WorldWideScience

Sample records for auxiliary heating

  1. Transport in Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NSTX spherical torus (ST) provides a unique platform to investigate magnetic confinement in auxiliary-heated plasmas at low aspect ratio. Auxiliary power is routinely coupled to ohmically heated plasmas by deuterium neutral-beam injection (NBI) and by high-harmonic fast waves (HHFW) launch. While theory predicts both techniques to preferentially heat electrons, experiment reveals the electron temperature is greater than the ion temperature during HHFW, but the electron temperature is less than the ion temperature during NBI. In the following we present the experimental data and the results of transport analyses

  2. Auxiliary Heating Systems for the Ignitor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, M.; Mantovani, S.; Coppi, B.

    2013-10-01

    Auxiliary plasma heating systems directed at extending the range of plasma regimes that can be accessed by Ohmic heating only are important components of the Ignitor machine. In order to affect the entire plasma column an appropriate ICRH systemhas been designed and components of it have been tested. The adoption of a 280 GHz system affecting, by ECRH, the outer edge of the plasma column has been proposed in order to influence temperature and density profiles in this important region. The ICRH system will operate over the range 80-120 MHz, consistent with magnetic fields in the range 9-13 T. The maximum delivered power goes from 8 MW (at 80 MHz) to 6 MW (at 120 MHz) distributed over 4 ports. A full size prototype of the VTL between the port flange and the antenna straps, with the external support and precise guiding system has been constructed. The innovative quick latching system located at the end of the coaxial cable has been successfully tested, providing perfect interference with the spring Be-Cu electrical contacts. Vacuum levels of 10-6, compatible with the limit of material degassing, and electrical tests up to 12 kV without discharges have been obtained. Special attention was given to the finishing of the inox surfaces, and to the TIG welds. U.S. DOE sponsored.

  3. Progress on radio frequency auxiliary heating system designs in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER will require over 100 MW of auxiliary power for heating, on- and off-axis current drive, accessing the H-mode, and plasma shut-down. The Electron Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ECRF) and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) are two forms of Radio Frequency (RF) auxiliary power being developed for these applications. Design concepts for both the ECRF and ICRF systems are presented, key features and critical design issues are discussed, and projected performances outlined

  4. Radio frequency auxiliary heating systems design in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of radio frequency (RF) auxiliary heating systems will provide at least one half of the required 100 MW of auxiliary power in ITER. Five of the 20 equatorial ports are assigned to RF heating systems. Recent work has focused on developing an integrated equatorial port-plug design concept for all of the RF auxiliary heating systems as well as other equatorial port systems such as diagnostics. Common features of the design approach include the use of identical interfaces to services such as cooling water, vacuum, mechanical connection to the vessel, and maintenance. Based on the integrated port concept, a high level of design integration has been achieved for the RF heating systems. Implementation of the integrated design concept has been accomplished without significantly affecting the individual system performance and with limited impact on the torus layout. (author)

  5. Specifying the auxiliary heating system on TFCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of heating systems for the TFCX-S (all superconducting coil) and TFCX-H (hybrid coil) options. Three systems were defined; preheating (electron), current drive, and bulk (ion) heating. Application of systems engineering techniques facilitated fruitful discussions of requirements and their impact on equipment between physicists and engineers. A low-cost, flexible combination of systems allows plasma experiments using all rf startup and current drive

  6. Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, E.

    2016-05-01

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co- I p direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P RF absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  7. Energy confinement scaling in tokamaks: some implications of recent experiments with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results from confinement scaling experiments on tokamaks with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating are reviewed. An attempt is made to draw these results together into a low-density ohmic confinement scaling law, and a scaling law for confinement with auxiliary heating. The auxiliary heating confinement law may also serve to explain the saturation in tau/sub E/ vs anti n/sub e/ observed in some ohmic heating density scaling experiments

  8. MARS calculation of PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) heat exchanger in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) as one of the advanced safety feature. To design the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS, the two-phase flow phenomena in horizontal U-tube and PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank) were investigated by MARS calculation. By benchmarking with NOKO experimental result, MARS code showed a reasonable capability to quantitatively predict the condensation in horizontal tube heat exchanger. And the design of PAFS heat exchanger was proved to sufficiently remove the decay heat by the condensation heat transfer without any active auxiliary feedwater system

  9. MARS calculation of PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) heat exchanger in APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung Uhn; Yun, Byong Jo; Bae, Sung Won; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) as one of the advanced safety feature. To design the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS, the two-phase flow phenomena in horizontal U-tube and PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank) were investigated by MARS calculation. By benchmarking with NOKO experimental result, MARS code showed a reasonable capability to quantitatively predict the condensation in horizontal tube heat exchanger. And the design of PAFS heat exchanger was proved to sufficiently remove the decay heat by the condensation heat transfer without any active auxiliary feedwater system.

  10. A study on the decay heat removal capability of a reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) is a potential candidate as a fully passive decay heat removal system for small FBRs. In this study the heat transfer performance of a collector with fins is discussed through experiment and the evaluation method is proposed for the heat removal capability of the system. (author)

  11. Auxiliary heating of a theta-pinch plasma by radial magnetoacoustic standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxiliary heating of a linear theta-pinch plasma column by an externally driven radial magnetoacoustic oscillation has been experimentally investigated. The axial field of the theta pinch was modulated in time at the frequency of the plasma's fundamental radial magnetoacoustic oscillation. The dissipation in the plasma column was sufficient to transfer into the plasma at least 9% of the energy stored in the auxiliary capacitor bank used to drive the oscillation

  12. Auxiliary plasma heating and fueling models for use in particle simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational models of a radiofrequency (RF) heating system and neutral-beam injector are presented. These physics packages, when incorporated into a particle simulation code allow one to simulate the auxiliary heating and fueling of fusion plasmas. The RF-heating package is based upon a quasilinear diffusion equation which describes the slow evolution of the heated particle distribution. The neutral-beam injector package models the charge exchange and impact ionization processes which transfer energy and particles from the beam to the background plasma. Particle simulations of an RF-heated and a neutral-beam-heated simple-mirror plasma are presented. 8 refs., 5 figs

  13. Feasibility study of helically coiled tube condensation heat exchanger for a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) with nearly-horizontal heat exchangers is one of passive safety features of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) which provides the auxiliary feedwater by means of natural circulation with condensation. It is feasible to increase the heat transfer capacity of the PAFS by employing a helically coiled heat exchanger due to additional secondary flow effect by centrifugal force. In addition, a compact and flexible design can be achieved in a fixed volume by using the helically coiled heat exchanger, which is one of the most important merits of implementing this heat exchanger. In this paper, the helically coiled heat exchanger has been employed for the PAFS instead of nearly-horizontal heat exchanger. In order to evaluate the heat transfer performance of the helically coiled heat exchanger, an in-tube condensation heat transfer correlation by Wongwises has been introduced into the system analysis code, MARS-KS. A comparative numerical study was conducted for both heat exchangers. The result shows that helically coiled heat exchanger has 20% higher heat transfer efficiency than existing nearly-horizontal heat exchanger. (author)

  14. Modelling of Temperature Profiles and Transport Scaling in Auxiliary Heated Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callen, J.D.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.;

    1987-01-01

    -mode) scaling with input power, . The constant heat pinch or excess temperature gradient model leads to the offset linear law for the total stored energy W with Pin, W = τinc Pin + W(0), which describes JET auxiliary heating data quite well. It also provides definitions for the incremental energy confinement......The temperature profiles produced by various heating profiles are calculated from local heat transport models. The models take the heat flux to be the sum of heat diffusion and a non-diffusive heat flow, consistent with local measurements of heat transport. Two models are developed analytically in...... detail: (i) a heat pinch or excess temperature gradient model with constant coefficients; and (ii) a non-linear heat diffusion coefficient (χ) model. Both models predict weak (lesssim20%) temperature profile responses to physically relevant changes in the heat deposition profile – primarily because the...

  15. Auxiliary heat exchanger for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal concerns the design configuration of the individual components of a heat exchanger with circular cross-section, being placed within a lined pod of the concrete shell of the pressure vessel. The heat exchanger has got a vertical cooler installed below the circulator. The components are arranged in such manner that the access to the pipe lines for in-service inspections is assured. Uniform velocity distribution of the gas streaming into the cooler from below is to be achieved. (orig./PW)

  16. Natural convection in an asymmetrically heated vertical channel with an adiabatic auxiliary plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of an auxiliary plate on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel is studied numerically in laminar regime. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady two dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. This nonlinear system is integrated by a finite volume approach and then solved in time using the projection method, allowing the decoupling pressure from velocity. More than hundred simulations are performed to determine the best positions of the auxiliary plate that enhance the induced mass flow and the heat transfer rate for modified Rayleigh numbers ranging from Ram = 102 to Ram = 105. Contour maps are plotted and then used to precise the enhancement rates of the mass flow and the heat transfer for any position of the auxiliary plate in the channel. The numerical results (velocity, pressure and temperature fields) provide detailed information about the evolution of the flow structure according to the geometry considered in this study. In addition, they permit to explain why the mass flow rate and Nusselt number are enhanced for certain positions of the auxiliary plate and are on the contrary deteriorated for others. (authors)

  17. Energy simulation of solar assisted absorption system and examination of clearness index effects on auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The smog and pollutants in the atmospheric air of heavily populated urban areas are anticipated to have substantial adverse effects on the collection of solar energy and the performance of solar energy systems. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop a simulation model for analyzing the performance of a water-LiBr solar assisted absorption system with an auxiliary heating source and (b) to examine the effects of clearness index on the auxiliary heating requirements. To achieve the objectives, a numerical model for a water-LiBr solar assisted absorption system is developed, and the influence of a reduction in the clearness index, based on actual recorded data, is investigated for constant and time varying cooling loads. Under the condition of peak solar gain on July 21, when a 1000 m2 solar collector is designed to provide 70% of the heating energy required for a constant cooling load of 1265 MJ/h (=100 refrigeration tons), as the system coefficient of performance decreases due to higher ambient temperatures, it is found that a reduction in the clearness index from 0.63 to 0.52 results in a 67% increase in auxiliary heating required of the boiler. It is concluded that accounting for clearness index data is necessary for accurate prediction of solar energy collection

  18. Analysis of Condensation Phenomena in PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) Horizontal Heat Exchanger of APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea. It adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) on the secondary system. It can replace the conventional active system for auxiliary feedwater injection to the steam generator, and it enable to supply the coolant by a passive system. It cools down the secondary system by heat transfer at a horizontal U-tube in PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank). High pressure steam flow from the steam generator is condensed in the horizontal heat exchanger. The water in PCCT is maintained at an atmospheric pressure, so that boiling heat transfer at the outside wall of heat exchanger and natural convection occur in PCCT pool. The heat exchanger and PCCT is higher than steam generator, so condensate can be drained and injected to feedwater system without any active system. This study aims at design of the horizontal heat exchanger in PAFS. It should remove the heat generated in the steam generator. To satisfy this requirement, a system code analysis is conducted. The amount of condensation heat transfer is investigated by MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety) code analysis

  19. Analysis of Condensation Phenomena in PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) Horizontal Heat Exchanger of APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung Uhn; Yun, Byong Jo; Bae, Sung Won; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea. It adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) on the secondary system. It can replace the conventional active system for auxiliary feedwater injection to the steam generator, and it enable to supply the coolant by a passive system. It cools down the secondary system by heat transfer at a horizontal U-tube in PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank). High pressure steam flow from the steam generator is condensed in the horizontal heat exchanger. The water in PCCT is maintained at an atmospheric pressure, so that boiling heat transfer at the outside wall of heat exchanger and natural convection occur in PCCT pool. The heat exchanger and PCCT is higher than steam generator, so condensate can be drained and injected to feedwater system without any active system. This study aims at design of the horizontal heat exchanger in PAFS. It should remove the heat generated in the steam generator. To satisfy this requirement, a system code analysis is conducted. The amount of condensation heat transfer is investigated by MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety) code analysis.

  20. Modelling of TEXTOR edge plasma in discharges with auxiliary heating and neon puffing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of hot plasma interaction with the material walls is one of the burning questions, the solution of which is essential for the creation of a viable thermonuclear reactor. One of the ways to reduce the temperature of the plasma in contact with the wall elements and the heat loads on them is an increase of impurity radiation from the discharge. However, the source of radiation should be localized in the peripheral region and impurities should not contribute significantly to the energy balance of the central plasma and hinder its heating up to thermonuclear temperatures. The light impurities - from boron to neon - satisfy these requirements since they are ionized up to the helium-like states in a relatively thin layer at the discharge edge. The TEXTOR experiments have shown, that in discharges with auxiliary heating more than 95 % of the power can be radiated by neon puffing without the onset of Marfe or detachment and with the source of radiation staying in the vicinity of the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS), touching the limiter. It is remarkable that this state is compatible with a good exhaust of injected helium by the pump limiter ALT-II. In the present paper we elaborate a model of the edge plasma particle and energy balances for the case of discharges with auxiliary heating and neon puffing and compare the results of calculations with experimental data from TEXTOR. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  1. Resonant helical divertor experiments in ohmic and auxiliary heated JIPP T-IIU plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of initial resonant helical divertor (RHD) experiments have been carried out in ohmically and auxiliary heated JIPP T-IIU plasmas. Disruptive and MHD instabilities make the interpretation of the RHD results difficult but an apparent increase in the energy confinement time is observed when the helical magnetic perturbation is applied. This may be due to the suppression of MHD activity or to a reduction in the edge convective heat losses. Magnetic island effects have been observed on the floating potential of a Langmuir probe array and energy scrape-off layer widths have been measured with and without helical perturbations during ICRF operation. Basic pump limiter data is presented including ion temperatures and C4+ impurity profiles. Energy confinement times are reported in ohmically and NBI heated discharges. (orig.)

  2. GOTHIC Simulation of APR1400 Auxiliary Charging Pump room heat up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Hui-Un; Heo, Sun [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As a part of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Design Certification (NRC DC) project, we have been investigating Auxiliary Charging Pump (ACP) room heat up. With reference to the design specification of the ACP room, we determined input information and developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 ACP room. This calculation model is described herein, and representative results from the calculation are presented as well. The results of the present paper are used to determine the integrity of ACP operating in the accident. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for ACP room heat up calculation. Calculation results confirm that door opening is cooling the room properly. It is found that the difference due to the surface option of heat conductors is insignificant. Based on this result, further studies should be performed to confirm integrity of ACP.

  3. Analysis of Heat Removal Capability of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) in APR (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, South Korea has designed PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus). Because the PAFS replaces a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system and plays a role in the ultimate heat sink for decay heat, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of PAFS under postulated accidents conditions. Therefore, the performance analysis is carried out for two accident cases: Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and Feedwater Line Break (FLB) accidents. For the analysis, MARS-KS code is used and MARS-KS model is developed by adding PAFS model to the existing APR1400 model

  4. Analysis of Heat Removal Capability of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) in APR (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y. J.; Kang, K. H.; Yun, B. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, South Korea has designed PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus). Because the PAFS replaces a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system and plays a role in the ultimate heat sink for decay heat, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of PAFS under postulated accidents conditions. Therefore, the performance analysis is carried out for two accident cases: Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and Feedwater Line Break (FLB) accidents. For the analysis, MARS-KS code is used and MARS-KS model is developed by adding PAFS model to the existing APR1400 model.

  5. Assessment of Heat Removal Capability of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System using MARS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is one of advanced safety features under development for Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+). Because PAFS removes decay heats from the reactor core under transient and accident conditions, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of PAFS under the postulated accidents conditions. The target accidents cases analyzed in this study are the Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and the Main Feedwater Line Break (MFLB). In the case of LOCV accident, PAFS in both loops are available but a single loop is operational in MFLB accident condition. Thus, these two accidents scenario are the proper selection to evaluate the capability of PAFS. For the analysis, MARS code is utilized and MARS model for PAFS is developed

  6. Fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Y.; Wang, W. X.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ethier, S.; Mazzucato, E.; Bell, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    In this letter, we report the first observation of the fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. The observation was made in a set of RF-heated L-mode plasmas with toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T and plasma current of 300 kA. It is observed that electron-scale turbulence spectral power (measured with a high-k collective microwave scattering system) decreases significantly following fast cessation of RF heating that occurs in less than 200 μs. The large drop in the turbulence spectral power has a short time delay of about 1–2 ms relative to the RF cessation and happens on a time scale of 0.5–1 ms, much smaller than the energy confinement time of about 10 ms. Power balance analysis shows a factor of about 2 decrease in electron thermal diffusivity after the sudden drop of turbulence spectral power. Measured small changes in equilibrium profiles across the RF cessation are unlikely able to explain this sudden reduction in the measured turbulence and decrease in electron thermal transport, supported by local linear stability analysis and both local and global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The observations imply that nonlocal flux-driven mechanism may be important for the observed turbulence and electron thermal transport.

  7. Fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we report the first observation of the fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. The observation was made in a set of RF-heated L-mode plasmas with toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T and plasma current of 300 kA. It is observed that electron-scale turbulence spectral power (measured with a high-k collective microwave scattering system) decreases significantly following fast cessation of RF heating that occurs in less than 200 μs. The large drop in the turbulence spectral power has a short time delay of about 1–2 ms relative to the RF cessation and happens on a time scale of 0.5–1 ms, much smaller than the energy confinement time of about 10 ms. Power balance analysis shows a factor of about 2 decrease in electron thermal diffusivity after the sudden drop of turbulence spectral power. Measured small changes in equilibrium profiles across the RF cessation are unlikely able to explain this sudden reduction in the measured turbulence and decrease in electron thermal transport, supported by local linear stability analysis and both local and global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The observations imply that nonlocal flux-driven mechanism may be important for the observed turbulence and electron thermal transport

  8. Design of condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) was designed. ► The requirement of the heat removal rate and the prevention of water hammer phenomena were considered. ► The proposed design of the heat exchanger satisfied the requirement of the passive heat removal system. - Abstract: The APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), a next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, has adopted the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) on the secondary system of the steam generator (SG) as an advanced safety feature. It is intended to replace the conventional auxiliary feedwater system, which consists of active components for the SG in a passive way. It removes decay heat from the reactor core by cooling down the secondary system of the SG using a condensation heat exchanger installed in the PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). The objective of this study is to design a condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS and to evaluate the cooling performance for the proposed design using the thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety). Requirements such as the heat removal capacity and the prevention of water hammer were preferentially considered to determine the design parameters of the heat exchanger tube. The MARS code analysis result showed that the proposed design of the PAFS heat exchanger is able to cool down the required amount of decay heat. The distribution of a liquid volume fraction and flow regime predicted by the MARS code shows that the proposed design of the heat exchanger excludes the water hammer inside the tube. Estimation of a two-phase flow pressure drop indicates that the pressure drop inside the tube is negligible compared to the total pressure drop in the PAFS. From the MARS code analysis, it is concluded that the proposed design of the condensation heat exchanger in the PAFS satisfies the overall criteria for the performance of the passive heat removal

  9. Quench Propagation and Heating in the Superconducting 600 A Auxiliary Busbars of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Sonnemann, F

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN 22 km of flexible superconducting cable, the auxiliary busbar cable, will conduct currents of up to 600 A to a large number of corrector magnets distributed throughout the accelerator. A prototype cable with 42 active conductors underwent several experiments to measure the hot spot temperature and the quench propagation velocity as a function of the current. The former was evaluated for various energy extraction scenarios as they are foreseen for the LHC corrector circuits. The experimental results and the heat flow simulations show that the quench behavior in this busbar prototype is strongly influenced by the heat flow through the insulation material (polyimide) into the helium bath, leading to stable configurations above the critical temperature Tc for currents between 250 A and 500 A. Special attention was paid to the study of discontinuities in the wires, like feed-throughs, where the wire is not immersed in liquid helium, and joints, where the wire cross-sectio...

  10. Quench propagation and heating in the superconducting 600 a auxiliary busbars of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, R; Sonnemann, F

    2002-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN 22 km of flexible superconducting cable, the auxiliary busbar cable, will conduct currents of up to 600 A to a large number of corrector magnets distributed throughout the accelerator. A prototype cable with 42 active conductors underwent several experiments to measure the hot spot temperature and the quench propagation velocity as a function of the current. The former was evaluated for various energy extraction scenarios as they are foreseen for the LHC corrector circuits. The experimental results and the heat flow simulations show that the quench behavior in this busbar prototype is strongly influenced by the heat flow through the insulation material (polyimide) into the helium bath, leading to stable configurations above the critical temperature T/sub c/ for currents between 250 A and 500 A. Special attention was paid to the study of discontinuities in the wires, like feedthroughs, where the wire is not immersed in liquid helium, and joints, where the wire cross-s...

  11. Analytical studies of the heat removal capability of a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The MARS model was developed by adding the PAFS model to the APR1400 model. ► Analysis results show that the capacity of PAFS is sufficient to remove the decay heat in the LOCV and FLB accident cases. ► The PAFS control logic for MSIV has the advantages of maintaining the feedwater inventory in the intact side. - Abstract: As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, various studies have been conducted to develop safety systems for third-generation (GEN-III) nuclear power plants that are driven by passive systems, such as natural circulation, gravity, and resistance to high temperatures. Thus, South Korea has designed the Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) with a two-loop PWR and 1500 MWe by adding passive safety features to the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400). The Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is one of several passive safety systems being designed for the APR+, and extensive studies are being conducted to complete its design and to verify its feasibility. Because the PAFS removes decay heat from the reactor core under transient and accident conditions, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of the PAFS under hypothetical accident conditions. Therefore, in this paper, after introducing the characteristics of the PAFS and its design requirements, a performance analysis of the PAFS is performed for two accident cases: Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and Feedwater Line Break (FLB). For the analysis, the Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code is used, and a MARS model is developed by adding the PAFS model to the existing APR1400 model. The analysis results show that the PAFS has enough capacity to remove decay heat under the postulated accident conditions. In addition, the adequacy of modified control logic for main steam isolation valve (MSIV) is validated by comparing the traditional control logic.

  12. Mining a coal seam below a heating goaf with a force auxiliary ventilation system at Longhua underground coal mine, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang; Xie Jun; Xue Sheng; Wang Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of a coal seam which lies not far below a heating goaf can be a major safety challenge. A force auxiliary ventilation system was adopted as a control method in successful extraction and recovery of the panel 30110 of the #3?1 coal seam, which is about 30–40 m below the heating goaf of the #2?2 seam at Longhua underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China. Booster fans and ventilation control devices such as doors and regulators were used in the system. The results show that, provided that a force auxiliary ventilation system is properly designed to achieve a pressure balance between a panel and its overlying goaf, the system can be used to extract a coal seam overlain by a heating goaf. This paper describes the design, installation and performance of the ventilation system during the extraction and recovery phases of the panel 30110.

  13. Development of 8 MW Power Supply Based on Pulse Step Modulation Technique for Auxiliary Heating System on HL-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Xuan, Weimin; Yao, Lieying; Wang, Yingqiao

    2012-03-01

    The high voltage power supply (HVPS) based on pulse step modulation (PSM) has already been developed for the auxiliary heating system on HL-2A. This power supply consists of many switch power supplies, and its output voltage can be obtained by modulating their delay time and pulse widths. The PSM topology and control principle are presented in this paper. The simple algorithms for the control system are explained clearly. The switch power supply (SPS) module has been built and the test results show it can meet the requirements of the auxiliary heating system. Now, 112 SPS modules and the whole system have already been developed. Its maximum output is about 72 kV/93 A. The protection time is less than 5 μs. The different outputs of this power supply are used for the electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system with different duty ratios. The experimental results of the entire system are presented. The results indicate that the whole system can meet the requirements of the auxiliary heating system on HL-2A.

  14. An experimental study on the validation of cooling capability for the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) condensation heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok; Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Cho, Yun-Je; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyoung-Ho [Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Byong-Jo, E-mail: bjyun@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • PAFS is designed to replace a conventional active Auxiliary Feedwater System. • A SET facility is constructed for investigating the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the PAFS system. • Experimental results proved that the PCHX design satisfied the heat removal requirements. • Results of the MARS-KS code provided a conservative prediction of the heat transfer phenomena. -- Abstract: The Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+). PAFS is designed to replace a conventional active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). The PAFS cools down the steam generator secondary side and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by a natural circulation mechanism, i.e., condensing steam in nearly horizontal U-tubes submerged inside a pool. A separate effect test facility was constructed with the aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS. The PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop (PASCAL) was constructed by simulating a single Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) tube submerged in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT) according to the volumetric scaling methodology. Quasi-steady state (SS) test cases and PCCT level decrease (PL) were sequentially performed with the steam generator heater power set at 540 kW to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the PAFS system and the characteristics of the natural circulation in the loop. The experimental results proved that the current PCHX design satisfied the heat removal requirement for cooling down the reactor core during an accident condition. Therefore, the PAFS can replace a conventional active AFWS in the APR+ by utilizing the two-phase natural circulation flow. The Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety, KINS Standard Version (MARS-KS), a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, was utilized to validate the present experimental data. The results of the MARS

  15. An experimental study on the validation of cooling capability for the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) condensation heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PAFS is designed to replace a conventional active Auxiliary Feedwater System. • A SET facility is constructed for investigating the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the PAFS system. • Experimental results proved that the PCHX design satisfied the heat removal requirements. • Results of the MARS-KS code provided a conservative prediction of the heat transfer phenomena. -- Abstract: The Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+). PAFS is designed to replace a conventional active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). The PAFS cools down the steam generator secondary side and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by a natural circulation mechanism, i.e., condensing steam in nearly horizontal U-tubes submerged inside a pool. A separate effect test facility was constructed with the aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS. The PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop (PASCAL) was constructed by simulating a single Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) tube submerged in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT) according to the volumetric scaling methodology. Quasi-steady state (SS) test cases and PCCT level decrease (PL) were sequentially performed with the steam generator heater power set at 540 kW to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the PAFS system and the characteristics of the natural circulation in the loop. The experimental results proved that the current PCHX design satisfied the heat removal requirement for cooling down the reactor core during an accident condition. Therefore, the PAFS can replace a conventional active AFWS in the APR+ by utilizing the two-phase natural circulation flow. The Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety, KINS Standard Version (MARS-KS), a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, was utilized to validate the present experimental data. The results of the MARS

  16. Comparison of collective Thomson scattering signals due to fast ions in ITER scenarios with fusion and auxiliary heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Asunta, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.;

    2009-01-01

    Auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will accelerate ions in ITER up to energies in the MeV range, i.e. energies which are also typical for alpha particles. Fast ions of any of these populations will elevate the collective Thomson...... functions for fast deuterons, fast tritons, fast He-3 and the fusion born alphas are presented, revealing that fusion alphas dominate the measurable signal by an order of magnitude or more in the Doppler shift frequency ranges typical for fast ions. Hence the observable CTS signal can mostly be attributed...

  17. Two-phase flow and heat transfer in a once-through steam generator during auxiliary feedwater injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a phenomenological model is developed for the thermal-hydraulic processes on the secondary side of a once-through steam generator during auxiliary feedwater injection. Based on experimental observations, the flow of auxiliary feedwater in the secondary side is modeled as a turbulent falling film on the tubes, in direct contact with a countercurrent flow of steam, that receives heat from the primary side. Conservation equations for the falling film and steam on the secondary side, and for the primary-side coolant, are derived. Boiling in the falling film, evaporation and/or condensation at the falling film-gas interphase, and countercurrent flow limitation in the tube support plate passages are modeled. Numerical solution of the conservation equations provide the axial variation of flow rates and temperatures in the primary and secondary side

  18. A condensation heat transfer model for nearly horizontal tubes of the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new condensation heat transfer model based on the flow regime in the nearly horizontal tube has been developed for the Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System (PAFS) of Korean Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+). This study focused on the stratified flow in horizontal tubes in which two different heat transfer mechanisms are involved. The void fraction was determined from the 1-D separated flow model (SFM) which incorporates closure relations for shear stress defined by single-phase based expressions and geometric relations for a concave interface using the eccentric circles. The wetted angle proposed by Hart's correlation (1989) was used to classify flow regimes into annular, stratified-wavy and stratified-smooth flow. The new film condensation heat transfer correlation based on Nusselt's integral analysis (1916) was proposed to predict the heat transfer coefficient affected by the vapor flow on the upper portion of tube in the stratified flow. Furthermore, the convective heat transfer correlation for single-phase heat transfer was used to predict the heat transfer coefficient for condensate flowing on the entire perimeter of annular flow and the bottom of the stratified flow. Both heat transfer correlations use Reynolds number based on the phasic actual velocities and geometric variables obtained from SFM. Finally, the new condensation heat transfer model package was evaluated against available experimental data for water and it showed good results. (author)

  19. Modelling of Temperature Profiles and Transport Scaling in Auxiliary Heated Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callen, J.D.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K.

    1987-01-01

    The temperature profiles produced by various heating profiles are calculated from local heat transport models. The models take the heat flux to be the sum of heat diffusion and a non-diffusive heat flow, consistent with local measurements of heat transport. Two models are developed analytically i...

  20. Tribological changes on SS304 stainless steel induced by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation with and without auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve quite thick treated layers with reasonable thickness uniformity in SS304 steel, the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process was run in high-temperature, up to 350 deg. C, to induce high thermal diffusion but avoid the white layer formation. In these experiments, we heated the sample-holder with a shielded resistive wire properly wound around it and subjected the SS samples to nitrogen glow discharge PIII with relatively low voltages (10 kV) in different temperatures. We also treated the SS samples by the traditional PIII method, slowly increasing the high voltage pulse intensities, until 14 kV at the end of processing, reaching temperatures of up to 350 deg. C. These modes of treatments were compared with respect to nitrogen implantation profiles, X-ray diffraction, tribology and mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction results indicated a much higher efficiency of auxiliary heated PIII mode compared to the ordinary PIII. Very prominent γN peaks were observed for the first mode, indicating large concentration of nitrogen in thick layers, confirmed by the nitrogen profiles measured by GDOS and AES. Improved mechanical and tribological properties were obtained for SS304 samples treated by the PIII with auxiliary heating, more than for ordinary PIII. Hardness was enhanced by up to 2.77 times, as seen by nanoindentation tests.

  1. Tribological changes on SS304 stainless steel induced by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation with and without auxiliary heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, C.B., E-mail: carina@plasma.inpe.br [Laboratorio Associado de Plasma, INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais, INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Ueda, M. [Laboratorio Associado de Plasma, INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, C.M. [Depto. de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Reuther, H. [Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In order to achieve quite thick treated layers with reasonable thickness uniformity in SS304 steel, the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process was run in high-temperature, up to 350 deg. C, to induce high thermal diffusion but avoid the white layer formation. In these experiments, we heated the sample-holder with a shielded resistive wire properly wound around it and subjected the SS samples to nitrogen glow discharge PIII with relatively low voltages (10 kV) in different temperatures. We also treated the SS samples by the traditional PIII method, slowly increasing the high voltage pulse intensities, until 14 kV at the end of processing, reaching temperatures of up to 350 deg. C. These modes of treatments were compared with respect to nitrogen implantation profiles, X-ray diffraction, tribology and mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction results indicated a much higher efficiency of auxiliary heated PIII mode compared to the ordinary PIII. Very prominent {gamma}{sub N} peaks were observed for the first mode, indicating large concentration of nitrogen in thick layers, confirmed by the nitrogen profiles measured by GDOS and AES. Improved mechanical and tribological properties were obtained for SS304 samples treated by the PIII with auxiliary heating, more than for ordinary PIII. Hardness was enhanced by up to 2.77 times, as seen by nanoindentation tests.

  2. Holistic Modeling, Design & Analysis of Integrated Stirling and Auxiliary Clean Energy Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amrit Om

    The research revolves around the development of a model to design and analyze Stirling systems. Lack of a standard approach to study Stirling systems and difficulty in generalizing existing approaches pose stiff challenges. A stable mathematical model (integrated second order adiabatic and dynamic model) is devised and validated for general use. The research attempts to design compact combined heat and power (CHP) system to run on multiple biomass fuels and solar energy. Analysis is also carried out regarding the design of suitable auxiliary systems like thermal energy storage system, biomass moisture removal system and Fresnel solar collector for the CHP Stirling system.

  3. Heat structure coupling of CUPID and MARS for the multi-scale simulation of the passive auxiliary feedwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyu Cho, Hyoung, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yun Je; Yoon, Han Young [Thermal Hydraulics Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PAFS is designed to replace a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. • Multi-D T/H analysis code, CUPID was coupled with the 1-D system analysis code MARS. • The coupled CUPID and MARS was applied for the multi-scale analysis of the PAFS test facility. • The simulation result showed that the coupled code can reproduce important phenomena in PAFS. - Abstract: For the analysis of transient two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components, a three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code, named CUPID, has been developed. In the present study, the CUPID code was coupled with a system analysis code MARS in order to apply it for the multi-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis of the passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The PAFS is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+), which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. For verification of the coupling and validation of the coupled code, the PASCAL test facility was simulated, which was constructed with an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS. The two-phase flow phenomena of the steam supply system including the condensation inside the heat exchanger tube were calculated by MARS while the natural circulation and the boil-off in the large water pool that contains the heat exchanger tube were simulated by CUPID. This paper presents the description of the PASCAL facility, the coupling method and the simulation results using the coupled code.

  4. Heat structure coupling of CUPID and MARS for the multi-scale simulation of the passive auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PAFS is designed to replace a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. • Multi-D T/H analysis code, CUPID was coupled with the 1-D system analysis code MARS. • The coupled CUPID and MARS was applied for the multi-scale analysis of the PAFS test facility. • The simulation result showed that the coupled code can reproduce important phenomena in PAFS. - Abstract: For the analysis of transient two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components, a three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code, named CUPID, has been developed. In the present study, the CUPID code was coupled with a system analysis code MARS in order to apply it for the multi-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis of the passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The PAFS is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+), which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. For verification of the coupling and validation of the coupled code, the PASCAL test facility was simulated, which was constructed with an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS. The two-phase flow phenomena of the steam supply system including the condensation inside the heat exchanger tube were calculated by MARS while the natural circulation and the boil-off in the large water pool that contains the heat exchanger tube were simulated by CUPID. This paper presents the description of the PASCAL facility, the coupling method and the simulation results using the coupled code

  5. Performance evaluation of a state-of-the-art solar air-heating system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaki, S.; Brisbane, T.E.; Waterbury, S.S.; Lantz, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system in Solar House II, evaluated during the heating season of 1978-1979, consists of 57.9 m/sup 2/ of Solaron Series 3000 Collectors, 10.3 m/sup 3/ of pebble bed storage, domestic water preheating capability and a Carrier air-to-air heat pump as an auxiliary heater. Although the control subsystem was specially constructed to facilitate experimental changes and data reduction, the balance of the solar system was assembled with off-the-shelf components. Descriptions of the building and the system, modes of system operation, the data acquisition system, data processing, and performance - thermal, collector, storage, and heat pump - are included. (MHR)

  6. Comparative Studies of the Operation Method of Solar Energy Water Heating System with Auxiliary Heat Pump Heater%热泵辅助供热太阳能热水系统运行模式对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辩启; 罗会龙; 王浩; 田盼雨

    2015-01-01

    太阳能热水系统与热泵辅助供热合理结合可取长补短,有效降低建筑能耗。简要概述了空气源热泵、水源热泵、地源热泵辅助供热太阳能热水系统的结构形式及其运行模式。在此基础上,对比分析了热泵辅助供热太阳能热水系统各种典型运行模式的特点及其适用的应用环境。%The appropriate combination of solar water heating system and heat pump auxiliary heating is an effective way to reduce the building energy consumption. The structure and operation method of solar water heating system with different auxiliary heating, such as air-source heat pump, water-source heat pump, and soil-source heat pump, were introduced briefly. The characteristics of all kinds of solar water heating system with auxiliary heating were compared and analyzed. The suitable application environment of solar water heating system with auxiliary heating was also presented.

  7. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc., may be found, refer to Table 54.01-5(a) of this subchapter. (b) Fired vessels in which steam...

  8. Annual progress report on fusion plasma theory task III: auxiliary heating in tokamaks and tandem mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research we have accomplished during the past year has focussed on ICRF coupling, heating and breakeven studies for tokamaks and ECRF fundamental second harmonic heating in tandem mirrors. The studies have included ICRF Fokker-Planck heating and breakeven studies for large tokamaks such as JET, fundamental work on a new wave power absorption and conservation relation for ICRF in inhomogeneous plasmas, a formulation and code development for ICRF waveguide coupling in tokamak edge regions. ECRF ray tracing studies have been carried out for fundamental and second harmonic propagation, absorption and whistler microinstabilities in tandem mirror plug and barrier regions of Phaedrus, TMX-U and TASKA. The two-dimensional velocity space, time dependent Fokker-Planck heating studies have concentrated on D-T breakeven scenarios for fundamental minority deuterium and second harmonic tritium regimes

  9. Fusion plasma theory. Task III. Auxiliary heating in tokamaks and tandem mirrors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research we have accomplished with this contract has focused on ICRF coupling, heating and breakeven studies for tokamaks and ECRF fundamental and second harmonic heating in tandem mirrors. The highlights include reviewed publication of ICRF Fokker-Planck heating and breakeven studies with international collaboration with the JET group, fundamental work on a differential equation for wave fields and a new wave power absorption and conservation relation for ICRF in inhomogeneous plasmas and a formulation and code development of slab matrix and differential equation solutions for ICRF waveguide coupling in tokamak edge regions. ECRF ray tracing studies have been carried out, and a reviewed paper published for fundamental and second harmonic propagation, absorption and whistler microinstabilities in tandem mirror plug and barrier regions of Phaedrus, TMX-U and TASKA

  10. Copper Heat Exchanger for the External Auxiliary Bus-Bars Routing Line in the LHC Insertion Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Seyvet, F; Sitko, M; Skoczen, B; Tock, J P

    2006-01-01

    The corrector magnets and the main quadrupoles of the LHC dispersion suppressors are powered by a special superconducting line (called auxiliary bus-bars line N), external to the cold mass and housed in a 50 mm diameter stainless steel tube fixed to the cold mass. As the line is periodically connected to the cold mass, the same gaseous and liquid helium cools both the magnets and the line. The final sub-cooling process (from around 4.5 K down to 1.9 K) consists in the phase transformation from liquid to superfluid helium. Heat is extracted from the line through the magnets via their point of junction. In dispersion suppressor zones, approximately 40 m long, the sub-cooling of the line is slightly delayed with respect to the magnets. This might have an impact on the readiness of the accelerator for operation. In order to accelerate the process, a special heat exchanger has been designed. It is located in the middle of the dispersion suppressor portion of the line. Its main function consists in providing a loca...

