WorldWideScience

Sample records for aux bioaerosols emis

  1. Data available for the evaluation of the risks related to the bio-aerosols emitted by the domestic wastes storage; Donnees disponibles pour l'evaluation des risques lies aux bioaerosols emis par les installations de stockage des dechets menagers et assimiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delery, L.

    2003-12-15

    The dusts production during exploitation in cells is the main source of bio-aerosols emission in storage centers. This report presents data on biological characterization of domestic wastes and the related atmospheric emissions. It concludes that the sanitary risk for the residents is weak and the 200 m area decided by the regulation is sufficient. Meanwhile it is recommended to control the emission levels during particularly meteorological conditions as humid, windy and not very sunny. (A.L.B.)

  2. EMI Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) testing of flight hardware. It is also used to support custom RF testing up to...

  3. Reciprocity in EMI-EMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Richard L.

    This paper reviews the basis of and errors in interpreting the law of reciprocity, and applies it to conducted and to radiated EMI-EMC. Conditions for reciprocity include reversibility and passivity of elements in the reciprocal system. The law is expressed in circuit form and the reciprocal signals are clearly distinguished. Symmetric and asymmetric line filters are used as examples of reciprocity in conducted interference. It is shown that an incompletely shielded circuit can be regarded as an antenna, allowing one to establish radiation reciprocity between it and a measuring antenna. Some difficulties encountered in EMI-EMC measurements, that give the impression of reciprocity being violated, are discussed.

  4. Remote EMI Field Strength Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA often must deal with the issue of protecting EMI sensitive payloads and instrumentation from damage due to radiated energy. Many of these EMI sensitive payloads...

  5. Remote EMI Field Strength Mapping, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA often must deal with the issue of protecting EMI sensitive payloads and instrumentation from damage due to radiated energy. Many of these EMI sensitive payloads...

  6. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Smolenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As power systems develop to incorporate renewable energy sources, the delivery systems may be disrupted by the changes involved. The grid’s technology and management must be developed to form Smart Grids between consumers, suppliers and producers. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids considers the specific side effects related to electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by the application of these Smart Grids. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids presents specific EMI conducted phenomena as well as effective methods to filter and handle them once identified. After introduction to Smart Grids, the following sections cover dedicated methods for EMI reduction and potential avenues for future development including chapters dedicated to: •potential system services, •descriptions of the EMI spectra shaping methods, •methods of interference voltage compensation, and theoretical analysis of experimental results.  By focusing on these key aspects, Conducted El...

  7. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  8. EMI kaob kaubamärgina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Ümberstruktueerimise käigus lõpetab suuruselt maailma kolmas muusikafirma EMI oma nime kasutamise kaubamärgina ega trüki seda enam plaadiümbristele. Plaadid hakkavad ilmuma märkide Capitol ja Virgin all. EMI on lühend nimetusest Electric and Music Industries, see jääb kasutusele firmasiseselt

  9. Radiated EMI from power converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautovski-Toševa Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous increase of switching frequency together with the ongoing trend to higher complexity and functionality, power converters as a part of electronic systems have raised more and more electromagnetic energy pollution to the local system environment. In the same time, stringent demands are imposed on the designers of new circuits that electromagnetic interference (EMI has to be suppressed at its source before it is allowed to propagate into other circuits and systems. In this paper, the authors present a full-wave numerical method for calculation and simulation of electromagnetic field radiated by power converter circuitry. The main objective is to analyze the layout geometry in order to obtain competitive PCB layout that will enable suitably attenuated level of the radiated electric field to safe level. By this it would be possible to ensure reliable operation of the sensitive electronic components in the proximity.

  10. Bioaerosol concentrations - Figure 3 and Figure 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Bioaerosol concentrations. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chattopadhyay, S., S. Perkins, M. Shaw, and T. Nichols. Evaluation of Exposure...

  11. Advance in Bioaerosol Removal Technologies; A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jonidi Jafari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols are air pollutants that affect human health in various routes. They are characteristically diverse; such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, that everyone has different characteristics and effects, various solutions and technologies are studied or applied for their removal and inactivation. Regarding to lack of specific and integrated publications about the different air quality guidelines for bioaerosols and the methods and technologies, attending to approach the standards, purpose of this study was set on the development of the issue. The importance of presence of bioaerosols in breathing air and related standards and guidelines, also controlling technologies such as filtration, ultraviolet (UV radiation, photo catalyst, temperature and electrostatic precipitators were surveyed in this study by using the scientific literature.Given the results, UV irradiation and photocatalytic methods are ineffective for allergens. In this way, filtration is unable for inactivation of the bioaerosols, then there is the threat that they can aerosolize again. Hence, these technologies individually cannot provide the air quality standards which have established for sensitive conditions such as operation rooms. Regarding the discussions, application of the methods that include collection and inactivation of the bioaerosols simultaneously, such as electrostatic precipitators, could be more effective in the likewise environments.

  12. Performing a nuclear facility EMI audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses several questions which may arise when performing a nuclear facility EMI audit. Among the issues addressed are how a nuclear electrical power plant can ensure that it has taken adequate EMC measures to protect it from hostile electromagnetic ambient environments, means by which these measures can be implemented with sufficient integrity and reliability, and how often an inspection or audit should be performed to assess the EMC measures. Means of assessing EMI hardening and effective control of aging effects are also discussed. 2 figs

  13. Experiences with Software Quality Metrics in the EMI middlewate

    OpenAIRE

    Alandes, M; Kenny, E M; Meneses, D; Pucciani, G

    2012-01-01

    The EMI Quality Model has been created to define, and later review, the EMI (European Middleware Initiative) software product and process quality. A quality model is based on a set of software quality metrics and helps to set clear and measurable quality goals for software products and processes. The EMI Quality Model follows the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering – Product Quality to identify a set of characteristics that need to be present in the EMI software. For each software characteristi...

  14. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  15. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  16. Multi-phase EMI noise separator

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) components of multi-phase conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise emanating from electronic circuits such as power converters/inverters are separated by respective coupled inductors connected to each phase of three or more phases and which are coupled to each other differently for CM and DM noise of the respective phases. The inductors of the DM separation unit are coupled such that a substantially ideal zero impedance is presented to DM ...

  17. Emi Teacher Training Courses in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available English-medium instruction has seen growth over the past 10 years in European non-English speaking countries. This phenomenon is nowadays taken for granted even though many issues are to be taken into account when a university course is delivered through English by non-native speakers. This is why some universities have started providing lecturer training all over Europe. This article seeks to give an overview of both linguistic and methodological EMI training in European countries.

  18. Bioaerosol generation by raindrops on soil

    OpenAIRE

    Joung, Young soo; Ge, Zhifei; Buie, Cullen

    2016-01-01

    Aerosolized microorganisms may play an important role in climate change, disease transmission, water and soil contaminants, and geographic migration of microbes. While it is known that bioaerosols are generated when bubbles break on the surface of water containing microbes, it is largely unclear how viable soil-based microbes are transferred to the atmosphere. Here we report a previously unknown mechanism by which rain disperses soil bacteria into the air. Bubbles, tens of micrometres in size...

  19. Bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes: background and contemporary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D; Ricke, Steven C

    2002-08-01

    Global population increases, coupled with intensive animal and livestock production practices, have resulted in the generation, accumulation, and disposal of large amounts of wastes around the world. Aerosolization of microbial pathogens, endotoxins, odors, and dust particles is an inevitable consequence of the generation and handling of waste material. Bioaerosols can be a source of microbial pathogens, endotoxins, and other allergens. Given the close proximity of population centers to concentrated animal-rearing operations and municipal treatment facilities in many parts of the world, there is concern regarding the occupational and public health impacts associated with the exposure to bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes. Major advances have been made in our understanding of bioaerosol characteristics, identifying the hazards, and identifying possible human and animal health links with aerosolized pathogens and allergens. However, significant knowledge and technology gaps still exist. These include a lack of clear understanding of the fate and transport of bioaerosols, especially within the open environment, an inability to accurately predict the health risks associated with bioaerosolized pathogens, and a lack of standardized bioaerosol sampling protocols, and efficient samplers. This review synthesizes the information related to bioaerosols and addresses the contemporary issues associated with bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes, with a focus on pathogens.

  20. Experiences with Software Quality Metrics in the EMI Middleware

    OpenAIRE

    Alandes, Maria

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED he EMI Quality Model has been created to define, and later review, the EMI (European Middleware Initiative) software product and process quality. A quality model is based on a set of software quality metrics and helps to set clear and measurable quality goals for software products and processes. The EMI Quality Model follows the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering – Product Quality to identify a set of characteris...

  1. Software as a tool for controlling EMI/EMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, T. G.

    Traditional methods of controlling electromagnetic interference (EMI) typically deal with hardware based solutions such as grounding, bonding, shielding, filtering, and equipment placement. With the evolution of microprocessor and computer controlled systems, system flexibility and effectiveness increase up to a point where ambiguities reduce effectiveness and introduce the potential for a new form of EMI. Software, however, can become a tool for system designers, E3 and software engineers to use in controlling EMI and managing system EMC.

  2. Zzaap! taming ESD, FRI, and EMI

    CERN Document Server

    Corp, M Bruce

    1990-01-01

    A ""zzap""! is the mortal enemy of today's sophisticated electronics designs. A ""zzaap!"" can cause a circuit to ""lock up"" or ""hang"" -delete bits form a data stream or mysteriously insert bits that aren't supposed to be there or, worst of all, cause the sudden failure of critical integrated circuits. M. Bruce Corp takes you inside the often mysterious world of electrostatic discharge (ESD), radio frequency interference (RFI, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) to show how these can cause a bewildering array of transient problems or catastrophic failures.

  3. Experiences with Software Quality Metrics in the EMI middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alandes, M; Meneses, D; Pucciani, G; Kenny, E M

    2012-01-01

    The EMI Quality Model has been created to define, and later review, the EMI (European Middleware Initiative) software product and process quality. A quality model is based on a set of software quality metrics and helps to set clear and measurable quality goals for software products and processes. The EMI Quality Model follows the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering – Product Quality to identify a set of characteristics that need to be present in the EMI software. For each software characteristic, such as portability, maintainability, compliance, etc, a set of associated metrics and KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are identified. This article presents how the EMI Quality Model and the EMI Metrics have been defined in the context of the software quality assurance activities carried out in EMI. It also describes the measurement plan and presents some of the metrics reports that have been produced for the EMI releases and updates. It also covers which tools and techniques can be used by any software project to extract “code metrics” on the status of the software products and “process metrics” related to the quality of the development and support process such as reaction time to critical bugs, requirements tracking and delays in product releases.

  4. Experiences with Software Quality Metrics in the EMI Middleware

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The EMI Quality Model has been created to define, and later review, the EMI (European Middleware Initiative) software product and process quality. A quality model is based on a set of software quality metrics and helps to set clear and measurable quality goals for software products and processes. The EMI Quality Model follows the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering – Product Quality to identify a set of characteristics that need to be present in the EMI software. For each software characteristic, such as portability, maintainability, compliance, etc, a set of associated metrics and KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are identified. This article presents how the EMI Quality Model and the EMI Metrics have been defined in the context of the software quality assurance activities carried out in EMI. It also describes the measurement plan and presents some of the metrics reports that have been produced for the EMI releases and updates. It also covers which tools and techniques can be used by any software project t...

