WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxiliary lanes

  1. Overtaking Safety Evaluation and Setting of Auxiliary Lane on Two-Lane Highway in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking experiments on four two-lane highways were conducted. The data of overtaking conflict time (the time difference between the time of driving back to the original lane and the time of meeting with the first opposing vehicle and experimental drivers’ risk feeling were observed. Membership was adopted to denote the experimental drivers’ risk feelings which also denote the severity of traffic conflict. Membership ranges from 0 to 1 and corresponding risk becomes higher; that is, traffic conflict becomes more serious. According to the observed relationship between overtaking conflict time, and drivers’ risk feeling membership, Cauchy distribution function was adopted as membership function. The thresholds of the severity of traffic conflict were determined through Delphi method. The relationship model among traffic volume, overtaking conflict time and design speed was established according to experimental data. Then the idea of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway in China was presented. And the traffic volume values that need setting auxiliary lane corresponding to different design speed and traffic conflict degree were given according to the established model. It is expected to improve the traffic safety level of two-lane highway in China through setting auxiliary lane.

  2. 双车道公路设置附加车道交通量条件研究%Traffic Volume Conditions of Setting Auxiliary Lane on Two-lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国柱; 翟露露; 秦丽辉; 王玉霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce traffic accidents and improve operating efficiency on two-lane highway, the concept of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway is proposed, and the traffic volume conditions of setting up auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are studied. Data is obtained through vehicle experiment on two-lane highway, and the relational model among the traffic conflict time, the traffic volume and the design speed on two-lane highway is established. Based on the established model, the different conditions of traffic volume of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are obtained. It shows that auxiliary lane should be set when traffic volume is more than 495 veh/h/ln and 454 veh/h/ln respectively on two-lane highway with the design speed of 80 km/h and 60km/h. It isn't recommend to set auxiliary lane on two-lane highway with the design speed of 40 km/h because the benefit is not obvious.%为了减少双车道公路交通事故数量、提高运行效率,提出了双车道公路设置附加车道的理念,基于试验数据开展了双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件研究.通过双车道公路实车实验获得的基础数据,建立了双车道公路交通冲突时间与交通量、设计速度的关系模型.依据构建的模型,给出了对应不同设计速度的双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件.基于样本数据的研究结果表明:设计速度为80 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于495 veh/h/ln时,应设置附加车道;设计速度为60 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于454 veh/h/ln,应设置附加车道;设计速度为40 km/h及以下的双车道公路,设置附加车道效益不明显,不建议设置.

  3. Lane changing analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieqiao Tang; Haijun Huang; S.C.Wong; Rui Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the two-lane traffic are studiedby using the lane-changing rules in the car-followingmodels.The simulation show that the frequent lanechanging occurs when the lateral distance in car fol-lowing activities is considered and it gives rise to oscil-lating waves.In contrast,if the lateral distance is notconsidered (or considered occasionally),the lane chang-ing appears infrequently and soliton waves occurs.Thisimplies that the stabilization mechanism no longer func-tions when the lane changing is permitted.Since theoscillating and soliton waves correspond to the unsta-ble and metastable flow regimes,respectively,our studyverifies that a phase transition may occur as a result ofthe lane changing.

  4. Lane marking aided vehicle localization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  5. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond...... to adverbs in languages like English, while the rest are tense-aspect markers; and (iv) it is possible to combine several auxiliary verbs in a single clause. For some of the auxiliary verbs there are extant full verbs from which they have evolved. To some extent, therefore, it is possible to observe what...... semantic changes the auxiliary verbs have undergone or are undergoing during the process of grammaticalization....

  6. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  7. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  8. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  9. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae;

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...

  10. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  11. River Flow Lane Detection and Kalman Filtering-Based B-Spline Lane Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Hann Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel lane detection technique using adaptive line segment and river flow method is proposed in this paper to estimate driving lane edges. A Kalman filtering-based B-spline tracking model is also presented to quickly predict lane boundaries in consecutive frames. Firstly, sky region and road shadows are removed by applying a regional dividing method and road region analysis, respectively. Next, the change of lane orientation is monitored in order to define an adaptive line segment separating the region into near and far fields. In the near field, a 1D Hough transform is used to approximate a pair of lane boundaries. Subsequently, river flow method is applied to obtain lane curvature in the far field. Once the lane boundaries are detected, a B-spline mathematical model is updated using a Kalman filter to continuously track the road edges. Simulation results show that the proposed lane detection and tracking method has good performance with low complexity.

  12. Considerations for choosing HOT lane delineation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, I.; Vitek, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Carrizales, J.; Machemehl, R. [Texas Dept. of Transportation, Austin, TX (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Transportation agencies are looking for ways to move more vehicles with fewer tax dollars. One innovative technique is managed lanes. These are special purpose lanes on highways with controlled access to allow manipulation of service parameters. An example of a managed facility, high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are gaining support as a tool for encouraging higher vehicle occupancy while dealing with many of the shortcomings of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Because managed lanes, including HOT lanes, are controlled access facilities and must be separated from general purpose lanes, one of the principle issues is the type of delineation technique that should be used. Though the specifics of delineating a managed lane are numerous, and allow for a wide variety of possibilities, most delineation techniques used can be categorized into three broad types: concrete barriers, buffer separation, and plastic posts. This paper presented the advantages, disadvantages, required and desirable conditions for implementation of each type. The project involved assembling an expert panel to gather collective knowledge of factors and to share experiences and make recommendations regarding delineation device implementation. Panel recommendations and secondary source information were presented as conceptual guidance regarding managed lane delineation measures. Buffer type delineators were found to be least costly in terms of both initial and maintenance costs, and concrete barriers provide the best means of controlling access so they are the best means of guaranteeing toll collection from all users. 11 refs.

  13. Towards a definition of safety for individual drivers lane behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van R.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess lateral control performance in drivers, lane behaviour indicators such as the mean lane position, standard deviation of lane position and time-to-line-crossing are the most frequently used measures. For lane position, the commonly accepted (qualitative) proposition is that increased lane s

  14. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  15. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  16. Influence of lane change on stability analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liang; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the influence of lane changing behaviours on the stability of two-lane traffic flow under a periodic boundary condition.Following the description of an optimal velocity model for two vehicle groups and the derivation of their stability conditions,the feedback signals,which involve information about vehicles from both lanes acting on the two-lane traffic system,are introduced into the optimal velocity model.The control signals play a role in alleviating the traffic jam only if the traffic state is in congestion,and their role will vanish if the traffic state is in the steady state.The numerical simulations show that lane changing behaviours can break the steady state of two-lane traffic flow and aggravate the traffic disturbance,but the control method would successfully suppress the traffic jam eventually,which implies that the conclusions obtained here have certain theoretical and practical significance.

  17. Analysis of Traffic Capacity on Mountainous Two Lane Highway Adding Climbing Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yunwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of mountainous double lane highway, climbing lane plays a certain role for enhancing the traffic capacity. In order to explore traffic capacity improvement effect for different conditions of climbing lane, 20 representative models are chosen, which contain various combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The changes of traffic capacity, average speed, delays, and saturation in models are obtained before and after the use of a climbing lane by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the use of a climbing lane could improve traffic capacity, average speed, while reducing delays and saturation. The improvement effect is different according to different combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The research could provide a reference for mountainous climbing lane construction intend.

  18. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  19. Evaluation Of Lane Use Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The limited funding available for roadway capacity expansion and the growing funding gap, in conjunction with the increasing congestion, creates a critical need for innovative lane use management options. Various cost-effective lane use management strategies have been implemented in the United States and worldwide to address these challenges. However, these strategies have their own costs, operational characteristics, and additional requirements for field deployment. Hence, there is a need fo...

  20. Impacts of Left Lane Truck Restriction on Urban Freeways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Choon-Heon; Regan, A C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of truck lane restriction on urban freeways using traffic simulation models. The study includes three main parts: Part (1) provides insights into conditions under which truck lane restrictions would work well; Part (2) identifies the best number of lanes to restrict and shows that this is an important factor in the success of lane restriction; Part (3) investigates potential impacts of truck lane restriction through a case study using a region with some of the ...

  1. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  2. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica;

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... of freedom in the parallel AES states. This allows us to construct semi-free-start collisions for full Lane-256 with 2^96 compression function evaluations and 2^88 memory, and for full Lane-512 with 2^224 compression function evaluations and 2^128 memory....

  3. Financial issues for hospital auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, L A

    1986-01-01

    Auxiliaries can serve a more important financial role in today's environment than ever before. Hospitals are searching for positive avenues to promote themselves to the community and to generate more financial support to help offset the losses created by decreasing inpatient utilization and payments from third-party payers. Auxiliaries should recognize that their financial role has never been more important to the financial viability of their hospitals. Auxiliaries should communicate closely with hospital administration so that both organizations work to achieve compatible goals. Auxiliaries should be operated more like businesses, which means establishing goals and objectives, preparing effective budgets and interim financial statements, thinking and planning innovatively, and establishing adequate inventory controls, investment policies, and pricing structures. If auxiliaries follow these steps, they will not only succeed in providing more financial support to hospitals than ever before but will also receive the recognition and support they deserve for their effort.

  4. Deep Neural Network for Structural Prediction and Lane Detection in Traffic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mei, Xue; Prokhorov, Danil; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-03-01

    Hierarchical neural networks have been shown to be effective in learning representative image features and recognizing object classes. However, most existing networks combine the low/middle level cues for classification without accounting for any spatial structures. For applications such as understanding a scene, how the visual cues are spatially distributed in an image becomes essential for successful analysis. This paper extends the framework of deep neural networks by accounting for the structural cues in the visual signals. In particular, two kinds of neural networks have been proposed. First, we develop a multitask deep convolutional network, which simultaneously detects the presence of the target and the geometric attributes (location and orientation) of the target with respect to the region of interest. Second, a recurrent neuron layer is adopted for structured visual detection. The recurrent neurons can deal with the spatial distribution of visible cues belonging to an object whose shape or structure is difficult to explicitly define. Both the networks are demonstrated by the practical task of detecting lane boundaries in traffic scenes. The multitask convolutional neural network provides auxiliary geometric information to help the subsequent modeling of the given lane structures. The recurrent neural network automatically detects lane boundaries, including those areas containing no marks, without any explicit prior knowledge or secondary modeling.

  5. Express Lane Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States may rely on eligibility information from "Express Lane" agency programs to streamline and simplify enrollment and renewal in Medicaid and CHIP. Express Lane...

  6. An unusual ophthalmic finding in Lane-Hamilton syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Victor M; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Lam, Byron L; McKeown, Craig A; Berrocal, Audina M

    2014-12-01

    Lane-Hamilton syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease. We report the case of an 18-month-old girl with Lane-Hamilton syndrome who had unilateral pigmentary retinopathy.

  7. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  8. Dynamics of lane formation in driven binary complex plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Ivlev, A. V.; Rath, C.; Thomas, H. M.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical onset of lane formation is studied in experiments with binary complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. Small microparticles are driven and penetrate into a cloud of big particles, revealing a strong tendency towards lane formation. The observed time-resolved lane-formation proces

  9. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  10. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  11. Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.

  12. Agent-based modeling of lane discipline in heterogeneous traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailisan, Damian N.; Lim, May T.

    2016-09-01

    Designating lanes for different vehicle types is ideal road safety-wise. Practical considerations, however, require road sharing. Using a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg cellular automata model for two vehicle types (cars and motorcycles), we analyzed the interplay of lane discipline, lane changing, and vehicle density. In the absence of lane changing, the transition between free flow and congested states occurs at a higher vehicle (road occupation) density when the ratio of cars to motorcycles is increased. When lane changing is allowed, the smaller motorcycles tend to fill in unused spaces, until the point when the wider cars effectively block their way at high vehicle densities. When the condition of lane discipline is not imposed, i.e. staying wholly within lane boundaries is not required, further improvement in throughput becomes possible at the cost of required driver attentiveness.

  13. The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes' Sunken lanes are found in many parts of southern England and have also been described in Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the USA. They are associated with soft rock and long histories of vehicular and animal movements. They form important features of the cultural and physical landscape. Although most are probably Medieval in origin, some maydate back to the Iron Age. Little attention has been paid to their function as conduits for runoff, sediment and pollutants from areas of forestry and agriculture to the watercourses in valley bottoms. In the Midhurst area of West Sussex, southern England, they are important routes for eroded sediments particularly during extreme rainfall events as occurred in the autumns of 2000 and 2006. This led to the flooding of property, disruption of minor roads and the pollution of the Western Rother river, an important fish habitat.

  14. Novel Chiral Auxiliaries of BIAZOLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Arh-Hwang

    2001-01-01

    Asymmetric catalysis is one of the most challenging and formidable endeavor in organic synthesis. The development of chiral auxiliaries is a key in the asymmetric catalysis. Azulenoids, a parent structure of bicyclo[5.3.0]decapentaene with 10 πelectrons, are useful as dye materials, medical treatment of inflammation and hypertension, and the development of liquid crystals. In continuing to investigate synthetic application of azulenoids, we have studied to develop novel chiral auxiliaries of BIAZOLs. The BIAZOLs were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene and characterized using spectroscopies.  ……

  15. Novel Chiral Auxiliaries of BIAZOLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Arh-Hwang; YUAN Shou-Bin; CHIU Shu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    @@ Asymmetric catalysis is one of the most challenging and formidable endeavor in organic synthesis. The development of chiral auxiliaries is a key in the asymmetric catalysis. Azulenoids, a parent structure of bicyclo[5.3.0]decapentaene with 10 πelectrons, are useful as dye materials, medical treatment of inflammation and hypertension, and the development of liquid crystals. In continuing to investigate synthetic application of azulenoids, we have studied to develop novel chiral auxiliaries of BIAZOLs. The BIAZOLs were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene and characterized using spectroscopies.

  16. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes. PMID:27754447

  17. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  18. The embeddability of lane detection algorithms on heterogeneous architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Saussard, Romain; Bouzid, Boubker; Vasiliu, Marius; Reynaud, Roger

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Lane detection plays a crucial role for Advanced Driver As-sitance System (ADAS) or autonomous driving applications. Literature shows a lot of lane detection algorithms can work in real time with good results. However, they require much computer processing and cannot be embedded in a vehicle ECU without deep software optimizations. In this paper, we discuss the embeddability of lane detection algorithms by comparing state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of functional pe...

  19. Design and development of multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Design and Development of Multi-Lane Smart Electromechanical Actuators presents the design of electromechanical actuators in two types of architectures, namely, Torque Summed Architecture (TSA) and Velocity Summed Architecture, (VSA). It examines them in: * Hardware redundancy, where the architecture is made up of 3 or 4 lanes. * Digital Math Model redundancy, where a more compact two lanes architectures will be presented. The book starts with the very basic concepts and introduces the design process logically so that an understanding of the smart multi-lane systems that drive an aileron

  20. LANE MARKING DETECTION IN CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 郑南宁; 程洪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the positions of marking in the presence of distracting shadows, highlight, pavement cracks, etc. Methods RGB color space is transformed into I1I2I3 color space and I2 component was used to form a new image with less effect of the clutter. Using an improved edge detection operator, an edge strength map was produced, and binarilized by adaptive thresholds. The binary image was labeled and circularity of all connected components is calculated. The Self-Organizing Mapping is adopted to extract regions which imply potential marking. Finally the position of marking was obtained by curve fitting. Results Color information was utilized fully, all thresholds were set adaptively and lane marking could be detected in challenging images with shadows, highlight or other cars. Conclusion The method based on circularity of connected components shows its outstanding robustness to lane marking detection and has a wide variety of applications in the areas of vehicle autonomous navigation and driver assistance system.

  1. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary facilities. 57.6161 Section 57.6161...-Underground Only § 57.6161 Auxiliary facilities. (a) Auxiliary facilities used to store explosive material near work places shall be wooden, box-type containers equipped with covers or doors, or...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  3. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary antennas. 73.1675 Section 73.1675... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1675 Auxiliary antennas. (a)(1) An auxiliary antenna is one that is permanently installed and available for use when the main antenna is out of service...

  5. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  6. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  7. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  8. Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    prototype tool motivated by Google Scholar which uses the DST Group for-official-use-only (FOUO) internal report database as its input. It provides DST...DST Group internal report database . The major output of the scholarship is the Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) which is, at the time of writing...Bunting. ALEX is a prototype tool motivated by Google Scholar which uses the DST Group for-official-use-only (FOUO) internal report database as its

  9. Mapping motorway lanes and real-time lane identification with single-frequency precise point positioning test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, P.F.; Knoop, V.L.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern advanced motorway traffic control requires lane-specific observations, and provide vehicles with lane-specific control measures. Single-Frequency Precise Point Positioning (SF-PPP) was previously demonstrated to provide sub-meter accurate positions in real-time using a low-cost mass-market re

  10. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  11. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  12. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  13. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  14. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  15. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hodas, N O

    2003-01-01

    In heavy traffic with congested roadway the maximum traffic flow also depends on length of cars. This is deduced in a simple derivation suited for classroom demonstration as well as homework. The resulting equation demonstrates a new relation to an apparently unrelated area of physics, the maximum ship velocity (hull speed) and explains why traffic is sometimes faster on the slow lane on a congested multi-lane road.

  16. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  17. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 1: Auxiliary BE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna L.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The question of how and when English-speaking children acquire auxiliaries is the subject of extensive debate. Some researchers posit the existence of innately given Universal Grammar principles to guide acquisition, although some aspects of the auxiliary system must be learned from the input. Others suggest that auxiliaries can be…

  18. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...) (``The 1996 Act'') authorizing the Auxiliary organizational structure, extending civil liability..., status, and role in Coast Guard operations, and update provisions on liability protection for Auxiliary... Private Property H. Civil Justice Reform I. Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments K....

  19. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  20. Fundamental diagram in traffic flow of mixed vehicles on multi-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagatani, Takashi; Masukura, Shuichi

    2008-09-01

    We study the fundamental diagram for traffic flow of vehicular mixture on a multi-lane highway. We present the car-following model of multi-lane traffic in which slow and fast vehicles flow with changing lanes. We investigate the traffic states of the vehicular mixture under the periodic boundary. Two values of the current appear at a density and two current curves are obtained. Vehicles move with changing lanes in the traffic state of high current, while vehicles move without changing lanes in the traffic state of low current. They depend on the density, the fraction of slow vehicles, and the initial condition. In the high-current curve, the jamming transition between the free flow and the jammed state occurs at a low density. The fundamental diagrams (current-density diagrams) are shown for the single-lane, two-lane, three-lane, and four-lane traffics.

  1. A Two-Lane Cellular Automata Model with Influence of Next-Nearest Neighbor Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-lane cellular automata model in which the influence of the next-nearest neighbor vehicle is considered. The attributes of the traffic system composed of fast-lane and slow-lane are investigated by the new traffic model. The simulation results show that the proposed two-lane traffic model can reproduce some traffic phenomena observed in real traffic, and that maximum flux and critical density are close to the field measurements.Moreover, the initial density distribution of the fast-lane and slow-lane has much influence on the traffic flow states.With the ratio between the densities of slow lane and fast lane increasing the lane changing frequency increases, but maximum flux decreases. Finally, the influence of the sensitivity coefficients is discussed.

  2. A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

    By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

  3. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  4. New Developments in Auxiliary Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norreys, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The role of heating arising from the propagation of orthogonal petawatt-laser driven relativistic electron beams in dense plasma will be discussed. The energy cascade mechanism begins first with the rapid growth at 45 degrees to the two beams of electrostatic waves near the electron plasma frequency. These waves reach high amplitudes and break, which then results in the generation of a strongly driven turbulent Langmuir spectrum. Parametric decay of these waves, particularly via the modulational instability, then gives rise to a coupled turbulent ion acoustic spectrum. The resulting waves also give rise to ion heating through collisions via equilibration of both electrons and ions. In this talk, I will present the most recent analytic modelling, and particle-in-cell / Vlasov-Poisson simulation results from my team within Oxford Physics and the Central Laser Facility that explores the optimum parameter space for this process, focusing in particular on the requirements for auxiliary heating of the central hot spot in inertial confinement fusion target experiments. I will also describe new methods for hole-boring through the coronal plasma surrounding the fuel using strongly relativistic laser beams that demonstrates the strong suppression of the hosing instability under these conditions. Proof-of-concept experiments are under design for the Orion and OMEGA EP facilities.

  5. One cutting plane algorithm using auxiliary functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabotin, I. Ya; Kazaeva, K. E.

    2016-11-01

    We propose an algorithm for solving a convex programming problem from the class of cutting methods. The algorithm is characterized by the construction of approximations using some auxiliary functions, instead of the objective function. Each auxiliary function bases on the exterior penalty function. In proposed algorithm the admissible set and the epigraph of each auxiliary function are embedded into polyhedral sets. In connection with the above, the iteration points are found by solving linear programming problems. We discuss the implementation of the algorithm and prove its convergence.

  6. H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-08-31

    This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.

  7. Non-lane-based full velocity difference car following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Wang, Dianhai; Tao, Pengfei; Li, Pingfan

    2010-11-01

    In order to describe car following behavior in real world, this paper presents a non-lane-based car following model by incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. And numerical simulation is carried out to validate the analytic results. The property of the model is investigated, and it is found that the proposed model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion. The results implied that incorporating the lane width effects in car following model not only stabilize traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam, but also lower critical headway and increase capacity. Thus, the lateral separation effects greatly enhance the realism of car following models.

  8. Achievement of alternative configurations of vehicles on multiple lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Miki, Hiroshi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Heavy traffic congestion occurs daily at merging sections on a highway. For relieving this congestion, possibility of alternative configuration of vehicles on multiple-lane road at a merging area is discussed in this paper. This is the configuration where no vehicles move aside on the other lane. It has merit in making a smooth merging at an intersection or a junction due to the so-called "zipper effect." We show, by developing a cellular automaton model for multiple lanes, that this configuration is achieved by simple local interactions between vehicles neighboring each other. The degree of the alternative configuration in terms of the spatial increase in parallel driving length is studied by using both numerical simulations and mean-field theory. We successfully construct a theoretical method for calculating this degree of the alternative configuration by using cluster approximation. It is shown that the theoretical results coincide with those of the simulations very well.

  9. Lane Tracking with Omnidirectional Cameras: Algorithms and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ShinkoYuanhsien

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With a panoramic view of the scene, a single omnidirectional camera can monitor the 360-degree surround of the vehicle or monitor the interior and exterior of the vehicle at the same time. We investigate problems associated with integrating driver assistance functionalities that have been designed for rectilinear cameras with a single omnidirectional camera instead. Specifically, omnidirectional cameras have been shown effective in determining head gaze orientation from within a vehicle. We examine the issues involved in integrating lane tracking functions using the same omnidirectional camera, which provide a view of both the driver and the road ahead of the vehicle. We present analysis on the impact of the omnidirectional camera's reduced image resolution on lane tracking accuracy, as a consequence of gaining the expansive view. And to do so, we present Omni-VioLET, a modified implementation of the vision-based lane estimation and tracking system (VioLET, and conduct a systematic performance evaluation of both lane-trackers operating on monocular rectilinear images and omnidirectional images. We are able to show a performance comparison of the lane tracking from Omni-VioLET and Recti-VioLET with ground truth using images captured along the same freeway road in a specified course. The results are surprising: with 1/10th the number of pixels representing the same space and about 1/3rd the horizontal image resolution as a rectilinear image of the same road, the omnidirectional camera implementation results in only three times the amount the mean absolute error in tracking the left lane boundary position.

  10. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun Huang; Tieqiao Tang; Ziyou Gao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we study the continuum modeling of traffic dynamics for two-lane freeways.A new dynamics model is proposed, which contains the speed gradient-based momentum equations derived from a car-following theory suited to two-lane traffic flow.The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented.Numerical tests are carried out and some nonequilibrium phenomena are observed, such as small disturbance instability,stop-andgo waves,local clusters and phase transition.

  11. Ozonation of Common Textile Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Gulen; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    The treatability of four different commonly applied textile auxiliary chemicals, namely two tannin formulations (Tannin 1: a condensation product of aryl sulphonate; Tannin 2: natural tannic acid) and two biocidal finishing agents (Biocide 1: 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’- hydroxydiphenyl ether; Biocide 2: a nonionic diphenyl alkane derivative) with ozone was investigated. Increasing the ozone dose yielded higher COD removals for the natural tannin. Optimum ozone doses of 485 and 662 mg/h were obtained at a pH of 3.5 for natural and synthetic tannin carrying textile bath discharges, respectively. When the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0, a slight decrease in COD removal was observed for the natural tannin due to ozone selectivity towards its polyaromatic structure. The same increase in ozonation pH enhanced COD removals for the synthetic tannin as a result of enhanced ozone decomposition rendering free radical chain reactions dominant. Optimum ozone doses of 499 and 563 mg/h were established for Biocide 1 and 2, respectively. With the increase of ozonation, pH exhibited a positive influence on COD removals for both textile tannins. A substantial improvement in terms of TOC removals was observed as the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0 for the synthetic tannin, and from 7 to 12 for both textile biocides. Higher AOX removals were evident at pH 7 than at pH 12 for Biocide 1 as a result of the higher selectivity of the dehalogenation reaction at neutral pH.

  12. Study on the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on traffic stability from an extended two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Run; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on the stability of traffic flow of two-lane are studied by using a generalized lattice hydrodynamic model with consideration of lane-changing aggressiveness of each individual. The effect of lane-changing aggressiveness parameter on traffic stability is derived through employing linear stability analysis with finding that the driver's lane-changing aggressiveness has an important impact on the stability of the traffic flow in a two-lane system. To describe the phase transition, the mKdV equation near the critical point is derived by using the reductive perturbation method, with obtaining the dependence of the propagation kink solution for traffic jams on the lane-changing aggressiveness. It can be concluded from the phase diagram of stability criterion that the higher lane-changing aggressiveness leads to a more stable traffic flow. In addition, the stabilizing effect of the optimal current difference weakens gradually with the increasing of the lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient, even vanishes when the value of lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient is greater than a critical value. Theoretical conclusions are also confirmed by the numerical simulations.

  13. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  14. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris(Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Sanches

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%, five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C –min, nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  15. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  16. 8 CFR 287.11 - Pre-enrolled Access Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 287.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS... checkpoint. (b) General requirements for Pre-enrolled Access Lane Program. (1) Participation in the Pre... States citizens and members of the classes of aliens which the Commissioner of the Service or...

  17. Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Muatjetjeja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform the group classification of the generalized Lane-Emden system xu′′+nu′+xHv=0,  xv′′+nv′+xgu=0, which occurs in many applications of physical phenomena such as pattern formation, population evolution, and chemical reactions. We obtain four cases depending on the values of n.

  18. Towards 400GBASE 4-lane Solution Using Direct Detection of MultiCAP Signal in 14 GHz Bandwidth per Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Tianjian, Zuo; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of 102 Gbit/s transmission over a 15km single wavelength and polarization fiber link with 14GHz 3dB bandwidth. Novel multiband CAP signaling allows for a 4-lane 400GBASE long reach solution....

  19. Distribution Estimation with Smoothed Auxiliary Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Liu; Ahmad Ishfaq

    2011-01-01

    Distribution estimation is very important in order to make statistical inference for parameters or its functions based on this distribution. In this work we propose an estimator of the distribution of some variable with non-smooth auxiliary information, for example, a symmetric distribution of this variable. A smoothing technique is employed to handle the non-differentiable function. Hence, a distribution can be estimated based on smoothed auxiliary information. Asymptotic properties of the distribution estimator are derived and analyzed.The distribution estimators based on our method are found to be significantly efficient than the corresponding estimators without these auxiliary information. Some simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators.

  20. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  1. Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

  2. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  3. Microscopic simulation of multi-lane traffic under dynamic tolling and information feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-liang; HUANG Hai-jun; TIAN Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate drivers' lane-changing behavior under different information feedback strategies, a microscopic traffic simulation based on the cellular automaton model was made on the typical freeway with a regular lane and a high-occupancy one. A new dynamic tolling scheme in terms of the real-time traffic condition on the high-occupancy lane was further designed to enhance the whole freeway's flow throughput. The results show that the mean velocity feedback strategy is generally more efficient than the travel time feedback strategy in correctly guiding drivers' lane choice behavior. Specifically, the toll level, lane-changing rate and freeway's throughput and congestion coefficient induced by the travel time feedback strategy oscillate with larger amplitude and longer period. In addition, the dynamic tolling scheme can make the high-occupancy lane less congested and maximize the freeway's throughput when the regular-lane inflow rate is larger than 0.45.

  4. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-struc-ture element model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Tao; FAN Yang-yu; HUANG Lian-bing

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experi-ments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  5. Auxiliary mass damper for Cardan suspended gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, J.; Kahana, A.

    The paper describes a damping system for a spin-stabilized platform which involves the use of an auxiliary mass connected to the gimbal system by means of a spring and a viscous dash-pot. The damper inertia is insignificant in comparison with the platform inertia, resulting in a simplified model in which the nutational frequency is taken to be the forced frequency. An analysis is made of the interaction between the stabilized platform and the damper, which causes the appearance of three natural frequencies instead of the nutational frequency. The experimental realization of the auxiliary mass damper is discussed.

  6. TWO-WAY ROAD NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM WITH VARIABLE LANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhi ZHANG; Ziyou GAO

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new form of transportation network design problem.In urban transportation network,unreasonable phenomenon can occur in certain traffic period (e.g.on/off duty period),which demonstrates that the flows of opposite directions on a two-way road are seriously asymmetric; one traffic link of a two-way road congest heavily but the other is hardly used.In order to reduce transportation congestion and make full use of the existing road resources,we propose a lane reallocating approach in peak period,and establish a discrete bi-level programming model for the decision-making.Then,based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique,a heuristic solution algorithm for the bi-level model is designed.Finally,the lane reallocating approach is demonstrated through a simple transportation network.

  7. Tightly Coupling GPS with Lane Markings for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Tightly coupling GPS pseudorange and Doppler measurements with other sensors is a way to increase accuracy and integrity of the positioning information particularly when it is computed autonomously. Highly accurate digital maps are also more and more key components for autonomous vehicle navigation and can enhance the localization system. In this paper, a video camera is used to get relative information with respect to lane markings and dead-reckoning sensors are also ...

  8. Mapping and localization using GPS, lane markings and proprioceptive sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Estimating the pose in real-time is a primary function for intelligent vehicle navigation. Whilst different solutions exist, most of them rely on the use of high-end sensors. This paper proposes a solution that exploits an automotive type L1-GPS receiver, features extracted by low-cost perception sensors and vehicle proprioceptive information. A key idea is to use the lane detection function of a video camera to retrieve accurate lateral and orientation information wit...

  9. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  10. A modified two-lane traffic model considering drivers' personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.; Wu, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a modified traffic model (R-STCA model, for short) is presented, in which the new symmetric lane changing rules are introduced by considering driving behavioral difference and dynamic headway. After the numerical simulation, a broad scattering of simulated points is exhibited in the moderate density region on the flow-density plane. The synchronized flow phase accompanied with the wide moving jam phase is reproduced. The spatial-temporal profiles indicate that the vehicles move according to the R-STCA model can change lane more easily and more realistically. Then vehicles are convenient to get rid of the slow vehicles that turn into plugs ahead, and hence the capacity increases. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is discovered by using the R-STCA model, which has been already observed in the traffic measured data. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  11. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  12. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  13. Ejector Noise Suppression with Auxiliary Jet Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Charles H.; Andersen, Otto P., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental program to reduce aircraft jet turbulence noise investigated the interaction of small auxiliary jets with a larger main jet. Significant reductions in the far field jet noise were obtained over a range of auxiliary jet pressures and flow rates when used in conjunction with an acoustically lined ejector. While the concept is similar to that of conventional ejector suppressors that use mechanical mixing devices, the present approach should improve thrust and lead to lower weight and less complex noise suppression systems since no hardware needs to be located in the main jet flow. A variety of auxiliary jet and ejector configurations and operating conditions were studied. The best conditions tested produced peak to peak noise reductions ranging from 11 to 16 dB, depending on measurement angle, for auxiliary jet mass flows that were 6.6% of the main jet flow with ejectors that were 8 times the main jet diameter in length. Much larger reductions in noise were found at the original peak frequencies of the unsuppressed jet over a range of far field measurement angles.

  14. The Changing Face of Auxiliary Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    With tuition on the rise, Auxiliary Services departments at a variety of colleges and universities are proving that they can innovate and still save their parent institutions cash. Primary areas of innovation include: (1) With advancements in technology, institutions are moving campus purchasing programs into the wireless space; (2) As junk mail …

  15. Geostatistical modeling of topography using auxiliary maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengl, T.; Bajat, B.; Blagojević, D.; Reuter, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper recommends computational procedures for employing auxiliary maps, such as maps of drainage patterns, land cover and remote-sensing-based indices, directly in the geostatistical modeling of topography. The methodology is based on the regression-kriging technique, as implemented in the R pa

  16. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  17. A new traffic model with the consideration of coupling effect with two lanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Guang-Han; Sun Di-Hua; He Heng-Pan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-lane high-order continuum model by embedding the two delay time scales con-tinuum traffic model presented by Xue (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 066123) into the multi-lane model proposed by Daganzo (1997 Transpn. Res. B 31 83) with the consideration of the coupling effect between the vehicles of two lanes in instan-taneous traffic situation and lane-change effect. In the novel model, the coupling effect of two lanes and phenomena of lane change, which were not discussed in Daganzo's model and Xue's model, are taken into account. Numerical simulation shows that it is in accordance with real traffic flow. This obviously indicates that the new phenomenon and behaviour are analogous results as single lane presented by Xue, and the proposed model is more reasonable on two lanes. Furthermore, the generation rate between two lanes is also investigated. The results show that the formation and diffusion of traffic shock wave can be better simulated on two lanes.

  18. The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method. The trends for drivers Lane-Changing with regard to remarkable effects in traffic are regarded as a major variable in traffic engineering. As a result, various algorithms have presented most models of Lane-Changing developed by means of lane information and the manner of vehicle movement mainly obtained from images process not much attention is given to the characteristics of driver. Lane change divided into two parts the first one are compulsory lane including lane change to turn left or turn right. The second type of change is optional and lane change to improve driving condition. A low speed car is a good example, in this study, through focused group discussion method, drivers information can be obtained so that driver’s personality traits are taken into consideration. Then drivers are divided into four groups by means of Algorithm clusters. The four Algorithms suggest that phase typed cluster is a more suitable method for drivers classification based on Lane-Changing. Through notarization of different type of scenarios of lane change in Iran following results released. The percentage of drivers for each group is 17/5, 35, 20 and 27/ %, respectively.

  19. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  20. Dilemma game structure observed in traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Atsuo; Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Sagara, Hiroki

    2009-03-01

    Using a cellular automaton traffic model based on the stochastic optimal velocity model with appropriate assumptions for both incoming and outgoing vehicle boundaries, the so-called bottleneck issue on a lane-closing section was investigated in terms of game theory. In the system, two classified driver agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always driving in the first lane and D agents (defective strategy) trying to drive in a lower-density lane whether the first or the second lane. In high-density flow, D agents' interruption into the first lane from the second just before the lane-closing section creates a heavier traffic jam, which reduces social efficiency. This particular event can be described with a prisoner's dilemma game structure.

  1. lane-Curvature Method:A New method for Local Obstacle Avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Lee, Sang Kee [Chosun University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The lane-curvature method (LCM) presented in this paper is anew local obstacle avoidance method for indoor mobile robots. The method combines curvature-velocity method (CVM) with a new directional method called the lane method. The lane method divides the environment into lanes taking the information on obstacles and desired heading of the robot into account; then it chooses the best lane to follow to optimize travel along a desired heading. A local heading is then calculated for entering and following the best lane, and CVM uses this heading to determine the optimal translational and rotational velocities, considering the heading direction, physical limitations, and environmental constraints. By combining both the directional and velocity space methods, LCM yields safe collision-free motion as well as smooth motion taking the dynamics of the robot into account. Experiments using the mobile robot Xavier, show the efficiency of the proposed method. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs.

  2. A Real-Time Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Intelligent CCD Parameters Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-shu Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane departure warning system (LDWS has been regarded as an efficient method to lessen the damages of road traffic accident resulting from driver fatigue or inattention. Lane detection is one of the key techniques for LDWS. To overcome the contradiction between complexity of algorithm and the real-time requirement for vehicle onboard system, this paper introduces a new lane detection method based on intelligent CCD parameters regulation. In order to improve the real-time capability of the system, a CCD parameters regulating method is proposed which enhances the contrast between lane line and road surfaces and reduces image noise, so it lays a good foundation for the following lane detection. Hough transform algorithm is improved by selection and classification of seed points. Finally the lane line is extracted through some restrictions. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improves not only real-time capability but also the accuracy of the system.

  3. A Real-Time System for Lane Detection Based on FPGA and DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Li, Shutao; Sun, Bin

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a real-time lane detection system including edge detection and improved Hough Transform based lane detection algorithm and its hardware implementation with field programmable gate array (FPGA) and digital signal processor (DSP). Firstly, gradient amplitude and direction information are combined to extract lane edge information. Then, the information is used to determine the region of interest. Finally, the lanes are extracted by using improved Hough Transform. The image processing module of the system consists of FPGA and DSP. Particularly, the algorithms implemented in FPGA are working in pipeline and processing in parallel so that the system can run in real-time. In addition, DSP realizes lane line extraction and display function with an improved Hough Transform. The experimental results show that the proposed system is able to detect lanes under different road situations efficiently and effectively.

  4. Noether, Partial Noether Operators and First Integrals for the Coupled Lane-Emden System

    OpenAIRE

    Muatjetjeja, Ben; Khalique, Chaudry

    2010-01-01

    Systems of Lane-Emden equations arise in the modelling of several physical phenomena, such as pattern formation, population evolution and chemical reactions. In this paper we construct Noether and partial Noether operators corresponding to a Lagrangian and a partial Lagrangian for a coupled Lane-Emden system. Then the first integrals with respect to Noether and partial Noether operators are obtained for the Lane-Emden system under consideration. We show that the first integrals for both the N...

  5. The medical auxiliary in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P C

    1973-05-05

    One of the steps taken by the government to break the cycle of poverty and ill-health in rural Malaysia is the establishment of a rural health service. Initially, the health unit served 50,000 people; it consisted of 1 main health center; 4 health subcenters, and 20 midwife stations. By the end of 1970, 44 main health centers, 180 health subcenters, and 943 midwife stations were in operation, creating a great demand for all types of health personnel: professional, paramedical, and auxiliary. Doctors are unevenly distributed in West Malaysia: in urban areas, the ratio of doctors to population is 1 to 1500; in rural areas, the ratio is 1 to 25,000. Paramedicals are unevenly distributed too. The scarcity of professionals in rural areas is attributed to professionals' demand for high salaries and the corresponding requirement of professional and social settings which rural areas cannot provide. The rural health unit utilized the tiered pyramidal system for staffing, with heavy reliance on auxiliary personnel. This system enabled the rapid expansion of rural health services, helping reach over a third of the population in just 15 years. As a consequence, infant, toddler and maternal mortality rates declined substantially. Traditional birth attendants, or kampong bidans, are currently being trained, on an experimental basis, simple principles of hygiene and family planning. With the enforcement of the Midwives Act in 1971, indigenous midwives have not been permitted to register as legitimate midwives and are now subject to supervision by health authorities. Future plans include retraining single-purpose midwives in child health and nursing, and giving all assistant nurses midwifery training. The aim is to make these 2 auxiliaries multipurpose community nurse-midwives. Experiences of developed countries show that demand for auxiliaries will continue to increase with the growth of professional personnel.

  6. Computer Auxiliary Analysis for Stochasticity of Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOGeng; FANGJin-qing

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we propose a mathematics-physical statistic analytical method for stochastic process of chaos, based on stochastic test via combination measurement of Monobit and Runs. Computer auxiliary analysis shows that it is of stochasticity for stochastic number produced from the chaotic circuit. Our software is written by VB and C++, the later can be tested by the former, and at the same time it is verified by stochastic number produced by the computer. So the data treatment results are reliable.

  7. Safety Effectiveness of Offsetting Opposing Left‐Turn Lanes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Bhaven; Appiah, Justice; Khattak, Aemal J.; Rilett, Laurence R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits to intersection safety of offsetting left-turn lanes by widening the width of the lane-line marking between the left-turn lanes and their adjacent through lanes. The analysis was performed using an empirical Baye’s procedure in order to account for potential bias due to regression-to-the-mean. Results from the analysis of 12 treated intersection approaches and 36 non-treated approaches in Lincoln, Nebraska, suggest statistically significant improvements in sa...

  8. Development of 8-lane PCI-Express protocol using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Harish

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flosolver Mk 8 is the latest family member of the Flosolver series of parallel computers in CSIR-NAL that is currently being developed, to have a performance of 10 TFLOPS with 1024 processors in it. It is based on distributed memory concept, using quad core xeon processors[11]. Each cluster consists of 8 processors, a FPGA based Floswitch, and 4 PCI cards. The inter Cluster communication is carried out through optical transceivers to provide high speed communication. PCI is used for interface between the server and the FloSwitch. Unlike any other switch, the Floswitch has the capability of performing information processing operation which is a unique feature, along with message passing[12]. To this existing system the project intends to replace the PCI card with 8- lane PCI-Express add-on card. The PCI-Express defines a line rate of 2.5Gbps per lane. The basic goal of this project entitled “Development of PCI Express protocol using VHDL” is to Design and Develop a PCI-Express protocol for a 8x PCI-e card, with an optical transceiver and DPM (Dual Port Memory as an external interfaces. The development includes the generation of 8 x PCI-e cores and interfacing the core for optical transaction and also for the DPM transaction. The PCI-Express add-on card contains a FPGA (Virtex V– XC5VLX110T and the card supports 8X lane. FPGA provides an interface between the PCI-Express signals, the DPM and the optical transceiver module. The protocol has to be developed using VHDL and simulated using model sim 6.1f

  9. Bayesian Reasoning Using 3D Relations for Lane Marker Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesman, Bart; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre;

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a lane marker detection algorithm that integrates 3D attributes as well as 3D relations between local edges and semi-global contours in a Bayesian framework. The algorithm is parameter free and does not make use of any heuristic assumptions. The reasoning is based on the complete...... conditional probabilities of the different cues which are estimated from a training set. The importance of the individual visual cues can be computed using a standard measure and the cues can then be combined in an optimal way. In addition we show that when doing 3D reasoning, the uncertainties connected...

  10. Scheduling Combination Optimization Research for Bus Lane Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different scheduling forms can be adopted in bus lane system to meet passengers’ travel demand well and improve operational efficiency. Therefore, this paper researched the optimal headway and bus scheduling combination of a bus lane line. Bus scheduling combination is composed of a sequence of full-length, express bus and short-turn. We established a model to minimize passengers’ waiting cost and vehicles’ operation cost and to optimize headway and bus scheduling combination, under the constraint of the headway restriction for each stop, the minimum number of vehicle trips in one hour and the proportion of short-turn and express bus trips in total trips. The model was solved by improved genetic algorithm, and the optimal solution was obtained by repeating the operation of genetic algorithm L times. The results of numerical example show that the whole cost can be saved by 21.77% at most after optimization, which indicate the model and algorithm we presented are reasonable and practicable.

  11. Research on TDM approach of sharing BRT-lane supported by vehicle-infrastructure integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongzhao; Ling Yue; Liu Dongxu; Guo Mingfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the availability of the part-time idle bus rapid transit lane (BRT-lane),a time divi-sion multiplexing (TDM) method to share BRT-lane with the vehicles besides BRT buses is proposed based on ve-hicle-road collaboration. The TDM control strategy is established under the circumstance of vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). The algorithm is given to forecast the segmented BRT travel time. According to the real time traffic information,a comprehensive model is given to estimate the vehicles’lane-changing time from/to the BRT-lane to/from its neighbor lane and determine the timing sequence for vehicles collaboration. Finally,the experi-ment demonstrates that the predicted value of the travel time and lane-changing time is much close to the true val-ue. The control strategy of the vehicles collaboration could promise the non-BRT vehicles to share BRT-lane with-out disturbing BRT’s priority.

  12. Reference Model of Desired Yaw Angle for Automated Lane Changing Behavior of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianbo Ren; Guanzhe Zhang; Hangzhe Wu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it studies the problem of trajectory planning and tracking for lane changing behavior of vehicle in automatic highway systems. Based on the model of yaw angle acceleration with positive and negative trapezoid constraint, by analyzing the variation laws of yaw motion of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, the reference model of desired yaw angle and yaw rate for lane changing is generated. According to the yaw angle model, the vertical and horizontal coordinates of trajectory for vehicle lane change are calculated. Assuming that the road curvature is a constant, the difference and associations between two scenarios are analyzed, the lane changing maneuvers occurred on curve road and straight road, respectively. On this basis, it deduces the calculation method of desired yaw angle for lane changing on circular road. Simulation result shows that, it is different from traditional lateral acceleration planning method with the trapezoid constraint, by applying the trapezoidal yaw acceleration reference model proposed in this paper, the resulting expected yaw angular acceleration is continuous, and the step tracking for steering angle is not needed to implement. Due to the desired yaw model is direct designed based on the variation laws of raw movement of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, rather than indirectly calculated from the trajectory model for lane changing, the calculation steps are simplified.

  13. Lost and Found: The Incredible Life and Times of (Miss) Layle Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Presents the story of Layle Lane, the granddaughter of free blacks, who was a high school teacher, civil rights pioneer, teacher unionist, socialist activist, political candidate, lifelong pacifist, adventurer, and humanitarian. Lane was also a fierce believer that education was the first step toward political, social, and economic power and…

  14. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Goldfeder

    Full Text Available The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  15. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeder, Rachel L; Parker, Stephen C J; Ajay, Subramanian S; Ozel Abaan, Hatice; Margulies, Elliott H

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  16. Assisted overtaking: an assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing subtask

  17. Auxiliary engine digital interface unit (DIU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This auxiliary propulsion engine digital unit controls both the valving of the fuel and oxidizer to the engine combustion chamber and the ignition spark required for timely and efficient engine burns. In addition to this basic function, the unit is designed to manage it's own redundancy such that it is still operational after two hard circuit failures. It communicates to the data bus system several selected information points relating to the operational status of the electronics as well as the engine fuel and burning processes.

  18. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  19. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  20. Homotopy Perturbation Method with an Auxiliary Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most important steps in application of the homotopy perturbation method are to construct a suitable homotopy equation and to choose a suitable initial guess. The homotopy equation should be such constructed that when the homotopy parameter is zero, it can approximately describe the solution property, and the initial solution can be chosen with an unknown parameter, which is determined after one or two iterations. This paper suggests an alternative approach to construction of the homotopy equation with an auxiliary term; Dufing equation is used as an example to illustrate the solution procedure.

  1. Lane Formation Dynamics of Oppositely Self-Driven Binary Particles: Effects of Density and Finite System Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kosuke; Kim, Kang

    2017-04-01

    We examined the lane formation dynamics of oppositely self-driven binary particles by molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional system. Our study comprehensively revealed the effects of the density and system size on the lane formation. The phase diagram distinguishing the no-lane and lane states was systematically determined for various combinations of the anisotropic friction coefficient and the desired velocity. A peculiar clustered structure was observed when the lane was destroyed by considerably increasing the desired velocity. A strong system size effect was demonstrated by the relationship between the temporal and spatial scales of the lane structure. This system size effect can be attributed to an analogy with the driven lattice gas. The transport efficiency was characterized from the scaling relation in terms of the degree of lane formation and the interface thickness between different lanes.

  2. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  3. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  4. A Study of Lane Differentiation Using An Array of Detectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKigney E. A. (Edward A.); Gholkar, R. V. (Rohun V.); Vega, D. A. (Daniel A.)

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss a method for locating a radioactive source in the context of determining which lane a source is in on a roadway. This method is appropriate for use over a large range of source velocities, and could provide an advance alarm prior to a vehicle passing a portal monitor. This is a novel method which uses data from the entire array simultaneously to locate the source, rather than relying on only one or two sensors. A description of the underlying method will be given, along with results from five and six detector arrays. The five detector array was used mainly for static tests. The six detector array was used for dynamic tests, including slow movement of a source in a vehicle.

  5. Lane of parallel through carry in ternary optical adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; HE Huacan; AI Lirong

    2005-01-01

    At the present 50 to 100 microseconds are necessary for a liquid crystal to change its state from opacity to clarity; 1.14× 10-5 microseconds are however proved to be enough for light to pass through a clarity liquid crystal device. Rooted from this great difference in time, an optical adder was constructed with parallel through carry lanes (PTCL) composed of liquid crystals. Because all carries in PTCL process in parallel, the carry delay in the ternary optical computer's adder is avoided. Eliminating the carry delay in adder of ternary optical computer by physical means, the PTCL is also applicable for other types of optical adders. Moreover a light diagram of the adder and one PTCL structure are provided.

  6. Structured trajectory planning of collision-free lane change using the vehicle-driver integration data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiangFeng; ZHANG Qian; ZHANG ZhiQ; YAN XueDong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the structured trajectory planning of lane change in collision-free road environment is studied and validated using the vehicle-driver integration data,and a new trajectory planning model for lane change is proposed based on linear offset and sine function to balance driver comfort and vehicle dynamics.The trajectory curvature of the proposed model is continuous without mutation,and the zero-based curvature at the starting and end points during lane change assures the motion direction of end points in parallel with the lane line.The field experiment are designed to collect the vehicle-driver integration data,such as steering angle,brake pedal angel and accelerator pedal angel.The correction Correlation analysis of lane-changing maneuver and influencing variables is conducted to obtain the significant variables that can be used to calibrate and test the proposed model.The results demonstrate that vehicle velocity and Y-axis acceleration have significant effects on the lane-changing maneuver,so that the model recalibrated by the samples of different velocity ranges and Y-axis accelerations has better fitted performance compared with the model calibrated by the sample trajectory.In addition,the proposed model presents a decreasing tendency of the lane change trajectory fitted MAE with the increase of time span of calibrating samples at the starting stage.

  7. Comprehensive and Practical Vision System for Self-Driving Vehicle Lane-Level Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-05-01

    Vehicle lane-level localization is a fundamental technology in autonomous driving. To achieve accurate and consistent performance, a common approach is to use the LIDAR technology. However, it is expensive and computational demanding, and thus not a practical solution in many situations. This paper proposes a stereovision system, which is of low cost, yet also able to achieve high accuracy and consistency. It integrates a new lane line detection algorithm with other lane marking detectors to effectively identify the correct lane line markings. It also fits multiple road models to improve accuracy. An effective stereo 3D reconstruction method is proposed to estimate vehicle localization. The estimation consistency is further guaranteed by a new particle filter framework, which takes vehicle dynamics into account. Experiment results based on image sequences taken under different visual conditions showed that the proposed system can identify the lane line markings with 98.6% accuracy. The maximum estimation error of the vehicle distance to lane lines is 16 cm in daytime and 26 cm at night, and the maximum estimation error of its moving direction with respect to the road tangent is 0.06 rad in daytime and 0.12 rad at night. Due to its high accuracy and consistency, the proposed system can be implemented in autonomous driving vehicles as a practical solution to vehicle lane-level localization.

  8. Saddle Points in the Auxiliary Field Method

    CERN Document Server

    Aono, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Investigations are made on the saddle point calculations (SPC) under the auxiliary field method in path integrations. Two different ways of SPC are considered, Method(I) and Method(II), to be checked in an integral representation of the Gamma function, \\Gamma (N), as a bosonic example and in a four-fermi type of Grassmann integral where one "fermion mass" \\omega_0 differs from the other N-degenerate species. The recipe of Method(I) seems rather complicated than that of (II) superficially, but the case turns out to be opposite in the actual situation. A general formalism allows us to calculate for \\Gamma (N) up to O(1/N^{14}). It is found that both happen to coincide in the bosonic case but in the fermionic case Method(II) shows a huge deviation in the weak coupling region where \\omega_0 \\ll 1.

  9. The effect of interruption probability in lattice model of two-lane traffic flow with passing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan

    2016-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking into account the interruption probability with passing for two-lane freeway. The effect of interruption probability with passing is investigated about the linear stability condition and the mKdV equation through linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Furthermore, numerical simulation is carried out to study traffic phenomena resulted from the interruption probability with passing in two-lane system. The results show that the interruption probability with passing can improve the stability of traffic flow for low reaction coefficient while the interruption probability with passing can destroy the stability of traffic flow for high reaction coefficient on two-lane highway.

  10. Using principal components as auxiliary variables in missing data estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, W.J.; Rhemtulla, M.; Little, T.D.

    2015-01-01

    To deal with missing data that arise due to participant nonresponse or attrition, methodologists have recommended an "inclusive" strategy where a large set of auxiliary variables are used to inform the missing data process. In practice, the set of possible auxiliary variables is often too large. We

  11. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the... power unit....

  13. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for...

  14. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  15. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  16. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    totally decouple the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin source connection does, because they are still in the loop of power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary source connection are investigated and analyzed: common source stray inductance reduction, transient drain-source current......Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...... imbalance mitigation and influence on the steady state bond wire current distribution. Simulation and experimental results validate the working mechanism analysis and the effects of the auxiliary source connections....

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Thakur, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of driveways, unsignalized approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per center-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles traveled (MVMT), the number of all crashes per center-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalized approaches to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and, facilitating wider right

  18. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  19. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  20. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  1. Comparison of color image segmentations for lane following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier

    1993-05-01

    For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with unhomogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We identify typical situations which constitute a basis for the realization of an image database. We describe the process of experimentation conceived for the comparative analysis of performances. The analytical results are useful in order to infer a few optimal combinations of techniques driven by the situations, and to define the present limits of the color perception's validity.

  2. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  3. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  4. Acquisition of the field measurement data relating to lane change actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Kukida, Shinji; Ikegaya, Naoki; Hagishima, Aya

    2015-11-01

    As a data set for validation of microscopic simulation models, we obtained the fundamental diagram (flux versus density relation), and the relations of velocity versus density, lane usage ratio versus density and lane-changing frequency versus density derived from a single field measurement campaign held at a Japanese urban expressway. The results were drawn from image analysis of video camera data obtained at the site.

  5. Controlling traffic jams on a two-lane road using delayed-feedback signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHENG; Shi-quan ZHONG; Shou-feng MA

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the stability analysis of two-lane traffic flow with lateral friction,which may be caused by irregular driving behavior or poorly visible road markings,and also attempts to reveal the formation mechanism of traffic jams.Firstly,a two-lane optimal velocity (OV) model without control signals is proposed and its stability condition is obtained from the viewpoint of control theory.Then delayed-feedback control signals composed of distance headway information from both lanes are added to each vehicle and a vehicular control system is designed to suppress the traffic jams.Lane change behaviors are also incorporated into the two-lane OV model and the corresponding information about distance headway and feedback signals is revised.Finally,the results of numerical experiments are shown to verify that when the stability condition is not met,the position disturbances and resulting lane change behaviors do indeed deteriorate traffic performance and cause serious traffic jams.However,once the proper delayed-feedback control signals are implemented,the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently.

  6. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  7. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging.

  8. Solar powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a solar array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the solar powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor controller for controlling voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the solar cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.

  9. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  10. Parallel Auxiliary Space AMG Solver for $H(div)$ Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-18

    We present a family of scalable preconditioners for matrices arising in the discretization of $H(div)$ problems using the lowest order Raviart--Thomas finite elements. Our approach belongs to the class of “auxiliary space''--based methods and requires only the finite element stiffness matrix plus some minimal additional discretization information about the topology and orientation of mesh entities. Also, we provide a detailed algebraic description of the theory, parallel implementation, and different variants of this parallel auxiliary space divergence solver (ADS) and discuss its relations to the Hiptmair--Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition of $H(div)$ [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483--2509] and to the auxiliary space Maxwell solver AMS [J. Comput. Math., 27 (2009), pp. 604--623]. Finally, an extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness and scalability of our implementation on large-scale $H(div)$ problems with large jumps in the material coefficients.

  11. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple......-source current imbalance mitigation, and 3) the influence on the steady-state current distribution. Lastly, simulations and experimental results validate the theoretical analysis....

  12. Real-time lane departure warning system based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution and risk evaluation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 宋晓琳; 张桂香

    2014-01-01

    A technology for unintended lane departure warning was proposed. As crucial information, lane boundaries were detected based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution in search bars of given number and then each search bar was tracked using Kalman filter between frames. The lane detection performance was evaluated and demonstrated in ways of receiver operating characteristic, dice similarity coefficient and real-time performance. For lane departure detection, a lane departure risk evaluation model based on lasting time and frequency was effectively executed on the ARM-based platform. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm generates satisfactory lane detection results under different traffic and lighting conditions, and the proposed warning mechanism sends effective warning signals, avoiding most false warning.

  13. Gauge symmetry breaking in gravity and auxiliary effective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Amin

    2017-02-01

    In the context of the covariant symmetry breaking in gravity, we study the quantum aspect of Chamseddine-Mukhanov model by making use of path integral method. Utilizing one of the gauge fixing constraints, we remove the specific ghost degree of freedom. In continuation, we define an auxiliary effective action. Introducing an auxiliary field, we will have a new dynamic field in addition to the fundamental field.

  14. A Parallel Auxiliary Grid AMG Method for GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; Hu, Xiaozhe; Cohen, Jonathan; Xu, Jinchao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new parallel auxiliary grid algebraic multigrid (AMG) method to leverage the power of graphic processing units (GPUs). In the construction of the hierarchical coarse grid, we use a simple and fixed coarsening procedure based on a region quadtree generated from an auxiliary grid. This allows us to explicitly control the sparsity patterns and operator complexities of the AMG solver. This feature provides (nearly) optimal load balancing and predictable communication p...

  15. First-order framework for flat brane with auxiliary fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Menezes, R

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields. We investigate the case where Einstein's equation is modified with the inclusion of extra, non-dynamical terms. We show that the model supports first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion, but the standard braneworld scenario changes under the presence of the parameter that controls the non-dynamical or auxiliary fields that modifies Einstein's equation.

  16. An empirical study of phase transitions from synchronized flow to jams on a single-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Hao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study empirical data for traffic flow at low velocities in single-lane traffic and compare them with those for multi-lane traffic. It is found that the traffic dynamics are quite different. When the velocities are low in multi-lane traffic, the traffic flow always becomes unstable and develops into jams. In single-lane traffic, some drivers drive in a more relaxed way and stay further back from the preceding car, as they know they cannot overtake the slow vehicle in front of them or at the front of the line. It may also be because they prefer not to follow the preceding vehicle too closely in single-lane traffic, to avoid the incessant deceleration and acceleration. This strategy is feasible because even if the space in front is large, no vehicle could ‘cut in’ in the single lane traffic. This phenomenon is called the ‘moderating effect’, and it harmonizes the traffic flow at low velocities. It is shown that the data points of synchronized flow in single-lane traffic are usually to the left and below those for multi-lane traffic in the flow-density plane. Thus, it is more difficult for the phase transition from synchronized flow to jams to occur in single-lane traffic, as pointed out in Kerner's three-phase traffic theory.

  17. 14 CFR 25.363 - Side load on engine and auxiliary power unit mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 25.363 Side load on engine and auxiliary power unit mounts. (a) Each engine and auxiliary power unit... the side load on the engine and auxiliary power unit mount, at least equal to the maximum load factor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Side load on engine and auxiliary...

  18. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  19. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  20. Lane marking detection by extracting white regions with predefined width from bird's-eye road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sadayuki; Shoji, Kenji; Toyama, Fubito; Miyamichi, Juichi

    2011-01-01

    Detecting lane markings on roads from in-vehicle camera images is very important because it is one of the fundamental tasks for autonomous running technology and safety driving support system. There are several lane markings detection methods using the width information, but most of these are considered to be insufficient for oblique markings. So, the primary intent of this paper is to propose a detecting lane markings method robust to orientation of markings. In this work, we focus on the width of lane markings standardized by road act in Japan, and propose a method for detecting white lane markings by extracting white regions with constant predefined width from bird's-eye road images after segmentation such as categorical color area one. The proposed method is based on the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The proposed method has a merit that can be measure an exact width for oblique markings on the bird's-eye images because it can be obtained perpendicular width for edge. The effectiveness of the proposed method was shown by experimental results for 187 actual road images taken from an in-vehicle camera.

  1. Chaotic time series prediction for surrounding rock's deformation of deep mine lanes in soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-bing; WANG Qi-sheng; YAO Jin-rui; ZHAO Guo-yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the measured displacements, the change laws of the effect of distance in phase space on the deformation of mine lane were analyzed and the chaotic time series model to predict the surrounding rocks deformation of deep mine lane in soft rock by nonlinear theory and methods was established. The chaotic attractor dimension(D) and the largest Lyapunov index(Emax) were put forward to determine whether the deformation process of mine lane is chaotic and the degree of chaos. The analysis of examples indicates that when D>2 and Emax>0, the surrounding rock's deformation of deep mine lane in soft rock is the chaotic process and the laws of the deformation can still be well demonstrated by the method of the reconstructive state space. Comparing with the prediction of linear time series and grey prediction, the chaotic time series prediction has higher accuracy and the prediction results can provide theoretical basis for reasonable support of mine lane in soft rock. The time of the second support in Maluping Mine of Guizhou, China, is determined to arrange at about 40 d after the initial support according to the prediction results.

  2. Effect of Driver Scope Awareness in the Lane Changing Maneuvers Using Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of drivers’ visibility and their perception (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver. The term of scope awareness was used to describe the visibility required by the driver to make a perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that exist in that road. A computer simulation model was conducted to show this driver awareness behavior. This studying attempt to precisely catching the lane changing behavior and illustrate the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. This paper proposes a simple cellular automata model for studying driver visibility effects of lane changing maneuver and driver perception of estimated speed. Different values of scope awareness were examined to capture its effect on the traffic flow. Simulation results show the ability of this model to capture the important features of lane changing maneuver and revealed the appearance of the short-thin solid line jam and the wide solid line jam in the traffic flow as the consequences of lane changing maneuver.

  3. Traffic of single-headed motor proteins KIF1A: effects of lane changing

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Kinesins are biomolecular motors which move on cylindrical nano-tubes called microtubules. A normal microtubule consists of more than one protofilament on which the equispaced motor binding sites form a periodic array. The collective movement of the kinesins on a microtubule is, therefore, analogous to vehicular traffic on multi-lane highways where each protofilament is the analogue of a single lane. We extend a recent model of the traffic of single-headed kinesin KIF1A [{\\it Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 75}, 041905 (2007)}] by incorporating processes which correspond to shifting of the motor proteins from one protofilament to another. On the basis of analytical treatment of our model, we predict the effects of lane changing on the flux of the KIF1A motors. Our quantitative predictions can be tested, in principle, by carrying out {\\it in-vitro} experiments with fluorescently labelled KIF1A molecules.

  4. A model for the evolution of traffic jams in multi-lane

    CERN Document Server

    Berthelin, Florent

    2011-01-01

    In [7], Berthelin, Degond, Delitala and Rascle introduced a traffic flow model describing the formation and the dynamics of traffic jams. This model consists of a Pressureless Gas Dynamics system under a maximal constraint on the density and is derived through a singular limit of the Aw-Rascle model. In the present paper we propose an improvement of this model by allowing the road to be multi-lane piecewise. The idea is to use the maximal constraint to modelize the number of lanes. We also add in the model a parameter {\\alpha} which modelize the various speed limitations according to the number of lanes. We present the dynamical behaviour of clusters (traffic jams) and by approximation with such solutions, we obtain an existence result of weak solutions for any initial data.

  5. Evacuation Network Optimization Model with Lane-Based Reversal and Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the evacuation measure may seem to be the best choice as an emergency response. To enable an efficiency evacuation, a network optimization model which integrates lane-based reversal design and routing with intersection crossing conflict elimination for evacuation is constructed. The proposed bilevel model minimizes the total evacuation time to leave the evacuation zone. A tabu search algorithm is applied to find an optimal lane reversal plan in the upper-level. The lower-level utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to get two types of “a single arc for an intersection approach” and “multiple arcs for an intersection approach” lane-based route plans with intersection crossing conflict elimination. An experiment of a nine-intersection evacuation zone illustrates the validity of the model and the algorithm. A field case with network topology of Jianye District around the Nanjing Olympics Sports Center is studied to show the applicability of this algorithm.

  6. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  7. Cellular Automaton Models of Highway Traffic Flow Considering Lane-Control and Speed-Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱勇生; 李文俊; 曾俊伟; 王敏; 杜加伟; 广晓平

    2011-01-01

    As two kinds of management modes of highway tramc control, lane-control, and speed-control produce different effect under different conditions. In this paper, traffic flow cellular automaton models for four-lane highway system with two opposing directions under the above two modes are established considering car and truck mixed running. Through computer numerical simulating, the fundamental diagrams with different parameters are obtained, and after the analysis of density-flux diagrams, the variation discipline of flux with traffic density under different control models is gained. The results indicate that, compared with lane-control, utilization ratio of road can be further improved with speed-control when the truck number increases. The research result is of great significance for reasonable providing theoretical guidance for highway traffic control.

  8. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  9. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  10. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Narain

    2003-09-01

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of selection that not only combines phenotypic and molecular information on the trait under improvement but also combines similar information on one or more auxiliary traits. The accuracy of such a selection procedure has been theoretically studied for sufficiently large populations so that the effects of detected quantitative trait loci can be perfectly estimated. The theory is illustrated numerically by considering one auxiliary trait. It is shown that the use of an auxiliary trait improves the selection accuracy; and, hence, the relative efficiency of index selection compared to individual selection which is based on the same intensity of selection. This is particularly so for higher magnitudes of residual genetic correlation and environmental correlation having opposite signs, lower values of the proportion of genetic variation in the main trait associated with the markers, negligible proportion of genetic variation in the auxiliary trait associated with the markers, and lower values of the heritability of the main trait but higher values of the heritability of the auxiliary trait.

  11. Spontaneous-braking and lane-changing effect on traffic congestion using cellular automata model applied to the two-lane traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real traffic situations, vehicle would make a braking as the response to avoid collision with another vehicle or avoid some obstacle like potholes, snow, or pedestrian that crosses the road unexpectedly. However, in some cases the spontaneous-braking may occur even though there are no obstacles in front of the vehicle. In some country, the reckless driving behaviors such as sudden-stop by public-buses, motorcycle which changing lane too quickly, or tailgating make the probability of braking getting increase. The new aspect of this paper is the simulation of braking behavior of the driver and presents the new Cellular Automata model for describing this characteristic. Moreover, this paper also examines the impact of lane-changing maneuvers to reduce the number of traffic congestion that caused by spontaneous-braking behavior of the vehicles.

  12. Analytic, piecewise solution to the Lane-Emden equation for stars with complex density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Bogdanovic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    The polytropic models of stars are used for a variety of applications in computational astrophysics. These are typically obtained by numerically solving the Lane-Emden equation for a star in hydrostatic equilibrium under assumption that the pressure and density within the star obey the polytropic equation of state. We present an efficient analytic, piecewise differentiable solution to the Lane-Emden equation which allows “stitching” of different polytropes to represent complex pressure and density profiles. This approach can be used to model stars with distinct properties in their cores and envelopes, such as the evolved red giant and horizontal branch stars.

  13. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  14. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  15. A viscous continuum traffic flow model with consideration of the coupling effect for two-lane freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Di-Hua; Peng Guang-Han

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the viscous continuum traffic flow model for a single lane is extended to the traffic flow for two-lane freeways. The proposed model is a higher-order continuum model considering the coupling and lane changing effects of the vehicles on two adjacent lanes. It results from integrating the Taylor series expansion of the viscous continuum traffic flow model proposed by Ge (2006 Physics A 371 667) into the multi-lane model presented by Daganzo (1997Transpn. Res. B 31 83). Our proposed model may be used to describe non-anisotropic behaviour because of lane changing in multi-lane traffic. A linear stability analysis is given and the neutral stability condition is obtained. Also,issues related to lane changing,shock waves and rarefaction waves,local clustering and phase transition are investigated through a simulation experiment. The simulation results show that the proposed model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena commonly observable in real world traffic flow.

  16. Composition Attacks and Auxiliary Information in Data Privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Ganta, Srivatsava Ranjit; Smith, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Privacy is an increasingly important aspect of data publishing. Reasoning about privacy, however, is fraught with pitfalls. One of the most significant is the auxiliary information (also called external knowledge, background knowledge, or side information) that an adversary gleans from other channels such as the web, public records, or domain knowledge. This paper explores how one can reason about privacy in the face of rich, realistic sources of auxiliary information. Specifically, we investigate the effectiveness of current anonymization schemes in preserving privacy when multiple organizations independently release anonymized data about overlapping populations. 1. We investigate composition attacks, in which an adversary uses independent anonymized releases to breach privacy. We explain why recently proposed models of limited auxiliary information fail to capture composition attacks. Our experiments demonstrate that even a simple instance of a composition attack can breach privacy in practice, for a large ...

  17. Efficient auxiliary-mode approach for time-dependent nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan Stefan; Croy, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for numerically solving the equations arising in the time-dependent non-equilibrium Green's function formalism is developed. It is based on an auxiliary-mode expansion of the self-energies which convert the complicated set of integro-differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. In the new scheme all auxiliary matrices are replaced by vectors or scalars. This drastically reduces the computational effort and memory requirements of the method, rendering it applicable to topical problems in electron quantum optics and molecular electronics. As an illustrative example we consider the dynamics of a Leviton wave-packet in a 1D wire.

  18. Improving Semi-Supervised Learning with Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    Deep generative models based upon continuous variational distributions parameterized by deep networks give state-of-the-art performance. In this paper we propose a framework for extending the latent representation with extra auxiliary variables in order to make the variational distribution more...... expressive for semi-supervised learning. By utilizing the stochasticity of the auxiliary variable we demonstrate how to train discriminative classifiers resulting in state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning exemplified by an 0.96% error on MNIST using 100 labeled data points. Furthermore...

  19. A short note on gravity with tensor auxiliary fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bañados, Máximo

    2013-01-01

    We consider gravity coupled to a second metric in the strong coupling limit, where the second kinetic term is absent. This system belongs to the recently discussed class of models of "gravity with auxiliary fields" by Pani et al. We prove that, in vacuum, these theories are always equivalent to GR with a cosmological constant, even in the case where the auxiliary field equations contain identities leaving undetermined functions. In the situation where some functions are undetermined, the actual value of the cosmological constant is dictated by an initial condition, and not by the parameters in the action.

  20. Sampling designs dependent on sample parameters of auxiliary variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wywiał, Janusz L

    2015-01-01

    The book offers a valuable resource for students and statisticians whose work involves survey sampling. An estimation of the population parameters in finite and fixed populations assisted by auxiliary variables is considered. New sampling designs dependent on moments or quantiles of auxiliary variables are presented on the background of the classical methods. Accuracies of the estimators based on original sampling design are compared with classical estimation procedures. Specific conditional sampling designs are applied to problems of small area estimation as well as to estimation of quantiles of variables under study. .

  1. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...... auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest...

  2. Analysis and Measurement of NOx Emissions in Port Auxiliary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German de Melo Rodriguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is made NOx pollution emitted by port auxiliary vessels, specifically by harbour tugs, due to its unique operating characteristics of operation, require a large propulsion power changes discontinuously, also possess some peculiar technical characteristics, large tonnage and high propulsive power, that differentiate them from other auxiliary vessels of the port. Taking into account all the above features, there are no studies of the NOx emission engines caused by different working regimes of power because engine manufacturers have not measured these emissions across the range of operating power, but usually we only report the pollution produced by its engines to a maximum continuous power.

  3. PARALLEL AUXILIARY SPACE AMG FOR H(curl) PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzanio V. Kolev; Panayot S. Vassilevski

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review a number of auxiliary space based preconditioners for the second order definite and semi-definite Maxwell problems discretized with the lowest order Nedelec finite elements. We discuss the parallel implementation of the most promising of these methods, the ones derived from the recent Hiptmair-Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition [Hiptmair and Xu, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483-2509]. An extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrate the scalability of our implementation on large-scale H(curl) problems.

  4. History of Sandia National Laboratories` auxiliary closure mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weydert, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ponder, G.M. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    An essential component of a horizontal, underground nuclear test setup at the Nevada Test Site is the auxiliary closure system. The massive gates that slam shut immediately after a device has been detonated allow the prompt radiation to pass, but block debris and hot gases from continuing down the tunnel. Thus, the gates protect experiments located in the horizontal line-of-sight steel pipe. Sandia National Laboratories has been the major designer and developer of these closure systems. This report records the history of SNL`s participation in and contributions to the technology of auxiliary closure systems used in horizontal tunnel tests in the underground test program.

  5. Outcome- and auxiliary-dependent subsampling and its statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wu, Yougui; Zhou, Haibo

    2009-11-01

    The performance of a biomarker predicting clinical outcome is often evaluated in a large prospective study. Due to high costs associated with bioassay, investigators need to select a subset from all available patients for biomarker assessment. We consider an outcome- and auxiliary-dependent subsampling (OADS) scheme, in which the probability of selecting a patient into the subset depends on the patient's clinical outcome and an auxiliary variable. We proposed a semiparametric empirical likelihood method to estimate the association between biomarker and clinical outcome. Asymptotic properties of the estimator are given. Simulation study shows that the proposed method outperforms alternative methods.

  6. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...

  7. When do drivers abort an overtaking maneuver 5 on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farah, H.

    2016-01-01

    Overtaking on two-lane roads is a complex driving maneuver. Drivers who desire to overtake a lead vehicle need to evaluate the available gaps in the opposite direction and accept a sufficient gap to successfully complete the overtaking maneuver. However, often drivers realize that the gap they acce

  8. Approximate analytical solution for the isothermal Lane Emden equation in a spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moustafa Aly; Al-Zeghayer, Yousef

    2015-10-01

    This paper obtains an approximate analytical solution for the isothermal Lane-Emden equation that models a self-gravitating isothermal sphere. The approximate solution is obtained by perturbation methods in terms of small and large distance parameters. The approximate solution is compared with the numerical solution. The approximate solution obtained is valid for all values of the distance parameter.

  9. Shape-dependence of the barrier for skyrmions on a two-lane racetrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Single magnetic skyrmions are localized whirls in the magnetization with an integer winding number. They have been observed on nano-meter scales up to room temperature in multilayer structures. Due to their small size, topological winding number, and their ability to be manipulated by extremely tiny forces, they are often called interesting candidates for future memory devices. The two-lane racetrack has to exhibit two lanes that are separated by an energy barrier. The information is then encoded in the position of a skyrmion which is located in one of these close-by lanes. The artificial barrier between the lanes can be created by an additional nanostrip on top of the track. Here we study the dependence of the potential barrier on the shape of the additional nanostrip, calculating the potentials for a rectangular, triangular, and parabolic cross section, as well as interpolations between the first two. We find that a narrow barrier is always repulsive and that the height of the potential strongly depends on the shape of the nanostrip, whereas the shape of the potential is more universal. We finally show that the shape-dependence is redundant for possible applications.

  10. A parallel code for multiprecision computations of the Lane-Emden differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Geroyannis, Vassilis S

    2016-01-01

    We compute multiprecision solutions of the Lane-Emden equation. This differential equation arises when introducing the well-known polytropic model into the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for a nondistorted star. Since such multiprecision computations are time-consuming, we apply to this problem parallel programming techniques and thus the execution time of the computations is drastically reduced.

  11. "Go West, Young Man!" - Praktikum an der Lane Medical Library der Universität Stanford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollfuß, Helmut

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an account of a five weeks internship at Lane Medical Library which is part of Stanford University, California. The story depicts personal impressions and reports on the university, on the library's history, organisation and its future development.

  12. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  13. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  14. Empirical analysis of the lane formation process in bidirectional pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on pedestrian bidirectional streams and the mechanisms leading to spontaneous lane formation by examining the flow formed by two groups of people walking toward each other in a mock corridor. Flow ratio is changed by changing each group size while maintaining comparable total flow and density. By tracking the trajectories of each pedestrian and analyzing the data obtained, five different phases were recognized as contributing to the transition from unidirectional to bidirectional flow including the spontaneous creation and dissolution of lanes. It has been shown that a statistical treatment is required to understand the fundamental characteristics of pedestrian dynamics and some two-dimensional quantities such as order parameter and rotation range were introduced to allow a more complete analysis. All the quantities observed showed a clear relationship with flow ratio and helped distinguishing between the different characteristic phases of the experiment. Results show that balanced bidirectional flow becomes the most stable configuration after lanes are formed, but the lane creation process requires pedestrians to laterally move to a largest extent compared to low flow-ratio configurations. This finding allows us to understand the reasons why balanced bidirectional flow is efficient at low densities, but quickly leads to deadlock formation at high densities.

  15. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  16. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202... application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  17. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.;

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  18. Evaluation of Single Vehicle Data in Dependence of the Vehicle-Type, Lane, and Site

    OpenAIRE

    Tilch, Benno; Helbing, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study dependencies of fundamental diagrams, time gap distributions, and velocity-distance relations on vehicle types, lanes and/or measurement sites. We also propose measurement and aggregation methods that have more favourable statistical properties than conventional methods.

  19. Simulation study of traffic accidents on a three-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing

    2015-07-01

    Unsuitable driving behaviors often lead to the occurrence of traffic accidents. To reduce accidents and to prolong human life, simulated investigations are highly desirable to evaluate the effect of traffic safety in terms of number of traffic accidents. In this paper, a three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to analyze the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents on highway. We define appropriate driving rules for the forward moving and lane changing of the vehicles. Three types of vehicle accidents are designed to investigate the relationships between different driving behaviors and traffic accidents. We simulate four road driving strategies, and compute the traffic flow, velocity, lane-changing frequency and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents for different road driving strategies. According to the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents can be reduced by using the specified road driving strategies. Additionally, we found that the occurrence of traffic accidents can be avoided when the slow vehicles are suitably constrained to move on a three-lane highway.

  20. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open eL

  1. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  2. Auxiliary equation method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirendaoreji,; Jiong, Sun

    2003-03-31

    By using the solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct several kinds of exact travelling wave solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations. By this method some physically important nonlinear equations are investigated and new exact travelling wave solutions are explicitly obtained with the aid of symbolic computation.

  3. Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo methods in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alhassid, Y

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo methods enable the calculation of thermal and ground state properties of correlated quantum many-body systems in model spaces that are many orders of magnitude larger than those that can be treated by conventional diagonalization methods. We review recent developments and applications of these methods in nuclei using the framework of the configuration-interaction shell model.

  4. Search and Rescue. Auxiliary Operational Specialty Course. Student Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast Guard, Washington, DC.

    This text, based on the National Search and Rescue (SAR) Plan, was prepared to provide a course of study on common procedures for SAR operations so that any basically qualified person in the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary can effectively accomplish a SAR mission and act as on-scene commander if required. There are 13 chapters: Introduction to Search…

  5. Power consumption of the ASCV and auxiliary equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1998-01-01

    Operating an ASCV requires power - to cover the losses in the ASCV itself and to run auxiliary equipment. It is necessary to take this power consumption into account when considering the economical aspects of installing an ASCV.Field measurements of this consumption of the ASCV in Rejsby Hede...

  6. Restarting Automata with Auxiliary Symbols and Small Lookahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on lookahead hierarchies for restarting automata with auxiliary symbols and small lookahead. In particular, we show that there are just two different classes of languages recognised by RRWW automata, through the restriction of lookahead size. We also show that the respective...

  7. 75 FR 57200 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are proposing to amend the National Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan... current with changes in the poultry industry and provide for the use of new sampling and...

  8. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... locomotive is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) that operates during an idle shutdown mode, you must account for the APU's emissions rates as specified in this section, unless the APU is part of an... emission rate (g/hr) as specified in § 1033.530. Add the APU emission rate (g/hr) that you determine...

  10. Auxiliary anatomical labels for joint segmentation and atlas registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Tobias; Szekely, Gabor; Goksel, Orcun

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies improving joint segmentation and registration by introducing auxiliary labels for anatomy that has similar appearance to the target anatomy while not being part of that target. Such auxiliary labels help avoid false positive labelling of non-target anatomy by resolving ambiguity. A known registration of a segmented atlas can help identify where a target segmentation should lie. Conversely, segmentations of anatomy in two images can help them be better registered. Joint segmentation and registration is then a method that can leverage information from both registration and segmentation to help one another. It has received increasing attention recently in the literature. Often, merely a single organ of interest is labelled in the atlas. In the presense of other anatomical structures with similar appearance, this leads to ambiguity in intensity based segmentation; for example, when segmenting individual bones in CT images where other bones share the same intensity profile. To alleviate this problem, we introduce automatic generation of additional labels in atlas segmentations, by marking similar-appearance non-target anatomy with an auxiliary label. Information from the auxiliary-labeled atlas segmentation is then incorporated by using a novel coherence potential, which penalizes differences between the deformed atlas segmentation and the target segmentation estimate. We validated this on a joint segmentation-registration approach that iteratively alternates between registering an atlas and segmenting the target image to find a final anatomical segmentation. The results show that automatic auxiliary labelling outperforms the same approach using a single label atlasses, for both mandibular bone segmentation in 3D-CT and corpus callosum segmentation in 2D-MRI.

  11. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  12. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetto, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road. The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle. The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out. We are interested in the relaxation time τ, i.e., which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane. Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model, we have found two states, namely, the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane, and the trapped state in which τ diverges. We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability. In the second situation, we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task. Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase, two different states can be distinguished. One is the critical state, in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out. The other is the safe state, in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out. In order to be in the safe state, we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane. Furthermore, this critical distance depends on the density of cars, and it follows an exponential law.

  13. Light wire auxiliaries with pre-adjusted edgewise appliance to control individual incisor torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanya Sabrish

    2015-01-01

    The use of light wire auxiliaries have definite advantages and hence should be a part of our armamentarium to handle such cases. Light wire auxiliaries offer us a biomechanically superior and economical alternative to apply torque forces on incisors.

  14. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…

  15. An Evaluative Survey of the Use of Auxiliary Personnel in Secondary School Departments of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Howard Gene

    In order (1) to determine how auxiliaries (lay readers and instructional, clerical, and housekeeping aides) were used in secondary English departments, (2) to determine the reasons for English departments discontinuing the use of auxiliaries, and (3) to evaluate the way auxiliaries were used, questionnaires were sent to two groups: schools using…

  16. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which... in operation, and remain stopped during operation of the engine as an auxiliary power unit (“APU...

  17. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders - A Reference Solution for the Numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived...... of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources for a range of scattering configurations....... with their singularities at different positions away from the origin. The transformation necessitates a truncation of the wave transformation but the inaccuracy introduced hereby is shown to be negligible. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is employed as a reference to investigate the accuracy...

  18. New Galerkin operational matrices for solving Lane-Emden type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Doha, E. H.; Saad, A. S.; Bassuony, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with introducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n=3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  19. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  20. Analysis of average density difference effect in a new two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Liu, Wei-Ning; Cheng, Sen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking the average density difference effect into account for two-lane traffic system according to Transportation Cyber-physical Systems. The influence of average density difference effect on the stability of traffic flow is investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear analysis results reveal that the unstable region would be reduced by considering the average density difference effect. The nonlinear kink-antikink soliton solution derived from the mKdV equation is analyzed to describe the properties of traffic jamming transition near the critical point. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical results showing that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the average density difference effect for two-lane traffic system.

  1. Approximate Analytical Solution to the Fractional Lane-Emden Equation of the Polytropic Gas Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Nouh, Mohamed I

    2016-01-01

    Lane-Emden equation could be used to model stellar interiors, star clusters and many configurations in astrophysics. Unfortunately, there is an exact solution only for the polytropic index n=0,1 and 5. In the present paper, a series solution for the fractional lane-Emden equation is presented. The solution is performed in the frame of modified Rienmann liouville derivatives. The results indicate that the series converges for the polytropic index range 0<=n <= 4.99 with fractional parameter \\alpha spreads over all range 0<\\alpha <= 1. Comparison with the numerical solution revealed a good agreement with a maximum relative error 0.001. The obtained results recover the well-known series solutions when \\alpha=1.

  2. NEW GALERKIN OPERATIONAL MATRICES FOR SOLVING LANE-EMDEN TYPE EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Abd-Elhameed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with intro - ducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n = 3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  3. Performance analysis and comparison of PTOP and LANE for IP transmission over ATM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Junaid A.; Al-Irhayim, Sufyan; Al-Khateeb, Wajdi; Wajdi, Yahya

    1998-12-01

    Due to its traffic control and performance assurance characteristics, ATM is being employed as the core network in most campuses. However, bulk of the workstations remain on Ethernet, generating IP traffic that passes through ATM using special schemes such as PTOP or LANE. In such a network, the performance is affected due to the extra overheads in multiple conversions between cells and packets and managing virtual circuits. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of PTOP and LANE in passing the IP traffic under various conditions. This study helps in understanding the various performance issues in these environments in order to define the end-to-end quality of service for Ethernet-ATM networks.

  4. [The design of bionic left ventricular auxiliary pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Henglin; Hu, Xiaobing; Du, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a novel design of bionic left ventricular auxiliary pump, and the characteristic is that elastic diaphragm of pump driven by hydraulic, having smooth, reliable blood supply, can prevent blood clots, can use the flow sensor, pressure sensor detection showing the blood pressure and blood volume at the inlet and outlet of the pump. The pump can go with heart rate synchronization or asynchronous auxiliary by the R wave of human body's ECG. The design goal is realization of bionic throb. Through the animal experiment, the blood pressure waveforms are close to expectations, stable flow can stroke according to the set value, which prove that the pump can meet the requirement for heart disease patients for bionic left ventricular assistant.

  5. Power spectrum with auxiliary fields in de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohsenzadeh, M. [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Qom Branch, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tanhayi, M.R. [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yusofi, E. [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Science and Research Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Amol, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We use the auxiliary fields and (excited-) de Sitter solutions to study the standard power spectrum of primordial fluctuations of a scalar field in the early universe. The auxiliary fields are the negative norm solutions of the field equation and as is shown, with a fixed boundary condition, utilizing these states results in a finite power spectrum without any infinity. The power spectrum is determined by the de Sitter solutions up to some corrections and the space-time symmetry is not broken in this point of view. The modulation to the power spectrum is of order ((H)/(Λ)){sup 2}, where H is the Hubble parameter and Λ is the energy scale, e.g., the Planck scale. (orig.)

  6. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C

    2015-01-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested stat...

  7. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Tao; ZHANG Peng; WONG S. C.; SHU Chi-Wang; ZHANG Meng-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or "noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the "optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.%We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speeddensity relationship.Although the whole system is symmetric,the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians.The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise”,and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time.The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization” mechanism in Helbing's social force model,by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.The phenomenon of lane formation in pedestrian flows has been frequently observed through direct observation or controlled experiments.Helbing et al.[4]presented photographs to show that pedestrians could form uniform walking lanes at sufficiently high densities.Theoretically,the phenomenon was explained through an optimal self-organization mechanism,[3,6]namely,a pedestrian crowd constitutes an open system of driven entities that tends to minimize interaction and dissipation,and thus an optimal state is reached.This differs from a closed system,which is governed by the second law of thermodynamics and thus the entropy

  8. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  9. Flow difference effect in the two-lane lattice hydrodynamic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei; Tian Jun-Fang; Zhang Wen-Yi

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a flow difference effect,a modified lattice two-lane traffic flow model is proposed,which is proved to be capable of improving the stability of traffic flow.Both the linear stability condition and the kink-antikink solution derived from the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are analyzed.Numerical simulations verify the theoretical analysis.Furthermore,the evolution laws under different disturbances in the metastable region are studied.

  10. Three new species of Calliceratomyia Lane (Diptera: Ditomyiidae) from Neotropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Heron; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-02-03

    Three new species of the ditomyiid genus Calliceratomyia Lane, so far known only from the type-species from southeastern Brazil, are described from Mexico. The new species-Calliceratomyia papaveroi sp. n., Calliceratomyia pantelhomyia sp. n. and Calliceratomyia zayolli sp. n.-are described based on adult males collected with Malaise traps in the States of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Hidalgo, Mexico. The descriptions are illustrated and the diagnosis of the genus is revised.

  11. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  12. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J; Geruschat, Duane R; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the "yield to pedestrian" sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds

  13. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 3: Sea-Lanes to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND...governance in Nigeria, these considerations suggest that Ghana may be a more attractive partner. In examining the Caspian Region, the major energy...lanes as supply lines. Because they facilitate delivery of the resources necessary to fuel continued economic growth, they are far more important than

  14. A Numerical Method for Lane-Emden Equations Using Hybrid Functions and the Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method to solve Lane-Emden equations as singular initial value problems is presented in this work. This method is based on the replacement of unknown functions through a truncated series of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The collocation method transforms the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. It also has application in a wide area of differential equations. Corresponding numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  15. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  16. Auxiliary Density Matrix Methods for Hartree-Fock Exchange Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, Manuel; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2010-08-10

    The calculation of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) is computationally demanding for large systems described with high-quality basis sets. In this work, we show that excellent performance and good accuracy can nevertheless be obtained if an auxiliary density matrix is employed for the HFX calculation. Several schemes to derive an auxiliary density matrix from a high-quality density matrix are discussed. Key to the accuracy of the auxiliary density matrix methods (ADMM) is the use of a correction based on standard generalized gradient approximations for HFX. ADMM integrates seamlessly in existing HFX codes and, in particular, can be employed in linear scaling implementations. Demonstrating the performance of the method, the effect of HFX on the structure of liquid water is investigated in detail using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations (300 ps) of a system of 64 molecules. Representative for large systems are calculations on a solvated protein (Rubredoxin), for which ADMM outperforms the corresponding standard HFX implementation by approximately a factor 20.

  17. ADAPTIVE SELECTION OF AUXILIARY OBJECTIVES IN MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Petrova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We propose to modify the EA+RL method, which increases efficiency of evolutionary algorithms by means of auxiliary objectives. The proposed modification is compared to the existing objective selection methods on the example of travelling salesman problem. Method. In the EA+RL method a reinforcement learning algorithm is used to select an objective – the target objective or one of the auxiliary objectives – at each iteration of the single-objective evolutionary algorithm.The proposed modification of the EA+RL method adopts this approach for the usage with a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. As opposed to theEA+RL method, in this modification one of the auxiliary objectives is selected by reinforcement learning and optimized together with the target objective at each step of the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. Main Results.The proposed modification of the EA+RL method was compared to the existing objective selection methods on the example of travelling salesman problem. In the EA+RL method and its proposed modification reinforcement learning algorithms for stationary and non-stationary environment were used. The proposed modification of the EA+RL method applied with reinforcement learning for non-stationary environment outperformed the considered objective selection algorithms on the most problem instances. Practical Significance. The proposed approach increases efficiency of evolutionary algorithms, which may be used for solving discrete NP-hard optimization problems. They are, in particular, combinatorial path search problems and scheduling problems.

  18. Robust video transmission with distributed source coded auxiliary channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajun; Majumdar, Abhik; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2009-12-01

    We propose a novel solution to the problem of robust, low-latency video transmission over lossy channels. Predictive video codecs, such as MPEG and H.26x, are very susceptible to prediction mismatch between encoder and decoder or "drift" when there are packet losses. These mismatches lead to a significant degradation in the decoded quality. To address this problem, we propose an auxiliary codec system that sends additional information alongside an MPEG or H.26x compressed video stream to correct for errors in decoded frames and mitigate drift. The proposed system is based on the principles of distributed source coding and uses the (possibly erroneous) MPEG/H.26x decoder reconstruction as side information at the auxiliary decoder. The distributed source coding framework depends upon knowing the statistical dependency (or correlation) between the source and the side information. We propose a recursive algorithm to analytically track the correlation between the original source frame and the erroneous MPEG/H.26x decoded frame. Finally, we propose a rate-distortion optimization scheme to allocate the rate used by the auxiliary encoder among the encoding blocks within a video frame. We implement the proposed system and present extensive simulation results that demonstrate significant gains in performance both visually and objectively (on the order of 2 dB in PSNR over forward error correction based solutions and 1.5 dB in PSNR over intrarefresh based solutions for typical scenarios) under tight latency constraints.

  19. Enhanced Deposition Uniformity via an Auxiliary Electrode in Massive Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dezhi; Xiao, Zhiming; Deng, Lei; Sun, Yu; Tan, Qiulin; Dong, Linxi; Huang, Shaohua; Zhu, Rui; Liu, Yifang; Zheng, Wanxi; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Lingyun; Sun, Daoheng

    2016-07-22

    Uniform deposition of nanofibers in the massive electrospinning process is critical in the industrial applications of nanofibers. Tip-Induced Electrospinning (TIE) is a cost-effective large-scale nanofiber-manufacturing method, but it has poor deposition uniformity. An auxiliary conductive electrode connected to the emitting electrode was introduced to improve the deposition uniformity of the nanofibers. The effects of the auxiliary electrode shape, the tilted angles and the position of the boat-like electrode on the electric field distribution, the diameter of the nanofibers, the jet control and the deposition uniformity were explored by using finite element analysis of the electric field and experiments. Experiments showed that the boat-like electrode at 20 mm above the reservoir bottom with a 5° tilted angle helped to decrease the relative deposition error of nanofibers in the greatest extent to about 5.66%, indicating such an auxiliary electrode is a good candidate method to greatly improve the deposition uniformity of nanofibers in massive electrospinning.

  20. Bayesian Analysis of Geostatistical Models With an Auxiliary Lattice

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jincheol

    2012-04-01

    The Gaussian geostatistical model has been widely used for modeling spatial data. However, this model suffers from a severe difficulty in computation: it requires users to invert a large covariance matrix. This is infeasible when the number of observations is large. In this article, we propose an auxiliary lattice-based approach for tackling this difficulty. By introducing an auxiliary lattice to the space of observations and defining a Gaussian Markov random field on the auxiliary lattice, our model completely avoids the requirement of matrix inversion. It is remarkable that the computational complexity of our method is only O(n), where n is the number of observations. Hence, our method can be applied to very large datasets with reasonable computational (CPU) times. The numerical results indicate that our model can approximate Gaussian random fields very well in terms of predictions, even for those with long correlation lengths. For real data examples, our model can generally outperform conventional Gaussian random field models in both prediction errors and CPU times. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2012 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  1. Improving the Sustainability of Transportation: Environmental and Functional Benefits of Right Turn By-Pass Lanes at Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guerrieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional performances of conventional roundabouts (single-lane and multi-lane and innovative roundabouts (spiral, flower, C and turbo can be improved through right-turn bypass lanes controlled by stop, yield or free-flow signs. The article presents evaluations of the emissions of air pollutants (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particle pollution (PM10 and PM2.5, fuel consumption and construction, management, energetic and environmental costs in roundabouts without or with bypass lanes (controlled by stop, yield or free-flow. The suggested methodology has a general character and can be applied as a multi-parametric criterion for choosing road intersections, although, in the present paper, it has been employed only for a case study. For the aims of this research, we employed recent closed-form formulations to determine roundabout performances; moreover, we used the COPERT IV® software to estimate air emissions in nine different types of vehicles. Numerous traffic simulations were carried out. The variation in the maximum hourly traffic Qmax and annual traffic QTOT provided the appropriate domains of the examined geometric layouts, both in functional and environmental terms and with regard to generalized costs, estimated for a 10-year period. It resulted that the introduction of right-turn bypasses in all arms of conventional roundabouts with a one ring lane and one lane at the entries (single-lane roundabouts is the most cost-effective when the flows entering the roundabout are higher than Qmax = 2000 veh/h. Moreover, free-flow bypass lanes always provide greater capacity and lower delays than stop- or yield-signaled bypasses. However, with extremely high Qmax values, stop-controlled bypasses guarantee lower fuel consumption, while those with a yield sign lower total costs.

  2. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph;

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  3. Method of planning a reference trajectory of a single lane change manoeuver with Bezier curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowski, D.; Ślaski, G.

    2016-09-01

    For a comprehensive simulation of vehicle steering process it is vital to model the decision process of planning a trajectory shape and process of the selected trajectory. A single lane change manoeuver is only slightly restricted by the road geometry. There are also other requirements of a possible trajectory of movement, such as the continuity of change (derivative) of curvature, maximizing the passenger's comfort measured with appropriate indicators based on variables of motion dynamics or parameters of motion trajectory which influence that dynamic. This article presents a suggested method of automatic generation of trajectory of single lane change manoeuver. The proposed method can be used as an integral part of driver models and is based on a combination of two symmetrical Bezier curves optionally supplemented with a straight lane connector. The method meets the requirements of a trajectory shape, which results from optimizing the value of parameters controlling Bezier curve based on minimizing the curvature and the resulting lateral acceleration while preserving the continuity of curvature derivative of the planned trajectory.

  4. Beliefs and behaviours relevant to the road safety effects of profile lane-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Julie; Murphy, Susanne; Job, R F Soames

    2008-11-01

    Audio-tactile lane-marking (ATLM) is designed to alert inattentive drivers when they deviate from their lane, and appears to reduce crashes. Research into cognitive-behavioural mechanisms underlying, or possibly undermining, the efficacy of ATLM, is limited. We surveyed 775 randomly selected drivers (42% female, up to 75+ years) regarding the profile line-marking (PLM) employed in Australia (and in some European countries). Respondents perceived advantages of PLM in terms of lane-keeping and visibility. Respondents reported avoiding edge-line PLM, so that it may result in driving too close to untreated centre-line. Findings generally allayed concerns, on the basis of risk homeostasis theory, that PLM may increase risky driving. Perceived efficacy of PLM was not associated with increased drink-driving or speeding, but was associated with increased driving while fatigued. Findings suggest that the efficacy of PLM may be increased by employing PLM on both edge- and centre-lines, by exaggerating the audio-tactile effects of PLM that cause drivers to avoid it, and by discouraging the belief that it is safe to drive while fatigued when PLM is present.

  5. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Jetto; H.Ez-Zahraouy; A.Benyoussef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road.The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle.The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out.We are interested in the relaxation time τ,i.e.,which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane.Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model,we have found two states,namely,the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane,and the trapped state in which τ diverges.We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability.In the second situation,we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task.Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase,two different states can be distinguished.One is the critical state,in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out.The other is the safe state,in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out.In order to be in the safe state,we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane.Furthermore,this critical distance depends on the density of cars,and it follows an exponential law.

  6. Auxiliary principle and fuzzy variational-like inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng LC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of fuzzy variational-like inequalities and to study the existence problem and the iterative approximation problem for solutions of certain kinds of fuzzy variational-like inequalities in Hilbert spaces. By using the general auxiliary principle technique, Ky Fan's KKM theorem, Nadler's fixed point theorem, and some new analytic techniques, some existence theorems and some iterative approximation schemes for solving this kind of fuzzy variational-like inequalities are established. The results presented in this paper are new and they generalize, improve, and unify a number of recent results.

  7. Radioisotope diagnostics in auxiliary liver transplantation in miniature swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchali, K.; Nawroth, R.; Sydow, K.; Pahlig, H.; Wolff, H. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1985-01-01

    Experiences in the blood flow measurement (/sup 133/Xe washing out) and function test (/sup 133/I-bromosulfophthalein, /sup 99m/Tc-IDA) in auxiliary liver transplantation in miniature swine are reported. Normal values for global blood flow (70 (35-144) ml/100 g x min) and the bromosulfophthalein half-time (6.5 +- 2.4 min) were defined preoperatively. Selective blood flow measurements were carried out invasively after transplantation. Only insufficient experience was obtained in scintiscanning of liver and biliary ducts because of graft insufficiency.

  8. Comment: ``On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions and ”

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frank E Harris

    2003-10-01

    Guseinov, Mamedov, Kara and Orbay (Pramana – J. Phys. 56, 691 (2001)) propose methods for evaluating the molecular auxiliary functions () and () for the range 17 ≤ ≤ 60 and 25 ≤ ≤ 60. However, their procedure for () is not new, and that for () is less efficient for their target range than another well-known method. Their approach does have merit for smaller non-zero values of . Two minor errors in table 1 of their paper are also identified.

  9. An experimental analysis of auxiliary and copula verb generalization in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, K P; Salmon, S J

    1984-05-01

    Two subjects with chronic Broca's aphasia were taught to produce third person singular auxiliary is in sentence contexts to determine if is production would generalize to untrained auxiliary is items and to copula is contexts. A single subject (ABAB) reversal design was employed. Results revealed that training a few exemplars of the present tense auxiliary is resulted in generalized responding to untrained auxiliary is and copula is plus predicate adjective items. Generalized responding to untrained copula is plus predicate nominative and locative items was marked by individual variability. Although auxiliary and copula is verb production was maintained on 2- and 6-week follow-up probes, transfer to spontaneous speech was negligible. The results were interpreted as providing partial support for the existence of a functional or generative response class between verbal auxiliary and the copula is verbs.

  10. Bernstein Series Solution of a Class of Lane-Emden Type Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Rasit Isik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an approximate solution that depends on collocation points and Bernstein polynomials for a class of Lane-Emden type equations with mixed conditions. The method is given with some priori error estimate. Even the exact solution is unknown, an upper bound based on the regularity of the exact solution will be obtained. By using the residual correction procedure, the absolute error can be estimated. Also, one can specify the optimal truncation limit n which gives a better result in any norm. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by some numerical experiments. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.

  11. Visual object-oriented application for lane following on intelligent highway system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChunyan; WangWi; LuJian; ChangYulin

    2003-01-01

    A visual object-oriented software for lane following on intelligent highway system (IHS) is proposed. According to object-oriented theory, 3 typical user services of self-check, transfer of human driving and automatic running and abnormal information input from the sensors are chosen out. In addition, the functions of real-time display, information exchanging interface, determination and operation interweaving in the 3 user services are separated into 5 object-oriented classes.Moreover, the 5 classes are organized in the visual development environment. At last, experimental result proves the validity and reliability of the control application.

  12. Dibujando un nuevo paradigma: de Golden Lane (1952) a A Journey from A to B (1972)

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevila Castellanos, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis tiene como objeto principal evidenciar la relación, aparentemente inexistente, entre el dibujo de Alison y Peter Smithson para la propuesta de concurso de Golden Lane en 1952 y el dibujo de 1972 del grupo italiano Superstudio titulado A Journey from A to B. Serán otros cuatro dibujos principales -Alison y Peter Smithson, Constant Nieuwenhuys, Yona Friedman y Peter Cook- los que servirán para establecer una relación lógica entre los dos citados arriba. En paralelo, la descripción de...

  13. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  14. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-08-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions.

  15. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean-field model. By studying the phase space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a new multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamm...

  16. Empirical Study of Accepted Gap and Lane Change Duration within Arterial Traffic under Recurrent and Non-Recurrent Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Gurupackiam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated variations in accepted gaps and lane change duration on arterial under recurrent and non-recurrent congestion. Descriptive statistics and best-fit distributions were obtained for the two parameters for both traffic conditions. Hypothesis testing using Mann-Whitney U-Test showed that the means of accepted gaps and lane change durations were statistically different between the two types of traffic’ conditions. The study found that during non-recurrent congestion, drivers on an average accepted smaller gaps but took longer lane change durations. Based on the fact that the data were collected for the same flow-rate (70-90 vehicles/minute in both traffic conditions and based on the literature, the reason for the above findings could be that, drivers get more frustrated during non-recurring congestion that they accept smaller gaps. Drivers visiting the study location for game day (non-recurrent exhibit different driver behavioral characteristics when compared to regular commuters (recurrent which could have also contributed to the statistical differences in the lane changing characteristics of two types of congestion. These findings have direct implications on the lane changing parameters used in microscopic traffic simulation and also help transportation planners and managers to understand driver behavior during recurrent and non-recurrent congestion and better manage the facilities.

  17. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model’s fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions. PMID:27627345

  18. A note on the auxiliary equation method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chunping [Institute of Mathematics, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)]. E-mail: yzslcp@pub.yz.jsinfo.net; Liu, Xiaoping [Gaoyou Branch, Yangzhou Education College, Gaoyou 225600 (China)

    2006-01-02

    First, we pick up some solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, which were neglected by Sirendaoreji and Sun Jiong in the auxiliary equation method. Then, we give the classification of the solutions for the auxiliary ordinary differential equation depending on its three parameters. Finally, we consider the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equations and get its more exact solitary wave solutions and reveal the relation of the exact solitary wave solutions obtained by Sirendaoreji and Sun Jiong in their paper.

  19. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or substantial marine pollution. These are the reasons why solutions that will prevent the ship being unable to manoeuvre during her exploitation should be implemented. Therefore, it is necessary to define a propulsion restoration model which would not depend on the primary electrical energy. The paper provides a model of the marine auxiliary system for more reliable propulsion. This includes starting, reversing and stopping of the propulsion engine. The proposed solution of reliable propulsion model based on the use of a shaft generator and an excitation engine enables the restoration of propulsion following total failure of the electrical energy primary production system, and the self-propelled ship navigation. A ship is an important factor in the Technology of Transport, and the implementation of this model increases safety, reduces downtime, and significantly decreases hazards of pollution damage.KEYWORDSreliable propulsion, failure, ship auxiliary system, control, propulsion restoration

  20. Auxiliary Subunits: Shepherding AMPA Receptors to the Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Haering

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs are tetrameric ligand-gated cation channels that mediate excitatory signal transmission in the central nervous system (CNS of vertebrates. The members of the iGluR subfamily of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors (AMPARs mediate most of the fast excitatory signal transmission, and their abundance in the postsynaptic membrane is a major determinant of the strength of excitatory synapses. Therefore, regulation of AMPAR trafficking to the postsynaptic membrane is an important constituent of mechanisms involved in learning and memory formation, such as long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Auxiliary subunits play a critical role in the facilitation and regulation of AMPAR trafficking and function. The currently identified auxiliary subunits of AMPARs are transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs, suppressor of lurcher (SOL, cornichon homologues (CNIHs, synapse differentiation-induced gene I (SynDIG I, cysteine-knot AMPAR modulating proteins 44 (CKAMP44, and germ cell-specific gene 1-like (GSG1L protein. In this review we summarize our current knowledge of the modulatory influence exerted by these important but still underappreciated proteins.

  1. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  2. A Convergent Method of Auxiliary Sources for Two-Dimensional Impedance Scatterers With Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2001-01-01

    A modification to the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is introduced which renders the method operational for two-dimensional impedance scatterers with edges. The modification consists in letting the auxiliary surface converge to the scatterer physical surface for increasing number of auxiliary...... sources, whereby MAS approaches a surface integral equation (IE) method. Hereby, a systematic procedure for selecting the number and locations of the auxiliary sources is provided, and convergence of numerical results is obtained. The new method resulting from this modification thus combines the desirable...

  3. 多车道公路的交通通行能力%Traffic Capacity of Multi- lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静宇

    2012-01-01

    According to traffic capacity theory of multi - lane highway, and annual traffic volume forecast result of project vision in Highway Capacity Manual, peak rate and number of lane required by design project are calculat- ed, and number of lane required by construction project is finally determined through calculation of maximum traffic capacity and service level analysis.%根据《道路通行能力手册》中多车道公路通行能力理论及项目远景年交通量预测成果,计算高峰流率、设计工程项目所需车道数;通过最大通行能力计算及服务水平分析,最终确定工程项目的所需车道数。

  4. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  5. Influence of deficiencies in traffic control devices in crashes on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Griselda; de Oña, Juan; Garach, Laura; Baena, Leticia

    2016-11-01

    One of the main objectives of all public administrations is reducing traffic crashes. To this end, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) stand out as a key measure. Signaling roads is one of the foremost tasks of RSI. A road that is improperly or poorly signaled can lead to incorrect placement or maneuvers of vehicles and ambiguous situations that can increase the risk of crashes. This paper analyses the relationship between road crashes in two-lane rural highways and certain deficiencies in signaling. The results show that deficiencies such as "incomplete removal of road works markings" or "no guide sign or in incorrect position" are the ones associated with a higher probability of crashes in two-lane rural highways. In view of these results, governmental agencies should verify that the original conditions of a highway are re-established after any construction work is completed. They should also continuously follow up on the signaling of this type of highway in order to maintain optimal conditions.

  6. Colouring with Children: the case of “Happy lanes- Cirkáló”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szűts-Nowsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a workshop for the process introducing ‘Happy Lanes’ colouring method; a colouring method for design educators for children. It focuses colouring perception in two approaches: from the neuropsychological and neurobiological. While we point on the benefits of the method with help of some special worksheets we analyse the process of solution, step by step, looking at the working of the colouring lanes, as the essence of the method. It stems from Berlyne’s motivation theory relating to the active inference theory, especially predictive coding and free energy principle. Through this method as a map, children can map their way between each and every level of the hierarchical brain system and cortical microcircuits. The colouring process includes two ways in parallel with each other in a top-down system; by creative, independent problem solving. According to the motivation theory the goal of this process is the optimal arousal level, which depend on the stimuli of the environment; in this case, children colour the task with the aid of the colouring lanes. This they do without any help from someone

  7. An Extended Non-Lane-Based Optimal Velocity Model with Dynamic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic, in this paper, we propose a dynamical model based on the strategy of three-vehicle cooperation driving. We obtain the smoother acceleration distribution in the new model through considering the dynamic collaboration with the nearest preceding vehicle and the nearest following vehicle. It is proved that the stability of the new model is greatly improved compared to the early non-lane-based car following model by using the linear stability theory. We find that when the parameter of lateral separation distance is identified, the amplitude of traffic congestion decreases with increasing the strength of dynamic collaboration in the simulation experiments. In addition, we apply the new extended model to simulate the motions of cars starting from a traffic signal and the dissipating of the traffic congestion; it is found that our new model can predict realistic delay time and kinematic wave speed and obtained a faster dissipation speed of traffic congestion than the traffic flow model without considering the dynamic collaboration.

  8. Series approach to the Lane-Emden equation and comparison with the homotopy perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D E. T. S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: jirs@lcc.uma.es

    2008-10-15

    Series solutions of the Lane-Emden equation based on either a Volterra integral equation formulation or the expansion of the dependent variable in the original ordinary differential equation are presented and compared with series solutions obtained by means of integral or differential equations based on a transformation of the dependent variables. It is shown that these four series solutions are the same as those obtained by a direct application of Adomian's decomposition method to the original differential equation, He's homotopy perturbation technique, and Wazwaz's two implementations of the Adomian method based on either the introduction of a new differential operator that overcomes the singularity of the Lane-Emden equation at the origin or the elimination of the first-order derivative term of the original equation. It is also shown that Adomian's decomposition technique can be interpreted as a perturbative approach which coincides with He's homotopy perturbation method. An iterative technique based on Picard's fixed-point theory is also presented and its convergence is analyzed. The convergence of this iterative approach depends on the independent variable and, therefore, this technique is not as convenient as the series solutions derived by the four methods presented in this paper, He's homotopy perturbation technique, and Adomian's decomposition method.

  9. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  10. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  11. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F (Mexico)], E-mail: aramador@gmail.com, E-mail: nbagatella@uv.mx, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx

    2008-03-21

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles.

  12. Auxiliary Parameter MCMC for Exponential Random Graph Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byshkin, Maksym; Stivala, Alex; Mira, Antonietta; Krause, Rolf; Robins, Garry; Lomi, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are a well-established family of statistical models for analyzing social networks. Computational complexity has so far limited the appeal of ERGMs for the analysis of large social networks. Efficient computational methods are highly desirable in order to extend the empirical scope of ERGMs. In this paper we report results of a research project on the development of snowball sampling methods for ERGMs. We propose an auxiliary parameter Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for sampling from the relevant probability distributions. The method is designed to decrease the number of allowed network states without worsening the mixing of the Markov chains, and suggests a new approach for the developments of MCMC samplers for ERGMs. We demonstrate the method on both simulated and actual (empirical) network data and show that it reduces CPU time for parameter estimation by an order of magnitude compared to current MCMC methods.

  13. Undersampled face recognition via robust auxiliary dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Po; Wang, Yu-Chiang Frank

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of robust face recognition with undersampled training data. Given only one or few training images available per subject, we present a novel recognition approach, which not only handles test images with large intraclass variations such as illumination and expression. The proposed method is also to handle the corrupted ones due to occlusion or disguise, which is not present during training. This is achieved by the learning of a robust auxiliary dictionary from the subjects not of interest. Together with the undersampled training data, both intra and interclass variations can thus be successfully handled, while the unseen occlusions can be automatically disregarded for improved recognition. Our experiments on four face image datasets confirm the effectiveness and robustness of our approach, which is shown to outperform state-of-the-art sparse representation-based methods.

  14. Electrical detection of magnetization reversal without auxiliary magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejník, K.; Novák, V.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-05-01

    First-generation magnetic random access memories based on anisotropic magnetoresistance required magnetic fields for both writing and reading. Modern all-electrical read/write memories use instead nonrelativistic spin transport connecting the storing magnetic layer with a reference ferromagnet. Recent studies have focused on electrical manipulation of magnetic moments by relativistic spin torques requiring no reference ferromagnet. Here we report the observation of a counterpart magnetoresistance effect in such a relativistic system which allows us to electrically detect the sign of the magnetization without an auxiliary magnetic field or ferromagnet. We observe the effect in a geometry in which the magnetization of a uniaxial (Ga,Mn)As epilayer is set either parallel or antiparallel to a current-induced nonequilibrium spin polarization of carriers. In our structure, this linear-in-current magnetoresistance reaches 0.2% at current density of 106Acm -2 .

  15. Symbol rate identification for auxiliary amplitude modulation optical signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junyu; Dong, Zhi; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we creatively propose and demonstrate a method for symbol rate identification (SRI) of auxiliary amplitude modulation (AAM) optical signal based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling (ADTS) and average magnitude difference function (AMDF). The method can accurately estimate symbol rate and has large transmission impairments tolerance. Furthermore, it can be realized in the digital signal processor (DSP) with low logical resources because of multiplication-free. In order to improve the accuracy of SRI, the peak to valley ratio (PTVR) of AMDF is introduced into our method for blind chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation. The results of the numerical simulations show that the overall maximum SRI error is smaller 0.079% for return-to-zero (RZ) on-off keying (OOK), RZ differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), RZ differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) and RZ 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with 50% duty cycles.

  16. Interaction region design and auxiliary detector systems for an EIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petti R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of exciting physics opportunities at a future electron-ion collider facility. One possible design for such a facility is eRHIC, where the current RHIC facility located at Brookhaven National Lab would be transformed into an electron-ion collider. It is imperative for a seamless integration of auxiliary detector systems into the interaction region design to have a machine that meets the needs for the planned physics analyses, as well as take into account the space constraints due to the tunnel geometry and the necessary beam line elements. In this talk, we describe the current ideas for integrating a luminosity detector, electron polarimeter, roman pots, and a low Q2-tagger into the interaction region for eRHIC.

  17. A proposal on auxiliary business insurance for peritoneal dialysis treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; WANG Tao; FANG Ji-qian

    2008-01-01

    Background The peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy for end stage renal disease (ESRD) is expensive. The main reason for non-acceptance onto dialysis programs is the great cost. In the present study, we design an auxiliary business insurance program to provide the potential ESRD patients who have no access to governmental medical insurance or can not afford the remaining part besides the limited reimbursement for peritoneal dialysis therapy.Methods The information applied in this study was extracted from the medical records of 641 PD patients, who were treated in two dialysis centers of the first and the third teaching hospitals of the Peking University respectively. A collective risk model was employed to estimate the expenses on PD therapy. Survival analyses were performed to obtain the average survival time of PD patients and the average length of time from the onset of the primary disease to the beginning of PD. An annuity method was used to determine the pure premium.Results For chronic nephritis, diabetes mellitus and hyperpietic as primary diseases, the mean survival time ± standard errors were (55.1±3.7) months, (38.9±3.2) months and (61.4±4.6) months respectively, and they were significantly different from each other (all P=0.000). The expenses of whole PD therapy were 242 159.05 Yuan, 182 525.02 Yuan and 284 579.24 Yuan respectively.Conclusions An auxiliary business insurance for PD patients was designed with the pure premium for any individual who had chronic nephritis, diabetes mellitus or hyperpietic as primary disease was RMB 35.94 Yuan/year, 87.73Yuan/year or 7.71 Yuan/year respectively without considering the additional premium for coping with the business expenditures and accidental risks.

  18. Lane mark identification method based on the trait of edge%基于边界特征的车道标识线检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仕照; 钱鹰

    2011-01-01

    Accurate detection of lane marks is the most important issue to realize vehicle automatic navigation and safety driving assistant, in order to get an ideal lane marks' edge, binarizizing and morphological processing the lane image based on lane edge features, realizing accurate edge detection of the lane area, finally, locat the lane marks by Hough transform and complete with lane marks identification. Experiments show that the method can exactly get identification of lane marks on the complex environment and has good robustness and reliability.%车道标识线的准确检测是实现车辆自动导航和车辆安全辅助驾驶的首要问题,为了得到较理想的车道的标线边缘.利用车道的边缘特征对车道图像进行二值化和形态学处理,对车道区域实现准确的边缘检测,最后利用Hough变换定位出车道标识线,完成对车道标识线的识别。实验表明,该方法能实现对复杂环境下车道标识线的准确识别,具有较好的鲁棒性和可靠性。

  19. Modal Auxiliaries and Their Semantic Functions Used by Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabiardakani, Najmeh; Khojasteh, Laleh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Since modal auxiliary verbs have been proved to be one of the most troublesome grammatical structures in English, the researchers of this study decided to do an analysis on the ways in which advanced EFL Iranian students use modal auxiliaries focusing specially on nine modals' semantic functions. Consequently, was conducted based on the following…

  20. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired...

  1. Psicologia social e processo grupal: a coerência entre fazer, pensar sentir em Sívia Lane Social psychology and group process: coherence between doing, thinking and feeling in Sílvia Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Terezinha Ferreira Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da concepção histórica e dialética de processo grupal proposta por Sílvia Lane, que utiliza como base para suas reflexões os pressupostos de materialismo dialético quando considera os aspectos pessoais, as características grupais, a vivência subjetiva e a realidade objetiva e o caráter histórico do grupo. O que pretendemos enfatizar neste artigo é a produção sobre grupo presente em sua obra que foi se construindo no decorrer das décadas de 1980 e 1990, sintetizada no texto O processo grupal. Neste sentido, busca-se trazer as contribuições presentes no conjunto de sua obra, sistematizadas em artigos, coletâneas e livros, em que Sílvia Lane discute a articulação de algumas categorias fundamentais para a análise do processo grupal e suas implicações teóricas, metodológicas e prático-políticas.The present article discusses historic and dialectical conceptions of group process by Sílvia Lane, that uses like base for her reflections the presuppositions of dialectical materialism, when the author considers the personal aspects, the group characteristics, the subjective existence and objective reality and the historical character of the group. This article intends to emphasize the production written by Sílvia Lane about group between 1980 and 1990 summaried in the text The group process. In this direction, it searchs to bring the contributions in her work through articles, collections and books that Sílvia Lane discusses some fundamental categories to the analysis of group process and their theoretical and methodological evolvement and practical-politics.

  2. Lane Community College Student Follow-Up Study, Spring 2001. 1999-2000 Students: One Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Sylvia J.

    This 2001 follow-up study conducted in the spring of 2001 and reported in the fall of 2001,targeted 2 groups of former Lane Community College (LCC) (Oregon) students. Surveys were mailed to all 1990-2000 graduates (students who earned a degree or certificate). The second group contacted were students who had achieved no formal award (NFA). These…

  3. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  4. DIVIDED ATTENTION IN EXPERIENCED YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS - LANE TRACKING AND VISUAL ANALYSIS IN A DYNAMIC DRIVING SIMULATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWER, WH; WATERINK, W; VANWOLFFELAAR, PC; ROTHENGATTER, T

    1991-01-01

    A simulated driving task that required the simultaneous execution of two continuous visual tasks was administered to 12 healthy young (mean age 26.1 years) and 12 healthy older (mean age 64.4 years) experienced and currently active drivers. The first task was a compensatory lane-tracking task involv

  5. Enabling 4-Lane Based 400 G Client-Side Transmission Links with MultiCAP Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian;

    2015-01-01

    We propose a uniform solution for a future client-side 400 G Ethernet standard based on MultiCAP advanced modulation format, intensity modulation, and direct detection. It employs 4 local area networks-wavelength division multiplexing (LAN-WDM) lanes in 1300 nm wavelength band and parallel optics...

  6. New Analytic Solution to the Lane-Emden Equation of Index 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two new analytic methods that are used for solving initial value problems that model polytropic and stellar structures in astrophysics and mathematical physics. The applicability, effectiveness, and reliability of the methods are assessed on the Lane-Emden equation which is described by a second-order nonlinear differential equation. The results obtained in this work are also compared with numerical results of Horedt (1986 which are widely used as a benchmark for testing new methods of solution. Good agreement is observed between the present results and the numerical results. Comparison is also made between the proposed new methods and existing analytical methods and it is found that the new methods are more efficient and have several advantages over some of the existing analytical methods.

  7. APPROXIMATE ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR THE ISOTHERMAL LANE EMDEN EQUATION IN A SPHERICAL GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Aly Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo obtiene una soluci ́on anal ́ıtica aproximada p ara la ecuaci ́on isoterma de Lane-Emden que modela una esfera isot ́ermica au togravitante. La soluci ́on aproximada se obtiene en t ́erminos de par ́ametro s de distancias peque ̃nos y grandes por el m ́etodo de perturbaciones. La soluci ́on apr oximada se compara con la soluci ́on n ́umerica. La soluci ́on aproximada obteni da es v ́alida para todos los valores del par ́ametro de distancia.

  8. Simulation study of traffic car accidents at a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we numerically investigate the probability Pac of entering/circulating car accidents to occur at single-lane roundabout under the expanded open boundary. The roundabout consists of N on-ramps (respectively, off-ramps). The boundary is controlled by the injecting rates α1,α2 and the extracting rate β. The simulation results show that, depending on the injecting rates, the car accidents are more likely to happen when the capacity of the rotary is set to its maximum. Moreover, we found that the large values of rotary size L and the probability of preferential Pexit are reliable to improve safety and reduce accidents. However, the usage of indicator, the increase of β and/or N provokes an increase of car accident probability.

  9. Development of a multi-lane X-ray mirror providing variable beam sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, D; Sawhney, K; Nistea, I; Alcock, S G; Pape, I; Sutter, J; Alianelli, L; Evans, G

    2016-05-01

    Grazing incidence mirrors are used on most X-ray synchrotron beamlines to focus, collimate or suppress harmonics. Increasingly beamline users are demanding variable beam shapes and sizes at the sample position. We have now developed a new concept to rapidly vary the beam size and shape of a focused X-ray beam. The surface of an elliptically figured mirror is divided into a number of laterally separated lanes, each of which is given an additional longitudinal height profile calculated to shape the X-ray beam to a top-hat profile in the focal plane. We have now fabricated two prototype mirrors and present the results of metrology tests and measurements made with one of the mirrors focusing the X-rays on a synchrotron beamline. We envisage that such mirrors could be widely applied to rapid beam-size switching on many synchrotron beamlines.

  10. Spring-block model for a single-lane highway traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Jarai-Szabo, Ferenc; Neda, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional spring-block chain with asymmetric interactions is considered to model an idealized single-lane highway traffic. The main elements of the system are blocks (modeling cars), springs with unidirectional interactions (modeling distance keeping interactions between neighbors), static and kinetic friction (modeling inertia of drivers and cars) and spatiotemporal disorder in the values of these friction forces (modeling differences in the driving attitudes). The traveling chain of cars correspond to the dragged spring-block system. Our statistical analysis for the spring-block chain predicts a non-trivial and rich complex behavior. As a function of the disorder level in the system a dynamic phase-transition is observed. For low disorder levels uncorrelated slidings of blocks are revealed while for high disorder levels correlated avalanches dominates.

  11. Bio-inspired computational heuristics to study Lane-Emden systems arising in astrophysics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Bilal, Muhammad; Ashraf, Farooq

    2016-01-01

    This study reports novel hybrid computational methods for the solutions of nonlinear singular Lane-Emden type differential equation arising in astrophysics models by exploiting the strength of unsupervised neural network models and stochastic optimization techniques. In the scheme the neural network, sub-part of large field called soft computing, is exploited for modelling of the equation in an unsupervised manner. The proposed approximated solutions of higher order ordinary differential equation are calculated with the weights of neural networks trained with genetic algorithm, and pattern search hybrid with sequential quadratic programming for rapid local convergence. The results of proposed solvers for solving the nonlinear singular systems are in good agreements with the standard solutions. Accuracy and convergence the design schemes are demonstrated by the results of statistical performance measures based on the sufficient large number of independent runs.

  12. An interview with Robert S. Lane, Ph.D. Interviewed by Vicki Glaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert S

    2010-03-01

    Dr. Robert Lane received a B.A. degree in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), an M.A. degree in biology at San Francisco State College, and a Ph.D. in entomology at UCB. While employed as a California State public health biologist he began his long-standing studies of the biology of ticks and the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne disease agents. In 1984, Dr. Lane joined the faculty of UCB as a medical entomologist, a position he has held until the present. The diseases he and his many co-workers have investigated include Colorado tick fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and particularly Lyme disease. Findings from these studies have elucidated the basic transmission cycles of and risk factors for spotted fever-group rickettsiae and Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western United States. Bob is a Fellow of both the California Academy of Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a recipient of a UCB Biology Faculty Research Award and the C.W. Woodworth Award from the Pacific Branch of the Entomological Society of America, and a member of the Council for the International Congresses of Entomology. Also, he has served as president of the Acarological Society of America, the International Northwestern Conference on Diseases in Nature Communicable to Man, the Northern California Parasitologists, and the Society for Vector Ecology, as well as the Chair of Section D (Medical/Veterinary Entomology), Entomological Society.

  13. Visual scanning training for neglect after stroke with and without a computerized lane tracking dual task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. eVan Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might enhance training results. In the present study, a dual task training component was added to a visual scanning training (i.e. Training di Scanning Visuospaziale – TSVS; Pizzamiglio et al., 1990. Twenty-nine subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were semi-randomly assigned to an experimental (N=14 or a control group (N=15. Patients received 30 training sessions during six weeks. TSVS consisted of four standardized tasks (digit detection, reading/copying, copying drawings and figure description. Moreover, a driving simulator task was integrated in the training procedure. Control patients practiced a single lane tracking task for two days a week during six weeks. The experimental group was administered the same training schedule, but in weeks 4-6 of the training, the TSVS digit detection task was combined with lane tracking on the same projection screen, so as to create a dual task (CVRT-TR. Various neglect tests and driving simulator tasks were administered before and after training. No significant group and interaction effects were found that might reflect additional positive effects of dual task training. Significant improvements after training were observed in both groups taken together on most assessment tasks. Ameliorations were generally not correlated to post onset time, but spontaneous recovery, test-retest variability and learning effects could not be ruled out completely, since these were not controlled for. Future research might focus on increasing the amount of dual task training, the implementation of progressive difficulty levels in the driving simulator tasks and further exploration of relationships between dual task training and daily

  14. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  15. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    World's Largest Interferometer with Moving Optical Telescopes on Track Summary The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory has just seen another extension of its already impressive capabilities by combining interferometrically the light from two relocatable 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes. Following the installation of the first Auxiliary Telescope (AT) in January 2004 (see ESO PR 01/04), the second AT arrived at the VLT platform by the end of 2004. Shortly thereafter, during the night of February 2 to 3, 2005, the two high-tech telescopes teamed up and quickly succeeded in performing interferometric observations. This achievement heralds an era of new scientific discoveries. Both Auxiliary Telescopes will be offered from October 1, 2005 to the community of astronomers for routine observations, together with the MIDI instrument. By the end of 2006, Paranal will be home to four operational ATs that may be placed at 30 different positions and thus be combined in a very large number of ways ("baselines"). This will enable the VLTI to operate with enormous flexibility and, in particular, to obtain extremely detailed (sharp) images of celestial objects - ultimately with a resolution that corresponds to detecting an astronaut on the Moon. PR Photo 07a/05: Paranal Observing Platform with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07b/05: AT1 and AT2 with Open Domes PR Photo 07c/05: Evening at Paranal with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07d/05: AT1 and AT2 under the Southern Sky PR Photo 07e/05: First Fringes with AT1 and AT2 PR Video Clip 01/05: Two ATs at Paranal (Extract from ESO Newsreel 15) A Most Advanced Device ESO PR Video 01/05 ESO PR Video 01/05 Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal [QuickTime: 160 x 120 pix - 37Mb - 4:30 min] [QuickTime: 320 x 240 pix - 64Mb - 4:30 min] ESO PR Photo 07a/05 ESO PR Photo 07a/05 [Preview - JPEG: 493 x400 pix - 44k] [Normal - JPEG: 985 x 800 pix - 727k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 4060 pix - 13.8M] Captions: ESO PR Video Clip 01/05 is an extract from

  16. Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, October 22, 1976-February 24, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

    The Dental Auxiliary Department of the University of Puerto Rico designed a career option dental auxiliary training program which is a step ladder program with three exit points over a period of two academic years. The first option is a six-month track to train a traditional chairside dental auxiliary. The second option is a nine-month track to…

  17. Auxiliary transportation mode in a fully-mechanized face in a nearly horizontal thin coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Tu Shihao; Zhang Lei; Yang Qianlong; Tu Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    On fully-mechanized faces in nearly horizontal thin coal seams (NHTCS), the selection of the auxiliary transportation mode is difficult. Generally, auxiliary transportation mainly includes trackless or rail transportation. Combined with a familiar NHTCS fully-mechanized face, a multi-attribute decision-making model was set up for the decision. The index weight was objectively determined with the fuzzy number and entropy method. The priority order of auxiliary transportation modes was obtained from the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE). The results show that: the net flow of the mode can be expressed by the function of the surrounding rock deformation of the roadway, the dimension of equipment and the thickness of the coal seam;Based on the cost type index, there is a positive correlation between the net flow with the height and width of the trackless aux-iliary transportation equipment, respectively. The trackless auxiliary transportation equipment selection principle should be‘height first then width”. Combined with the field application of the trackless auxil-iary transportation in Liangshuijing coal mine, the proper method to achieve the safe and high-efficient exploitation of a NHTCS fully-mechanized face is trackless tyred vehicle auxiliary transportation.

  18. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began the process of building an integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies. Technology Area 1 (TA-01)1 for Launch Propulsion Systems is one of fourteen TAs that provide recommendations for the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA's space technology activities. Identified within TA-01 was the need for a green propulsion auxiliary power unit (APU) for hydraulic power by 2015. Engineers led by the author at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been evaluating green propellant alternatives and have begun the development of an APU test bed to demonstrate the feasibility of use. NASA has residual APU assets remaining from the retired Space Shuttle Program. Likewise, the F-16 Falcon fighter jet also uses an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) that has similar characteristics to the NASA hardware. Both EPU and APU components have been acquired for testing at MSFC. This paper will summarize the status of the testing efforts of green propellant from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) propellant AFM315E based on hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) with these test assets.

  19. Oxygen-hydrogen thrusters for Space Station auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility and technology requirements of a low-thrust, high-performance, long-life, gaseous oxygen (GO2)/gaseous hydrogen (GH2) thruster were examined. Candidate engine concepts for auxiliary propulsion systems for space station applications were identified. The low-thrust engine (5 to 100 lb sub f) requires significant departure from current applications of oxygen/hydrogen propulsion technology. Selection of the thrust chamber material and cooling method needed or long life poses a major challenge. The use of a chamber material requiring a minimum amount of cooling or the incorporation of regenerative cooling were the only choices available with the potential of achieving very high performance. The design selection for the injector/igniter, the design and fabrication of a regeneratively cooled copper chamber, and the design of a high-temperature rhenium chamber were documented and the performance and heat transfer results obtained from the test program conducted at JPL using the above engine components presented. Approximately 115 engine firings were conducted in the JPL vacuum test facility, using 100:1 expansion ratio nozzles. Engine mixture ratio and fuel-film cooling percentages were parametrically investigated for each test configuration.

  20. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are illustrated. The final choice consisted in an MR clutch with permanent magnet, which satisfied size, torque and fail-safe specifications. The clutch characteristics, in terms of torque versus slip, were obtained experimentally for three different clutch prototypes on an ad-hoc developed test bench.As result of a preliminary simulation, a comparison between the power absorption of a current production vacuum pump, an innovative vacuum pump and both vacuum pumps coupled with the MR clutch is presented. The New European Driving Cycle is considered for simulating the vacuum pump operation both in urban and highway driving. Results show that the use of the innovative vacuum pump reduces the device consumption of about 35%, whereas the use of MR clutch coupled with the innovative vacuum pump reduces it up to about 44% in urban driving and 50% in highway driving.

  1. Adaptive mean-shift tracking with auxiliary particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junqiu; Yagi, Yasushi

    2009-12-01

    We present a new approach for robust and efficient tracking by incorporating the efficiency of the mean-shift algorithm with the multihypothesis characteristics of particle filtering in an adaptive manner. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to cope with problems that were brought about by sudden motions and distractions. The mean-shift tracking algorithm is robust and effective when the representation of a target is sufficiently discriminative, the target does not jump beyond the bandwidth, and no serious distractions exist. We propose a novel two-stage motion estimation method that is efficient and reliable. If a sudden motion is detected by the motion estimator, some particle-filtering-based trackers can be used to outperform the mean-shift algorithm, at the expense of using a large particle set. In our approach, the mean-shift algorithm is used, as long as it provides reasonable performance. Auxiliary particles are introduced to cope with distractions and sudden motions when such threats are detected. Moreover, discriminative features are selected according to the separation of the foreground and background distributions when threats do not exist. This strategy is important, because it is dangerous to update the target model when the tracking is in an unsteady state. We demonstrate the performance of our approach by comparing it with other trackers in tracking several challenging image sequences.

  2. Study on traffic states and jamming transitions for two-lane highway including a bus by using a model with calibrated optimal velocity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Yi, Yi

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, traffic states and jamming transitions on two-lane highway including a bus are studied by using a car following model with a calibrated optimal velocity function. We derive a new flow-density diagram with four distinctly separated traffic states, which is different from that of the earlier study obtained by applying the OVM with theoretical optimal velocity function. The spatio-temporal diagrams are presented to illustrate phase characteristics of each traffic state. It is found that the phase characteristic features of two of four states are different from any state of the earlier result, and traffic flow of state 2 and state 3 can reproduce some characteristics observed from empirical investigations such as centralized lane-changing, hanging tail of cluster, and synchronized flow. In addition, we have clarified the lane-changing behaviors and their effects on two-lane traffic flow including a bus. It is shown that the velocity oscillations behind the bus can help the lane-changing in state 2 and the behaviors of lane-changing are the important reason of forming of the synchronized flow in state 3. It is also concluded that lane-changing can only improve the current in the region of middle density.

  3. Sensitivity of energy and exergy performances of heating and cooling systems to auxiliary components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    should be used in design and analysis of the whole heating and cooling systems, in addition to the energy analysis. In this study, water-based (floor heating and cooling, and radiator heating) and air-based (air heating and cooling) heating and cooling systems were compared in terms of their energy use...... and exergy consumption for auxiliary components (pumps and fans). The effects of the auxiliary components on whole system energy and exergy performance were identified. Water-based heating systems required 68% lower auxiliary exergy input than the warm-air heating system with heat recovery, and floor cooling...

  4. A Cautious Note on Auxiliary Variables That Can Increase Bias in Missing Data Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Felix; Rose, Norman

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of missing data in the social sciences has changed tremendously during the last decade. Modern missing data techniques such as multiple imputation and full-information maximum likelihood are used much more frequently. These methods assume that data are missing at random. One very common approach to increase the likelihood that missing at random is achieved consists of including many covariates as so-called auxiliary variables. These variables are either included based on data considerations or in an inclusive fashion; that is, taking all available auxiliary variables. In this article, we point out that there are some instances in which auxiliary variables exhibit the surprising property of increasing bias in missing data problems. In a series of focused simulation studies, we highlight some situations in which this type of biasing behavior can occur. We briefly discuss possible ways how one can avoid selecting bias-inducing covariates as auxiliary variables.

  5. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Auxiliary Files (NODC Accession 0044983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Auxiliary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  6. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  7. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  8. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control and spin relaxation theories

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, David; Kuprov, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix expon...

  9. A Method of Auxiliary Sources Approach for Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2006-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements......The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements...

  10. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  11. Exact Solutions of the Isothermal Lane--Emden Equation with Rotation and Implications for the Formation of Planets and Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M

    2007-01-01

    We have derived exact solutions of the isothermal Lane--Emden equation with and without rotation in a cylindrical geometry. The corresponding hydrostatic equilibria are most relevant to the dynamics of the protosolar nebula before and during the stages of planet and satellite formation. The nonrotating solution for the mass density is analytic, nonsingular, monotonically decreasing with radius, and it satisfies easily the usual physical boundary conditions at the center. When differential rotation is added to the Lane--Emden equation, an entire class of exact solutions for the mass density appears. We have determined all of these solutions analytically as well. Within this class, solutions that are power laws or combinations of power laws are not capable of satisfying the associated boundary--value problem, but they are nonetheless of profound importance because they constitute "baselines" to which the actual solutions approach when the central boundary conditions are imposed. Numerical integrations that enfo...

  12. New Type of Roundabout: Dual One-Lane Roundabouts on Two Levels with Right-Hand Turning Bypasses – ’’Target Roundabout’’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of low level traffic safety on multi-lane roundabouts have been resolved in various ways in different countries, usually by using alternative types of roundabouts that reduce the number of conflict points. Alternative types of roundabouts typically differ from "normal" or "standard" roundabouts in one or more design elements, as their implementation purposes could also be specific. Today, several different types of roundabouts are already in use ("mini", "double mini", "dumb-bell", those "with joint splitter islands" ("dog-bone", those "with a spiralling circular carriageway" ("turbo", those "with depressed lanes for right-hand turners" ("flower" etc.. This paper introduces a new type of roundabout, dual one-lane roundabouts on two levels with right-hand turning bypasses, namely the "target roundabout". This paper describes and analyses their design, traffic safety, and capacity characteristics, compared with the standard two–lane roundabouts.

  13. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, Lane, Mutton and Yellowtail Snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Lutjanus synagris snapper (Figure 1) .. (Linnaeus) Other common names . . . Rabirrubia, Preferred common name. . Lane snapper vivaneau quaue jaune...A . a n ( C . L " 1970. Edad y crecimiento del Hollingsworth. 1980. Aging ariaco, Lutjanus synagris red snapper, Lutjanus .’ (Linnaeus), en el...Teleosteers Lutjanus maturation of the Japanese sea synagris . Helgol• Wiss. bass, Lateolabrax japonicus . Meeresunters. 28:90-105. Jpn. J. Ichthyol. rq:243-754

  14. Modeling L1-GPS Errors for an Enhanced Data Fusion with Lane Marking Maps for Road Automated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes a method which models the time correlation errors of a standalone L1-GPS receiver by integrating front-view camera measurements map-matched with a lane marking map. An identification method of the parameters of the shaping model is presented and evaluated with real data. The observability of the augmented state vector is demonstrated according to an algebraic definition. A positioning solver based on extended Kalman filtering with measured input is...

  15. Analysing adjustment factors for using lanes at traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Peña Lindarte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article was focused on analyzing the lane use adjustment factor (fLU forming one of the eleven adjustment factors proposed in the current calculation methodology contained in the 2000 version of the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB Highway Capacity Manual (HCM for analyzing traffic-light-controlled intersection capacity in terms of saturation intensity. A methodology was established when analyzing the fLU factor that considered operational conditions regarding traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogota. Road traffic flows were analyzed, including characterizing road traffic based on statistical sampling, field data collection and analysis. The project proposed equations allowing reference values to be gathered for determining adjustment factors regarding lane use on roads in Bogota in relation to existing access typologies and road traffic volume for analyzing traffic-light- controlled intersections. For example, in the specific case of roads having direct double-lane access (2CCD, the basic equation was determined to be y=-3,03E-08X2+3,44E-05X+0,888988, having a 1.0 coefficient of correlation. The dependent variable y referred to the fLU factor and the independent variable X was the volume of road traffic in mixed vehicles/hour. This equation was considered to be statistically relevant. A comparative analysis of the lane use adjustment factors estimated in the project is also presented and compared to the values recommended by the US Highway Capacity Manual. The project’s conclusions and re- commendations were thus sustained, validating the recommended factors summarized by the HCM and recommending that the results obtained from the project should be used in traffic-light-controlled design and planning projects.

  16. Car accidents and number of stopped cars due to road blockage on a one-lane highway

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Zeng, Q

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of a simple model of car traffic on a one-lane highway, we study the probability for car accidents to occur when drivers do not respect the safety distance between cars, and, as a result of the blockage during the time $T$ necessary to clear the road, we determine the number of stopped cars as a function of car density. We give a simple theory in good agreement with our numerical simulations.

  17. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  18. Perturbative solution to the Lane-Emden equation: An eigenvalue approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yip, Kenny L S; Leung, P T

    2016-01-01

    Under suitable scaling, the structure of self-gravitating polytropes is described by the standard Lane-Emden equation (LEE), which is characterised by the polytropic index $n$. Here we use the known exact solutions of the LEE at $n=0$ and $1$ to solve the equation perturbatively. We first introduce a scaled LEE (SLEE) where polytropes with different polytropic indices all share a common scaled radius. The SLEE is then solved perturbatively as an eigenvalue problem. Analytical approximants of the polytrope function, the radius and the mass of polytropes as a function of $n$ are derived. The approximant of the polytrope function is well-defined and uniformly accurate from the origin down to the surface of a polytrope. The percentage errors of the radius and the mass are bounded by $8.1 \\times 10^{-7}$ per cent and $8.5 \\times 10^{-5}$ per cent, respectively, for $n\\in[0,1]$. Even for $n\\in[1,5)$, both percentage errors are still less than $2$ per cent.

  19. Dynamic Steering Control of Battery Operated Car for Lane Keeping using Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project presents simple prototype for driving automation of battery operated cars. The system consists of Decision Making Unit (DMU & Control System Unit (CSU to implement decision given by DMU. DMU performs the task of image acquisition, enhancing, thresholding, noise reduction, calculation of the position of car with respect to lanes and estimation of the desired position. DMU communicate with CSU using UART serial protocol, thereby informing CSU to take necessary control action regarding - speed control & position control of steering wheel. Speed control is an open loop system which controls the two DC motors powering the front wheels of car. Mechanical hardware for position control of steering wheel contains a high torque DC motor which is coupled to steering wheel using gears in mesh configuration. The control algorithm used here is digital PID algorithm. The PID is digitized using trapezoidal approximation, Newton’s backward difference method to approximate integration & differentiation. Feedback signal is generated by 47kΩ potentiometer which gives a output of 0-5 volt. The algorithm based on these methods has been programmed in the Atmega16 which drives the dc motor coupled with steering wheel using L293d motor driver.

  20. Perturbative solution to the Lane-Emden equation: an eigenvalue approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kenny L. S.; Chan, T. K.; Leung, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    Under suitable scaling, the structure of self-gravitating polytropes is described by the standard Lane-Emden equation (LEE), which is characterized by the polytropic index n. Here, we use the known exact solutions of the LEE at n = 0 and n = 1 to solve the equation perturbatively. We first introduce a scaled LEE (SLEE) where polytropes with different polytropic indices all share a common scaled radius. The SLEE is then solved perturbatively as an eigenvalue problem. Analytical approximants of the polytrope function, the radius and the mass of polytropes as a function of n are derived. The approximant of the polytrope function is well defined and uniformly accurate from the origin down to the surface of a polytrope. The percentage errors of the radius and the mass are bounded by 8.1 × 10-7 per cent and 8.5 × 10-5 per cent, respectively, for n ∈ [0, 1]. Even for n ∈ [1, 5), both percentage errors are still less than 2 per cent.

  1. Evaluating User Response to In-Car Haptic Feedback Touchscreens Using the Lane Change Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Pitts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interfaces are widely used in modern technology, from mobile devices to in-car infotainment systems. However, touchscreens impose significant visual workload demands on the user which have safety implications for use in cars. Previous studies indicate that the application of haptic feedback can improve both performance of and affective response to user interfaces. This paper reports on and extends the findings of a 2009 study conducted to evaluate the effects of different combinations of touchscreen visual, audible, and haptic feedback on driving and task performance, affective response, and subjective workload; the initial findings of which were originally published in (M. J. Pitts et al., 2009. A total of 48 non-expert users completed the study. A dual-task approach was applied, using the Lane Change Test as the driving task and realistic automotive use case touchscreen tasks. Results indicated that, while feedback type had no effect on driving or task performance, preference was expressed for multimodal feedback over visual alone. Issues relating to workload and cross-modal interaction were also identified.

  2. Tactile stimulations and wheel-rotation responses: Toward augmented lane departure warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eTandonnet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When an on-board system detects a drift of a vehicle to the left or to the right, in what way should the information be delivered to the driver? Car manufacturers have so far neglected relevant results from Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Here we show that this situation possibly led to the sub-optimal design of a lane departure warning system (AFIL, PSA Peugeot Citroën implemented in commercially available automobile vehicles. Twenty participants performed a two-choice reaction time task in which they were to respond by clockwise or counter-clockwise wheel-rotations to tactile stimulations of their left or right wrist. They performed poorer when responding counter-clockwise to the right vibration and clockwise to the left vibration (incompatible mapping than when responding according to the reverse (compatible mapping. This suggests that AFIL implements the worse (incompatible mapping for the operators. This effect depended on initial practice with the interface. The present research illustrates how basic approaches in Cognitive Science may benefit to Human Factors Engineering and ultimately improve man-machine interfaces and show how initial learning can affect interference effects.

  3. X-Ray Emission from a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866

    CERN Document Server

    Vagshette, N D; Pandey, S K; Patil, M K

    2015-01-01

    We report the multiband imagery with an emphasis on the X-ray emission properties of a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866. X-ray emission from this galaxy is due to a diffuse component and a substantial contribution from the population of discrete X-ray binary sources. A total of 22 discrete sources have been detected within the optical D25 extent of the galaxy, few of which exhibit spatial association with the globular clusters hosted by this system. Composite spectrum of the diffuse emission from this galaxy was well constrained by a thermal plasma model plus a power law component to represent the emission from unresolved sources, while that of the discrete sources was well fitted by an absorbed power law component of photon index 1.82$\\pm$0.14. X-ray color-color plot for the resolved source was used to classify the detected sources. The cumulative X-ray luminosity function of the XRBs is well represented by a power law function of index of {\\Gamma} ~ 0.82$\\pm$0.12. Optical imagery of NGC 5866 r...

  4. Polynomial-time homology for simplicial Eilenberg-MacLane spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krcal, Marek; Sergeraert, Francis

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier paper of Cadek, Vokrinek, Wagner, and the present authors, we investigated an algorithmic problem in computational algebraic topology, namely, the computation of all possible homotopy classes of maps between two topological spaces, under suitable restriction on the spaces. We aim at showing that, if the dimensions of the considered spaces are bounded by a constant, then the computations can be done in polynomial time. In this paper we make a significant technical step towards this goal: we show that the Eilenberg-MacLane space K(Z,1), represented as a simplicial group, can be equipped with polynomial-time homology (this is a polynomial-time version of effective homology considered in previous works of the third author and co-workers). To this end, we construct a suitable discrete vector field, in the sense of Forman's discrete Morse theory, on K(Z,1). The construction is purely combinatorial and it can be understood as a certain procedure for reducing finite sequences of integers, without any re...

  5. Keeping Energy Savings in the LOOP: Mesa Lane Partners Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Mesa Lane Partners (MLP) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to a build a new, low-energy mixed-use building that consumes at least 50% less energy than requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA), as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program. The privately developed 46,000-square-foot LOOP project, which is intended to provide affordable off-campus student housing in an underserved community next to University of California at Santa Barbara, will contain more than 7,000 square feet of retail space, a roof deck, an event space, a gym, and 48 apartments. The project developer, MLP, is aiming to exceed CBP requirement, targeting energy consumption that is at least 65% less than that required by the standard. If the LOOP meets this goal, it is expected to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification.

  6. Results of the radiological survey at 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally /sup 232/Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Galaxy Zoo: Dust and molecular gas in early-type galaxies with prominent dust lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Bureau, Martin; Shabala, Stanislav S; Crockett, R Mark; Silk, Joseph; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon; Keel, William C; Masters, Karen L; Schawinski, Kevin; Bamford, Steven P

    2011-01-01

    We study dust and associated molecular gas in 352 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) with prominent dust lanes. 65% of these 'dusty ETGs' (D-ETGs) are morphologically disturbed, suggesting a merger origin. This is consistent with the D-ETGs residing in lower-density environments compared to a control sample drawn from the general ETG population. 80% of D-ETGs inhabit the field (compared to 60% of the controls) and <2% inhabit clusters (compared to 10% of the controls). Compared to the control sample, D-ETGs exhibit bluer UV-optical colours (indicating enhanced star formation) and an AGN fraction that is more than an order of magnitude greater. The clumpy dust mass residing in large-scale features is estimated, using the SDSS r-band images, to be between 10^{4.5} and 10^{6.5} MSun. Comparison to the total (clumpy + diffuse) dust masses - calculated using far-infrared fluxes of the 15% of the D-ETGs that are detected by IRAS - indicates that only ~20% of the dust resides in these large-scale features. The dus...

  8. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume I: Auxiliaries + Classes 0/3. Auxiliary Tables (0 Generalities, 1 Philosophy . Pyschology, 2 Religion . Theology, 3 Social Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement of the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. The first volume of a five volume series includes auxiliary tables and lists all the new classification subdivisions added to the…

  9. A two-lane cellular automaton traffic flow model with the influence of driver, vehicle and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Nie, Cen; Li, Jing-Ru; Wei, Yu-Ao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of one-lane comfortable driving model, this paper established a two-lane traffic cellular automata model, which improves the slow randomization effected by brake light. Considering the driver psychological characteristics and mixed traffic, we studied the lateral influence between vehicles on adjacent lanes. Through computer simulation, the space-time diagram and the fundamental figure under different conditions are obtained. The study found that aggressive driver makes a slight congestion in low-density traffic and improves the capacity of high-density traffic, when the density exceeds 20pcu/km the more aggressive drivers the greater the flow, when the density below 40pcu/km driver character makes an effect, the more cautious driver, the lower the flow. The ratio of big cars has the same effect as the ratio of aggressive drivers. Brake lights have the greatest impact on traffic flow and when the density exceeds 10pcu/km the traffic flow fluctuates. Under periodic boundary conditions, the disturbance of road length on traffic is minimal. The lateral influence only play a limited role in the medium-density conditions, and only affect the average speed of traffic at low density.

  10. Fast learning method for convolutional neural networks using extreme learning machine and its application to lane detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Kim, Jonghong; Jang, Gil-Jin; Lee, Minho

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning has received significant attention recently as a promising solution to many problems in the area of artificial intelligence. Among several deep learning architectures, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) demonstrate superior performance when compared to other machine learning methods in the applications of object detection and recognition. We use a CNN for image enhancement and the detection of driving lanes on motorways. In general, the process of lane detection consists of edge extraction and line detection. A CNN can be used to enhance the input images before lane detection by excluding noise and obstacles that are irrelevant to the edge detection result. However, training conventional CNNs requires considerable computation and a big dataset. Therefore, we suggest a new learning algorithm for CNNs using an extreme learning machine (ELM). The ELM is a fast learning method used to calculate network weights between output and hidden layers in a single iteration and thus, can dramatically reduce learning time while producing accurate results with minimal training data. A conventional ELM can be applied to networks with a single hidden layer; as such, we propose a stacked ELM architecture in the CNN framework. Further, we modify the backpropagation algorithm to find the targets of hidden layers and effectively learn network weights while maintaining performance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method is effective in reducing learning time and improving performance.

  11. Analysis of a novel two-lane lattice model on a gradient road with the consideration of relative current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin-Liang; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel hydrodynamic lattice model is proposed by considering of relative current for two-lane gradient road system. The stability condition is obtained by using linear stability theory and shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with three parameters, that is, the slope, the sensitivity of response to the relative current and the rate of lane changing. The stable region increases with the increasing of one of them when another two parameters are constant. By using nonlinear analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries, and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations are derived to describe the phase transition of traffic flow. Their solutions present the density wave as the triangular shock wave, soliton wave, and kink-antikink wave in the stable, metastable, and unstable region, respectively, which can explain the phase transitions from free traffic to stop-and-go traffic, and finally to congested traffic. To verify the theoretical results, a series of numerical simulations are carried out. The numerical results are consistent with the analytical results. To check the novel model, calibration are taken based on the empirical traffic flow data. The theoretical results and numerical results show that the traffic flow on the gradient road becomes more stable and the traffic congestion can be efficiently suppressed by considering the relative current and lane changing, and the empirical analysis shows that the novel lattice model is reasonable.

  12. Individual differences in cognitive functioning predict effectiveness of a heads-up lane departure warning for younger and older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Lester, Benjamin; Dawson, Jeffrey; Rizzo, Matthew; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2017-02-01

    The effectiveness of an idealized lane departure warning (LDW) was evaluated in an interactive fixed base driving simulator. Thirty-eight older (mean age=77years) and 40 younger drivers (mean age=35years) took four different drives/routes similar in road culture composition and hazards encountered with and without LDW. The four drives were administered over visits separated approximately by two weeks to examine changes in long-term effectiveness of LDW. Performance metrics were number of LDW activations and average correction time to each LDW. LDW reduced correction time to re-center the vehicle by 1.34s on average (95% CI=1.12-1.57s) but did not reduce the number of times the drivers drifted enough in their lanes to activate the system (LDW activations). The magnitude of reductions in average correction RT was similar for older and younger drivers and did not change with repeated exposures across visits. The contribution of individual differences in basic visual and motor function, as well as cognitive function to safety gains from LDW was also examined. Cognitive speed of processing predicted lane keeping performance for older and younger drivers. Differences in memory, visuospatial construction, and executive function tended to predict performance differences among older but not younger drivers. Cognitive functioning did not predict changes in the magnitude of safety benefits from LDW over time. Implications are discussed with respect to real-world safety systems.

  13. 山区公路避险车道设计%Design of Emergency Escaping Lane of Mountainous Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武生; 张作刚

    2012-01-01

    Emergency escaping lane as a last ditch passive emergency measures,is designed for a runaway vehicle to emergency escaping and secure parking. This article unifies the domestic and foreign references、the authors performed emergency escaping lane design document, systematically summarizes the emergency escaping Lane in the necessity of establishment、 location、geometry parameters、supporting traffic and safety facilities etc.%避险车道作为一种不得已而为之的被动应急措施,就是专为失控车辆紧急避险、安全停车而设置的休止车道.结合国内外参考文献、作者完成的避险车道设计文件,系统地总结了避险车道的设置必要性、设置位置、几何结构参数、配套交通与安全设施等等.

  14. Spontaneous phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow in traffic on a single-lane highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Zhang, H M; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow complexity comes from the car-following and lane-changing behavior. Based on empirical data for individual vehicle speeds and time headways measured on a single-lane highway section, we have studied the traffic flow properties induced by pure car-following behavior. We have found that a spontaneous sudden drop in velocity could happen in a platoon of vehicles when the velocity of the leading vehicle is quite high (~70 km/h). In contrast, when the velocity of the leading vehicle in a platoon slows down, such a spontaneous sudden drop of velocity has not been observed. Our finding indicates that traffic breakdown on a single-lane road might be a phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow (F→S transition). We have found that the flow rate within the emergent synchronized flow can be either smaller or larger than the flow rate in the free flow within which the synchronized flow propagates. Our empirical findings support Kerner's three-phase theory in which traffic breakdown is associated with an F→S transition.

  15. Geophysical characterization of transtensional fault systems in the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, M.; Keranen, K. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Feldman, J. D.; Keller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) and Walker Lane belt (WL) accommodate ~25% of plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Faults within the Mina deflection link the ECSZ and the WL, transferring strain from the Owens Valley and Death Valley-Fish Lake Valley fault systems to the transcurrent faults of the central Walker Lane. During the mid to late Miocene the majority of strain between these systems was transferred through the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain (SPLM) extensional complex via a shallowly dipping detachment. Strain transfer has since primarily migrated north to the Mina Deflection; however, high-angle faults bounding sedimentary basins and discrepancies between geodetic and geologic models indicate that the SPLM complex may still actively transfer a portion of the strain from the ECSZ to the WL on a younger set of faults. Establishing the pattern and amount of active strain transfer within the SPLM region is required for a full accounting of strain accommodation, and provides insight into strain partitioning at the basin scale within a broader transtensional zone. To map the active structures in and near Clayton Valley, within the SPLM region, we collected seismic reflection and refraction profiles and a dense grid of gravity readings that were merged with existing gravity data. The primary goals were to determine the geometry of the high-angle fault system, the amount and sense of offset along each fault set, connectivity of the faults, and the relationship of these faults to the Miocene detachment. Seismic reflection profiles imaged the high-angle basin-bounding normal faults and the detachment in both the footwall and hanging wall. The extensional basin is ~1 km deep, with a steep southeastern boundary, a gentle slope to the northwest, and a sharp boundary on the northwest side, suggestive of another fault system. Two subparallel dip-slip faults bound the southeast (deeper) basin margin with a large lateral velocity change (from ~2

  16. Development of safety performance functions for Spanish two-lane rural highways on flat terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garach, Laura; de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Baena, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Over decades safety performance functions (SPF) have been developed as a tool for traffic safety in order to estimate the number of crashes in a specific road section. Despite the steady progression of methodological innovations in the crash analysis field, many fundamental issues have not been completely addressed. For instance: Is it better to use parsimonious or fully specified models? How should the goodness-of-fit of the models be assessed? Is it better to use a general model for the entire sample or specific models based on sample stratifications? This paper investigates the above issues by means of several SPFs developed using negative binomial regression models for two-lane rural highways in Spain. The models were based on crash data gathered over a 5-year period, using a broad number of explanatory variables related to exposure, geometry, design consistency and roadside features. Results show that the principle of parsimony could be too restrictive and that it provided simplistic models. Most previous studies apply conventional measurements (i.e., R(2), BIC, AIC, etc.) to assess the goodness-of-fit of models. Seldom do studies apply cumulative residual (CURE) analysis as a tool for model evaluation. This paper shows that CURE plots are essential tools for calibrating SPF, while also providing information for possible sample stratification. Previous authors suggest that sample segmentation increases the model accuracy. The results presented here confirm that finding, and show that the number of significant variables in the final models increases with sample stratification. This paper point out that fully models based on sample segmentation and on CURE may provide more useful insights about traffic crashes than general parsimonious models when developing SPF.

  17. Calibration of safety performance function for crashes on inter-city four lane highways in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar ChikkaKrishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant need to improve the highway safety during roadway planning, design and operations in developing countries like India. To receive appropriate consideration, safety needs to be dealt objectively within the transportation planning and highway design processes. Lack of available tools is a deterrent to quantify safety of a transportation facility during the planning or highway design process. The objective of this paper is to develop safety performance functions considering various elements involved in the planning, design and operation of a section on four-lane National Highway (NH-58 located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The mixed traffic on Indian multilane highways comes with a lot of variability within, ranging from different vehicle types to different driver characteristics. This could result in variability in the effect of explanatory variables on crashes across locations. Hence, explanatory variables for highway segment safety analysis considered were geometric characteristics like curvature change rate, slope change rate, transverse slope and traffic characteristics in the form of average daily traffic, light vehicle traffic, light commercial vehicle traffic, heavy vehicle traffic, two-wheelers, non-motorised traffic volume and operating speed were analysed against dependent variable as crash count per 200 m per year. Safety performance functions involving the explanatory variables are calibrated to predict crash frequency using Poisson Weibull technique and crash types are predicted using ordered logit model. Model results suggest that increase in traffic volume leads to higher probability of crash risk and traffic safety is significantly distorted by higher curvature change rate values.

  18. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  19. The SOL-2/Neto auxiliary protein modulates the function of AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Mellem, Jerry E; Jensen, Michael; Brockie, Penelope J; Walker, Craig S; Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Hauth, Linda; Madsen, David M; Maricq, Andres V

    2012-09-06

    The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates excitatory synaptic transmission by gating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). AMPA receptors (AMPARs), a subtype of iGluR, are strongly implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We previously discovered two classes of AMPAR auxiliary proteins in C. elegans that modify receptor kinetics and thus change synaptic transmission. Here, we have identified another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR. In sol-2 mutants, behaviors dependent on glutamatergic transmission are disrupted, GLR-1-mediated currents are diminished, and GLR-1 desensitization and pharmacology are modified. Remarkably, a secreted variant of SOL-1 delivered in trans can rescue sol-1 mutants, and this rescue depends on in cis expression of SOL-2. Finally, we demonstrate that SOL-1 and SOL-2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents.

  20. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...... to use low backup energy prices during the day if electricity is used. The storage function and both stratified charging and extraction of heat, are very important, to separate different temperature zones in the storage. This paper describes a step towards forecast control for electricity based auxiliary...

  1. [Analysis on prescription rules of treating senile dementia based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance auxiliary systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xin; Ji, Xu-Ming; Wei, Feng-Qin; Shi, Zuo-Rong

    2014-02-01

    This is designed to analyze and summarize medication rules for treating senile dementia with Chinese medicine in CNKI according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary system. Collect documents in CNKI that account treating senile dementia with Chinese formula; filter and establish a formula database, and then to search for medication rules on the TCM inheritance auxiliary system. It is filtered that 104 formulas are used for treating senile dementia screening treat senile dementia, involving 147 kinds of Chinese medicine. Tonic medicine are most frequently used, followed by the medicine of activating blood circulation and resuscitating; medicine pair most used is Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort-Acorus tatarinowii, accounting for 27.9% of all formula. And then 8 core pairs and 4 new formulas are evolved. Analysis on formulas for treating senile dementia filtered form CNKI by TCM inheritance auxiliary system shows prescription is mainly tonifying, activating blood circulation and resuscitating, that reveals prescription rules, to provide a reference for clinical treatment.

  2. The auxiliary elliptic-like equation and the exp-function method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hong Li; Jin-Liang Zhang

    2009-06-01

    The auxiliary equation method is very useful for finding the exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations. In this paper, a new idea of finding the exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations is introduced. The idea is that the exact solutions of the auxiliary elliptic-like equation are derived using exp-function method, and then the exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of auxiliary elliptic-like equation. As examples, the RKL models, the high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Hamilton amplitude equation, the generalized Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV system and the generalized ZK–BBM equation are investigated and the exact solutions are presented using this method.

  3. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  4. Research of auxiliary supporting means in swimming training of adults, which are afraid of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Sheyko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the possibility of effective teaching swimming adults suffering from hydrophobia, using auxiliary equipment. Materials and Methods: the study involved 37 people aged 22–45 years. Applied: analysis of the educational process of learning to swim, questioning, peer review techniques, teacher observation and experiment, mathematical statistics. Results: this study suggests that the formation of swimming skills is faster and more effective when used the auxiliary equipment. In the experimental group, four swimming styles were mastered by 59% and in the control by 18%. Conclusions: the proposed method of training of adults, with auxiliary equipment, allows to overcome the feelings of fear, accelerates the learning process and improve its efficiency.

  5. MAP estimation for hyperspectral image resolution enhancement using an auxiliary sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Russell C; Eismann, Michael T; Wilson, Gregory L

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a novel maximum a posteriori estimator for enhancing the spatial resolution of an image using co-registered high spatial-resolution imagery from an auxiliary sensor. Here, we focus on the use of high-resolution panchomatic data to enhance hyperspectral imagery. However, the estimation framework developed allows for any number of spectral bands in the primary and auxiliary image. The proposed technique is suitable for applications where some correlation, either localized or global, exists between the auxiliary image and the image being enhanced. To exploit localized correlations, a spatially varying statistical model, based on vector quantization, is used. Another important aspect of the proposed algorithm is that it allows for the use of an accurate observation model relating the "true" scene with the low-resolutions observations. Experimental results with hyperspectral data derived from the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed estimator.

  6. Auxiliary field Monte-Carlo study of the QCD phase diagram at strong coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnishi, Akira; Nakano, Takashi Z

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the QCD phase diagram in the strong coupling limit by using a newly developed auxiliary field Monte-Carlo (AFMC) method. Starting from an effective action in the leading order of the 1/g^2 and 1/d expansion with one species of unrooted staggered fermion, we solve the many-body problem exactly by introducing the auxiliary fields and integrating out the temporal links and quark fields. We have a sign problem in AFMC, which is different from the original one in finite density lattice QCD. For low momentum auxiliary field modes, a complex phase cancellation mechanism exists, and the sign problem is not serious on a small lattice. Compared with the mean field results, the transition temperature is found to be reduced by around 10 % and the hadron phase is found to be extended in the larger chemical potential direction by around 20 %, as observed in the monomer-dimer-polymer (MDP) simulations.

  7. Calibration of Cholesky Auxiliary Basis Sets for Multiconfigurational Perturbation Theory Calculations of Excitation Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Jonas; Delcey, Mickaël G; Aquilante, Francesco; Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Lindh, Roland

    2010-03-09

    The accuracy of auxiliary basis sets derived from Cholesky decomposition of two-electron integrals is assessed for excitation energies calculated at the state-average complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multiconfigurational second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) levels of theory using segmented as well as generally contracted atomic orbital basis sets. Based on 196 valence excitations in 26 organic molecules and 72 Rydberg excitations in 3 organic molecules, the results show that Cholesky auxiliary basis sets can be used without compromising the accuracy of the multiconfigurational methods. Specifically, with a decomposition threshold of 10(-4) au, the mean error due to the Cholesky auxiliary basis set is 0.001 eV, or smaller, decreasing with increasing atomic orbital basis set quality.

  8. Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Unidirectional Auxiliary Surfaces for Hypersonic Vehicles Based on Adaptive Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naibao He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flight control scheme is proposed using the terminal sliding mode technique, unidirectional auxiliary surfaces and the disturbance observer model. These proposed dynamic attitude control systems can improve control performance of hypersonic vehicles despite uncertainties and external disturbances. The terminal attractor is employed to improve the convergence rate associated with the critical damping characteristics problem noted in short-period motions of hypersonic vehicles. The proposed robust attitude control scheme uses a dynamic terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces. The nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate system uncertainties and external disturbances. The output of the disturbance observer aids the robust adaptive control scheme and improves robust attitude control performance. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces.

  9. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mullavey, Adam J; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2011-01-01

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities' lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully transfer longitudinal control of the system from the auxiliary laser to the measurement laser.

  10. Fourth derivative gravity in the auxiliary fields representation and application to the black hole stability

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Sebastiao; Fabbri, Alessandro; Shapiro, Ilya L

    2015-01-01

    We consider an auxiliary fields formulation for the general fourth-order gravity on an arbitrary curved background. The case of a Ricci-flat background is elaborated in full details and it is shown that there is an equivalence with the standard metric formulation. At the same time, using auxiliary fields helps to make perturbations to look simpler and the results more clear. As an application we reconsider the linear perturbations for the classical Schwarzschild solution. We also briefly discuss the relation to the effect of massive unphysical ghosts in the theory.

  11. Fourth derivative gravity in the auxiliary fields representation and application to the black-hole stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Sebastião; Balbinot, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2015-07-01

    We consider an auxiliary fields formulation for the general fourth-order gravity on an arbitrary curved background. The case of a Ricci-flat background is elaborated in detail and it is shown that there is an equivalence with the standard metric formulation. At the same time, using auxiliary fields helps to make perturbations to look simpler and the results clearer. As an application we reconsider the linear perturbations for the classical Schwarzschild solution. We also briefly discuss the relation to the effect of massive unphysical ghosts in the theory.

  12. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control, and spin relaxation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix.

  13. Implementation and Applications of the Method of Auxiliary Sources for Analysis of Smooth Scatterers and Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the implementation of Method of Auxiliary Sources techniques developed for smooth scatterers and wire scatterers. The work was done in the course of the PhD project "Electronically Steerable Antennas for Satellite Communication" where the techniques were employed to investig......This report documents the implementation of Method of Auxiliary Sources techniques developed for smooth scatterers and wire scatterers. The work was done in the course of the PhD project "Electronically Steerable Antennas for Satellite Communication" where the techniques were employed...

  14. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control, and spin relaxation theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya, E-mail: i.kuprov@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-28

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix.

  15. The extended auxiliary equation method for the KdV equation with variable coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Lan-Fang; Chen Cai-Sheng; Zhou Xian-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies an extended auxiliary equation method to obtain exact solutions of the KdV equation with variable coefficients.As a result,solitary wave solutions,trigonometric function solutions,rational function solutions,Jacobi elliptic doubly periodic wave solutions,and nonsymmetrical kink solution are obtained.It is shown that the extended auxiliary equation method,with the help of a computer symbolic computation system,is reliable and effective in finding exact solutions of variable coefficient nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  16. Method of Weave Design Using the Concept of Auxiliary Dobby Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jia-liang; XU Zheng

    2010-01-01

    The craft of auxiliary dobby shaft is one of methods used in the traditional figured woven textiles and especially brocade in China.Based on the principle of auxiliary dobby shaft,a new method of weave design was proposed.The relevant arrangement of warp and weave design were discussed.It is shown that this method can be applied on one electronic jacquard loom with single warp beam for new product development and production.And this effect will open up a new way to reproduce traditional fabrics in order to protect and develop Chinese traditional culture.

  17. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullavey, Adam J; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2012-01-02

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities' lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully transfer longitudinal control of the system from the auxiliary laser to the measurement laser.

  18. A case study on multi-lane roundabouts under congestion: Comparing software capacity and delay estimates with field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanwu Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on modern roundabouts performance are mostly based on data from singe lane roundabouts that are not heavily congested. For planners and designers interested in building multilane roundabouts for intersections with potential growth in future traffic, there has been a lack of existing studies with field data that provide reference values in terms of capacity and delay measurements. With the intent of providing such reference values, a case study was conducted by using the East Dowling Road Roundabouts in Anchorage, Alaska, which are currently operating with extensive queues during the evening peak hours. This research used multiple video camcorders to capture vehicle turning movements at the roundabouts as well as the progression of vehicle queues at the roundabout entrance approaches. With these video records, the number of vehicles in the queues can be accurately counted in any single minute during the peak hours. This study shows that unbalanced entrance flow patterns (i.e., one entrance has significant higher flow than others can intensify the queue and delay for the overall roundabouts. Then various software packages including RODEL, SIDRA and VISSIM were used to estimate several performance measurements, such as capacity, queue length, and delay, compared with the collected field data. With the comparison, it is found that all the three software packages overestimate multi-lane roundabout capacity before calibration. With default parameters, SIDRA and VISSIM tend to underestimate delays and queue lengths for the multi-lane roundabouts under congestion, while RODEL results in higher delay and queue length estimations at most of the entrance approaches.

  19. Penny Lane et Strawberry Field(s : réel, identité et fantasmagorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gensane

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Les chansons « Penny Lane » et « Strawberry Fields Forever » permettent d’appréhender le thème de l’enfance chez les Beatles. De manière très différente, John Lennon et Paul McCartney s’appuient sur une visite de deux lieux réels liverpooliens pour mettre en résonance leurs visions fantasmagoriques du passé, et pour exploiter la langue (qu’ils travaillent et qui les travaille dans une perspective authentiquement artistique.

  20. On the motion and geometry of the Sierra Nevada Great Valley micro-plate: Implications for Walker Lane tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada Great Valley (SNGV) micro-plate, a.k.a. the Fresno block, has long been recognized as a tectonically stable entity within the Pacific North America plate boundary zone. Some early geodetic studies have confirmed and defined its rigid behavior. However, those studies were based on a very limited amount of geodetic station velocities, and were unable to assess the extent of rigidity towards the edges of the block. The San Andreas and Garlock fault systems define the western and southern edges of the block, but no such features are readily recognizable to the north and east, along the Walker Lane belt. A better assessment of the location of the boundary or transition between the stable SNGV block and the Walker Lane is important for three reasons. It will provide a better understanding of what controls Walker Lane development and evolution, it will provide important boundary conditions in understanding the present-day kinematics of the Walker Lane, and it is contributes to the assessment of seismic hazard levels for the Reno-Carson City area. We analyze data from all the available GPS sites in the greater SNGV region, including data from the SCIGN, BARD and BARGEN networks, semi-continuous data from our own MAGNET network, and campaign-style data (e.g., USGS, SCEC). Also we have started to analyze regional PBO sites, however time-series for most of those sites are at present too short to infer reliable velocity estimates. We use the GIPSY OASIS II software which employs precise point positioning using dual-frequency carrier phase and pseudorange data, and the precise orbit, clock, and reference frame transformation products publicly available from JPL. The analysis includes carrier phase ambiguity resolution and regional filtering. Using these velocities we perform a kinematic analysis of the station velocity solution, solving for an angular velocity that best describes the motion of the SNGV. We analyze the residuals to investigate where the SNGV

  1. 考虑交通障碍的双车道扩展交通流模型%Extend Two-lane Traffic Flow Model with a Blockage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建锋; 赵靖

    2012-01-01

    借助智能交通系统(ITS),把扩展的车辆跟驰模型应用于双车道,建立根据确定规则进行换道的扩展交通流跟驰模型.通过改变发车车头间距,在开放边界条件下左车道有交通事故发生时,重现实际交通中的交通流现象.数值模拟发现:双车道交通流模型能够有效地抑制交通流阻塞,提高交通流量.%The extended car-following model is applied into two-lane system based on intelligent transportation system application (ITS). Then, an extended model of two-lane traffic in which vehicles change the lane by a deterministic rule is presented. The typical traffic induced by a car accident on the left lane under the open boundary is investigated. The simulation results suggest that the two-lane traffic model can suppress the traffic jam and enhance the traffic flow effectively.

  2. Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition: Experimental Evidence for the Different Behavior of Auxiliary and Lexical Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of verb placement by Moroccan and Turkish second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Elicited production data corroborate earlier findings from L2 German that learners who do not produce auxiliaries do not raise lexical verbs over negation, whereas learners who produce auxiliaries do. Data from elicited…

  3. N-Linked Glycosyl Auxiliary-Mediated Native Chemical Ligation on Aspartic Acid: Application towards N-Glycopeptide Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hua; Le Mai Hoang, Kim; Vu, Minh Duy; Pasunooti, Kalyan; Liu, Chuan-Fa; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2016-08-22

    A practical approach towards N-glycopeptide synthesis using an auxiliary-mediated dual native chemical ligation (NCL) has been developed. The first NCL connects an N-linked glycosyl auxiliary to the thioester side chain of an N-terminal aspartate oligopeptide. This intermediate undergoes a second NCL with a C-terminal thioester oligopeptide. Mild cleavage provides the desired N-glycopeptide.

  4. Non-cross-linked polystyrene-supported 2-imidazolidinone chiral auxiliary: synthesis and application in asymmetric alkylation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Pham Bao

    2013-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric alkylation reactions using non-cross-linked polystyrene (NCPS)-supported 2-imidazolidinone chiral auxiliaries were successfully investigated with excellent diastereocontrol (>99% de). The recovery and the recycling of this soluble polymer-supported chiral auxiliary were achieved in order to produce highly optical pure carboxylic acids. PMID:24204423

  5. 75 FR 34347 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... International Inc. Auxiliary Power Unit Models GTCP36-150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) for Honeywell International Inc. auxiliary power unit (APU) models GTCP36- 150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR... proposed AD applies to Honeywell International Inc. APU models GTCP36-150(R) and GTCP36-150(RR)....

  6. [On teaching the chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliary substances within the framework of pharmaceutical education in the Czech and Slovak Republics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Subert

    2011-02-01

    The paper emphasizes the need of the introduction of the subject Chemistry of Pharmaceutical Auxiliaries into the Pharmacy study programme at more colleges in the Czech and Slovak Republics. It also introduces and discusses some topics for possible extension of the content of the courses of the subject (the presented examples are taken form the field of analytical chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliaries).

  7. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-3 Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control...

  8. Low-cost auxiliary system for broadband NMR on strongly magnetic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevald, Rolf; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1978-01-01

    A low cost auxiliary system consisting of He cryostat, superconducting magnet, and sample holder assembly with field probe has been constructed. The system meets the requirements of NMR on strongly paramagnetic or ordered magnetic materials, which are accurate temperature settings over a wide range...

  9. Exact solutions of some coupled nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations using auxiliary equation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjit Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Travelling and solitary wave solutions of certain coupled nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations have been constructed using the auxiliary equation method. These equations arise in a variety of contexts not only in biological, chemical and physical sciences but also in ecological and social sciences.

  10. Equivalence Between Different Auxiliary Field Formulations of ${\\cal N}=1$ Supergravity Coupled to Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Shuntaro

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider the relation between three supergravity formalisms with different sets of auxiliary fields, known as the old-, new-, and non-minimal supergravity. Although it has been known that the old minimal formulation is the broadest class, we find that, with an unphysical $U(1)$ gauge symmetry and a compensating superfield, all of them become completely equivalent.

  11. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, G Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R P; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C; Bowie, Derek

    2016-03-16

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits.

  12. Kindergarten Mathematics with "Pepe the Rabbit": How Kindergartners Use Auxiliary Means to Solve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoumpourdi, Chrysanthi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role that auxiliary means (manipulatives such as cubes and representations such as number line) play for kindergartners in working out mathematical tasks. Our assumption was that manipulatives such as cubes would be used by kindergartners easily and successfully whereas the number line would be used by…

  13. Charge-constrained auxiliary-density-matrix methods for the Hartree–Fock exchange contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlot, Patrick; Izsak, Robert; Borgoo, Alex;

    2014-01-01

    Three new variants of the auxiliary-density-matrix method (ADMM) of Guidon, Hutter, and VandeVondele [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2348 (2010)] are presented with the common feature thatthey have a simplified constraint compared with the full orthonormality requirement of the earlier ADMM1 method...

  14. 78 FR 72794 - Revisions to Auxiliary Installations, Replacement Facilities, and Siting and Maintenance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... facilities, costs, capacity, purpose, construction schedule, customers affected, effects on gas supply, rates....55(a) Auxiliary Facilities 12 1. Commission Jurisdiction 13 2. Section 2.55 Siting and Construction... natural gas company to have certificate authorization for the ``construction or extension of...

  15. Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna Radiation Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. In many cases the computational cost of available commercial tools restricts the simulations to include only a small ground plane or, by use of the image principle, the infinitely...

  16. New materials for auxiliary equipments manufacturing. Nuevos materiales para la construccion de bienes de equipo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Zayas, J. (Dto. Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia. Universidad de Barcelona (Spain))

    1993-07-01

    Some specific operational conditions at industrial chemical processes might oblige the conventional materials used for auxiliary equipments to be substituted by new materials like new steel alloys, non-ferrous metals, ceramics, composites, etc.. This article studies the characteristics, applications and types of new materials. (Author)

  17. HEDGING THROUGH THE USE OF MODAL AUXILIARIES IN ENGLISH ACADEMIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Dwi Hardjanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a communicative strategy, hedging plays a central role in academic writing. Numerous different linguistic forms can be used to express this strategy. This article attempts to investigate modal auxiliary verbs as the principal means of expressing hedging in English academic discourse. For this purpose, a corpus of 75 primary empirical research articles from economics, linguistics, medicine, natural sciences and engineering was analyzed quantitatively with the help of corpus linguistic method. The results revealed that modal auxiliaries were used most frequently in linguistics and economics and least frequently in engineering and natural sciences while their use in medicine came in between. This seems to suggest that there is noticeable disciplinary variation in the degree of hedging through the use of modal auxiliaries in English research articles. Modal auxiliaries tend to be more common in soft sciences than in hard sciences whereas their use in health sciences in comparison with soft and hard sciences does not seem to show any significant difference.

  18. Application of the method of auxiliary sources in optical diffraction microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Hansen, Poul-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources is used for characterisation of grating defects. Grating profiles are characterised by best fit matching of a library of diffraction efficiencies with numerical simulated diffraction efficiencies with defects. It is shown that the presented method can solve...

  19. Ten-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity, its currents, and the issue of its auxiliary fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Roo, M. de; Wit, B. de

    1982-01-01

    The d = 10, N = 1 Yang-Mills system is coupled to d = 10, N = 1 supergravity in a locally scale-invariant way. An analysis of the currents agrees with the Noether coupling results and reveals the existence of two ordinary axial and more low-dimension auxiliary fields. The coupling of the photon Aµ

  20. Infections after auxiliary partial liver transplantation. Experiences in the first ten patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Zeijl (J.); A.C.M. Kroes (Aloys C.M.); H.J. Metselaar (Herold); P.J.A. Willemse (P. J A); H.A. Bruining (Hajo); J.F. Sluiters (Hans); S.W. Schalm (Solko); O.T. Terpstra (Onno); M.F. Michel

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary In ten auxiliary partial liver transplant recipients selective bowel decontamination (SBD) was used to reduce infections due to gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. During SBD no gram-negative infections occurred. Candida peritonitis was observed in one patient. After di

  1. From Root Infinitive to Finite Sentence : The acquisition of verbal inflections and auxiliaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Across languages, children in the earliest stages of syntactic development tend to omit overt markings of finiteness, such as verbal inflections and auxiliaries: when children use a verb, they use an infinitival form (e.g. Dutch) or a bare stem (e.g. English). From Root Infinitive to Finite Sentence

  2. Auxiliares "avoir" and "etre" approche psychosystematique (The Auxiliaries "avoir" and "etre," a Psychosystematic Approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Andre

    1977-01-01

    A brief psychosystematic analysis of the problem of auxiliaries in French, and of the solution offered by the internal psychomechanism of the language as found in Gustave Guillaume's research. "Avoir" and "etre"" are studied in some detail from several aspects. There is a short bibliography. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  3. Development of Intelligent Auxiliary System for Customized Physical Fitness and Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of global high-tech industry and commerce era, the sedentary reduces opportunities of physical activity. And physical fitness and health of people is getting worse and worse. At present, the shortage of physical fitness instructors greatly affected the effectiveness of health promotion. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an auxiliary system which can reduce the workload of instructors and enhance physical fitness and health for people. But current general physical fitness and healthcare system is hard to meet individualized needs. The main purpose of this research is to develop an intelligent auxiliary system for customized physical fitness and healthcare. It records all processes of physical fitness and healthcare system by wireless sensors network. The results of intelligent auxiliary systems for customized physical fitness and healthcare will be generated by fuzzy logic Inference. It will improve individualized physical fitness and healthcare. Finally, we will demonstrate the advantages of the intelligent auxiliary system for customized physical fitness and healthcare.

  4. Financial record-keeping simulation in the dental auxiliary utilization clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, E G; Waller, R R

    1975-09-01

    A financial record-keeping and billing simulation program which is part of the Dental Auxiliary Utilization (DAU) didactic and clinical experiences has been reported. Evaluation of student performance has demonstrated a satisfactory level of accomplishment. The students' performance may reflect their awareness regarding the importance of understanding the management of the financial affairs of a dental practice.

  5. 76 FR 65935 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 56 RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan... avian influenza to simplify the list of types of poultry eligible for 100 percent indemnity, among other... National Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan) and its auxiliary provisions by providing new or...

  6. C1 compounds as auxiliary substrate for engineered Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.W.; De Winde, J.H.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered to efficiently utilize the C1 compounds methanol and formaldehyde as auxiliary substrate. The hps and phi genes of Bacillus brevis, encoding two key steps of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway, were introduced to construct a

  7. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively....

  8. Nonlinear Asymptotic Stability of the Lane-Emden Solutions for the Viscous Gaseous Star Problem with Degenerate Density Dependent Viscosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Xin, Zhouping; Zeng, Huihui

    2016-11-01

    The nonlinear asymptotic stability of Lane-Emden solutions is proved in this paper for spherically symmetric motions of viscous gaseous stars with the density dependent shear and bulk viscosities which vanish at the vacuum, when the adiabatic exponent {γ} lies in the stability regime {(4/3, 2)}, by establishing the global-in-time regularity uniformly up to the vacuum boundary for the vacuum free boundary problem of the compressible Navier-Stokes-Poisson systems with spherical symmetry, which ensures the global existence of strong solutions capturing the precise physical behavior that the sound speed is {C^{{1}/{2}}}-Hölder continuous across the vacuum boundary, the large time asymptotic uniform convergence of the evolving vacuum boundary, density and velocity to those of Lane-Emden solutions with detailed convergence rates, and the detailed large time behavior of solutions near the vacuum boundary. Those uniform convergence are of fundamental importance in the study of vacuum free boundary problems which are missing in the previous results for global weak solutions. Moreover, the results obtained in this paper apply to much broader cases of viscosities than those in Fang and Zhang (Arch Ration Mech Anal 191:195-243, 2009) for the theory of weak solutions when the adiabatic exponent {γ} lies in the most physically relevant range. Finally, this paper extends the previous local-in-time theory for strong solutions to a global-in-time one.

  9. Stochastic modeling of the dynamics of incident-induced lane traffic states for incident-responsive local ramp control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Jiuh-Biing

    2007-12-01

    Incident-induced traffic congestion has been recognized as a critical issue to solve in the development of advanced freeway incident management systems. This paper investigates the applicability of a stochastic optimal control approach to real-time incident-responsive local ramp control on freeways. The architecture of the proposed ramp control system embeds two primary functions including (1) real-time estimation of incident-induced lane traffic states and (2) dynamic prediction of ramp-metering rates in response to the changes of incident impacts. To accomplish the above two goals, a discrete-time nonlinear stochastic optimal control model is proposed, followed by the development of a recursive prediction algorithm. Based on the simulation data, the numerical results of model tests indicate that the proposed method permits relieving incident impacts particularly under low-volume and medium-volume conditions, relative to high-volume lane-blocking conditions. Particularly, the incident-induced queue lengths can be improved by 50.1% and 67.9%, compared to the existing ramp control and control-free strategies, respectively.

  10. Aerometrics' laser-based lane-tracker sensor: engineering and on-the-road evaluation of advanced prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Carlos A.; Tapos, Francis M.; Alayleh, Mehyeddine M.; Bachalo, William D.

    1997-02-01

    Aerometrics initiated and continues on the development an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. The principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics' early testing were presented last year in this forum. This paper presents Aerometrics' continuing efforts in bringing the technology to market. New prototypes have been developed and tested. Aerometrics' engineering efforts and the use of latest technologies have resulted in a 24-fold reduction in sensor volume when compared to their predecessors and similar reductions in weight. The current prototype measures less than 9 cm X 8 cm X 7 cm, and can be easily fit within the cavity of rear-view mirror holders used in most present-day vehicles. Also, advances in signal conditioning and processing have improved the reliability of the sensor. Results of continuing testing of the sensor will be presented.

  11. Auxiliary Subunit GSG1L Acts to Suppress Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Thomas P.; Bats, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated cation channels responsible for a majority of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Their behavior and calcium permeability depends critically on their subunit composition and the identity of associated auxiliary proteins. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) contribute to various forms of synaptic plasticity, and their dysfunction underlies a number of serious neurological conditions. For CP-AMPARs, the prototypical transmembrane AMPAR regulatory protein stargazin, which acts as an auxiliary subunit, enhances receptor function by increasing single-channel conductance, slowing channel gating, increasing calcium permeability, and relieving the voltage-dependent block by endogenous intracellular polyamines. We find that, in contrast, GSG1L, a transmembrane auxiliary protein identified recently as being part of the AMPAR proteome, acts to reduce the weighted mean single-channel conductance and calcium permeability of recombinant CP-AMPARs, while increasing polyamine-dependent rectification. To examine the effects of GSG1L on native AMPARs, we manipulated its expression in cerebellar and hippocampal neurons. Transfection of GSG1L into mouse cultured cerebellar stellate cells that lack this protein increased the inward rectification of mEPSCs. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous GSG1L in rat cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons led to an increase in mEPSC amplitude and in the underlying weighted mean single-channel conductance, revealing that GSG1L acts to suppress current flow through native CP-AMPARs. Thus, our data suggest that GSG1L extends the functional repertoire of AMPAR auxiliary subunits, which can act not only to enhance but also diminish current flow through their associated AMPARs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) are an important group of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. These receptors contribute to various forms of

  12. 景德镇里弄文化的保护和发展%Protection and Development of Jingdezhen Lanes Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浩政; 杨敏

    2015-01-01

    景德镇里弄是景德镇千年传统陶瓷生产方式发展的历史印记和特色遗产,景德镇里弄文化是景德镇陶瓷文化的重要组成部分,传承和保护景德镇里弄文化对于整理、创新新时期景德镇陶瓷文化和打造陶瓷文化产业都具有积极的意义。本文概述了景德镇里弄发展的历史和现状,阐述了景德镇里弄文化的历史内涵和时代价值,最后提出了保护和发展景德镇里弄文化的几点基本思路,具体涉及特色里弄修复、里弄特色生活方式再现以及里弄特色陶瓷文化产业开发等几个方面。%Lanes are a distinctive symbol of Jingdezhen ceramic history and local heritage. Jingdezhen lanes culture is an essential part of its ceramic culture. The heritage and protection of Jingdezhen lanes will have positive inlfuence on sorting and innovating Jingdezhen ceramic culture and developing ceramic industry in such a new period. This paper summarizes the history and present conditions of lanes, describing their cultural content and enormous value. In the end, it puts forward several basic ideas for their protection and development, involving building rules and regulations, repairs of unique lanes and exploitation of lanes culture.

  13. Research of Driver's Lane Change Decision-making Mechanism%驾驶人车道变换决策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金栓; 付锐; 石磊磊; 张琼

    2011-01-01

    The decision-making stage is of great importance to the entire lane change process, but the correlational research on the decision stage is scarce. After defining the lane change scene, based on drivers' perception of external information, driving expectation, integrated cognitive judgment and game theory, the decision-making formation mechanism is analyzed given the traffic conflict exists. By introducing game theory-related knowledge, the non-cooperative mixed strategy game between the object vehicle and the following vehicle in the target lane was further discussed, and both drivers in the game competing for the critical conflict point in the lane change decision-making process. Then, the benefits and Nash equilibrium solution of the participants in the game were deeply researched. Analysis shows that lane-changing decision is composed of information perception and three judgment-decision processes, the factors which would affect decision-making level including information source characteristics, the ability of drivers' perception and comprehensive cognitive judgment, driving behavior characteristics and so on. The Nash equilibrium solution of the non-cooperative mixed strategy game is codetermined by driving safety, traveling time and the importance degree of the incomes.%决策阶段对整个换道过程的安全性有重要影响,但目前缺乏对该阶段的深入研究.界定车道变换研究场景,基于驾驶人对外界信息的感知特性、驾驶期望、综合认知判断以及博弈理论等,分析交通冲突存在前提下驾驶人车道变换决策形成机制.引入博弈理论相关知识,进一步探讨换道决策机制中对象车与目标车道后随车对于临界冲突点进行的非合作混合战略博弈,对博弈双方驾驶人的收益以及纳什均衡解进行深入探析.研究表明车道变换决策机制由信息感知及三次判断决策过程耦合而成,影响驾驶人决策水平的因素包括信息源特征、驾

  14. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  15. Quad 14Gbps L-Band VCSEL-based System for WDM Migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang;

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty.......We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty....

  16. Environmental Impacts of ETC Lane Operation%ETC系统运行的环境影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖瀚博; 余志; 刘永红; 蔡铭

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental impacts of ETC systematic operation, micro-scale simulation tool PARAMICS and the comprehensive tailpipe emission model CMEM were used to develop an operation model for toll stations. To make the simulation results realistic, a lane changing model was developed using the API function provided in PARAMICS, and the key parameters were also adjusted. On this basis, fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions were selected as indices to make quantitative analysis on the operation of toll stations. Considering influences of traffic flow, passing speed and ETC vehicle rate, the environmental effects of ETC lane and toll station were analyzed. The results showed that the total fuel consumption of vehicles in the ETC lane increased linearly with increase of throughput, and the total fuel consumption and emissions decreased rapidly with the increase of passing speed. East Xingang toll station on Huanan expressway was selected for a case study, and a recommendation for ETC system implementation was provided.%为了评估ETC系统运行的环境影响,采用PARAMICS微观仿真平台,结合综合尾气排放模型(CMEM),建立收费站交通运行模型.通过PARAMICS提供的API函数对车辆换道模型进行建模,并对仿真平台的关键参数进行校验,使仿真结果符合收费站的实际运行情况.在此基础上,从油耗和尾气排放量等方面对收费站运行情况进行定量分析.针对车道流量、车辆通过速度以及ETC车辆比例等因素,研究ETC车道以及收费站运行过程的环境影响.结果发现,通过ETC车道的车辆油耗总量随流量增长呈线性增长趋势,通过速度的提高使通过车辆的油耗总量和尾气排放量快速下降.最后选择华南快速干线新港东收费站进行实例分析并提出实施ETC系统的改进建议.

  17. Effect of macrostructural control of an auxiliary layer on the CO2 sensing properties of NASICON-based gas sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Morio, Masataka; Hyodo, Takeo; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Egashira, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Macrostructural effects of an auxiliary electrode on the CO2 gas sensing properties of NASICON (Na3Zr2Si2PO12) solid-electrolyte sensors were investigated. The sensor with a porous Li2CO3–BaCO3-based auxiliary layer (mp-Sensor), which was prepared by utilizing constituent metal acetates and polymethylmethacrylate microspheres as a template, showed faster CO2 response and recovery and smaller cross-response against humidity changes than those obtained with a dense auxiliary layer without pores...

  18. Quad 14 Gbps L-band VCSEL-based system for WDM migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps optical data links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang;

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple-lane link into an L-band VCSEL-based WDM system. Experimental validation achieves successful transmission over 10 km of SMF at 4x14Gbps. Inter-channel crosstalk penalty is observed to be less than 0.5 dB and a transmission penalty around 1 dB. The power budget margin...

  19. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  20. On the size of the third homotopy group of the suspension of an Eilenberg--MacLane space

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The nonabelian tensor square G \\otimes G of a group G of |G| = pn and |G'| = pm (p prime and n,m \\ge 1) satisfies a classic bound of the form |G \\otimes G|\\le pn(n-m). This allows us to give an upper bound for the order of the third homotopy group p3(SK(G,1)) of the suspension of an Eilenberg--MacLane space K(G,1), because p3(K(G,1)) is isomorphic to the kernel of k : x \\otimes y \\in G \\otimes G \\mapsto [x,y] \\in G'. We prove that |G \\otimes G| \\le p(n-1)(n-m)+2, sharpening not only...

  1. Ghostbusters in higher derivative supersymmetric theories: who is afraid of propagating auxiliary fields?

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimori, Toshiaki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    We present for the first time a ghost-free higher-derivative chiral model with a propagating auxiliary F-term field (highest component of the chiral multiplet). We obtain this model by removing a ghost in a higher derivative chiral model, with Higgsing it in terms of an auxiliary vector superfield. Depending on the sign of the quadratic derivative term of the chiral superfield, the model contains two ghost free branches of the parameter regions. We find that supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in one branch while it is preserved in the other branch. As a consequence of dynamical F-term field, a conserved U(1) charge corresponding to the number density of $F$ appears, which can be regarded as a generalization of the R-symmetry.

  2. Reexamination of molecular integrals arising from the Dirac equation. Analytical evaluation of molecular auxiliary functions integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, A

    2016-01-01

    The author in his previous works were presented a numerical integration method, namely, global-adaptive with the Gauss-Kronrod numerical integration extension in order to accurate calculation of molecular auxiliary functions integrals involve power functions with non-integer exponents. They are constitute elements of molecular integrals arising in Dirac equation when Slater-type orbitals with non-integer principal quantum numbers are used. Binomial series representation of power functions method, so far, is used for analytical evaluation of the molecular auxiliary function integrals however, intervals of integration cover areas beyond the condition of convergence. In the present study, analytical evaluation of these integrals is re-examined. They are expressed via prolate spheroidal coordinates. An alternative analytical approximation are derived. Slowly convergent binomial series representation formulae for power functions is investigated through nonlinear sequence transformations for the acceleration of con...

  3. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Cao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H∞ robust control, a H2/H∞ controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  4. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory: an auxiliary quantum master equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Enrico; Knap, Michael; von der Linden, Wolfgang

    2013-02-22

    We introduce a versatile method to compute electronic steady-state properties of strongly correlated extended quantum systems out of equilibrium. The approach is based on dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), in which the original system is mapped onto an auxiliary nonequilibrium impurity problem imbedded in a Markovian environment. The steady-state Green's function of the auxiliary system is solved by full diagonalization of the corresponding Lindblad equation. The approach can be regarded as the nontrivial extension of the exact-diagonalization-based DMFT to the nonequilibrium case. As a first application, we consider an interacting Hubbard layer attached to two metallic leads and present results for the steady-state current and the nonequilibrium density of states.

  5. Optical bandwidth enhancement of heterojunction bipolar transistor laser operation with an auxiliary base signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, H. W.; Walter, G.; Feng, M.; Holonyak, N.

    2008-10-01

    We report the improvement, from 10.5to22GHz, in the optical modulation bandwidth of a quantum-well (QW) heterojunction bipolar transistor laser (TL) by the use of an ac auxiliary base signal. Because of the three-terminal form of the TL, an auxiliary signal can be used to peak the photon output, e.g., stimulated recombination which simultaneously reduces the operating current gain, β(=ICO/IBO), and increases the laser differential gain. A shorter effective base carrier lifetime, τ, owing to the increased QW recombination rate (stimulated recombination), enhanced carrier transport to the "faster" QW collector (reduced β) and differential gain, result in a higher 3dB bandwidth (f3dB=1/2πτ ).

  6. Performance of nursing auxiliaries and technicians in managing piercing cutting material: a necessary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Elaine Cristina Carvalho; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Santana; da Fonseca, Soraia Martins

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the knowledge of nursing auxiliaries and technicians in handling and disposing of piercing-cutting material and describe their performance. This qualitative-descriptive research was carried out with three nursing auxiliaries and 12 technicians at a medium-size hospital, totaling 15 participants interviewed through a semi-structured script. Discourse was analyzed through the content analysis technique. Results appoint that, even though the participants have theoretical knowledge on the management of piercing-cutting material, they do not totally follow their knowledge, which exposes them to several biological risks, revealing reproductive knowledge and performance. Thus, we propose the implementation of continuing education programs based on constructivist methodological approach aiming at effective practices in the management and disposal of piercing-cutting material. In this perspective, research clarifying how adults apprehend knowledge can deepen the results described in the study.

  7. Auxiliary particle filter-model predictive control of the vacuum arc remelting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.

    2016-07-01

    Solidification control is required for the suppression of segregation defects in vacuum arc remelting of superalloys. In recent years, process controllers for the VAR process have been proposed based on linear models, which are known to be inaccurate in highly-dynamic conditions, e.g. start-up, hot-top and melt rate perturbations. A novel controller is proposed using auxiliary particle filter-model predictive control based on a nonlinear stochastic model. The auxiliary particle filter approximates the probability of the state, which is fed to a model predictive controller that returns an optimal control signal. For simplicity, the estimation and control problems are solved using Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods. The validity of this approach is verified for a 430 mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode melted into a 510 mm (20 in) diameter ingot. Simulation shows a more accurate and smoother performance than the one obtained with an earlier version of the controller.

  8. Study on the distribution of strata rock temperature around a driving head with auxiliary ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-liang

    2004-01-01

    The distributions of strata rock temperature around a driving head with auxiliary ventilation were analyzed theoretically based on a program which was developed by the authors to predict the thermal environmental conditions in a development heading with forcing auxiliary ventilation. The influences of wetnessof the airway surface were discussed on the cooled zone of the strata rock and on the temperature distribution in the surrounding rock. It is shown that the advancing speed and driving time have little influence on the temperature profile in front of the working face of a driving airway, and the rock temperature 1.5 m ahead of the working face can be taken as the virgin rock temperature.

  9. Simulation of Multi output Fly back Converter with Integrated Auxiliary Buck Converter with reduced components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.KOMATHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The fly back converter has been widely used for multi outputs due to the simple structure and low cost in low-power applications. This paper presents a new multi output converter. It consists of a half-bridge inverter with boost converter in primary side and a fly back rectifier that is integrated with an auxiliary buck converter in secondary side. The boost converter is used to generate high voltage dc from Low voltage PV cells. The primary switches control the main output voltage and the secondary synchronous switches control the auxiliary output voltage. The main advantages of the proposed converter are that the transformer size can be reduced due to the less magnetizing offset current, all the power switches including synchronous ones can achieve the zero-voltage switching (ZVS and it has no output cross regulation problems. The circuit is simulated using MATLAB. The performance is verified with simulation results.

  10. Effect of auxiliary ventilations on diesel particulate matter dispersion inside a dead-end entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yi; Thiruvengadam Magesh; Lan Hai; Tien C. Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is considered carcinogenic after prolonged exposure. This paper used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to study the effect of four auxiliary ventilation systems on DPM distribution in a dead-end entry with loading operation. The auxiliary ventilation systems con-sidered include:blower fan and tubing;exhaust fan and tubing, jet fan, and push–pull system. A species transport model with buoyancy effect was used to examine the DPM dispersion pattern with unsteady state analysis. During the 200 s of the loading operation, high DPM levels were identified in the face and dead-end entry regions. This study can be used for mining engineer as guidance to design and setup of local ventilation. It can also be used for selection of DPM control strategies and DPM annual training for underground miners.

  11. Study on Commercial Application of FCC with Auxiliary Gasoline Reactor for Improving FCC Naphtha Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Qiang

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the commercial application of FCC technology equipped with a gasoline auxiliary reactor in the RFCC unit at PetroChina Harbin Petrochemical Branch Company.Test results have shown the excellent outcome for commercial application of the gasoline upgrading in the auxiliary reactor to reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha.Application of this technology can reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha to less than 35v%.Adjustment of the FCC operation towards more severg conditions can further reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha to less than 20 v%.so that the FCC naphtha can meet the current standard or meet more stringent specification requirements in the future to achieve compelling economic and social benefits.

  12. Parallel eigensolver for H(curl) problems using H1-auxiliary space AMG preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, T V; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-11-15

    This report describes an application of the recently developed H{sup 1}-auxiliary space preconditioner for H(curl) problems to the Maxwell eigenvalue problem. The auxiliary space method based on the new (HX) finite element space decomposition introduced in [7], was implemented in the hypre library, [10, 11] under the name AMS. The eigensolver considered in the present paper, referred to as the AME, is an extension of the AMS. It is based on the locally optimal block eigensolver LOBPCG [9] and the parallel AMG (algebraic multigrid) solver BoomerAMG [2] from the hypre library. AME is designed to compute a block of few minimal nonzero eigenvalues and eigenvectors, for general unstructured finite element discretizations utilizing the lowest order Nedelec elements. The main goal of the current report is to document the usage of AME and to illustrate its parallel scalability.

  13. The use of the vinegar as a chemical auxiliary in Endodontics: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Duarte IRALA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the root canal instrumentation with the use of files, there is the formation of a layer called “smear layer”, which may hide among other elements microorganisms capable of perpetuating an endodontic infection, what can lead to endodontic treatment failure. Objective: To present a literature review of apple vinegar and its chemical properties as an auxiliary alternative substance in the permeability in dentin. Literature review: In the attempt to remove the smear layer, auxiliary substances that allow a better action of instruments are used, which also permit the permeability of the system of canals and the removal of organic remains and possible contaminants. Conclusion: The results had indicated that the use of the apple vinegar can be a viable alternative to assist chemistry in Endodontics.

  14. Modeling High-occupancy/toll Lanes in US%美国高承载率车道拥挤收费方案建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文博

    2015-01-01

    High occupancy/toll lanes (HOT) have become an increasingly popular countermeasure to manage the highway congestion in US. In order to draw lessons from the experiences and theories of HOT lanes, the paper presents the concept and literature of HOT lanes, and then establishes a bi-level programming model to simulate the interactions between the HOT lane operators and users. The upper-level model simulates how the operators develop the pricing strategies with various objectives, and the lower-level model addresses how the individual travelers respond to the price strategies and traffic conditions. The paper designs eighteen scenarios to analyze the highway performances of various HOT operations. Results show that, HOT lanes show better congestion-mitigating effects than the conventional measures;the homogeneity assumption tends to underestimate the effectiveness of HOT lanes; and different policy objectives have significant influences on the HOT lane operations.%近年来HOT车道(即高承载率车道拥挤收费方案)已成为美国重要的道路拥挤收费策略.为引鉴其实施经验和管理理论,首先介绍了HOT车道概念与特征,然后采用交通行为建模方法构建了HOT车道管理者与出行者互馈决策的双层规划模型.上层模型模拟管理者的定价策略;下层交通均衡模型模拟个体出行者根据收费水平和交通状态变化而调整出行选择的行为.根据实施方案和应用条件,设计算例分析评价18种可能情形下HOT车道的拥挤管理效果.结果表明,较传统拥挤管理策略,HOT车道缓堵效果更高;同类出行者假设可能会低估HOT车道的缓堵效果;不同的政策目标下HOT车道的实施效果差异显著.

  15. Short-term impacts of a 4-lane highway on black bears in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, Frank T.; McCollister, Matthew F.; Nicholson, Jeremy M.; Thompson, Laura M.; Kindall, Jason L.; Jones, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial landscapes, expanding transportation networks represent one of the primary challenges to wildlife conservation worldwide. Larger mammals may be particularly vulnerable because of typically low densities, low reproductive rates, and extensive movements. Although numerous studies have been conducted to document impacts of road networks on wildlife, inference has been limited because of experimental design limitations. During the last decade, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) rerouted and upgraded sections of United States Highway 64 between Raleigh and the Outer Banks to a 4-lane, divided highway. A new route was selected for a 24.1-km section in Washington County. The new section of highway included 3 wildlife underpasses with adjacent wildlife fencing to mitigate the effects of the highway on wildlife, particularly American black bears (Ursus americanus). We assessed the short-term impacts of the new highway on spatial ecology, population size, survival, occupancy, and gene flow of black bears. We tested our research hypotheses using a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design. We collected data during 2000–2001 (preconstruction phase) and 2006–2007 (postconstruction phase) in the highway project area and a nearby control area (each approx. 11,000 ha), resulting in 4 groups of data (i.e., pre- or postconstruction study phase, treatment or control area). We captured and radiocollared 57 bears and collected 5,775 hourly locations and 4,998 daily locations. Using mixed-model analysis of variance and logistic regression, we detected no differences in home ranges, movement characteristics, proximity to the highway alignment, or habitat use between the 2 study phases, although minimum detectable effect sizes were large for several tests. However, after completion of the new highway, bears on the treatment area became less inactive in morning, when highway traffic was low, compared with

  16. EFFECT OF CONGESTION ON FUEL COST AND TRAVEL TIME COST ON MULTI-LANE HIGHWAYS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Errampalli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicles normally move at their free speeds when it is least impeded due to traffic flow under lean traffic (free flow conditions. As traffic flow increases, the vehicles cannot sustain their free speeds due to interactions from other vehicles in the traffic stream. In addition to that the vehicles that are operating in the congested traffic conditions will consume more fuel than those operating in steady state traffic conditions for the same average speed. This leads to increase in travel time and fuel consumption of the vehicles and thereby adding to total road user cost (RUC. On the contrary, fuel consumption is also high at very high speeds under free flow traffic flow conditions leading to increase RUC. Considering these scenarios, the travel time and fuel cost of the vehicle due to the congestion and free flow conditions (uncongested has to be necessarily modelled in order to estimate realistic assessment of RUC on Indian highways. In the present study, the congestion cost relationships have been developed between Congestion Factor, a ratio of cost under congestion and steady state conditions and Volume-Capacity Ratio by considering various vehicle types plying on varying widths of multi-lane highways (four, six and eight lane divided carriageways through the collection of exhaustive time related and fuel related data. Time related data was collected through questionnaire survey method whereas fuel consumption data was collected using advanced sophisticated fuel flow measuring equipment (V-Box. The developed equations have been successfully applied to demonstrate their applicability in terms of estimating realistic effect of congestion on time and fuel cost by considering a section on NH-2 in Delhi. The analysis shows that the congestion effect is more significant on fuel cost for heavy commercial vehicles whereas it is more prominent on time cost for passenger vehicles. However, the congestion effect on combined fuel and time cost is

  17. A generalized new auxiliary equation method and its applications to nonlinear partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sheng [Department of Mathematics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China)]. E-mail: zhshaeng@yahoo.com.cn; Xia, Tiecheng [Department of Mathematics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2007-04-09

    In this Letter, a generalized new auxiliary equation method is proposed for constructing more general exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. With the aid of symbolic computation, we choose the combined KdV-mKdV equation and the (2+1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Vesselov equations to illustrate the validity and advantages of the method. As a result, many new and more general exact solutions are obtained.

  18. Reexamination of molecular integrals arising from the Dirac equation. Analytical evaluation of molecular auxiliary functions integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Bagci, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, analytical solutions to relativistic molecular integrals are proposed for use in ab-initio molecular electronic structure calculations. They are expressed through molecular auxiliary functions integrals in prolate spheroidal coordinates. Recurrence relations and new convergent series representation formulae are derived. They involve Slater-type orbitals basis set with non-integer principal quantum numbers. The comparison is made with the benchmark results of use numerical global...

  19. Dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing supported jet engine rotor with auxiliary bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, George T.; Xie, Huajun; Sinha, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the dynamic behavior of a rotor system supported by auxiliary bearings. The steady-state behavior of a simulation model based upon a production jet engine is explored over a wide range of operating conditions for varying rotor imbalance, support stiffness, and damping. Interesting dynamical phenomena, such as chaos, subharmonic responses, and double-valued responses, are presented and discussed.

  20. Application of Sm0/Auxiliary and Sm0/MCln System in Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Min; LIU Yun-Kuia

    2001-01-01

    @@Though samarium metal itself has strong reducingpower, in most cases, certain additives are still needed when it is used as a reductant because the surface of samarium metal is inactive.Thus Sm0/auxiliary systems are proposed.The explored systems include: Sm0/I2,Sm0/TMSCl, Sm0/THF-NH4Cl (aq.), Sm0/Cp2TiCl2,Sm(Hg), Sm0/cat.KI etc.

  1. Sodium--NaK engineering handbook. Volume IV. Sodium pumps, valves, piping, and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is useful for designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program and by the engineering and scientific community performing investigation and experimentation requiring high-temperature Na and NaK technology. Data are presented for pumps, bearings and seals, valves, vessels and piping, and auxiliary equipment including vapor traps, freeze plugs, fuel-channel flow regulators, antivortexing devices, and miscellaneous mechanical elements. Reactor materials are also discussed. (FS)

  2. Development of Intelligent Auxiliary System for Customized Physical Fitness and Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Chung-Chi; Liu Hsiao-Man; Ke Yen-Ting

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of global high-tech industry and commerce era, the sedentary reduces opportunities of physical activity. And physical fitness and health of people is getting worse and worse. At present, the shortage of physical fitness instructors greatly affected the effectiveness of health promotion. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an auxiliary system which can reduce the workload of instructors and enhance physical fitness and health for people. But current general physical fitness a...

  3. Think Different: Applying the Old Macintosh Mantra to the Computability of the SUSY Auxiliary Field Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Mathew; Gates,, S James; Golding, William M

    2015-01-01

    Starting with valise supermultiplets obtained from 0-branes plus field redefinitions, valise adinkra networks, and the "Garden Algebra," we discuss an architecture for algorithms that (starting from on-shell theories and, through a well-defined computation procedure), search for off-shell completions. We show in one dimension how to directly attack the notorious "off-shell auxiliary field" problem of supersymmetry with algorithms in the adinkra network-world formulation.

  4. Extended Auxiliary Equation Method and Its Applications to Three Generalized NLS Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-qiong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The auxiliary equation method proposed by Sirendaoreji is extended to construct new types of elliptic function solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The effectiveness of the extended method is demonstrated by applications to the RKL model, the generalized derivative NLS equation and the Kundu-Eckhaus equation. Not only are the Jacobian elliptic function solutions are derived, but also the solitary wave solutions and trigonometric function solutions are obtained in a unified way.

  5. Utilization of Lavandula angustifolia Miller extracts as naturalrepellents, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYOE YUSUFOGLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils, absolutes and concretes were prepared from the flowers and leaves of the plant Lavandula angustifolia Miller cultivated in the Bosphorus region of Istanbul, Turkey. The difference in the chemical composition of the mentioned extracts was investigated and compared by using a combination of capillary GC-MS with the aim of offering them as repellent, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries. The IR-spectra, the yields and the physico-chemical data of the extracts were also analysed.

  6. Response to the Comment: ``On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions and ”

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I I Guseinov

    2003-10-01

    The Comment `on the computation of auxiliary functions () and ()’ (F E Harris, Pramana – J. Phys. 61, C779 (2003)) is analysed in the arbitrary range of parameters , and . It is shown that our downward recursion approach for () in the range (/) > 1 is more efficient than the well-known upward recursion method, and the upward recursion procedure for () does not have merit for smaller non-zero values of ( < 0.01).

  7. Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Yin; Xiao-Dong Ni; Feng Jiang; Ning Li; You-Sheng Li; Xiao-Ming Wang; Jie-Shou Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe an auxiliary combined liver-small bowel transplantation model with the preservation of duodenum, head of pancreas and hepatic biliary system in pigs. The technique, feasibility, security and immunosuppression were commented.METHODS: Forty outbred long-white pigs were randomized into two groups, and the auxiliary composite liver/small bowel allotransplantations were undertaken in 10 long-white pigs in each group with the recipient liver preserved.Group A was not treated with immunosuppressive drugs while group B was treated with cyclosporine A and methylprednisolone after operation. The hemodynamic changes and amylase of body fluid (including blood, urine and abdominal drain) were analyzed.RESULTS: The average survival time of the animals was 10±1.929 d (6 to 25 d) in group A while more than 30 d in group B. The pigs could tolerate the hemodynamic fluctuation during operation and the hemodynamic parameters recovered to normal 2 h after blood reperfusion. The transient high amylase level was decreased to normal one week after operation and autopsy showed no pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation is a feasible and safe model with simplified surgical techniques for composite liver/small bowel transplantation. This model may be used as a preclinical training model for clinical transplantation method, clinical liver-small bowel transplantation related complication research, basic research including immunosuppressive treatment, organ preservation, acute rejection, chronic rejection, immuno-tolerance and xenotransplantation.

  8. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.; Costamagna, P. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' (DICheP), University of Genoa, Via all' Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genova (Italy); Traverso, A.; Santin, M. [Department of Machines, Energetic Systems and Transport (DIMSET), University of Genoa, Via all' Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genova (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs. (author)

  9. Modulatory mechanisms and multiple functions of somatodendritic A-type K+ channel auxiliary subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hungtao Jerng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary subunits are non-conducting, modulatory components of the multi-protein ion channel complexes that underlie normal neuronal signaling. They interact with the pore-forming α-subunits to modulate surface distribution, ion conductance, and channel gating properties. For the somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium (ISA channel based on Kv4 α-subunits, two types of auxiliary subunits have been extensively studied: Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPLPs. KChIPs are cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins that interact with intracellular portions of the Kv4 subunits, whereas DPLPs are type II transmembrane proteins that associate with the Kv4 channel core. Both KChIPs and DPLPs genes contain multiple start sites that are used by various neuronal populations to drive the differential expression of functionally distinct N-terminal variants. In turn, these N-terminal variants generate tremendous functional diversity across the nervous system. Here, we focus our review on (1 the molecular mechanism underlying the unique properties of different N-terminal variants, (2 the shaping of native ISA properties by the concerted actions of KChIPs and DPLP variants, and (3 the surprising ways that KChIPs and DPLPs coordinate the activity of multiple channels to fine-tune neuronal excitability. Unlocking the unique contributions of different auxiliary subunit N-terminal variants may provide an important opportunity to develop novel targeted therapeutics to treat numerous neurological disorders.

  10. Simulative technology for auxiliary fuel tank separation in a wind tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xin; Liu Wei; Chen Ling; Li Xiao; Jia Zhenyuan; Shang Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simulative experimental system in wind tunnel conditions for the separation of auxiliary fuel tanks from an aircraft. The experimental system consists of a simulative release mechanism, a scaled model and a pose measuring system. A new release mechanism was designed to ensure stability of the separation. Scaled models of the auxiliary fuel tank were designed and their moment of inertia was adjusted by installing counterweights inside the model. Pose param-eters of the scaled model were measured and calculated by a binocular vision system. Additionally, in order to achieve high brightness and high signal-to-noise ratio of the images in the dark enclosed wind tunnel, a new high-speed image acquisition method based on miniature self-emitting units was pre-sented. Accuracy of the pose measurement system and repeatability of the separation mechanism were verified in the laboratory. Results show that the position precision of the pose measurement system can reach 0.1 mm, the precision of the pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.1? and that of the roll angle can be up to 0.3?. Besides, repeatability errors of models’ velocity and angular velocity controlled by the release mechanism remain small, satisfying the measurement requirements. Finally, experiments for the separation of auxiliary fuel tanks were conducted in the laboratory.

  11. A new approach on auxiliary vehicle assignment in capacitated location routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Mahdi; Rasoulinejad, Zeinab; Fallahzade, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    The location routing problem (LRP) considers locating depots and vehicle routing decisions simultaneously. In classic LRP the number of customers in each route depends on the capacity of the vehicle. In this paper a capacitated LRP model with auxiliary vehicle assignment is presented in which the length of each route is not restricted by main vehicle capacity. Two kinds of vehicles are considered: main vehicles with higher capacity and fixed cost and auxiliary vehicles with lower capacity and fixed cost. The auxiliary vehicles can be added to the transportation system as an alternative strategy to cover the capacity limitations and they are just used to transfer goods from depots to vehicles and cannot serve the customers by themselves. To show the applicability of the proposed model, some numerical examples derived from the well-known instances are used. Moreover the model has been solved by some meta-heuristics for large sized instances. The results show the efficiency of the proposed model and the solution approach, considering the classic model and the exact solution approach, respectively.

  12. Creating and manipulating non-Abelian anyons in cold atom systems using auxiliary bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhe; Sreejith, G. J.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of realizing bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect in ultracold atomic systems suggests a new route to producing and manipulating anyons, by introducing auxiliary bosons of a different species that capture quasiholes and thus inherit their nontrivial braiding properties. States with localized quasiholes at any desired locations can be obtained by annihilating the auxiliary bosons at those locations. We explore how this method can be used to generate non-Abelian quasiholes of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state for bosons at filling factor ν =1 . We show that a Hamiltonian with an appropriate three-body interaction can produce two-quasihole states in two distinct fusion channels of the topological "qubit." Characteristics of these states that are related to the non-Abelian nature can be probed and verified by a measurement of the effective relative angular momentum of the auxiliary bosons, which is directly related to their pair distribution function. Moore-Read states of more than two quasiholes can also be produced in a similar fashion. We investigate some issues related to the experimental feasibility of this approach, in particular, how large the systems should be for a realization of this physics and to what extent this physics carries over to systems with the more standard two-body contact interaction.

  13. Detection of facilities in satellite imagery using semi-supervised image classification and auxiliary contextual observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Neal R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pawley, Norma H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brumby, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balick, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oyer, Alden [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Detecting complex targets, such as facilities, in commercially available satellite imagery is a difficult problem that human analysts try to solve by applying world knowledge. Often there are known observables that can be extracted by pixel-level feature detectors that can assist in the facility detection process. Individually, each of these observables is not sufficient for an accurate and reliable detection, but in combination, these auxiliary observables may provide sufficient context for detection by a machine learning algorithm. We describe an approach for automatic detection of facilities that uses an automated feature extraction algorithm to extract auxiliary observables, and a semi-supervised assisted target recognition algorithm to then identify facilities of interest. We illustrate the approach using an example of finding schools in Quickbird image data of Albuquerque, New Mexico. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory's Genie Pro automated feature extraction algorithm to find a set of auxiliary features that should be useful in the search for schools, such as parking lots, large buildings, sports fields and residential areas and then combine these features using Genie Pro's assisted target recognition algorithm to learn a classifier that finds schools in the image data.

  14. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS into none/mild (0–8 versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8 and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars, painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33. Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.91–4.15. Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71 and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22 times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  15. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Blomer, J. [CERN; Herner, K. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Slyz, M. [Fermilab

    2015-12-23

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called 'alien cache' to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached

  16. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, D.; Bockelman, B.; Blomer, J.; Herner, K.; Levshina, T.; Slyz, M.

    2015-12-01

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called "alien cache" to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached locally on the

  17. The application of active-source seismic imaging techniques to transtensional problems the Walker Lane and Salton Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Anna Marie

    The plate margin in the western United States is an active tectonic region that contains the integrated deformation between the North American and Pacific plates. Nearly focused plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates within the northern Gulf of California gives way north of the Salton Trough to more diffuse deformation. In particular a large fraction of the slip along the southernmost San Andreas fault ultimately bleeds eastward, including about 20% of the total plate motion budget that finds its way through the transtensional Walker Lane Deformation Belt just east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. Fault-bounded ranges combined with intervening low-lying basins characterize this region; the down-dropped features are often filled with water, which present opportunities for seismic imaging at unprecedented scales. Here I present active-source seismic imaging from the Salton Sea and Walker Lane Deformation Belt, including both marine applications in lakes and shallow seas, and more conventional land-based techniques along the Carson range front. The complex fault network beneath the Salton Trough in eastern California is the on-land continuation of the Gulf of California rift system, where North American-Pacific plate motion is accommodated by a series of long transform faults, separated by small pull-apart, transtensional basins; the right-lateral San Andreas fault bounds this system to the north where it carries, on average, about 50% of total plate motion. The Salton Sea resides within the most youthful and northerly "spreading center" in this several thousand-kilometer-long rift system. The Sea provides an ideal environment for the use of high-data-density marine seismic techniques. Two active-source seismic campaigns in 2010 and 2011 show progression of the development of the Salton pull-apart sub-basin and the northerly propagation of the Imperial-San Andreas system through time at varying resolutions. High fidelity seismic imagery

  18. Similar and Contrasting Response of Rifting and Transtension in the Gulf of California and Walker Lane to Preceding Arc Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C. D.; Faulds, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) and Walker Lane (WL) have undergone strikingly similar development with strike- slip faulting following initial extension. They differ significantly in the amount of Pacific-North American plate motion taken up by each: essentially all relative motion in the GC and ~25% in the WL. In both areas, ancestral arc magmatism preceded and probably focused deformation, perhaps because heating and/or hydration weakened the lithosphere. However, differences in migration of the Rivera (RTJ) and Mendocino triple junctions (MTJ) related to differences in the orientation of plate boundaries determined how strike-slip faulting developed. Abrupt southward jumps in the RTJ led to abrupt cessation of magmatism over arc lengths of as much as 1000 km and initiation of east-northeast extension within the future GC. The best known jump was at ~13 Ma, but an earlier jump occurred at ~18 Ma. Arc magmatism has been best documented in Baja California, Sonora, and Nayarit, although Baja constituted the most-trenchward fringe of the ancestral arc. New and published data indicate that Sinaloa underwent a similar history of arc magmatism. The greatest volume of the arc immediately preceding RTJ jumps was probably in mainland Mexico. Arc magmatism shut off following these jumps, extension began in the future GC, and strike-slip faulting either followed or accompanied extension in the GC. In contrast, the MTJ migrated progressively northward. New and published data indicate magmatism generally shut off coincident with this retreat, but distinct nodes or zones of magmatism, presumably unrelated to subduction, persisted or initiated after arc activity ceased. We have suggested that the WL has grown progressively northward, following the retreating arc, and that the northern WL is its youngest part. However, the timing of initiation of strike-slip faulting in most of the WL is poorly known and controversial. Testing our hypothesis requires determining initiation and

  19. Development of comprehensive accident models for two-lane rural highways using exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Di Silvestro, Giacomo; La Cava, Grazia; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2010-07-01

    In Europe, approximately 60% of road accident fatalities occur on two-lane rural roads. Thus, research to develop and enhance explanatory and predictive models for this road type continues to be of interest in mitigating these accidents. To this end, this paper describes a novel and extensive data collection and modeling effort to define accident models for two-lane road sections based on a unique combination of exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables directly related to the safety performance. The first part of the paper documents how these were identified for the segmentation of highways into homogeneous sections. Next, is a description of the extensive data collection effort that utilized differential cinematic GPS surveys to define the horizontal alignment variables, and road safety inspections (RSIs) to quantify the other road characteristics related to safety. The final part of the paper focuses on the calibration of models for estimating the expected number of accidents on homogeneous sections that can be characterized by constant values of the explanatory variables. Several candidate models were considered for calibration using the Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) approach. After considering the statistical significance of the parameters related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors, and goodness of fit statistics, 19 models were ranked and three were selected as the recommended models. The first of the three is a base model, with length and traffic as the only predictor variables; since these variables are the only ones likely to be available network-wide, this base model can be used in an empirical Bayesian calculation to conduct network screening for ranking "sites with promise" of safety improvement. The other two models represent the best statistical fits with different combinations of significant variables related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors. These multiple variable models can be used, with

  20. Study on 3D printer production of auxiliary device for upper limb for medical imaging test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumsung (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Ho [Jukwang Precision Co., Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Dae [Dept. of Mechanical system engineering, Kumoh Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination.

  1. Estimation of Finite Population Ratio When Other Auxiliary Variables are Available in the Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehad Al-Jararha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the population total $t_y,$ by using one or moreauxiliary variables, and the population ratio $\\theta_{xy}=t_y/t_x,$$t_x$ is the population total for the auxiliary variable $X$, for afinite population are heavily discussed in the literature. In thispaper, the idea of estimation the finite population ratio$\\theta_{xy}$ is extended to use the availability of auxiliaryvariable $Z$ in the study, such auxiliary variable  is not used inthe definition of the population ratio. This idea may be  supported by the fact that the variable $Z$  is highly correlated with the interest variable $Y$ than the correlation between the variables $X$ and $Y.$ The availability of such auxiliary variable can be used to improve the precision of the estimation of the population ratio.  To our knowledge, this idea is not discussed in the literature.  The bias, variance and the mean squares error  are given for our approach. Simulation from real data set,  the empirical relative bias and  the empirical relative mean squares error are computed for our approach and different estimators proposed in the literature  for estimating the population ratio $\\theta_{xy}.$ Analytically and the simulation results show that, by suitable choices, our approach gives negligible bias and has less mean squares error.  

  2. Neoclassical toroidal torque generation by auxiliary heating in non-axisymmetric tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, E.; Nowak, S.; Sauter, O.

    2016-12-01

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g. rf or isotropic alpha heating) clearly cannot give rise to net forces or torques. A rather common experimental observation on contemporary tokamaks is that the near central absorption of auxiliary heating power (often ICH, ECH, and LHCD) and current drive in presence of non axisymmetric magnetic perturbations, including tearing modes, drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co  -  I p direction. Also growing tearing modes provide a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to flatten the rotation profile and clamp it at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P aux absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in deposition or in the equilibrium configuration, but here we consider also the effect of the response of the so called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), due to error fields, internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by a kinetic calculation, this offset velocity is a function of the absorbed heat and therefore of the injected auxiliary power, thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  3. Implementation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a metamaterial controlled with auxiliary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial to realize true electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), where the incidence of an auxiliary electromagnetic wave called the control wave induces transparency for a probe wave. The analogy to the original EIT effect in an atomic medium is shown through analytical and numerical calculations derived from a circuit model for the metamaterial. We performed experiments to demonstrate the EIT effect of the metamaterial in the microwave region. The width and position of the transparent region can be controlled by the power and frequency of the control wave. We also observed asymmetric transmission spectra unique to the Fano resonance.

  4. Evaluation of overlap integrals with integer and noninteger n Slater-type orbitals using auxiliary functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseinov, Israfil; Mamedov, Bahtiyar

    2002-09-01

    The series expansion formulae are derived for the overlap integrals with arbitrary integer n and noninteger n* Slater-type orbitals (ISTOs and NISTOs) in terms of a product of well-known auxiliary functions A(sigma) and B (k). The series becomes an ordinary closed expression when both principal quantum numbers n* and n'* of orbitals are integer n*= n and n'*= n'. These formulae are especially useful for the calculation of overlap integrals for large quantum numbers. Accuracy of the results is satisfactory for values of integer and noninteger quantum numbers up to n= n'=60, n*= n'*orbitals and internuclear distances.

  5. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequen...... are subsequently employed in a seven-element phased array. The array performance is analyzed with respect to scan loss and main beam directivity as a function of scan angle and frequency, and the influence of element separation is investigated....

  6. Effect of Auxiliary Gases on Combustion Synthesis of Si3N4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiping SHEN; Fei WANG; Zhuohui WU; Changchun GE

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of combustion synthesis (Self-Propagating High Temperature Synt hesis, SHS) of Si3N4under nitrogen with argon, hydrogen or ammonia. Higher percentages of α-Si3N4 content were obtained in large size cakes in SHS with hydrogen and ammonia than those with argon. Effect of the auxiliary gases for combustion synthesis of Si3N4 on α phase content, on phase transformation of α-Si3N4 toβ-Si3N4 in SHS Si3N4 and on oxygen content in SHS Si3N4 were investigated.

  7. AUXILIARY AND OTHER FUNCTIONS OF VERBS BE AND HAVE AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN SLOVENE

    OpenAIRE

    Poslek, Karla

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Auxiliary and other functions of verbs be and have and their equivalents in Slovene represents the theory of a verb in general and the verbs be and have in different functions and tenses. The theory of aspect and also the theory of the following tenses or aspects were precisely analyzed: the present progressive, the past progressive, the present perfective, the past perfective. The empirical part was based on the two mentioned verbs. We used Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code ...

  8. Convex half-quadratic criteria and interacting auxiliary variables for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with convex half-quadratic criteria and associated minimization algorithms for the purpose of image restoration. It brings a number of original elements within a unified mathematical presentation based on convex duality. Firstly, the Geman and Yang's and Geman and Reynolds's constructions are revisited, with a view to establishing the convexity properties of the resulting half-quadratic augmented criteria, when the original nonquadratic criterion is already convex. Secondly, a family of convex Gibbsian energies that incorporate interacting auxiliary variables is revealed as a potentially fruitful extension of the Geman and Reynolds's construction.

  9. Skin color modeling using the radiative transfer equation solved by the auxiliary function method: inverse problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnain, Caroline; Elias, Mady; Frigerio, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    In a previous article [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2196 (2007)] we have modeled skin color using the radiative transfer equation, solved by the auxiliary function method. Three main parameters have been determined as being predominant in the diversity of skin color: the concentrations of melanosomes and of red blood cells and the oxygen saturation of blood. From the reflectance spectrum measured on real Caucasian skin, these parameters are now evaluated by minimizing the standard deviation on the adjusted wavelength range between the experimental spectrum and simulated spectra gathered in a database.

  10. Development of the NASA MCAT Auxiliary Telescope for Orbital Debris Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Hickson, Paul; Anz-Meador, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautical Space Administration has deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island with plans for it to become fully operational by summer 2016. This telescope will be providing data in support of research being conducted by the Orbital Debris Program Office at the Johnson Space Center. In addition to the main observatory, a smaller, auxiliary telescope is being deployed to the same location to augment and support observations generated by MCAT. It will provide near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry of debris objects, independent measurements of the seeing conditions, and offload low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. Its hardware and software designs are presented here The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) has recently deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island. MCAT will provide NASA with a dedicated optical sensor for observations of orbital debris with the goal of statistically sampling the orbital and photometric characteristics of the population from low Earth to Geosynchronous orbits. Additionally, a small auxiliary telescope, co-located with MCAT, is being deployed to augment its observations by providing near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry, as well as offloading low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. It will also serve to provide an independent measurement of the seeing conditions to help monitor the quality of the data being produced by the larger telescope. Comprised of off-the-shelf-components, the MCAT Auxiliary Telescope will have a 16-inch optical tube assembly, Sloan g'r'i'z' and Johnson/Cousins BVRI filters, and a fast tracking mount to help facilitate the tracking of objects in low Earth orbit. Tracking modes and tasking will be similar to MCAT except an emphasis will be placed on observations that provide more accurate initial orbit determination for the objects detected by MCAT. The near-simultaneous observations will

  11. A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. Results We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage

  12. Transition state models for probing stereoinduction in Evans chiral auxiliary-based asymmetric aldol reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinisha, C B; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2010-09-08

    The use of chiral auxiliaries is one of the most fundamental protocols employed in asymmetric synthesis. In the present study, stereoselectivity-determining factors in a chiral auxiliary-based asymmetric aldol reaction promoted by TiCl(4) are investigated by using density functional theory methods. The aldol reaction between chiral titanium enolate [derived from Evans propionyl oxazolidinone (1a) and its variants oxazolidinethione (1b) and thiazolidinethione (1c)] and benzaldehyde is examined by using transition-state modeling. Different stereochemical possibilities for the addition of titanium enolates to aldehyde are compared. On the basis of the coordination of the carbonyl/thiocarbonyl group of the chiral auxiliary with titanium, both pathways involving nonchelated and chelated transition states (TSs) are considered. The computed relative energies of the stereoselectivity-determining C-C bond formation TSs in the nonchelated pathway, for both 1a and 1c, indicate a preference toward Evans syn aldol product. The presence of a ring carbonyl or thiocarbonyl group in the chiral auxiliary renders the formation of neutral TiCl(3)-enolate, which otherwise is energetically less favored as compared to the anionic TiCl(4)-enolate. Hence, under suitable conditions, the reaction between titanium enolate and aldehyde is expected to be viable through chelated TSs leading to the selective formation of non-Evans syn aldol product. Experimentally known high stereoselectivity toward Evans syn aldol product is effectively rationalized by using the larger energy differences between the corresponding diastereomeric TSs. In both chelated and nonchelated pathways, the attack by the less hindered face of the enolate on aldehyde through a chair-like TS with an equatorial disposition of the aldehydic substituent is identified as the preferred mode. The steric hindrance offered by the isopropyl group and the possible chelation are identified as the key reasons behind the interesting

  13. STS-31 Discovery, OV-103, auxiliary power unit 1 (APU-1) controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The controller for Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, auxiliary power unit 1 (APU-1) is documented before removal following the launch scrub on 04-10-90. The controller weighs about 15 pounds and controls the speed of the APU. It was flown to the vendor, Sundstrand Corp., Rockford, Illinois, for analysis and testing. Launch of OV-103 on mission STS-31 has been rescheduled for 04-24-90 following the successful replacement of the APU-1 and the recharging of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) nickel-hydrogen batteries. View provided by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with alternate KSC number KSC-90PC-663.

  14. IEC 61850. Integrated supervision of auxiliary power equipment; IEC 61850. Prozess und Eigenbedarf wachsen zusammen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Robert; Jung, Matthias [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    It is state of technology today: Having process control and auxiliary power control integrated in one DCS. The integration is based on the international standard IEC 61850 which allows standardization of electrical structures from the process interface up to the DCS level. Modern control systems are designed to realize a system structure according to IEC 61850. A wide range of systems is available from systems with interfaces to realize a standardized data exchange up to systems with a complete integration of the standard IEC 61850. (orig.)

  15. Estimation of finite population mean with known coefficient of variation of an auxiliary character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Housila P. Singh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimating population mean Y of the study variate y using information on population mean X and coefficient of variation Cx of an auxiliary character x. We have suggested an estimator for Y and its properties are studied in the context of single sampling. It is shown that the proposed estimator is more efficient than Sisodia and Dwivedi (1981 estimator and Pandey and Dubey (1988 estimator under some realistic conditions. An empirical study is carried out to examine the merits of the constructed estimator over others.

  16. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 09 March 1988 to 10 March 1988 (NODC Accession 8800094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC Harriot Lane in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from...

  17. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean for 1987-05-31 (NODC Accession 8700225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC Harriot Lane in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  18. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIET LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 21 July 1988 to 18 August 1988 (NODC Accession 8800256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC HARRIET LANE in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from...

  19. A lane-level LBS system for vehicle network with high-precision BDS/GPS positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem.

  20. Safety evaluation of intersections with dynamic use of exit-lanes for left-turn using field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yue

    2017-03-01

    As a newly proposed unconventional intersection design, the exit-lanes for left-turn (EFL) intersection is found to be effective in increasing the intersection capacity with high level of application flexibility, especially under heavy left-turn traffic conditions. However, the operational safety of EFL is of most concern to the authority prior to its implementation. This paper evaluates the safety of the EFL intersections by studying the behavior of left-turn maneuvers using field data collected at 7 locations in China. A total of 22830 left-turn vehicles were captured, in which 9793 vehicles turned left using the mixed-usage area. Four potential safety problems, including the red-light violations, head-on collision risks, trapped vehicles, and rear-end crash risks, were discussed. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare the safety risk between the EFL intersection and the conventional one. Results indicate that the safety problems of EFL intersections mainly lie in higher percentages in red-light violations at the pre-signal (1.83% higher), wrong-way violation problems during the peak hours (the violation rate reaches up to 11.07%), and the lower travel speeds in the mixed-usage area (18.75% lower). Such risks can be counteracted, however, by providing more guiding information, installing cameras to investigate and punish violation maneuvers, and adjusting design parameter values for layout design and signal timing, respectively.

  1. Late Neogene slip transfer and extension within the curved Whisky Flat fault system central Walker Lane, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biholar, Alexander Kenneth Casian

    In Whisky Flat of west-central Nevada, northwest-striking faults in the Walker Lane curve to east-northeast orientations at the northern limits of the Mina deflection. This curve in strike results in the formation of ˜685 m deep depression bounded by north-south convex to the east range-front faults that at the apex of fault curvature are bisected at a high angle by a structural stepover. We use the vertical offset of a late Miocene erosional surface mapped in the highlands and inferred from gravity depth inversion in the basin to measure the magnitude of displacement on faults. A N65°W extensional axis determined through fault-slip inversion is used to constrain the direction in displacement models. Through the use of a forward rectilinear displacement model, we document that the complex array of faults is capable of developing with broadly contemporaneous displacements on all structures since the opening of the basin during the Pliocene.

  2. Design of Control and Monitoring System to Avoid Inter-Ship Collisions in West Shipping Lane Tanjung Perak Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina P. Sari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of several ship accidents in narrow waters of Madura strait which is the west shipping lane of Tanjung Perak Surabaya has inspired the research on the design of a control system on the ship to avoid any collision between ships. The existence of automatic control with the autopilot is required to minimize the occurrence of collisions between ships In this final study investigated the application of fuzzy logic to control the yaw angle on the vessel MV Karana Sembilan. Fuzzy logic used is Sugeno Takagi type with the input of the error yaw, yaw rate and distance of the ship with a disturbance. Tests conducted with a control system without disturbance, with disturbance, and the presence of obstacles in front of the ship. Performance of control system is obtained by using the disturbance, the fuzzy appearance is 2:41 hm distance position, the speed of 7.5 knots and 0.5 error, then the resulting yaw angle is 6580. Results control with fuzzy syncronized with monitoring at M&C system in visual basic. The view of the monitoring, 3 types of scenarios obtained. For the first scenario, which is created with the control on it, produces the best results of the avoidance, if compared to the second scenario, with trajectory and control anti-collision cross, and if compared with the third scenario that has no built control system with decision-making on it.

  3. 基于Kalman滤波器的车道保持辅助系统研究%ON LANE-KEEPING-ASSIST SYSTEM BASED ON KALMAN FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 张志伟

    2014-01-01

    以非线性车辆动力学模型作为系统被控对象,利用Matlab/Simulink软件设计一种基于Kalman滤波算法的车道保持驾驶辅助系统。运用Kalman算法估计车辆行驶状态信息,并利用“预瞄-跟随”驾驶员模型-车辆模型-控制器所组成的驾驶员模型在回路仿真的方式对所设计系统进行验证。结果显示所设计的车道保持辅助系统能有效提高车辆路径跟踪能力。%We take nonlinear vehicle dynamic model as the controlled object of the system,use Matlab/Simulink software to have designed a lane-keeping-assist system for driving which is based on Kalman filter algorithm.The Kalman algorithm is employed to evaluate the driving state information of the vehicle,and the driver model consisting of pre-targeting-following driver model,vehicle model and controller is utilised to verify the designed system in means of driver-in-the-loop simulation.Result demonstrates that the designed lane-keeping-assistance system can effectively improve the vehicle lane-following capability.

  4. Study of highway lane-changing mo del under rain weather%雨天高速公路车辆换道模型研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫华; 颜冉; 冯忠祥; 王锟

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall decreases road adhesion coefficient and sight distance of drivers, these can easily lead to traffic accidents which affect the road traffic efficiency. To study the vehicle lane-changing behavior under rainfall conditions, the adhesion coefficient parameter and drivers’ reaction delay time parameter are introduced into the safety distance model. Based on the relationship between rainfall intensity and the water film thickness as well as the relationship among the road adhesion coefficient, water film thickness, and vehicle speed, the influence of rainfall on the road adhesion coefficient is quantified. And based on the relationship between visibility distance under rainfall condition and safe distance upon stopping sight distance, the influence of rainfall on drivers’ reaction delay time is quantified. Therefore, the safety distance is different under different rainfall conditions and vehicle speed, it no longer is a fixed value like in other lane-changing models by quantifying the two parameters. The improved lane-changing model is established by considering the influence of the speed difference on vehicle lane-changing behavior; the speed difference is not only existing between the research vehicle and the adjacent lane vehicle ahead, but also between the research vehicle and the adjacent lane after the car. And the safety distance model including the two parameters is embedded in the improved lane-changing model by the lane-changing rules. For the three-lane traffic, the lane-changing rules which take into consideration the safety distance and the speed difference are established respectively for each lane, and the simulation analysis is conducted using cellular automata based on the above mentioned rules. Simulation results show that in the medium density the lane-changing rates in the rain condition are significantly lower compared with sunny days, the biggest drop is about 25%. Through comparison and analysis of the space-time diagrams and the

  5. 一种军警与ETC混合的车道系统%Design of Military-police and ETC Mixed Lane System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦凯; 吴倩岚

    2012-01-01

    目前,高速公路为军警车开辟的专用车道车流量明显不足,资源浪费严重。为提升高速公路收费站的整体通行能力,基于电子不停车收费的理念以及军警车道的特殊性,提出军警与ETC混合的车道系统设计方案,结合车牌识别与ETC技术,实现军警与ETC混合的车道应用。%Currently,the traffic of dedicated lane for the military-police vehicle is obviously insufficient,which has lead to a big waste of resources.In order to enhance the overall capacity of the highway toll station,this paper puts forward a new design of military-police and ETC mixed lane system based on the electronic toll collection and the specificity requirements of military-police.The design combines with license plate recognition and ETC technology,which finally achieve the mixed application of military/ police and ETC lane.

  6. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING ELECTRIC ENERGY QUALITY ON HEATING OF THE AUXILIARY MA-CHINES OF AC ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. YU. Baliichuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to study the problem of increase the reliability of auxiliary machines for AC electric trains during operation in real conditions. Methodology. The peculiarity of system construction of auxiliary machines for AC electric rolling stock is the use of asynchronous motors for general industrial purpose. An engineering method of influence determination on the feeding voltage asymmetry and its deviation from the nominal value on heating of auxiliary machines insulation was proposed. Findings. It is found out that in case when the auxiliary machines of AC electric trains work under asymmetry factor of the voltage 10% or more and feeding voltage deviation from the nominal order 0.6 relative unit then it is possible the overheat of their isolation, even if it has class H. Originality. For the first time the issue of the total insulation heating under such boundary parameters combinations of energy quality, when each of them contributes to the heating insulation increase as compared to the nominal regime of the "rotating phase splitter−auxiliary machinery" system was illuminated. Practical value. Conducted research allow us to establish the boundary parameter values of feeding energy quality (asymmetry factor, feeding voltage deviations from the nominal value, at which additional isolation overheating of this class under the effect of specified factors will not exceed the agreed value.

  7. A randomized, controlled study of an educational intervention to improve recall of auxiliary medication labeling and adherence to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade A Pham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether medication counseling with emphasis on auxiliary labels improves recall of auxiliary label information and adherence to medication schedules. Methods: A prospective, randomized study of an educational intervention in community pharmacies near Baltimore, Maryland. Fifty literate, English-speaking adults receiving one of the 18 commonly dispensed antibiotics were randomized to receive a counseling session or no counseling. Five to seven days after medication pickup, a structured phone interview was conducted to capture data on recall of auxiliary labels and adherence. Results: A total of 39 subjects completed the phone interview (78%. The rate of correct recall was high: 77% correct recall for all three labels. Among those with incorrect recall, 7 out of 9 subjects received no counseling (p = 0.11. The auxiliary labels incorrectly recalled were all related to dietary restrictions. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that medication counseling emphasizing auxiliary label information may lead to improved recall and adherence to antibiotics. Additional studies are required to confirm the preliminary findings and determine whether they correspond to improved adherence. Information most commonly misunderstood were related to dietary restrictions. Additional research focusing on counseling related to dietary restrictions is recommended.

  8. Diverse roles for auxiliary subunits in phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mammalian brain voltage-gated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Helene; Trimmer, James S

    2011-11-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are a diverse family of signaling proteins that mediate rapid electrical signaling events. Among these, voltage-gated potassium or Kv channels are the most diverse partly due to the large number of principal (or α) subunits and auxiliary subunits that can assemble in different combinations to generate Kv channel complexes with distinct structures and functions. The diversity of Kv channels underlies much of the variability in the active properties between different mammalian central neurons and the dynamic changes that lead to experience-dependent plasticity in intrinsic excitability. Recent studies have revealed that Kv channel α subunits and auxiliary subunits are extensively phosphorylated, contributing to additional structural and functional diversity. Here, we highlight recent studies that show that auxiliary subunits exert some of their profound effects on dendritic Kv4 and axonal Kv1 channels through phosphorylation-dependent mechanisms, either due to phosphorylation on the auxiliary subunit itself or by influencing the extent and/or impact of α subunit phosphorylation. The complex effects of auxiliary subunits and phosphorylation provide a potent mechanism to generate additional diversity in the structure and function of Kv4 and Kv1 channels, as well as allowing for dynamic reversible regulation of these important ion channels.

  9. Auxiliary field loop expansion of the effective action for a class of stochastic partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Fred; Dawson, John F.

    2016-02-01

    We present an alternative to the perturbative (in coupling constant) diagrammatic approach for studying stochastic dynamics of a class of reaction diffusion systems. Our approach is based on an auxiliary field loop expansion for the path integral representation for the generating functional of the noise induced correlation functions of the fields describing these systems. The systems we consider include Langevin systems describable by the set of self interacting classical fields ϕi(x , t) in the presence of external noise ηi(x , t) , namely (∂t - ν∇2) ϕ - F [ ϕ ] = η, as well as chemical reaction annihilation processes obtained by applying the many-body approach of Doi-Peliti to the Master Equation formulation of these problems. We consider two different effective actions, one based on the Onsager-Machlup (OM) approach, and the other due to Janssen-deGenneris based on the Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) response function approach. For the simple models we consider, we determine an analytic expression for the Energy landscape (effective potential) in both formalisms and show how to obtain the more physical effective potential of the Onsager-Machlup approach from the MSR effective potential in leading order in the auxiliary field loop expansion. For the KPZ equation we find that our approximation, which is non-perturbative and obeys broken symmetry Ward identities, does not lead to the appearance of a fluctuation induced symmetry breakdown. This contradicts the results of earlier studies.

  10. Numerical simulation on a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, Y. F.; Feng, F.; He, Q. B.; Wang, N. X.

    2016-08-01

    To improve the starting performance of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT) at low wind speed, and the output characteristics at high wind speed, a flexible, scalable auxiliary vane mechanism was designed and installed into the rotor of SB-VAWT in this study. This new vertical axis wind turbine is a kind of lift-to-drag combination wind turbine. The flexible blade expanded, and the driving force of the wind turbines comes mainly from drag at low rotational speed. On the other hand, the flexible blade is retracted at higher speed, and the driving force is primarily from a lift. To research the effects of the flexible, scalable auxiliary module on the performance of SB-VAWT and to find its best parameters, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical calculation was carried out. The calculation result shows that the flexible, scalable blades can automatic expand and retract with the rotational speed. The moment coefficient at low tip speed ratio increased substantially. Meanwhile, the moment coefficient has also been improved at high tip speed ratios in certain ranges.

  11. Dual-Antenna Terrestrial Laser Scanner Georeferencing Using Auxiliary Photogrammetric Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilkinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning typically requires the use of artificial targets for registration and georeferencing the data. This equipment can be burdensome to transport and set up, representing expense in both time and labor. Environmental factors such as terrain can sometimes make target placement dangerous or impossible, or lead to weak network geometry and therefore degraded product accuracy. The use of additional sensors can help reduce the required number of artificial targets and, in some cases, eliminate the need for them altogether. The research presented here extends methods for direct georeferencing of terrestrial laser scanner data using a dual GNSS antenna apparatus with additional photogrammetric observations from a scanner-mounted camera. Novel combinations of observations and processing methods were tested on data collected at two disparate sites in order to find the best method in terms of processing efficiency and product quality. In addition, a general model for the scanner and auxiliary data is given which can be used for least-squares adjustment and uncertainty estimation in similar systems with varied and diverse configurations. We found that the dual-antenna system resulted in cm-level accuracy practical for many applications and superior to conventional one-antenna systems, and that auxiliary photogrammetric observation significantly increased accuracy of the dual-antenna solution.

  12. Semi-active engine mount design using auxiliary magneto-rheological fluid compliance chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, H.; Arzanpour, S.; Golnaraghi, M. F.; Parameswaran, A. M.

    2011-03-01

    Engine mounts are used in the automotive industry to isolate engine and chassis by reducing the noise and vibration imposed from one to the other. This paper describes modelling, simulation and design of a semi-active engine mount that is designed specifically to address the complicated vibration pattern of variable displacement engines (VDE). The ideal isolation for VDE requires the stiffness to be switchable upon cylinder activation/deactivation operating modes. In order to have a modular design, the same hydraulic engine mount components are maintained and a novel auxiliary magneto-rheological (MR) fluid chamber is developed and retrofitted inside the pumping chamber. The new compliance chamber is a controllable pressure regulator, which can effectively alter the dynamic performance of the mount. Switching between different modes happens by turning the electrical current to the MR chamber magnetic coil on and off. A model has been developed for the passive hydraulic mount and then it is extended to include the MR auxiliary chamber as well. A proof-of-concept prototype of the design has been fabricated which validates the mathematical model. The results demonstrate unique capability of the developed semi-active mount to be used for VDE application.

  13. A SLAM based on auxiliary marginalised particle filter and differential evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havangi, R.; Nekoui, M. A.; Teshnehlab, M.; Taghirad, H. D.

    2014-09-01

    FastSLAM is a framework for simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) using a Rao-Blackwellised particle filter. In FastSLAM, particle filter is used for the robot pose (position and orientation) estimation, and parametric filter (i.e. EKF and UKF) is used for the feature location's estimation. However, in the long term, FastSLAM is an inconsistent algorithm. In this paper, a new approach to SLAM based on hybrid auxiliary marginalised particle filter and differential evolution (DE) is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the robot pose is estimated based on auxiliary marginal particle filter that operates directly on the marginal distribution, and hence avoids performing importance sampling on a space of growing dimension. In addition, static map is considered as a set of parameters that are learned using DE. Compared to other algorithms, the proposed algorithm can improve consistency for longer time periods and also, improve the estimation accuracy. Simulations and experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  14. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  15. Design, simulation and modelling of auxiliary exoskeleton to improve human gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, O; Maleki, A; Jamshidi, N

    2016-11-28

    Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints. To simulate extension and flexion movements of the leg joints, bearings were used at the end of hip and knee joints. The generated torque and motion angles of these joints obtained as well as the displacement curves of screw jacks in the gait cycle. Then, the human gait cycle was simulated in stance and swing phases and the obtained torque curves were compared. The results indicated that they followed the natural circle of the generated torque in joints with a little difference from each other. The maximum displacement obtained 4 and 6 cm in hip and knee joints jack respectively. The maximum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in foot contact phase. Also the minimum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in toe off and heel off phases respectively.

  16. Use of empirical likelihood to calibrate auxiliary information in partly linear monotone regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baojiang; Qin, Jing

    2014-05-10

    In statistical analysis, a regression model is needed if one is interested in finding the relationship between a response variable and covariates. When the response depends on the covariate, then it may also depend on the function of this covariate. If one has no knowledge of this functional form but expect for monotonic increasing or decreasing, then the isotonic regression model is preferable. Estimation of parameters for isotonic regression models is based on the pool-adjacent-violators algorithm (PAVA), where the monotonicity constraints are built in. With missing data, people often employ the augmented estimating method to improve estimation efficiency by incorporating auxiliary information through a working regression model. However, under the framework of the isotonic regression model, the PAVA does not work as the monotonicity constraints are violated. In this paper, we develop an empirical likelihood-based method for isotonic regression model to incorporate the auxiliary information. Because the monotonicity constraints still hold, the PAVA can be used for parameter estimation. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method can yield more efficient estimates, and in some situations, the efficiency improvement is substantial. We apply this method to a dementia study.

  17. Survey of technology for hybrid vehicle auxiliary power units. Interim report, April 1994-June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    The state-of-the-art of heat engines for use as auxiliary power units in hybrid vehicles is surveyed. The study considers reciprocating or rotary heat engines, excluding gas turbines and fuel cells. The relative merits of various engine-generator concepts are compared. The concepts are ranked according to criteria tailored for a series-type hybrid drive. The two top APU concepts were the free-piston engine/linear generator (FPELG) and the Wankel rotary` engine. The FPELG is highly ranked primarily because of thermal efficiency cost, producibility. reliability, and transient response advantages; it is a high risk concept because of unproven technology. The Wankel engine is proven. with high power density, low cost and low noise. Four additional competitive concepts include two-stroke spark-ignition engine. two-stroke gas generator with turboalternator, free-piston engine gas generator with turboalternator, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine. This study recommends additional work, including cycle simulation development and preliminary design to better quantify thermal efficiency and power density. Auxiliary concepts were also considered, including two which warrant further study: electrically actuated valves, and lean turndown of a normally stoichiometric engine. These concepts should be evaluated by retrofitting to existing engines.

  18. Controlling size and uniformity of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles using auxiliary template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyong; Ye, Lei

    2012-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted nanomaterials are gaining substantial importance. As a simple and efficient synthetic method, precipitation polymerization has been used to prepare uniform molecularly imprinted microspheres for numerous template compounds. Despite of its general applicability, the difficulty of obtaining uniform particles for some difficult templates by precipitation polymerization has been reported. In this work, we attempted to produce uniform atrazine-imprinted nanoparticles using propranolol as an auxiliary template under standard precipitation polymerization condition. When propranolol was added in the prepolymerization mixture for atrazine imprinting, it displayed a significant effect on particle size and size distribution of atrazine-imprinted polymers. The molecular binding characteristics of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles were found to be dependent on the relative ratios of the two templates. Under an optimal template propranolol-atrazine ratio of 1:3 mol/mol, very uniform imprinted nanoparticles (d(H)  = 106 nm) with a polydispersity index of 0.07 were obtained. The loading of the auxiliary template (propranolol) could be reduced to as low as 5% without sacrificing the uniformity of the MIP nanoparticles. The uniform MIP nanoparticles could be easily encapsulated into polyethylene terephthalate nanofibers using a simple electrospinning technique. The composite nanofibers containing the MIP nanoparticles maintained specific molecular binding capability for both atrazine and propranolol.

  19. [Spatial pattern of soil fertility in Bashan tea garden: a prediction based on environmental auxiliary variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Le-feng; Yang, Chao; Lin, Fen-fang; Yang, Ning; Zheng, Xin-yu; Xu, Hong-wei; Wang, Ke

    2010-12-01

    Taking topographic factors and NDVI as auxiliary variables, and by using regression-kriging method, the spatial variation pattern of soil fertility in Bashan tea garden in the hilly area of Fuyang City was explored. The spatial variability of the soil fertility was mainly attributed to the structural factors such as relative elevation and flat/vertical curvature. The lower the relative elevation, the worse the soil fertility was. The overall soil fertility level was relatively high, and the area with lower soil fertility only accounted for 5% of the total. By using regression-kriging method with relative elevation as auxiliary variable, the prediction accuracy of soil fertility was obviously higher than that by using ordinary kriging method, with the mean error and root mean square error being 0. 028 and 0. 108, respectively. It was suggested that the prediction method used in this paper could fully reflect the effects of environmental variables on soil fertility , improve the prediction accuracy about the spatial pattern of soil fertility, and provide scientific basis for the precise management of tea garden.

  20. Auxiliary liver organ formation by implantation of spleen-encapsulated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Reiji; Nakayama, Miyuki; Ikekita, Masahiko; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2006-09-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation. However, its application has been limited because of its short-term success only. Here we report a new approach to hepatocyte transplantation resulting in the generation of an auxiliary liver in vivo. Isolated primary hepatocytes were encapsulated in isolated spleens and then transplanted by attaching the spleens to the livers of recipient animals (mice or rats) using biodegradable adhesive. A vascular network was rapidly established, and protein molecules circulated freely between the transplanted spleen and the liver, to which they adhered. In contrast, the spleen, which did not adhere to the liver or adhered elsewhere (adipose tissue or peritoneum), did not become vascularized but shrank and died. Encapsulation of hepatocytes in an isolated spleen enhanced their survival significantly, and co-encapsulation of Engelbreth- Holm-Swarm gel together with the hepatocytes further enhanced it. The encapsulated hepatocytes expressed liver-specific differentiation genes for more than 3 weeks. Plasma albumin concentrations in Nagase analbuminemic rats began to increase 3 days after transplantation. The transplanted hepatic cells migrated into the liver parenchyma, whereas the spleen was absorbed. Thus, we have developed a novel, simple approach for the rapid and efficient formation of functional auxiliary liver using a modified hepatocyte transplantation method.

  1. Auxiliary Gauge Mediation: A New Route to Mini-Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Yonatan; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a standard-model-like Higgs at 126 GeV and the absence of squark signals thus far at the LHC both point towards a mini-split spectrum for supersymmetry. Within standard paradigms, it is non-trivial to realize a mini-split spectrum with heavier sfermions but lighter gauginos while simultaneously generating Higgs sector soft terms of the correct magnitude, suggesting the need for new models of supersymmetry breaking and mediation. In this paper, we present a new approach to mini-split model building based on gauge mediation by "auxiliary groups", which are the anomaly-free continuous symmetries of the standard model in the limit of vanishing Yukawa couplings. In addition to the well-known flavor SU(3)_F and baryon-minus-lepton U(1)_{B-L} groups, we find that an additional U(1)_H acting on the Higgs doublets alone can be used to generate Higgs soft masses and B-terms necessary for a complete model of mini-split. Auxiliary gauge mediation is a special case of Higgsed gauge mediation, and we revie...

  2. Auxiliary-field-based trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Rubenstein, Brenda M.; Morales, Miguel A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithms have long relied on Jastrow factors to incorporate dynamic correlation into trial wave functions. While Jastrow-type wave functions have been widely employed in real-space algorithms, they have seen limited use in second-quantized QMC methods, particularly in projection methods that involve a stochastic evolution of the wave function in imaginary time. Here we propose a scheme for generating Jastrow-type correlated trial wave functions for auxiliary-field QMC methods. The method is based on decoupling the two-body Jastrow into one-body projectors coupled to auxiliary fields, which then operate on a single determinant to produce a multideterminant trial wave function. We demonstrate that intelligent sampling of the most significant determinants in this expansion can produce compact trial wave functions that reduce errors in the calculated energies. Our technique may be readily generalized to accommodate a wide range of two-body Jastrow factors and applied to a variety of model and chemical systems.

  3. Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; LI; Hai; Shan; LI; C.David; PAUZA; Michael; BUKRINSKY; Richard; Y; ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Active host-pathogen interactions take place during infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).Outcomes of these interactions determine the efficiency of viral infection and subsequent disease progression. HIV-infected cells respond to viral invasion with various defensive strategies such as innate, cellular and humoral immune antiviral mechanisms. On the other hand, the virus has also developed various offensive tactics to suppress these host cellular responses. Among many of the viral offensive strategies, HIV- 1 viral auxiliary proteins (Tat, Rev, Nef, Vif, Vpr and Vpu) play important roles in the host-pathogen interaction and thus have significant impacts on the outcome of HIV infection. One of the best examples is the interaction of Vif with a host cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. Although specific roles of other auxiliary proteins are not as well described as Vif-APOBEC3G interaction, it is the goal of this brief review to summarize some of the preliminary findings with the hope to stimulate further discussion and investigation in this exhilarating area of research.

  4. Auxiliary ventilation in mining roadways driven with roadheaders: Validated CFD modelling of dust behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torano, J.; Torno, S.; Menendez, M.; Gent, M. [University of Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The production of dust when driving mining roadways can affect workers health. In addition, there is a decrease in productivity since Mine Safety regulations establish a reduction in the working time depending on the quartz content and dust concentration in the atmosphere. One of the gate roadways of the longwall named E4-S, belonging to the underground coal mine Carbonar SA located in Northern Spain, is being driven by an AM50 roadheader machine. The mined coal has a high coal dust content. This paper presents a study of dust behaviour in two auxiliary ventilation systems by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, taking into account the influence of time. The accuracy of these CFD models was assessed by airflow velocity and respirable dust concentration measurements taken in six points of six roadway cross-sections of the mentioned operating coal mine. It is concluded that these models predicted the airflow and dust behaviour at the working face, where the dust source is located, and in different roadways cross-sections behind the working face. As a result, CFD models allow optimization of the auxiliary ventilation system used, avoiding the important deficiencies when it is calculated by conventional methods.

  5. Voltage-gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-10-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are essential players in many physiological processes in excitable cells. There are three main subdivisions of calcium channel, defined by the pore-forming α1 subunit, the CaV 1, CaV 2 and CaV 3 channels. For all the subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel, their gating properties are key for the precise control of neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction and cell excitability, among many other processes. For the CaV 1 and CaV 2 channels, their ability to reach their required destinations in the cell membrane, their activation and the fine tuning of their biophysical properties are all dramatically influenced by the auxiliary subunits that associate with them. Furthermore, there are many diseases, both genetic and acquired, involving voltage-gated calcium channels. This review will provide a general introduction and then concentrate particularly on the role of auxiliary α2 δ subunits in both physiological and pathological processes involving calcium channels, and as a therapeutic target.

  6. The verb Hteti and the structure of auxiliary and modal verbs in Serbo-Croatian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimir Rakić

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the distribution of enclitic forms ću, ćeš, će ... and   heverb hteti shows that they cannot be naturally reduced to each other. Thi.s mean. s that the., verb hteti is not.. an auxiliary verb at all, i. e. it does not take part in compound tenses in S.erbo-Croatian. Accord,ing to their complement.& we ha­ve distinguished two verbs hteti - hteti1 and hteti. Hteti is a modal verb, hteti a main verb. Furthermore, we have shown that there is a parallelism between 'complements "da + prezent" and "sentence" which can be best accounted for by a transforma­ tion (18, which may be called in English Subjugation of Infi­ nitive. This analysis has enabled us to present the structure of auxiliary and modal verbs by rewrite rules (34. Finally, we have shown that an alternative analysis in which all verbs are conceived as main verbs is quite feasible. In this new analysis our results are preserved in the form of an obligatory filter.

  7. Current view on regulation of voltage-gated sodium channels by calcium and auxiliary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Geoffrey S; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac and skeletal myocytes, and in most neurons, the opening of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV channels) triggers action potentials, a process that is regulated via the interactions of the channels' intercellular C-termini with auxiliary proteins and/or Ca(2+) . The molecular and structural details for how Ca(2+) and/or auxiliary proteins modulate NaV channel function, however, have eluded a concise mechanistic explanation and details have been shrouded for the last decade behind controversy about whether Ca(2+) acts directly upon the NaV channel or through interacting proteins, such as the Ca(2+) binding protein calmodulin (CaM). Here, we review recent advances in defining the structure of NaV intracellular C-termini and associated proteins such as CaM or fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) to reveal new insights into how Ca(2+) affects NaV function, and how altered Ca(2+) -dependent or FHF-mediated regulation of NaV channels is perturbed in various disease states through mutations that disrupt CaM or FHF interaction.

  8. Video-based lane detection and tracking algorithm%基于视频序列的车道线检测和跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淋; 梁华为; 王智灵; 邓耀

    2013-01-01

    The lane detection is a critical technology for unmanned driving system and a series of driving assistance systems.Traditional lane detection algorithms are easily disturbed by the other traffic lines on the road.A new method for lane detection and tracking is put forward in this paper.First,the adaptive image threshold algorithm is adopted for lane features extraction.By means of setting the ROI twice and planning the tracking region,the ROI decreases gradually.At last,the feature points in the ROI are transformed from the image coordinate system to the real-world coordinate system before they are used to accomplish curve fitting through least square method.Experiments under various conditions,such as highway and urban environments,show that the method proposed in this paper is able to accurately recognize the lane marks in real time and effectively eliminate the disturbance of the other traffic line markings.%车道线检测是无人驾驶系统以及一系列辅助驾驶系统的关键技术环节.传统的车道线检测方法容易受到其他交通标志线干扰,提出了一种新的车道线检测与跟踪方法.该方法首先使用自适应阈值算法提取特征,通过ROI二次设置以及跟踪区域规划,逐步减小感兴趣区域,最后将感兴趣区域内的特征点从图像坐标系转换到世界坐标系下,以最小二乘方法进行曲线拟合.在高速公路及城区道路等多种工况下的实验表明,提出的方法能够正确实时的识别出车道线,有效的消除了其他交通标线的干扰.

  9. [The voluntary health auxiliary. Application to the Peruvian Altiplano of new concepts of primary health care in disadvantaged communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachoud, P

    1979-05-01

    A group a Swiss physicians, who have been working for about eight years in rural health posts of the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano), engaged in training voluntary health auxiliaries, chosen by the indigenous communities. Experience has shown that, as in other countries, it is thus possible to markedly improve the health of populations which badly lack resources. The efficacy of using such auxiliaries was recognized by the Peruvian Ministry of Health, which has now set up a programme for their training and supervision. Within the concept of primary health care, based on the participation of people to the management of their health, the voluntary health auxiliary is placed in a strategic and decisive position for the success of an enterprise which is now spreading to many countries of the Third World.

  10. The Central Logic Board and its auxiliary boards for the optical module of the KM3NeT detector

    CERN Document Server

    Biagi, S

    2014-01-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed of many optical modules, each of them containing 31 (3") photomultipliers, connected to a Central Logic Board. The Central Logic Board integrates Time to Digital Converters that measure Time Over Threshold of the photomulti- pliers signals while White Rabbit is used for the optical modules time synchronization. Auxiliary boards have also been designed and built in order to test and extend the performance of the Cen- tral Logic Board. The Central Logic Board, as well as the auxiliary boards, will be presented by focusing on the design consideration, prototyping issues and tests.

  11. Stochastic gradient algorithm for a dual-rate Box-Jenkins model based on auxiliary model and FIR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing CHEN; Rui-feng DING

    2014-01-01

    Based on the work in Ding and Ding (2008), we develop a modifi ed stochastic gradient (SG) parameter estimation algorithm for a dual-rate Box-Jenkins model by using an auxiliary model. We simplify the complex dual-rate Box-Jenkins model to two fi nite impulse response (FIR) models, present an auxiliary model to estimate the missing outputs and the unknown noise variables, and compute all the unknown parameters of the system with colored noises. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective.

  12. Optimizing selection of training and auxiliary data for operational land cover classification for the LCMAP initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Gallant, Alisa L.; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Pengra, Bruce; Olofsson, Pontus; Loveland, Thomas R.; Jin, Suming; Dahal, Devendra; Yang, Limin; Auch, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) initiative is a new end-to-end capability to continuously track and characterize changes in land cover, use, and condition to better support research and applications relevant to resource management and environmental change. Among the LCMAP product suite are annual land cover maps that will be available to the public. This paper describes an approach to optimize the selection of training and auxiliary data for deriving the thematic land cover maps based on all available clear observations from Landsats 4-8. Training data were selected from map products of the U.S. Geological Survey's Land Cover Trends project. The Random Forest classifier was applied for different classification scenarios based on the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm. We found that extracting training data proportionally to the occurrence of land cover classes was superior to an equal distribution of training data per class, and suggest using a total of 20,000 training pixels to classify an area about the size of a Landsat scene. The problem of unbalanced training data was alleviated by extracting a minimum of 600 training pixels and a maximum of 8000 training pixels per class. We additionally explored removing outliers contained within the training data based on their spectral and spatial criteria, but observed no significant improvement in classification results. We also tested the importance of different types of auxiliary data that were available for the conterminous United States, including: (a) five variables used by the National Land Cover Database, (b) three variables from the cloud screening "Function of mask" (Fmask) statistics, and (c) two variables from the change detection results of CCDC. We found that auxiliary variables such as a Digital Elevation Model and its derivatives (aspect, position index, and slope), potential wetland index, water probability, snow

  13. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  14. Heterotopic auxiliary rat liver transplantation with flow-regulated portal vein arterialization in acute hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Karina; Kalder, Johannes; Grommes, Jochen; Jalaie, Houman; Tawadros, Samir; Greiner, Andreas; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In acute hepatic failure auxiliary liver transplantation is an interesting alternative approach. The aim is to provide a temporary support until the failing native liver has regenerated.(1-3) The APOLT-method, the orthotopic implantation of auxiliary segments- averts most of the technical problems. However this method necessitates extensive resections of both the native liver and the graft.(4) In 1998, Erhard developed the heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation (HALT) utilizing portal vein arterialization (PVA) (Figure 1). This technique showed promising initial clinical results.(5-6) We developed a HALT-technique with flow-regulated PVA in the rat to examine the influence of flow-regulated PVA on graft morphology and function (Figure 2). A liver graft reduced to 30 % of its original size, was heterotopically implanted in the right renal region of the recipient after explantation of the right kidney.  The infra-hepatic caval vein of the graft was anastomosed with the infrahepatic caval vein of the recipient. The arterialization of the donor's portal vein was carried out via the recipient's right renal artery with the stent technique. The blood-flow regulation of the arterialized portal vein was achieved with the use of a stent with an internal diameter of 0.3 mm. The celiac trunk of the graft was end-to-side anastomosed with the recipient's aorta and the bile duct was implanted into the duodenum. A subtotal resection of the native liver was performed to induce acute hepatic failure. (7) In this manner 112 transplantations were performed. The perioperative survival rate was 90% and the 6-week survival rate was 80%. Six weeks after operation, the native liver regenerated, showing an increase in weight from 2.3±0.8 g to 9.8±1 g. At this time, the graft's weight decreased from 3.3±0.8 g to 2.3±0.8 g. We were able to obtain promising long-term results in terms of graft morphology and function. HALT with flow-regulated PVA reliably bridges acute hepatic failure

  15. Application of Pickling Auxiliary%浸酸助剂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易杰; 陈慧; 单志华

    2011-01-01

    Mixed aromatic sulfoacid was made as pickling auxiliary, which was used as low salt pickling for cattle. The condition of pickled pelt and the pelt tanned by Cr2O3 was tested.The results show that, the pelt condition pickled by 3% salt and 2% pickling auxiliary or SELLATAN P is the same as the pelt pickled by conventional processes. All of the pickled pelt are tanned by 5% chromium powder(about 1.05% Cr2O3), the pickled pelt made by pickling auxiliary could absorb 90.97% Cr2O3, and the distribution of Cr2O3 in leather is similiar to that of leather made in conventional processes. The Ts of the leather is 114.34℃, the tendencies of drying and conditioning are the same.%将混和芳香族磺酸作为浸酸助剂,用于黄牛软化裸皮低盐浸酸,考察酸皮状态及其铬鞣后的基本特征。结果表明:浸酸过程(液比为0.8)中加3%的盐、2%自制浸酸助剂;或者浸酸过程(液比为0.8)中加3%的盐、2%浸酸助剂塞拉坦P,浸酸后的皮坯与常规工艺浸酸皮坯状态相似;使用5%的铬粉(约为1.05%Cr2O3)将浸酸皮坯鞣制,测得由自制浸酸助剂制备的皮坯对Cr2O3吸收率为90.97%;坯革中Cr2O3分布与常规工艺制备的坯革相似;无过鞣、色花现象;坯革收缩温度为114.34℃;坯革的干燥及回湿趋势与常规工艺制备的坯革相似。

  16. Trypsin from the processing waste of the lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris) and its compatibility with oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espósito, Talita S; Marcuschi, Marina; Amaral, Ian P G; Carvalho, Luiz B; Bezerra, Ranilson S

    2010-05-26

    A trypsin from the viscera of the lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris) was purified by heat treatment, fractionation with ammonium sulfate and affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 28.4 kDa (SDS-PAGE). The purified enzyme was capable of hydrolyzing the specific substrate for trypsin benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BApNA) and was inhibited by benzamidine and tosyl lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), synthetic trypsin inhibitors and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), which is a serine-protease inhibitor. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 9.0 and 45 degrees C and retained 100% of the activity after incubation at the optimal temperature for 30 min. At a concentration of 10 mM, activity was slightly activated by Ca(2+) and inhibited by the following ions in decreasing order: Cd(2+) > Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Zn(2+) > Al(3+). The effects of Ba(2+), K(1+) and Li(1+) proved to be less intensive. Using 1% (w/v) azocasein as substrate, the enzyme revealed high resistance (60% residual activity) when incubated with 10% H(2)O(2) for 75 min. The enzyme retained more than 80% activity after 60 min in the presence of different surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 80 and sodium choleate). The alkaline protease demonstrated compatibility with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL), such as Bem-te-vi, Surf and Ala, retaining more than 50% of initial activity after 60 min at 25 degrees C and 30 min at 40 degrees C. The thermostability and compatibility of this enzyme with commercial detergents suggest a good potentiality for application in the detergent industry.

  17. Lidar-Based Mapping of Late Quaternary Faulting Along the Grizzly Valley Fault, Walker Lane Seismic Belt, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, C. S.; Hoirup, D. F.; Barry, G.; Pearce, J.; Glick, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Grizzly Valley fault (GVF) is located within the northern Walker Lane, a zone of right-lateral shear between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range in Plumas County. The GVF extends southeasterly from near Mt. Ingalls along the eastern side of Lake Davis. It may partially connect with the Hot Creek fault within Sierra Valley and extend south to Loyalton with an overall approximate length of 50 km. Comparison of high-resolution topography developed from LiDAR data with published bedrock geologic mapping documents the presence of geomorphic features that provide information on fault activity of the GVF. Field mapping verified tectonically deformed and offset late Quaternary surfaces identified on bare-earth LiDAR imagery across the GVF within glacial deposits on the eastern margin of Lake Davis, and alluvial deposits in Sierra Valley. Along the GVF, conspicuous geomorphic and hydrologic features include scarps in alluvial surfaces, elongated depressions aligned with adjacent linear escarpments, truncated bedrock spurs, closed depressions, linear swales, right-lateral deflections of creeks and river courses, and shutter ridges, as well as springs and linear seeps consistent with right-lateral strike-slip faulting. The discontinuous nature of observed fault traces combined with the apparent down-to-the-west offset of alluvial surfaces at the southern and northern ends of the eastern margin of Lake Davis are consistent with a broad bend or step over in the fault. Scarp profiles of apparently faulted surfaces extracted from LiDAR data document vertical offsets of up to 14 m. Our study suggest that the GVF is an oblique, right-lateral fault that has been active in the late Quaternary. This study complements on-going investigations by DWR to assess the impact of seismic hazards on State Water Project infrastructure.

  18. Life in the Slow, Dark, Salty, Cold and Oxygen-Depleted Lane - Insights on Habitability from Lake Vida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ice-entrained Lake Vida brine has provided an accessible natural habitat to study life in the slow lane - where cellular growth is limited, but not extinguished. We measured in situ stable isotopic signatures of N2O, SO42-, H2, conducted experiments utilizing stable isotope geochemical tracers to detect microbial transformations and employed radioisotopically-labeled amino acid precursors to detect cellular macromolecule biosynthesis. The results indicated a dominance of abiotic processes in the brine - yet support metabolically active life through detection of nominal rates of protein biosynthesis. At the same time, the brine has posed a challenge to our understanding of ecosystem energetics. Data collected thus far suggests that the brine is isolated from surfical processes and receives no new mass or energy from above. Calculations have estimated carbon remineralization rates, which indicate that resources should be depleted to the level of small molecules perhaps supporting a methanogenic ecosystem given the amount of time since encapsulation at the temperatures recorded - yet the brine is resource-rich harboring abundant bacteria and large molecules, in addition to a complex mixture of both reduced and oxidized compounds. This has motivated explorations into alternative sources of energy such as hydrogen - which was detected at levels ~ 10 micromolar - that could be generated by brine-rock interactions and supply endogenous energy to this closed ecosystem. This cold, salty, anoxic and organically rich brine, provides insight into a new category of habitable earth ecosystems that may also give us food for thought when considering habitability of giant planet icy worlds or of icy exoplanets. However, the methods we use, and the framework of scientific inquiry applied, are limited by perception and familiarity of rates of change that are important in human time scales. The Vida-icy brine ecosystem provides a model for expansion of our understanding of

  19. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits......-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese...

  20. Increasing LIGO sensitivity by feedforward subtraction of auxiliary length control noise

    CERN Document Server

    Meadors, Grant David; Riles, Keith

    2013-01-01

    LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, has been designed and constructed to measure gravitational wave strain via differential arm length. The LIGO 4-km Michelson arms with Fabry-Perot cavities have auxiliary length control servos for suppressing Michelson motion of the beam-splitter and arm cavity input mirrors, which degrades interferometer sensitivity. We demonstrate how a post-facto pipeline called AMPS improves a data sample from LIGO Science Run~6 with feedforward subtraction. Dividing data into 1024-second windows, AMPS numerically fits filter functions representing the frequency-domain transfer functions from Michelson length channels into the gravitational-wave strain data channel for each window, then subtracts the filtered Michelson channel noise (witness) from the strain channel (target). In this paper we describe the algorithm, assess achievable improvements in sensitivity to astrophysical sources, and consider relevance to future interferometry.