  11. Auxiliary Heating of Geothermally Preheated Water or CO2 - A Potential Solution for Low- to Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X.; Garapati, N.; Adams, B. M.; Randolph, J.; Kuehn, T. H.; Saar, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we compare over a range of parameters the net power and efficiencies of hybrid geothermal power plants that use brine or CO2 as the subsurface working fluid, that are then heated further with a secondary energy source that is unspecified here. Parameters varied include the subsurface working fluid (brine vs. CO2), geothermal reservoir depth (2.5-4.5 km), and turbine inlet temperature (200-600°C) after auxiliary heating. The hybrid power plant is numerically modeled using an iterative coupling approach of TOUGH2-ECO2N/ECO2H (Pruess, 2004) for simulation of the subsurface reservoir and Engineering Equation Solver for well bore fluid flow and surface power plant performance. We find that hybrid power plants that are CO2-based (subsurface) systems have higher thermal efficiencies than the brine based systems at low turbine inlet temperatures. Specifically, our results indicate that geothermal hybrid plants that are CO2-based are more efficient than brine-based systems when the contribution of the geothermal resource energy is higher than 48%.

  12. Heat Structure Coupling of CUPID and MARS for the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-phase phenomena in the steam supply system including the condensation in the Passive Condensate Heat Exchanger (PCHX) were calculated by MARS and those in the Passive Condensate Cooling Tank (PCCT) including the natural circulation and the boil-off were modeled by CUPID. This paper presents the coupling method and the simulation results using the coupled codes. In the present study, the multi-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis method using the coupled MARS-CUPID code was applied for the simulation of the passive condensation cooling phenomena. The primary side of the PASCAL test facility including the PCHX was simulated by MARS and the secondary side, the PCCT, was modeled by the CUPID. It was found that the overall two-phase behaviors inside the water pool and the condensation heat transfer inside the heat exchanger were qualitatively well reproduced with the coupled code. Comparison of various parameters between the test and the simulation will be performed in the future for a quantitative analysis

  13. Heat Structure Coupling of CUPID and MARS for the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyoungkyu [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yunje; Lee, Seungjun; Yoon, Hanyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The two-phase phenomena in the steam supply system including the condensation in the Passive Condensate Heat Exchanger (PCHX) were calculated by MARS and those in the Passive Condensate Cooling Tank (PCCT) including the natural circulation and the boil-off were modeled by CUPID. This paper presents the coupling method and the simulation results using the coupled codes. In the present study, the multi-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis method using the coupled MARS-CUPID code was applied for the simulation of the passive condensation cooling phenomena. The primary side of the PASCAL test facility including the PCHX was simulated by MARS and the secondary side, the PCCT, was modeled by the CUPID. It was found that the overall two-phase behaviors inside the water pool and the condensation heat transfer inside the heat exchanger were qualitatively well reproduced with the coupled code. Comparison of various parameters between the test and the simulation will be performed in the future for a quantitative analysis.

  14. Impurity production and plasma performance in ASDEX discharges with ohmic and auxiliary heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussmann, G.; ASDEX Team; NI Team; Icrh Team; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Lenoci, M.; Mast, F.; McCormick, K.; Murmann, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Roth, J.; Setzensack, C.; Staudenmaier, G.; Steuer, K.-H.; Taglauer, E.; Verbeek, H.; Wagner, F.; Becker, G.; Bosch, H. S.; Brocken, H.; Eberhagen, A.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gierke, G. V.; Clock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Izvozchikov, A.; Karger, F.; Kaufmann, M.; Keilhacker, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lisitano, G.; Mayer, H. M.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Müller, E. R.; Neuhauser, J.; Niedermeyer, H.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pietrzyk, Z. A.; Rapp, H.; Riedler, H.; Röhr, H.; Ryter, F.; Schneider, F.; Siller, G.; Smeulders, P.; Söldner, F. X.; Speth, E.; Steinmetz, K.; Tsois, N.; Ugniewski, S.; Vollmer, O.; Wesner, F.; Zasche, D.

    1987-02-01

    A review is given on investigations in the ASDEX Tokamak on impurities in ohmically, NI and ICRH heated plasmas. For ohmic discharges in H 2 and D 2 it is found that iron release from the wall can be explained by sputtering due to neutral charge exchange (CX) atoms. In the case of He, however, significant contributions caused by ion sputtering are inferred. Comparing discharges with C limiters in He and D 2 suggests that in the case of hydrogen chemical processes are involved in C sputtering. By means of wall carbonization the concentrations of metal ions in the plasma could be substantially reduced. This achievement is of particular importance for NI counter-injection and ICRH, where under non-carbonized conditions severe impurity problems occur. We studied impurity confinement in the case of various heating scenarios by means of the laser injection technique. The poorest confinement is found for the L-phase of NI. Metal injection into the high confinement H-phase generally causes temporary suppression of the edge localized modes (ELM's). With respect to ICRH we conclude that enhanced wall erosion — probably due to the production of high energy ions in the boundary — together with a slightly increased impurity confinement is the dominant reason for the increase of the metallic concentrations. Impurity sputtering as an alternative strong erosion process was experimentally ruled out.

  15. Core Fueling and Edge Particle Flux Analysis in Ohmically and Auxiliary Heated NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boundary Physics program of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is focusing on optimization of the edge power and particle flows in b * 25% L- and H-mode plasmas of 0.8 s duration heated by up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast wave and up to 5 MW of neutral beam injection. Particle balance and core fueling efficiencies of low and high field side gas fueling of L-mode homic and NBI heated plasmas have been compared using an analytical zero dimensional particle balance model and measured ion and neutral fluxes. Gas fueling efficiencies are in the range of 0.05-0.20 and do not depend on discharge magnetic configuration, density or poloidal location of the injector. The particle balance modeling indicates that the addition of HFS fueling results in a reversal of the wall loading rate and higher wall inventories. Initial particle source estimates obtained from neutral pressure and spectroscopic measurements indicate that ion flux into the divertor greatly exceeds midplane ion flux from the main plasma, suggesting that the scrape-off cross-field transport plays a minor role in diverted plasmas. Present analysis provides the basis for detailed fluid modeling of core and edge particle flows and particle confinement properties of NSTX plasmas. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contracts No. DE-AC02-76CH03073, DE-AC05-00OR22725, and W-7405-ENG-36

  16. Design and Development of a Small Heat Exchanger as Auxiliary Cooling System for Domestic and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.Ogunleye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The epileptic supply of power from the national grid in Nigeria has made many industries to engage Internal Combustion Engine generators as alternative to providing energy required for production. The excessive use of these machines has mostly altered their effective performance, thereby necessitating more frequent maintenance or repair than recommended by the manufacturers. Frequent break-downs of these machines reduce rate of production of these industries and by extension, this adversely affects the economy development of the country. A known engineering enterprise in Kano; North West region of Nigeria due to the same factor stated above, subjected her 30 kvagenerator to run almost throughout the working hours of the week. Initially, the generator run perfectly within the manufacturer recommended 100 hours of operation before conducting maintenance works. After sometime, due to excessive use, the generator hardly met half the required service hours before overheating and this resulted in frequent damage of the gasket and repair of the valve outlets, consequently increased the cost of maintenance. A Small Tube and Shell Heat Exchanger with parallel/counter flow that would serve as an auxiliary cooling system for the radiator was designed and developed.

  17. Thermal transport properties of helium, helium--air mixtures, water, and tubing steel used in the CACHE program to compute HTGR auxiliary heat exchanger performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is presented of the thermal transport properties of the materials involved in digital computer calculations of heat transfer rates by the core auxiliary heat exchangers in large HTGR nuclear steam supply systems. These materials are pure helium, mixtures of helium with common gases having molecular weights in the range of 28 to 32, alloy steel tubing, and water. For use in programmed computations the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat are represented primarily by equations augmented by curves and tabulations. Materials supporting the development and selection of the property equations are included

  18. Analysis of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) horizontal heat exchanger in APR+ and the scale-up capability of experimental loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea. It adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) on the secondary system. It can replace the conventional active system for auxiliary feedwater injection to the steam generator, and it enables the coolant to be supplied by a passive system. It cools down the secondary system by heat transfer at a horizontal U-tube in PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). High pressure steam flow from the steam generator is condensed in the horizontal heat exchanger. The water in PCCT is maintained at an atmospheric pressure, so that boiling heat transfer at the outside wall of heat exchanger and natural convection occur in PCCT pool. The heat exchanger and PCCT is higher than the steam generator, so condensate can be drained and injected to feedwater system without any active system. This study aims at analyzing the heat removal capacity for the design of the horizontal heat exchanger in PAFS. To design the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS, and the two-phase flow phenomena in horizontal U-tube and were investigated by MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety, a thermal hydraulic system analysis code) calculation. By benchmarking with NOKO experimental result, MARS code showed a reasonable capability to quantitatively predict the condensation in horizontal tube heat exchanger. For the design of PAFS heat exchanger in APR+, the calculation results proved to sufficiently remove the decay heat of 138 MW in total by the condensation heat transfer without any active auxiliary feedwater system during TLOFW (Total Loss of Feed Water) accident. In the analysis, the distribution of thermal equilibrium quality and local liquid fraction in the horizontal U-tube was also investigated. In order to experimentally investigate the condensation phenomena and natural convection in PAFS, a test loop with a single horizontal U-tube and PCCT is under construction at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy

  19. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a undisturbed reactor operation, the various Auxiliary and Ancillary Systems must function perfectly with the Reactor Coolant System together. While the Auxiliary Systems are directly connected to the Reactor Coolant System and therefore have contact with the Reactor Coolant, the Ancillary Systems perform tasks which do not directly influence reactor operation and in part are necessary exclusively for environment protection. The design criteria of the individual systems are a result of these tasks, especially in relation to availability, operational readiness and probability of failure. (orig.)

  20. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100 M Wt, about 25 M We). CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium. In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented. Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor. (author)

  1. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100MWt, about 25MWe).CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium.In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented.Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor

  2. Development of a Prototypical Condensation Model for the Nearly Horizontal Heat Exchanger Tube of the APR+ PAFS(Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae Hwan; Yun, Byong Jo; Jeong, Jae Jun [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a new condensation heat transfer model was developed for the separated flow regime in the nearly horizontal tube. A new heat transfer model which takes into account of different heat transfer mechanisms occurred in the upper and lower regions of perimeters was developed in the nearly horizontal tube. The present model shows good prediction capability against experimental data. Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System(PAFS) which is adopted in the Korean advanced nuclear power plant, APR+, removes decay heat by condensing steam from the secondary side in the nearly horizontal tubes under the accident condition. The comparison of prediction against PASCAL(2011) experimental data obtained by KAERI indicated that the best estimated safety analysis code such as MARS tends to underestimate the condensation heat transfer coefficient.

  3. Development of a Prototypical Condensation Model for the Nearly Horizontal Heat Exchanger Tube of the APR+ PAFS(Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a new condensation heat transfer model was developed for the separated flow regime in the nearly horizontal tube. A new heat transfer model which takes into account of different heat transfer mechanisms occurred in the upper and lower regions of perimeters was developed in the nearly horizontal tube. The present model shows good prediction capability against experimental data. Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System(PAFS) which is adopted in the Korean advanced nuclear power plant, APR+, removes decay heat by condensing steam from the secondary side in the nearly horizontal tubes under the accident condition. The comparison of prediction against PASCAL(2011) experimental data obtained by KAERI indicated that the best estimated safety analysis code such as MARS tends to underestimate the condensation heat transfer coefficient

  4. Troubleshooting for the Compressor Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Manufacturing Problems%压缩机辅机换热器制造难题排解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛培俭; 周漪; 韩桂军; 李似艳; 陈震; 胡俊龙

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the manufacturing problems encountered in large U-tube heat exchanger of reciprocating compressor auxiliary, this paper has listed the manufacturing of U-tube by suppression method and solved the difficulties of large U-tube in production and processing.%针对往复压缩机辅机中大型U型管式换热器遇到的制造难点,笔者将列举U型管用压制方法解决大型U型管在生产加工中的难题.

  5. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  6. Effects of auxiliary heat sources on energy efficiency of active solar heating systems%辅助热源对主动式太阳能供暖系统节能性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国清; 周继瑞

    2015-01-01

    根据太阳能贡献率和辅助加热设备的能源效率,将系统的能耗折算成一次能源,分析不同辅助热源对太阳能供暖系统节能性的影响,认为主动式太阳能供暖系统要达到节能效果必须满足一定的前提条件。研究结果表明:辅助热源方式和太阳能贡献率对系统的节能性影响很大;相对于燃气锅炉单独供暖,电加热辅助太阳能供暖系统只有在太阳能贡献率高于65.4%时才节能,而大多数系统的太阳能贡献率很难达到这么高,因此要尽量避免使用;热泵辅助太阳能供暖系统在大多数情况下都是节能的(热泵的平均 COP =2.5时,太阳能贡献率需高于7%);采用平均COP 高于3.0的热泵或采用燃气锅炉作为辅助热源时,系统都是节能的,太阳能贡献率越高,节能效果越明显。%According to the solar fraction and the energy efficiency of auxiliary heating equipments, analyses the effects of different auxiliary heat sources on the energy efficiency of active solar heating systems by converting energy consumption to primary energy,and believes that the active solar heating system must satisfy certain conditions for achieving energy saving effect.The results indicate that the auxiliary heat source and the solar fraction have a great impact on the energy efficiency of solar heating systems.Compared to the gas-fired boiler heating alone,the solar heating system assisted by electric heating is energy efficient only when the solar fraction is greater than 65.4%,which is very difficult to achieve for many real systems.The primary energy consumption of the solar heating system assisted by heat pump is lower in general instances (when the average COP of heat pump is 2.5,the solar fraction should be greater than 7%).When heat pumps with average COP above 3.0 or gas-fired boilers are used as auxiliary heat sources,the solar heating system is energy efficient,and the higher the solar

  7. 燃气热水器辅助太阳能热水系统的应用%The application of gas water heater auxiliary solar water heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑松表

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the component of solar hot water system,made comparison and selection to boiler heating,electric heating,gas water heater heating three traditional auxiliary heat sources,pointed out that the gas water heater auxiliary heat source had the advantages of sav-ing the space,short system restart time,convenient to intermittent.%介绍了太阳能热水系统的组成要素,对锅炉加热、电加热、燃气热水器加热三种传统的辅助热源进行了比选,指出选用燃气热水器辅助热源具有节省空间,重启时间短,便于间断使用等优点。

  8. 多方式辅助加热太阳能集中供热水远程监测系统%Remote Multi-way Auxiliary Heating Monitoring System for Solar Central Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志宏; 任立鹏; 董智

    2016-01-01

    在对太阳能供热水系统特点及空气源热泵工作原理进行研究的基础上,设计了以空气源热泵和电加热器为辅助热源的太阳能集中供热水远程监测系统,不仅解决了太阳能供热水系统单一热源的局限性问题,同时也实现了远程实时监测。以天津某高校培训中心采用的太阳能供热系统为例,结合当地气候,计算了工程需要的集热器面积和空气源热泵机组数量,详细介绍了采用模块化设计方法开发远程监测系统的过程,并与原天然气供热水系统的水、电和天然气实测消耗量进行了对比。结果表明,多方式辅助加热太阳能集中供热水系统的综合运行费用明显降低,具有较高的应用价值。%Based on the research of the characteristics of solar water heating systems and the working principle of air-source heating pump,a remote monitoring system for solar heating was designed,using air source heating pump and electric heater as the auxiliary heat source.It can not only solve the problem of the limitation of the solar heating system due to single heat-ing source,but also realize the remote and real-time monitoring of the solar water heating system.Taking the solar energy project of a university training center in Tianjin as an example,the required collector area and air source heating pump units were calculated against the local climate.The process of developing a remote monitoring system with modular designs was described in detail,and the actual consumption of water,electricity and natural gas were measured and compared with the natural gas heating system.The results show that the total operation cost of the multi-way auxiliary heating system is obvi-ously reduced,and the system is of higher value in application.

  9. Economic Optimization of Solar-Electric Auxiliary Heating System%太阳能-电辅热供暖系统的经济优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程磊; 田琦

    2011-01-01

    集热器面积的选择是太阳能供暖系统设计的关键,本文对太阳能一电辅热供暖系统进行了技术经济分析,建立了系统费用年值与集热器面积函数关系的数学模型,分析探讨了使费用年值最小的集热器面积的计算方法。并以太原为例(100m^2住宅)逐日进行了计算,结果表明当集热器面积为21.34m^2,整个系统的费用年值最小;整个采暖季的太阳能保证率为60.24%。%Collector area is the key to a solar heating system while designing. In this paper, the technical-economic analysis of a solar-electric auxiliary heating system was carried. The mathematical model of the functional relation between the annual system cost and the collector area was established, and the calculating method of collector area based on the minimum annual cost was discussed. Taking a 100m^2 residential in Taiyuan as an example, the result of daily calculation shows that the annual cost of the system is minimum when the collector area is 21.34m^2. The solar fraction of the whole heating season is up to 60.2%.

  10. Heat up calculation for the auxiliary feed water pump room at Ulchin units 3 and 4 for loss of HVAC accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to estimate the air temperature inside an Auxiliary Feed Water (AFW) Motor Driven (MD) pump room for the case where there is loss of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC). A transient calculation for the closed pump room without cooling by any HVAC system shows that the volume averaged air temperature reaches around 60 .deg. C for a transient period of 8.0h. From previous studies, the external air and surface boundary temperatures are assumed to increase slowly starting from an initial temperature of 35 .deg. C. For the cases where the door is opened at 2, 4, and 6h after the initiation of HVAC failure, the average air temperature promptly drops by about 4 .deg. C when the door is opened and then slowly increases. The current calculations based on the CFD technique predict the rate of increase of air temperature to be lower than that determined by previous conservative calculations on the basis of a lumped model

  11. Research and Development of a New Field Enhanced Low Temperature Thermionic Cathode that Enables Fluorescent Dimming and Loan Shedding without Auxiliary Cathode Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jin

    2009-01-07

    This is the final report for project entitled 'Research and development of a new field enhanced low temperature thermionic cathode that enables fluorescent dimming and load shedding without auxiliary cathode heating', under Agreement Number: DE-FC26-04NT-42329. Under this project, a highly efficient CNT based thermionic cathode was demonstrated. This cathode is capable of emitting electron at a current density two order of magnitude stronger then a typical fluorescent cathode at same temperatures, or capable of emitting at same current density but at temperature about 300 C lower than that of a fluorescent cathode. Detailed fabrication techniques were developed including CVD growth of CNTs and sputter deposition of oxide thin films on CNTs. These are mature technologies that have been widely used in industry for large scale materials processing and device fabrications, thus, with further development work, the techniques developed in this project can be scaled-up in manufacturing environment. The prototype cathodes developed in this project were tested in lighting plasma discharge environment. In many cases, they not only lit and sustain the plasma, but also out perform the fluorescent cathodes in key parameters such like cathode fall voltages. More work will be needed to further evaluate more detailed and longer term performance of the prototype cathode in lighting plasma.

  12. The solar energy hot water system paired with auxiliary heat system of air source heat pump%以空气源热泵辅助加热的太阳能热水系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施龙; 刘刚; 杨丰畅

    2013-01-01

    介绍了太阳能热泵热水系统的运行原理及控制方式,分析了太阳能热泵热水系统在上海某高校 学生宿舍的应用情况.以每吨热水的加热成本为指标,对几种热源热水系统的经济性进行了比较,分析了太阳能热泵热水系统的节能效果.%An operating principles and control strategies of solar energy hot water system with air source heat pump for auxiliary heating were introduced. Then an application in the students' dormitories of one university in Shanghai was analyzed. Basing on an index which was the cost of heating 1 ton water, the economic efficiency of several heat sources was compared, and higher energy-saving effect of current system was concluded.

  13. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    compare over a range of parameters the net power and efficiencies of hybrid geothermal power plants that use brine or CO2 as the subsurface working fluid, that are then heated further with a secondary energy source that is unspecified here. Parameters varied include the subsurface working fluid (brine vs. CO2), geothermal reservoir depth (2.5-4.5 km), and turbine inlet temperature (200-600°C) after auxiliary heating. The hybrid power plant is numerically modeled using an iterative coupling approach of TOUGH2-ECO2N/ECO2H (Pruess, 2004) for simulation of the subsurface reservoir and Engineering Equation Solver for well bore fluid flow and surface power plant performance. We find that hybrid power plants that are CO2-based (subsurface) systems produce more net power than the sum of the power produced by individual power plants at low turbine inlet temperatures and brine based systems produce more power at high turbine inlet temperatures. Specifically, our results indicate that geothermal hybrid plants that are CO2-based are more efficient than brine-based systems when the contribution of the geothermal resource energy is higher than 48%.

  14. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond to...

  15. Window-mounted auxiliary solar heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, K. G.; Herndon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    System uses hot-air collectors, no thermal storage, and fan with thermostat switches. At cost of heating efficiency, unit could be manufactured and sold at price allowing immediate entry to market as auxiliary heating system. Its simplicity allows homeowner installation, and maintenance is minimal.

  16. 太阳能-蒸汽源与锅炉辅助供暖系统节能效益分析%Analysis on Energy Efficiency of Solar-Steam Sourceand Boiler Auxiliary Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高越; 高丽娜; 孙清

    2015-01-01

    针对呼伦贝尔地区某工业区民用建筑热水供暖、电热水器为洗浴供热工程存在的缺点,提出太阳能-蒸汽源与锅炉辅助供暖系统,对改造后的工程进行实际测试,用DeST模拟探讨室内热环境和节能效益。结果表明,使用太阳能-蒸汽源与锅炉辅助供暖系统的室内环境得到明显改善,节能率可达到66.46%。%Aiming at the disadvantages existing in the project of civil construction hot water heating and bath heating by electric hotwater heater in a certain industrial area in Hulunbeir, it raised solar-steam source and boiler auxiliary heating system, and did practicaltest for the project after improving, used DeST to simulate to discuss indoor thermal environment and energy efficiency. The result showsthat the indoor environment is obviously improved after using solar-steam source and boiler auxiliary heating system, the energy savingrate can achieve 66.46%.

  17. Nuclear reactors with auxiliary boiler circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor has a main circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating one or more main energy converting units, such as gas turbines, and an auxiliary circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating at least one steam generating boiler arranged to be heated by the coolant after its passage through the reactor core to provide steam for driving an auxiliary steam turbine, such an arrangement providing a simplified start-up procedure also providing emergency duties associated with long term heat removal on reactor shut down

  18. Non-isothermal decomposition kinetics, heat capacity and thermal safety of 37.2/44/16/2.2/0.2/0.4-GAP/CL-20/Al/N-100/PCA/auxiliaries mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiao-Qiang, E-mail: zhangjq@nwpu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Physics and Chemistry in Space, Ministry of Education, Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Gao, Hong-Xu [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China); Ji, Tie-Zheng [Key Laboratory of Applied Physics and Chemistry in Space, Ministry of Education, Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Xu, Kang-Zhen [College of Chemical Engineering/Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Hu, Rong-Zu [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Non-isothermal decomposition kinetics, heat capacity and thermal safety on 37.2/44/16/2.2/0.2/0.4-GAP/CL-20/Al/N-100/PCA/auxiliaries mixture. {yields} Apparent activation energy and pre-exponential constant obtained. {yields} Thermal explosion temperature, adiabatic time-to-explosion, 50% drop height of impact sensitivity, and critical temperature of hot-spot initiation calculated. - Abstract: The specific heat capacity (C{sub p}) of 37.2/44/16/2.2/0.2/0.4-GAP/CL-20/Al/N-100/PCA/auxiliaries mixture was determined with the continuous C{sub p} mode of microcalorimeter. The equation of C{sub p} with temperature was obtained. The standard molar heat capacity of GAP/CL-20/Al/N-100/PCA/auxiliaries mixture was 1.225 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} at 298.15 K. With the help of the peak temperature (T{sub p}) from the non-isothermal DTG curves of the mixture at different heating rates ({beta}), the apparent activation energy (E{sub k} and E{sub o}) and pre-exponential constant (A{sub K}) of thermal decomposition reaction obtained by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method. Using density ({rho}) and thermal conductivity ({lambda}), the decomposition heat (Q{sub d}, taking half-explosion heat), Zhang-Hu-Xie-Li's formula, the values (T{sub e0} and T{sub p0}) of T{sub e} and T{sub p} corresponding to {beta} {yields} 0, thermal explosion temperature (T{sub be} and T{sub bp}), adiabatic time-to-explosion (t{sub TIad}), 50% drop height (H{sub 50}) of impact sensitivity, and critical temperature of hot-spot initiation (T{sub cr,hotspot}) of thermal explosion of the mixture were calculated. The following results of evaluating the thermal safety of the mixture were obtained: T{sub be} = 441.64 K, T{sub bp} = 461.66 K, t{sub Tlad} = 78.0 s (n = 2), t{sub Tlad} = 74.87s (n = 1), t{sub Tlad} = 71.85 s (n = 0), H{sub 50} = 21.33 cm.

  19. Non-isothermal decomposition kinetics, heat capacity and thermal safety of 37.2/44/16/2.2/0.2/0.4-GAP/CL-20/Al/N-100/PCA/auxiliaries mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-Qiang; Gao, Hong-Xu; Ji, Tie-Zheng; Xu, Kang-Zhen; Hu, Rong-Zu

    2011-10-15

    The specific heat capacity (C(p)) of 37.2/44/16/2.2/0.2/0.4-GAP/CL-20/Al/N-100/PCA/auxiliaries mixture was determined with the continuous C(p) mode of microcalorimeter. The equation of C(p) with temperature was obtained. The standard molar heat capacity of GAP/CL-20/Al/N-100/PCA/auxiliaries mixture was 1.225 J mol(-1)K(-1) at 298.15K. With the help of the peak temperature (T(p)) from the non-isothermal DTG curves of the mixture at different heating rates (β), the apparent activation energy (E(k) and E(o)) and pre-exponential constant (A(K)) of thermal decomposition reaction obtained by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method. Using density (ρ) and thermal conductivity (λ), the decomposition heat (Q(d), taking half-explosion heat), Zhang-Hu-Xie-Li's formula, the values (T(e0) and T(p0)) of T(e) and T(p) corresponding to β → 0, thermal explosion temperature (T(be) and T(bp)), adiabatic time-to-explosion (t(TIad)), 50% drop height (H(50)) of impact sensitivity, and critical temperature of hot-spot initiation (T(cr,hot spot)) of thermal explosion of the mixture were calculated. The following results of evaluating the thermal safety of the mixture were obtained: T(be) = 441.64K, T(bp) = 461.66 K, t(Tlad) = 78.0 s (n = 2), t(Tlad) = 74.87 s (n = 1), t(Tlad) = 71.85 s (n = 0), H(50) = 21.33 cm. PMID:21820242

  20. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae;

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave the...... generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  1. Auxiliary building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five types of auxiliary structures are described such as were used during the construction of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, namely a portable staircase tower, a stable staircase tower, mobile tower scaffolding, mobile scaffolding on a crane track and a scaffold cradle. Basic technical data for all types of scaffolding are given. (Pu)

  2. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  3. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author)

  4. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  5. Development of a New Condensation Heat Transfer Model for the Nearly Horizontal Tube of the APR+ PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has recently conducted PASCAL experiment to confirm the performance of PAFS. From the work, it is founded that the condensation heat transfer coefficient predicted by best estimated safety analysis code MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) was underestimated compared to the experimental data. Shah correlation embedded in MARS code is the typical model using the empirical two-phase multiplier to determine condensation heat transfer coefficient for annular flow in the condensing tube. On the other hand, the PASCAL experiment indicated that a stratified-wavy flow generally tends to occur in the downward inclined tube of the condensation heat exchanger. Therefore, in order to improve the prediction capability of safety analysis codes for PAFS, the present study has proposed a new condensation heat transfer model package for the nearly horizontal tube, which determines mechanistically the local heat transfer coefficient based on the flow regimes. To enhance prediction capability of one-dimensional best estimated code MARS for the PAFS of the Korean 3.5 generation nuclear power plant APR+, a new condensation heat transfer model package has been developed. The model package consists of the one-dimensional separated model for the void fraction, a flow regime model based on wetted angle, and the condensation heat transfer correlations. The model package considers the inclination angle of the condensing tube and various flow regimes that are expected in the tube during condensation process

  6. Development of a New Condensation Heat Transfer Model for the Nearly Horizontal Tube of the APR+ PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Taehwan; Jeong, Jaejun; Yun, Byongjo [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyongho; Park, Yusun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has recently conducted PASCAL experiment to confirm the performance of PAFS. From the work, it is founded that the condensation heat transfer coefficient predicted by best estimated safety analysis code MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) was underestimated compared to the experimental data. Shah correlation embedded in MARS code is the typical model using the empirical two-phase multiplier to determine condensation heat transfer coefficient for annular flow in the condensing tube. On the other hand, the PASCAL experiment indicated that a stratified-wavy flow generally tends to occur in the downward inclined tube of the condensation heat exchanger. Therefore, in order to improve the prediction capability of safety analysis codes for PAFS, the present study has proposed a new condensation heat transfer model package for the nearly horizontal tube, which determines mechanistically the local heat transfer coefficient based on the flow regimes. To enhance prediction capability of one-dimensional best estimated code MARS for the PAFS of the Korean 3.5 generation nuclear power plant APR+, a new condensation heat transfer model package has been developed. The model package consists of the one-dimensional separated model for the void fraction, a flow regime model based on wetted angle, and the condensation heat transfer correlations. The model package considers the inclination angle of the condensing tube and various flow regimes that are expected in the tube during condensation process.

  7. Investigation of auxiliary heating in tandem mirrors and tokamaks and barrier cell pumping. Annual progress report, October 1, 1980 to December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has focussed on physics questions concerned with ECRH heating in tandem mirror plugs, pumping of tandem mirror thermal barriers by drift orbits, ICRH heating in tokamaks, and bundle divertors. We have concluded that drift-orbit pumping of thermal barriers is not feasible because the azimuthal E Vector X B Vector drift limits the excursion of trapped ions from a flux surface. We have developed a three-dimensional weakly relativistic (T/sub e/ less than or equal to 50 keV) ray tracing and absorption code for electron cyclotron heating in tandem mirror plugs and barriers. Cases run for TMX, MFTF-B and reactors at T/sub e/ > 10 keV show that strong absorption per pass is present and a careful choice of wave frequency and launch angle is required to ensure wave penetration and absorption in the plasma core. In the area of ion cyclotron frequency range heating in tokamaks, a three-dimensional hot plasma ray tracing theory and code has been developed to handle rays launched from any poloidal angle in the tokamak cross section. Wave heating in the central strong absorption zones is currently being investigated using a full wave solution for the various heating regimes

  8. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  9. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  10. PWR auxiliary systems, safety and emergency systems, accident analysis, operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a description of PWR auxiliary systems like volume control, boric acid control, coolant purification, -degassing, -storage and -treatment system and waste processing systems. Residual heat removal systems, emergency systems and containment designs are discussed. As an accident analysis the author gives a survey over malfunctions and disturbances in the field of reactor operations. (TK)

  11. Improving Energy Efficiency of Auxiliaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summaries of this report are: Economics Ultimately Dictates Direction; Electric Auxiliaries Provide Solid Benefits. The Impact on Vehicle Architecture Will be Important; Integrated Generators With Combined With Turbo Generators Can Meet the Electrical Demands of Electric Auxiliaries; Implementation Will Follow Automotive 42V Transition; Availability of Low Cost Hardware Will Slow Implementation; Industry Leadership and Cooperation Needed; Standards and Safety Protocols Will be Important. Government Can Play an Important Role in Expediting: Funding Technical Development; Incentives for Improving Fuel Economy; Developing Standards, Allowing Economy of Scale; and Providing Safety Guidelines

  12. Performance analysis of a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+), which is a GEN III+ reactor based on the APR1400, is being developed in Korea. In order to enhance the safety of the APR+, a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) has been adopted in the APR+. The PAFS replaces the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) by introducing a natural driving force mechanism while maintaining the system function of cooling the primary side and removing the decay heat. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the PAFS under design basis events using best-estimated thermalhydraulic codes

  13. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  14. Turbine generator and its auxiliaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turbine generator and its auxiliary systems in Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) have been performing well and further their performance and availability has increased due to timely assessment of the problems anticipated in the systems by a close co-ordination among the concerned staff. Continued efforts are on for further improvements. (author)

  15. Design Characteristics of the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) is a typical passive safety system implemented for the APR+. The auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) in the APR1400, which is the reference plant of the APR+, consists of two motor driven pumps, two turbine driven pumps, two water storage tanks, and related pipes and valves. The AFWS feeds emergency water to steam generators to cool down the reactor coolant system when the main feedwater is lost. To enhance the safety, the PAFS replaces the AFWS with a passive condensation heat exchanger (PCHX), a passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT), and a few valves and pipes in the APR+ design. In this paper, we propose the design requirements and conceptual design of the PAFS in order to evaluate the operability of the PAFS, to develop the APR+'s general arrangements for the auxiliary building, and to identify the important parameters to be quantified by experiments

  16. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  18. The Marginalized Auxiliary Particle Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsche, Carsten; Schön, Thomas; Klein, Anja

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with nonlinear systems subject to a conditionally linear, Gaussian sub-structure. This structure is often exploited in high-dimensional state estimation problems using the marginalized (aka Rao-Blackwellized) particle filter. The main contribution in the present work is to show how an efficient filter can be derived by exploiting this structure within the auxiliary particle filter. Based on a multisensor aircraft tracking example, the superior performance of the...

  19. Evaluation of Effect of N2 Gas on the Cooling Capability of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+), a next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, adopts Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) to replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. Because PAFS removes decay heat from the reactor core, it is required to verify the performance of PAFS in postulated accidents cases. In addition, an effect of non-condensable gas such as N2 gas on the heat removal capability of PAFS should be evaluated since the non-condensable gas may deteriorate a condensation heat transfer through the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS. In this study, MARS code is used to evaluate the effect of N2 gas

  20. Hovercraft auxiliary power units (APUs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.J.

    1983-08-01

    Auxiliary power units (APU) manufactured by British firms for use in hovercraft are characterized. Both diesel and gas-turbine APUs are found to be well suited to the demands of this application. The design features, dimensions, performance data, and installation requirements are discussed for the SS 90, SS 923, DA-1, BA-1, HM 5, and Gevaudan 9 APUs, as well as the TRS 18 gas-turbine smoke generator. The progress made in improving the fuel efficiency of gas turbines and reducing the weight of diesel engines is considered significant.

  1. Perfects, resultatives and auxiliaries in early English

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Thomas; Alexiadou, Artemis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will argue for a novel analysis of the auxiliary alternation in Early English, its development and subsequent loss which has broader consequences for the way that auxiliary selection is looked at cross-linguistically. We will present evidence that the choice of auxiliaries accompanying past participles in Early English differed in several significant respects from that in the familiar modern European languages. Specifically, while the construction with have became a full-fle...

  2. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua;

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...

  3. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  4. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Class A TV licensees may request a decrease from the authorized facility's ERP in the license application. An FM, TV or Class A TV licensee may also increase the ERP of the auxiliary facility in a license... licensed main facility as an auxiliary facility with an ERP less than or equal to the ERP specified on...

  5. The auxiliary system design retrofits of the different coolant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coolant pump auxiliary systems retrofits are introduced in detail according to the different type of coolant pumps. The retrofit reasons of the chemical and volume control system, component cooling water system, Nuclear Nitrogen Storage and Distribution System, Vent and drain system, etc. are investigated. The most extraordinary change takes place in the chemical and volume control system and cooling water system. The charging flow temperature of re- generative heat exchanger and discharge flow of charging pump will be changed according to the difference coolant pump seal flow distribution. The commercial CFD software Flow master is employed to validate the charging capability. The other auxiliary systems' retrofits are also introduced in the end of this paper. (authors)

  6. Radiation effects on natural convection in a vertical channel with an auxiliary plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this experimental study the effects of unheated auxiliary plate positions along the centerline of a vertical channel on combined natural convective in air and radiative heat transfer are investigated. The vertical channel is symmetrically heated and a uniform heat flux along the principal walls of the channel is assumed. Comparisons between experimental data carried out from different positions of the auxiliary plate and two surfaces emissivity values are given in terms of heated wall temperatures and radiative heat transfer. Average Nusselt numbers by means of experimental data are evaluated. Results are given for different thermal and geometrical dimensionless parameters. Results show that the lowest maximum channel wall temperatures are attained for the auxiliary plate placed at the channel exit for high channel Rayleigh numbers and heat flux values. Correlations for average Nusselt numbers, global average Nusselt numbers and dimensionless maximum wall temperatures in terms of channel Rayleigh numbers and auxiliary plate-to-channel height ratio, h/L, are evaluated in the ranges: 20 < Ra'< 1.5 x 105, 22 < Ra'* < 1.7 x 105 and 0 ≤ h/L ≤ 0.5 for inlet and outlet positions and walls emissivity equal to 0.9. The proposed correlations are in good agreement with correlation for simple channel. (authors)

  7. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  8. 基于多参数空气源热泵辅助太阳能热水机组的控制系统%A control system design for solar hot water system with auxiliary air source heat pump based on multiple parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁鸿昌; 杨前明; 刘其会; 吕帅

    2013-01-01

    The solar hot water system aided by air source heat pump can overcome the drawback of weather influence on single solar hot water system.Based on PLC controller,a control system,which considers multiple parameters such as the sun conditions,water tank temperature,ambient temperature,pipe line pressure,etc.,is designed for a solar hot water system with auxiliary air source heat pump to achieve automatic all-weather hot water supply and save electric energy effectively.%采用了空气源热泵辅助的太阳能热水机组,以解决单一太阳能热水系统受天气条件影响的问题.以PLC控制器为核心,综合考虑光照条件、环境温度、水箱水温、供水压力等多个参数条件,设计了基于多参数的空气源热泵辅助太阳能热水机组的自动控制系统,实现了以太阳能为主热源的热水机组全天候稳定热水供应,有效地节约了能源.

  9. Disturbance in the power system caused by auxiliary DC installation failure of switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesic, M. [HEP Transmission System Operator, Zagreb (Croatia); Tesnjak, S.; Skok, S. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2008-07-01

    Auxiliary direct current (DC) installation failures can lead to outages in power plants and compromise the security of power systems. In this study, a simplified stationary model was used to simulate an auxiliary DC installation in a switchyard. The aim of the study was to evaluate new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for auxiliary DC installation dimensioning and analysis. Criteria included the dimensioning and selection of batteries; the calculation of conductor heating; voltage drop calculations; conductor squares in relation to permanent currents; and the evaluation of protection elements. The new standards were compared with the previous auxiliary system installation methodology. Results of the study suggested that the new standard has introduced significant improvements in short circuit current calculation. Laboratory tests for the measurement of short circuits showed that the active network has less of an impact on the auxiliary system than previous measuring methods. Alterations to the IEC standard will be required as a result of limitations to the short circuit current and new rectifier technology. Results of the study will be used to develop a new model and scheme for dimensioning and analyzing auxiliary DC installations. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  11. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  12. Construction Report of Separate Effect Test Facility for Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PASCAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A separate effect test facility for PAFS(Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System, PAFS), PASCAL, was constructed to evaluate the cooling performance of PAFS and the condensation heat transfer models. This report includes the scope of the separate effect tests, the design of PASCAL facility, and measuring principles. From the design and construction of the separate effect test facility, PASCAL facility was composed of the fluid system, the auxiliary system, the measurement system, the electricity system, the control system and the data acquisition system. This report will be utilized to make the experiment procedure and perform the test

  13. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  14. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  15. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  16. Pb-17Li auxiliary and purification systems: design of the auxiliary Pb-Li loop for helium cooled lithium lead test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report describes the Pb-17Li auxiliary system proposed for Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM) that will be installed and tested in ITER. The Pb-17Li auxiliary should ensure feeding and circulation of Pb-17Li liquid metal in this breeding blanket and removal of tritium produced by a nuclear reaction in TBM. The container with the Pb-17Li auxiliary system (dimensions HxLxW: 2.315 m x 2.19 m x 1.6 m) will be placed as close as possible to the TBM to prevent tritium permeation from the connection piping. The report describes developed design of the Pb-17Li auxiliary system that is from the functional point of view divided into the following parts: main circuit, detritization unit and cold trap, dosing and sampling systems, heating and cooling systems, and shielding and insulation. The Pb-17Li circuit is a closed loop with forced circulation of Pb-17Li. From the tank that, at the same time, is a Pb-17Li storage tank, liquid metal is pumped into the TBM where tritium is produced. The flow velocity in the Pb-17Li system will be controlled in the range of 0.1 to 1 kg/s. Pb-17Li outlet temperature from the TBM is 550 deg C. Tritium is removed from Pb-17Li in a detritiation unit. Corrosion products and impurities are removed in a cold trap. Design of the key system components as well as their structure material are described. The technical report determines and describes the Pb-17Li auxiliary system operating modes such as filling, start-up, operation at nominal parameters, shut-down, emergency operation and sampling. Also, the limits and terms of the Pb-17Li auxiliary system safe operation are defined. Requirements for the Pb-17Li auxiliary system installation, testing and maintenance are discussed. In conclusion, recommendations for further developments of the Pb-17Li auxiliary system are proposed. (author)

  17. Scaling Analysis of Separate Effect Test Facility for PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is one of the passive cooling systems of APR+. It can replace the conventional active system for auxiliary feedwater injection to the steam generator. A diagram of PAFS in APR+ is shown in Figure 1. It cools down the secondary system by heat transfer at a horizontal U-tube heat exchanger in PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). To validate a performance of PAFS, separate effect test loop is being developed, which is named as PASCAL(PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop). This study aims at analyzing the scaling effect of PASCAL by MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety) code analysis. Transient simulation results for the case of LOCV(Loss of Condenser Vacuum) scenario were compared between PASCAL and prototype

  18. Scaling Analysis of Separate Effect Test Facility for PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung Uhn; Yun, Byong Jo; Bae, Sung Won; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is one of the passive cooling systems of APR+. It can replace the conventional active system for auxiliary feedwater injection to the steam generator. A diagram of PAFS in APR+ is shown in Figure 1. It cools down the secondary system by heat transfer at a horizontal U-tube heat exchanger in PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). To validate a performance of PAFS, separate effect test loop is being developed, which is named as PASCAL(PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop). This study aims at analyzing the scaling effect of PASCAL by MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety) code analysis. Transient simulation results for the case of LOCV(Loss of Condenser Vacuum) scenario were compared between PASCAL and prototype

  19. Auxiliary field formulation of supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two dimensional N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models on hermitian symmetric spaces are formulated in terms of the auxiliary superfields. If we eliminate auxiliary vector and chiral superfields, they give D- and F- term constraints to define the target manifolds. The integration over auxiliary vector superfields, which can be performed exactly, is equivalent to the elimination of the auxiliary fields by the use of the classical equations of motion. (author)

  20. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon;

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...

  1. Modified Darboux transformations with foreign auxiliary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a new type of first-order Darboux transformations for the stationary Schroedinger equation. In contrast to the conventional case, our Darboux transformations support arbitrary (foreign) auxiliary equations. We show that among other applications, our formalism can be used to systematically construct Darboux transformations for Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials, including a recent result (Lin et al., 2007) as a special case. -- Highlights: → We generalize the Darboux transformation for the Schroedinger equation. → By admitting arbitrary auxiliary functions, we provide a new tool for generating solutions. → As a special case we recover a recent result on energy-dependent potentials. → We extend the latter result to very general energy-dependence.

  2. An Intelligent Auxiliary Vacuum Brake System

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Chia-Chang; Lin, Jhih-Yu; Li, Shih-Fan; Li, Jiun-Yi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper focuses on designing an intelligent, compact, reliable, and robust auxiliary vacuum brake system (VBS) with Kalman filter and self-diagnosis scheme. All of the circuit elements in the designed system are integrated into one programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) with entire computational algorithms implemented by software. In this system, three main goals are achieved: (a) Kalman filter and hysteresis controller algorithms are employed within PSoC chip by software to sur...

  3. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  4. New Massive Supergravity and Auxiliary Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Parra, Lorena; Rosseel, Jan; Yin, Yihao; Zojer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric formulation of linearized New Massive Gravity without introducing higher derivatives. Instead, we introduce supersymmetrically a set of bosonic and fermionic auxiliary fields which, upon elimination by their equations of motion, introduce fourth-order derivative terms for the metric and third-order derivative terms for the gravitino. Our construction requires an off-shell formulation of the three-dimensional supersymmetric massive Fierz--Pauli theory. We discuss the non-linear extension of our results.

  5. Auxiliary nRules of Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Standard quantum mechanics makes use of four auxiliary rules that allow the Schrodinger solutions to be related to laboratory experience, such as the Born rule that connects square modulus to probability. These rules (here called the sRules) lead to some unacceptable results. They do not allow the primary observer to be part of the system. They do not allow individual observations (as opposed to ensembles) to be part of the system. They make a fundamental distinction between microscopic and m...

  6. Engine Auxiliary System Guideline: Cooling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kela, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was done for Wärtsilä Technical Services organization. The assignment was to consolidate a guideline for cooling systems as an engine auxiliary system covering the Wärtsilä 4-stroke engines currently in production. The guideline was to include information considering both marine and power plants installations. The sources of information were internal documentation from Wärtsilä, literature review and discussions with Wärtsilä cooling system experts. The guideline includes informati...

  7. Auxiliary nRules of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2005-01-01

    Standard quantum mechanics makes use of four auxiliary rules that allow the Schrodinger solutions to be related to laboratory experience, such as the Born rule that connects square modulus to probability. These rules (here called the sRules) lead to some unacceptable results. They do not allow the primary observer to be part of the system. They do not allow individual observations (as opposed to ensembles) to be part of the system. They make a fundamental distinction between microscopic and macroscopic things, and they are ambiguous in their description of secondary observers such as Schrodingers cat. The nRules are an alternative set of auxiliary rules that avoid the above difficulties. In this paper we look at a wide range of representative experiments showing that the nRules adequately relate the Schrodinger solutions to empirical experience. This suggests that the sRules should be abandoned in favor of the more satisfactory nRules, or a third auxiliary rule-set called the oRules. Keywords: brain states, c...

  8. Separate-effect Test for Cooling Performance of PAFS(Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is a next generation nuclear power plant being developed in Korea. It adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for the steam generator (SG) instead of an active auxiliary feedwater system for the conventional nuclear power plant (NPP). It can replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system for the SG by a passive way. It is composed of a steam-supply line, a condensation heat exchanger, a return-water line, and a PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank). When the water level in the SG becomes lower than 25% of the wide range of the water level transmitter during an accident situation, the actuation valve at the return-water line is open and then the natural convection flow of the PAFS can be made. To validate a cooling performance of PAFS, separate effect test loop, which is named PASCAL (PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop) was constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for investigating the cooling capability of the condensation heat exchanger and the characteristic of the natural convection. This study focuses on the experimental study of the separate effect test with PASCAL facility. From the experimental results, two-phase flow phenomena in the condensation heat exchanger and PCCT are investigated for the verification of the design of PAFS

  9. Separate-effect Test for Cooling Performance of PAFS(Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Seok; Kang, Kyung Ho; Yun, Byong Jo; Kim, Bok Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is a next generation nuclear power plant being developed in Korea. It adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for the steam generator (SG) instead of an active auxiliary feedwater system for the conventional nuclear power plant (NPP). It can replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system for the SG by a passive way. It is composed of a steam-supply line, a condensation heat exchanger, a return-water line, and a PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank). When the water level in the SG becomes lower than 25% of the wide range of the water level transmitter during an accident situation, the actuation valve at the return-water line is open and then the natural convection flow of the PAFS can be made. To validate a cooling performance of PAFS, separate effect test loop, which is named PASCAL (PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop) was constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for investigating the cooling capability of the condensation heat exchanger and the characteristic of the natural convection. This study focuses on the experimental study of the separate effect test with PASCAL facility. From the experimental results, two-phase flow phenomena in the condensation heat exchanger and PCCT are investigated for the verification of the design of PAFS

  10. A Study of the Disturbance in Steam Power Unit Caused by Solar Auxiliary Heating System%太阳能辅助加热系统对蒸汽动力机组运行性能的扰动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安连锁; 徐玫; 陈海平; 冯蕾; 张衡

    2015-01-01

    It is common that variable conditions are considered in the process of solar-assisted coal-fired power system designing. Small disturbance theory tells us that when no obvious water distribution happens complex variable conditions calculation can be saved and the results which meet required precision can be achieved as well. A quantitative analysis was conducted for the impact of the solar auxiliary heating system on the thermal system. The results show that within a small range the impact caused by the solar auxiliary heating system can be regarded as a small disturbance, while in the usual range(30% to 100%) although it can not be regarded as a small disturbance the calculation of steam admission flow and power generation can be simplfied under the coal-saving and power-boosting operation mode. In addition, the calculation of thermal conversion rate, generating heat rate and coal consumption rate can be simplified when the percentage of replacing point 1 extraction steam is under 60%; the calculation of thermal conversion rate, generating heat rate, coal consumption rate in waste heat utilization can be simplified no matter how the percentage of replacing extraction steam changes; the calculation of collector field area and the initial investment can also be simplified when the percentage of replacing point 1 extraction steam is under 55%. That is, the error of the caculation for the above parameters meet the engineering accuracy requirement when small disturbance algorithm is used. The above conclusion provides a theoretical reference for the optimal design and analysis of the solar-aided coal-fired power system.%光煤互补热发电系统的设计过程中通常都要进行变工况计算,由小扰动理论可知,当系统变动不足以引起汽水重新分布时,省去繁杂的变工况计算也可得到精度合乎要求的结果。该文针对太阳能辅助加热系统对热力系统影响进行了定量分析,结果表明太阳能辅助加热系

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market

  12. [Hospital auxiliary staff, between polyvalence and invisibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veissier, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Often underestimated, hospital auxiliary staff carry out on a daily basis a professional activity that may be difficult to define and/or recognize. What does their work consist in and what are the boundaries of the scope of their activity? Faced with a growing rate of absenteeism among these members of staff in a nursing home for elderly people attached to a hospital, an issue emerges: does the content of their professional activity have an impact on the causes and evolution of this phenomenon? PMID:26976318

  13. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  14. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  15. Auxiliary pattern for cell-based OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Park, Chul-Hong

    2006-10-01

    The runtime of model-based optical proximity correction (OPC) tools has grown unacceptably with each successive technology generation, and has emerged as one of the major bottlenecks for turnaround time (TAT) of IC data preparation and manufacturing. The cell-based OPC approach improves runtime by performing OPC once per cell definition as opposed to once per cell instantiation in the layout. However, cell-based OPC does not comprehend inter-cell optical interactions that affect feature printability in a layout context. In this work, we propose auxiliary pattern-enabled cell-based OPC which can minimize the CD differences between cell-based OPC and model-based OPC. To enable effective insertion of auxiliary pattern (AP) in the design, we also propose a post-placement optimization of a standard cell block with respect to detailed placement. By dynamic programming-based placement perturbation, we achieve 100% AP applicability in designs with placement utilizations of cell-based OPC with AP can match gate edge placement error (EPE) count of model-based OPC within 4%. This is an improvement of 90%, on average, over cell-based OPC without APs. The AP-based OPC approach can reduce OPC runtimes versus model-based OPC by up to 40X in our benchmark designs. We can also achieve reduction of GDSII file size and ORC runtimes due to hierarchy maintenance of cell-based OPC.

  16. The development of a passive auxiliary feedwater system in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) is being developed in Korea. APR+ is a GEN III+ reactor on the basis of the APR1400. To meet the requirements of GEN III+ reactors, the economics and the safety of the APR+ are further enhanced. One of the basic principles of APR+ safety systems is the adoption of hybrid safety systems. Passive safety systems replace the current active safety systems from an economic point of view. The passive aux. feedwater system (PAFS) is one of the passive safety features adopted in the APR+. The PAFS replaces the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system by introducing a natural driving force mechanism while maintaining the system's basic Junction of cooling down the primary side and removing the decay heat. In order to satisfy the single failure criterion, the PAFS is composed of two independent trains. Each train has one steam condensing heat exchanger of 100% capability and one PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling water Tank) of 100% capability. Basic design is underway and separate effect tests and integral effect tests will be performed to demonstrate the performance of the PAFS. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of Effect of N2 Gas on the Cooling Capability of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) has being developed by adding passive safety features to Advanced Power Reactor 1400MWe (APR1400). Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is one of passive system adopted in the APR+ to replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. Because PAFS removes decay heat from the reactor core, it is required to verify the performance of PAFS in postulated accidents cases. In addition, an effect of noncondensable gas on the heat removal capability of PAFS should be evaluated since the non-condensable gas may deteriorate a condensation heat transfer through the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS. In this study, the effect of N2 gas was evaluated using MARS

  18. Comparison of auxiliary feedwater and EDRS operation during natural circulation of MRX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRX is an integral type ship reactor with 100 MWt power, which is designed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is characterized by integral type PWR, in-vessel type control rod drive mechanism, water-filled containment vessel and passive decay heat removal system. Marine reactor should have high passive safety. Therefore, in this study, we simulated the loss of flow accident to verify the passive decay heat removal by natural circulation using RETRAN-03 code. auxiliary feed water systems are used for decay heat removal mechanism and results are compared with the loss of flow accident analysis using emergency decay heat removal system by JAERI. Results are very similar to case of EDRS 1 loop operation in JAERI analysis and decay heat is successfully removed by natural circulation

  19. Dynamic analysis of reactor auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of structural methods of generalized use in the dynamic analysis of Auxiliary Buildings and similar structures of Nuclear Power Plants is presented. Emphasis is placed on the structural response to blast and seismic loading studied from a global view point. Alternative models for the representation of both element and global stiffnesses are discussed. The assumption of rigid floor behaviour for lateral force excitation is studied. Advantages of using multi-stick models are referred and illustrated. The occurrence of torsional motions on the response is examined. The study evidences the importance of the low aspect ratio of these structures and shows its influence on parameters currently used in design of conventional buildings. (Author)

  20. Brane worlds in gravity with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Pani et al. explored a new theory of gravity by adding nondynamical fields, i.e., gravity with auxiliary fields (Phys Rev D 88:121502, 2013). In this gravity theory, higher-order derivatives of matter fields generically appear in the field equations. In this paper we extend this theory to any dimensions and discuss the thick braneworld model in five dimensions. Domain wall solutions are obtained numerically. The stability of the brane system under tensor perturbations is analyzed. We find that the system is stable under tensor perturbations and the gravity zero mode is localized on the brane. Therefore, the four-dimensional Newtonian potential can be realized on the brane. (orig.)

  1. Brane worlds in gravity with auxiliary fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Yang, Ke [Lanzhou University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Pani et al. explored a new theory of gravity by adding nondynamical fields, i.e., gravity with auxiliary fields (Phys Rev D 88:121502, 2013). In this gravity theory, higher-order derivatives of matter fields generically appear in the field equations. In this paper we extend this theory to any dimensions and discuss the thick braneworld model in five dimensions. Domain wall solutions are obtained numerically. The stability of the brane system under tensor perturbations is analyzed. We find that the system is stable under tensor perturbations and the gravity zero mode is localized on the brane. Therefore, the four-dimensional Newtonian potential can be realized on the brane. (orig.)

  2. Experimental study on the operational and the cooling performance of the APR+ passive auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+ which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. The PAFS cools down the steam generator secondary side and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by introducing a natural driving force mechanism; i.e., condensing steam in nearly-horizontal U-tubes submerged inside the passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT). With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, the separate effect test, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop), is being performed to experimentally investigate the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS. A single nearly-horizontal U-tube whose dimension is same as the prototypic U-tube of the APR+ PAFS is simulated in the PASCAL test. By performing the PASCAL test, the major thermal-hydraulic parameters such as local/overall heat transfer coefficients, fluid temperature inside the tube, wall temperature of the tube, and pool temperature distribution in the PCCT were produced not only to evaluate the current condensation heat transfer model but also to present database for the safety analysis related with the PAFS. (authors)

  3. Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results

  4. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  5. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  6. The German and English Auxiliary Systems and Complex Predicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Terrence C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores the auxiliary systems of English and German and the use of the auxiliary verbs in various complex predicate structures in the two languages. It aims at alleviating two types of problems in learning German involving governing patterns and ordering problems in clauses. (CHK)

  7. Analysis of design of auxiliary system of Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plant's internal auxiliary system has an important role in its safety operation. Because of the decay heat and safety aspects in the nuclear power plants, this role is more important. In this thesis, operation of the nuclear power plant with PWR reactor is studied and deferent nuclear systems described. In the next section all electrical loads in the Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant identified and feeding methods of each load is determined. by use of the single line diagram of the internal auxiliary system, the nominal rating of all electrical devices as transformers, inverters, Ups, diesel generators and etc. is determined. In the following, short circuit calculations performed and by above conclusion, rating values of circuit breakers is determined. At last the starting problems of electrical motors is studied and the results of motor's behavior at starting moment is discussed

  8. Three story residence with solar heat--Manchester, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    When heat lost through ducts is counted for accurate performance assessment, solar energy supplied 56 percent of building's space heating load. Average outdoor temperature was 53 degrees F; average indoor temperature was 69 degrees F. System operating modes included heating from solar collectors, storing heat, heating from storage, auxiliary heating with oil fired furnace, summer venting, and hot water preheating.

  9. Seismic qualification of PWR plant auxiliary feedwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.C.; Tsai, N.C.

    1983-08-01

    The NRC Standard Review Plan specifies that the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a safeguard system that functions in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) to remove the decay heat via the steam generator. Only recently licensed PWR plants have an AFW system designed to the current Standard Review Plan specifications. The NRC devised the Multiplant Action Plan C-14 in order to make a survey of the seismic capability of the AFW systems of operating PWR plants. The purpose of this survey is to enable the NRC to make decisions regarding the need of requiring the licensees to upgrade the AFW systems to an SSE level of seismic capability. To implement the first phase of the C-14 plan, the NRC issued a Generic Letter (GL) 81-14 to all operating PWR licensees requesting information on the seismic capability of their AFW systems. This report summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's efforts to assist the NRC in evaluating the status of seismic qualification of the AFW systems in 40 PWR plants, by reviewing the licensees' responses to GL 81-14.

  10. Seismic qualification of PWR plant auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC Standard Review Plan specifies that the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a safeguard system that functions in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) to remove the decay heat via the steam generator. Only recently licensed PWR plants have an AFW system designed to the current Standard Review Plan specifications. The NRC devised the Multiplant Action Plan C-14 in order to make a survey of the seismic capability of the AFW systems of operating PWR plants. The purpose of this survey is to enable the NRC to make decisions regarding the need of requiring the licensees to upgrade the AFW systems to an SSE level of seismic capability. To implement the first phase of the C-14 plan, the NRC issued a Generic Letter (GL) 81-14 to all operating PWR licensees requesting information on the seismic capability of their AFW systems. This report summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's efforts to assist the NRC in evaluating the status of seismic qualification of the AFW systems in 40 PWR plants, by reviewing the licensees' responses to GL 81-14

  11. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  12. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging

  13. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  14. Auxiliary signal processing system for a multiparameter radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Gray, G. R.; Caylor, I. J.

    1993-01-01

    The design of an auxiliary signal processor for a multiparameter radar is described with emphasis on low cost, quick development, and minimum disruption of radar operations. The processor is based around a low-cost digital signal processor card and personal computer controller. With the use of such a concept, an auxiliary processor was implemented for the NCAR CP-2 radar during a 1991 summer field campaign and allowed measurement of additional polarimetric parameters, namely, the differential phase and the copolar cross correlation. Sample data are presented from both the auxiliary and existing radar signal processors.

  15. Syntactic Analyses for Parallel Grammars Auxiliaries and Genitive NPs

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, M; Rohrer, C; Butt, Miriaam; Fortman, Christian; Rohrer, Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on two disparate aspects of German syntax from the perspective of parallel grammar development. As part of a cooperative project, we present an innovative approach to auxiliaries and multiple genitive NPs in German. The LFG-based implementation presented here avoids unnessary structural complexity in the representation of auxiliaries by challenging the traditional analysis of auxiliaries as raising verbs. The approach developed for multiple genitive NPs provides a more abstract, language independent representation of genitives associated with nominalized verbs. Taken together, the two approaches represent a step towards providing uniformly applicable treatments for differing languages, thus lightening the burden for machine translation.

  16. Study on the auxiliary discharge efficiency in thermoemission elements with inert gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been made of the efficiency of an auxiliary discharge for the production of plasma in a thermoemission converter. The device comprises two chambers separated by a membrane to which an emitter is attached. An electron gun for heating the emitter is located in the upper chamber. The lower chamber is filled with an inert gas. An auxiliary emitter comprises a number of parallel tungsten wires with a diameter of 0.1 mm. Plasma parameters are measured by means of two probes, a central probe and a side probe, introduced into the interelectrode gap. The measurements have been made in an atmosphere of an inert gas - argon, helium or xenon, at a pressure of the filling gas of approximately 1 torr. In the course of the studies, some factors have been established which may be used as the basis for developing methods of design and calculation of thermoemission devices. With a negative space charge compensated through ions produced in the auxiliary discharge, only a part of the emission current can be taken from the emitter. This is due to maxwellization of electrons in plasma and the formation of a double layer near the emitter. Effective losses Δsub(i) for the ion production in the measurements fulfiled are relatively high; they increase with a growth of the ratio of the output current to the emission one and with a decrease of the atomic weight of inert gases. With an increase of plasma density an appreciable increase of the effective losses ΔUsub(i) is to be expected owing to an intensive energy exchange between electrons of the beam and those of the plasma. The collector current can be increased up to 1-3 A/cm without appreciably increasing the losses for the ion production by using emitters with a high emissivity and selecting the optimum geometry of the auxiliary discharge. Utilization of an auxiliary discharge in thermoemission devices is useful only for devices with cesium filling, when ΔUsub(i) is to be minimum. The use of an auxiliary discharge is also

  17. 有机硅类纺织助剂%Organicsilicon Textile Auxiliaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰

    2015-01-01

    Organosilicon auxiliaries have good adaptability, wide range of uses, and it is an excellent functional surfactants. Organicsilicon textile auxiliaries for textile finishing can impart the fabric soft, smooth, antistatic, water-repellent, heat - resistant and other excellent performance because of its unique structure and properties. The characteristics, classification of organosilicon auxiliaries for textile and the application of organosilicon in softener and textile finishing were introduced, and the prospect was forecasted.%有机硅助剂适应性好、用途广泛,是一种性能优良的功能性表面活性剂。有机硅类纺织助剂因其独特的结构和性能,用于纺织品整理可赋予织物柔软、滑爽、抗静电、疏水、耐热等多种优异性能。介绍了纺织用有机硅助剂的特点、分类及有机硅在纺织品中做为柔软剂及各种整理剂方面的应用,其作用是无可比拟的,并对有机硅类纺织助剂应用前景进行了展望。

  18. Enhancing VHTR passive safety and economy with thermal radiation based direct reactor auxiliary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The RVACS can be characterized as a surface-based decay heat removal system. It is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to the core volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to the vessel surface area). Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environmental side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps or annular regions formed between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions among the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very

  19. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable...

  20. Experimental program for validation of cooling and operational performance of the APR+ Passive auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is one of the advanced passive safety systems adopted in the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor plus), which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. PAFS cools down the steam generator's secondary side, and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by introducing a natural driving force mechanism; i.e., condensing steam in nearly horizontal U-tubes submerged inside the passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT). With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, an experimental program is in progress at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), which is composed of two kinds of tests; the separate effect test and the integral effect test. The separate effect test, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop), is in progress to experimentally investigate the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in PAFS. The integral effect test is being performed to confirm the operational performance of the PAFS coupled with the other reactor coolant systems (RCS) using the thermal hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal hydraulic test Loop for Accident Simulation). This paper summarizes the up to date experimental results of the separate effect test and the integral effect test for PAFS from a cooling and operational performance point of view

  1. Trace analysis of auxiliary feedwater capacity for Maanshan PWR loss-of-normal-feedwater transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maanshan nuclear power plant is a Westinghouse PWR of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, TPC). A few years ago, TPC has made many assessments in order to uprate the power of Maanshan NPP. The assessments include NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) parameters calculation, uncertainty acceptance, integrity of pressure vessel, reliability of auxiliary systems, and transient analyses, etc. Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident happened, it is necessary to consider transients with multiple-failure. Base on the analysis, we further study the auxiliary feedwater capability for Loss-of-Normal-Feedwater (LONF) transient. LONF is the limiting transient of non-turbine trip initiated event for ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) which results in a reduction in capability of the secondary system to remove the heat generated in the reactor core. If the turbine fails to trip immediately, the secondary water inventory will decrease significantly before the actuation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. The heat removal from the primary side decreases, and this leads to increases of primary coolant temperature and pressure. The water level of pressurizer also increases subsequently. The heat removal through the relief valves and the auxiliary feedwater is not sufficient to fully cope with the heat generation from primary side. The pressurizer will be filled with water finally, and the RCS pressure might rise above the set point of relief valves for water discharge. RCS pressure depends on steam generator inventory, primary coolant temperature, negative reactivity feedback, and core power, etc. The RCS pressure may reach its peak after core power reduction. According to ASME Code Level C service limit criteria, the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure must be under 22.06 MPa. The USNRC is developing an advanced thermal hydraulic code named TRACE for nuclear power plant safety analysis. The development of TRACE is based on TRAC and integrating with RELAP5 and other programs. SNAP

  2. Bayesian auxiliary variable models for binary and multinomial regression

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, C C; HELD, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss auxiliary variable approaches to Bayesian binary and multinomial regression. These approaches are ideally suited to automated Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In the first part we describe a simple technique using joint updating that improves the performance of the conventional probit regression algorithm. In the second part we discuss auxiliary variable methods for inference in Bayesian logistic regression, including covariate set uncertainty. Fina...

  3. A Parallel Auxiliary Grid AMG Method for GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; Hu, Xiaozhe; Cohen, Jonathan; Xu, Jinchao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new parallel auxiliary grid algebraic multigrid (AMG) method to leverage the power of graphic processing units (GPUs). In the construction of the hierarchical coarse grid, we use a simple and fixed coarsening procedure based on a region quadtree generated from an auxiliary grid. This allows us to explicitly control the sparsity patterns and operator complexities of the AMG solver. This feature provides (nearly) optimal load balancing and predictable communication p...

  4. Operating experiences and degradation detection for auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) Systems has been conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The results of the study are documented in NUREG/CR-5404, Vol. 1, Auxiliary Feedwater System Aging Study. The study reviewed historical failure experience and current monitoring practices for the AFW System. This paper provides an overview of the study approach and results

  5. New braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Menezes, R; Moreira, D C

    2014-01-01

    We study braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields. We use the first-order framework to investigate several distinct possibilities, where the standard braneworld scenario changes under the presence of the parameter that controls the auxiliary fields introduced to modify Einstein's equation. The results add to previous ones, to show that the minimal modification that we investigate contributes to change quantitatively the thick braneworld profile, although no new qualitative effect is capable of being induced by the minimal modification here considered.

  6. Alphabet Sizes of Auxiliary Variables in Canonical Inner Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Soumya

    2008-01-01

    Alphabet size of auxiliary random variables in our canonical description is derived. Our analysis improves upon estimates known in special cases, and generalizes to an arbitrary multiterminal setup. The salient steps include decomposition of constituent rate polytopes into orthants, translation of a hyperplane till it becomes tangent to the achievable region at an extreme point, and derivation of minimum auxiliary alphabet sizes based on Caratheodory's theorem.

  7. SEPP-ZVS High Frequency Inverter Incorporating Auxiliary Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Itoi, Misao; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents a novel circuit topology to attain ZVS operation of a high frequency inverter over a wide range output power regulation using a PWM control technique by connecting an auxiliary switch to the conventional single ended push-pull (SEPP) ZVS high frequency inverter. A switching current is injected into the main switches via the auxiliary switch only during the short period between its turn-on and off times to supply a current required for its ZVS operation.

  8. Soft switching DC/DC converter using auxiliary circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Dudrik; Vladimír Ruščin

    2008-01-01

    A novel auxiliary circuit for full-bridge PWMDC/DC converter with controlled secondary side rectifieris presented in this paper. Zero-current turn-on for allpower switches of the inverter is achieved for full loadrange from no-load to short circuit by using controlledrectifier and auxiliary circuit on the secondary side.Modified phase shift PWM control strategy is used for theconverter. The principle of operation is explained andanalyzed and the simulation results are presented.

  9. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Quiping [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Chtistensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yoder, Graydon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-08

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  10. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  11. Auxiliary-Arc Electrodes for MHD Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The important role of electrode phenomena in the operation of magneto aerodynamic machines is well known. In particular, the voltage drops which occur in the boundary layer in the immediate neighbourhood of the electrode may reduce the output of the apparatus. These voltage drops are caused partly by the increased resistance presented by the boundary layer in the neighbourhood of the electrode when the latter is appreciably colder than the gas, and partly by the fact that the electrode is not at a temperature sufficient to be emissive. Auxiliary-arc electrodes that have been constructed and tested seem to provide a solution both of the cold boundary layer problem and of the cathode emissivity problem. For this purpose an arc is established between a refractory metal cathode placed behind and clear of the generator wall and an anode forming part of the wall. The arc column can be activated by a rotational movement under the effect of a magnetic field, which may be that of the machine itself. The mechanical arrangement of the electrodes is such that, with a weak flow of gas (argon for example), it is possible to maintain a protective atmosphere around the arc cathode, while the arc anode is strongly cooled by the wall. The gas flow also has the effect of forcing the arc column towards the stream, thus increasing the conductivity of the boundary layer. Furthermore, the arc column behaves as a virtual cathode, from which a sizeable electron current can be extracted. Electrodes constructed on this principle have been tested on gas streams composed of fuel-oil combustion products. By using them as cathodes it has been possible to extract a current of 5 A without the voltage drop between the electrode and the gas exceeding 10 V. Comparative tests have been carried out with cooled metal electrodes, in which case the voltage drop is of the order of 120 V. The arc electrodes tested have operated for several hours without any apparent damage. In spite of the energy which has

  12. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... auxiliary fan failure due to malfunction, accident, power failure, or other such unplanned or unscheduled... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed...

  13. A PPS Sampling Scheme Using Harmonic Mean of An Auxiliary Variable

    OpenAIRE

    L.N. Sahoo; Dalabehera, M.; A.K. Mangaraj

    2012-01-01

    We consider a probability proportional to size sampling scheme by using harmonic mean of an auxiliary variable, when the correlation between study variable and auxiliary variable is highly negative. This is achieved by considering inverse transformation of the auxiliary variable and then utilizing the transformed auxiliary variable values at the design stage of the survey operation in selecting a sample.

  14. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Narain

    2003-09-01

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of selection that not only combines phenotypic and molecular information on the trait under improvement but also combines similar information on one or more auxiliary traits. The accuracy of such a selection procedure has been theoretically studied for sufficiently large populations so that the effects of detected quantitative trait loci can be perfectly estimated. The theory is illustrated numerically by considering one auxiliary trait. It is shown that the use of an auxiliary trait improves the selection accuracy; and, hence, the relative efficiency of index selection compared to individual selection which is based on the same intensity of selection. This is particularly so for higher magnitudes of residual genetic correlation and environmental correlation having opposite signs, lower values of the proportion of genetic variation in the main trait associated with the markers, negligible proportion of genetic variation in the auxiliary trait associated with the markers, and lower values of the heritability of the main trait but higher values of the heritability of the auxiliary trait.

  15. Experimental study of the start-up transient effect on cooling performance of the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is a passive cooling system on the secondary system of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus). It can replace the conventional active cooling system for auxiliary feedwater injection to the steam generator by a passive way, and it cools down the secondary system of the steam generator by heat transfer at the condensation heat exchanger installed in the PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). To validate a cooling performance of PAFS, a separate effect test loop has been constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), which is named PASCAL (PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop). It simulates a single tube of the horizontal heat exchanger, which is equivalent to 1/240 of the prototype according to a volumetric scaling methodology. In this study, two-phase flow phenomena in a horizontal heat exchanger and PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank) for the facility were experimentally investigated and the cooling capability of the condensation heat exchanger was validated in the initial start-up transient state. (author)

  16. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of an Auxiliary Cooling System for Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Kevin; Griffiths, Jim; Andersen, Paul; Joco, Fidel; Laski, Mark; Balser, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical effort of the Active Cooling for Enhanced Performance (ACEP) program sponsored by NASA. It covers the design, fabrication, and integrated systems testing of a jet engine auxiliary cooling system, or turbocooler, that significantly extends the use of conventional jet fuel as a heat sink. The turbocooler is designed to provide subcooled cooling air to the engine exhaust nozzle system or engine hot section. The turbocooler consists of three primary components: (1) a high-temperature air cycle machine driven by engine compressor discharge air, (2) a fuel/ air heat exchanger that transfers energy from the hot air to the fuel and uses a coating to mitigate fuel deposits, and (3) a high-temperature fuel injection system. The details of the turbocooler component designs and results of the integrated systems testing are documented. Industry Version-Data and information deemed subject to Limited Rights restrictions are omitted from this document.

  17. Auxiliary bearing design considerations for gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to avoid contamination of the primary system, along with other perceived advantages, has led to the selection of electromagnetic bearings (EMBs) in most ongoing commercial-scale gas cooled reactor (GCR) designs. However, one implication of magnetic bearings is the requirement to provide backup support to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The demands on these auxiliary or 'catcher' bearings have been substantially escalated by the recent development of direct Brayton cycle GCR concepts. Conversely, there has been only limited directed research in the area of auxiliary bearings, particularly for vertically oriented turbomachines. This paper explores the current state-of-the-art for auxiliary bearings and the implications for current GCR designs. (author)

  18. Improving Semi-Supervised Learning with Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae;

    Deep generative models based upon continuous variational distributions parameterized by deep networks give state-of-the-art performance. In this paper we propose a framework for extending the latent representation with extra auxiliary variables in order to make the variational distribution more...... expressive for semi-supervised learning. By utilizing the stochasticity of the auxiliary variable we demonstrate how to train discriminative classifiers resulting in state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning exemplified by an 0.96% error on MNIST using 100 labeled data points. Furthermore...

  19. Auxiliary tensor fields for Sp(2,R) self-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Evgeny A; Zupnik, Boris M

    2014-01-01

    The coset Sp(2,R)/U(1) is parametrized by two real scalar fields. We generalize the formalism of auxiliary tensor (bispinor) fields in U(1) self-dual nonlinear models of abelian gauge fields to the case of Sp(2,R) self-duality. In this new formulation, Sp(2,R) duality of the nonlinear scalar-gauge equations of motion is equivalent to an Sp(2,R) invariance of the auxiliary interaction. We derive this result in two different ways, aiming at its further application to supersymmetric theories. We also consider an extension to interactions with higher derivatives.

  20. Bispinor Auxiliary Fields in Duality-Invariant Electrodynamics Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, E. A.; Zupnik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by a recent progress in studying the duality-symmetric models of nonlinear electrodynamics, we revert to the auxiliary tensorial (bispinor) field formulation of the O(2) duality proposed by us in arXiv:hep-th/0110074, arXiv:hep-th/0303192. In this approach, the entire information about the given duality-symmetric system is encoded in the O(2) invariant interaction Lagrangian which is a function of the auxiliary fields V_{\\alpha\\beta}, \\bar V_{\\dot \\alpha\\dot \\beta}. We extend this s...

  1. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours

  2. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest in......Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...

  3. Evaluation of Effect of N{sub 2} Gas on the Cooling Capability of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) in APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yun Je; Kang, Kyong Ho; Yun, Byong Jo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In Korea, Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) has being developed by adding passive safety features to Advanced Power Reactor 1400MWe (APR1400). Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is one of passive system adopted in the APR+ to replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. Because PAFS removes decay heat from the reactor core, it is required to verify the performance of PAFS in postulated accidents cases. In addition, an effect of noncondensable gas on the heat removal capability of PAFS should be evaluated since the non-condensable gas may deteriorate a condensation heat transfer through the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS. In this study, the effect of N{sub 2} gas was evaluated using MARS

  4. Indigenous manufacturing realization of twin source and its auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian negative ion source development program has gained momentum with planned integration of Indian Test Facility (INTF) for ITER – Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) characterization at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR). Eight RF drivers based negative ion source, being developed for DNB will be tested and operated in INTF. The TWIN (Two driver based indigenously built Negative ion source) source provides a bridge between the operational single driver based negative ion source test facility, ROBIN in IPR and an ITER-type multi driver based ion source. The source is designed to be operated in CW mode with 180kW, 1MHz, 5s ON/600s OFF duty cycle and also in 5Hz modulation mode with 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle for 3 such cycle. The complete design of TWIN source and its test facility, from conceptual to detailed engineering, has been carried out in IPR. The manufacturing design has been optimized to match the capability of Indian manufacturers, without compromising on the specifications. Some examples of optimization are i) an improvised design of the Faraday shields where electro-deposition has been replaced by vacuum brazing, ii) a simplified design of the side walls of the plasma source, where jointing process is simplified, without the application of Electron Beam Welding (EBW), iii) introduction of an FRP based integrated electrical and vacuum isolation scheme that replaces the application of a large ceramic. Finite element analysis (FEA) based on heat load and structural load calculation ensure the functionality and structural integrity of each components of the source. Due to non-nuclear environment in TWIN source experimental area, vacuum brazing is an acceptable manufacturing process. The contract for manufacturing of the ion source has been awarded to an Indian manufacturing company for the first indigenous production of a large size fusion grade ion source. The uniqueness of the TWIN source design is that, it can be operated both in Air mode (ROBIN type

  5. Improvement of Equipment reliability for Auxiliary Feed Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to AP913 ER) of INPO, Number of the event related to equipment is higher than others like external or human performance. In the top 25 systems, Auxiliary feed water system is the seventh highest among systems. AWFS consists of many component and complex system and Main Function of AFWS is to supply feedwater to the steam generators for the removal of heat from the RCS(Reactor Coolant System) in event the main feedwater system is unavailable following a transient or accident. Reliability of component means how well operate on demands and monitoring is necessary to keep track of condition of component. If component performance is lower than the required value, corrective action for failure mode should be done. The objective of this study is focused to improve of AF pump by adding the tasks of SHR(System Health Report) into the task of system engineer walkdown of PMT(Preventive Maintenance Template). Increasing the reliability of AF pump will contribute to improvement of reliability of AFWS. Based on operating history, there was high vibration of AF pump during performance test. In that case, there were a lot of maintenance works for normal operation of AF pump. Vibration problem related pump can't be detected by tasks of SE walkdown because it's not running during normal operation except for surveillance test. CHR(Component Health Report) of AF pump in AFWS can be made from necessary part which means monitoring and functional failure because problem of Stand-by pump can be covered by conducting monitoring and analysis of functional failure. To improve reliability of AF pump, walkdown of PMT and SHR should be conducted both in accordance with surveillance test frequency. Health of AF pump based on operation history can be verified first and then can find out which parts of pump are weak. Finally, weak part can be managed intensively and failure can be reduced according to SE walkdown. But this work can be risky and burdensome because all parts of CHR are not

  6. Single-tube condensation experiment in Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System of APR1400+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Wook; No, Hee Cheon; Yun, Bong Yo; Jeon, Byong Guk [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Conventional Korean nuclear power plants, Advanced Power Reactors (APR), are characterized by an active cooling system. However, Active cooling system may not prevent significant damage without any AC power source available for its operation as vividly illustrated through the recent Fukushima incident. In the APR1400+ to be designed, an independent passive cooling system was added in order to overcome the aforementioned shortcomings. In the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS), gravity force and density difference between steam and water are used. The system comprises of 240 condensation tubes to efficiently remove decay heat. Before applying the PAFS to APR1400+, the system's safety and heat removal performance must be verified. The present study experimentally evaluates the heat removal performance of a single tube in the PAFS. The objectives of SCOP (Single-tube Condensation experiment facility of PAFS) are the evaluation of the heat removal performance in the tube of the PAFS and database construction under various tube designs and test conditions. Reaching these objectives, we developed advanced measurement techniques for the amount of moisture, heat flux, and water film thickness.

  7. Single-tube condensation experiment in Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System of APR1400+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional Korean nuclear power plants, Advanced Power Reactors (APR), are characterized by an active cooling system. However, Active cooling system may not prevent significant damage without any AC power source available for its operation as vividly illustrated through the recent Fukushima incident. In the APR1400+ to be designed, an independent passive cooling system was added in order to overcome the aforementioned shortcomings. In the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS), gravity force and density difference between steam and water are used. The system comprises of 240 condensation tubes to efficiently remove decay heat. Before applying the PAFS to APR1400+, the system's safety and heat removal performance must be verified. The present study experimentally evaluates the heat removal performance of a single tube in the PAFS. The objectives of SCOP (Single-tube Condensation experiment facility of PAFS) are the evaluation of the heat removal performance in the tube of the PAFS and database construction under various tube designs and test conditions. Reaching these objectives, we developed advanced measurement techniques for the amount of moisture, heat flux, and water film thickness.

  8. Legal issues concerning heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersemann, D.

    Heat pumps are considered suitable to contribute to an improvement of the total energy balance. As a rule, they are divided into the following categories of utilizable auxiliary energies: ground water, surface waters, soil, absorbers, air. They are also distinguished according to driving systems: electric, gas, or Diesel heat pumps. Considering forecasts concerning the utilization potential of heat pumps it seems easy to see that the legal assessment of heat pumps shall obtain considerable practical importance for the authorities as well as for private managers. The article gives a survey of the most important legal issues concerning heat pumps.

  9. Heat pulse propagation studies in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat pulse propagation (HPP) studies in JET have been carried out using a twelve-channel electron cyclotron emission grating (ECE) polychromator. Emphasis is placed on the behaviour of the heat pulse under strong auxiliary heating. The conventional diffusive model for the data-interpretation has been extended so as to take into account the source- and sink terms in the electron power balance equation. It is concluded that the heat pulse is governed by an 'incremental' heat diffusivity, which is related to the incremental confinement time. Experimental results which were obtained during operation of JET are presented, including values of HPP during ohmic heating and HPP during auxiliary heating. These experimental results are discussed with respect to the incremental heat diffusivity. Finally the results of this work are considered in relation to the study of anomalous transport in tokamaks. (U.K.)

  10. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  11. Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo methods in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alhassid, Y

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo methods enable the calculation of thermal and ground state properties of correlated quantum many-body systems in model spaces that are many orders of magnitude larger than those that can be treated by conventional diagonalization methods. We review recent developments and applications of these methods in nuclei using the framework of the configuration-interaction shell model.

  12. Power consumption of the ASCV and auxiliary equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1998-01-01

    Operating an ASCV requires power - to cover the losses in the ASCV itself and to run auxiliary equipment. It is necessary to take this power consumption into account when considering the economical aspects of installing an ASCV.Field measurements of this consumption of the ASCV in Rejsby Hede are...

  13. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... locomotive is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) that operates during an idle shutdown mode, you must account for the APU's emissions rates as specified in this section, unless the APU is part of an... emission rate (g/hr) as specified in § 1033.530. Add the APU emission rate (g/hr) that you determine...

  14. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    MSFC has embarked on use of green propellant replacement of hydrazine for a variety of applications. This paper focused on activities for auxiliary power unit but MSFC is actively investigating use of green propellants for thruster applications. MSFC is interested in partnership with the international community to address the infusion of green propellant into greater use.

  15. Continuous Market Engineering - Focusing Agent Behavior, Interfaces, and Auxiliary Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kranz, Tobias Theodor

    2015-01-01

    Electronic markets spread out amongst business entities as well as private individuals. Albeit numerous approaches on developing electronic markets exist, a unified approach targeting market development, redesign, and refinement has been lacking. This thesis studies the potential of continuously improving electronic markets. Thereby, the experiments? design focuses on Agent Behavior, Interfaces, and Auxiliary Services and thus unveils the potential of continuously improving electronic markets.

  16. Regulation of Glutamate Receptors by Their Auxiliary Subunits

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate receptors are major excitatory receptors in the brain. Recent findings have established auxiliary subunits of glutamate receptors as critical modulators of synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and neurological disorder. The elucidation of the molecular rules governing glutamate receptors and subunits will improve our understanding of synapses and of neural-circuit regulation in the brain.

  17. Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT) Water Level Effect for Cooling Performance of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is a next generation nuclear power plant being developed in Korea. It adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for the steam generator (SG) instead of an active auxiliary feedwater system for the conventional nuclear power plant (NPP). The passive safety system is advantageous in that it can enhance the reliability and reduce the effect of operator mistakes, which have been fundamental weak points as indicated in the safety analysis including the PSA (Probability Safety Assessment). The PAFS can replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system for the SG by a passive way. A schematic diagram of the PAFS for the APR+ is shown in Figure 1. It is composed of a steam-supply line, a condensation heat exchanger, a return-water line, and a PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank). When the water level in the SG becomes lower than 25% of the wide range of the water level transmitter during an accident situation, the actuation valve at the return water line is open and then the natural convection flow of the PAFS can be made. It cools down the secondary system of the SG by heat transfer at the condensation heat exchanger installed in the PCCT. The steam generated from the SG in the high pressure condition is condensed in the condensation heat exchanger tube. The absolute pressure at the top of PCCT is maintained at an atmospheric pressure, so that natural convection accompanying boiling heat transfer at the outside wall of the heat exchanger tubes occurs in the PCCT pool side. Since the heat exchanger and the PCCT are located at a higher elevation than the SG, condensate water can be returned back to the SG with a natural driving force. From the experiment, two-phase flow phenomena in the horizontal heat exchanger and PCCT were investigated and the cooling capability of the condensation heat exchanger was validated. Test results showed that the design of the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS could satisfy the requirement

  18. Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT) Water Level Effect for Cooling Performance of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Cho, Yun Je; Kim, Bok Deuk; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Byong Jo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is a next generation nuclear power plant being developed in Korea. It adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for the steam generator (SG) instead of an active auxiliary feedwater system for the conventional nuclear power plant (NPP). The passive safety system is advantageous in that it can enhance the reliability and reduce the effect of operator mistakes, which have been fundamental weak points as indicated in the safety analysis including the PSA (Probability Safety Assessment). The PAFS can replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system for the SG by a passive way. A schematic diagram of the PAFS for the APR+ is shown in Figure 1. It is composed of a steam-supply line, a condensation heat exchanger, a return-water line, and a PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank). When the water level in the SG becomes lower than 25% of the wide range of the water level transmitter during an accident situation, the actuation valve at the return water line is open and then the natural convection flow of the PAFS can be made. It cools down the secondary system of the SG by heat transfer at the condensation heat exchanger installed in the PCCT. The steam generated from the SG in the high pressure condition is condensed in the condensation heat exchanger tube. The absolute pressure at the top of PCCT is maintained at an atmospheric pressure, so that natural convection accompanying boiling heat transfer at the outside wall of the heat exchanger tubes occurs in the PCCT pool side. Since the heat exchanger and the PCCT are located at a higher elevation than the SG, condensate water can be returned back to the SG with a natural driving force. From the experiment, two-phase flow phenomena in the horizontal heat exchanger and PCCT were investigated and the cooling capability of the condensation heat exchanger was validated. Test results showed that the design of the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS could satisfy the requirement

  19. Auxiliary services offered to operator of transmissive system - the primary and secondary regulation of active capacity in ENO, o.z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change of outmoded analogue regulators of turbogenerators of Novaky Thermal Power Plant (TG ENO) B1 and B2 to new digital assigned the basic condition for fulfilment of strict rules for providing of auxiliary services - of primary and secondary regulation of active capacity and regulation of turns. The paper deals with technical and program sources for realisation of marked auxiliary services on the level of direct regulation of bloc, with fulfilment and evaluating of auxiliary services according to valid norm PNE 34-01/2002 in condensation and power take off operation of blocks after realisation of extraction of heat in hot water from ENO B. The paper argues, that regulation attributes of block - regulation zone of active capacity for primary and secondary regulation as like as the parameters of these regulations have been not changed by power take off operation. (author)

  20. Light wire auxiliaries with pre-adjusted edgewise appliance to control individual incisor torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanya Sabrish

    2015-01-01

    The use of light wire auxiliaries have definite advantages and hence should be a part of our armamentarium to handle such cases. Light wire auxiliaries offer us a biomechanically superior and economical alternative to apply torque forces on incisors.

  1. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  2. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Jin Kim; Jae Young Kim; Jae Hyun Kim; Dong Ha Kim; Duck-Sik Lee; Choon-Sang Park; Hyung Dal Park; Bhum Jae Shin; Heung-Sik Tae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays...

  3. Operation of Geothermal Heat System in The Hague, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal Heat system The Hague needs a provision in the shape of a geothermal heat system for additional heat supply to approximately 4000 dwellings in the Southwest of The Hague. Some interested persons and residents have questions about the operation of the system, the linkage to the source of geothermal heat, the need for an auxiliary heat boiler, the emission, the operating hours, the noise and the plume formation. This memo contains an explanation of the various components of the geothermal heat plant.

  4. A Convergent Method of Auxiliary Sources for Two-Dimensional Impedance Scatterers With Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2001-01-01

    A modification to the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is introduced which renders the method operational for two-dimensional impedance scatterers with edges. The modification consists in letting the auxiliary surface converge to the scatterer physical surface for increasing number of auxiliary ...

  5. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which... in operation, and remain stopped during operation of the engine as an auxiliary power unit (“APU...

  6. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…

  7. Hydrogen environment embrittlement of turbine disk alloys. [for space shuttle auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.; Joyce, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Astroloy and V-57, two candidate turbine disk alloys for the auxiliary power unit (APU) of the space shuttle propulsion and power system were tested for their resistance to embrittlement in hydrogen environments. Samples of both these nickel-base alloys were subjected to notch and smooth tensile testing and to creep testing in hydrogen. The high resistance exhibited by Astroloy forgings to embrittlement by hydrogen is attributed to the microstructure produced by forging and also to the special heat treatment schedule. V-57 turbine disks successfully completed short-time performance testing in the experimental APU. The use of the Astroloy, however, would permit increasing turbine inlet temperature and the rotational speed beyond those possible with V-57.

  8. Investigation on Ledinegg Instability in Condensate Tube of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is one of advanced safety features under development for Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+). Because the condensate flow is driven by natural circulation, it is important to ensure not to induce instabilities inside the condensate tube in PAFS for the effective cooling capability. Among the flow instabilities, the Ledineggtype instability may cause the severe deterioration of heat removal capability of PAFS since it can reduce the condensate flow even with slight change of pressure loss. Because the Ledinegg instability occurs when the pressure drop decreases with increasing flow, to evaluate the behavior of the pressure drop according to the change of mass flow rate is essential. For this reason, one-dimensional, integrated flow model is formulated and two-phase flow characteristics in the condensate tube are mathematically solved

  9. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, W. S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season is discussed. The systems comprised an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a nonfreezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. The system is compared with CSU Solar Houses I, II and III. The experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well insulated heat storage tank. Day time electric auxiliary heating is avoided by use of off peak electric heat storage.

  10. Contracted auxiliary Gaussian basis integral and derivative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M

    2008-02-14

    The rapid evaluation of two-center Coulomb and overlap integrals between contracted auxiliary solid harmonic Gaussian functions is examined. Integral expressions are derived from the application of Hobson's theorem and Dunlap's product and differentiation rules of the spherical tensor gradient operator. It is shown that inclusion of the primitive normalization constants greatly simplifies the calculation of contracted functions corresponding to a Gaussian multipole expansion of a diffuse charge density. Derivative expressions are presented and it is shown that chain rules are avoided by expressing the derivatives as a linear combination of auxiliary integrals involving no more than five terms. Calculation of integrals and derivatives requires the contraction of a single vector corresponding to the monopolar result and its scalar derivatives. Implementation of the method is discussed and comparison is made with a Cartesian Gaussian-based method. The current method is superior for the evaluation of both integrals and derivatives using either primitive or contracted functions. PMID:18282025

  11. Aging assessment of PWR [Pressurized Water Reactor] Auxiliary Feedwater Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a review of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater Systems. Two of the objectives of the NPAR Program are to identify failure modes and causes and identify methods to detect and track degradation. In Phase I of the Auxiliary Feedwater System study, a detailed review of system design and operating and surveillance practices at a reference plant is being conducted to determine failure modes and to provide an indication of the ability of current monitoring methods to detect system degradation. The extent to which current practices are contributing to aging and service wear related degradation is also being assessed. This paper provides a description of the study approach, examples of results, and some interim observations and conclusions. 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders - A Reference Solution for the Numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived by...... singularities at different positions away from the origin. The transformation necessitates a truncation of the wave transformation but the inaccuracy introduced hereby is shown to be negligible. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is employed as a reference to investigate the accuracy of the...... numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources for a range of scattering configurations....

  13. Auxiliary representations of Lie algebras and the BRST constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of construction of auxiliary representations for a given Lie algebra is discussed in the framework of the BRST approach. The corresponding BRST charge turns out to be nonhermitian. This problem is solved by the introduction of the additional kernel operator in the definition of the scalar product in the Fock space. The existence of the kernel operator is proved for any Lie algebra

  14. Auxiliary Field Meson Model at Finite Temperature and Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kouno, H; Kashiwa, K; Hamada, M; Tokudome, H; Matsuzaki, M; Yahiro, M

    2005-01-01

    Starting from many quark interactions, we construct a nonlinear sigma-omega model at finite temperature and density. The mesons are introduced as auxiliary fields. Effective quark-meson couplings are strongly related to effective meson masses, since they are derived simultaneously from the original many quark interactions. In this model, even if the effective omega-meson mass decreases due to the partial chiral restoration, the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter can become soft.

  15. Contracted auxiliary Gaussian basis integral and derivative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid evaluation of 2-center Coulomb and overlap integrals between contracted auxiliary solid harmonic Gaussian functions is examined. Integral expressions are derived from the application of Hobson’s theorem and Dunlap’s product and differentiation rules of the spherical tensor gradient operator. It is shown that inclusion of the primitive normalization constants greatly simplifies the calculation of contracted functions corresponding to a Gaussian multipole expansion of a diffuse charge...

  16. A simplified model for scheduling services on auxiliary bus lines

    OpenAIRE

    Codina Sancho, Esteve; Montero Mercadé, Lídia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical programming based model is described to assist with the schedule of services for a set of auxiliary bus lines that operate alleviating a disruption of the regular transportation system during a given time period. In contrast to other models, considered static, service schedules are set taking into account demand fluctuations that may happen in that time period. Passenger flows are represented with a multi-commodity structure and disseminate throug...

  17. Auxiliary full-disc telescope for the European Solar Telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotka, Michal; Klvaňa, Miroslav; Melich, Zbyněk; Rail, Zdeněk; Bettonvil, F.; Gelly, B.

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2010 - (McLean, I.), 77351Z-1-77351Z-8 ISBN 9780819482259. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 7735). [Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy III. San Diego (US), 27.06.2010-02.07.2010] Grant ostatní: EU(XE) 212482 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : auxiliary full-disc telescope * principal functions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bucchi; Forte, P; F. Frendo; R. Squarcini

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR) is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are...

  19. Mixed Bayesian Networks with Auxiliary Variables for Automatic Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Todd Andrew; Magimai.-Doss, Mathew; Bourlard, Hervé

    2001-01-01

    Standard hidden Markov models (HMMs), as used in automatic speech recognition (ASR), calculate their emission probabilities by an artificial neural network (ANN) or a Gaussian distribution conditioned on the hidden state variable, considering the emissions independent of any other variable in the model. Recent work showed the benefit of conditioning the emission distributions on a discrete auxiliary variable, which is observed in training and hidden in recognition. Related work has shown the ...

  20. Enhancing Sentence Relation Modeling with Auxiliary Character-level Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Huang, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Neural network based approaches for sentence relation modeling automatically generate hidden matching features from raw sentence pairs. However, the quality of matching feature representation may not be satisfied due to complex semantic relations such as entailment or contradiction. To address this challenge, we propose a new deep neural network architecture that jointly leverage pre-trained word embedding and auxiliary character embedding to learn sentence meanings. The two kinds of word seq...

  1. Bayesian Analysis of Geostatistical Models With an Auxiliary Lattice

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jincheol

    2012-04-01

    The Gaussian geostatistical model has been widely used for modeling spatial data. However, this model suffers from a severe difficulty in computation: it requires users to invert a large covariance matrix. This is infeasible when the number of observations is large. In this article, we propose an auxiliary lattice-based approach for tackling this difficulty. By introducing an auxiliary lattice to the space of observations and defining a Gaussian Markov random field on the auxiliary lattice, our model completely avoids the requirement of matrix inversion. It is remarkable that the computational complexity of our method is only O(n), where n is the number of observations. Hence, our method can be applied to very large datasets with reasonable computational (CPU) times. The numerical results indicate that our model can approximate Gaussian random fields very well in terms of predictions, even for those with long correlation lengths. For real data examples, our model can generally outperform conventional Gaussian random field models in both prediction errors and CPU times. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2012 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  2. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  3. Scaling analysis for the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for FHRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A scaling analysis for the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system is performed. • Key dimensionless numbers are developed and similarity laws are proposed. • A scaling methodology that consists of core scaling and loop scaling is developed. • Scientific design of a scaled-down high-temperature DRACS facility is obtained. - Abstract: The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive residual heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three natural circulation/convection loops that rely on buoyancy as the driving force and are coupled via two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS heat exchanger and the natural draft heat exchanger. A fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during reactor normal operation, and to activate the DRACS in accidents when the reactor is shut down. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for FHRs built or tested in the literature. In this paper, a detailed scaling analysis for the DRACS is performed, which will provide guidance for the design of scaled-down DRACS test facilities. Based on the Boussinesq assumption and one-dimensional flow formulation, the governing equations are non-dimensionalized by introducing appropriate dimensionless parameters. The key dimensionless numbers that characterize the DRACS system are obtained from the non-dimensional governing equations. Based on the dimensionless numbers and non-dimensional governing equations, similarity laws are proposed. In addition, a scaling methodology has been developed, which consists of a core scaling and a loop scaling. The consistency between the core and loop scaling is examined via the reference volume ratio, which can be obtained from

  4. Determination of intersecting curve between two surfaces of revolution with parallel axes by use of auxiliary planes and auxiliary spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Ratko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the space intersecting curve between two surfaces of revolution with parallel axes of surfaces have been determined. Two mathematical models for determination of intersecting curve between two surfaces of revolution have been formed: auxiliary planes have been used in the first mathematical model and auxiliary spheres have been used in the second model (Obradović 2000. In the first case each auxiliary plane intersected with each surface of revolution on circle and two points of intersecting curve are obtained as intersecting points between these two circles. In the second case centres of two locks of auxiliary spheres are put on axes of surfaces of revolution (centre of first lock is on axis of the first surface of revolution and centre of second lock is on axis of the second surface of revolution on saine z coordinate (when axes of surfaces of revolution are parallel with z axis of coordinate system. First lock sphere intersects the first surface of revolution on w1 parallels and second lock corresponding sphere intersects the second surface of revolution on w2 circles. It is possible to find a relationship that for selected radius of the first lock sphere can determine the radius of second lock sphere and real points of intersecting curve have been determined by use of these two spheres. The points of intersecting curve between two surfaces of revolution are obtained by intersection between w1 circles from the first surface with w2 circles from the second surface (Obradović 2000.

  5. Separate and integral effect tests for validation of cooling and operational performance of the APR+ passive auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+, which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of PAFS, an experimental program is in progress at KAERI, which is composed of two kinds of tests; the separate effect test and the integral effect test. The separate effect test, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop), is being performed to experimentally investigate the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in PAFS. A single, nearly-horizontal U-tube, whose dimensions are the same as the prototypic U-tube of the APR+ PAFS, is simulated in the PASCAL test. The PASCAL experimental result showed that the present design of PAFS satisfied the heat removal requirement for cooling down the reactor core during the anticipated accident transients. The integral effect test is in progress to confirm the operational performance of PAFS, coupled with the reactor coolant systems using the ATLAS facility. As the first integral effect test, an FLB (feedwater line break) accident was simulated for the APR+. From the integral effect test result, it could be concluded that the APR+ has the capability of coping with the hypothetical FLB accident by adopting PAFS and proper set-points of its operation.

  6. Experimental Study on the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) during the Quasisteady State and the MSSV Open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant being developed in Korea. The PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+, which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, the experimental program of the separate effect test is in progress at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The test facility, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop) was constructed to experimentally investigate the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS. In this study, six tests were performed for validating cooling performance of the PAFS during a quasi-steady state. With a given thermal power of electrical heaters in the steam generator from 200 kW to 750 kW (SS-200-P1, SS-300-P1, SS-400-P1, SS-650, and SS-750-P1), a heat removal rate in the PCHX was measured and the characteristics of the natural convection in the loop were investigated. In the test of MSSV open, the thermal hydraulic behavior in the system was investigated after an abrupt open and close of the MSSV

  7. Experimental Study on the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) during the Quasisteady State and the MSSV Open

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Bok Deuk; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant being developed in Korea. The PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+, which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, the experimental program of the separate effect test is in progress at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The test facility, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop) was constructed to experimentally investigate the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS. In this study, six tests were performed for validating cooling performance of the PAFS during a quasi-steady state. With a given thermal power of electrical heaters in the steam generator from 200 kW to 750 kW (SS-200-P1, SS-300-P1, SS-400-P1, SS-650, and SS-750-P1), a heat removal rate in the PCHX was measured and the characteristics of the natural convection in the loop were investigated. In the test of MSSV open, the thermal hydraulic behavior in the system was investigated after an abrupt open and close of the MSSV

  8. The modeling of a standalone solid-oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, N.; Li, Q.; Sun, X.; Khaleel, M. A.

    In this research, a Simulink model of a standalone vehicular solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) is developed. The SOFC APU model consists of three major components: a controller model; a power electronics system model; and an SOFC plant model, including an SOFC stack module, two heat exchanger modules, and a combustor module. This paper discusses the development of the nonlinear dynamic models for the SOFC stacks, the heat exchangers and the combustors. When coupling with a controller model and a power electronic circuit model, the developed SOFC plant model is able to model the thermal dynamics and the electrochemical dynamics inside the SOFC APU components, as well as the transient responses to the electric loading changes. It has been shown that having such a model for the SOFC APU will help design engineers to adjust design parameters to optimize the performance. The modeling results of the SOFC APU heat-up stage and the output voltage response to a sudden load change are presented in this paper. The fuel flow regulation based on fuel utilization is also briefly discussed.

  9. Development of the Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) for the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) of the APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor plus) is a Gen- III+ pressurized water reactor (PWR) of which the standard design is currently being developed in Korea. This reactor adopts new design features which are believed to contribute not only to enhancement in nuclear safety but also to improvement in economic competitiveness. While the conventional nuclear power plants have utilized the active cooling systems, the APR+ adopts two types of passive safety features; an advanced fluidic device (FD+) and a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The PAFS is one of the passive cooling systems of the APR+ which can replace an active system for auxiliary feedwater injection to a steam generator. A schematic diagram of the PAFS is shown in Fig. 1. It cools down the secondary system by heat transfer at horizontal heat exchangers in a PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). High pressure steam flow from the steam generator is condensed in the horizontal heat exchanger, and the water in the PCCT pool is evaporated by a boiling heat transfer at the outside wall of the heat exchanger. With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, a separate effect test, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop) is being performed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In this study, Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed for identifying the major parameters affecting the thermal-hydraulic phenomena which originate from the adoption of the PAFS in the APR+. The PIRT process can be widely used to improve a safety analysis code for a new application and to establish experimental programs and to support the resolution of the licensing issues. The PIRT process used in this study follows the methodology previously applied in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) PIRTs for large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) and direct vessel injection (DVI) line break events

  10. Development of the Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) for the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) of the APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Bub Dong; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Kang, Han Ok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Byong Jo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Ho Je [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon Joon [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Suk Ku [EN2t Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor plus) is a Gen- III+ pressurized water reactor (PWR) of which the standard design is currently being developed in Korea. This reactor adopts new design features which are believed to contribute not only to enhancement in nuclear safety but also to improvement in economic competitiveness. While the conventional nuclear power plants have utilized the active cooling systems, the APR+ adopts two types of passive safety features; an advanced fluidic device (FD+) and a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The PAFS is one of the passive cooling systems of the APR+ which can replace an active system for auxiliary feedwater injection to a steam generator. A schematic diagram of the PAFS is shown in Fig. 1. It cools down the secondary system by heat transfer at horizontal heat exchangers in a PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). High pressure steam flow from the steam generator is condensed in the horizontal heat exchanger, and the water in the PCCT pool is evaporated by a boiling heat transfer at the outside wall of the heat exchanger. With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, a separate effect test, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing heat removal Assessment Loop) is being performed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In this study, Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed for identifying the major parameters affecting the thermal-hydraulic phenomena which originate from the adoption of the PAFS in the APR+. The PIRT process can be widely used to improve a safety analysis code for a new application and to establish experimental programs and to support the resolution of the licensing issues. The PIRT process used in this study follows the methodology previously applied in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) PIRTs for large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) and direct vessel injection (DVI) line break events

  11. Scaling analysis for the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for FHRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive residual heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three natural circulation/convection loops that rely on buoyancy as the driving force and are coupled via two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS heat exchanger and the natural draft heat exchanger. A fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during reactor normal operation, and to activate the DRACS in accidents when the reactor is shut down. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for FHRs built or tested in the literature. In this paper, a detailed scaling analysis for the DRACS is performed, which will provide guidance for the design of scaled-down DRACS test facilities. Based on the Boussinesq assumption and one-dimensional flow formulation, the governing equations are non-dimensionalized by introducing appropriate dimensionless parameters. The key dimensionless numbers that characterize the DRACS system are obtained from the non-dimensional governing equations. Based on the dimensionless numbers and non-dimensional governing equations, similarity laws are proposed. In addition, a scaling methodology has been developed, which consists of a core scaling and a loop scaling. The consistency between the core and loop scaling is examined via the reference volume ratio, which can be obtained from both the core and loop scaling processes. The scaling methodology and similarity laws have been applied to obtain a scientific design of a scaled-down high-temperature DRACS test facility

  12. Design, construction and test run of a two-tonne capacity solar rice dryer with rice-husk-fired auxiliary heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction details of a two-tonne per batch capacity natural-circulation solar rice dryer and the highlights of the design of its rice-husk-fired auxiliary heating system which is still under construction are presented. The dryer measures approximately 17.7m long by 9.8m wide by 6m high. Preliminary results of a test run on the solar dryer section only is reported. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  13. Comment: ``On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions and ”

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frank E Harris

    2003-10-01

    Guseinov, Mamedov, Kara and Orbay (Pramana – J. Phys. 56, 691 (2001)) propose methods for evaluating the molecular auxiliary functions () and () for the range 17 ≤ ≤ 60 and 25 ≤ ≤ 60. However, their procedure for () is not new, and that for () is less efficient for their target range than another well-known method. Their approach does have merit for smaller non-zero values of . Two minor errors in table 1 of their paper are also identified.

  14. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua;

    2014-01-01

    tank in tank heat storage with domestic hot water in the inner tank and space heating water in the outer tank. The total tank volume is 750 liters and the solar collector area is 9 m2. The auxiliary energy supply system is based on electrical heating element(s)/heat pump and is different for all three...... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys......, the control strategy of intelligent solar heating systems is investigated and the yearly auxiliary energy use of the systems and the electricity price for supplying the consumers with domestic hot water and space heating are calculated....

  15. Assessment of a potential rapid condensation induced water hammer in a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) which is incorporated in the APR+ system is a kind of closed natural circulation loop. The PAFS has no operating functions during normal plant operation, but it has a dedicated safety function of the residual heat removal following initiating events, including the unlikely event of the most limiting single failure occurring coincident with a loss of offsite power, when the feedwater system becomes inoperable or unavailable. Even in the unlikely event of a station blackout, the isolation valves can be opened either by DC power or manual operation and then the PAFS can also provide adequate condensate to the steam generator (SG). The PAFS piping in the vicinity of each of the two SGs is designed to minimize the potential for destructive water hammer during start up operation by setting the stroke time for full close or full open of the condensate isolation valves upon receipt of a passive auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. The temperature of the stagnant condensate water and its surrounding tubes and piping during the reactor normal operation modes may fall to the ambient temperature. A possible concern is the introduction of saturated steam into the PAFS recirculation pipe downstream of the PCHX in the beginning of the PAFS operation. Although the steam introduction rate is expected to be slow, a rapid condensation rate is expected due to the initial cold surrounding temperature in the pipe, which could result in a localized pressure reduction and the propagation of decompression and velocity disturbances into the condensate water leg, which might cause the sudden closure of check valves and associated water hammer. Thus, it is requisite for the licensing review of the PAFS design to confirm if destructive water hammers will not be produced due to such rapid condensation induced decompressions in the system. This paper addresses an assessment of the potential local decompressions which could result from the steam

  16. Assessment of a potential rapid condensation induced water hammer in a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Byung Soo; Do, Kyu Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moody, Frederick J. [General Electric (Retired), CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) which is incorporated in the APR+ system is a kind of closed natural circulation loop. The PAFS has no operating functions during normal plant operation, but it has a dedicated safety function of the residual heat removal following initiating events, including the unlikely event of the most limiting single failure occurring coincident with a loss of offsite power, when the feedwater system becomes inoperable or unavailable. Even in the unlikely event of a station blackout, the isolation valves can be opened either by DC power or manual operation and then the PAFS can also provide adequate condensate to the steam generator (SG). The PAFS piping in the vicinity of each of the two SGs is designed to minimize the potential for destructive water hammer during start up operation by setting the stroke time for full close or full open of the condensate isolation valves upon receipt of a passive auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. The temperature of the stagnant condensate water and its surrounding tubes and piping during the reactor normal operation modes may fall to the ambient temperature. A possible concern is the introduction of saturated steam into the PAFS recirculation pipe downstream of the PCHX in the beginning of the PAFS operation. Although the steam introduction rate is expected to be slow, a rapid condensation rate is expected due to the initial cold surrounding temperature in the pipe, which could result in a localized pressure reduction and the propagation of decompression and velocity disturbances into the condensate water leg, which might cause the sudden closure of check valves and associated water hammer. Thus, it is requisite for the licensing review of the PAFS design to confirm if destructive water hammers will not be produced due to such rapid condensation induced decompressions in the system. This paper addresses an assessment of the potential local decompressions which could result from the steam

  17. Integral effect test on operational performance of the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for a FLB (Feedwater Line Break) accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Bok Deuk; Kang, Kyoung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+, which is intended to completely replace a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. It cools down the steam generator secondary side and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by adopting a natural convection mechanism; i.e., condensing steam in the PCHX (Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger) submerged inside the PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank). The test facility, ATLAS PAFS, was constructed to experimentally investigate the thermal hydraulic behavior in the primary and secondary systems of the APR+ during the transient when the PAFS is actuated. Among the anticipated accidents with the PAFS actuation, the FLB (Feedwater Line Break) was considered as the most important accident in evaluating the cooling capability of the PAFS, during the development of PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of the PAFS. In this study, the PAFS FLB EC 01 test was performed to simulate a break on the pipe connected to the SG 1 economizer, which was analyzed as the most severe case in the APR+ SSAR (Standard Safety Analysis Report). The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR+ during the FLB accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code.

  18. Integral effect test on operational performance of the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for a FLB (Feedwater Line Break) accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+, which is intended to completely replace a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. It cools down the steam generator secondary side and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by adopting a natural convection mechanism; i.e., condensing steam in the PCHX (Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger) submerged inside the PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank). The test facility, ATLAS PAFS, was constructed to experimentally investigate the thermal hydraulic behavior in the primary and secondary systems of the APR+ during the transient when the PAFS is actuated. Among the anticipated accidents with the PAFS actuation, the FLB (Feedwater Line Break) was considered as the most important accident in evaluating the cooling capability of the PAFS, during the development of PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of the PAFS. In this study, the PAFS FLB EC 01 test was performed to simulate a break on the pipe connected to the SG 1 economizer, which was analyzed as the most severe case in the APR+ SSAR (Standard Safety Analysis Report). The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR+ during the FLB accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code

  19. 20--500 watt AMTEC auxiliary electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K. [Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerous design studies have been completed on Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) power systems for space applications demonstrating their substantial increase in performance. Recently design studies have been initiated to couple AMTEC power conversion with fossil fueled combustion systems. This paper describes the results of a Phase 1 SBIR effort to design an innovative, efficient, reliable, long life AMTEC Auxiliary Electric Power System (AEPS) for remote site applications (20--500 watts). The concept uses high voltage AMTEC cells, each containing 7 to 9 small electrolyte tubes, integrated with a combustor and recuperator. These multi-tube AMTEC cells are low cost, reliable, long life static converters. AMTEC technology is ideal for auxiliary electric power supplies that must operate reliably over a broad range of temperatures, fuel sources, power levels, and operational specifications. The simplicity, efficiency (20% systems) and modularity of this technology allow it to fill applications as varied as light-weight backpacks, remote site power supplies, and military base power. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of a 20% system design, and showed that the development needs to focus on identifying long life AMTEC cell components, determining the AMTEC cell and system reliability, and demonstrating that a 20 watt AMTEC system is 3--5 times more efficient than existing systems for the same application.

  20. Assembly auxiliary system for narrow cabins of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Due to the narrow space and complex structure of spacecraft cabin, the existing asssembly systems can not well suit for the assembly process of cabin products. This paper aims to introduce an assembly auxiliary system for cabin products. A hierarchical-classification method is proposed to re-adjust the initial assembly relationship of cabin into a new hierarchical structure for efficient assembly planning. An improved ant colony algorithm based on three assembly principles is established for searching a optimizational assembly sequence of cabin parts. A mixed reality assembly environment is constructed with enhanced information to promote interaction efficiency of assembly training and guidance. Based on the machine vision technology, the inspection of left redundant objects and measurement of parts distance in inner cabin are efficiently performed. The proposed system has been applied to the assembly work of a spacecraft cabin with 107 parts, which includes cabin assembly planning, assembly training and assembly quality inspection. The application result indicates that the proposed system can be an effective assistant tool to cabin assembly works and provide an intuitive and real assembly experience for workers. This paper presents an assembly auxiliary system for spacecraft cabin products, which can provide technical support to the spacecraft cabin assembly industry.

  1. Analysis of a potential two phase flow instability in a PWR passive auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APR+ incorporates a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The PAFS is comprised of two separate mechanical divisions. Each division is a closed loop which is aligned to feed condensed water to its corresponding steam generator (SG), and is equipped with one passive condensation heat exchanger (PCHX), some associated isolation/drain/vent valves, check valves, instrumentation and control, and pipes. The PAFS is designed to start its operation after reactor trip and maintain its function of residual heat removal for 8 hours or longer without AC power or operator action, and to ensure a subsequent cooldown of RCS to the shutdown cooling entry conditions. During the PAFS operation mode, steam in the SG secondary side moves up due to buoyancy force and passes through the main steam line, and then flows into the PCHX where steam is condensed inside the tubes of which the outer wall surfaces are cooled by the water stored in a condensation cooling tank. The condensate is passively fed into the SG economizer by gravity. Because a natural circulation loop is susceptible to two phase flow instability, it is requisite to confirm the PAFS is designed adequately to avoid the potential challenges to its operational safety due to the instability. This paper addresses an analytical model for assessing if the loop has possible thermal and fluid mechanical characteristics which could lead to an undesirable unstable or oscillating water level in the APR+ PAFS

  2. Use of Auxiliary Electrode to Prevent Alkalinization of Soil in Electrokinetic Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Yuki; Wada, Shin-ichiro

    2004-01-01

    We devised an improved electrokinetic remendiatioin method in whoch an auxiliary electrode was placed at the cathode-side end of the soil to be treated. The electric potential difference between tne anode and the auxiliary electrode was fixed constant whole that between the cathode and the auxiloary electode was controlled to make the auxiliary electode function as a secondary anode. To test the performance of the method, we carried out a bench scale remediatioin experiment on cadmium-contam...

  3. Modifications and addition of an auxiliary feedwater pump to SONGS [San Onofre nuclear generating station] 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the recent modifications and equipment additions to the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) Unit 1. As a result of the Three Mile Island accident, several modifications to the AFW system were required. The addition of a third auxiliary feedwater pump was necessary to allow auxiliary feedwater operation following a main steam-line break concurrent with a single active failure

  4. Absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  5. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  6. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  7. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles

  8. Interaction region design and auxiliary detector systems for an EIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petti R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of exciting physics opportunities at a future electron-ion collider facility. One possible design for such a facility is eRHIC, where the current RHIC facility located at Brookhaven National Lab would be transformed into an electron-ion collider. It is imperative for a seamless integration of auxiliary detector systems into the interaction region design to have a machine that meets the needs for the planned physics analyses, as well as take into account the space constraints due to the tunnel geometry and the necessary beam line elements. In this talk, we describe the current ideas for integrating a luminosity detector, electron polarimeter, roman pots, and a low Q2-tagger into the interaction region for eRHIC.

  9. Parent formulations, frame-like Lagrangians, and generalized auxiliary fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate on the recently proposed Lagrangian parent formulation. In particular, we identify a natural choice of the allowed field configurations ensuring the equivalence of the parent and the starting point Lagrangians. We also analyze the structure of the generalized auxiliary fields employed in the parent formulation and establish the relationship between the parent Lagrangian and the recently proposed Lagrange structure for the unfolded dynamics. As an illustration of the parent formalism a systematic derivation of the frame-like Lagrangian for totally symmetric fields starting from the Fronsdal one is given. We also present a concise and manifestly sp(2)-symmetric form of the off-shell constraints and gauge symmetries for AdS space symmetric fields at the nonlinear level.

  10. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F (Mexico)], E-mail: aramador@gmail.com, E-mail: nbagatella@uv.mx, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx

    2008-03-21

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles.

  11. Auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank electrical power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2006-10-24

    An auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank (AQRDCT) power converter with fast current charging, voltage balancing (or charging), and voltage clamping circuits is provided for achieving soft-switched power conversion. The present invention is an improvement of the invention taught in U.S. Pat. No. 6,111,770, herein incorporated by reference. The present invention provides faster current charging to the resonant inductor, thus minimizing delay time of the pulse width modulation (PWM) due to the soft-switching process. The new AQRDCT converter includes three tank capacitors or power supplies to achieve the faster current charging and minimize the soft-switching time delay. The new AQRDCT converter further includes a voltage balancing circuit to charge and discharge the three tank capacitors so that additional isolated power supplies from the utility line are not needed. A voltage clamping circuit is also included for clamping voltage surge due to the reverse recovery of diodes.

  12. Glycosyl dithiocarbamates: β-selective couplings without auxiliary groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padungros, Panuwat; Alberch, Laura; Wei, Alexander

    2014-03-21

    In this article, we evaluate glycosyl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) with unprotected C2 hydroxyls as donors in β-linked oligosaccharide synthesis. We report a mild, one-pot conversion of glycals into β-glycosyl DTCs via DMDO oxidation with subsequent ring opening by DTC salts, which can be generated in situ from secondary amines and CS2. Glycosyl DTCs are readily activated with Cu(I) or Cu(II) triflate at low temperatures and are amenable to reiterative synthesis strategies, as demonstrated by the efficient construction of a tri-β-1,6-linked tetrasaccharide. Glycosyl DTC couplings are highly β-selective despite the absence of a preexisting C2 auxiliary group. We provide evidence that the directing effect is mediated by the C2 hydroxyl itself via the putative formation of a cis-fused bicyclic intermediate. PMID:24548247

  13. Learning Deep Representation for Face Alignment with Auxiliary Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Luo, Ping; Loy, Chen Change; Tang, Xiaoou

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we show that landmark detection or face alignment task is not a single and independent problem. Instead, its robustness can be greatly improved with auxiliary information. Specifically, we jointly optimize landmark detection together with the recognition of heterogeneous but subtly correlated facial attributes, such as gender, expression, and appearance attributes. This is non-trivial since different attribute inference tasks have different learning difficulties and convergence rates. To address this problem, we formulate a novel tasks-constrained deep model, which not only learns the inter-task correlation but also employs dynamic task coefficients to facilitate the optimization convergence when learning multiple complex tasks. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed task-constrained learning (i) outperforms existing face alignment methods, especially in dealing with faces with severe occlusion and pose variation, and (ii) reduces model complexity drastically compared to the state-of-the-art methods based on cascaded deep model. PMID:27046839

  14. Buildings as solar heat stores. Heating system control and room activation; Das Gebaeude als Solarspeicher. Heizungsregelung mit Raumaktivierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmeier, J. [Orange Energy, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); SHK-Betrieb Josef Heckmeier Haustechnik (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    When solar heating systems are used as auxiliary heating systems, there is often a gap between heat production and heat demand, especially with large collector surfaces. An intelligent control concept (innovative room bus system) is presented which narrows this gap and makes a significant contribution to energy conservation and CO2 reduction. The newly developed system also offers high comfort and user-friendliness. (orig.)

  15. Materials Development for Auxiliary Components for Large Compact Mo/Au TES Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, F. m.; Chervenak, J. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R.; Brown, A. D.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; Smith, S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our current fabrication process for arrays of superconducting transition edge sensor microcalorimeters, which incorporates superconducting Mo/Au bilayers and micromachined silicon structures. We focus on materials and integration methods for array heatsinking with our bilayer and micromachining processes. The thin superconducting molybdenum bottom layer strongly influences the superconducting behavior and overall film characteristics of our molybdenum/gold transition-edge sensors (TES). Concurrent with our successful TES microcalorimeter array development, we have started to investigate the thin film properties of molybdenum monolayers within a given phase space of several important process parameters. The monolayers are sputtered or electron-beam deposited exclusively on LPCVD silicon nitride coated silicon wafers. In our current bilayer process, molybdenum is electron-beam deposited at high wafer temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C. Identifying process parameters that yield high quality bilayers at a significantly lower temperature will increase options for incorporating process-sensitive auxiliary array components (AAC) such as array heat sinking and electrical interconnects into our overall device process. We are currently developing two competing technical approaches for heat sinking large compact TES microcalorimeter arrays. Our efforts to improve array heat sinking and mitigate thermal cross-talk between pixels include copper backside deposition on completed device chips and copper-filled micro-trenches surface-machined into wafers. In addition, we fabricated prototypes of copper through-wafer microvias as a potential way to read out the arrays. We present an overview on the results of our molybdenum monolayer study and its implications concerning our device fabrication. We discuss the design, fabrication process, and recent test results of our AAC development.

  16. Bistable energy harvesting enhancement with an auxiliary linear oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work has indicated that linear vibrational energy harvesters with an appended degree-of-freedom (DOF) may be advantageous for introducing new dynamic forms to extend the operational bandwidth. Given the additional interest in bistable harvester designs, which exhibit a propitious snap through effect from one stable state to the other, it is a logical extension to explore the influence of an added DOF to a bistable system. However, bistable snap through is not a resonant phenomenon, which tempers the presumption that the dynamics induced by an additional DOF on bistable designs would inherently be beneficial as for linear systems. This paper presents two analytical formulations to assess the fundamental and superharmonic steady-state dynamics of an excited bistable energy harvester to which is attached an auxiliary linear oscillator. From an energy harvesting perspective, the model predicts that the additional linear DOF uniformly amplifies the bistable harvester response magnitude and generated power for excitation frequencies less than the attachment’s resonance while improved power density spans a bandwidth below this frequency. Analyses predict bandwidths having co-existent responses composed of a unique proportion of fundamental and superharmonic dynamics. Experiments validate key analytical predictions and observe the ability for the coupled system to develop an advantageous multi-harmonic interwell response when the initial conditions are insufficient for continuous high-energy orbit at the excitation frequency. Overall, the addition of an auxiliary linear oscillator to a bistable harvester is found to be an effective means of enhancing the energy harvesting performance and robustness. (paper)

  17. A proposal on auxiliary business insurance for peritoneal dialysis treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; WANG Tao; FANG Ji-qian

    2008-01-01

    Background The peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy for end stage renal disease (ESRD) is expensive. The main reason for non-acceptance onto dialysis programs is the great cost. In the present study, we design an auxiliary business insurance program to provide the potential ESRD patients who have no access to governmental medical insurance or can not afford the remaining part besides the limited reimbursement for peritoneal dialysis therapy.Methods The information applied in this study was extracted from the medical records of 641 PD patients, who were treated in two dialysis centers of the first and the third teaching hospitals of the Peking University respectively. A collective risk model was employed to estimate the expenses on PD therapy. Survival analyses were performed to obtain the average survival time of PD patients and the average length of time from the onset of the primary disease to the beginning of PD. An annuity method was used to determine the pure premium.Results For chronic nephritis, diabetes mellitus and hyperpietic as primary diseases, the mean survival time ± standard errors were (55.1±3.7) months, (38.9±3.2) months and (61.4±4.6) months respectively, and they were significantly different from each other (all P=0.000). The expenses of whole PD therapy were 242 159.05 Yuan, 182 525.02 Yuan and 284 579.24 Yuan respectively.Conclusions An auxiliary business insurance for PD patients was designed with the pure premium for any individual who had chronic nephritis, diabetes mellitus or hyperpietic as primary disease was RMB 35.94 Yuan/year, 87.73Yuan/year or 7.71 Yuan/year respectively without considering the additional premium for coping with the business expenditures and accidental risks.

  18. Grammaticalization: The development of some English modal auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Véliz Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the topic of Grammaticalization from a diachronic perspective, with particular emphasis on the development of some English modal auxiliaries. The first part contextualizes the topic within the filed of Cognitive Linguistics; the second, deals with a brief description of lexical and grammatical items. The third part of the paper provides some crucial information on the history of Grammaticalization. A final section outlines some of the mechanisms involved in the process of Grammaticalization together with the analysis of some English modal auxiliaries and the importance of it in when studying and understanding English as a foreign language.En éste articulo se hace una reseña de un perspectiva diacrónica a un tema llamado Gramaticalización, con particular énfasis en el desarrollo de algunos de los verbos auxiliares modales en Inglés. En la primera parte se contextualiza el tema en el campo de los estudios de la Lingüística Cognitiva y, en la segunda, se aborda la distinción entre categorías léxicas y categorías gramaticales en una breve descripción. En la tercera parte se entrega información acerca de la historia del proceso de gramaticalización. La sección final plantea algunos de los mecanismos que son parte del proceso de gramaticalización, junto con un análisis de algunos verbos auxiliares modales en inglés que resultan ser de suma importancia en el estudio y la comprensión del inglés como lengua extranjera.

  19. 29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory) II Appendix II to Part 1918 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND.... 1918, App. II Appendix II to Part 1918—Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear...

  20. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis of blower fan for HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic bearing instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the blower fan system with helium of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), and the auxiliary bearing was applied in the HTR-10 as the backup protector. When the electromagnetic bearing doesn't work suddenly for the power broken, the auxiliary bearing is used to support the falling rotor with high rotating speed. The rotor system will be protected by the auxiliary bearing. The design of auxiliary bearing is the ultimate safeguard for the system. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the blower fan. The rotor's length is about 1.5 m, its weight is about 240 kg and the rotating speed is about 5400 r/min. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis are very important for the design of blower fan to make success. The research status of the auxiliary bearing was summarized in the paper. A sort of auxiliary bearing scheme was proposed. MSC.Marc was selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The scheme design of auxiliary bearing and analysis result of rotor dynamics offer the important theoretical base for the protector design and control system of electromagnetic bearing of the blower fan. (authors)

  1. How Does Dissociation between Written and Oral Forms Affect Reading: Evidence from Auxiliary Verbs in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2011-01-01

    In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from the oral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in which auxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact was exploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects reading measures like…

  2. Modal Auxiliaries and Their Semantic Functions Used by Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabiardakani, Najmeh; Khojasteh, Laleh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Since modal auxiliary verbs have been proved to be one of the most troublesome grammatical structures in English, the researchers of this study decided to do an analysis on the ways in which advanced EFL Iranian students use modal auxiliaries focusing specially on nine modals' semantic functions. Consequently, was conducted based on the following…

  3. Auxiliary space preconditioners for linear elasticity based on generalized finite element methods

    OpenAIRE

    Brannick, James; Cho, Durkbin

    2010-01-01

    We construct and analyze a preconditioner of the linear elastiity system discretized by conforming linear finite elements in the framework of the auxiliary space method. The auxiliary space preconditioner is based on discretization of a scalar elliptic equation with Generalized Finite Element Method.

  4. Smart solar tanks - Heat storage of the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a smart solar tank concept for small SDHW-systems have been carried out. In the tank the operation of the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled by the hot water demand and by the consumption pattern. Water at the top of the tank is only heated by the auxiliary...... energy supply system to a required temperature in periods with hot water demand. The tank is heated by the auxiliary energy supply system from the top so that the volume of water heated to the required temperature can be controlled in a flexible way. In periods with a large hot water demand the volume...... can be large and in periods with a small hot water demand the volume can be small. For instance, the energy supply system can be controlled on measurements of the energy content of the tank during all hours of the week and based on a required hot water consumption and consumption pattern which can be...

  5. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    World's Largest Interferometer with Moving Optical Telescopes on Track Summary The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory has just seen another extension of its already impressive capabilities by combining interferometrically the light from two relocatable 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes. Following the installation of the first Auxiliary Telescope (AT) in January 2004 (see ESO PR 01/04), the second AT arrived at the VLT platform by the end of 2004. Shortly thereafter, during the night of February 2 to 3, 2005, the two high-tech telescopes teamed up and quickly succeeded in performing interferometric observations. This achievement heralds an era of new scientific discoveries. Both Auxiliary Telescopes will be offered from October 1, 2005 to the community of astronomers for routine observations, together with the MIDI instrument. By the end of 2006, Paranal will be home to four operational ATs that may be placed at 30 different positions and thus be combined in a very large number of ways ("baselines"). This will enable the VLTI to operate with enormous flexibility and, in particular, to obtain extremely detailed (sharp) images of celestial objects - ultimately with a resolution that corresponds to detecting an astronaut on the Moon. PR Photo 07a/05: Paranal Observing Platform with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07b/05: AT1 and AT2 with Open Domes PR Photo 07c/05: Evening at Paranal with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07d/05: AT1 and AT2 under the Southern Sky PR Photo 07e/05: First Fringes with AT1 and AT2 PR Video Clip 01/05: Two ATs at Paranal (Extract from ESO Newsreel 15) A Most Advanced Device ESO PR Video 01/05 ESO PR Video 01/05 Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal [QuickTime: 160 x 120 pix - 37Mb - 4:30 min] [QuickTime: 320 x 240 pix - 64Mb - 4:30 min] ESO PR Photo 07a/05 ESO PR Photo 07a/05 [Preview - JPEG: 493 x400 pix - 44k] [Normal - JPEG: 985 x 800 pix - 727k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 4060 pix - 13.8M] Captions: ESO PR Video Clip 01/05 is an extract from

  6. Ligand-Enabled β-C–H Arylation of Alpha-Amino Acids Using a Simple and Practical Auxiliary

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Shigenari, Toshihiko; Jain, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhipeng; Jin, Zhong; He, Jian; Li, Suhua; Mapelli, Claudio; Miller, Michael M.; Poss, Michael A.; Scola, Paul M.; Yeung, Kap-Sun; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Pd-catalyzed β-C–H functionalizations of carboxylic acid derivatives using an auxiliary as a directing group have been extensively explored in the past decade. In comparison to the most widely used auxiliaries in asymmetric synthesis, the simplicity and practicality of the auxiliaries developed for C–H activation remains to be improved. We previously developed a simple N-methoxyamide auxiliary to direct β-C–H activation, albeit this system was not compatible with carboxylic acids containing α...

  7. Operation of the main feedwater system turbopump following plant trip with total failure of the auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Auxiliary Feedwater System (AF) is a safeguard system which has been designed to supply feedwater to the steam generators, cool the primary system and remove decay heat from the reactor when the main feedwater pumps fail due to loss of power or any other reason. Thus, when plant trip occurs, the AF system pumps start up automatically, allowing removal of decay heat from the reactor. However, even though this system (2 motor-driven pumps and 1 turbopump) is highly reliable, injection of water to the steam generators must be ensured when it fails completely. To do this, if plant trip has not been caused by loss of off site power or failure of the Main Feedwater System (FW) turbopumps, one of these turbopumps can be used to achieve removal of decay heat. Since a large amount of steam is consumed by these turbopumps, an analysis has been performed to determine whether one of these pumps can be used and what actions are necessary to inject water into the steam generators. Results show that, for the case in question, a FW turbopump can be used to remove decay heat from the reactor. (author)

  8. A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Past Tense Auxiliary "Be" in Argumentative Essays of Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokaran, Janaki; Ramalingam, Chithra; Adriana, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This research is a corpus-based study of secondary and college ESL Malaysian learner's written work by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Past Tense Auxiliary "Be". This research studied the past tense auxiliary "be", types of past tense auxiliary "be" errors and frequency of past tense auxiliary…

  9. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r(->), r(->)'). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r(->), r(->)') onto a semilocal model density matrix γ(SL)(ρ(r(->)), ∇ρ(r(->)), r(->) - r(->)'). γSL depends on the electron density ρ(r(->) at reference point r(->), and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r(->) - r(->)' dependence of γSL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γSL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms. PMID:25053297

  10. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are illustrated. The final choice consisted in an MR clutch with permanent magnet, which satisfied size, torque and fail-safe specifications. The clutch characteristics, in terms of torque versus slip, were obtained experimentally for three different clutch prototypes on an ad-hoc developed test bench.As result of a preliminary simulation, a comparison between the power absorption of a current production vacuum pump, an innovative vacuum pump and both vacuum pumps coupled with the MR clutch is presented. The New European Driving Cycle is considered for simulating the vacuum pump operation both in urban and highway driving. Results show that the use of the innovative vacuum pump reduces the device consumption of about 35%, whereas the use of MR clutch coupled with the innovative vacuum pump reduces it up to about 44% in urban driving and 50% in highway driving.

  11. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began the process of building an integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies. Technology Area 1 (TA-01)1 for Launch Propulsion Systems is one of fourteen TAs that provide recommendations for the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA's space technology activities. Identified within TA-01 was the need for a green propulsion auxiliary power unit (APU) for hydraulic power by 2015. Engineers led by the author at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been evaluating green propellant alternatives and have begun the development of an APU test bed to demonstrate the feasibility of use. NASA has residual APU assets remaining from the retired Space Shuttle Program. Likewise, the F-16 Falcon fighter jet also uses an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) that has similar characteristics to the NASA hardware. Both EPU and APU components have been acquired for testing at MSFC. This paper will summarize the status of the testing efforts of green propellant from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) propellant AFM315E based on hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) with these test assets.

  12. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete

  13. Development of Inverse Analysis Methodology to Estimate Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficient (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to develop a method to estimate the heat transfer coefficient on the tube surface of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) heat exchanger with the data of temperature/pressure measured at several preselected locations. The relationship between the temperatures measured at several preselected locations on the PAFS heat exchanger tube and the heat flux is formulated. The derived formulation is verified through 3 dimensional numerical heat transfer calculations

  14. Learning Agent for a Heat-Pump Thermostat with a Set-Back Strategy Using Model-Free Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Frederik Ruelens; Sandro Iacovella; Claessens, Bert J.; Ronnie Belmans

    2015-01-01

    The conventional control paradigm for a heat pump with a less efficient auxiliary heating element is to keep its temperature set point constant during the day. This constant temperature set point ensures that the heat pump operates in its more efficient heat-pump mode and minimizes the risk of activating the less efficient auxiliary heating element. As an alternative to a constant set-point strategy, this paper proposes a learning agent for a thermostat with a set-back strategy. This set-back...

  15. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  16. Calculation of Efficiencies of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Grljušić; Vladimir Medica; Gojmir Radica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of a combined heat & power (CHP) plant, using the waste heat from a Suezmax-size oil tanker’s main engine, to meet all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency, combined with a supercritical Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system, was selected to supply the auxiliary power, using R245fa or R123 as the working fluid. ...

  17. Integrated Solar-Assisted Heat Pumps for water heating coupled to gas burners; Control criteria for dynamic operation

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpa, F.; Tagliafico, L.A.; Tagliafico, G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A direct expansion integrated solar assisted heat pump (ISAHP) is compared to a traditional flat plate solar panel for low temperature (45 ?C) water heating applications. The (simulated) comparison is accomplished assuming both the devices are energy supplemented with an auxiliary standard gas burner, to provide the typical heat duty of a four-member family. Literature dynamical models of the systems involved have been used to calculate the main performance figures in a co...

  18. Integral effect test and code analysis on the cooling performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) during an FLB (feedwater line break) accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn, E-mail: bubae@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • This study focuses on the experimental validation of the operational performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system). • A transient simulation of the FLB (feedwater line break) in the integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS, was performed to investigate thermal hydraulic behavior during the PAFS actuation. • The test result confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with the FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. • The experimental result was utilized to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. - Abstract: APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), which is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant developed in Korea, adopts PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) as an advanced safety feature. The PAFS can completely replace an active auxiliary feedwater system by cooling down the secondary side of steam generators with a natural convection mechanism. This study focuses on experimental and analytical investigation for cooling and operational performance of the PAFS during an FLB (feedwater line break) transient with an integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS. To realistically simulate the FLB accident of the APR+, the three-level scaling methodology was taken into account to design the test facility and determine the test condition. From the test result, the PAFS was actuated to successfully cool down the decay heat of the reactor core by the condensation heat transfer at the PCHX (passive condensation heat exchanger), and thus it could be confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with a FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. This integral effect test data were used to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. The code analysis result proved that it could reasonably predict the FLB transient including the actuation of the PAFS and the natural convection.

  19. Integral effect test and code analysis on the cooling performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) during an FLB (feedwater line break) accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study focuses on the experimental validation of the operational performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system). • A transient simulation of the FLB (feedwater line break) in the integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS, was performed to investigate thermal hydraulic behavior during the PAFS actuation. • The test result confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with the FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. • The experimental result was utilized to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. - Abstract: APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), which is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant developed in Korea, adopts PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) as an advanced safety feature. The PAFS can completely replace an active auxiliary feedwater system by cooling down the secondary side of steam generators with a natural convection mechanism. This study focuses on experimental and analytical investigation for cooling and operational performance of the PAFS during an FLB (feedwater line break) transient with an integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS. To realistically simulate the FLB accident of the APR+, the three-level scaling methodology was taken into account to design the test facility and determine the test condition. From the test result, the PAFS was actuated to successfully cool down the decay heat of the reactor core by the condensation heat transfer at the PCHX (passive condensation heat exchanger), and thus it could be confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with a FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. This integral effect test data were used to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. The code analysis result proved that it could reasonably predict the FLB transient including the actuation of the PAFS and the natural convection

  20. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janesko, Benjamin G., E-mail: b.janesko@tcu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas 76129 (United States); Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J. [Gaussian, Inc., 340 Quinnipiac St., Bldg. 40, Wallingford, Connecticut 06492 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  1. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Beckel, Steve

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began the process of building an integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies. Technology Area 1 (TA-01) for Launch Propulsion Systems is one of fourteen TA's that provide recommendations for the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA's space technology activities. Identified within TA-01 was the need for a green propulsion auxiliary power unit (APU) for hydraulic power by 2015. Engineers led by the author at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been evaluating green propellant alternatives and have begun the development of an APU testbed to demonstrate the feasibility of use. NASA has residual APU assets remaining from the retired Space Shuttle Program. Likewise, the F-16 Falcon fighter jet also uses an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) that has similar characteristics to the NASA hardware. Both EPU's and APU components have been acquired for testing at MSFC. In concert with this effort, ATK has been developing green propellant technology based on the Swedish Space Corp ECAPS LMP-103S propellant. Propellant blending and test facilities have been established at ATK's Elkton MD facility with the intent to provide suitable propellant blends for application to green APU systems as well as thrusters. This paper will summarize the status of the testing efforts with ATK for use of the green propellant LMP-103S based on ammonium dinitramide and use of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) propellant AF-M315E based on hydroxyl ammonium nitrate with these test assets.

  2. Compact propane fuel processor for auxiliary power unit application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokupil, M.; Spitta, C.; Mathiak, J.; Beckhaus, P.; Heinzel, A.

    With focus on mobile applications a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is currently being developed at the Centre for Fuel Cell Technology (Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik, ZBT gGmbH). The system is consisting of an integrated compact and lightweight fuel processor and a low temperature PEM fuel cell for an electric power output of 300 W. This article is presenting the current status of development of the fuel processor which is designed for a nominal hydrogen output of 1 k Wth,H2 within a load range from 50 to 120%. A modular setup was chosen defining a reformer/burner module and a CO-purification module. Based on the performance specifications, thermodynamic simulations, benchmarking and selection of catalysts the modules have been developed and characterised simultaneously and then assembled to the complete fuel processor. Automated operation results in a cold startup time of about 25 min for nominal load and carbon monoxide output concentrations below 50 ppm for steady state and dynamic operation. Also fast transient response of the fuel processor at load changes with low fluctuations of the reformate gas composition have been achieved. Beside the development of the main reactors the transfer of the fuel processor to an autonomous system is of major concern. Hence, concepts for packaging have been developed resulting in a volume of 7 l and a weight of 3 kg. Further a selection of peripheral components has been tested and evaluated regarding to the substitution of the laboratory equipment.

  3. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Auxiliary Files (NODC Accession 0044983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Auxiliary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  4. The dynamic responses of the soil-auxiliary buildings structure interaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic responses of the soil-auxiliary buildings structure interaction system in the nuclear power plant are concerned. The main distinguished feature of this study is that the extreme un-symmetry of the auxiliary buildings and reactor containment are considered. A Synthetical mechanical model for study is established. Finally, the analysis of the dynamic response of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant structure is taken as a simple example of applying this method and the numerical results are given

  5. Simulation of the effect of auxiliary ties used in the construction of Mallorca Cathedral

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is oriented on the study of Mallorca Cathedral taking into account its construction process and, particularly, the influence of iron ties used as auxiliary devices during the construction. Some previous studies (Roca et al., 2013, 2012) have presented some possible hypotheses about the construction process of this gothic cathedral. This study complements the previous results by considering the possibility of the adoption of auxiliary ties, since some evidences of their ...

  6. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  7. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Ha; Lee, Duck-Sik; Park, Choon-Sang; Park, Hyung Dal; Shin, Bhum Jae; Tae, Heung-Sik

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  8. Twelve solar-heating/cooling systems: Design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Two quarterly reports describe first 6 months of development on single family, multifamily, and commercial installations in Minneapolis area. Reports discuss basic requirements, and reasons for selecting specific configurations. Systems consist of liquid cooled flat plate collectors, two fluid loops, and gas-fired forced-air auxiliary heat source.

  9. Heated catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This article describes how the use of an auxiliary burner to heat the converter promptly can provide substantially decreased emission levels. While, in principle, there may well be solutions to decreasing warm-up phase hydrocarbon emissions, their production-level implementation is hindered by conflicting requirements, insufficiently mature technologies, and significant technical and financial restraints. The US, California, and the European Community are tightening emission standards for the transitional-low-, low-, and ultra-low-emission vehicles throughout the coming decade. The lead figure shows the fundamental possibilities for reducing harmful substances in exhaust emissions. While one can distinguish between measures taken within the engine (internal), and others outside it (external), it currently seems that only a combination of both will provide a suitable overall concept.

  10. Design of long pulse heating systems for doublet III-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replacement of the Doublet III vacuum vessel by a large dee-shaped vessel is now in progress. Multisecond auxiliary heating will be needed to reach peak plasma parameters. Plans for modifying the existing neutral beam injection system to a 5 s capability and for a new, high power, long pulse ion cyclotron heating system are described

  11. Design of long pulse heating systems for Doublet III-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replacement of the Doublet III vacuum vessel by a large dee-shaped vessel is now in progress. Multisecond auxiliary heating will be needed to reach peak plasma parameters. Plans for modifying the existing neutral beam injection system to a 5 s capability and for a new, high power, long pulse ion cyclotron heating system are described

  12. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  13. Simplified technique for auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation using a whole graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; DUCATTI, Liliana; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBURQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate and the main purposes of treatment are to prevent cerebral edema and infections, which often are responsible for patient death. The orthotopic liver transplantation is the gold standard treatment and improves the 1-year survival. Aim To describe an alternative technique to auxiliary liver transplant on acute liver failure. Method Was performed whole auxiliary liver transplantation as an alternative technique for a partial auxiliary liver transplantation using a whole liver graft from a child removing the native right liver performed a right hepatectomy. The patient met the O´Grady´s criteria and the rational to indicate an auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation was the acute classification without hemodynamic instability or renal failure in a patient with deterioration in consciousness. Results The procedure improved liver function and decreased intracranial hypertension in the postoperative period. Conclusion This technique can overcome some postoperative complications that are associated with partial grafts. As far as is known, this is the first case of auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation in Brazil. PMID:26176253

  14. Evaluation of the APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System Performance during Main Feedwater Line Break Accident using MARS-KS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) started commercial operation, advanced NPPs have been developed to enhance performance and safety as well as the economics of the plant. As a part of a regulatory safety research of the advanced nuclear reactors, MARS-KS regulatory safety analysis code has been selected to evaluate the performance of the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) during Main Feedwater Line Break (MFLB) accident of the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+) which is under development by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP). The results of the APR+ MFLB analysis and the performance of the PAFS are presented herein. MATS-KS MFLB analysis shows that the MARS-KS code well simulates dynamic thermal hydraulic behavior of the MFLB and maximum RCS pressure satisfies the acceptance criteria of 120% design RCS pressure for the MFLB accident. APR+ PAFS effectively removes the core decay heat by the natural circulation during the MFLB accidents, however, comprehensive performance of the PAFS should be evaluated against the design basis of 8 hours core heat removal until the conditions for the initiation of the Shutdown Cooling System (350 .deg. F and 400 psia) are met

  15. Evaluation of the APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System Performance during Main Feedwater Line Break Accident using MARS-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Minjeong; Ralph, Marigomena; Sim, S. K. [Environment and Energy Technology, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Youngseok [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Ever since the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) started commercial operation, advanced NPPs have been developed to enhance performance and safety as well as the economics of the plant. As a part of a regulatory safety research of the advanced nuclear reactors, MARS-KS regulatory safety analysis code has been selected to evaluate the performance of the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) during Main Feedwater Line Break (MFLB) accident of the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+) which is under development by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP). The results of the APR+ MFLB analysis and the performance of the PAFS are presented herein. MATS-KS MFLB analysis shows that the MARS-KS code well simulates dynamic thermal hydraulic behavior of the MFLB and maximum RCS pressure satisfies the acceptance criteria of 120% design RCS pressure for the MFLB accident. APR+ PAFS effectively removes the core decay heat by the natural circulation during the MFLB accidents, however, comprehensive performance of the PAFS should be evaluated against the design basis of 8 hours core heat removal until the conditions for the initiation of the Shutdown Cooling System (350 .deg. F and 400 psia) are met.

  16. BIOFEAT: Biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Study of the feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, M.; Bollito, G.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, S.

    An integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a 10 kW e integrated biodiesel fuel processor has been designed and is being developed. Auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and thermal cracking (TC) were considered for converting the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells. The fuel processor includes also a gas clean-up system that will reduce the carbon monoxide in the primary processor exit gas to below 10 ppm via a new heat-integrated CO clean-up unit, based on the assembly of catalytic heat exchange plates, so as to meet the operational requirements of a PEMFC stack. This article is devoted to the study and selection of the proper feed strategy for the primary fuel processor. Different pre-treatment and feed alternatives (e.g. based on nozzles or simple coils) were devised and tested for the ATR processors, which turned out to be the preferred primary processing route. A nozzle-based strategy was finally selected along with special recommendations about the constituent materials and the operating procedures to be adopted to avoid coking and nozzle corrosion as well as to allow a wide turn down ratio.

  17. Discussion on RELAP5 and RETRAN3D Modeling for Passive Condensate Cooling Tank of Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic nuclear industry has started the development of APR+ as a Korean specific reactor for the export strategy. In the development of APR+ a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) has been considered as a noticeable candidate of improved design. The outline of PAFS and passive condensate cooling tank (PCCT) containing horizontal heat exchanger is shown in Fig. 1. For the successful design of PAFS, performance analyses or safety analyses are prerequisite using best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5 or RETRAN3D. Because of the inherent features of RELAP5 or RETRAN3D, pool model and condensation in horizontal tube have not been well-setup nor widely studied. This paper discusses about the PCCT phenomena including steam condensation in horizontal tube and pool heat transfer, and RELAP5 and RETRAN3D modeling

  18. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  19. The auxiliary elliptic-like equation and the exp-function method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hong Li; Jin-Liang Zhang

    2009-06-01

    The auxiliary equation method is very useful for finding the exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations. In this paper, a new idea of finding the exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations is introduced. The idea is that the exact solutions of the auxiliary elliptic-like equation are derived using exp-function method, and then the exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of auxiliary elliptic-like equation. As examples, the RKL models, the high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Hamilton amplitude equation, the generalized Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV system and the generalized ZK–BBM equation are investigated and the exact solutions are presented using this method.

  20. Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system with auxiliary bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

    1995-01-01

    Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotordynamic model which describes the dynamic behavior of a flexible rotor system with magnetic bearings including auxiliary bearings. The model is based upon an experimental test facility. Some simulation studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model. In particular, the effects of introducing sideloading from the magnetic bearing when one coil fails is studied.

  1. Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system including auxiliary bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

    1993-01-01

    Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotor-dynamic model and assess the dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing rotor system which includes the effects of auxiliary bearings. Of particular interest is the effects of introducing sideloading into such a system during failure of the magnetic bearing. A model is developed from an experimental test facility and a number of simulation studies are performed. These results are presented and discussed.

  2. Research of auxiliary supporting means in swimming training of adults, which are afraid of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Sheyko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the possibility of effective teaching swimming adults suffering from hydrophobia, using auxiliary equipment. Materials and Methods: the study involved 37 people aged 22–45 years. Applied: analysis of the educational process of learning to swim, questioning, peer review techniques, teacher observation and experiment, mathematical statistics. Results: this study suggests that the formation of swimming skills is faster and more effective when used the auxiliary equipment. In the experimental group, four swimming styles were mastered by 59% and in the control by 18%. Conclusions: the proposed method of training of adults, with auxiliary equipment, allows to overcome the feelings of fear, accelerates the learning process and improve its efficiency.

  3. Auxiliary field Monte-Carlo study of the QCD phase diagram at strong coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnishi, Akira; Nakano, Takashi Z

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the QCD phase diagram in the strong coupling limit by using a newly developed auxiliary field Monte-Carlo (AFMC) method. Starting from an effective action in the leading order of the 1/g^2 and 1/d expansion with one species of unrooted staggered fermion, we solve the many-body problem exactly by introducing the auxiliary fields and integrating out the temporal links and quark fields. We have a sign problem in AFMC, which is different from the original one in finite density lattice QCD. For low momentum auxiliary field modes, a complex phase cancellation mechanism exists, and the sign problem is not serious on a small lattice. Compared with the mean field results, the transition temperature is found to be reduced by around 10 % and the hadron phase is found to be extended in the larger chemical potential direction by around 20 %, as observed in the monomer-dimer-polymer (MDP) simulations.

  4. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  5. Single-Sided Electromagnetic Induction Heating Based on IGBT

    OpenAIRE

    Song Wang; Guangda Li; Xiaokun Li

    2014-01-01

    A single-sided induction heating system based on IGBT is proposed. The system includes the series resonant circuit, control circuit, and auxiliary circuit. The main circuit includes rectifier, filter, inverter, and resonant circuit. A drive circuit is designed for IGBT combing some protection circuits. We have a simulation of the single-sided induction heating system in ANSYS. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results. The performance of the system is promising. And al...

  6. Multicriteria optimization of the investment in the auxiliary services of thermal power plants: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multiobjective optimization model to improve the efficiency of auxiliary services. • Economic (investment and NPV) and energy saving criteria are considered. • Evolutionary multiobjective optimization is used for solving the problem with a DM. • A case study based on a real 1100 MW coal-fired power plant is considered. • Results show very profitable solutions from the economic and energy points of view. - Abstract: Thermal power plants have traditionally operated at rated power as base load, but nowadays they operate at partial loads because of the new situation of the electricity market. These plants have raised their auxiliary services consumption because, in most of the cases, the auxiliaries were not designed to efficiently operate at partial loads. This paper presents a multiple criteria study about the efficiency improvement of the auxiliary services. We consider the economic investment and the net present value, as economic criteria, together with the energy saving criterion. In the multiobjective model proposed, the energy model is validated using several measures taken in a 1100 megawatts coal power plant. Besides, the multiobjective problem associated to the case study considered is solved using evolutionary multiobjective optimization and considering preference information. The results obtained conclude that a significant efficiency improvement of the auxiliary services can be achieved by means of the improvement strategies considered. Indeed, the high net present values reached indicate that the investments required by the different solutions are really profitable from the economic perspective. Therefore, investing money in the efficiency improvement of the auxiliary services represents a very profitable option for improving the operation of power plants at partial loads

  7. Unifying the PST and the auxiliary tensor field formulations of 4D self-duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E.A., E-mail: eivanov@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Nurmagambetov, A.J., E-mail: ajn@kipt.kharkov.ua [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics of NSC KIPT, Kharkov, UA 61108 (Ukraine); Zupnik, B.M., E-mail: zupnik@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-04

    We unify the Lorentz- and O(2) duality-covariant approach to 4D self-dual theories by Pasti, Sorokin and Tonin (PST) with the formulation involving an auxiliary tensor field. We present the basic features of the new hybrid approach, including symmetries of the relevant generalized PST action. Its salient peculiarity is the unique form of the realization of the PST gauge symmetries. The corresponding transformations do not affect the auxiliary tensor field, which guarantees the self-duality of the nonlinear actions in which the O(2) invariant interactions are constructed out of the tensor field.

  8. Unifying the PST and the auxiliary tensor field formulations of 4D self-duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We unify the Lorentz- and O(2) duality-covariant approach to 4D self-dual theories by Pasti, Sorokin and Tonin (PST) with the formulation involving an auxiliary tensor field. We present the basic features of the new hybrid approach, including symmetries of the relevant generalized PST action. Its salient peculiarity is the unique form of the realization of the PST gauge symmetries. The corresponding transformations do not affect the auxiliary tensor field, which guarantees the self-duality of the nonlinear actions in which the O(2) invariant interactions are constructed out of the tensor field.

  9. Unifying the PST and the auxiliary tensor field formulations of 4D self-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, E A; Zupnik, B M

    2014-01-01

    We unify the Lorentz- and O(2) duality-covariant approach to 4D self-dual theories by Pasti, Sorokin and Tonin (PST) with the formulation involving an auxiliary tensor field. We present the basic features of the new hybrid approach, including symmetries of the relevant generalized PST action. Its salient peculiarity is the unique form of the realization of the PST gauge symmetries. The corresponding transformations do not affect the auxiliary tensor field, which guarantees the self-duality of the non-linear actions in which the O(2) invariant interactions are constructed out of the tensor field.

  10. Unifying the PST and the auxiliary tensor field formulations of 4D self-duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, E. A.; Nurmagambetov, A. J.; Zupnik, B. M.

    2014-04-01

    We unify the Lorentz- and O(2) duality-covariant approach to 4D self-dual theories by Pasti, Sorokin and Tonin (PST) with the formulation involving an auxiliary tensor field. We present the basic features of the new hybrid approach, including symmetries of the relevant generalized PST action. Its salient peculiarity is the unique form of the realization of the PST gauge symmetries. The corresponding transformations do not affect the auxiliary tensor field, which guarantees the self-duality of the nonlinear actions in which the O(2) invariant interactions are constructed out of the tensor field.

  11. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control, and spin relaxation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix.

  12. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets. PMID:24754170

  13. Outdoor testing of solar water heaters - Effects of load pattern and auxiliary boosting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.L.; Gilliaert, D.; Tebaldi, P. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy))

    1992-10-01

    The effect of load draw-off pattern and auxiliary boosting on the performance of vertical and horizontal tank solar water heaters is investigated. The selection of an appropriate load pattern to use in a performance rating test is shown to depend on the type of system. The primary factor governing the dependence of performance on load pattern in single tank systems is conduction between the auxiliary boosted zone and the solar preheat zone. A method of quantifying the effect of conduction in solar tanks is presented.

  14. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control, and spin relaxation theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix

  15. Validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems with flat plate and heat pipe evacuated tube collectors

    OpenAIRE

    MC CORMACK, SARAH

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper presents a validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems used in temperate climates. The systems consist of two flat plate collectors (FPC) and a heat pipe evacuated tube collector (ETC) as well as identical auxiliary components. The systems were fitted with an automated unit that controlled the immersion heaters and hot water demand profile to mimic hot water usage in a typical European domestic dwelling. The main component of the TRNSYS mo...

  16. Validated TRNSYS Model for Forced Circulation Solar Water Heating Systems with Flat Plate and Heat Pipe Evacuated Tube Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ayompe, Lacour; Duffy, Aidan; MCCORMACK, SARAH; Conlon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a validated TRNSYS model for forced circulation solar water heating systems used in temperate climates. The systems consist of two flat plate collectors (FPC) and a heat pipe evacuated tube collector (ETC) as well as identical auxiliary components. The systems were fitted with an automated unit that controlled the immersion heaters and hot water demand profile to mimic hot water usage in a typical European domestic dwelling. The main component of the TRNSYS model was the T...

  17. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  18. Neutral Beam Heating and Current Drive in MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, R.; Challis, C.; Appel, L.; Conway, N.; Cunningham, G.; Gryaznevich, M.; Lloyd, B.; Patel, A.; Tabasso, A.; Tournianski, M.

    2002-11-01

    Primary auxiliary heating on MAST (R 0.8m, a 0.6m) is provided by two ORNL neutral-beam injectors, oriented in the mid-plane, each with a tangency radius of 0.7m. Centrally peaked heating profiles at electron densities routinely exceeding the Greenwald limit are generated by injecting in the range 40 co-injection heated discharges and for low current (Ip 300kA), low-density (ne>0.5x1019m-3) co and counter injection heated plasmas where NBCD is being investigated.

  19. Single-family-residence solar heating--Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Solar-heating and hot-water system includes 408 square feet of flat-plate air collectors, rock storage bin, energy transport system, air-to-water heat exchanger, controls, and hot-water preheat tank. Hot-air oil furnace supplies auxiliary space heating, and electricity powers air-handler blower and hot water preheat pump. For 12 month period, system provided 43 percent of space-heating and 53 percent of hot-water energy; net energy savings were 23.072 million Btu.

  20. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  2. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-3 Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control...

  3. Acylation, Diastereoselective Alkylation, and Cleavage of an Oxazolidinone Chiral Auxiliary: A Multistep Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas E.; Richardson, David P.; Truran, George A.; Belecki, Katherine; Onishi, Megumi

    2008-01-01

    An introduction to the concepts and experimental techniques of diastereoselective synthesis using a chiral auxiliary is described. The 4-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary developed by Evans is acylated with propionic anhydride under mild conditions using DMAP as an acyl transfer catalyst. Deprotonation with NaN(TMS)[subscript 2] at -78…

  4. Computer determination of event maps with application to auxiliary supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of evaluating the reliability of sequential operations in systems containing standby and alternate supply facilities is presented. The method is based upon the use of a digital computer for automatic development of event maps. The technique is illustrated by application to a nuclear power plant auxiliary supply system. (author)

  5. An auxiliary equation technique and exact solutions for a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical technique based on an auxiliary equation and the symbolic computation system Matlab is developed to construct the exact travelling wave solutions to a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. Some new solutions including the Jacobi elliptic function solutions, the degenerated soliton-like solutions and the triangle function solutions to the equation are obtained.

  6. Application of the Method of Auxiliary Sources for the Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering by Impedance Spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2002-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is applied to 3D scattering problems involving spherical impedance scatterers. The MAS results are compared with the reference spherical wave expansion (SWE) solution. It is demonstrated that good agreement is achieved between the MAS and SWE results....

  7. Dynamic Response during the Online Compensation of Misalignment Based on Auxiliary Electromagnetic Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-min; LI Yan; HE Yong

    2008-01-01

    A new support structure,named auxiliary electromagnetic support,is introduced to adjust the position of rotor shaft online.The auxiliary electromagnetic support consists of sliding bearing,iron core,radial spring,pedestal and electroraagnet that could adjust the rotor position.In a rotor system adopting two auxiliary electromagnetic supports,the online compensation of misalignment was achieved without stopping work.Using the proposed auxiliary electromagnetic support,the analytical solution of dynamic response was obtained by analyzing a simulated single-degree-of-freedom(SDOF)system.And the dynamic response of the multi-degrees-of-freedom(MDOF)system in the experiment is acquired using Newmark variable step-size integration method.Further the new design is tested in a symmetrical single-disk rotor-bearing system.With both the theory analysis and the experimental results,some conclusions are obtained about the relationship between the vibration and the system damping which are related to system stability.

  8. Equivalence Between Different Auxiliary Field Formulations of ${\\cal N}=1$ Supergravity Coupled to Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Shuntaro

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider the relation between three supergravity formalisms with different sets of auxiliary fields, known as the old-, new-, and non-minimal supergravity. Although it has been known that the old minimal formulation is the broadest class, we find that, with an unphysical $U(1)$ gauge symmetry and a compensating superfield, all of them become completely equivalent.

  9. Auxiliary Women Workers in the Legal Sector: Traversing Subjectivities and "Self" to Learn through Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study is about female auxiliary workers in the Australian legal sector. The purpose is to explore the impact of subjectivities on women workers and how they negotiate their positionality to participate in meaningful work and learning. The study is grounded in theories of identity and socio-cultural perspectives of subjectivity, agentic action…

  10. Self-start of auxiliary electric motors at the site with 440MW units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique for calculating electric motors in self-start modes with provision for their mechanical charateristics is given. Recommendations on switching off individual electric motors during self-start of both single and all sections of NPP 440 MW unit auxiliaries to restore quickly bus voltage are presented

  11. Performance of turbine auxiliaries and service systems at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of the turbine auxiliaries and service systems at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, India are described. Some of the specific problems encountered in connection with the feed water, turbine governing and common services like compressed air, chilled water, water treatment and chlorination systems are outlined. (K.B.)

  12. Kindergarten Mathematics with "Pepe the Rabbit": How Kindergartners Use Auxiliary Means to Solve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoumpourdi, Chrysanthi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role that auxiliary means (manipulatives such as cubes and representations such as number line) play for kindergartners in working out mathematical tasks. Our assumption was that manipulatives such as cubes would be used by kindergartners easily and successfully whereas the number line would be used by…

  13. From Root Infinitive to Finite Sentence : The acquisition of verbal inflections and auxiliaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Across languages, children in the earliest stages of syntactic development tend to omit overt markings of finiteness, such as verbal inflections and auxiliaries: when children use a verb, they use an infinitival form (e.g. Dutch) or a bare stem (e.g. English). From Root Infinitive to Finite Sentence

  14. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are...

  15. Application of the method of auxiliary sources in optical diffraction microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Hansen, Poul-Erik;

    2010-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources is used for characterisation of grating defects. Grating profiles are characterised by best fit matching of a library of diffraction efficiencies with numerical simulated diffraction efficiencies with defects. It is shown that the presented method can solve...

  16. Computation of auxiliary functions in molecular integral up to arbitrary accuracy: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With regard to evaluation of auxiliary function Iμ (x) up to arbitrary accuracy, it is required that the forward recurrence scheme of the function can be used as far as possible. Applying a new inequality, the authors have set up a criterion which can accurately decide whether the requirement can be met

  17. Harbingers of Artin's Reciprocity Law. I. The Continuing Story of Auxiliary Primes

    CERN Document Server

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present the history of auxiliary primes used in proofs of reciprocity laws from the quadratic to Artin's reciprocity law. We also show that the gap in Legendre's proof can be closed with a simple application of Gauss's genus theory.

  18. Estimation of finite population mean using known correlation coefficient between auxiliary characters

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Housila P.; R. Tailor

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a modified ratio-cum-product estimator of finite population mean of the study variate Y using known correlation coefficient between two auxiliary characters X1 and X2. An almost unbiased ratio-cum-product estimator has also been obtained by using Jackknife technique envisaged by Quenouille (1956). The merits of the proposed estimator are examined through a numerical illustration.

  19. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  20. Asymmetric synthesis of 3-butylphthalide using isomannide and isosorbide as chiral auxiliaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for asymmetric syntheses of (S) and (R)-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is presented. The diastereoselective addition of dibutylzinic to aromatic aldehyde 10 or 11 generated from isomannide- or isosorbide-derived chiral auxiliary afforded S-NBP or R-NBP in high optical yields.

  1. Exact solutions of some coupled nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations using auxiliary equation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjit Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Travelling and solitary wave solutions of certain coupled nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations have been constructed using the auxiliary equation method. These equations arise in a variety of contexts not only in biological, chemical and physical sciences but also in ecological and social sciences.

  2. Low-cost auxiliary system for broadband NMR on strongly magnetic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevald, Rolf; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1978-01-01

    A low cost auxiliary system consisting of He cryostat, superconducting magnet, and sample holder assembly with field probe has been constructed. The system meets the requirements of NMR on strongly paramagnetic or ordered magnetic materials, which are accurate temperature settings over a wide range...

  3. Soft switching DC/DC converter using controlled output rectifier with auxiliary circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Dudrik, Jaroslav; BODOR Marcel; TRIP Daniel Nistor

    2010-01-01

    Auxiliary circuit for DC/DC converter withcontrolled output rectifier is presented in this paper.Soft switching for power switches of the inverter isachieved by using controlled output rectifier and softswitching of the controlled rectifier by using losslessauxiliary circuit. The principle of converter operationis explained and analyzed and experimental results onthe laboratory model are presented.

  4. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  5. Prediction of Heat Removal Capacity of Horizontal Condensation Heat Exchanger submerged in Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As representative passive safety systems, there are the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of ESBWR, the emergency condenser system (ECS) of the SWR-1000, the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS) of the APR+ and etc. During the nuclear power plant accidents, these passive safety systems can cool the nuclear system effectively via the heat transfer through the steam condensation, and then mitigate the accidents. For the optimum design and the safety analysis of the passive safety system, it is essential to predict the heat removal capacity of the heat exchanger well. The heat removal capacity of the horizontal condensation heat exchanger submerged in a pool is determined by a combination of a horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer and a boiling heat transfer on the horizontal tube. Since most correlations proposed in the previous nuclear engineering field were developed for the vertical tube, there is a certain limit to apply these correlations to the horizontal tube. Therefore, this study developed the heat transfer model for the horizontal Ushaped condensation heat exchanger submerged in a pool to predict well the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer, the boiling heat transfer on the horizontal tube and the overall heat removal capacity of the heat exchanger using the best-estimate system analysis code, MARS

  6. Modeling of transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a once-through steam generator during auxiliary feedwater injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenological model is developed for the transient thermal-hydraulic processes on the secondary side of a once-through steam generator during auxiliary feedwater (AFW) injection. Detailed modeling of the thermal-hydraulic processes above the top tube support plate (TSP) is particularly emphasized. The nonuniform distribution of the AFW on the secondary-side tubes is represented by dividing the secondary side into a number of tube groups. For each tube group, the quasi-steady-state conservation equations representing the flow of a falling liquid film and steam on the secondary side and the primary coolant on the primary side are numerically solved for each time step, thereby providing the axial variation of flow rates and temperatures in the primary and secondary sides. Modeled processes include cooling due to the impingement of the AFW jet on the tubes, the forced convection/boiling heat transfer at the liquid film-tube interface, evaporation and condensation at the film-gas interphase, countercurrent flow limitation in the TSP passages, and the formation of a swollen two-phase pool above the top TSP. The aforementioned model for the thermal-hydraulic phenomena above the top TSP is incorporated into a transient model for the entire steam generator where the secondary side is divided into four regions. Global conservation equations representing the transient behavior of each region are numerically solved. Model predictions are compared with a typical test from the Multiloop Integral System Test experiments. Parametric and sensitivity calculations are also reported

  7. Dynamic evaluation of low-temperature metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell oriented to auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenwei; Berghaus, Jörg Oberste; Yick, Sing; Decès-Petit, Cyrille; Qu, Wei; Hui, Rob; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave

    A metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composed of a Ni-Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 2- δ (Ni-SDC) cermet anode and an SDC electrolyte was fabricated by suspension plasma spraying on a Hastelloy X substrate. The cathode, an Sm 0.5Sr 0.5CoO 3 (SSCo)-SDC composite, was screen-printed and fired in situ. The dynamic behaviour of the cell was measured while subjected to complete fuel shutoff and rapid start-up cycles, as typically encountered in auxiliary power units (APU) applications. A promising performance - with a maximum power density (MPD) of 0.176 W cm -2 at 600 °C - was achieved using humidified hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. The cell also showed excellent resistance to oxidation at 600 °C during fuel shutoff, with only a slight drop in performance after reintroduction of the fuel. The Cr and Mn species in the Hastelloy X alloy appeared to be preferentially oxidized while the oxidation of nickel in the metallic substrate was temporarily alleviated. In rapid start-up cycles with a heating rate of 60 °C min -1, noticeable performance deterioration took place in the first two thermal cycles, and then continued at a much slower rate in subsequent cycles. A postmortem analysis of the cell suggested that the degradation was mainly due to the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficient across the cathode/electrolyte interface.

  8. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  9. Use of the MARS-KS Code for the Prediction of Condensation Heat Transfer in a Passive Cooling Heat Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is new conceptual design of auxiliary feedwater system in APR+ nuclear power plan. Although PAFS is relatively a simple system composed of one heat exchanger and several valves, it is designed to be capable of performing safety functions of which the conventional Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFS) did by active components. Furthermore, PAFS carry out safety functions during the period of the total loss of electrical power (i.e. SBO). PAFS provides cooling water into a steam generator to remove the residual heat under transient and accident conditions. During operation of PAFS, the phase change occurs at the Passive Cooling Heat Exchanger (PCHX) which located at the inside of the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). Then, the condensate water flows into the steam generator by gravity and it evaporates in the steam generator again. Therefore, the characteristics of heat transfer inside the PCHX is a main issue of PAFS. The schematic diagram of PAFS is in Figure 1. This paper addresses a preliminary investigation of the applicability of the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code 'MARS-KS' for predicting the thermalhydraulic characteristics of PCHX and PCCT in the PAFS. In addition, the heat transfer performance of PCHX during operational transients has been investigated

  10. Benefit of innovative connection devices for customers of district heating. Redcution of low return temperature; Nutzen innovativer Anschlussanlagen fuer den Fernwaermekunden. Reduzierung der Ruecklauftemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triesch, F. [Thermo Integral GmbH und Co. KG, Leipzig (Germany); Weinmann, E. [SWM Services GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    Reducing the return temperature in district heating networks can have very substantial effects. Anything that serves to increase transport capacities, reduce heat loss in district heating networks, reduce auxiliary energy demand, or increase the output of cogeneration plants represents a strong economic incentive for district heating suppliers. But how do district heating customers benefit from the use of innovative connection installations with low return temperatures?.

  11. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of Aditya tokamak plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asim Kumar Chattopadhyay; S V Kulkarni; R Srinivasan; Aditya Team

    2015-10-01

    Plasma heating with the fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is one of the auxiliary heating schemes of Aditya tokamak. Numerical simulation of second-harmonic resonance heating scenarios in low-temperature, low-density Aditya plasma has been carried out for fast magnetosonic wave absorption in ICRF range, using full-wave ion cyclotron heating code TORIC combined with Fokker–Planck quasilinear solver SSFPQL and the results are explained. In such low-temperature, low-density plasma, ion absorption for second-harmonic resonance heating is less but significant amount of direct electron heating is observed.

  12. Development of a high-performance boiling heat exchanger by improved liquid supply to narrow channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Haruhiko; Ohno, Toshiyuki; Hioki, Fumiaki; Shinmoto, Yasuhisa

    2004-11-01

    A two-phase flow loop is a promising method for application to thermal management systems for large-scale space platforms handling large amounts of energy. Boiling heat transfer reduces the size and weight of cold plates. The transportation of latent heat reduces the mass flow rate of working fluid and pump power. To develop compact heat exchangers for the removal of waste heat from electronic devices with high heat generation density, experiments on a method to increase the critical heat flux for a narrow heated channel between parallel heated and unheated plates were conducted. Fine grooves are machined on the heating surface in a transverse direction to the flow and liquid is supplied underneath flattened bubbles by the capillary pressure difference from auxiliary liquid channels separated by porous metal plates from the main heated channel. The critical heat flux values for the present heated channel structure are more than twice those for a flat surface at gap sizes 2 mm and 0.7 mm. The validity of the present structure with auxiliary liquid channels is confirmed by experiments in which the liquid supply to the grooves is interrupted. The increment in the critical heat flux compared to those for a flat surface takes a maximum value at a certain flow rate of liquid supply to the heated channel. The increment is expected to become larger when the length of the heated channel is increased and/or the gravity level is reduced. PMID:15644358

  13. Environmental assessment of wood industrial and collective (with heat network) heating. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a synthesis of the results of an environmental assessment of wood industrial and collective heating. This study is based on a life cycle analysis which quantifies the impacts on the environment of all the related activities: fuel extraction, retailing, final use, and so on. Environmental impacts are assessed by means of different indicators: energetic assessment, greenhouse effect assessment, air pollution (acidification), water pollution (eutrophication), toxic material emissions in air and into the soils. Wood is compared to other heating sources (gas, fuel, electricity). Ways to improve this environmental assessment are discussed with respect to wood supply, boiler auxiliary equipment, boiler and combustion

  14. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Lubośny; Krzysztof Dobrzyński; Jacek Klucznik

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown) is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high ca...

  15. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high capacity is required.

  16. The Periodic Solutions to Kawahara Equation by Means of the Auxiliary Equation with a Sixth-Degree Nonlinear Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Pınar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that different types of exact solutions of an auxiliary equation produce new types of exact travelling wave solutions to nonlinear equations. In this paper, by means of symbolic computation, the new solutions of original auxiliary equation of first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a sixth-degree nonlinear term are presented to obtain novel exact solutions of the Kawahara equation. By the aid of the solutions of the original auxiliary equation, some other physically important nonlinear equations can be solved to construct novel exact solutions.

  17. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW Criteria ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  18. [The surgical nurse: his/her leadership of auxiliary nursing personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, C M; Trevizan, M A; Sawada, N O; Mendes, I A

    1997-01-01

    This investigation as carried out in order to promote follow-up in the studies concerning nurse's leadership in the hospital context. Emphasys is given to the nurses that works in surgical ward unities. As a theoretical framework, authors utilized the model of leadership proposed by Hersey and Blanchard, named Situational Leadership. The objective was to analyze the correspondence of opinion between nurses and nursing auxiliary personnel about the leadership style of nurse should adopt in accordance with the maturity level of an element of the auxiliary personnel based on six categories of activities that were studied. Authors found out that nurses should adopt the styles of participant leadership, such as E3 (participating) and/or E4 (delegating). PMID:9580323

  19. Equipment Reliability Improvement for Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant Auxiliary Feedwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigated how the performance of the Koeberg Auxiliary Feedwater System could be improved using the 'maintenance rule'. As a conclusion, this paper figured out AFWS pumps and the TDP control circuit need special attention in improving the reliability of the AFWS, this lead to an improved maintenance strategy for the system. The purpose of this study is to apply maintenance rule to enhance the Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) maintenance strategy at Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). Currently, Koeberg AFWS health status is red, needing an improvement. This study seeks to use maintenance rule to identify components that enable AFWS to fulfill its essential functions so as to focus maintenance resources and have the greatest beneficial impact on improving reliability and availability of the system

  20. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  1. Reexamination of molecular integrals arising from the Dirac equation. Analytical evaluation of molecular auxiliary functions integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, A

    2016-01-01

    The author in his previous works were presented a numerical integration method, namely, global-adaptive with the Gauss-Kronrod numerical integration extension in order to accurate calculation of molecular auxiliary functions integrals involve power functions with non-integer exponents. They are constitute elements of molecular integrals arising in Dirac equation when Slater-type orbitals with non-integer principal quantum numbers are used. Binomial series representation of power functions method, so far, is used for analytical evaluation of the molecular auxiliary function integrals however, intervals of integration cover areas beyond the condition of convergence. In the present study, analytical evaluation of these integrals is re-examined. They are expressed via prolate spheroidal coordinates. An alternative analytical approximation are derived. Slowly convergent binomial series representation formulae for power functions is investigated through nonlinear sequence transformations for the acceleration of con...

  2. Study on Commercial Application of FCC with Auxiliary Gasoline Reactor for Improving FCC Naphtha Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Qiang

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the commercial application of FCC technology equipped with a gasoline auxiliary reactor in the RFCC unit at PetroChina Harbin Petrochemical Branch Company.Test results have shown the excellent outcome for commercial application of the gasoline upgrading in the auxiliary reactor to reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha.Application of this technology can reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha to less than 35v%.Adjustment of the FCC operation towards more severg conditions can further reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha to less than 20 v%.so that the FCC naphtha can meet the current standard or meet more stringent specification requirements in the future to achieve compelling economic and social benefits.

  3. The use of the vinegar as a chemical auxiliary in Endodontics: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Duarte IRALA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the root canal instrumentation with the use of files, there is the formation of a layer called “smear layer”, which may hide among other elements microorganisms capable of perpetuating an endodontic infection, what can lead to endodontic treatment failure. Objective: To present a literature review of apple vinegar and its chemical properties as an auxiliary alternative substance in the permeability in dentin. Literature review: In the attempt to remove the smear layer, auxiliary substances that allow a better action of instruments are used, which also permit the permeability of the system of canals and the removal of organic remains and possible contaminants. Conclusion: The results had indicated that the use of the apple vinegar can be a viable alternative to assist chemistry in Endodontics.

  4. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements laser auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This system design requirement document establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the NIF Laser Auxiliary Systems. The Laser Auxiliary Systems consist of: a. Gas Cooling System; b. Low conductivity cooling water system; C. Deionized cooling water system; d. Electrical power distribution system. The gas cooling system will be used for cooling the main laser amplifier flashlamps and some smaller quantities will be used for purging Pockels cells and for diode pumps in preamplifier. The low conductivity cooling water system will be used for cooling the capacitor banks. The deionized cooling water system will be used to cool the multi-pass amplifier in the OPG PAM. Electrical power will be required for the OPG systems, Pockels cells, power conditioning, and amplifier support equipment

  5. Photoplus: auxiliary information for printed images based on distributed source coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Ramin; Mukherjee, Debargha

    2008-01-01

    A printed photograph is difficult to reuse because the digital information that generated the print may no longer be available. This paper describes a mechanism for approximating the original digital image by combining a scan of the printed photograph with small amounts of digital auxiliary information kept together with the print. The auxiliary information consists of a small amount of digital data to enable accurate registration and color-reproduction, followed by a larger amount of digital data to recover residual errors and lost frequencies by distributed Wyner-Ziv coding techniques. Approximating the original digital image enables many uses, including making good quality reprints from the original print, even when they are faded many years later. In essence, the print itself becomes the currency for archiving and repurposing digital images, without requiring computer infrastructure.

  6. Postoperative imaging findings in children with auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyala, Rama S; Martinez, Mercedes; Lobritto, Steven J; Kato, Tomoaki; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie

    2016-07-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT) is a treatment technique for people who have acute hepatic failure secondary to fulminant hepatic failure and might ultimately recover normal liver function. This surgical procedure is complicated, involving the placement of a liver graft while maintaining viability of the remaining native portion of the liver. This method allows the native liver to recover hepatic function, therefore eliminating the need for long-term immunosuppression, as is typically needed in post-transplant settings. Postoperative imaging in these cases can be challenging given the complex anatomy, specifically the vascular anastomosis. Therefore it is important for radiologists and clinicians to be aware of the anatomy as well as the variable imaging appearances of the liver. We review the imaging findings in children who have undergone auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT). PMID:26867605

  7. Evolving Neural Network Using Genetic Algorithm for Faults Diagnosis of Urban Rail Vehicle Auxiliary Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Changxu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an efficient method is proposed to diagnose urban rail vehicle auxiliary inverter faults based on wavelet packet neural network and genetic algorithm. Firstly, the original signals are decomposed into different frequency subbands by wavelet packet. Secondly, the wavelet packet energy eigenvector is constructed. Finally, those wavelet packet energy eigenvectors are taken as fault samples to train neural network, In order to improve the function approximation accuracy and general capability of the neural network system, an efficient genetic algorithm approach is used to adjust the parameters of translation and weights functions. The experiment shows that the GA-ANN model gives superior result. This approach can be used as a useful tool for the auxiliary inverter fault diagnosis.

  8. A Scalable Auxiliary Space Preconditioner for High-Order Finite Element Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Ju; Zhang, Chen-Song

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit an auxiliary space preconditioning method proposed by Xu [Computing 56, 1996], in which low-order finite element spaces are employed as auxiliary spaces for solving linear algebraic systems arising from high-order finite element discretizations. We provide a new convergence rate estimate and parallel implementation of the proposed algorithm. We show that this method is user-friendly and can play an important role in a variety of Poisson-based solvers for more challenging problems such as the Navier--Stokes equation. We investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm using the Poisson equation and the Stokes equation on 3D unstructured grids. Numerical results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm in terms of efficiency, robustness, and parallel scalability.

  9. Study on the distribution of strata rock temperature around a driving head with auxiliary ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-liang

    2004-01-01

    The distributions of strata rock temperature around a driving head with auxiliary ventilation were analyzed theoretically based on a program which was developed by the authors to predict the thermal environmental conditions in a development heading with forcing auxiliary ventilation. The influences of wetnessof the airway surface were discussed on the cooled zone of the strata rock and on the temperature distribution in the surrounding rock. It is shown that the advancing speed and driving time have little influence on the temperature profile in front of the working face of a driving airway, and the rock temperature 1.5 m ahead of the working face can be taken as the virgin rock temperature.

  10. Ghostbusters in higher derivative supersymmetric theories: who is afraid of propagating auxiliary fields?

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimori, Toshiaki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    We present for the first time a ghost-free higher-derivative chiral model with a propagating auxiliary F-term field (highest component of the chiral multiplet). We obtain this model by removing a ghost in a higher derivative chiral model, with Higgsing it in terms of an auxiliary vector superfield. Depending on the sign of the quadratic derivative term of the chiral superfield, the model contains two ghost free branches of the parameter regions. We find that supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in one branch while it is preserved in the other branch. As a consequence of dynamical F-term field, a conserved U(1) charge corresponding to the number density of $F$ appears, which can be regarded as a generalization of the R-symmetry.

  11. Optically Active Chiral Auxiliary Benzyloxyphenylglycinol for Preparation of Oxazolidine and Its Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ying-huan; CHEN Jin; WU Tong-hao; BAI Xu

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the recovery of amino alcohols as chiral auxiliaries, optically active p-benzyloxyphenylglycinol and its corresponding oxazolidine of 1-naphthylcarboxaldehyde were prepared. Grignard additions to the oxazolidine followed by electrophilic quench and acidic hydrolysis afforded an aldehyde(compound 8)(later it was reduced to an alcohol, compound 9) in an excellent enantiomeric excess and a good recovery of the chiral amino alcohol. This research provides a model study of chiral amino alcohols in solid phase asymmetric synthesis.

  12. Doubly balanced spatial sampling with spreading and restitution of auxiliary totals

    OpenAIRE

    Grafström, Anton; Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A new spatial sampling method is proposed in order to achieve a double property of balancing. The sample is spatially balanced or well spread so as to avoid selecting neighbouring units. Moreover, the method also enables to satisfy balancing equations on auxiliary variables available on all the sampling units because the Horvitz–Thompson estimator is almost equal to the population totals for these variables. The method works with any definition of distance in a multidimensional space and supp...

  13. Utilization of Lavandula angustifolia Miller extracts as naturalrepellents, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYOE YUSUFOGLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils, absolutes and concretes were prepared from the flowers and leaves of the plant Lavandula angustifolia Miller cultivated in the Bosphorus region of Istanbul, Turkey. The difference in the chemical composition of the mentioned extracts was investigated and compared by using a combination of capillary GC-MS with the aim of offering them as repellent, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries. The IR-spectra, the yields and the physico-chemical data of the extracts were also analysed.

  14. Experimental simulation of a light aircraft crash on to a nuclear power plant auxiliary building roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments described were conducted at a reduced scale with geometric dimensions of prototype structures of one-fifth full size. The target was based on the auxiliary buildings for the proposed Sizewell PWR. Descriptions of the simulated aircraft model and the test panels are given, together with the instrumentation. Details are given of the test programme and the results are summarized and discussed. Comparison is made of the model aircraft tests with an equivalent hard missile impact. (U.K.)

  15. Think different: applying the old macintosh mantra to the computability of the SUSY auxiliary field problem

    OpenAIRE

    Calkins, Mathew; Gates, D.(Center for String and Particle Theory, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742-4111, U.S.A.); Gates, S.(Center for String and Particle Theory, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742-4111, U.S.A.); Golding, William(Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland, 20783, U.S.A.)

    2015-01-01

    Starting with valise supermultiplets obtained from 0-branes plus field redefinitions, valise adinkra networks, and the "Garden Algebra," we discuss an architecture for algorithms that (starting from on-shell theories and, through a well-defined computation procedure), search for off-shell completions. We show in one dimension how to directly attack the notorious "off-shell auxiliary field" problem of supersymmetry with algorithms in the adinkra network-world formulation.

  16. Synthesis of passive lossless metasurfaces using auxiliary fields for reflectionless beam splitting and perfect reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a paradigm for accurate design of metasurfaces for intricate beam manipulation, implementing functionalities previously considered impossible to achieve with passive lossless elements. The key concept involves self-generation of auxiliary evanescent fields which facilitate the required local power conservation, without interfering with the device performance in the far field. We demonstrate our scheme by presenting exact reactive solutions to the challenging problems of reflectionless beam splitting and perfect reflection, verified via full wave simulations.

  17. Response to the Comment: ``On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions and ”

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I I Guseinov

    2003-10-01

    The Comment `on the computation of auxiliary functions () and ()’ (F E Harris, Pramana – J. Phys. 61, C779 (2003)) is analysed in the arbitrary range of parameters , and . It is shown that our downward recursion approach for () in the range (/) > 1 is more efficient than the well-known upward recursion method, and the upward recursion procedure for () does not have merit for smaller non-zero values of ( < 0.01).

  18. Auxiliary control system for irradiation specimen automatic transmission based on configuration software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxiliary control system realizes sequential control and trace display and automatic transmission for irradiated specimen, which bases on configuration software (MCGS) and industrial control computer as the control platform. The system uses digital I/O cards to establish system state detection and output control arrays. It is showed that the structure posses stable, reliable and security characteristics and well meets the needs of specimen transmission and controlling in industrial automation. (authors)

  19. Improved donor liver position selection and revascularization for heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation with portal vein arterialization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Yujun; Ren, Jianjun; Zhang, Junjing; Qiao, Jianliang; MENG, XINGKAI

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To establish an animal model of improved donor liver position selection and revascularization for heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation with portal vein arterialization (HALT-PVA). Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were utilized to establish models. Improved HALT-PVA was conducted for the experimental rat: hepatic common artery of donor liver was end-to-side anastomosed to portal vein which was end-to-side anastomosed to the left common iliac artery of host rat, while the segments o...

  20. Dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing supported jet engine rotor with auxiliary bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, George T.; Xie, Huajun; Sinha, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the dynamic behavior of a rotor system supported by auxiliary bearings. The steady-state behavior of a simulation model based upon a production jet engine is explored over a wide range of operating conditions for varying rotor imbalance, support stiffness, and damping. Interesting dynamical phenomena, such as chaos, subharmonic responses, and double-valued responses, are presented and discussed.

  1. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequently employed in a seven-element phased array. The array performance is analyzed with respect to scan loss and main beam directivity as a function of scan angle and frequency, and the influence of elem...

  2. The impossibility of obfuscation with auxiliary input or a universal simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Bitansky, Nir; Canetti, Ran; Cohn, Henry; Goldwasser, Shafi; Kalai, Yael Tauman; Paneth, Omer; Rosen, Alon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the existence of general indistinguishability obfuscators conjectured in a few recent works implies, somewhat counterintuitively, strong impossibility results for virtual black box obfuscation. In particular, we show that indistinguishability obfuscation for all circuits implies: * The impossibility of average-case virtual black box obfuscation with auxiliary input for any circuit family with super-polynomial pseudo-entropy. Such circuit families include all pseudo-...

  3. Think Different: Applying the Old Macintosh Mantra to the Computability of the SUSY Auxiliary Field Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Mathew; Gates,, S James; Golding, William M

    2015-01-01

    Starting with valise supermultiplets obtained from 0-branes plus field redefinitions, valise adinkra networks, and the "Garden Algebra," we discuss an architecture for algorithms that (starting from on-shell theories and, through a well-defined computation procedure), search for off-shell completions. We show in one dimension how to directly attack the notorious "off-shell auxiliary field" problem of supersymmetry with algorithms in the adinkra network-world formulation.

  4. Ignition delay of a pulsed inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in tandem with an auxiliary ICP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Sridhar, Shyam; Donnelly, Vincent M.; Economou, Demetre J.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma ignition delays were observed in a ‘main’ inductively coupled plasma (ICP), in tandem with an ‘auxiliary’ ICP. The Faraday-shielded ICPs were separated by a grounded metal grid. Power (13.56 MHz) to the main ICP was pulsed with a frequency of 1 kHz, while the auxiliary ICP was operated in continuous wave (cw) mode. In chlorine plasmas, ignition delay was observed for duty cycles greater than 60% and, in contrast to expectation, the delay was longer with increasing duty cycle up to ~99.5%. The ignition delay could be varied by changing the auxiliary and/or main ICP power. Langmuir probe measurements provided the temporal evolution of electron temperature, and electron and positive ion densities. These measurements revealed that the plasma was ignited shortly after the decaying positive ion density (n +), in the afterglow of the main ICP, reached the density ({{n}+},\\text{aux} ) prevailing when only the auxiliary ICP was powered. At that time, production of electrons began to dominate their loss in the main ICP, due to hot electron injection from the auxiliary ICP. As a result, {{n}\\text{e}} increased from a value below {{n}\\text{e,\\text{aux}}} , improving inductive power coupling efficiency, further increasing plasma density leading to plasma ignition. Plasma ignition delay occurred when the afterglow of the pulsed plasma was not long enough for the ion density to reach {{n}+},\\text{aux} during the afterglow. Besides Cl2, plasma ignition delays were also observed in other electronegative gases (SF6, CF4/O2 and O2) but not in an electropositive gas (Ar).

  5. Think different: applying the old macintosh mantra to the computability of the SUSY auxiliary field problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Mathew; Gates, D. E. A.; Gates, S. James; Golding, William M.

    2015-04-01

    Starting with valise supermultiplets obtained from 0-branes plus field redefinitions, valise adinkra networks, and the "Garden Algebra," we discuss an architecture for algorithms that (starting from on-shell theories and, through a well-defined computation procedure), search for off-shell completions. We show in one dimension how to directly attack the notorious "off-shell auxiliary field" problem of supersymmetry with algorithms in the adinkra network-world formulation.

  6. Effect of mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy on recovery of patients with craniocerebral trauma after decompressive craniectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Du

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy on recovery of patients with craniocerebral trauma after decompressive craniectomy.Methods: 110 cases of patients with craniocerebral trauma who received decompressive craniectomy in our hospital from November 2012 to November 2014 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to different treatment methods, each group with 55 cases. Control group received decompressive craniectomy alone, observation group received decompressive craniectomy combined with mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy, and then differences in neural function, serum NSE, SOD, NO and ET levels, cerebral blood flow level as well as serum ADH, BNP and ACTH levels of two groups were compared.Results:CPC grading of observation group 1 week after mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy was lower than that of control group and scores of GOC and ESS were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); serum NSE, NO and ET levels of observation group 1 week after treatment were lower than those of control group and SOD level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05); Vs and Vm levels of observation group 1 week after treatment were higher than those of control group and PI level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); serum ADH and ACTH levels of observation group 1 week after treatment were lower than those of control group and BNP level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Decompressive craniectomy combined with mild hypothermia auxiliary therapy for patients with craniocerebral trauma can effectively improve patients’ neural function, promote cerebral blood flow and optimize humoral-associated factor levels, and it has positive clinical significance.

  7. Implementation of GNASH and auxiliary codes on the Harwell CRAY-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a version of the preequilibrium, statistical nuclear-model code GNASH which has been implemented, along with a set of small auxiliary codes, on the CRAY-1 at AERE Harwell. GNASH provides a flexible tool for calculating cross sections, isomer ratios and emission spectra. A detailed description of the current user input is provided along with a full listing of the actual FORTRAN code, as modified for this implementation. (author)

  8. The application of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To affirm the application value of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation. Methods: The graft was transplanted in the right subhepatic space of recipient to establish pig auxiliary liver transplantation model. The artery blood supplies were the very same in all grafts and the portal vein (PV) blood flows were differently controlled by trussing the host PV at the site neared host liver. According to the constriction degree, PV blood supplies were divided into three groups including A (constricted by 1/3), B (constricted by 1/2) and C(not constricted). The blood flows of the graft liver and the host liver were measured by 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy and livers functions were estimated after auxiliary liver transplantation. Contrasted with its histological findings the reflection of graft survival with 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy was investigated. Results: It was detected by 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy that the blood flows were almost equilibrated and abundant in grafts and host liver' in group A, and were abundant in grafts of group B and host livers of group C and were significantly decreased in host livers of group B and grafts of group C. Histological work-up demonstrated that the liver was not atrophic while the blood flow was abundant and the liver was atrophic while the blood flow was decreased. Conclusion: 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy could accurately reflect the survival and function of grafts and host livers after auxiliary liver transplantation and it is a reliable technique which can be used to estimate the survival and function of the grafts and host livers

  9. An Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo Study of the Chromium Dimer

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanto, Wirawan; Zhang, Shiwei; Krakauer, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The chromium dimer (Cr2) presents an outstanding challenge for many-body electronic structure methods. Its complicated nature of binding, with a formal sextuple bond and an unusual potential energy curve, is emblematic of the competing tendencies and delicate balance found in many strongly correlated materials. We present a near-exact calculation of the potential energy curve (PEC) and ground state properties of Cr2, using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method. Unconstrained,...

  10. Ecological risk assessment in prevention of pollution of auxiliary products of textile sector

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Christofaro; Mônica Maria Diniz Leão

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the application of ecological risk assessment for Pollution Prevention (P2). Thirteen textile industry auxiliary products were selected by their Material Safety Data Sheets – MSDS. The exposure and environmental behavior of substances were estimated by the softwares E-FAST and EPIWin, respectively, considering the following properties: bio-concentration potential (Kow and Bioconcentration Factor), soil absorption potential (Koc), biodegradability, a...

  11. AMPA Receptors Commandeer an Ancient Cargo Exporter for Use as an Auxiliary Subunit for Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Harmel; Barbara Cokic; Gerd Zolles; Henrike Berkefeld; Veronika Mauric; Bernd Fakler; Valentin Stein; Nikolaj Klöcker

    2012-01-01

    Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mainly mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype (AMPARs). AMPARs are protein complexes of the pore-lining alpha-subunits GluA1-4 and auxiliary beta-subunits modulating their trafficking and gating. By a proteomic approach, two homologues of the cargo exporter cornichon, CNIH-2 and CNIH-3, have recently been identified as constituents of native AMPARs in mammalian brain. In heterologous reconstit...

  12. IMPROVED CLASS OF ESTIMATORS USING MULTI-AUXILIARY INFORMATION IN SUCCESSIVE SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study propounded an improved class of estimators using multi-auxiliary information in successive sampling at both the design and the estimation stages. The proposed method is an extension of the work by Tankou and Dharmadhikari (1989 in successive sampling. The present study is compared with the work carried out by Olkin (1958. The numerical illustration is carried out to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  13. Improved Estimators of Population Mean Using Two Auxiliary Variables in Stratified random Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An exponential family of estimators, which use the information of two auxiliary variables in the stratified sampling, is proposed to estimate the population mean of the variable under study. The mean-squared error of the suggested family of estimators are derived under large sample approximation. The family of estimators in its optimum case is carried out to show the properties of the proposed estimators.

  14. Organization and scheduling of auxiliary components and large equipments erection and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this paper deals with the installation of auxiliary systems. FRAMATOME divides NSSS site construction activities into the following 3 packages: main primary system, electricity and instrumentation and control, and auxiliary systems. This paper presents an analysis of the organisation of auxiliary system installation with particular reference to piping. The term ''auxiliary systems'' covers all NSSS mechanical and electrical equipment with the exception of heavy Reactor Coolant System components (reactor, fuel, associated handling equipment and cooling loops). FRAMATOME, with the help of its associates working on the French nuclear programme, has been able to develop efficient methods of organisation as a result of the wide experience gained. The main field involved is that of piping, for which computerized task analysis, scheduling and follow-up methods have been developed. The second part deals with large components installation. The normal sequence of welding operations for the assembly of the reactor coolant loops of a PWR power plant begins with the simultaneous welding of hot and cold leg piping and is completed by the welding of the crossover leg between the steam generator and the reactor coolant pump, thus ''closing'' the loop. This is the traditional method. FRAMATOME has developed a different method whereby installation of the reactor coolant loops begins with the welding of the steam generator - reactor coolant pump connection. This is the ''crossover leg'' method. This report presents a description of both methods followed by the results of a comparative study of technical considerations and schedules; in conclusion, charts are presented to assist in pre-selection of the method which is best suited to the on-site delivery schedule of Reactor Coolant System components

  15. Extended Auxiliary Equation Method and Its Applications to Three Generalized NLS Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Gui-qiong Xu

    2014-01-01

    The auxiliary equation method proposed by Sirendaoreji is extended to construct new types of elliptic function solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The effectiveness of the extended method is demonstrated by applications to the RKL model, the generalized derivative NLS equation and the Kundu-Eckhaus equation. Not only are the Jacobian elliptic function solutions are derived, but also the solitary wave solutions and trigonometric function solutions are obtained in a unified way.

  16. Extended Auxiliary Equation Method and Its Applications to Three Generalized NLS Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-qiong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The auxiliary equation method proposed by Sirendaoreji is extended to construct new types of elliptic function solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The effectiveness of the extended method is demonstrated by applications to the RKL model, the generalized derivative NLS equation and the Kundu-Eckhaus equation. Not only are the Jacobian elliptic function solutions are derived, but also the solitary wave solutions and trigonometric function solutions are obtained in a unified way.

  17. Strategic analysis of a manufacturing company and the North American auxiliary power unit market

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Craig B.

    2005-01-01

    Power Systems has been the leader in the truck auxiliary power unit business since 2000 and has been making significant advancements in the price of the product as well as its reliability and robustness. Unfortunately the reliability and robustness requirement is increasing further and the profit margin is shrinking to the point that Power Systems needs to undertake a new product development program. The new product offering will result in zero increase in the price to the customer but provid...

  18. An auxiliary capacitor based ultra-fast drive circuit for shear piezoelectric motors

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh; Boyer, Michael C.; Wise, W. D.; Hudson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Shear piezoelectric motors frequently require large voltage changes on very short time scales. Since piezos behave electrically as capacitors, this requires a drive circuit capable of quickly sourcing or sinking a large amount of current at high voltages. Here we describe a novel circuit design using a high voltage amplifier, transistor switching stage, and auxiliary capacitor. This circuit can drive piezoelectric motors at higher speeds and lower costs than conventional methods and with grea...

  19. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs.

  20. Use of extracorporeal liver assist device and auxiliary liver transplantation in fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; Ellis, A J; Wendon, J A; Heaton, N; Rela, M; Buxton-Thomas, M; Hughes, R D; Portmann, B C; Williams, R

    1997-04-01

    The case history of a 14-year-old boy with fulminant hepatic failure secondary to non-A, non-B hepatitis who fulfilled selection criteria for orthotopic liver transplantation is described. Two forms of liver support were used (extracorporeal liver assist device and an auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation) to provide additional time to allow spontaneous recovery to occur. During the 66 h of extracorporeal haemoperfusion through the device, haemodynamic stability was maintained along with improvements in serum bilirubin (555 to 381 mumol/l), and international normalized ratio (INR) (3.7 to 2.9). Deterioration in these parameters was observed following cessation of treatment and 10 h later, after a donor liver had become available, an auxiliary transplant was performed. Clinical recovery, though initially slow, was eventually complete, with histopathological and scintigraphic evidence of full liver regeneration at 3 months. Withdrawal of his immunosuppressive drugs began at 6 months and was complete by 14 months after auxiliary transplantation. He has since remained well with normal liver function tests. Temporary liver support may provide additional time for spontaneous recovery of the native liver to occur in selected cases of fulminant hepatic failure, even when criteria are fulfilled for orthotopic liver grafting. PMID:9160207

  1. Conceptual design of the integral test loop (II) : Safety system and auxiliary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Song, Chul Hwa; Choi, Byeong Hae; Chung Moon Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the results of the conceptual design work on the safety system and auxiliary system of the Integral Test Loop (ITL) which simulates overall thermal hydraulic phenomena of the primary system of a nuclear power plant during postulated accidents or transients. The design basis for the safety and auxiliary systems is the same as that applied to the primary and secondary systems of the ITL as follows ; Reference plant : Korean Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP), Height ratio :1/1, Volume ration: 1/200, Temperature, Pressure : Real plant conditions, The safety system contains a safety depressurization system (SDS) and a safety injection system (SIS). And the auxiliary system comprises a containment system, a shutdown cooling system (SCS), a volume control system (VCS), a makeup water system and a component cooling water system (CCWS). This conceptual design report describes the configurations and operation of the systems of the reference plant, and also describes the design philosophy of the corresponding components and systems of the ITL. In addition, this report specifies the design criteria and technical specifications of each component and system of the ITL. 6 refs., 11 figs., 21 tabs. (Author)

  2. Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Yin; Xiao-Dong Ni; Feng Jiang; Ning Li; You-Sheng Li; Xiao-Ming Wang; Jie-Shou Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe an auxiliary combined liver-small bowel transplantation model with the preservation of duodenum, head of pancreas and hepatic biliary system in pigs. The technique, feasibility, security and immunosuppression were commented.METHODS: Forty outbred long-white pigs were randomized into two groups, and the auxiliary composite liver/small bowel allotransplantations were undertaken in 10 long-white pigs in each group with the recipient liver preserved.Group A was not treated with immunosuppressive drugs while group B was treated with cyclosporine A and methylprednisolone after operation. The hemodynamic changes and amylase of body fluid (including blood, urine and abdominal drain) were analyzed.RESULTS: The average survival time of the animals was 10±1.929 d (6 to 25 d) in group A while more than 30 d in group B. The pigs could tolerate the hemodynamic fluctuation during operation and the hemodynamic parameters recovered to normal 2 h after blood reperfusion. The transient high amylase level was decreased to normal one week after operation and autopsy showed no pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation is a feasible and safe model with simplified surgical techniques for composite liver/small bowel transplantation. This model may be used as a preclinical training model for clinical transplantation method, clinical liver-small bowel transplantation related complication research, basic research including immunosuppressive treatment, organ preservation, acute rejection, chronic rejection, immuno-tolerance and xenotransplantation.

  3. Simulative technology for auxiliary fuel tank separation in a wind tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xin; Liu Wei; Chen Ling; Li Xiao; Jia Zhenyuan; Shang Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simulative experimental system in wind tunnel conditions for the separation of auxiliary fuel tanks from an aircraft. The experimental system consists of a simulative release mechanism, a scaled model and a pose measuring system. A new release mechanism was designed to ensure stability of the separation. Scaled models of the auxiliary fuel tank were designed and their moment of inertia was adjusted by installing counterweights inside the model. Pose param-eters of the scaled model were measured and calculated by a binocular vision system. Additionally, in order to achieve high brightness and high signal-to-noise ratio of the images in the dark enclosed wind tunnel, a new high-speed image acquisition method based on miniature self-emitting units was pre-sented. Accuracy of the pose measurement system and repeatability of the separation mechanism were verified in the laboratory. Results show that the position precision of the pose measurement system can reach 0.1 mm, the precision of the pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.1? and that of the roll angle can be up to 0.3?. Besides, repeatability errors of models’ velocity and angular velocity controlled by the release mechanism remain small, satisfying the measurement requirements. Finally, experiments for the separation of auxiliary fuel tanks were conducted in the laboratory.

  4. Evaluation of the pressure loads generated by hydrogen explosion in auxiliary nuclear building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of nuclear safety, a hydrogen leaks in the auxiliary nuclear building would raise a explosion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture would give birth initially to a slow flame, rapidly accelerated by obstacles. This flame acceleration is responsible for high pressure loads that can damage the auxiliary building and destroy safety equipments in it. In this paper, we evaluate the pressure loads generated by an hydrogen explosion for both bounding and realistic explosion scenarios. The bounding scenarios use stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures and the realistic scenarios correspond to hydrogen leaks with mass flow rate varying between 1 g/s and 9 g/s. For every scenario, the impact of the ignition location and ignition time are investigated. The hydrogen dispersion and explosion are computed using the TONUS code. The dispersion model used is based on a finite element solver and the explosion is simulated by a structured finite volumes EULER equation solver and the combustion model CREBCOM which simulates the hydrogen/air turbulent flame propagation, taking into account 3D complex geometry and reactants concentration gradients. The pressure loads computed are then used to investigate the occurrence of a mechanical failure of the tanks located in the auxiliary nuclear building and containing radioactive fluids. The EUROPLEXUS code is used to perform 3D mechanical calculations because the loads are non uniform and of rather short deviation. (authors)

  5. Creating and manipulating non-Abelian anyons in cold atom systems using auxiliary bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhe; Sreejith, G. J.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of realizing bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect in ultracold atomic systems suggests a new route to producing and manipulating anyons, by introducing auxiliary bosons of a different species that capture quasiholes and thus inherit their nontrivial braiding properties. States with localized quasiholes at any desired locations can be obtained by annihilating the auxiliary bosons at those locations. We explore how this method can be used to generate non-Abelian quasiholes of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state for bosons at filling factor ν =1 . We show that a Hamiltonian with an appropriate three-body interaction can produce two-quasihole states in two distinct fusion channels of the topological "qubit." Characteristics of these states that are related to the non-Abelian nature can be probed and verified by a measurement of the effective relative angular momentum of the auxiliary bosons, which is directly related to their pair distribution function. Moore-Read states of more than two quasiholes can also be produced in a similar fashion. We investigate some issues related to the experimental feasibility of this approach, in particular, how large the systems should be for a realization of this physics and to what extent this physics carries over to systems with the more standard two-body contact interaction.

  6. Evaluation of regeneration of liver function in pig model of auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a pig model of auxiliary partial liver transplantation and observe the liver function regeneration of host liver and graft. Methods: The portal vein providing for the host liver were gradually contracted; the donor hepatic veins were eng-to-side anastomosed to inferior vena cava in host caudal; graft was transplanted into the space under the host liver, part of receivers relieved portal vein angiography and color Doppler flow imaging was performed 3 days after surgery. Liver function of double livers in relievers was checked up, 3 days and 1 week after surgery respectively. Results: After surgery 10 relievers survived over 1 week, blood enzymology from hepatic vein of grafts 1 week after surgery were not ameliorative significantly compared with those 3 days after surgery (P > 0.05). Blood enzymology indexes from hepatic veins of grafts 1 week after surgery were were improved significantly compared with 3 days after surgery (P < 0.05). The graft did not reveal atrophic and gained favorable function. Conclusion: Favorable regeneration in the auxiliary partial liver transplantation model has achieved. Ideal foundation has been established for simulating and investigating human auxiliary liver transplantation. (authors)

  7. Containment vessel, its auxiliary system and plant air conditioning system of advanced thermal reactor Fugen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional requirement for, the design and the construction of, and the functional test on the containment vessel, its auxiliary system, the plant air conditioning and ventilation system of the advanced thermal reactor, Fugen, are described in detail. The main specifications of the containment vessel are as follows: The type enclosed cylinder, the maximum operating pressure 1.35 kg/cm2g, the maximum operating temperature 100 deg C, the leak rate 0.4%/day, the inner diameter 36 m. The height 64 m, the volume 40,900 m3, and the material JIS G3118, SGV-49. The containment vessel is provided with an hatch of 5 m diameter for carrying equipments in two air locks, many high and low voltage cable penetrations, pipe penetrations, a transfer shoot and isolation values. The functions and the specifications of the containment vessel and its auxiliary equipments are explained. The relating auxiliary systems are composed of the containment vessel spray system, the pool facility for steam blow-down, the recirculation system for the air in the vessel, the annulus evacuation system and its pressure control devices, the pressure measuring instruments and pressure relief valves and the temperature measuring devices for the containment vessel, and the object, function, layout and installation of these systems are explained. Concerning the air conditioning system, each main building has the special subsystem, and they are introduced. The progress stage of construction works and the procedure and results of the functional test at the site are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. PSA effect analysis of a design modification of the auxiliary feedwater system for a Westinghouse type plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The auxiliary feedwater system is an important system used to mitigate most accidents considered in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The reference plant has produced electric power for about thirty years. Due to age related deterioration and lack of parts, a turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump (TD AFWP), some valves, and piping of the auxiliary feedwater system should be replaced. This change includes relocation of some valves, installation of valves for maintenance of the steam generator, and a new cross tie line. According to the design change, the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) has been revised. Therefore, this design modification affects the PSA. It is thus necessary to assess the improvement of plant safety. In this paper, the impact of the design change of the auxiliary feedwater system on the PSA is assessed. The results demonstrate that this modification considering the plant safety decreased the total CDF

  9. The importance of quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis: do they need auxiliary walking devices?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, Luísa; Pais-Ribeiro, José Luís

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe the importance of training multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with auxiliary walking devices (walking stick, crutch, or wheelchair) in a way that achieves a better quality of life (QOL). Design: Exploratory and descriptive. Setting: General hospital in Portugal.

  10. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Blomer, J. [CERN; Herner, K. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Slyz, M. [Fermilab

    2015-12-23

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called 'alien cache' to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached

  11. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, D.; Bockelman, B.; Blomer, J.; Herner, K.; Levshina, T.; Slyz, M.

    2015-12-01

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called "alien cache" to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached locally on the

  12. HTGR nuclear heat source component design and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear heat source components have been under design and development since the mid-1950's. Two power plants have been designed, constructed, and operated: the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Recently, development has focused on the primary system components for a 2240-MW(t) steam cycle HTGR capable of generating about 900 MW(e) electric power or alternately producing high-grade steam and cogenerating electric power. These components include the steam generators, core auxiliary heat exchangers, primary and auxiliary circulators, reactor internals, and thermal barrier system. A discussion of the design and operating experience of these components is included

  13. A randomized, controlled study of an educational intervention to improve recall of auxiliary medication labeling and adherence to antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Jade A; Pierce, William; Muhlbaier, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether medication counseling with emphasis on auxiliary labels improves recall of auxiliary label information and adherence to medication schedules. Methods: A prospective, randomized study of an educational intervention in community pharmacies near Baltimore, Maryland. Fifty literate, English-speaking adults receiving one of the 18 commonly dispensed antibiotics were randomized to receive a counseling session or no counseling. Five to seven days after medication pickup,...

  14. Design and operation of the LAMPF Auxiliary Controller. High-speed remote processing on the CAMAC dataway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CAMAC Auxiliary Controller has been developed to further the concepts of distributed processing in both process control and experiment data-acquisition systems. The Auxiliary Controller is built around a commercially available 16-bit microcomputer and a high-speed bit-sliced microprocessor capable of instruction execution times of 140 ns. The modular nature of the controller allows the user to tailor the controller capabilities to the system problem, while maintaining the interface techniques of the CAMAC Standard

  15. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  16. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems included under the heading ''Reactor Auxillary Systems'' are those immediately involved with the reactor operation. These include the systems for dosing and letdown of reactor coolant, as well as for the chemical dosing, purification and treatment of the reactor coolant and the cooling system in the controlled area. The ancillary systems are mainly responsible for liquid and gaseous treatment and the waste treatment for final storage. (orig.)

  17. Soft Switching SEPP High Frequency Inverter for Induction Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents a novel circuit topology to attain soft switching operation of a high frequency inverter. Its output power is regulated over a wide range using a PWM control technique by connecting an auxiliary resonant circuit to the conventional single ended push pull (SEPP) high frequency inverter for induction heating. All switching devices in the proposed inverter are operated soft switching mode. This paper describes its circuit constitution and obtained experimental results from a practical point of view.

  18. Exergy analysis of a heat transformer for water purification increasing heat source temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the first and second laws of thermodynamic have been used to analyse in detail the performance of a heat transformer used for water purification. The heat delivered in the auxiliary condenser is recycled into the system increasing the heat source temperatures and therefore the coefficient of performance (COP) and the exergy coefficient of performance (ECOP). Plots of COP, ECOP, the improvement potential (IP) and the cycle irreversibility (ICYCLE) are shown against the main operating temperatures of the system, the gross temperature lift (GTL), the flow ratio (FR) and the effectiveness of the economiser (EFEC). In order to found the components of the system with the highest irreversibilities, plots of the irreversibilities for each one of the main components of the system are reported against the main temperatures and operating parameters of the heat transformer. The results showed that the highest irreversibilities occurred in the absorber contributing with more than the 30% of the irreversibilities of the entire system, followed by the auxiliary condenser with about the 25%. The lowest irreversibilities were found in the pumps which are almost negligible and in the economiser which were in general lower than 5%.

  19. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  20. Molecular basis for differential modulation of BK channel voltage-dependent gating by auxiliary γ subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Fan, Fei; Kwak, Ha Rim; Yan, Jiusheng

    2015-06-01

    Large conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels are comprised of pore-forming α subunits and various regulatory auxiliary subunits. The BK channel auxiliary γ (BKγ) subunits are a newly identified class of proteins containing an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD), a single transmembrane (TM) segment, and a short cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail). Although each of the four BKγ proteins shifts the voltage dependence of BK channel activation in a hyperpolarizing direction, they show markedly different efficacies, mediating shifts over a range of 15-145 mV. Analyses of chimeric BKγ subunits created by swapping individual structural elements, and of BKγ deletion and substitution mutants, revealed that differential modulation of BK gating by the four BKγ subunits depends on a small region consisting of the TM segment and the adjacent intracellular cluster of positively charged amino acids. The γ1 and γ2 TM segments contributed approximately -100 mV, and the γ1 and γ3 C-tails contributed approximately -40 mV, to shifting the voltage dependence of BK channel activation, whereas the γ3 and γ4 TM segments and the γ2 and γ4 C-tails contributed much less. The large extracellular LRRDs were mainly functionally interchangeable, although the γ1 LRRD was slightly less effective at enhancing (or slightly more effective at attenuating) the shift in BK channel voltage-dependent gating toward hyperpolarizing potentials than those of the other BKγ subunits. Analysis of mutated BKγ subunits revealed that juxta-membrane clusters of positively charged amino acids determine the functions of the γ1 and γ3 C-tails. Therefore, the modulatory functions of BKγ subunits are coarse- and fine-tuned, respectively, through variations in their TM segments and in the adjacent intracellular positively charged regions. Our results suggest that BK channel modulation by auxiliary γ subunits depends on intra- and/or juxta-membrane mechanisms

  1. Study on 3D printer production of auxiliary device for upper limb for medical imaging test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumsung (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Ho [Jukwang Precision Co., Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Dae [Dept. of Mechanical system engineering, Kumoh Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination.

  2. Evaluation of thermal striping for the plugging system in the secondary auxiliary cooling system in JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Kazunori; Ogawa, Tooru; Kubo, Atsuhiko; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Kenji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Sugaya, Kazushi

    1998-05-01

    Scrutiny based on the convenient evaluation to verify whether we have the place where thermal striping in the pipe confluence part was thought to be a primary factor for the heavy accident or not has been done in JOYO. As the result, the big temperature difference ({Delta}Tin) existed at the inner pipe confluence part of the plugging system in the secondary main and auxiliary cooling system. Therefore, detailed evaluation of thermal striping was needed. With the thermocouples of high response installed, the temperature fluctuation in outer surface of the pipe was measured on the secondary auxiliary plugging system for the reason why the temperature difference ({Delta}Tin) was the biggest. And, the temperature fluctuation in inner surface of the pipe and stress occurring in the pipe plate thickness direction was evaluated by means of non-linear structure analysis system FINAS`. The above-mentioned evaluation results were as follows. (1) The maximum temperature fluctuation occurring in the pipe was always located from the center of inner pipe confluence to 10 mm position of the down-stream side. (2) The maximum temperature fluctuation range was about 33degC in outer surface of the pipe. And, controlling frequency of the temperature fluctuation was 0.04 Hz and 0.09 Hz. (3) Time delay was almost never contained in the temperature fluctuation elements between inner and outer surface of the pipe. And, the big temperature distribution did not occur in the pipe plate thickness direction was confirmed that the big temperature distribution did not occur in the pipe plate thickness direction. The temperature fluctuation range in the pipe inner surface was almost the same as that of the pipe outer surface. It was confirmed that the stress occurring there was enough lowered than the design fatigue limit of SUS304 which was the materials in the confluence part of the plugging system inner part in the secondary main and auxiliary cooling system. (J.P.N.)

  3. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China. PMID:22683228

  4. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  5. Modelling of Auxiliary Devices for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Application

    OpenAIRE

    Olsén, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The engine torque is an important control signal. This signal is disturbed by the devices mounted on the belt. To better be able to estimate the torque signal, this work aims to model the auxiliary devices'influence on the crankshaft torque. Physical models have been developed for the air conditioning compressor, the alternator and the power steering pump. If these models are to be used in control unit function development and testing, they have to be fast enough to run on a hardware-in-the-l...

  6. Feasibility of AN Ecrh System for Jet:. Plant Layout, Auxiliaries and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennholm, M.; Bouquey, F.; Braune, H.; Farthing, J.; Garavaglia, S.; Giruzzi, G.; Granucci, G.; Jennison, M.; Parkin, A.

    2011-02-01

    A study conducted over the last year to asses the desirability and feasibility of installing an ECRH system on the JET tokamak has concluded that such a system is indeed both desirable and feasible. Details of physics studies, launcher and transmission line design, and power supplies are presented elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper concentrates on the logistical implications of installing this system at JET. The paper addresses issues such as port allocation and plant location. The study has concluded that a new building will be needed to house the ECRH plant. Building layout proposals are presented together with considerations regarding the required auxiliary equipment.

  7. Volumetric and chemical control auxiliary circuit for a PWR primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volumetric and chemical control circuit has an expansion tank with at least one water-steam chamber connected to the primary circuit by a sampling pipe and a reinjection pipe. The sampling pipe feeds jet pumps controlled by valves. An action on these valves and pumps regulates the volume of the water in the primary circuit. A safety pipe controlled by a flap automatically injects water from the chamber into the primary circuit in case of ruptures. The auxiliary circuit has also systems for purifying the water and controlling the boric acid and hydrogen content

  8. Self-starting of auxiliary electric motors at NPPs and the ways for its improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modes of self-starting of auxiliary electric motors at NPPs with the WWER-1000 and RBMK-1000(1500) type reactors are considered. It is shown that transition at the first stage of transformation to the voltage of 10 kV using the transformer with capacity of 63MVxA at small voltage of short circuit Usc is the solution of the self-starting problem. At the second stage of transformation the problem of the self-starting is successfully solved by coordination of the second stage transformer capacities, their loading during self-starting and the value of Usc

  9. Development of the NASA MCAT Auxiliary Telescope for Orbital Debris Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Lederer, Susan; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Hickson, Paul; Anz-Meador, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) has recently deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island. MCAT will provide NASA with a dedicated optical sensor for observations of orbital debris with the goal of statistically sampling the orbital and photometric characteristics of the population from low Earth to Geosynchronous orbits. Additionally, a small auxiliary telescope, co-located with MCAT, is being deployed to augment its observations by providing near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry, as well as offloading low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. It will also be available to provide observational measurements to the Space Surveillance Network for the United States Air Force.

  10. Non-Gaussian fixed points in fermionic field theories without auxiliary Bose fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakovac, A.; Posfay, P. [Eoetvoes University, Institute of Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Patkos, A. [MTA-ELTE Biological and Statistical Physics Research Group, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-01-01

    The functional equation governing the renormalization flow of fermionic field theories is investigated in d dimensions without introducing auxiliary Bose fields on the example of the Gross-Neveu and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The UV-safe fixed points and the eigenvectors of the renormalization group equations linearized around them are found in the local potential approximation. The results are compared carefully with those obtained with partial bosonization. The results do not receive any correction in the next-to-leading order approximation of the gradient expansion of the effective action. (orig.)

  11. Implementation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Metamaterial Controlled with Auxiliary Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2015-08-01

    We propose a metamaterial to realize true electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), where the incidence of an auxiliary electromagnetic wave called the control wave induces transparency for a probe wave. The analogy to the original EIT effect in an atomic medium is shown through analytical and numerical calculations derived from a circuit model for the metamaterial. We perform experiments to demonstrate the EIT effect of the metamaterial in the microwave region. The width and position of the transparent region can be controlled by the power and frequency of the control wave. We also observe asymmetric transmission spectra unique to the Fano resonance.

  12. Implementation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a metamaterial controlled with auxiliary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial to realize true electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), where the incidence of an auxiliary electromagnetic wave called the control wave induces transparency for a probe wave. The analogy to the original EIT effect in an atomic medium is shown through analytical and numerical calculations derived from a circuit model for the metamaterial. We performed experiments to demonstrate the EIT effect of the metamaterial in the microwave region. The width and position of the transparent region can be controlled by the power and frequency of the control wave. We also observed asymmetric transmission spectra unique to the Fano resonance.

  13. STS-31 Discovery, OV-103, auxiliary power unit 1 (APU-1) controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The controller for Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, auxiliary power unit 1 (APU-1) is documented before removal following the launch scrub on 04-10-90. The controller weighs about 15 pounds and controls the speed of the APU. It was flown to the vendor, Sundstrand Corp., Rockford, Illinois, for analysis and testing. Launch of OV-103 on mission STS-31 has been rescheduled for 04-24-90 following the successful replacement of the APU-1 and the recharging of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) nickel-hydrogen batteries. View provided by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with alternate KSC number KSC-90PC-663.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing;

    2012-01-01

    mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The “Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants...... political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China....

  15. The integrated design of the ITER magnets and their auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnet system design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has reached a high degree of integration to meet performance and operation requirements, including reliability and maintainability, in a cost effective manner. This paper identifies the requirements of long inductive burn time, large number of tokamak pulses, operational flexibility for the poloidal field (PF) system, magnet reliability and the cost constraints as the main design drivers. Key features of the magnet system which stem from these design drivers are described, together with interfaces and integration aspects of certain auxiliary systems. (author)

  16. Charge-constrained auxiliary-density-matrix methods for the Hartree–Fock exchange contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new variants of the auxiliary-density-matrix method (ADMM) of Guidon, Hutter, and VandeVondele [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2348 (2010)] are presented with the common feature that they have a simplified constraint compared with the full orthonormality requirement of the earlier ADMM1 method. All ADMM variants are tested for accuracy and performance in all-electron B3LYP calculations with several commonly used basis sets. The effect of the choice of the exchange functional for the ADMM exchange–correction term is also investigated

  17. Maintenance centered on reliability applied to a NPP auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of maintenance in a NPP is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and/or availability in order to allow a safe and economic electric power generation. Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to either develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This paper presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the application of RCM to NPP. Some application examples are include in this paper, considering some components of the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic Westinghouse designed two-loop PWR NPP. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  18. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  19. Fort St. Vrain helium circulator auxiliary systems: dynamic performance evaluation and acceptance tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the tests described is to show that the dynamic performance of the Fort St. Vrain helium circulator auxiliary systems satisfies all the guidelines and criteria established and agreed to by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC), Proto-Power, and General Atomic Company (GA). Specifically, it is shown that transfers to and from backup bearing water and helium purification system transients do not cause any circulator trips. Furthermore, at PSC's request, in an effort to resolve any NFSC questions concerning these systems, the satisfactory repeatability of their dynamic performance is shown beyond any doubt.

  20. Using auxiliary gas power for CCS energy needs in retrofitted coal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bashadi, Sarah O.; Herzog, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Adding post-combustion capture technology to existing coal-fired power plants is being considered as a near-term option for mitigating CO[subscript 2] emissions. To supply the thermal energy needed for CO[subscript 2] capture, much of the literature proposes thermal integration of the existing coal plant’s steam cycle with the capture process’ stripper reboiler. This paper examines the option of using an auxiliary natural gas turbine plant to meet the energetic demands of carbon capture and c...

  1. Probabilistic analysis of reactor safety - The auxiliary feedwater system of Angra I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unavailability of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) of Angra-1, was calculated. The fault tree analysis technique was used, considering two diferent types of contribution to system unavailability: The one due to hard-ware failure and the contribution due to test and maintenance which was separately analysed. The COMBO-and SAMPLE computer codes were used. The results have shown that the AFWS of Angra-1 contains enough redundancy to guarantee a safe operation under the conditions analysed, best values having been obtained for the unavailability of AFWS of Angra 1 with those codes than with the WASH-1400. (E.G.)

  2. PT-symmetric quantum models living in an auxiliary Pontryagin space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 102-109. ISSN 2159-5291. [21st International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications IWOTA 2010. Berlin, 12.07.2010-16.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA ČR GAP203/11/1433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : quantum mechanics * Hermitizations of observables * auxiliary Krein and Pontryagin spaces * Jacobi-matrix Hamiltonians * Dieudonn´e equation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://arxiv.org/pdf/1110.1218v1.pdf

  3. Effect of Auxiliary Gases on Combustion Synthesis of Si3N4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiping SHEN; Fei WANG; Zhuohui WU; Changchun GE

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of combustion synthesis (Self-Propagating High Temperature Synt hesis, SHS) of Si3N4under nitrogen with argon, hydrogen or ammonia. Higher percentages of α-Si3N4 content were obtained in large size cakes in SHS with hydrogen and ammonia than those with argon. Effect of the auxiliary gases for combustion synthesis of Si3N4 on α phase content, on phase transformation of α-Si3N4 toβ-Si3N4 in SHS Si3N4 and on oxygen content in SHS Si3N4 were investigated.

  4. Aging and service wear of auxiliary feedwater pumps for PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes investigations on auxiliary feedwater pumps being done under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Objectives of these studies are: to identify and evaluate practical, cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging and service wear); recommend inspection and maintenance practices; establish acceptance criteria; and help facilitate use of the results. Emphasis is given to identifying and assessing methods for detecting failure in the incipient stage and to developing degradation trends to allow timely maintenance, repair or replacement actions. 3 refs

  5. Hepatobiliary function scintigraphy (HBFS) in auxiliary partial liver transplantation - results and analysis of animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After transplantation of an auxiliary liver lobe, hepatobiliary function scintigraphy (HBFS) using 99mTc-diethyl-IDA was performed for evaluation of the double liver system in healthy domestic pigs. Evaluation was performed using the parameters time activity curves, trend scans and count density rates (transplant versus host liver). Compared to the host liver the transplant revealed a complex impairment of the radiopharmaceuticals biokinetics. The results show that postoperative damage of transplants can be assessed early by scintigraphy as a quantitative measure for the individual function of transplant and host liver in the postoperative phase. (orig.)

  6. Development of the NASA MCAT Auxiliary Telescope for Orbital Debris Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Hickson, Paul; Anz-Meador, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautical Space Administration has deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island with plans for it to become fully operational by summer 2016. This telescope will be providing data in support of research being conducted by the Orbital Debris Program Office at the Johnson Space Center. In addition to the main observatory, a smaller, auxiliary telescope is being deployed to the same location to augment and support observations generated by MCAT. It will provide near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry of debris objects, independent measurements of the seeing conditions, and offload low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. Its hardware and software designs are presented here The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) has recently deployed the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) to Ascension Island. MCAT will provide NASA with a dedicated optical sensor for observations of orbital debris with the goal of statistically sampling the orbital and photometric characteristics of the population from low Earth to Geosynchronous orbits. Additionally, a small auxiliary telescope, co-located with MCAT, is being deployed to augment its observations by providing near-simultaneous photometry and astrometry, as well as offloading low priority targets from MCAT's observing queue. It will also serve to provide an independent measurement of the seeing conditions to help monitor the quality of the data being produced by the larger telescope. Comprised of off-the-shelf-components, the MCAT Auxiliary Telescope will have a 16-inch optical tube assembly, Sloan g'r'i'z' and Johnson/Cousins BVRI filters, and a fast tracking mount to help facilitate the tracking of objects in low Earth orbit. Tracking modes and tasking will be similar to MCAT except an emphasis will be placed on observations that provide more accurate initial orbit determination for the objects detected by MCAT. The near-simultaneous observations will

  7. Interactome for Auxiliary Splicing Factor U2AF65 Suggests Diverse Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Justin R Prigge; Iverson, Sonya V.; Siders, Ashley M.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor (U2AF) is an essential component of the splicing machinery that is composed of two protein subunits, the 35 kD U2AF35 (U2AF1) and the 65 kD U2AF65 (U2AF2). U2AF interacts with various splicing factors within this machinery. Here we expand the list of mammalian splicing factors that are known to interact with U2AF65 as well as the list of nuclear proteins not known to participate in splicing that interact with U2AF65. Using a yeast two-hybrid...

  8. Non-Gaussian fixed points in fermionic field theories without auxiliary Bose fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional equation governing the renormalization flow of fermionic field theories is investigated in d dimensions without introducing auxiliary Bose fields on the example of the Gross-Neveu and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The UV-safe fixed points and the eigenvectors of the renormalization group equations linearized around them are found in the local potential approximation. The results are compared carefully with those obtained with partial bosonization. The results do not receive any correction in the next-to-leading order approximation of the gradient expansion of the effective action. (orig.)

  9. Implications of ITER requirements on R and D of RF heating and current drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heating and Current Drive (H and CD) systems have an essential role in ITER-FEAT operation, as all phases of ITER operation are driven and controlled by the auxiliary power flow. The RF (Electron Cyclotron and Ion Cyclotron) systems, planned to contribute for ∼ 60% of the total auxiliary power (72 MW), with Lower Hybrid used for the specialised function of current drive in the extended performance phase (20 MW), are at different level of technology development. All systems, need a significant development in order to meet ITER operation requirements In this paper these requirements are reviewed and CEA proposals for the development of the Ion cyclotron system presented. (author)

  10. Integration of Solar Process Heat into an Existing Thermal Desalination Plant in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Dieckmann, Simon; Krishnamoorthy, Ganesh; Aboumadi, Mahmoud; Pandian, Yuvaraj; Dersch, Jürgen; Krüger, Dirk; Al-Rasheed, Abdulsattar; Krüger, Joachim; Ottenburger, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The water supply of many countries in the Middle East relies mainly on water desalination. In Qatar, the water network is completely fed with water from desalination plants. One of these power and desalination plants is located in Ras Abu Fontas, 20 km south of the capital Doha. The heat required for thermal desalination is provided by steam which is generated in waste heat recovery boilers (HRB) connected to gas turbines. Additionally, gas fired boilers or auxiliary firing in the HRBs are us...

  11. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Fern Engineering Company, Inc. has developed two prototype solar heating and hot water systems. The systems have been installed at Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania, and Lansing, Michigan. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are presented. In addition, instruction on operation, maintenance, and repair of a solar heating and hot water system is provided.

  12. Auxiliary feedwater spreading and countercurrent flow flooding in a model once-through steam generator: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed in a separate effects test facility to investigate auxiliary feedwater spreading and counter-current flow flooding in a once-through steam generator model. The test objectives were to investigate: (1) flooding at the tube support plate, (2) spreading of the auxiliary feedwater across the tubes, (3) tube wetting characteristics, and (4) droplet entrainment in the exit steam flow. Eighty tests were performed in three phases involving air-water and steam-water experiments. The tests covered a wide range of auxiliary feedwater flow, air/steam flow, primary side water temperature, and flow rate. A scaling analysis was performed, based on a falling film mathematical model, which guided the selection of test conditions and subsequent data analysis. Experimental measurements and visual observations showed that: (1) entrainment was negligible, (2) spreading of the auxiliary feedwater and tube wetting depend mainly on the auxiliary feedwater injection rate, and (3) evaporation at the tube support plate controls flooding. The analysis showed, and the experiments confirmed, that there are two scaling parameters which control counter-current flow flooding in the passages of the tube support plate. A flooding regime map was constructed which showed the boundaries of the no-flooding and flooding regions as a function of these two scaling parameters

  13. MHD flows of UCM fluids above porous stretching sheets using two-auxiliary-parameter homotopy analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Pahlavan, Amir; Aliakbar, Vahid; Vakili-Farahani, Farzad; Sadeghy, Kayvan

    2009-02-01

    The performance of a two-auxiliary-parameter homotopy analysis method (HAM) is investigated in solving laminar MHD flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid (UCM) above a porous isothermal stretching sheet. The analysis is carried out up to the 20th-order of approximation, and the effect of parameters such as elasticity number, suction/injection velocity, and magnetic number are studied on the velocity field above the sheet. The results will be contrasted with those reported recently by Hayat et al. [Hayat T, Abbas Z, Sajid M. Series solution for the upper-convected Maxwell fluid over a porous stretching plate. Phys Lett A 358;2006:396-403] obtained using a third-order one-auxiliary-parameter homotopy analysis method. It is concluded that the flow reversal phenomenon as predicted by Hayat et al. (2006) may have arisen because of the inadequacies of using just one-auxiliary-parameter in their analysis. That is, no flow reversal is predicted to occur if instead of using one-auxiliary-parameter use is made of two auxiliary parameters together with a more convenient set of base functions to assure the convergence of the series used to solve the highly nonlinear ODE governing the flow.

  14. The construction of cloned Sika deer embryos (Cervus nippon hortulorum) by demecolcine auxiliary enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Mei, M; Zhang, D; Zhang, S; Fan, A; Zhou, H; Li, Z

    2014-02-01

    The objective of our study was to establish the feasibility of experimental protocols for cloning sika deer. We performed auxiliary enucleation to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer operation by optimizing the demecolcine concentration to induce cytoplasmic protrusions in the sika deer oocytes. In the present study,we had studied the impact of different demecolcine concentrations on cytoplasmic protrusions and enucleation rates. We determined that 95.9% of the sika deer oocytes formed cytoplasmic protrusions when treated for 1 h with 0.8 μg/ml demecolcine. The lowest observed rate of protrusion was 19.3% after overnight treatment with demecolcine. When the oocytes aged or had a poor cumulus expansion, they exhibited a significant decrease in the ability to form cytoplasmic protrusions. The rates of enucleation (94.9% vs 85.8%, p sika deer oocytes could be enucleated quickly and effectively using demecolcine auxiliary enucleation, which could enhance the enucleation rate, cell fusion rate and blastocyst rate of cloned embryos in vitro. PMID:24138424

  15. Auxiliary field loop expansion of the effective action for a class of stochastic partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Fred; Dawson, John F.

    2016-02-01

    We present an alternative to the perturbative (in coupling constant) diagrammatic approach for studying stochastic dynamics of a class of reaction diffusion systems. Our approach is based on an auxiliary field loop expansion for the path integral representation for the generating functional of the noise induced correlation functions of the fields describing these systems. The systems we consider include Langevin systems describable by the set of self interacting classical fields ϕi(x , t) in the presence of external noise ηi(x , t) , namely (∂t - ν∇2) ϕ - F [ ϕ ] = η, as well as chemical reaction annihilation processes obtained by applying the many-body approach of Doi-Peliti to the Master Equation formulation of these problems. We consider two different effective actions, one based on the Onsager-Machlup (OM) approach, and the other due to Janssen-deGenneris based on the Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) response function approach. For the simple models we consider, we determine an analytic expression for the Energy landscape (effective potential) in both formalisms and show how to obtain the more physical effective potential of the Onsager-Machlup approach from the MSR effective potential in leading order in the auxiliary field loop expansion. For the KPZ equation we find that our approximation, which is non-perturbative and obeys broken symmetry Ward identities, does not lead to the appearance of a fluctuation induced symmetry breakdown. This contradicts the results of earlier studies.

  16. Steady-state dynamic behavior of an auxiliary bearing supported rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huajun; Flowers, George T.; Lawrence, Charles

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates the steady-state responses of a rotor system supported by auxiliary bearings in which there is a clearance between the rotor and the inner race of the bearing. A simulation model based upon the rotor of a production jet engine is developed and its steady-state behavior is explored over a wide range of operating conditions for various parametric configurations. Specifically, the influence of rotor imbalance, support stiffness, and damping is studied. It is found that imbalance may change the rotor responses dramatically in terms of frequency contents at certain operating speeds. Subharmonic responses of 2nd order through 10th order are all observed except the 9th order. Chaotic phenomenon is also observed. Jump phenomena (or double-valued responses) of both hard-spring type and soft-spring type are shown to occur at low operating speeds for systems with low auxiliary bearing damping or large clearance even with relatively small imbalance. The effect of friction between the shaft and the inner race of the bearing is also discussed.

  17. The verb Hteti and the structure of auxiliary and modal verbs in Serbo-Croatian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimir Rakić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the distribution of enclitic forms ću, ćeš, će ... and   heverb hteti shows that they cannot be naturally reduced to each other. Thi.s mean. s that the., verb hteti is not.. an auxiliary verb at all, i. e. it does not take part in compound tenses in S.erbo-Croatian. Accord,ing to their complement.& we ha­ve distinguished two verbs hteti - hteti1 and hteti. Hteti is a modal verb, hteti a main verb. Furthermore, we have shown that there is a parallelism between 'complements "da + prezent" and "sentence" which can be best accounted for by a transforma­ tion (18, which may be called in English Subjugation of Infi­ nitive. This analysis has enabled us to present the structure of auxiliary and modal verbs by rewrite rules (34. Finally, we have shown that an alternative analysis in which all verbs are conceived as main verbs is quite feasible. In this new analysis our results are preserved in the form of an obligatory filter.

  18. Statistical Inference for Regression Models with Covariate Measurement Error and Auxiliary Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinhong; Zhou, Haibo

    2009-01-01

    We consider statistical inference on a regression model in which some covariables are measured with errors together with an auxiliary variable. The proposed estimation for the regression coefficients is based on some estimating equations. This new method alleates some drawbacks of previously proposed estimations. This includes the requirment of undersmoothing the regressor functions over the auxiliary variable, the restriction on other covariables which can be observed exactly, among others. The large sample properties of the proposed estimator are established. We further propose a jackknife estimation, which consists of deleting one estimating equation (instead of one obervation) at a time. We show that the jackknife estimator of the regression coefficients and the estimating equations based estimator are asymptotically equivalent. Simulations show that the jackknife estimator has smaller biases when sample size is small or moderate. In addition, the jackknife estimation can also provide a consistent estimator of the asymptotic covariance matrix, which is robust to the heteroscedasticity. We illustrate these methods by applying them to a real data set from marketing science. PMID:22199460

  19. Sub compartment pressurization analysis for auxiliary building of APR1400DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Oh; Lee, Hee Do [Atomic Creative Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally, the sub compartment of PWR means a fully or partially enclosed volume that could house high-energy piping systems or restrict the flow of fluid in the event of a postulated pipe rupture. To meet the requirements of General Design Criteria (GDC) 4 and 50, Standard Review Plan (SRP) 6.2.1.2 states that the sub compartments shall be designed with sufficient margin to prevent the fracture of structure due to pressure differential across the walls of the sub- compartment and specifies the criteria related to the design and functional sub compartment nodalization schemes, vent flow path and vent flow behavior. Therefore the sub compartments structures within the containment and auxiliary building are designed to withstand the transient differential pressures loads, jet impingement forces, and pipe whip forces occurring due to a postulated pipe break. In this paper, the analyses of pressure transients after a postulated pipe rupture in sub compartments of APR1400DC auxiliary building is performed and the calculated peak differential pressures during the piping break transients for each sub compartment are less than structural design differential pressures.

  20. Facile dispersion and control of internal structure in lyotropic liquid crystalline particles by auxiliary solvent evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiel, Isabelle; Sagalowicz, Laurent; Handschin, Stephan; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    Submicron sized, structured lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) particles, so-called hexosomes and cubosomes, are generally obtained by high energy input dispersion methods, notably ultrasonication and high-pressure emulsification. We present a method to obtain dispersions of such LLC particles with a significantly reduced energy input, by evaporation of an auxiliary volatile solvent immiscible with water, e.g. cyclohexane or limonene. The inner structure of the particles can be precisely controlled by the addition of a nonvolatile oil, such as α-tocopherol or tetradecane consistently with bulk phase diagrams,. Two different lyotropic surfactants were employed, industrial grade monolinoleine (MLO) and soy bean phosphatidylcholine (PC). The lyotropic surfactant and oil phase modifier were first dissolved in the volatile solvent to give a liquid reverse micellar (L2) phase, which requires significantly less energy input to be dispersed in an aqueous solution of secondary emulsifier compared to the corresponding gel-like bulk mesophase. The auxiliary volatile solvent was then removed from the emulsion by evaporation at room temperature, yielding LLC particles of the desired inner structure, Pn3̅m, H2, or Fd3̅m. The obtained particles were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Our method enables fine-tuning of the final particle size through the volatile-to-nonvolatile volume ratio and processing conditions. PMID:25384248

  1. Auxiliary ventilation in mining roadways driven with roadheaders: Validated CFD modelling of dust behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torano, J.; Torno, S.; Menendez, M.; Gent, M. [University of Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The production of dust when driving mining roadways can affect workers health. In addition, there is a decrease in productivity since Mine Safety regulations establish a reduction in the working time depending on the quartz content and dust concentration in the atmosphere. One of the gate roadways of the longwall named E4-S, belonging to the underground coal mine Carbonar SA located in Northern Spain, is being driven by an AM50 roadheader machine. The mined coal has a high coal dust content. This paper presents a study of dust behaviour in two auxiliary ventilation systems by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, taking into account the influence of time. The accuracy of these CFD models was assessed by airflow velocity and respirable dust concentration measurements taken in six points of six roadway cross-sections of the mentioned operating coal mine. It is concluded that these models predicted the airflow and dust behaviour at the working face, where the dust source is located, and in different roadways cross-sections behind the working face. As a result, CFD models allow optimization of the auxiliary ventilation system used, avoiding the important deficiencies when it is calculated by conventional methods.

  2. Phonetic physical feature formula for identification of radiation auxiliary workers and security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a review of human physical features with the aim of evolving a simple and practical formula which can be used to identify radiation auxiliary workers even if they do not reveal their radiation work history either due to ignorance or intentionally. To have the formula short, the phonetic number system of radix 128 has been employed. The formula finally arrived at consists of three phonetic digits representing 17 features and age in blocks of 8 years. There are four main advantages of this formula. The first is binary division which has more surety and better accuracy. The second is expert redundancy, that is expert examination is not required. Third is very large number of categories (128K=131072). And the fourth is nearly equal probabilities of all categories which make the number of people in each category very few and that simplifies the search. Hence by the scan of a few records, it is easily possible to ascertain whether a person is a new entrant or an old timer. Its application ensures better monitoring of the radiation exposure of auxiliary workers. This formula can also be used by police department and investigating agencies to classify the records of suspected persons for the ease of their identification when they give misleading information

  3. AMPA receptors commandeer an ancient cargo exporter for use as an auxiliary subunit for signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Harmel

    Full Text Available Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mainly mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype (AMPARs. AMPARs are protein complexes of the pore-lining α-subunits GluA1-4 and auxiliary β-subunits modulating their trafficking and gating. By a proteomic approach, two homologues of the cargo exporter cornichon, CNIH-2 and CNIH-3, have recently been identified as constituents of native AMPARs in mammalian brain. In heterologous reconstitution experiments, CNIH-2 promotes surface expression of GluAs and modulates their biophysical properties. However, its relevance in native AMPAR physiology remains controversial. Here, we have studied the role of CNIH-2 in GluA processing both in heterologous cells and primary rat neurons. Our data demonstrate that CNIH-2 serves an evolutionarily conserved role as a cargo exporter from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. CNIH-2 cycles continuously between ER and Golgi complex to pick up cargo protein in the ER and then to mediate its preferential export in a coat protein complex (COP II dependent manner. Interaction with GluA subunits breaks with this ancestral role of CNIH-2 confined to the early secretory pathway. While still taking advantage of being exported preferentially from the ER, GluAs recruit CNIH-2 to the cell surface. Thus, mammalian AMPARs commandeer CNIH-2 for use as a bona fide auxiliary subunit that is able to modify receptor signaling.

  4. On the switching of NPP power unit transformers from auxiliary network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the parameters of direct transformer connection the oscillography of a number of parameters of Zaporozhe NPP network and generators was performed, when switching the 1000 MW power unit transformer complex with 750 kV buses. The complex of transformers consisted of three single-phase 787/24 kV ORts-417000/750-77 type transformers and two auxiliary 24/6.3/6.3 kV of TRDNS-63000/35-72 type tramsformers connected to their 24 kV windings. It is shown that generator excitation forcing conditions arise for several seconds when applying voltage to a power unit step-up transformer through closure of the switch onto NPP high-voltage buses due to high jumps of magnetizing current. A technique of switching power unit transformer through application of voltage from 6 kV auxiliary section with subsequent connection to NPP high-voltage buses via a short-term mode of parallel operation, is mastered

  5. Type II ligands as chemical auxiliaries to favor enzymatic transformations by P450 2E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Amélie; Fabra, Camilo; Huang, Yue; Auclair, Karine

    2012-11-26

    The remarkable ability of P450 enzymes to oxidize inactivated C-H bonds and the high substrate promiscuity of many P450 isoforms have inspired us and others to investigate their use as biocatalysts. Our lab has pioneered a chemical-auxiliary approach to control the promiscuity of P450 3A4 and provide product predictability. The recent realization that type II ligands are sometimes also P450 substrates has prompted the design of a new generation of chemical auxiliaries with type II binding properties. This approach takes advantage of the high affinity of type II ligands for the active site of these enzymes. Although type II ligands typically block P450 activity, we report here that type II ligation can be harnessed to achieve just the opposite, that is, to favor biocatalysis and afford predictable oxidation of small hydrocarbon substrates with P450 2E1. Moreover, the observed predictability was rationalized by molecular docking. We hope that this approach might find future use with other P450 isoforms and yield complimentary products. PMID:23129539

  6. Dual-Antenna Terrestrial Laser Scanner Georeferencing Using Auxiliary Photogrammetric Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilkinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning typically requires the use of artificial targets for registration and georeferencing the data. This equipment can be burdensome to transport and set up, representing expense in both time and labor. Environmental factors such as terrain can sometimes make target placement dangerous or impossible, or lead to weak network geometry and therefore degraded product accuracy. The use of additional sensors can help reduce the required number of artificial targets and, in some cases, eliminate the need for them altogether. The research presented here extends methods for direct georeferencing of terrestrial laser scanner data using a dual GNSS antenna apparatus with additional photogrammetric observations from a scanner-mounted camera. Novel combinations of observations and processing methods were tested on data collected at two disparate sites in order to find the best method in terms of processing efficiency and product quality. In addition, a general model for the scanner and auxiliary data is given which can be used for least-squares adjustment and uncertainty estimation in similar systems with varied and diverse configurations. We found that the dual-antenna system resulted in cm-level accuracy practical for many applications and superior to conventional one-antenna systems, and that auxiliary photogrammetric observation significantly increased accuracy of the dual-antenna solution.

  7. Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LI; Hai Shan LI; C.David PAUZA; Michael BUKRINSKY; Richard Y ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Active host-pathogen interactions take place during infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).Outcomes of these interactions determine the efficiency of viral infection and subsequent disease progression. HIV-infected cells respond to viral invasion with various defensive strategies such as innate, cellular and humoral immune antiviral mechanisms. On the other hand, the virus has also developed various offensive tactics to suppress these host cellular responses. Among many of the viral offensive strategies, HIV- 1 viral auxiliary proteins (Tat, Rev, Nef, Vif, Vpr and Vpu) play important roles in the host-pathogen interaction and thus have significant impacts on the outcome of HIV infection. One of the best examples is the interaction of Vif with a host cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. Although specific roles of other auxiliary proteins are not as well described as Vif-APOBEC3G interaction, it is the goal of this brief review to summarize some of the preliminary findings with the hope to stimulate further discussion and investigation in this exhilarating area of research.

  8. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  9. Toroidal Rotation and ICRF Heating in NBI-driven Discharges in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassie, J.S. de [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Eriksson, L.G. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA-Cadarache, 13 - St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Noterdaeme, J.M. [Max-Planck IPP-EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)]|[Gent Univ., EESA Deprt. (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The addition of radio frequency heating to an NBI-driven target discharge is observed to reduce the toroidal rotation frequency. Experiments on this effect were performed on JET using (H)-D and (He{sup 3})-D minority ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) to vary the bulk electron to ion heating ratio. However, to lowest order, there is no clear difference in the two heating scenarios. We apply a recent model based upon the degradation of confinement with auxiliary power, and find that these JET data are in reasonable agreement with it. (authors)

  10. Toroidal Rotation and ICRF Heating in NBI-driven Discharges in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of radio frequency heating to an NBI-driven target discharge is observed to reduce the toroidal rotation frequency. Experiments on this effect were performed on JET using (H)-D and (He3)-D minority ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) to vary the bulk electron to ion heating ratio. However, to lowest order, there is no clear difference in the two heating scenarios. We apply a recent model based upon the degradation of confinement with auxiliary power, and find that these JET data are in reasonable agreement with it. (authors)

  11. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance

  12. A solar combisystem based on a heat storage with three internal heat exchangers. IEA task 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Danish solar combisystem is theoretically investigated in this report. The principle of the system is that it is a standard solar domestic hot water system, in which the collector area has been oversized, in order to be able to deliver energy to an existing space heating system. This is made through an extra hat exchanger included in the domestic hot water tank. A TRNSYS model of the system is developed and a sensitivity analysis is performed by means of TRNSYS simulation. This analysis showed that the system could be improved by: 1. Reducing the auxiliary volume, 2. Using an electrical heating element in the storage tank during summertime, 3. Insulating the bottom of the storage better, 4. Eliminating all thermal bridges in the storage tank insulation, 5. Moving up the storage temperature sensor for the collector control to the level of the collector heat exchanger inlet, 6. Reducing the auxiliary set temperature to 45 deg. C. By improving the system, the thermal fractional saving can be increased about 5%pts. (au)

  13. Salient aspects on the choice of classs 3 system - the diesel generating sets - engine, auxiliaries (Paper No. 2.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The class 3 system is a basic requirement in all nuclear installations. Selection of this major equipment and associated auxiliaries plays an important role in the overall performance and reliability of the whole system. This paper deals with various sub-systems of class 3 power like engine, alternator, auxiliaries. It deals with method of arriving at capacity of sets based on connected loads, starting requirement and choice of engine based on site conditions, fuel used, duty, speed, mean effective pressures, typical layout of set and auxiliaries with its various sub-systems. Various engine starting methods, advantages and disadvantages, area requirements, choice of foundation, general guidlines for installation, testing and commissioning of medium size plant will be discussed in reference to applicable codes and practices. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  14. The Idiomatic Expression of Korean Auxiliary " "%韩语助词“”的惯用表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玲玲

    2015-01-01

    Korean auxiliaries have varying types, so in order to help Chinese scholars understand and master the usage and meaning of Korean auxiliaries, this article focuses on the usage of the Korean auxiliary word" "which indicates location and site. To master and apply flexibly these idiomatic expressions is of great help in expressing one's own emotions and opinions.%韩语助词的种类繁多,为使中国学者能够更好地了解并掌握韩语助词的用法及意义,本文重点介绍了韩语助词“”表示地点、场所的用法,熟记并灵活运用这些惯用表达对准确表达自己的思想感情及观点有很大帮助。

  15. Chemistry and radiochemistry strategies supported by FA3-EPRTM and UK-EPRTM auxiliary systems: performances and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and the operation of auxiliary systems play an essential role in: - the preservation of the primary circuit integrity, - the prevention of hydrogen risk, - the control of the boron concentration and radioactivity, - the application of pH and zinc programmes. While the source term generation mainly depends on the primary circuit material and primary coolant chemistry conditioning, the source term spreading is directly linked to the auxiliary systems treatment and performances. Indeed, the auxiliary systems regulate the boron, hydrogen, lithium and zinc injection as well as the countermeasures to ensure the reactivity control and the hazardous H2/O2 mixture prevention. The main principles governing the chemistry and radiochemistry in the auxiliary systems are based on the application of: - Design features for hydrogen and boron management. - Criteria for selecting the appropriate material of each system considering the functional requirements and the source term build up reduction. - Measures for minimizing the activity deposition on the surfaces of components and pipings. - Adequate and reliable systems of purification for reducing the accumulation of liquid/gas radioactivity and impurities in the circuits and for optimizing the waste production. - Chemistry program for limiting the material corrosion of auxiliary systems and preventing the source term transfer to the core. - Appropriate sampling locations and equipment to monitor the chemistry and radiochemistry parameters. This paper describes the operation of the main auxiliary systems of FLAMANVILLE3-EPRTM and UK-EPR-TM participating in the chemistry/radiochemistry management such as Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), Reactor Borated Water Make-up System (RBWMS), Coolant Treatment System (CTS), Gaseous Waste Processing System (GWPS), Fuel Pool Purification System (PTR [FPPS/FPCS]) also. The performances requested to these systems and the chemistry programs applied to them are discussed

  16. Stochastic gradient algorithm for a dual-rate Box-Jenkins model based on auxiliary model and FIR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing CHEN; Rui-feng DING

    2014-01-01

    Based on the work in Ding and Ding (2008), we develop a modifi ed stochastic gradient (SG) parameter estimation algorithm for a dual-rate Box-Jenkins model by using an auxiliary model. We simplify the complex dual-rate Box-Jenkins model to two fi nite impulse response (FIR) models, present an auxiliary model to estimate the missing outputs and the unknown noise variables, and compute all the unknown parameters of the system with colored noises. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective.

  17. Safety analysis and justification for modification of auxiliary feed-water system in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major feed-water line break accident is re-analyzed, which is based on Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power station final safety analysis report, to justify the impacts of the decreasing of auxiliary feed-water flow rate on the safety margin in Daya Bay. The results showed that the accident analysis can meet the demands of acceptance criteria with the auxiliary feed-water flowrate decreasing from 45 m3/h to 41.8 m3/h, and enough safety margin is still retained

  18. The Central Logic Board and its auxiliary boards for the optical module of the KM3NeT detector

    CERN Document Server

    Biagi, S

    2014-01-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed of many optical modules, each of them containing 31 (3") photomultipliers, connected to a Central Logic Board. The Central Logic Board integrates Time to Digital Converters that measure Time Over Threshold of the photomulti- pliers signals while White Rabbit is used for the optical modules time synchronization. Auxiliary boards have also been designed and built in order to test and extend the performance of the Cen- tral Logic Board. The Central Logic Board, as well as the auxiliary boards, will be presented by focusing on the design consideration, prototyping issues and tests.

  19. The Central Logic Board and its auxiliary boards for the optical module of the KM3Net detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KM3Net neutrino telescope will be composed of many optical modules, each of them containing 31 (3) photomultipliers, connected to a Central Logic Board. The Central Logic Board integrates Time to Digital Converters that measure Time over Threshold of the photomultipliers signals while White Rabbit is used for the optical modules time synchronization. Auxiliary boards have also been designed and built in order to test and extend the performance of the Central Logic Board. The Central Logic Board, as well as the auxiliary boards, will be presented by focusing on the design consideration, prototyping issues and tests

  20. The Central Logic Board and its auxiliary boards for the optical module of the KM3Net detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, S.; Orzelli, A.

    2014-12-01

    The KM3Net neutrino telescope will be composed of many optical modules, each of them containing 31 (3") photomultipliers, connected to a Central Logic Board. The Central Logic Board integrates Time to Digital Converters that measure Time over Threshold of the photomultipliers signals while White Rabbit is used for the optical modules time synchronization. Auxiliary boards have also been designed and built in order to test and extend the performance of the Central Logic Board. The Central Logic Board, as well as the auxiliary boards, will be presented by focusing on the design consideration, prototyping issues and tests.

  1. Heterotopic auxiliary rat liver transplantation with flow-regulated portal vein arterialization in acute hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Karina; Kalder, Johannes; Grommes, Jochen; Jalaie, Houman; Tawadros, Samir; Greiner, Andreas; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In acute hepatic failure auxiliary liver transplantation is an interesting alternative approach. The aim is to provide a temporary support until the failing native liver has regenerated.(1-3) The APOLT-method, the orthotopic implantation of auxiliary segments- averts most of the technical problems. However this method necessitates extensive resections of both the native liver and the graft.(4) In 1998, Erhard developed the heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation (HALT) utilizing portal vein arterialization (PVA) (Figure 1). This technique showed promising initial clinical results.(5-6) We developed a HALT-technique with flow-regulated PVA in the rat to examine the influence of flow-regulated PVA on graft morphology and function (Figure 2). A liver graft reduced to 30 % of its original size, was heterotopically implanted in the right renal region of the recipient after explantation of the right kidney.  The infra-hepatic caval vein of the graft was anastomosed with the infrahepatic caval vein of the recipient. The arterialization of the donor's portal vein was carried out via the recipient's right renal artery with the stent technique. The blood-flow regulation of the arterialized portal vein was achieved with the use of a stent with an internal diameter of 0.3 mm. The celiac trunk of the graft was end-to-side anastomosed with the recipient's aorta and the bile duct was implanted into the duodenum. A subtotal resection of the native liver was performed to induce acute hepatic failure. (7) In this manner 112 transplantations were performed. The perioperative survival rate was 90% and the 6-week survival rate was 80%. Six weeks after operation, the native liver regenerated, showing an increase in weight from 2.3±0.8 g to 9.8±1 g. At this time, the graft's weight decreased from 3.3±0.8 g to 2.3±0.8 g. We were able to obtain promising long-term results in terms of graft morphology and function. HALT with flow-regulated PVA reliably bridges acute hepatic failure

  2. Fuel handling machine and auxiliary systems for a fuel handling cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working report is an update for as well as a supplement to an earlier fuel handling machine design (Kukkola and Roennqvist 2006). A focus in the earlier design proposal was primarily on the selection of a mechanical structure and operating principle for the fuel handling machine. This report introduces not only a fuel handling machine design but also auxiliary fuel handling cell equipment and its operation. An objective of the design work was to verify the operating principles of and space allocations for fuel handling cell equipment. The fuel handling machine is a remote controlled apparatus capable of handling intensely radiating fuel assemblies in the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The fuel handling cell is air tight space radiation-shielded with massive concrete walls. The fuel handling machine is based on a bridge crane capable of traveling in the handling cell along wall tracks. The bridge crane has its carriage provided with a carousel type turntable having mounted thereon both fixed and telescopic masts. The fixed mast has a gripper movable on linear guides for the transfer of fuel assemblies. The telescopic mast has a manipulator arm capable of maneuvering equipment present in the fuel handling cell, as well as conducting necessary maintenance and cleaning operations or rectifying possible fault conditions. The auxiliary fuel handling cell systems consist of several subsystems. The subsystems include a service manipulator, a tool carrier for manipulators, a material hatch, assisting winches, a vacuum cleaner, as well as a hose reel. With the exception of the vacuum cleaner, the devices included in the fuel handling cell's auxiliary system are only used when the actual encapsulation process is not ongoing. The malfunctions of mechanisms or actuators responsible for the motion actions of a fuel handling machine preclude in a worst case scenario the bringing of the fuel handling cell and related systems to a condition appropriate for

  3. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  4. Residual heat removal in a PWR using a passive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is made in the frame of the studies that are performed at the French Atomic Energy Commission on the innovative safety systems. The system which is discussed here is devoted to the residual heat removal. It can be used for a current french 3 loops PWR in place of the combination auxiliary feedwater system - atmospheric relief valve. A blackout transient, without auxiliary feedwater, is calculated, using the CATHARE code, in order to assess the capabilities of the system. Some complementary scenarios are calculated, assuming the intervention of other systems after a while, for example restart of the primary pumps and manual opening of the atmospheric relief valves. The influence of non condensable gases is also discussed. 7 refs., 17 figs

  5. Heat management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was based on the Heat Management Ordinance of December 1991 which requires the establishment of heat use concepts for many plants that are subject to licensing. For an industrial enterprises, a good heat use concept is also an energy concept. The papers and discussions of the conference discussed the practical implementation of the Heat Management Ordinance in industrial enterprises and the consequences for licensing practice. Examples of specific plants were presented. The 16 conference papers are available as separate entries on this database. (orig./HP)

  6. Assessing Landscape-Scale Soil Moisture Distribution Using Auxiliary Sensing Technologies and Multivariate Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, C.; Castrignanò, A.; Mueller, T.; Zourarakis, D.; Zhu, J.

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess soil moisture to develop strategies to better manage its availability and use. At the landscape scale, soil moisture distribution derives from an integration of hydrologic, pedologic and geomorphic processes that cause soil moisture variability (SMV) to be time, space, and scale-dependent. Traditional methods to assess SMV at this scale are often costly, labor intensive, and invasive, which can lead to inadequate sampling density and spatial coverage. Fusing traditional sampling techniques with georeferenced auxiliary sensing technologies, such as geoelectric sensing and LiDAR, provide an alternative approach. Because geoelectric and LiDAR measurements are sensitive to soil properties and terrain features that affect soil moisture variation, they are often employed as auxiliary measures to support less dense direct sampling. Georeferenced proximal sensing acquires rapid, real-time, high resolution data over large spatial extents that is enriched with spatial, temporal and scale-dependent information. Data fusion becomes important when proximal sensing is used in tandem with more sparse direct sampling. Multicollocated factorial cokriging (MFC) is one technique of multivariate geostatistics to fuse multiple data sources collected at different sampling scales to study the spatial characteristics of environmental properties. With MFC sparse soil observations are supported by more densely sampled auxiliary attributes to produce more consistent spatial descriptions of scale-dependent parameters affecting SMV. This study uses high resolution geoelectric and LiDAR data as auxiliary measures to support direct soil sampling (n=127) over a 40 hectare Central Kentucky (USA) landscape. Shallow and deep apparent electrical resistivity (ERa) were measured using a Veris 3100 in tandem with soil moisture sampling on three separate dates with ascending soil moisture contents ranging from plant wilting point to field capacity. Terrain features were produced

  7. Stabilizing Canonical-Ensemble Calculations in the Auxiliary-Field Monte Carlo Method

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbreth, C N

    2014-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods are powerful techniques for studying strongly interacting Fermi systems. However, implementing these methods on computers with finite-precision arithmetic requires careful attention to numerical stability. In the auxiliary-field Monte Carlo (AFMC) method, low-temperature or large-model-space calculations require numerically stabilized matrix multiplication. When adapting methods used in the grand-canonical ensemble to the canonical ensemble of fixed particle number, the numerical stabilization increases the number of required floating-point operations for computing observables by a factor of the size of the single-particle model space, and thus can greatly limit the systems that can be studied. We describe an improved method for stabilizing canonical-ensemble calculations in AFMC that exhibits better scaling, and present numerical tests that demonstrate the accuracy and improved performance of the method.

  8. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  9. Derivation of the mass factors for decommissioning cost estimation of low contaminated auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignalina NPP was operating two RBMK-1500 reactors. Unit 1 was closed at the end of 2004, and Unit 2 - at the end of 2009. Now they are under decommissioning. Decommissioning has been started from the reactor's periphery, with dismantling of non-contaminated and low contaminated equipment and installations. This paper discusses a methodology for derivation of mass factors for preliminary decommissioning costing at NPP when the number of inventory items is significant, and separate consideration of each inventory item is impossible or impractical for preliminary decommissioning plan, especially when the level of radioactive contamination is very low. The methodology is based on detailed data analysis of building V1 taking into account period and inventory based activities, investment and consumables and other decommissioning approach- related properties for building average mass factors. The methodology can be used for cost estimation of preliminary decommissioning planning of NPP auxiliary buildings with mostly very low level contamination. (authors)

  10. Auxiliary Lagrangian and Conservation Laws for a Wave Equation Incorporating Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Long

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the Lagrangian and the conservation laws for a wave equation with a dissipative source. Using semi-inverse method, we show that the equation possesses a nonlocal Lagrangian with an auxiliary function. As a result, from a modified Noether's theorem and the nonclassical Noether symmetry generators, we construct some conservation laws for this equation, which are different from the ones obtained by Ibragimov's theorem in [Y. Wang and L. Wei, Abstr. App. Anal. 2013 (2013) 407908]. The results show that our method work for arbitrary functions f(u) and g(u) rather than special ones. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11101111, and Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. LY14A010029 and LY12A01003

  11. Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna Radiation Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    large ground plane. The method proposed here makes use of results from such simulations to model large and moderate-sized finite ground planes. The method is applied to 3 different antenna test cases and a total of 5 different ground planes. Firstly it is validated through comparison with reference......The Method of Auxiliary Sources is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. In many cases the computational cost of available commercial tools restricts the simulations to include only a small ground plane or, by use of the image principle, the infinitely...... measured reference solutions and the method is thus found to be a useful tool in determining the impact of finite ground planes....

  12. Designs for remote inspection of the ALMR Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important safety systems in General Electric's (GI) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS). Because of high temperature, radiation, and restricted space conditions, GI desired methods to remotely inspect the RVACS, emissive coatings, and reactor vessel welds during normal refueling operations. The DOE/NE Robotics for Advanced Reactors program formed a team to evaluate the ALMR design for remote inspection of the RVACS. Conceptual designs for robots to perform the required inspection tasks were developed by the team. Design criteria for these remote systems included robot deployment, power supply, navigation, environmental hardening of components, tether management, communication with an operator, sensing, and failure recovery. The operation of the remote inspection concepts were tested using 3-D simulation models of the ALMR. In addition, the team performed an extensive technology review of robot components that could survive the environmental conditions in the RVACS

  13. Generation of Enhanced and Robust bipartite optomechanical entanglement via an auxiliary qubit induced quadratic mechanical nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for obtaining steady-state optomechanical entanglement in an optomechanical system, in which the mechanical mirror is perturabatively coupled to an auxiliary qubit. The coupling between the mechanical oscillator and the single qubit results in a quadratic mechanical nonlinear term in the Hamiltonian describing the system. We find that the mechanical nonlinearity not only enhances the degree of optomechanical entanglement but also generate it at a considerably lower optomechanical coupling strength. We observe that the degree of entanglement decreases monotonically with increasing temperature. However, the maximum temperature up to which entanglement persists increase with increasing nonlinear amplitude. Thus, the bipartite entanglement in presence of the mechanical nonlinearity becomes more robust against thermal phonon fluctuations.

  14. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700oC. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  15. Modeling of anomalous Wtb interactions in single top quark events using auxiliary fields

    CERN Document Server

    Boos, E; Dudko, L; Perfilov, M

    2016-01-01

    A method to simulate anomalous fermion-boson interactions in Wtb vertex is presented with a minimal set of simulated samples of single top quark events at the LHC energies. In proposed method additional auxiliary vector fields corresponding to the Standard Model gauge fields are implemented for each type of the anomalous vertex structure. The method allows to simulate a manifestation of anomalous gauge couplings in two approaches used in experimental analyses either keeping only the linear order contributions in the anomalous couplings or keeping all contributions in numerators and denominators as appeared in matrix elements. All the single top quark production mechanisms, $t$-, $s$- and associative tW-channels are considered. The correctness of the proposed method is demonstrated.

  16. Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Study Volume 1: RASER Task Order 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Audie; Meier, John

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) and the impact in a 90-passenger More-Electric Regional Jet application. The study established realistic hybrid SOFC APU system weight and system efficiencies, and evaluated the impact on the aircraft total weight, fuel burn, and emissions from the main engine and the APU during cruise, landing and take-off (LTO) cycle, and at the gate. Although the SOFC APU may be heavier than the current conventional APU, its weight disadvantage can be offset by fuel savings in the higher SOFC APU system efficiencies against the main engine bleed and extraction during cruise. The higher SOFC APU system efficiency compared to the conventional APU on the ground can also provide considerable fuel saving and emissions reduction, particularly at the gate, but is limited by the fuel cell stack thermal fatigue characteristic.

  17. LRP2, an auxiliary receptor that controls sonic hedgehog signaling in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Annabel; Herzog, Katja; Willnow, Thomas E

    2016-05-01

    To fulfill their multiple roles in organ development and adult tissue homeostasis, hedgehog (HH) morphogens act through their receptor Patched (PTCH) on target cells. However, HH actions also require HH binding proteins, auxiliary cell surface receptors that agonize or antagonize morphogen signaling in a context-dependent manner. Here, we discuss recent findings on the LDL receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2), an exemplary HH binding protein that modulates sonic hedgehog activities in stem and progenitor cell niches in embryonic and adult tissues. LRP2 functions are crucial for developmental processes in a number of tissues, including the brain, the eye, and the heart, and defects in this receptor pathway are the cause of devastating congenital diseases in humans. Developmental Dynamics 245:569-579, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26872844

  18. Internal resonance with commensurability induced by an auxiliary oscillator for broadband energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liuyang; Tang, Lihua; Mace, Brian R.

    2016-05-01

    An internal resonance based broadband vibration energy harvester is proposed by introducing an auxiliary oscillator to the main nonlinear harvesting oscillator. Compared to conventional nonlinear energy harvesters, the natural frequencies of this two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system can be easily adjusted to be commensurable which will result in more resonant peaks and better wideband performance. Experimental measurements and equivalent circuit simulations demonstrate that this design outperforms its linear counterpart. In addition to the open-circuit voltage, the optimal resistance to obtain the maximum power is determined. Nearly 130% increase in the bandwidth is achieved compared to the linear counterpart at an excitation level of 2 m/s2. The findings provide insight for the design of a broadband energy harvester when there is nonlinearity and internal resonance.

  19. Gaussian-inspired auxiliary non-equilibrium thermostat (GIANT) for Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Khani, Shaghayegh; Maia, Joao

    2015-12-01

    We present in this letter an auxiliary thermostat for non-equilibrium simulations in Dissipative Particle Dynamics based on the Gaussian distribution of particle velocities in the fluid. We demonstrate the ability of the thermostat to maintain the temperature under a wide range of shear rates and dissipative parameters, and to extend the shear rate window accessible by DPD significantly. The effect of proposed method on the viscosity of a DPD fluid is studied which is particularly of interest when the rheological behavior of a complex fluids is subject of DPD simulations. Furthermore, performance of the proposed method is compared to the ones from the well-known Lowe-Andersen scheme in regards to temperature and viscosity measurements.

  20. Experiment and numerical analysis of the NPP pressurizer auxiliary spray line submitted to large thermal shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressurizer auxiliary spray line of PWR nuclear power plants may be submitted to severe temperature transients during upset conditions: a 325 deg C cold thermal shock in one second is followed by a 200 deg C hot thermal shock. For such transients, the RCC-M French design code rules that prevent the ratcheting deformation hazard are not respected for the components with thickness transition. Consequently, Electricite de France has realized twenty thermal cycles under pressure on a representative mock-up. During these tests, many temperature, strain and diametral variations were measured. No significant ratcheting deformation was detected on all components, except on the 6'' x 2'' x 6'' T-piece, where a weak progressive diameter increase was observed during a few cycles. Moreover, computations of a 2'' socket welding were made with the non linear kinematic hardening Chaboche model which also showed a weak progressive deformation behaviour. (authors). 7 figs., 7 refs