  5. Robustness of a TETRA base station receiver against intentional EMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, G.S.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) is a digital radio standard that was developed to meet the needs of professional mobile radio systems. TETRA is vulnerable to intentional electromagnetic interference (EMI) because of the wireless link. The EMI can easily be front door coupled to the base station

  6. Experiences with Software Quality Metrics in the EMI middlewate

    CERN Document Server

    Alandes, M; Meneses, D; Pucciani, G

    2012-01-01

    The EMI Quality Model has been created to define, and later review, the EMI (European Middleware Initiative) software product and process quality. A quality model is based on a set of software quality metrics and helps to set clear and measurable quality goals for software products and processes. The EMI Quality Model follows the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering – Product Quality to identify a set of characteristics that need to be present in the EMI software. For each software characteristic, such as portability, maintainability, compliance, etc, a set of associated metrics and KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are identified. This article presents how the EMI Quality Model and the EMI Metrics have been defined in the context of the software quality assurance activities carried out in EMI. It also describes the measurement plan and presents some of the metrics reports that have been produced for the EMI releases and updates. It also covers which tools and techniques can be used by any software project to ...

  7. Experiences with Software Quality Metrics in the EMI middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alandes, M.; Kenny, E. M.; Meneses, D.; Pucciani, G.

    2012-12-01

    The EMI Quality Model has been created to define, and later review, the EMI (European Middleware Initiative) software product and process quality. A quality model is based on a set of software quality metrics and helps to set clear and measurable quality goals for software products and processes. The EMI Quality Model follows the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering - Product Quality to identify a set of characteristics that need to be present in the EMI software. For each software characteristic, such as portability, maintainability, compliance, etc, a set of associated metrics and KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are identified. This article presents how the EMI Quality Model and the EMI Metrics have been defined in the context of the software quality assurance activities carried out in EMI. It also describes the measurement plan and presents some of the metrics reports that have been produced for the EMI releases and updates. It also covers which tools and techniques can be used by any software project to extract “code metrics” on the status of the software products and “process metrics” related to the quality of the development and support process such as reaction time to critical bugs, requirements tracking and delays in product releases.

  8. Investigation of Lightning and EMI Shielding Properties of SWNT Buckypaper Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Ben; Liang, Richard; Zhang, Chuck; Kramer, Leslie; Funchess, Percy

    2005-01-01

    ... EMI and lightning strike protection properties. The EMI shielding and lightning strike attenuation properties of the composites with the surface layer of SWNT buckypaper nanocomposite were preliminarily characterized...

  9. Study on Bioagents or Bioaerosols standoff detection by lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattering, fluorescence and polarization are the important data source for bioagent or bioaerosol time-space observation and identification. This paper stated and discussed the theory and data inversion principles for Mie scattering, laser induced fluorescence and polarization sensing Lidar. The sensing and data inversion results for bioagent/bioaerosol extinction coefficient, horizontal linear depolarization ratio were also demonstrated. The signal and SNR simulation of fluorescence lidar were also demonstrated. The sensing results revealed that the three kinds of detecting technology approaches are reasonable and potential for bioagent/bioaerosol characterization and recognition.

  10. Airborne infectious disease and the suppression of pulmonary bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Jennifer; Clarke, Robert; Edwards, David A

    2006-01-01

    The current understanding of airborne pathogen spread in relation to the new methods of suppressing exhaled bioaerosols using safe surface-active materials, such as isotonic saline, is reviewed here. We discuss the physics of bioaerosol generation in the lungs, what is currently known about the relationship between expired bioaerosols and airborne infectious disease and current methods of airborne infectious disease containment. We conclude by reviewing recent experiments that suggest the delivery of isotonic saline can significantly diminish exhaled aerosol--generated from airway lining fluid in the course of natural breathing. We also discuss these implications in relation to airborne infectious disease control.

  11. Subventions aux institutions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    voir comment votre projet évolue eu égard à la recherche et aux aspects administratifs et financiers. Le CRDI sait bien que des problèmes peuvent surgir durant l'exécution des projets et reconnaît que les institutions qu'il finance appliquent des systèmes de comptabilité et des modalités administratives qui diffèrent des ...

  12. Bioaerosol generation by raindrops on soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Young Soo; Ge, Zhifei; Buie, Cullen R.

    2017-03-01

    Aerosolized microorganisms may play an important role in climate change, disease transmission, water and soil contaminants, and geographic migration of microbes. While it is known that bioaerosols are generated when bubbles break on the surface of water containing microbes, it is largely unclear how viable soil-based microbes are transferred to the atmosphere. Here we report a previously unknown mechanism by which rain disperses soil bacteria into the air. Bubbles, tens of micrometres in size, formed inside the raindrops disperse micro-droplets containing soil bacteria during raindrop impingement. A single raindrop can transfer 0.01% of bacteria on the soil surface and the bacteria can survive more than one hour after the aerosol generation process. This work further reveals that bacteria transfer by rain is highly dependent on the regional soil profile and climate conditions.

  13. Evaluating Bioaerosol Emissions form in different parts of a Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangiri

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: Wastewater treatment processes can contaminate the air surrounding the plant, particularly with bacteria bioaerosols. Therefore, it is necessary to control the emissions and protect the health of workers against risks arising from exposure to bioaerosols.

  14. Systematic Design of EMI-Resilient Negative-Feedback Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Horst, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The information transfer capacity of negative-feedback amplifiers, and electronic circuits in general, is limited by three fundamental limitations being noise, bandwidth, and signal power. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is not a fundamental limitation, but it also hampers the information

  15. EMI/EMC standards for PFBR instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, B.; Sundararajan, M.K.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Sivaramakrishna, M.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) is one of the major issues to be addressed in the design, development, installation commissioning and maintenance of electronic systems in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). That calls for a proper EMI/EMC standard to be adhered to. This paper recommends a standard to be followed for PFBR instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. (author)

  16. Automated Terrestrial EMI Emitter Detection, Classification, and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottler, R.; Ong, J.; Gioia, C.; Bowman, C.; Bhopale, A.

    Clear operating spectrum at ground station antenna locations is critically important for communicating with, commanding, controlling, and maintaining the health of satellites. Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) can interfere with these communications, so it is extremely important to track down and eliminate sources of EMI. The Terrestrial RFI-locating Automation with CasE based Reasoning (TRACER) system is being implemented to automate terrestrial EMI emitter localization and identification to improve space situational awareness, reduce manpower requirements, dramatically shorten EMI response time, enable the system to evolve without programmer involvement, and support adversarial scenarios such as jamming. The operational version of TRACER is being implemented and applied with real data (power versus frequency over time) for both satellite communication antennas and sweeping Direction Finding (DF) antennas located near them. This paper presents the design and initial implementation of TRACER’s investigation data management, automation, and data visualization capabilities. TRACER monitors DF antenna signals and detects and classifies EMI using neural network technology, trained on past cases of both normal communications and EMI events. When EMI events are detected, an Investigation Object is created automatically. The user interface facilitates the management of multiple investigations simultaneously. Using a variant of the Friis transmission equation, emissions data is used to estimate and plot the emitter’s locations over time for comparison with current flights. The data is also displayed on a set of five linked graphs to aid in the perception of patterns spanning power, time, frequency, and bearing. Based on details of the signal (its classification, direction, and strength, etc.), TRACER retrieves one or more cases of EMI investigation methodologies which are represented as graphical behavior transition networks (BTNs). These BTNs can be edited easily

  17. Assessment of the Total Inflammatory Potential of Bioaerosols by Using a Granulocyte Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, Michael; Madsen, Anne Mette; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2009-01-01

    Occupational health symptoms related to bioaerosol exposure have been observed in a variety of working environments. Bioaerosols contain microorganisms and microbial components. The aim of this study was to estimate the total inflammatory potential (TIP) of bioaerosols using an in vitro assay based on granulocyte-like cells. A total of 129 bioaerosol samples were collected in the breathing zone of workers during their daily working routine at 22 biofuel plants. The samples were analyzed by tr...

  18. Method and device for detecting and identifying bio-aerosol particles in the air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowers, M.A.; Wuijckhuijse, A.L.; Marijnissen, J.C.; Kientz, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    In a method for detecting and identifying bioaerosol particles in the air, the bioaerosol particles in a particle stream are selected in an ATOFMS (aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer) by means of fluorescence techniques, and only the selected bioaerosol particles are ionized, for instance on

  19. Introduction aux notices

    OpenAIRE

    Calas, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Construites par des étudiants – géographes comme politistes ou juristes – du Master « Dynamiques africaines », formation pluridisciplinaire commune aux universités de Bordeaux 2, 3 et IV et à l’Institut d’Études politiques de Bordeaux, ces cartes prouvent l’intérêt d’une courte formation (une vingtaine d’heures) pour amener à un niveau de pratique tout à fait honorable et d’un grand intérêt scientifique et performatif. Ces cartes peuvent donc se lire comme des études de cas de conflits africa...

  20. Bioaerosols concentrations in working areas in biomethanization facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Marie-Eve; M'Bareche, Hamza; Veillette, Marc; Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Zayed, Joseph; Lavoie, Jacques; Duchaine, Caroline

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to fill the gap in information about the type and the concentration of bioaerosols present in the air of biomethanization facilities (BF). Evaluation of bioaerosol composition and concentration was achieved in two biomethanization facilities located in Eastern Canada, during summer and winter. In order to have a thorough understanding of the studied environment, the methodology combined culture of bacteria and molds, qualitiative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for specific microorganisms, endotoxin quantification, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) for bacterial diversity. Results revealed that workers in biomethanization facilities are exposed to bioaerosols and pathogenic microorganisms similar to those found in composting plants. However, human exposure levels to bioaerosols are lower in BF than in composting plants. Despite these differences, use of personal protective equipment is recommended to lower the risks of health problems. Biomethanization is a new technology used in eastern Canada for waste management. In the next few years, it is expected that there will be an expansion of facilities in response of tight governmental regulations. Workers in biomethanization facilities are exposed to various amounts of bioaerosols composed of some harmful microorganisms. Therefore, monitoring this occupational exposure could be an interesting tool for improving worker's health.

  1. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  2. Aux origines du monde

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "C'est l'histoire d'une aventure humaine, scientifique, international qui a vu le jour il y a cinquante ans, aux confins de la Suisse et du département de l'Ain. Le plus grand laboratoire de physique des particules du monde, le Cern, a été fondé en 1954. Les festivités organisées à l occasion de cet anniversaire connaîtront leur point d'orgue le 16 octobre prochain, avec portes-ouvertes, accueil de personallités et inauguration d'un monumnet spécifique, le Globe de l'innovation" (2 pages)

  3. Workplace exposure to bioaerosols in podiatry clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Marie A; Hogan, Victoria J; Kelly, Martina; Fleming, Gerard T A; Roberts, Nigel; Tynan, Therese; Thorne, Peter S

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to design and execute a pilot study to collect information on the personal exposure levels of podiatrists to microbial hazards in podiatry clinics and also to assess health and safety knowledge within the sector using a questionnaire survey. A self-report quantitative questionnaire dealing with health and safety/health issues was issued to 250 podiatrist clinics. Fifteen podiatry clinics were randomly recruited to participate in the exposure study. Concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and moulds were assessed using a six-stage viable microbial cascade impactor. Personal samples of total inhalable dust and endotoxin were measured in the breathing zone of the podiatrist. A questionnaire response rate of 42% (N = 101) was achieved. Thirty-two per cent of respondents indicated that they had a respiratory condition; asthma was the most prevalent condition reported. The most frequently employed control measures reported were use of disposable gloves during patient treatments (73.3%), use of respiratory protective equipment (34.6%), use of protective aprons (16.8%), and eye protection (15.8%). A total of 15.8% of respondents used mechanical room ventilation, 47.5% used nail drills with local exhaust ventilation systems, and 11% used nail drills with water spray dust suppression. The geometric mean concentrations of bacteria, Staphylococci, fungi, and yeasts/moulds were 590, 190, 422, and 59 CFU m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean endotoxin exposure was 9.6 EU m(-3). A significant percentage of all the bioaerosols that were in the respirable fraction was representative of yeasts and moulds (65%) and Fungi (87%). Even if statistical analysis of data is limited by low sample numbers, this study showed that the frequency of cleaning and use of RPE varied between clinics sampled, and it is likely that refresher health and safety training focusing on health and safety hazards inherent in podiatry work and practical control measures

  4. Foire aux questions concernant la Bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Suis-je admissible à la bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au doctorat si je suis inscrit à un programme d'études de doctorat, mais que je n'ai pas encore commencé mes cours ? 6. Je suis citoyen d'un pays en développement. Suis-je admissible à la bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au doctorat ? 7.

  5. The Use of Spider Webs as Passive Bioaerosol Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    water, released to water effluents , and sludge used in agriculture as fertilizer. Due to political and economic constraints, Waste Water Treatment...particulates, caused by shifts in environmental conditions, may cause coagulation and increase deposition rates of bioaerosols [29]. Dry weather...environments and geographical settings, their collection is highly inexpensive, and their constant regeneration allows the webs to become, in

  6. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-01-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and t...

  7. Urban enhancement of PM10 bioaerosol tracers relative to background locations in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Metwali, Nervana; Baker, Zach; Jayarathne, Thilina; Kostle, Pamela A.; Thorne, Peter S.; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-05-01

    Bioaerosols are well-known immune-active particles that exacerbate respiratory diseases. Human exposures to bioaerosols and their resultant health impacts depend on their ambient concentrations, seasonal and spatial variation, and copollutants, which are not yet widely characterized. In this study, chemical and biological tracers of bioaerosols were quantified in respirable particulate matter (PM10) collected at three urban and three background sites in the Midwestern United States across four seasons in 2012. Endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria (and a few Gram-positive bacteria), water-soluble proteins, and tracers for fungal spores (fungal glucans, arabitol, and mannitol) were ubiquitous and showed significant seasonal variation and dependence on temperature. Fungal spores were elevated in spring and peaked in summer, following the seasonal growing cycle, while endotoxins peaked in autumn during the row crop harvesting season. Paired comparisons of bioaerosols in urban and background sites revealed significant urban enhancements in PM10, fungal glucans, endotoxins, and water-soluble proteins relative to background locations, such that urban populations have a greater outdoor exposure to bioaerosols. These bioaerosols contribute, in part, to the urban excesses in PM10. Higher bioaerosol mass fractions in urban areas relative to background sites indicate that urban areas serve as a source of bioaerosols. Similar urban enhancements in water-soluble calcium and its correlation with bioaerosol tracers point toward windblown soil as an important source of bioaerosols in urban areas.

  8. Polymer-based composites for RFI/EMI/ applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Neil; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1990-10-01

    A conductive polymer composite of 2.4 mm thickness has been measured at a frequency range of 100 MHz to 18 GHz. This sample was measured for its EMI and EMC characteristics for use in electromagnetic shielding applications. It was shown that this thin sample achieved high transmission loss over a broad frequency range.

  9. Is EMI Enough? Perceptions from University Professors and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Kathleen Anne; Paba Rey, Lourdes A.; Santiago Escamilla, Nazira

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education aims to develop foreign language and intercultural and international competences (IIC). To achieve this, universities worldwide have implemented strategies such as teaching content subjects in English, also known as English mediated instruction (EMI). However, there is scant research on the positive and…

  10. Advanced UXO discrimination: resolving multiple targets and overlapping EMI signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubitidze, Fridon; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; Shamatava, Irma; Fernandez, Juan Pablo; Bijamov, Alex; O'Neill, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we employ advanced electromagnetic induction models to resolve multiple targets with overlapping EMI signals-i.e. to discriminate objects of interest, such as unexploded ordnance (UXO), from innocuous items. The models include a) a joint diagonalization (JD) technique that takes data from next-generation EMI sensors and uses the eigenvalues of the multistatic response matrix to estimate the number of potential targets, and b) the orthonormalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS) model, a physically complete, fast, and accurate forward model whose representation of a target's intrinsic EMI response is used to extract classification parameters. In the given approach the overall EMI inversion and classification problem proceeds as follows: first, the JD is applied to the data and the number of targets is estimated; once this is known, the ONVMS is combined with an optimization technique to yield the location and orientation of each buried object, as well as the amplitude of its ONVMS. Finally, a total ONVMS is calculated for each object and used as a discriminant to distinguish between UXO and non-UXO items and between different kinds of UXO. We illustrate the applicability of our multi-target analysis technique by using it on several teststand and live-site datasets collected with the TEMTADS sensor array. We end by demonstrating the superior performance of the ONVMS by applying it to multi-target blind-test data compiled at the Aberdeen Proving Ground test-stand facility.

  11. EMI Quality Assurance Processes (PS06-4-499)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimar, A.; Alandes-Pradillo, M.; Cernak, J.; Dini, L.; Dongiovanni, D.; Kenny, E.

    2011-12-01

    The European Middleware Initiative (EMI) is the collaboration of the major European middleware providers, ARC, gLite, UNICORE, and dCache. It aims to deliver a consolidated set of middleware components for deployment in EGI and PRACE, extend the interoperability and integration between grids and other computing infrastructures, strengthen the reliability and manageability of the services and establish a sustainable model to support, harmonise and evolve the middleware, ensuring it responds to the requirements of the scientific communities relying on it. EMI will carry out the collective task of supporting and maintaining the middleware for their user communities. In order to enable the infrastructures to achieve this task, the middleware services must play an important role and mark a clear transition to more sustainable models by adopting best-practice service provision methods such as the ITIL processes or the ISO guidelines for software quality and validation. Repositories of packages, status reports, quality metrics and test and compliance programs are created and maintained to support the project software engineering activities and other providers of applications and services based on the EMI middleware. This article reports on the initial work of the EMI project and the solutions adopted for the software releases, development processes, quality compliance metrics and distribution repositories.

  12. EMI Quality Assurance Processes (PS06-4-499)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimar, A; Alandes-Pradillo, M; Dini, L; Cernak, J; Dongiovanni, D; Kenny, E

    2011-01-01

    The European Middleware Initiative (EMI) is the collaboration of the major European middleware providers, ARC, gLite, UNICORE, and dCache. It aims to deliver a consolidated set of middleware components for deployment in EGI and PRACE, extend the interoperability and integration between grids and other computing infrastructures, strengthen the reliability and manageability of the services and establish a sustainable model to support, harmonise and evolve the middleware, ensuring it responds to the requirements of the scientific communities relying on it. EMI will carry out the collective task of supporting and maintaining the middleware for their user communities. In order to enable the infrastructures to achieve this task, the middleware services must play an important role and mark a clear transition to more sustainable models by adopting best-practice service provision methods such as the ITIL processes or the ISO guidelines for software quality and validation. Repositories of packages, status reports, quality metrics and test and compliance programs are created and maintained to support the project software engineering activities and other providers of applications and services based on the EMI middleware. This article reports on the initial work of the EMI project and the solutions adopted for the software releases, development processes, quality compliance metrics and distribution repositories.

  13. Spread Spectrum Receiver Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Test Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this test guide is to document appropriate unit level test methods and techniques for the performance of EMI testing of Direct Sequence (DS) spread spectrum receivers. Consideration of EMI test methods tailored for spread spectrum receivers utilizing frequency spreading, techniques other than direct sequence (such as frequency hopping, frequency chirping, and various hybrid methods) is beyond the scope of this test guide development program and is not addressed as part of this document EMI test requirements for NASA programs are primarily developed based on the requirements contained in MIL-STD-46 1 D (or earlier revisions of MIL-STD-46 1). The corresponding test method guidelines for the MIL-STD-461 D tests are provided in MIL-STD-462D. These test methods are well documented with the exception of the receiver antenna port susceptibility tests (intermodulation, cross modulation, and rejection of undesired signals) which must be tailored to the specific type of receiver that is being tested. Thus, test methods addressed in this guide consist only of antenna port tests designed to evaluate receiver susceptibility characteristics. MIL-STD-462D should be referred for guidance pertaining to test methods for EMI tests other than the antenna port tests. The scope of this test guide includes: (1) a discussion of generic DS receiver performance characteristics; (2) a summary of S-band TDRSS receiver operation; (3) a discussion of DS receiver EMI susceptibility mechanisms and characteristics; (4) a summary of military standard test guidelines; (5) recommended test approach and methods; and (6) general conclusions and recommendations for future studies in the area of spread spectrum receiver testing.

  14. Evaluation of physical sampling efficiency for cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers in moving air environments

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D.; Chen, Bean T.; Sigaev, Vladimir I.; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-01-01

    The need to determine occupational exposure to bioaerosols has notably increased in the past decade, especially for microbiology-related workplaces and laboratories. Recently, two new cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations (RCT & HRB) in Russia to monitor bioaerosol exposure in the workplace. Here, a series of wind...

  15. Efficiency of Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) bioaerosol sampler for pathogen detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anurag; Clark, Elizabeth; McGlothlin, James D.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2015-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism and pandemics has highlighted the urgency for rapid and reliable bioaerosol detection in different environments. Safeguarding against such threats requires continuous sampling of the ambient air for pathogen detection. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) 2800 bioaerosol sampler to collect representative samples of air and identify specific viruses suspended as bioaerosols. To test this concept, we aerosolized an...

  16. The challenges, uncertainties and opportunities of bioaerosol dispersion modelling from open composting facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ben; Hayes, Enda; Nasir, Zaheer; Rolph, Catherine; Jackson, Simon; Khera, Shagun; Bennett, Alan; Gladding, Toni; Drew, Gillian H.; Tyrrel, Sean F.

    2017-01-01

    Bioaerosols are ubiquitous organic particles that comprise viruses, bacteria and coarser fractions of organic matter. Known to adversely affect human health, the impact of bioaerosols on a population often manifests as outbreaks of illnesses such as Legionnaires Disease and Q fever, although the concentrations and environmental conditions in which these impacts occur are not well understood. Bioaerosol concentrations vary from source to source, but specific human activities such as water trea...

  17. Use of Medical Metered Dose Inhalers for Functionality Testing of Bioaerosol Detection and Identification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    testing of two near-real-time UV bioaerosol detectors. Aerosol generated from one actuation of a bioMDD containing 1 µm fluorescently tagged PSLs...resulted in complete alarming. 26 5. RECOMMENDATIONS In general , bioMDDs should be suitable for testing functionality of bioaerosol ... BIOAEROSOL DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS ECBC-TR-964 Jana Kesavan Deborah R. Schepers Jerold R. Bottiger RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY

  18. Bioaerosol concentrations generated from toilet flushing in a hospital-based patient care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Samantha D; Boles, Corey L; Perencevich, Eli N; Diekema, Daniel J; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, 1.7 million immunocompromised patients contract a healthcare-associated infection, annually. These infections increase morbidity, mortality and costs of care. A relatively unexplored route of transmission is the generation of bioaerosols during patient care. Transmission of pathogenic microorganisms may result from inhalation or surface contamination of bioaerosols. The toilet flushing of patient fecal waste may be a source of bioaerosols. To date, no study has investigated bioaerosol concentrations from flushing fecal wastes during patient care. Particle and bioaerosol concentrations were measured in hospital bathrooms across three sampling conditions; no waste no flush, no waste with flush, and fecal waste with flush. Particle and bioaerosol concentrations were measured with a particle counter bioaerosol sampler both before after a toilet flushing event at distances of 0.15, 0.5, and 1 m from the toilet for 5, 10, 15 min. Particle concentrations measured before and after the flush were found to be significantly different (0.3-10 μm). Bioaerosol concentrations when flushing fecal waste were found to be significantly greater than background concentrations ( p -value = 0.005). However, the bioaerosol concentrations were not different across time ( p -value = 0.977) or distance ( p -value = 0.911) from the toilet, suggesting that aerosols generated may remain for longer than 30 min post flush. Toilets produce aerosol particles when flushed, with the majority of the particles being 0.3 μm in diameter. The particles aerosolized include microorganisms remaining from previous use or from fecal wastes. Differences in bioaerosol concentrations across conditions also suggest that toilet flushing is a source of bioaerosols that may result in transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. This study is the first to quantify particles and bioaerosols produced from flushing a hospital toilet during routine patient care. Future studies are

  19. Optimization of Modulation Waveforms for Improved EMI Attenuation in Switching Frequency Modulated Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniss Stepins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic interference (EMI is one of the major problems of switching power converters. This paper is devoted to switching frequency modulation used for conducted EMI suppression in switching power converters. Comprehensive theoretical analysis of switching power converter conducted EMI spectrum and EMI attenuation due the use of traditional ramp and multislope ramp modulation waveforms is presented. Expressions to calculate EMI spectrum and attenuation are derived. Optimization procedure of the multislope ramp modulation waveform is proposed to get maximum benefits from switching frequency modulation for EMI reduction. Experimental verification is also performed to prove that the optimized multislope ramp modulation waveform is very useful solution for effective EMI reduction in switching power converters.

  20. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  1. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-07-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and their fragments in laboratory studies, and it has been extended to field studies that implicate bioaerosol to compose a substantial fraction of supermicron atmospheric particles. To enhance the information yield that new-generation fluorescence instruments can provide, we report the compilation of a referential aerobiological catalogue including more than 50 pure cultures of common airborne bacteria, fungi and pollens, recovered at water activity equilibrium in a mesoscale chamber (1 m3). This catalogue juxtaposes intrinsic optical properties and select bandwidths of fluorescence emissions, which manifest to clearly distinguish between major classes of airborne microbes and pollens.

  2. Foire aux questions sur la bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Est-ce que je peux utiliser une partie de la bourse pour payer son billet d'avion ? 1) Je suis étudiant au doctorat et la bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au doctorat m'intéresse. Pourriez-vous me faire parvenir de la documentation au sujet de cette bourse ? Tous les renseignements concernant la bourse du CRDI ...

  3. Consolidation and development roadmap of the EMI middleware

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Scientific research communities have benefited recently from the increasing availability of computing and data infrastructures with unprecedented capabilities for large scale distributed initiatives. These infrastructures are largely defined and enabled by the middleware they deploy. One of the major issues in the current usage of research infrastructures is the need to use similar but often incompatible middleware solutions. The European Middleware Initiative (EMI) is a collaboration of the major European middleware providers ARC, dCache, gLite and UNICORE. EMI aims to: deliver a consolidated set of middleware components for deployment in EGI, PRACE and other Distributed Computing Infrastructures; extend the interoperability between grids and other computing infrastructures; strengthen the reliability of the services; establish a sustainable model to maintain and evolve the middleware; fulfill the requirements of the user communities. This paper presents the consolidation and development objectives of the ...

  4. Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kampf, Christopher J.; Weber, Bettina; Huffman, J. Alex; Pöhlker, Christopher; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Burrows, Susannah M.; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Elbert, Wolfgang; Su, Hang; Hoor, Peter; Thines, Eckhard; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols of biological origin play a vital role in the Earth system, particularly in the interactions between atmosphere, biosphere, climate, and public health. Airborne bacteria, fungal spores, pollen, and other bioparticles are essential for the reproduction and spread of organisms across various ecosystems, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets, ice crystals, and precipitation, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The sources, abundance, composition, and effects of biological aerosols and the atmospheric microbiome are, however, not yet well characterized and constitute a large gap in the scientific understanding of the interaction and co-evolution of life and climate in the Earth system. This review presents an overview of the state of bioaerosol research, highlights recent advances, and outlines future perspectives in terms of bioaerosol identification, characterization, transport, and transformation processes, as well as their interactions with climate, health, and ecosystems, focusing on the role bioaerosols play in the Earth system.

  5. Bioaerosol deposition on an air-conditioning cooling coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Chen, Ailu; Luhung, Irvan; Gall, Elliott T.; Cao, Qingliang; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-11-01

    This study is concerned with the role of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger in modifying microbial indoor air quality. Specifically, depositional losses of ambient bioaerosols and particles onto dry (not cooled) and wet (cool) coil surfaces were measured for different airspeeds passing through the test coil. Total, bacterial and fungal DNA concentrations in condensate water produced by a wet coil were also quantified by means of fluorescent dsDNA-binding dye and qPCR assays. Results revealed that the deposition of bioaerosols and total particles is substantial on coil surfaces, especially when wet and cool. The average deposition fraction was 0.14 for total DNA, 0.18 for bacterial DNA and 0.22 for fungal DNA on the dry coil, increasing to 0.51 for total DNA, 0.50 for bacterial DNA and 0.68 for fungal DNA on the wet coil. Overall, as expected, deposition fractions increased with increasing particle size and increasing airspeed. Deposited DNA was removed from the cooling coil surfaces through the flow of condensing water at a rate comparable to the rate of direct deposition from air. A downward trend of bacterial and fungal DNA measured in condensate water over time provides suggestive evidence of biological growth on heat exchangers during nonoperational times of a ventilation system. This investigation provides new information about bioaerosol deposition onto a conventional fin-and-tube cooling coil, a potentially important factor influencing indoor exposure to microbial aerosols in air-conditioned buildings.

  6. Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kampf, Christopher J.; Weber, Bettina; Huffman, J. Alex; Pöhlker, Christopher; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Burrows, Susannah M.; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Elbert, Wolfgang; Su, Hang; Hoor, Peter; Thines, Eckhard; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols of biological origin play a vital role in the Earth system, particularly in the in-teractions between atmosphere, biosphere, climate, and public health. Airborne bacteria, fungal spores, pollen, and other bioparticles are essential for the reproduction and spread of organisms across various ecosystems, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets, ice crystals, and precipitation, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The actual formation, abundance, composition, and effects of biological aerosols and the atmospheric microbi-ome are, however, not yet well characterized and constitute a large gap in the scientific understanding of the interaction and co-evolution of life and climate in the Earth system. This review presents an overview of the state of bioaerosol research and highlights recent advances in terms of bioaerosol identification, characterization, transport, and transfor-mation processes, as well as their interactions with climate, health, and ecosystems, focus-ing on the role bioaerosols play in the Earth system.

  7. Bioaerosol generation at large-scale green waste composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Stentiford, Edward I; Urpilainen, Sari T

    2005-05-01

    Bioaerosol release from composting plants is a cause of concern because of the potential health impacts on site workers and local residents. A one-year monitoring was undertaken in a typical composting plant treating green wastes by windrowing in the open. Aspergillus fumigatus spores and mesophilic bacteria were used as monitoring parameters and were collected in a six-stage Andersen sampler impactor from the air at different locations and during different operational activities. Background concentrations of both microorganisms were generally below 1000 colony-forming units m(-3) when no vigorous activity was taking place. Shredding of fresh green wastes, pile turning, and screening of mature compost were identified as the activities generating the highest amounts of both bioaerosols 40 m downwind of the composting pad. These air concentrations were approximately 2 log units higher than background levels. Screening of mature compost generated lower amounts of A. fumigatus than the other two activities (an average of 1 log unit higher than background levels). Workers were identified as the main potential receptors of high bioaerosol concentrations in areas close to the composting pad, whereas no major risk for local residents was expected because the concentrations recorded at distances of 200 and 300 m downwind of the operational area were not significantly different from background levels.

  8. Consolidation and development roadmap of the EMI middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kónya, B.; Aiftimiei, C.; Cecchi, M.; Field, L.; Fuhrmann, P.; Nilsen, J. K.; White, J.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific research communities have benefited recently from the increasing availability of computing and data infrastructures with unprecedented capabilities for large scale distributed initiatives. These infrastructures are largely defined and enabled by the middleware they deploy. One of the major issues in the current usage of research infrastructures is the need to use similar but often incompatible middleware solutions. The European Middleware Initiative (EMI) is a collaboration of the major European middleware providers ARC, dCache, gLite and UNICORE. EMI aims to: deliver a consolidated set of middleware components for deployment in EGI, PRACE and other Distributed Computing Infrastructures; extend the interoperability between grids and other computing infrastructures; strengthen the reliability of the services; establish a sustainable model to maintain and evolve the middleware; fulfil the requirements of the user communities. This paper presents the consolidation and development objectives of the EMI software stack covering the last two years. The EMI development roadmap is introduced along the four technical areas of compute, data, security and infrastructure. The compute area plan focuses on consolidation of standards and agreements through a unified interface for job submission and management, a common format for accounting, the wide adoption of GLUE schema version 2.0 and the provision of a common framework for the execution of parallel jobs. The security area is working towards a unified security model and lowering the barriers to Grid usage by allowing users to gain access with their own credentials. The data area is focusing on implementing standards to ensure interoperability with other grids and industry components and to reuse already existing clients in operating systems and open source distributions. One of the highlights of the infrastructure area is the consolidation of the information system services via the creation of a common information

  9. Concentration of bioaerosols in composting plants using different quantification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Vera; Sander, Ingrid; Liebers, Verena; Deckert, Anja; Neumann, Heinz-Dieter; Buxtrup, Martin; Willer, Eckart; Felten, Christian; Jäckel, Udo; Klug, Kerstin; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Bünger, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Bioaerosols (organic dusts) containing viable and non-viable microorganisms and their metabolic products can lead to adverse health effects in exposed workers. Standard quantification methods of airborne microorganisms are mainly based on cultivation, which often underestimates the microbial burden. The aim of the study was to determine the microbial load in German composting plants with different, mainly cultivation-independent, methods. Second purpose was to evaluate which working areas are associated with higher or lower bioaerosol concentrations. A total of 124 inhalable dust samples were collected at different workplaces in 31 composting plants. Besides the determination of inhalable dust, particles, and total cell numbers, antigen quantification for moulds (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Cladosporium spp.) and mites was performed. Concentrations of β-glucans as well as endotoxin and pyrogenic activities were also measured. The number of colony forming units (cfu) was determined by cultivation of moulds and actinomycetes in 36 additional dust samples. With the exception of particle numbers, concentrations of all determined parameters showed significant correlations (P parameters were measured highest in dusty working areas like next to the shredder and during processing with the exception of Cladosporium antigens that were found in the highest concentrations in the delivery area. The lowest concentrations of dust, particles, antigens, and pyrogenic activity were determined in wheel loader cabins (WLCs), which were equipped with an air filtration system. It was possible to assess the microbial load of air in composting plants with different quantification methods. Since allergic and toxic reactions may be also caused by nonliving microorganisms, cultivation-independent methods may provide additional information about bioaerosol composition. In general, air filtration reduced the bioaerosol exposure shown in WLCs

  10. MWCNT Coated Free-Standing Carbon Fiber Fabric for Enhanced Performance in EMI Shielding with a Higher Absolute EMI SE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Jayashantha Pothupitiya Gamage

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT coated carbon fabrics was fabricated using a facile dip coating process, and their performance in electrical conductivity, thermal stability, tensile strength, electromagnetic interference (EMI and shielding effectiveness (SE was investigated. A solution of MWCNT oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in water was used in the coating process. MWCNTs were observed to coat the surfaces of carbon fibers and to fill the pores in the carbon fabric. Electrical conductivity of the composites was 16.42 S cm−1. An EMI shielding effectiveness of 37 dB at 2 GHz was achieved with a single layer of C/C composites, whereas the double layers resulted in 68 dB EMI SE at 2.7 GHz. Fabricated composites had a specific SE of 486.54 dB cm3 g−1 and an absolute SE of approximately 35,000 dB cm2 g−1. According to the above results, MWCNT coated C/C composites have the potential to be used in advanced shielding applications such as aerospace and auto mobile electronic devices.

  11. Factors Affecting Vegetable Growers’ Exposure to Fungal Bioaerosols and Airborne Dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. M.; Meyling, Nicolai; Winding, Anne

    2012-01-01

    We have quantified vegetable growers’ exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1/3)-b-d-glucan (b-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers’ exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust...... growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers’ exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses......-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m23) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers’ exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked...

  12. Research on EMI Reduction of Multi-stage Interleaved Bridgeless Power Factor Corrector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Working as an electronic pollution eliminator, the Power Factor Corrector's (PFC) own Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems have been blocking its performance improvement for long. In this paper, a systematic research on EMI generation of a multi-stage Two-Boost-Circuit Interleaved Bridgeless...... PFC (IBPFC) is presented. The insight into relationship of interleaving stages, switching on/off oscillations and EMI reduction is discussed. Finally, a 3.5kW universal input 2-stage IBPFC prototype was built to verify the theoretical analysis. Experimental results show that significant EMI reductions...

  13. Using EMIS to Identify Top Opportunities for Commercial Building Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guanjing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singla, Rupam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Energy Management and Information Systems (EMIS) comprise a broad family of tools and services to manage commercial building energy use. These technologies offer a mix of capabilities to store, display, and analyze energy use and system data, and in some cases, provide control. EMIS technologies enable 10–20 percent site energy savings in best practice implementations. Energy Information System (EIS) and Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) systems are two key technologies in the EMIS family. Energy Information Systems are broadly defined as the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to analyze and display building energy performance. At a minimum, an EIS provides daily, hourly or sub-hourly interval meter data at the whole-building level, with graphical and analytical capability. Fault Detection and Diagnosis systems automatically identify heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system or equipment-level performances issues, and in some cases are able to isolate the root causes of the problem. They use computer algorithms to continuously analyze system-level operational data to detect faults and diagnose their causes. Many FDD tools integrate the trend log data from a Building Automation System (BAS) but otherwise are stand-alone software packages; other types of FDD tools are implemented as “on-board” equipment-embedded diagnostics. (This document focuses on the former.) Analysis approaches adopted in FDD technologies span a variety of techniques from rule-based methods to process history-based approaches. FDD tools automate investigations that can be conducted via manual data inspection by someone with expert knowledge, thereby expanding accessibility and breath of analysis opportunity, and also reducing complexity.

  14. Generation of bioaerosols during manual mail unpacking and sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, H; Bachofen, R; Bischoff, M

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of bioaerosol generation in specific occupational environments where mail is manually unpacked and sorted was investigated. Total number of airborne particles was determined in four different size classes (0.3-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-5 and >5 microm) by laser particle counting. Time dependent formation of bioaerosols was monitored by culturing methods and by specific staining followed by flow cytometry. Besides handling of regular mail, specially prepared letters ('spiked letters') were added to the mailbags to deliberately release powdered materials from letters and to simulate high impact loads. These letters contained various dry powdered biological and nonbiological materials such as milk powder, mushrooms, herbs and cat litter. Regarding the four size classes, particulate aerosol composition before mail handling was determined as 83.2 +/- 1.0, 15.2 +/- 0.7, 1.7 +/- 0.4 and 0.04 +/- 0.02%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during sorting to 66.8 +/- 7.9, 22.3 +/- 3.6, 10.4 +/- 4.0 and 0.57 +/- 0.27%, respectively. Mail processing resulted in an increase in culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. Maximum concentrations of bacteria reached 450 CFU m(-3), whereas 270 CFU of fungi were detected. Indoor particle concentrations steadily increased during mail handling mostly associated with particles of diameters >1 microm. However, it was not possible to distinguish spiked letters from nonspiked by simple particle counting and CFU determinations. The dynamics of bioaerosol generation have to be addressed when monitoring specific occupational environments (such as mail sorting facilities) regarding the occurrence of biological particles.

  15. Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with

  16. Role of preprocedural rinse and high volume evacuator in reducing bacterial contamination in bioaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, TV; Mohanty, Leeky; Sreenath, G; Vidhyadhari, Pavani

    2016-01-01

    Context: Microbial contamination, which occurs during dental procedures, has been a potential threat to dental professionals and individuals. There has been a growing concern over the role of bioaerosols in spread of various airborne infections and also to reduce the risk of bioaerosol contamination. Aims: This study was to analyze the number of colony forming units (CFUs) in bioaerosols generated during ultrasonic scaling procedure as well as to evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine 0.12% (CHX) preprocedural mouth rinse and high volume evacuator (HVE) in minimizing the bioaerosol contamination. Methods: About 45 individuals were divided into three Groups A, B and C. These groups underwent ultrasonic scaling before and after the use of CHX (0.12%), HVE and combination of CHX (0.12%) and HVE. Bioaerosols were collected on blood agar plates which were incubated at 37°C for 48 h, and the CFUs were counted with manual colony counting device. A comparison was also done between A versus B, B versus C and A versus C groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test. Results: We found a significant reduction in the CFUs when CHX (0.12%) preprocedural rinse (P bioaerosols; however, combination of both CHX (0.12%) and HVE is more efficient to reduce dental bioaerosols than individual method. PMID:27194863

  17. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: fate and transport of bioaerosols associated with livestock operations and manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, R S

    2010-11-01

    Airborne microorganisms and microbial by-products from intensive livestock and manure management systems are a potential health risk to workers and individuals in nearby communities. This report presents information on zoonotic pathogens in animal wastes and the generation, fate, and transport of bioaerosols associated with animal feeding operations and land applied manures. Though many bioaerosol studies have been conducted at animal production facilities, few have investigated the transport of bioaerosols during the land application of animal manures. As communities in rural areas converge with land application sites, concerns over bioaerosol exposure will certainly increase. Although most studies at animal operations and wastewater spray irrigation sites suggest a decreased risk of bioaerosol exposure with increasing distance from the source, many challenges remain in evaluating the health effects of aerosolized pathogens and allergens in outdoor environments. To improve our ability to understand the off-site transport and diffusion of human and livestock diseases, various dispersion models have been utilized. Most studies investigating the transport of bioaerosols during land application events have used a modified Gaussian plume model. Because of the disparity among collection and analytical techniques utilized in outdoor studies, it is often difficult to evaluate health effects associated with aerosolized pathogens and allergens. Invaluable improvements in assessing the health effects from intensive livestock practices could be made if standardized bioaerosol collection and analytical techniques, as well as the use of specific target microorganisms, were adopted.

  18. Design Of EMI Filter For Flash Lamp Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhatt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference in embedded and VLSI systems have become important in recent years with increase in clock frequency and reduction in physical dimensions of interconnects. It is important to understand the noise components in terms of current paths and the mitigation techniques. Although the common mode and differential mode components of conducted noise are analyzed in the context of a power electronics system the analytical and theoretical techniques hold good for other domains as well such as embedded systems and VLSI. This paper deals with modelling design and development of an EMI filter for conducted mode noise in flash lamp power supply. Also a design procedure of EMI filters sustaining to the military standard 461E is presented and it is based on practical measurement of conducted emissions. Design procedure in this paper considers common mode and differential mode separately. The paper also consists of considerations for magnetic core material integrated common mode CM common mode choke size optimization and differential mode DM choke etc. Design examples are given and are experimentally verified.

  19. Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    shows a schematic of the experimental system. Bioaerosols were generated by a six-jet Collison nebulizer at 7 Lpm. Virus concentrations in the...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0004 EFFECT OF BIOAEROSOL ON THE RELEASE OF IODINE FROM IODINE TREATED FILTERS Chang-Yu Wu, Hsing-Wang Li, Myung-Heui...Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F GOVT L0 QL102008 Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Wang; Woo

  20. Bioaerosol concentrations generated from toilet flushing in a hospital-based patient care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha D. Knowlton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, 1.7 million immunocompromised patients contract a healthcare-associated infection, annually. These infections increase morbidity, mortality and costs of care. A relatively unexplored route of transmission is the generation of bioaerosols during patient care. Transmission of pathogenic microorganisms may result from inhalation or surface contamination of bioaerosols. The toilet flushing of patient fecal waste may be a source of bioaerosols. To date, no study has investigated bioaerosol concentrations from flushing fecal wastes during patient care. Methods Particle and bioaerosol concentrations were measured in hospital bathrooms across three sampling conditions; no waste no flush, no waste with flush, and fecal waste with flush. Particle and bioaerosol concentrations were measured with a particle counter bioaerosol sampler both before after a toilet flushing event at distances of 0.15, 0.5, and 1 m from the toilet for 5, 10, 15 min. Results Particle concentrations measured before and after the flush were found to be significantly different (0.3–10 μm. Bioaerosol concentrations when flushing fecal waste were found to be significantly greater than background concentrations (p-value = 0.005. However, the bioaerosol concentrations were not different across time (p-value = 0.977 or distance (p-value = 0.911 from the toilet, suggesting that aerosols generated may remain for longer than 30 min post flush. Toilets produce aerosol particles when flushed, with the majority of the particles being 0.3 μm in diameter. The particles aerosolized include microorganisms remaining from previous use or from fecal wastes. Differences in bioaerosol concentrations across conditions also suggest that toilet flushing is a source of bioaerosols that may result in transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Conclusions This study is the first to quantify particles and bioaerosols produced from flushing a

  1. Prediction of shipboard electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems using artificial intelligence (AI) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David J.

    1990-08-01

    The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.

  2. Prediction of shipboard electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems using artificial intelligence (AI) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.

  3. English Medium Instruction (EMI) as Linguistic Capital in Nepal: Promises and Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pramod Kumar; Li, Guofang

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a critical qualitative case study of an EMI-based, underresourced public school in Nepal through Bourdieu's lens of linguistic capital. As the data analysis revealed, parents, students, and teachers regarded EMI as a privileged form of linguistic capital for developing advanced English skills, enhancing educational…

  4. Evaluation of the potential for bioaerosols from land applied biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Benjamin; Brooks, John; Josephseon, Karen; Gerba, Charles; Pepper, Ian

    2003-07-01

    The overall objective of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively document the potential hazards of biological aerosols derived from land applied biosolids, and ultimately develop risk assessment models and land-management strategies for safe, effective use of biosolids. The specific objectives were: i) Quantify bacterial and viral microorganisms emitted as bioaerosols from point sources of biosolids, and area (land-applied) sources of biosolids; ii) Develop risk assessment models based on a) hazard identification, b) dose response, c) exposure assessment; d) risk characterization. Research has consisted of laboratory studies at the University of Arizona and field studies at several regional U.S. locations. Bioaerosol samples have been collected via ''Impingement'' using SKC biosamplers. The biologicals monitored for included: i) viruses: enteroviruses, calciviruses; ii) phage e.g, MS2; iii) E. coil; iv) Salmonella; v) total coliforms; vi) Clostridium perfringens; vii) Aspergillus spp.; viii) Endotoxin. Air samples were collected at discrete distances torn both biosolid piles (point sources), or land applied biosolids (area sources). (author)

  5. An overview on bioaerosols viewed by scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmaack, K. [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85758 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: wittmaack@gsf.de; Wehnes, H. [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Pathology, 85758 Neuherberg (Germany); Heinzmann, U. [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Pathology, 85758 Neuherberg (Germany); Agerer, R. [Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Department Biology, Biodiversity Research: Mycology, Menzinger Stasse 67, 80638 Munich (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Bioaerosols suspended in ambient air were collected with single-stage impactors at a semiurban site in southern Germany during late summer and early autumn. Sampling was mostly carried out at a nozzle velocity of 35 m/s, corresponding to a minimum aerodynamic diameter (cut-off diameter) of aerosol particles of 0.8 {mu}m. The collected particles, sampled for short periods ({approx}15 min) to avoid pile-up, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The observed bioaerosols include brochosomes, fungal spores, hyphae, insect scales, hairs of plants and, less commonly, bacteria and epicuticular wax. Brochosomes, which serve as a highly water repellent body coating of leafhoppers, are hollow spheroids with diameters around 400 nm, resembling C{sub 60} or footballs (soccer balls). They are usually airborne not as individuals but in the form of large clusters containing up to 10,000 individual species or even more. Various types of spores and scales were observed, but assignment turned out be difficult due to the large number of fungi and insects from which they may have originated. Pollens were observed only once. The absence these presumably elastic particles suggests that they are frequently lost, at the comparatively high velocities, due to bounce-off from the nonadhesive impaction surfaces.

  6. Marine sources influence fog bioaerosol composition in Namibia and Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S. E.; Dueker, E.; Logan, J. R. V.; Weathers, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosol particles act as condensation nuclei for fogs and clouds (CCN) and are main determinants of fog evolution, chemical processing, and overall aerosol-fog-cloud interactions. Recent work has confirmed the presence of marine bioaerosols, but little is known about their sources, transport, taxonomic diversity or viability. The few studies that have characterized bioaerosols in fog have been limited to culture-based approaches that capture only a fraction of microbial diversity. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in the fog in two iconic fog systems, the Coast of Maine (USA) and the Namib Desert (Namibia). The biology of fog in both systems was diverse and distinct, by geography, from dry aerosols, and from local sources. The local environment had a dominant influence on fog in both the Namib and Maine; in particular, the biology of fog in Maine, which was collected near the coast, was more similar to microbial communities from the ocean surface. In both systems, differences between pre- and post-fog aerosol communities suggest that fog events can significantly alter microbial aerosol diversity and composition. This insight into the microbial composition of fog indicates that its origin and frequency has the potential to influence the number and diversity of microorganisms that settle in a given environment, and the composition of microbial aerosol communities in ambient or clear conditions. Here we suggest that fog microbes can possess specific traits that enhance nucleation, altering the transport and deposition of marine- and soil-derived organic matter in terrestrial systems.

  7. An overview on bioaerosols viewed by scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmaack, K.; Wehnes, H.; Heinzmann, U.; Agerer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosols suspended in ambient air were collected with single-stage impactors at a semiurban site in southern Germany during late summer and early autumn. Sampling was mostly carried out at a nozzle velocity of 35 m/s, corresponding to a minimum aerodynamic diameter (cut-off diameter) of aerosol particles of 0.8 μm. The collected particles, sampled for short periods (∼15 min) to avoid pile-up, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The observed bioaerosols include brochosomes, fungal spores, hyphae, insect scales, hairs of plants and, less commonly, bacteria and epicuticular wax. Brochosomes, which serve as a highly water repellent body coating of leafhoppers, are hollow spheroids with diameters around 400 nm, resembling C 60 or footballs (soccer balls). They are usually airborne not as individuals but in the form of large clusters containing up to 10,000 individual species or even more. Various types of spores and scales were observed, but assignment turned out be difficult due to the large number of fungi and insects from which they may have originated. Pollens were observed only once. The absence these presumably elastic particles suggests that they are frequently lost, at the comparatively high velocities, due to bounce-off from the nonadhesive impaction surfaces

  8. Lightweight graphene nanoplatelet/boron carbide composite with high EMI shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight graphene nanoplatelet (GNP/boron carbide (B4C composites were prepared and the effect of GNPs loading on the electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding effectiveness (SE has been evaluated in the X-band frequency range. Results have shown that the EMI SE of GNP/B4C composite increases with increasing the GNPs loading. An EMI SE as high as 37 ∼ 39 dB has been achieved in composite with 5 vol% GNPs. The high EMI SE is mainly attributed to the high electrical conductivity, high dielectric loss as well as multiple reflections by aligned GNPs inside the composite. The GNP/B4C composite is demonstrated to be promising candidate of high-temperature microwave EMI shielding material.

  9. In vivo overexpression of Emi1 promotes chromosome instability and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Cato, K; Tang, L; Pavey, S; Haass, N K; Gabrielli, B G; Duijf, P H G

    2016-10-13

    Cell cycle genes are often aberrantly expressed in cancer, but how their misexpression drives tumorigenesis mostly remains unclear. From S phase to early mitosis, EMI1 (also known as FBXO5) inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, which controls cell cycle progression through the sequential degradation of various substrates. By analyzing 7403 human tumor samples, we find that EMI1 overexpression is widespread in solid tumors but not in blood cancers. In solid cancers, EMI1 overexpression is a strong prognostic marker for poor patient outcome. To investigate causality, we generated a transgenic mouse model in which we overexpressed Emi1. Emi1-overexpressing animals develop a wide variety of solid tumors, in particular adenomas and carcinomas with inflammation and lymphocyte infiltration, but not blood cancers. These tumors are significantly larger and more penetrant, abundant, proliferative and metastatic than control tumors. In addition, they are highly aneuploid with tumor cells frequently being in early mitosis and showing mitotic abnormalities, including lagging and incorrectly segregating chromosomes. We further demonstrate in vitro that even though EMI1 overexpression may cause mitotic arrest and cell death, it also promotes chromosome instability (CIN) following delayed chromosome alignment and anaphase onset. In human solid tumors, EMI1 is co-expressed with many markers for CIN and EMI1 overexpression is a stronger marker for CIN than most well-established ones. The fact that Emi1 overexpression promotes CIN and the formation of solid cancers in vivo indicates that Emi1 overexpression actively drives solid tumorigenesis. These novel mechanistic insights have important clinical implications.

  10. Efficiency of Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) bioaerosol sampler for pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Clark, Elizabeth; McGlothlin, James D; Mittal, Suresh K

    2015-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism and pandemics has highlighted the urgency for rapid and reliable bioaerosol detection in different environments. Safeguarding against such threats requires continuous sampling of the ambient air for pathogen detection. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP) 2800 bioaerosol sampler to collect representative samples of air and identify specific viruses suspended as bioaerosols. To test this concept, we aerosolized an innocuous replication-defective bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAdV3) in a controlled laboratory environment. The ASAP efficiently trapped the surrogate virus at 5 × 10(3) plaque-forming units (p.f.u.) [2 × 10(5) genome copy equivalent] concentrations or more resulting in the successful detection of the virus using quantitative PCR. These results support the further development of ASAP for bioaerosol pathogen detection.

  11. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsan, A.E.; Priyamvada, H.; Ravikrishna, R.; Despres, V.R.; Biju, C.V.; Sahu, L.K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R.S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, S.S.

    appeared to coincide with precipitation It appears that vast diversity in the morphological features of bioaerosols exists over this region, which should further be studied using advanced online techniques for better quantification under contrasting...

  12. Efficiency of Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP Bioaerosol Sampler for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag eSharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The threat of bioterrorism and pandemics has highlighted the urgency for rapid and reliable bioaerosol detection in different environments. Safeguarding against such threats requires continuous sampling of the ambient air for pathogen detection. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the Airborne Sample Analysis Platform (ASAP 2800 bioaerosol sampler to collect representative samples of air and identify specific viruses suspended as bioaerosols. To test this concept, we aerosolized an innocuous replication-defective bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAdV3 in a controlled laboratory environment. The ASAP efficiently trapped the surrogate virus at 5×10E3 plaque-forming units (p.f.u. [2×10E5 genome copy equivalent] concentrations or more resulting in the successful detection of the virus using quantitative PCR. These results support the further development of ASAP for bioaerosol pathogen detection.

  13. Rancangan Aplikasi Manajemen Dokumen Tender Berbasis Web Pada PT. Emi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablin Yusuf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this researh is to design a software application for bidding document management as required by PT Energy Management Indonesia (EMI in order to increase the company performance. The methodology used is fact-finding through direct observation, followed by literature study, and web application development method using waterfall model and rapid prototyping for software development. The result is a software application, web based, which can increase the company performance due to the required bidding document preparation and the responding data are well stored and managed hence can be accessed easily when needed. In summary the application which is well supported by the related database will assist the company quikly and easily in bidding preparation process 

  14. Review of bioaerosols in indoor environment with special reference to sampling, analysis and control mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bipasha; Lal, Himanshu; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-12-01

    Several tiny organisms of various size ranges present in air are called airborne particles or bioaerosol which mainly includes live or dead fungi and bacteria, their secondary metabolites, viruses, pollens, etc. which have been related to health issues of human beings and other life stocks. Bio-terror attacks in 2001 as well as pandemic outbreak of flue due to influenza A H1N1 virus in 2009 have alarmed us about the importance of bioaerosol research. Hence characterization i.e. identification and quantification of different airborne microorganisms in various indoor environments is necessary to identify the associated risks and to establish exposure threshold. Along with the bioaerosol sampling and their analytical techniques, various literatures revealing the concentration levels of bioaerosol have been mentioned in this review thereby contributing to the knowledge of identification and quantification of bioaerosols and their different constituents in various indoor environments (both occupational and non-occupational sections). Apart from recognition of bioaerosol, developments of their control mechanisms also play an important role. Hence several control methods have also been briefly reviewed. However, several individual levels of efforts such as periodic cleaning operations, maintenance activities and proper ventilation system also serve in their best way to improve indoor air quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of eight bioaerosol samplers challenged with aerosols of free bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P A; Todd, W F; Davis, G N; Scarpino, P V

    1992-10-01

    The need to quantify airborne microorganisms in the commercial microbiology industry (biotechnology) and during evaluations of indoor air quality, infectious disease outbreaks, and agriculture health investigations has shown there is a major technological void in bioaerosol sampling techniques to measure and identify viable and nonviable aerosols. As commercialization of microbiology increases and diversifies, it is increasingly necessary to assess occupational exposure to bioaerosols. Meaningful exposure estimates, by using area or environmental samplers, can only be ensured by the generation of data that are both precise and accurate. The Andersen six-stage viable (microbial) particle sizing sampler (6-STG) and the Ace Glass all-glass impinger-30 (AGI-30) have been suggested as the samplers of choice for the collection of viable microorganisms by the International Aerobiology Symposium and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Some researchers consider these samplers inconvenient for evaluating industrial bioprocesses and indoor or outdoor environments. Alternative samplers for the collection of bioaerosols are available; however, limited information has been reported on their collection efficiencies. A study of the relative sampling efficiencies of eight bioaerosol samplers has been completed. Eight samplers were individually challenged with a bioaerosol, created with a Collison nebulizer, of either Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli. The samplers were evaluated under controlled conditions in a horizontal bioaerosol chamber. During each experimental run, simultaneous samples were collected with a reference AGI-30 to verify the concentration of microorganisms in the chamber from run to run and day to day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part II: sweat in the environment, microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Brochocka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The second part of the article presents the results of a study of antimicrobial activity of filter nonwovens with an addition of biocides, as a function of the presence of sweat in the environment and the method of microbe deposition on a nonwoven in the form of a liquid and a bioaerosol. At the same time, the filtration efficiency of nonwovens against microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol was tested with the dynamic method. The results showed that the addition of sweat on the surface of a nonwoven resulted in an insignificant decrease of biological activity that still remained high. Moreover, an active nonwoven showed biostatic and biocidal activity only when microbes were deposited on the surface in the form of a solution. The nonwoven did not show any biological activity after deposition of microorganisms with the dynamical method in the form of a bioaerosol.

  17. Assessment of bioaerosol pollution over Indo-Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Shrivastava, J N; Satsangi, G P; Kumar, Ranjit

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol plays a very important role in climate change and public health. It affects cloud condensation nuclei and causes a number of epidemic diseases. The correlations of aerosol with epidemic diseases are due to the biotic components of aerosol. The present study deals with the measurements and characterization of bioaerosol over Indo-Gangetic plain. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 are much higher than the recommended value set by NAAQS in India. Bacterial and fungal concentrations are in the reported range. Bacterial concentration is higher than fungal concentration. Gram-positive bacteria contribute 75% while gram-negative bacteria contribute 25% only. A total seven types of fungi are identified in aerosols. Aspergillus niger is dominant. Meteorological parameters play important roles in growth and presence of microorganism in the air. Bacterial concentrations are governed mainly by temperature while fungal concentration is influenced by relative humidity.

  18. Bioaerosol emissions from a suburban yard waste composting facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryhorczuk, D; Curtis, L; Scheff, P; Chung, J; Rizzo, M; Lewis, C; Keys, N; Moomey, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess worker and community exposure to bioaerosols emitted from a suburban yard waste composting facility in northern Illinois, USA. Characterization of on- and off-site viable bioaerosols was undertaken through a total of 288 on- and off-site Andersen samples conducted over 10 sampling days. A total of 46 dust samples and 38 Kramer-Collins spore samples were also collected in this period. Evaluation of the impact of the facility on community bioaerosol concentrations was undertaken by comparing on- and off-site measurements by sampling locations, wind direction, and site activity. On-site concentrations of total spores, Aspergillus/Penicillium spores, total bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, actinomycetes, total particulates, endotoxin, and beta-1,3 glucans were higher than off-site concentrations. Total fungal spores averaged 13,451 spores/m3 (range 5,223-26,067) on-site and 8,772 spores/m3 (range 243-18,276) off-site. Viable bacterial airborne concentrations (in cfu/m3) averaged 11,879 on-site (range 480-78,880) and 3,204 off-site (range 160-17,600). Mean levels of endotoxins (in ng/m3) were 1.94 on-site (range 0.12-6.06) and 0.14 off-site (range 0.01-0.41). Mean levels of beta-1,3 glucans (in ng/m3) were 2.17 on-site (range 0.12-14.45) and 0.24 off-site (range 0.01-0.78). Mean total viable fungi, on the other hand, were higher off-site than on-site (8,651 vs 3,068 cfu/m3). On-site concentrations of total bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes demonstrated a statistically significant pattern of decreasing concentration with distance from pile and higher downwind vs upwind concentrations. Mean on-site concentrations of viable bacteria, viable fungi, and endotoxins were significantly higher during periods of activity compared to periods of no activity. Off-site concentrations of bacteria were also significantly higher during periods of activity compared to no activity

  19. Inhalation toxicology models of endotoxin- and bioaerosol-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, P S

    2000-11-02

    Inhalation toxicology studies in rodents have proven their usefulness for furthering our understanding of the causal agents, mechanisms, and pathology associated with exposures to environmental endotoxins and bioaerosols. Inhalation animal models are used to determine which components of a mixture are the most important toxicants for inducing the observed adverse outcome. They are used to obtain exposure-response relationships for allergens and pro-inflammatory agents to help elucidate disease mechanisms and contribute quantitative data to the risk assessment process. Inhalation models serve as important adjuncts to epidemiology studies and human exposure studies. They are also useful for establishing phenotype in studies of genetic polymorphisms and disease susceptibility and are widely applied for evaluation of safety and efficacy for potential therapeutic agents. In order to produce reliable data, rigorous exposure chamber design, aerosol generation systems, exposure quantitation and experimental protocols must be utilized.

  20. Dental bioaerosol as an occupational hazard in a dentist's workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    Many-year studies on aerosols as an infection vector, despite their wide range, ignored dental aerosol. All procedures performed with the use of dental unit handpieces cause the formation of aerosol and splatter which are commonly contaminated with bacteria, viruses, fungi, often also with blood. Aerosols are liquid and solid particles, 50 microm or less in diameter, suspended in air. Splatter is usually described as a mixture of air, water and/or solid substances; water droplets in splatter are from 50 microm to several millimetres in diameter and are visible to the naked eye. The most intensive aerosol and splatter emission occurs during the work of an ultrasonic scaler tip and a bur on a high-speed handpiece. Air-water aerosol produced during dental treatment procedures emerges from a patient's mouth and mixes with the surrounding air, thus influencing its composition. Because air contained in this space is the air breathed by both dentist and patient, its composition is extremely important as a potential threat to the dentist's health. According to the author, insufficient awareness of health risk, working habits, and economic factors are the reasons why dentists do not apply the available and recommended methods of protection against the influence of bioaerosol and splatter. Behaviour protecting a dentist and an assistant from the threat resulting from the influence of dental aerosol cannot be limited to isolated actions. The author, on the basis of the literature and own research, characterizes bioaerosol and splatter in a dental surgery and reviews a full range of protective measures against these risk factors.

  1. Report of the EMI Testing of the Johnson Noise Thermometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Jr., Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) testing of the Johnson Noise Thermometry System developed at ORNL. The EMI performance is very important for Johnson Noise Thermometry because it requires accurate measurement of a very small noise signal that is amplified 10,000 times. Any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Testing is therefore very important in determining the effects of these external noise sources. Results from testing in several environments with various sources of EMI are presented here.

  2. METEOROLOGIE APPLIQUEE AUX SYSTEMES ENERGETIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    David, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Mes activités de recherche et d’enseignement au sein du laboratoire de Physique et Ingénierie Mathématique pour l’Énergie le bâtiment et l’environnemeNT (PIMENT), de l’École Supérieure d’Ingénieurs Réunion Océan Indien, de l’IUT de Saint-Pierre et de l’UFR Sciences de l’Homme et de l’Environnement de l’Université de La Réunion contribuent au développement de l’analyse météorologique appliquée aux systèmes énergétiques. En effet, la très grande majorité des systèmes énergétiques sont en intera...

  3. Overwintered Hatchlings of Emys orbicularis from Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Ayaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During our monitoring survey of amphibians and Emys orbicularis in Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey, we observed four overwintered hatchlings of European pond turtle on May 4 and 10, 2010. The average straightline maximum carapace length of the neonates captured was 26.48 mm and their average weight was 4.18 g. This observation is the second record for the Turkish population of Emys orbicularis.

  4. Volatile particles formation during PartEmis: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vancassel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A modelling study of the formation of volatile particles in a combustor exhaust has been carried out in the frame of the PartEmis European project. A kinetic model has been used in order to investigate nucleation efficiency of the H2O-H2SO4 binary mixture in the sampling system. A value for the fraction of the fuel sulphur S(IV converted into S(VI has been indirectly deduced from comparisons between model results and measurements. In the present study, ranges between roughly 2.5% and 6%, depending on the combustor settings and on the value assumed for the parameter describing sulphuric acid wall losses. Soot particles hygroscopicity has also been investigated as their activation is a key parameter for contrail formation. Growth factors of monodisperse particles exposed to high relative humidity (95% have been calculated and compared with experimental results. The modelling study confirms that the growth factor increases as the soot particle size decreases.

  5. EMI shielding based on MWCNTs/polyester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Lee Yeng; Wee, F. H.; Rahim, H. A.; Malek, F.; You, K. Y.; Liyana, Z.; Jamlos, M. A.; Ezanuddin, A. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the dielectric properties and shielding effectiveness (SE) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyester (MWCNTs/PE) composite. A rectangular waveguide transmission line technique was used to measure dielectric properties, ɛ r, SE of MWCNTs (1-20 weight percentage, wt%) and PE composite in microwave frequency region from 8.2 to 18 GHz. It was observed that the increase of MWCNTs resulted in the increase of dielectric properties, loss tangent, and conductivity. MWCNTs/PE composite samples with high conductivity had led to greater SE. The results show SE of the composites increased as the amount of the MWCNTs increased. The average values of electromagnetic interference SE of the MWCNTs/PE samples with 1 wt% MWCNTs and 20 wt.% MWCNTs were 3 and 35.2 dB, respectively. Simulated and measured results of shielding effectiveness had been compared with various of MWCNTs/PE composite over the entire frequency range with a 3 mm thickness. From the results, observed that the MWCNTs/PE composite has potential use as EMI shielding materials.

  6. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  7. Understanding water uptake in bioaerosols using laboratory measurements, field tests, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Zahra; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna A.; Buckley, Thomas J.; Kalter, Jeffrey M.; Gilberry, Jerome U.; Eshbaugh, Jonathan P.; Corson, Elizabeth C.; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Carter, Christopher C.

    2013-05-01

    Uptake of water by biological aerosols can impact their physical and chemical characteristics. The water content in a bioaerosol can affect the backscatter cross-section as measured by LIDAR systems. Better understanding of the water content in controlled-release clouds of bioaerosols can aid in the development of improved standoff detection systems. This study includes three methods to improve understanding of how bioaerosols take up water. The laboratory method measures hygroscopic growth of biological material after it is aerosolized and dried. Hygroscopicity curves are created as the humidity is increased in small increments to observe the deliquescence point, then the humidity is decreased to observe the efflorescence point. The field component of the study measures particle size distributions of biological material disseminated into a large humidified chamber. Measurements are made with a Twin-Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS, TSI, Inc), -Relative Humidity apparatus where two APS units measure the same aerosol cloud side-by-side. The first operated under dry conditions by sampling downstream of desiccant dryers, the second operated under ambient conditions. Relative humidity was measured within the sampling systems to determine the difference in the aerosol water content between the two sampling trains. The water content of the bioaerosols was calculated from the twin APS units following Khlystov et al. 2005 [1]. Biological material is measured dried and wet and compared to laboratory curves of the same material. Lastly, theoretical curves are constructed from literature values for components of the bioaerosol material.

  8. APPLICATION OF CHEMOMETRICS FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOAEROSOLS BY FLOW-OPTICAL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Khudyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The informativity of detection channels for bioaerosol analyzer is investigated. Analyzer operation is based on flow-optical method. Method. Measurements of fluorescence and the light scattering of separate bioaerosol particles were performed in five and two spectral ranges, correspondingly. The signals of soil dust particles were registered and used as an imitation of background atmospheric particles. For fluorescenceinduction of bioaerosol particles we used light sources: a laser one with a wavelength equal to 266 nm and 365 nm LED source.Main Results. Using chemometric data processing the classification of informative parameters has been performed and three most significant parameters have been chosen which account for 72% of total data variance. Testing has been done using SIMCA and k-NN methods. It has been proved that the use of the original and the reduced sets of three parameters produces comparable accuracy for classification of bioaerosols. Practical Relevance. The possibility of rapid detection and identification of bioaerosol particles of 1-10 microns respirable fraction (hindering in the human respiratory system by flow-optical method on a background of non-biological particles is demonstrated. The most informative optical spectral ranges for development of compact and inexpensive analyzer are chosen.

  9. First Metagenomic Survey of the Microbial Diversity in Bioaerosols Emitted in Waste Sorting Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degois, Jodelle; Clerc, Frederic; Simon, Xavier; Bontemps, Cyril; Leblond, Pierre; Duquenne, Philippe

    2017-11-10

    Waste sorting activities are source of occupational bioaerosol exposures that are associated with several health disorders. New analytical tools, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, provide powerful methods to assess the microbial composition of bioaerosols. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the feasibility and the repeatability of NGS-based biodiversity measurements and (ii) to study the microbial biodiversity using NGS in bioaerosols emitted in a waste sorting plant (WSP). Three stationary parallel samples were collected in a sorting cabin using closed-face cassettes equipped with polycarbonate membranes. Bacterial and fungal diversity was assessed by sequencing 16S and 18S rDNA genes using either Illumina sequencing or 454 pyrosequencing methods. At sampling point, airborne bacteria were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria with prevailing genera assigned to unclassified Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Airborne fungi were dominated by Ascomycota with prevailing genera assigned to Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Wallemia, and Hemicarpenteles. The NGS biodiversity measurements revealed a higher biodiversity bioaerosols that previously reported for WSP in studies carried out using culture methods followed by identification of microorganisms. These results provide the first survey about taxonomic biodiversity in bioaerosols from WSPs using high-throughput sequencing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  10. L'adaptation aux changements climatiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    plus équitables et plus prospères. Centre de recherches pour le développement international, CP 8500, Ottawa (Ontario) Canada K1G 3H9. Tél. : 613-236-6163 • Télécopieur : 613-238-7230 • Courriel : info@crdi.ca. L'ADAPTATION AUX. CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES. LE RECOURS AUX. ONDES. Les petits exploitants ...

  11. Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols – fluorescent biomolecules and potential interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pöhlker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP are an important subset of air particulate matter with a substantial contribution to the organic aerosol fraction and potentially strong effects on public health and climate. Recent progress has been made in PBAP quantification by utilizing real-time bioaerosol detectors based on the principle that specific organic molecules of biological origin such as proteins, coenzymes, cell wall compounds and pigments exhibit intrinsic fluorescence. The properties of many fluorophores have been well documented, but it is unclear which are most relevant for detection of atmospheric PBAP. The present study provides a systematic synthesis of literature data on potentially relevant biological fluorophores. We analyze and discuss their relative importance for the detection of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP by online instrumentation for atmospheric measurements such as the ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS or the wide issue bioaerosol sensor (WIBS.

    In addition, we provide new laboratory measurement data for selected compounds using bench-top fluorescence spectroscopy. Relevant biological materials were chosen for comparison with existing literature data and to fill in gaps of understanding. The excitation-emission matrices (EEM exhibit pronounced peaks at excitation wavelengths of ~280 nm and ~360 nm, confirming the suitability of light sources used for online detection of FBAP. They also show, however, that valuable information is missed by instruments that do not record full emission spectra at multiple wavelengths of excitation, and co-occurrence of multiple fluorophores within a detected sample will likely confound detailed molecular analysis. Selected non-biological materials were also analyzed to assess their possible influence on FBAP detection and generally exhibit only low levels of background-corrected fluorescent emission. This study strengthens the hypothesis that ambient

  12. Particle and bioaerosol characteristics in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Congrong; Mackay, Ian M; Ramsay, Kay; Liang, Zhen; Kidd, Timothy; Knibbs, Luke D; Johnson, Graham; McNeale, Donna; Stockwell, Rebecca; Coulthard, Mark G; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara J; Duchaine, Caroline; Smith, Natalie; Wainwright, Claire; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-10-01

    The paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) provides care to critically ill neonates, infants and children. These patients are vulnerable and susceptible to the environment surrounding them, yet there is little information available on indoor air quality and factors affecting it within a PICU. To address this gap in knowledge we conducted continuous indoor and outdoor airborne particle concentration measurements over a two-week period at the Royal Children's Hospital PICU in Brisbane, Australia, and we also collected 82 bioaerosol samples to test for the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens. Our results showed that both 24-hour average indoor particle mass (PM 10 ) (0.6-2.2μgm -3 , median: 0.9μgm -3 ) and submicrometer particle number (PN) (0.1-2.8×10 3 pcm -3 , median: 0.67×10 3 pcm -3 ) concentrations were significantly lower (pgenerated at each location could be quickly transported to other locations, even when originating from isolated single-bed rooms. The most commonly isolated bacterial genera from both primary and broth cultures were skin commensals while viruses were rarely identified. Based on the findings from the study, we developed a set of practical recommendations for PICU design, as well as for medical and cleaning staff to mitigate aerosol generation and transmission to minimize infection risk to PICU patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calibration of EMI derived apparent electrical conductivity based on ERT measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, S.; Mester, A.; van der Kruk, J.; Weihermüller, L.; Zimmermann, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is an indirect measure for various soil physical and chemical parameters. Among non-invasive geophysical methods, electromagnetic induction (EMI) appears to be the most efficient one that is able to measure ECa over large areas in short time. However, this method currently does not provide quantitative values of ECa due to calibration problems. In the calibration approach of Lavoué et al. (2010) inverted electrical conductivity data from a 120 m long ERT (electrical resistivity tomography) calibration transect were used as input parameter for an electromagnetic forward model to predict ECa measured with EMI. To further improve this calibration method we conducted a field survey within an agricultural field for crop breeding studies. The entire field (60x100 m) was mapped with the EM38-MK2 (Geonics, Ontario, Canada), an EMI system with multiple coil spacing which measures the weighted average of ECa over four depth ranges, immediately after the harvest of sugar beet. On the basis of high-resolution ECa distribution maps, an area with high contrast in ECa was selected for calibrating the EMI sensor with ERT. Along a 30 m long transect EMI measurements with two different internal calibration settings were carried out. A Syscal Pro System (IRIS Instruments, Orleans France) and 120 electrodes with an electrode spacing of 0.25 m were used to measure the apparent resistivity of soil. Post processed ERT measurements were inverted using the robust inversion method of the RES2DINV software. Quantitative EM inductions measurements were derived by linear regression between measured and predicted ECa measurements. The observed offset between the repeated EMI measurements could be removed successfully. Furthermore, shortening and focusing the ERT measurements to a specific area of interest could reduce the measurement time for calibration significantly. Prospectively, the application of a quantitative multi-layer inversion of multi

  14. Bioaerosols from a Food Waste Composting Plant Affect Human Airway Epithelial Cell Remodeling Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 102 conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM, with coarse particles (2.5–10 μm having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5–2.5 μm. After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21WAF1/CIP1 gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

  15. A scoping review on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charifa Zemouri

    Full Text Available Bio-aerosols originate from different sources and their potentially pathogenic nature may form a hazard to healthcare workers and patients. So far no extensive review on existing evidence regarding bio-aerosols is available.This study aimed to review evidence on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental setting. The objectives were 1 What are the sources that generate bio-aerosols?; 2 What is the microbial load and composition of bio-aerosols and how were they measured?; and 3 What is the hazard posed by pathogenic micro-organisms transported via the aerosol route of transmission?Systematic scoping review design. Searched in PubMed and EMBASE from inception to 09-03-2016. References were screened and selected based on abstract and full text according to eligibility criteria. Full text articles were assessed for inclusion and summarized. The results are presented in three separate objectives and summarized for an overview of evidence.The search yielded 5,823 studies, of which 62 were included. Dental hand pieces were found to generate aerosols in the dental settings. Another 30 sources from human activities, interventions and daily cleaning performances in the hospital also generate aerosols. Fifty-five bacterial species, 45 fungi genera and ten viruses were identified in a hospital setting and 16 bacterial and 23 fungal species in the dental environment. Patients with certain risk factors had a higher chance to acquire Legionella in hospitals. