAN UNIT PEMBANGKIT TERSEBAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Budi Muljono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Deregulasi pada sistem tenaga saat ini membawa kecenderungan untuk membangun unit-unit pembangkit yang letaknya tersebar dekat dengan pusat-pusat beban. Beroperasinya unit pembangkit tersebar membawa kecenderungan transfer daya inter dan antar area menjadi berkembang yang mengakibatkan perubahan titik operasi pembangkitan dan masalah pada stabilitas dinamis sistem. Perbaikan stabilitas dinamis sistem tenaga dapat ditingkatkan dengan pemasangan Power System Stabilizer (PSS. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemasangan PSS pada satu pusat pembangkit terhadap perbaikan stabilitas dinamis keseluruhan unit/pusat pembangkit lain termasuk unit pembangkit tersebar yang terkoneksi ke jaringan. Penelitian dilakukan secara simulasi dengan program aplikasi MatPower 3.0 dan MATLAB 7.0.4. Pembangkit tersebar (DG yang diteliti adalah PLTMH yang masuk ke salah satu bus pada sistem 14 bus dan 3 pusat pembangkit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan PSS yang dipasang di Pembangkit Ampenan memberikan perbaikan nilai eigen (AVR+PSS Pembangkit Ampenan, koefisien redaman dan koefisien sinkronisasi rata-rata berturut-turut sebesar 65.90%, 49.84% dan 78.04 % untuk berbagai operasi pembebaban. Perbaikan ini juga mempengaruhi unjuk kerja keseluruhan pembangkit termasuk DG, kecuali waktu steady state perubahan kecepatan sudut DG tetap (tidak mengalami perbaikan sebesar 1.80 detik.

  12. Methodology for carrying out energy diagnosis in auxiliaries systems in thermal electrical central stations; Metodologia para realizar un diagnostico energetico en sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebradt Garcia, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rojas Hidalgo, Ismael; Huante Perez, Liborio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    One of the potential areas for energy saving in Central Electric Power Plants are the auxiliaries system, so as to based in a preliminary energy diagnosis and considering that energy saving measures would be taken, going from the instrumentation, operational changes in equipment, as well as in using velocity variators in motors, it turns out to be that the energy consumption of auxiliaries at 75% load in a 150 MW thermal power plant varies from 3% to 4% and for the case of a 350 MW power plant the energy consumption of the auxiliaries represents 2 to 3.5%. Nowadays this consumption are above 6%. Considering that the country has 40 units with capacities varying from 150 to 350 MW, the economical and the fuel saving would be substantial. This paper will present a summary of the methodology to be used to carry out this type of projects. [Espanol] Una de las areas potenciales de ahorro de energia en centrales termoelectricas son los sistemas auxiliares, de tal manera que basados en un diagnostico energetico preliminar y considerando que se aplicarian las medidas de ahorro de energia que van desde la instrumentacion, cambios operativos en equipos, asi como el uso de variadores de velocidad en motores, se tienen que los consumos de auxiliares para un 75% de carga en una central termoelectrica de 150 MW varian desde un 3% hasta un 4% y para el caso de una central termoelectrica de 350 MW, el consumo de auxiliares representa del 2 al 3.5%. Hoy en dia dichos consumos estan por encima del 6%. Si consideramos que el pais cuenta con 40 unidades que varian desde 150 MW hasta 350 MW, entonces los ahorros economicos y de combustible serian impactantes. La presente ponencia mostrara un resumen de la metodologia a emplear para la realizacion de este tipo de proyectos.

  13. Oscillations in the power spectra of motor unit signals caused by refractoriness variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. L.; Tong, K. Y.; Hung, L. K.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory period of a motor unit is an important mechanism that regulates the motor unit firing, and its variation has been found in many physiological cases. In this study, a new observation that an increase in the motor unit refractoriness results in an enhancement of oscillations, or ripple effects, in the motor unit output power density spectra (PDS) has been identified and studied. The effects of the refractoriness variation on the PDS of motor unit firing were investigated on three levels: theoretical modeling, simulation and electromyographic (EMG) experimentation on human subjects. Both theoretical modeling and simulation showed the enhanced oscillations, ripple effects, in MUAPT PDS, given the increase in the refractoriness. It was also found that the extent of the increment in output PDS oscillation could be related to the motor unit size and the mean firing rate of the stimulation. A needle EMG experiment on biceps brachii muscles of five healthy human subjects was carried out during isometric contraction at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 20 s with a fatigue effort proceeded by MVC. The increased oscillations in the PDS of the real MUAPTs were observed with the rising of the motor unit refractoriness due to fatigue. The study gives new information for EMG spectra interpretation, and also provides a potential method for accessing neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF) due to fatigue during voluntary contraction.

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in the United Kingdom. The general technology underlying most aspects of power reactor C and I in the UK has not altered since the last progress report although there have been many improvements in detail. In one field, however, that of computer applications, the change has almost been one of kind rather than degree. The following fields are briefly described: The status of nuclear power in the UK, the development of sensors, the development of electronic equipment, signal processing - information technology, quality assurance and the validation and verification of software, expert systems, training simulators. (author). 1 ref

  15. Social Acceptance of Wind Power in the United States: Evaluating Stakeholder Perspectives (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.

    2009-05-01

    As the wind industry strives to achieve 20% wind energy by 2030, maintaining high levels of social acceptance for wind energy will become increasingly important. Wind Powering America is currently researching stakeholder perspectives in the U.S. market and reviewing findings from wind energy projects around the world to better understand social acceptance barriers. Results from European studies show that acceptance varies widely depending on local community values. A preliminary survey shows similar results in the United States. Further research will be conducted to refine our understanding of key social acceptance barriers and evaluate the best ways to mitigate negative perspectives on wind power.

  16. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kotowicz Janusz; Bartela Łukasz; Mikosz Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by...

  17. Controlling engineering project changes for multi-unit, multi-site standardized nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, E.; Boddeker, G.; McGugin, H.; Strother, E.; Waggoner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Multibillioin dollar multiple nuclear power plant projects have numerous potential sources of engineering changes. The majority of these are internally generated changes, client generated changes, and changes from construction, procurement, other engineering organizations, and regulatory organizations. For multiunit, multisite projects, the use of a standardized design is cost effective. Engineering changes can then be controlled for a single standardized design, and the unit or site unique changes can be treated as deviations. Once an effective change procedure is established for change control of the standardized design, the same procedures can be used for control of unit or site unique changes

  18. Coalition of distributed generation units to virtual power players - a game theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Santos, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    and the existence of new management players such as several types of aggregators. This paper proposes a methodology to facilitate the coalition between distributed generation units originating Virtual Power Players (VPP) considering a game theory approach. The proposed approach consists in the analysis...... strategies, size and goals, each parameter has different importance. VPP can also manage other type of energy resources, like storage units, electric vehicles, demand response programs or even parts of the MV and LV distribution network. A case study with twelve VPPs with different characteristics and one...

  19. A structural and thermal packaging approach for power processing units for 30-cm ion thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, J. E.; Sharp, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) is currently being studied for possible use in a number of near earth and planetary missions. The thruster subsystem for these missions would consist of 30 centimeter ion thrusters with Power Processor Units (PPU) clustered in assemblies of from two to ten units. A preliminary design study of the electronic packaging of the PPU has been completed at Lewis Research Center of NASA. This study evaluates designs meeting the competing requirements of low system weight and overall mission flexibility. These requirements are evaluated regarding structural and thermal design, electrical efficiency, and integration of the electrical circuits into a functional PPU layout.

  20. Ultralight Cut-Paper-Based Self-Charging Power Unit for Self-Powered Portable Electronic and Medical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hengyu; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Zi, Yunlong; Wen, Zhen; Chen, Jie; Liu, Guanlin; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-05-23

    The development of lightweight, superportable, and sustainable power sources has become an urgent need for most modern personal electronics. Here, we report a cut-paper-based self-charging power unit (PC-SCPU) that is capable of simultaneously harvesting and storing energy from body movement by combining a paper-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and a supercapacitor (SC), respectively. Utilizing the paper as the substrate with an assembled cut-paper architecture, an ultralight rhombic-shaped TENG is achieved with highly specific mass/volume charge output (82 nC g -1 /75 nC cm -3 ) compared with the traditional acrylic-based TENG (5.7 nC g -1 /5.8 nC cm -3 ), which can effectively charge the SC (∼1 mF) to ∼1 V in minutes. This wallet-contained PC-SCPU is then demonstrated as a sustainable power source for driving wearable and portable electronic devices such as a wireless remote control, electric watch, or temperature sensor. This study presents a potential paper-based portable SCPU for practical and medical applications.

  1. 76 FR 72007 - ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-295 and 50-304; NRC-2011-0244] ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt Pressurized Water Reactor...

  2. 78 FR 22347 - GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Operating License No. DPR-73 issued for Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI), Unit 2, located in... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-320; NRC-2013-0065] GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain Security Requirements AGENCY: Nuclear...

  3. 75 FR 63867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1, Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-16; NRC-2010-0328 DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1, Exemption... Facility Operating License No. DPR-9 issued for Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1), located in Monroe County, Michigan. Fermi 1 is a permanently shutdown nuclear reactor facility. The license...

  4. Study Improving Performance of Centrifugal Compressor In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yuriadi; Permana, Dadang S.

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. This study aims to measure the performance of Centrifugal Compressors operating in Paiton’s coal fired power plant units 1 and 2. Performance Compressor is expressed by Specific Power Consumption (SPC) in kW/100 cfm. For this purpose, we measure the compressed air flow rate generated by each compressor and the power consumed by each compressor. The result is as follows Air Compressor SAC 2B : 15.1 kW/100 cfm, Air Compressor SAC 1B : 15.31 kW/100 cfm,Air Compressor SAC 1A : 16.3 kW/100 cfm and air Compressor SAC 2C : 18.19 kW/100 cfm. From the measurement result, air compressor SAC 2B has the best performance that is 15.1 kW / 100 cfm. In this study we analyze efforts to improve the performance of other compressors to at least match the performance of the SAC 2B air compressor. By increasing the Specific Power Consumption from others Compressor, it will get energy saving up to 284,165 kWh per year.

  5. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  6. Test Results From a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a closed cycle system incorporating a turboaltemator, recuperator, and gas cooler connected by gas ducts to an external gas heater. For this series of tests, the BPCU was modified by replacing the gas heater with the Direct Drive Gas heater or DOG. The DOG uses electric resistance heaters to simulate a fast spectrum nuclear reactor similar to those proposed for space power applications. The combined system thermal transient behavior was the focus of these tests. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points. At each point it was subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed or DOG electrical input. This paper outlines the changes made to the test unit and describes the testing that took place along with the test results.

  7. Analysis of internal events for the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the accident sequences analysis for those internally initiated events for Laguna Verde Unit 1, Nuclear Power Plant. The appendix A presents the comments raised by the Sandia National Laboratories technical staff as a result of the review of the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. This review was performed during a joint Sandia/CNSNS multi-day meeting by the end 1992. Also included is a brief evaluation on the applicability of these comments to the present study. The appendix B presents the fault tree models printed for each of the systems included and analyzed in the Internal Event Analysis for LVNPP. The appendice C presents the outputs of the TEMAC code, used for the cuantification of the dominant accident sequences as well as for the final core damage evaluation. (Author)

  8. Risk assessment on the preventive maintenance of Ulchin units 3 and 4 during power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, See Darl; Jang, Seung Chul; Kim Kil Yoo; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the risk assessments on the change of AOTs and the PM during power operation of major safety systems for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 were performed to identify the possibility of on-line maintenance of them. From a point of vies of risk assessment, the results of this study show that the current AOTs of LPSIS, SCS, and CSS can be increased to 7 days and that of EDG to 10 days. Also, the results show that on-line maintenance of LPSIS< SCS, CSS, EDG, ECWS, ESWS, and CCWS for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 can be performed without increasing the risk greatly. It is expected that the PM at power for the systems mentioned in this study will decrease the shutdown period for refueling more than 2 days. (author)

  9. Analysis of internal events for the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the accident sequences analysis for those internally initiated events for Laguna Verde Unit 1, Nuclear Power Plant. The appendix A presents the comments raised by the Sandia National Laboratories technical staff as a result of the review of the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. This review was performed during a joint Sandia/CNSNS multi-day meeting by the end 1992. Also included is a brief evaluation on the applicability of these comments to the present study. The appendix B presents the fault tree models printed for each of the systems included and.analyzed in the Internal Event Analysis for LVNPP. The appendice C presents the outputs of the TEMAC code, used for the cuantification of the dominant accident sequences as well as for the final core damage evaluation. (Author)

  10. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  11. The technology of the bearings used in the nuclear power generation system turbine generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, J.M.; Rossato, M.

    1997-01-01

    A bearing consists of all the stationary part which allow the relative motion in rotation or in translation, of a shaft line. Inside the bearing there is a journal bearing with a metallic anti-friction coating (the babbitt metal). The high power turbine generator unit rotors are supported by smooth transversal journal bearings fed with oil which fills the empty space and runs along the shaft. The technologies used for the bearings and the thrust bearings of the turbine generator units and the various shaft lines of the French CP0/CP1- and CP2/1300 MW-type nuclear power plants are described. The experience feedback is then discussed in terms of the dynamics of the shaft line, i.e. vibrational problems, the influence of the alignment and the babbitt metal incidents. (author)

  12. A dynamic regrouping based sequential dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the unit commitment (UC) in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning under the deregulated power market. In CHP plants (units), generation of heat and power follows joint characteristics, which implies that it is difficult to determine the relative cost...... efficiency of the plants. We introduce in this paper the DRDP-RSC algorithm, which is a dynamic regrouping based dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units, sequential commitment of units in small groups. Relaxed states of the plants are used to reduce...

  13. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1. Semiannual operations report No. 72, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Defueling of the reactor was completed in June 1975. The fuel will be shipped to Aerojet Nuclear Co. in Idaho for long term storage. The primary coolant and auxiliary helium systems are being shut down. Activities are briefly described concerning health physics and maintenance. (FS)

  14. Sowing the Seeds of Soft Power: The United States and India in the Next Great Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    adopting the American ideal of female beauty and the objectification of women as sexual objects, which, when imprinted on a society with a...Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE...United States could be used by India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea , Russia, or Vietnam to contain Chinese power.33 While these nations may not

  15. Performance and Qualification of the Power Supply and Control Unit for the HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brag, R.; Herty, F.

    2014-08-01

    In 2013, Astrium GmbH delivered several flight model electronics for Electric Propulsion (EP) systems or corresponding components. One of the elements is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP-T) (see Figure 1). This paper presents the PSCU specification and results of the qualification and acceptance phase of the EQM and the PFM.

  16. Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giachetti, R.T.

    1989-09-01

    This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs

  17. Dismantling support project for the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (Slovakia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Lamela, B.

    2004-01-01

    The consortium formed by IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Consultoria, leading company, Electricite de France, Empresarios Agrupados, Internacional,. S. A., and Soluziona Ingenieria has been awarded the decommissioning support project for the Units 1 and 2 of Bohunice V1 Nuclear Power Plant (Slovakia). The plant and the site, the activities to be developed and the main characteristics of the project are described in this paper. (Author)

  18. The software testing of PPS for shin Ulchin nuclear power plant units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Pa; Park, Cheol Lak; Cho, Chang Hui; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min

    2012-01-01

    The testing of software (S/W) is the process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions to evaluate the features of the software items. This paper introduces the S/W testing of Plant Protection System (PPS), as a safety system which actuate Reactor Trip (RT) and Engineered Safety Features (ESF) for Shin Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SUN 1 and 2)

  19. Improved gravitational search algorithm for unit commitment considering uncertainty of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Bin; Yuan, Xiaohui; Chen, Zhihuan; Tian, Hao

    2014-01-01

    With increasing wind farm integrations, unit commitment (UC) is more difficult to solve because of the intermittent and fluctuation nature of wind power. In this paper, scenario generation and reduction technique is applied to simulate the impacts of its uncertainty on system operation. And then a model of thermal UC problem with wind power integration (UCW) is established. Combination of quantum-inspired binary gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and scenario analysis method is proposed to solve UCW problem. Meanwhile, heuristic search strategies are used to handle the constraints of thermal unit for each scenario. In addition, a priority list of thermal units based on the weight between average full-load cost and maximal power output is utilized during the optimization process. Moreover, two UC test systems with and without wind power integration are used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method as well as the performance of the algorithm. The results are analyzed in detail, which demonstrate the model and the proposed method is practicable. The comparison with other methods clearly shows that the proposed method has higher efficiency for solving UC problems with and even without wind farm integration. - Highlights: • Impact of wind fluctuation on unit commitment problem (UCW) is investigated. • Quantum-inspired gravitational search algorithm (QBGSA) is used to optimize UC. • A new method combines QBGSA with scenario analysis is proposed to solve UCW. • Heuristic search strategies are applied to handle the constraints of the UCW. • The results verify the proposed method is feasible and efficient for handling UCW

  20. Expert system for operational personnel support during power unit operation control in regulation range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanitskij, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The problems met when developing the systems for NPP operator support in the process of power unit operation are considered. The expert system for NPP personnel intelligent support combining the properties belonging to the artificial intelligence systems including selection of the analysis method taking into account the concrete technological situation and capability of application of algothmic calculations of the equipment characteristics using the information accumulated during the system development, erection and operation is described

  1. A Three-Stage Birandom Program for Unit Commitment with Wind Power Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Weidong; Liu, Rao; Lv, Quan; Sun, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The integration of large-scale wind power adds a significant uncertainty to power system planning and operating. The wind forecast error is decreased with the forecast horizon, particularly when it is from one day to several hours ahead. Integrating intraday unit commitment (UC) adjustment process based on updated ultra-short term wind forecast information is one way to improve the dispatching results. A novel three-stage UC decision method, in which the day-ahead UC decisions are determined in the first stage, the intraday UC adjustment decisions of subfast start units are determined in the second stage, and the UC decisions of fast-start units and dispatching decisions are determined in the third stage is presented. Accordingly, a three-stage birandom UC model is presented, in which the intraday hours-ahead forecasted wind power is formulated as a birandom variable, and the intraday UC adjustment event is formulated as a birandom event. The equilibrium chance constraint is employed to ensure the reliability requirement. A birandom simulation based hybrid genetic algorithm is designed to solve the proposed model. Some computational results indicate that the proposed model provides UC decisions with lower expected total costs. PMID:24987739

  2. 15 KJ FLASH LAMP, POWER CONDITIONING UNIT DESIGNED FOR SAFTY, RELIABILITY & MANUFACTURABILITY*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G; Merritt, B; Dreifuerst, G; Strickland, S

    2007-08-07

    A 15kJoule, Flash Lamp Power Conditioning Unit has been successfully designed, developed, and deployed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Preamplifier Modules (PAM). The primary design philosophy of this power conditioning unit (PCU) is safety, reliability, and manufacturability. Cost reduction over commercially equivalent systems was also achieved through an easily manufactured packaging design optimized to meet NIF requirements. While still maintaining low cost, the PCU design includes a robust control system, fault diagnostic system, and safety features. The pulsed power design includes 6 PFN modules, each including a dual series injection trigger transformer, that drive a total of 12 flash lamp loads. The lamps are individually triggered via a 20kV pulse produced by a 1kV, MCT switched capacitive discharge unit on the primary side of the trigger transformer. The remote control interface includes an embedded controller that captures flash lamp current wave forms and fault status for each shot. The embedded controller provides the flexibility of remotely adjusting both the main drive voltage from 1.6 to 2.5 kV and the trigger voltage from 0 to 20 kV.

  3. Water-Chemistry and Its Utility Systems in CCP Power Units (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Damageability of heat transfer surfaces of waste heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) of combined- cycle plants (CCP) can be reduced due to an increase in the quality of make-up and feed water, the use of phosphate-alkaline or amino compound water chemistry (WC), and improved chemical quality control of the heat carrier and make-up water preparation techniques. Temporary quality standards for the heat medium developed by the All-Russia Thermal Engineering institute (VTI) for CCP power units are presented in comparison with the IAPWS standards; preferences for the choice of a WC type for some power units commissioned in Russia in the first decade of this century are shown; and operational data on the quality of feed, boiler water, and steam for two large CCP-450 and CCP-425 power units are given. The state and prospects for the development of chemical-technological monitoring systems and CCP water treatment plants are noted. Estimability of some CCP diagnostic parameters by measuring specific electric conductivity and pH is shown. An extensive bibliography on this topic is given.

  4. Energy indicators impact in multi-criteria sustainability analyse of thermal power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škobalj Predrag D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents method for sustainability assessment of thermal power plant unit using multi-criteria analysis with aim to create base for business decision. Seven options of possible status of thermal power plant „Kolubara A” unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development were shown. Energy indicators of sustainable development consists of sets of resource preservation, economic, environmental, and social indicators. Sustainability assessment often fails to account for social influence on energy system. Considering to this, special focus will be on social indicators, their definition, forming, and impact on multi-criteria sustainability analysis. Analysis of quality of the selected options (energy systems in respect to sustainable development by compare of their general index of sustainability is presented. Methodology of multi-criteria analyse of thermal power plant unit can show decision makers how to find best available options when the social indicators impact is leading. The aim of this paper is to choose the criteria for the evaluation of the available options, determine the relative importance of specific criteria and present methodology of multi-criteria analysis in the decision-making process.

  5. The State of Restructuring the Electric Power Industry in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ricardo A.

    Through federal legislation, the electric power industry in the United States is encouraged to unbundle the ownership structure into separate entities for generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. The electric power industry represents more than 7% of the U.S. gross domestic product and some of the country's major economic sectors, such as mining and chemical processing. The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study is to explore the phenomenon of the U.S. electric power industry restructuring from the viewpoint of those who have been at the forefront of the effort. The conceptual framework for this study is based in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA), which guided the restructuring of the U.S. electric power industry. The focus of the research questions was determining the informed perceptions and lived experience of participants. A purposive sampling approach was utilized along with a semi structured, open-ended interview with 20 participants who brought context-specific knowledge of the phenomenon. A sequential inductive process of coding, categorizing, and abstracting was performed. The findings indicate that the professionals within the industry continue to struggle with what is perceived as a restructuring effort that has come to a standstill, and doubts continue regarding the benefits or disadvantages of restructuring. The study contributes to social change by informing challenges to restructuring within the electric power industry, changes that include the potential for significant impacts to customers and especially for low income residents if subsidies are removed in a restructured environment.

  6. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Capacitor Failure Root Cause Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Pinero, Luis; Schneidegger, Robert; Dunning, John; Birchenough, Art

    2012-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing an advanced ion propulsion system for future NASA missions for solar system exploration. A critical element of the propulsion system is the Power Processing Unit (PPU) which supplies regulated power to the key components of the thruster. The PPU contains six different power supplies including the beam, discharge, discharge heater, neutralizer, neutralizer heater, and accelerator supplies. The beam supply is the largest and processes up to 93+% of the power. The NEXT PPU had been operated for approximately 200+ hours and has experienced a series of three capacitor failures in the beam supply. The capacitors are in the same, nominally non-critical location the input filter capacitor to a full wave switching inverter. The three failures occurred after about 20, 30, and 135 hours of operation. This paper provides background on the NEXT PPU and the capacitor failures. It discusses the failure investigation approach, the beam supply power switching topology and its operating modes, capacitor characteristics and circuit testing. Finally, it identifies root cause of the failures to be the unusual confluence of circuit switching frequency, the physical layout of the power circuits, and the characteristics of the capacitor.

  7. Radioisotope Heater Unit-Based Stirling Power Convertor Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Geng, Steven M.; Penswick, Lawrence; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A variety of mission concepts have been studied by NASA and the U. S. Department of Energy that would utilize RPS for landers, probes, and rovers and only require milliwatts to tens of watts of power. These missions would contain science measuring instruments that could be distributed across planetary surfaces or near objects of interest in space solar flux insufficient for using solar cells. A low power Stirling convertor is being developed to provide an RPS option for future low power applications. Initial concepts convert heat available from several Radioisotope Heater Units to electrical power for spacecraft instruments and communication. Initial development activity includes defining and evaluating a variety of Stirling configurations and selecting one for detailed design, research of advanced manufacturing methods that could simplify fabrication, evaluating thermal interfaces, characterizing components and subassemblies to validate design codes, and preparing for an upcoming demonstration of proof of concept in a laboratory environment.

  8. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2006-11-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than half of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 600 utilities, or about 20% of utilities nationally, offer green power programs to customers. These programs allow customers to purchase some portion of their power supply as renewable energy--almost always at a higher price--or to contribute funds for the utility to invest in renewable energy development. The term ''green pricing'' is typically used to refer to these utility programs offered in regulated or noncompetitive electricity markets. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States.

  9. Customer choice and green power marketing in the United States: how far can it take us?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Holt, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This article explores whether and to what extent individuals are willing to voluntarily pay a premium for products that provide public environmental benefits. In particular, we critically review and analyze the status and impacts of U.S. green power marketing to date. Green power marketing - the business of selling electricity products distinguished by their environmental attributes - seeks to develop a private market for renewable energy driven by consumer demand for green products. Debate has centered on the ability of such a market to provide a significant level of support for renewable energy sources. This paper examines experience to date with green power markets in the United States, proving an historical overview, reviewing product offerings, assessing customer response, and calculating overall support for renewable energy. While market research shows that a majority of the populace states a willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy, early experience with green power marketing shows that those attitudes have not yet translated into large-scale behavior change, tracking experience in other environment product markets. While a niche market for green power does exist, the data presented in this paper indicate that the collective impact of customer-driven demand on renewable generation has been modest thus far. Much will need to be done if this market is to play a strong role in supporting renewable energy in the early part of the millennium. Several lessons on how to potentially improve the prospects of green power marketing are therefore discussed. (author)

  10. Application of SMA technology to auxiliary functions in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bart; Brei, Diann E.; Patera, John

    2002-07-01

    Traditionally smart material actuation has been reserved for high technology industries such as space and aerospace; however, as the field matures more and more instances are found in low-cost, high production areas. This paper describes one such instance - the application of shape memory alloys to auxiliary functions in appliances. This investigation focused on lid locks for washing machines because it is representative of several other applications found in appliances including valves, dispensers, locks, brakes, etc. Several competing concepts for SMA actuated lid locks are discussed including simple analytical design models and experimental characterization of proof-of-concept prototypes. A comparison of these designs based on performance (force, response times), energy (power requirements) and economic metrics is given. From this study, a final concept was developed based upon the best attributes of the different concepts. The resulting proof-of-concept prototype demonstrated improved performance over the current state with a potential for cost reduction.

  11. Geothermal power plants of the United States: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1978-04-01

    The development of geothermal energy as a source of electric power in the United States is reviewed. A thorough description is given of The Geysers geothermal power project in northern California. The recent efforts to exploit the hot-water resources of the Mexicali-Imperial Rift Valley are described. Details are given concerning the geology of the several sites now being used and for those at which power plants will soon be built. Attention is paid to the technical particulars of all existing plants, including wells, gathering systems, energy conversion devices, materials, environmental impacts, economics and operating characteristics. Specifically, plants which either exist or are planned for the following locations are covered: The Geysers, CA; East Mesa, CA; Heber, CA; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; Valles Caldera, NM; Salton Sea, CA; Westmorland, CA; Brawley, CA; Desert Peak, NV; and Raft River, ID. The growth of installed geothermal electric generating capacity is traced from the beginning in 1960 and is projected to 1984.

  12. Risk-based inspection guide for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.W.; Dukelow, J.S.; Vo, T.V.; Harris, M.S.; Gore, B.F.; Hunt, S.T.

    1991-06-01

    The Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for Crystal River Unit 3 (CR-3) has been analyzed to identify plant systems and components important to minimizing public risk, as measured by system contributions to plant core damage frequency, and to identify the primary failure modes for these components. The report presents a series of tables, organized by system and prioritized by risk importance, which identify components associated with 98% of the inspectable risk due to plant operation. The systems addressed, in descending order to risk importance are: Low Pressure Injection, AC Power, Service Water, Demineralized Water, High Pressure Injection, DC Power, Emergency Feedwater, Reactor Coolant Pressure Control, and Power Conversion. This ranking is based on the Fussell-Vesely measure of risk importance, i.e., the fraction of the total core damage frequency which involves failures of the system of interest. 3 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs

  13. Conceptual Design of a Combined Power Generation Unit at the NPP Seaside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyung H.

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve operational performance, an undersea tunnel is being utilized for in-taking and out-taking seawater as coolant in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). This paper describes a Combined solar-wind-wave Power Generation Unit (CPGU) to be specialized for in-taking and out-taking seawater as coolant in NPP. Accordingly, the purpose of the CPGU is twofold: one is to contain some tunnels to be maintained on the bottom of the CPGU body in order to in-take and out-take coolant water, and the other is to generate a combined power at the NPP seaside. Fig. 1 shows the conceptual CPGU to be configured at the NPP seaside

  14. Rise and fall of nuclear power in the United States and the limits of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Sesto, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper documents the rapid growth of nuclear power in the United States and its subsequent decline in the late 1970s. It demonstrates that the increase in numbers of new orders for nuclear plants created pressures for additional licensing complexity to insure safety and provide public intervenors with opportunities to participate in the regulatory process. The resulting protraction of the licensing process combined with increasing political opposition to nuclear power caused construction delays and bureaucratic bottlenecks at a time when soaring interest rates and double-digit inflation have pushed the cost of building new facilities out of the reach of the financially battered utility industry. Together with a downturn in demand for electricity and increasing uncertainty over nuclear power, no reactor orders have been placed since late 1978. It is argued that renewed growth of nuclear power in the United States is unlikely, especially in a regulatory environment which fosters increased costs of electricity to consumers and a simultaneous abrogation of the economies of scale. The consequences of the impending atrophication of the nuclear industry in America and its effects on future energy mixes and long-term national interests must be considered in future nuclear policies and reforms

  15. A Mathematical Model and Its Application for Hydro Power Units under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of hydro power units, especially the governor system model for different operating conditions, based on the basic version of the software TOPSYS. The mathematical model consists of eight turbine equations, one generator equation, and one governor equation, which are solved for ten unknown variables. The generator and governor equations, which are different under various operating conditions, are presented and discussed in detail. All the essential non-linear factors in the governor system (dead-zone, saturation, rate limiting, and backlash are also considered. Case studies are conducted based on one Swedish hydro power plant (HPP and three Chinese plants. The simulation and on-site measurements are compared for start-up, no-load operation, normal operation, and load rejection in different control modes (frequency, opening, and power feedback. The main error in each simulation is also discussed in detail. As a result, the model application is proved trustworthy for simulating different physical quantities of the unit (e.g., guide vane opening, active power, rotation speed, and pressures at volute and draft tube. The model has already been applied effectively in consultant analyses and scientific studies.

  16. Incorporating energy efficiency into electric power transmission planning: A western United States case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Sanstad, Alan H.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by system reliability goals and the need to integrate significantly increased renewable power generation, long-range, bulk-power transmission planning processes in the United States are undergoing major changes. At the same time, energy efficiency is an increasing share of the electricity resource mix in many regions, and has become a centerpiece of many utility resource plans and state policies as a means of meeting electricity demand, complementing supply-side sources, and reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the electric power system. The paper describes an innovative project in the western United States to explicitly incorporate end-use efficiency into load forecasts – projections of electricity consumption and demand – that are a critical input into transmission planning and transmission planning studies. Institutional and regulatory background and context are reviewed, along with a detailed discussion of data sources and analytical procedures used to integrate efficiency into load forecasts. The analysis is intended as a practical example to illustrate the kinds of technical and institutional issues that must be addressed in order to incorporate energy efficiency into regional transmission planning activities. - Highlights: • Incorporating energy efficiency into electric power transmission planning is an emergent analytical and policy priority. • A new methodology for this purpose was developed and applied in the western U.S. transmission system. • Efficiency scenarios were created and incorporated into multiple load forecasts. • Aggressive deployment of efficiency policies and programs can significantly reduce projected load. • The approach is broadly applicable in long-range transmission planning

  17. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  18. Method for controlling a nuclear fueled electric power generating unit and interfacing the same with a load dispatching system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.P.; Meyer, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fueled, electric power generating unit is controlled through the use of on-line calculations of the rapid, step and ramp, power change capabilities of the unit made from measured values of power level, axial offset, coolant temperature and rod position taking into account operator generated, safety and control, and balance of plant limits. The power change capabilities so generated may be fed to an automatic dispatch system which provides closed loop control of a power grid system. (author)

  19. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  20. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  1. On Enlarging Unit Capacity due to Loss Reduction of Power Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Takashi; Matsubara, Yoshio

    As the generated heat mainly limits the maximum unit capacity of tank-type power capacitor, it is important to use low loss capacitor elements. This paper describes the developed wide-width element with folded and extended foil electrodes largely improves capacitor loss, and could make possible for cooling design to perform much larger unit capacitors without cooling apparatus such as radiators. The capacitor loss characteristics of three types of element were examined, which became clear the loss reduction of the developed one caused by less current on the electrode foils and by less electrode edge effect. Next, the temperature rise test results of actual large tank-type capacitors drew the empirical equations, which were considered based on the heat transfer engineering. Calculating the temperature rise of tank and inside oil, the bounds of maximum unit capacity could be estimated on the same design policy as the examined.

  2. Autonomous micro-platform for multisensors with an advanced power management unit (PMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bellier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we developed and characterised an autonomous micro-platform including several types of sensors, an advanced power management unit (PMU and radio frequency (RF transmission capabilities. Autonomy requires integration of an energy harvester, an energy storage device, a PMU, ultra-low-power components (including sensors and optimized software. Our choice was to use commercial off-the-shelf components with low-power consumption, low cost and compactness as selection criteria. For the multi-purpose micro-platform, we choose to include the most common sensors (such as temperature, humidity, luminosity, acceleration, etc. and to integrate them in one miniaturised autonomous device.A processing unit is embedded in the system. It allows for data acquisition from each sensor individually, simple data processing, and storing and/or wireless data transmission. Such a system can be used as stand-alone, with an internal storage in a non-volatile memory, or as a node in a wireless network, with bi-directional communication with a hub device where data can be analysed further. According to specific application requirements, system settings can be adjusted, such as the sampling rate, the resolution and the processing of the sensor data.Parallel to full autonomous functionality, the low-power design enables us to power the system by a small battery leading to a high degree of autonomy at a high sampling rate. Therefore, we also developed an alternative battery-powered version of the micro-platform that increases the range of applications. As such, the system is highly versatile and due to its reduced dimensions, it can be used nearly everywhere. Typical applications include the Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, home automation and building structural health monitoring.

  3. Design studies on staffing requirements for the new generation nuclear power units of WWER-640 and BN-800 reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyov, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the main staffing requirements for the new generation power units with nuclear reactors. These requirements were developed taking into account IAEA recommendations. NPP staffing structure is described, including the main and auxiliary personnel. The main principles of personnel number determination are given. Special attention is taken to the issues of personnel skill and training, including both theoretical education and practical work on the power units in operation. The use of simulators, system of knowledge control and structure of training are considered. ''Shopless'' staffing structure approach is proposed for the NPP, assuming that the main scope of repair work is performed by the central repair organization, thus increasing the quality of repair and decreasing the number of personnel on the plant. Data are given on the personnel number for the WWER-640 and the BN-800 reactor designs. Specialists of the ''ATOMENERGOPROJECT'' Institute started their work on staffing on the early development stage of the basic design of WWER-640 reactor power unit which is the forerunner of the new generation reactors. This work was based on the approaches taken by the chief engineers of NPPs in operation during their meeting held in 1989 in Kalinin NPP. At this meeting definite decision was taken on changing over to involving manufacturer in the repair work of NPP components using manufacturer's technology. In 1992 the meeting of representatives of suppliers of the main components was held where representatives of ''ATOMENERGOREMONT'' and ''LENENERGOREMONT'' were present. The suppliers agreed on carrying out repair works on the components they produced. For this purpose special departments were set up having some experience. This repair work is already carried out by ''ATOMENERGOREMONT'' on some nuclear power plants. ''LENENERGOREMONT'' has gained considerable experience in this kind of repair work on the turbines of LO-1 and LO-2 NPP in Finland. Within the

  4. Stability and Confinement Properties of Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Menard; R.E.Bell; C. Bourdelle; D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; L.R. Grisham; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; S.S. Medley; D. Mueller; F. Paoletti; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; J.R. Wilson; M.G. Bell; J.M. Bialek; C.E.Bush; J.C. Hosea; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; M. Ono; Y-K.M. Peng; C.H. Skinner; V.A. Soukhanovskii; E.J. Synakowski; G. Taylor; G.A. Wurden; and S.J. Zweben

    2001-07-05

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a spherical tokamak with nominal plasma major radius R(subscript ''0'') = 0.85 m, minor radius a = 0.66 m, and aspect ratio A > 1.28. Typical discharge parameters are plasma current I (subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, toroidal magnetic field B(subscript ''t0'') = 0.25-0.45 Tesla at major radius R(subscript ''0''), elongation = 1.7-2.2, triangularity 0.3-0.5, line-average electron density = 2-5 x 10(superscript ''19'') m(superscript ''-3''), electron temperature T(subscript ''e'')(0) = 0.5-1.5 keV, and ion temperature T(subscript ''i'')(0) = 0.5-2 keV. The NSTX auxiliary heating systems can routinely deliver 4.5 MW of 80-keV deuterium neutral beams and 3 MW of 30-MHz high-harmonic fast-wave power. Kinetic profile diagnostics presently include a 10-channel, 30-Hz multipulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS), a 17-channel charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system, a 48-chord ultra-soft X-ray (USXR) array, and a 15-chord bolometry array. Initial experiments utilizing auxiliary heating on NSTX have focused on MHD stability limits, confinement trends, studying H-mode characteristics, and performing initial power balance calculations.

  5. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  6. Study of regeneration system of 300 MW power unit based on nondeaerating heat balance diagram at reduced load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S. B.; Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Snegin, I. P.; Zhivykh, D. A.; Medvedkin, A. V.; Ryabich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 30 power units of thermal power stations, based on the nondeaerating heat balance diagram, successfully operate in the former Soviet Union. Most of them are power units with a power of 300 MW, equipped with HTGZ and LMZ turbines. They operate according to a variable electric load curve characterized by deep reductions when undergoing night minimums. Additional extension of the range of power unit adjustment makes it possible to maintain the dispatch load curve and obtain profit for the electric power plant. The objective of this research is to carry out estimated and experimental processing of the operating regimes of the regeneration system of steam-turbine plants within the extended adjustment range and under the conditions when the constraints on the regeneration system and its equipment are removed. Constraints concerning the heat balance diagram that reduce the power unit efficiency when extending the adjustment range have been considered. Test results are presented for the nondeaerating heat balance diagram with the HTGZ turbine. Turbine pump and feed electric pump operation was studied at a power unit load of 120-300 MW. The reliability of feed pump operation is confirmed by a stable vibratory condition and the absence of cavitation noise and vibration at a frequency that characterizes the cavitation condition, as well as by oil temperature maintenance after bearings within normal limits. Cavitation performance of pumps in the studied range of their operation has been determined. Technical solutions are proposed on providing a profitable and stable operation of regeneration systems when extending the range of adjustment of power unit load. A nondeaerating diagram of high-pressure preheater (HPP) condensate discharge to the mixer. A regeneration system has been developed and studied on the operating power unit fitted with a deaeratorless thermal circuit of the system for removing the high-pressure preheater heating steam condensate to the mixer

  7. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are illustrated. The final choice consisted in an MR clutch with permanent magnet, which satisfied size, torque and fail-safe specifications. The clutch characteristics, in terms of torque versus slip, were obtained experimentally for three different clutch prototypes on an ad-hoc developed test bench.As result of a preliminary simulation, a comparison between the power absorption of a current production vacuum pump, an innovative vacuum pump and both vacuum pumps coupled with the MR clutch is presented. The New European Driving Cycle is considered for simulating the vacuum pump operation both in urban and highway driving. Results show that the use of the innovative vacuum pump reduces the device consumption of about 35%, whereas the use of MR clutch coupled with the innovative vacuum pump reduces it up to about 44% in urban driving and 50% in highway driving.

  8. Design of high-pressure direct contact heater for promising power supply units: Experimental substantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, E. V.; Shvarts, A. L.; Turkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of superheated steam condensation on feed water jets in a highpressure, direct-contact heat exchanger are presented. Direct contact feed water heater (DCFWH) can be used in a dual-flow diagram of a steam-power unit with ultrasupercritical steam parameters (35 MPa, 700/720°C). The direct contact feed water heater is included in the flow diagram of the II circuit in a promising power unit; it provides feed water heating to 340°C in all maintenance and emergency operation modes of the unit. The reliability of the high-pressure direct contact heater operation in this flow diagram is of major importance in relation to the danger of lead solidification in the tube space of the steam generator. Technical requirements to the design of the high-pressure direct contact heater for increasing the heat exchange efficiency are formulated based on the results of earlier studies with steam-water mixture as the heating medium. The results of studies of superheated steam condensation on jets presented in this study testify that feed water is additionally heated to the required temperature at the output of the installation. The influence of initial feed water parameters (outflow velocity and temperature) on the jet heating length is elucidated. The numerical approximation of the experimental data for determination of the jet heating length in the nominal and partial power unit loads is obtained. The results of the calculations are used to simplify the design of the water-supplying element for the direct contact feed water heater. The proposed design of direct contact feed water heater is characterized by simplicity and low metal intensity, which provides the installation reliability at the considered pressure level due to the minimum number of structural elements.

  9. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of hydogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N to 440 mN thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  10. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  11. Vogtle Unit 1 readiness review: Assessment of Georgia Power Company readiness review pilot program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.

    1987-09-01

    Georgia Power Company (GPC) performed a readiness review at Vogtle Unit 1 as a pilot program. The pilot program was a new and innovative approach for the systematic and disciplined review, with senior management involvement, of GPC's implementation of design, construction, and operational readiness processes. The program's principal objective was to increase the level of assurance that quality programs at Vogtle Unit 1 have been accomplished in accordance with regulatory requirements. This report assesses the effectiveness of the GPC's readiness review pilot program (RRPP) at Vogtle Unit 1. It includes (1) an overview of what was experienced during the program's implementation, (2) an assessment of how well program objectives were met, and (3) lessons learned on the future use of the readiness review concept. Overall, GPC and the NRC staff believe that the RRPP at Vogtle Unit 1 was a success and that the program provided significant added assurance that Vogtle Unit 1 licensing commitments and NRC regulations have been adequately implemented. Although altering the NRC licensing review process for the few plants still in the construction pipeline may not be appropriate, licensees may benefit significantly by performing readiness reviews on their own initiative as GPC did for Vogtle. (7 refs.)

  12. Use of encased E.H.T. distribution equipment with SF6 insulation for extracting power from nuclear power plants with 1000 MW units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopejtkova, D.

    1987-01-01

    In Czechoslovakia power from nuclear power plants with WWER-1000 units will be fed into the 400 kV system. The best equipment for the purpose is an encased power plant distribution equipment with SF 6 insulation which may be placed in the area of the power plant without necessitating the requisition of further space. The specifications are presented of such equipment of Soviet production which is being considered for import to Czechoslovakia. Also presented is the wiring diagram of the main circuits and the ground plan of the encased distribution system, its location in the area of the nuclear power plant and its connection to unit transformers and reserve supply transformers for own consumption of the nuclear power plant. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 2 refs

  13. A nuclear power unit with a Babcock type steam generating system-analysis of the break-down in the Three Mile Island power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, A.

    1980-01-01

    Installations of the primary and the secondary circuits and basic automatic control and protection systems for a nuclear power unit with Babcock type vertical, once-through steam generator are described. On this background the course of the break-down in the Three Mile Island power plant at Harrisburg is presented and analysed. (author)

  14. Regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNunno, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    The selection and evaluation of sites for power plants in the United States of America have become increasingly difficult in recent years as pressures from various societal segments have resulted in governmental restraints on selection and burning of fossil fuels, methods of heat dissipation, acquisition of transmission rights of way, and on environmental impact of industrialization in general. New legislation at both Federal and state levels has been enacted that influences power plant siting. In addition to environmental requirements that must be satisfied, implementing procedures require documented justification for sites chosen and public disclosure of the basis for selection. Some states have consolidated their regulatory activities in the power plant siting area to provide for a more unified approach to these problems. Although nuclear plants have by far the most rigorous requirements for documentation of site selection and plant design, the application of the same general philosophies to fossil plants has been made in several states and can be anticipated elsewhere. Individual site-related investigations have not so much changed in basics as they have been enlarged in scope. Whereas in the past the search for siting alternatives was frequently confined to a utility's service area, the additional siting constraints represented in environmental laws, the economies of size of nuclear power plants, and the sharing of plant capacities among utilities have contributed to a widening of the search area. Several states have assumed the responsibility for site search and investigation and their efforts extend state-wide. This paper discusses applications of regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America using case studies made by NUS Corporation, an engineering/environmental consulting firm. The universality of these approaches is indicated, leaving to national policies and goals the importance of values assigned to the basic siting factors

  15. A data acquisition and storage system for the ion auxiliary propulsion system cyclic thruster test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.

    1989-01-01

    A nine-track tape drive interfaced to a standard personal computer was used to transport data from a remote test site to the NASA Lewis mainframe computer for analysis. The Cyclic Ground Test of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), which successfully achieved its goal of 2557 cycles and 7057 hr of thrusting beam on time generated several megabytes of test data over many months of continuous testing. A flight-like controller and power supply were used to control the thruster and acquire data. Thruster data was converted to RS232 format and transmitted to a personal computer, which stored the raw digital data on the nine-track tape. The tape format was such that with minor modifications, mainframe flight data analysis software could be used to analyze the Cyclic Ground Test data. The personal computer also converted the digital data to engineering units and displayed real time thruster parameters. Hardcopy data was printed at a rate dependent on thruster operating conditions. The tape drive provided a convenient means to transport the data to the mainframe for analysis, and avoided a development effort for new data analysis software for the Cyclic test. This paper describes the data system, interfacing and software requirements.

  16. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  17. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Palac, Donald; Gibson, Marc; Houts, Michael; Warren, John; Werner, James; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Radel, Ross; Harlow, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  18. Internal event analysis of Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the I nternal Event Analysis of Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant , CNSNS-TR-004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the results of the system analysis for the Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. The system analysis involved the development of logical models for all the systems included in the accident sequence event tree headings, and for all the support systems required to operate the front line systems. For the Internal Event analysis for Laguna Verde, 16 front line systems and 5 support systems were included. Detailed fault trees were developed for most of the important systems. Simplified fault trees focusing on major faults were constructed for those systems that can be adequately represent,ed using this kind of modeling. For those systems where fault tree models were not constructed, actual data were used to represent the dominant failures of the systems. The main failures included in the fault trees are hardware failures, test and maintenance unavailabilities, common cause failures, and human errors. The SETS and TEMAC codes were used to perform the qualitative and quantitative fault tree analyses. (Author)

  19. Efficiency analysis of the Solarflow. An innovative solar-powered desalination unit for treating brackish water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, Stewart; Sumiyoshi, N.; Kirk, J.; Mathew, K.; Wilmot, N. [UNEP-IETC Environmental Technology Centre, Murdoch University, Perth 6150, Western Australia (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The Solarflow was invented at The Environmental Technology Centre, Murdoch University (the Murdoch ETC) in Perth, Western Australia as part of a doctoral thesis in the early 1990s researching suitable water treatment systems for remote indigenous communities. The design has been modified since this time by its original manufacturer but full commercialisation was not achieved. The current owner Solco Pty Ltd was keen to further improve the efficiency and lower the purchase cost of the unit and engaged the Murdoch ETC to undertake further testing. The Solarflow is a self-contained solar-powered unit capable of producing 400 L/day of high quality drinking water from brackish water via reverse osmosis and requires only 120 W of photovoltaic power. This is achievable due to its innovative energy recovery system. In order to assess the unit's efficiency more accurately the latest high-rate data logging technology from the ResLab laboratory at Murdoch University was employed. This enabled quantification of the Solarflow's unique and complex waveforms of the four key parameters: voltage, current, pressure and flow. The results of this testing are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Operation time extension for power units of the first generation NPP and the liability for potential damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevich, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The problem on the operation time extension for the six operating NPP first generation power units is discussed. However it is not advisable to improve the safety of these power units up to the acceptable level, therefore there arises the contradiction between the operation time extension of these power units and potential damage for the population. The possibility of having the increased civilian-legal responsibility for potential harm and losses in case of an accident is proposed to be considered as a compensating measure. The measures for realization of this civilian-legal responsibility are described [ru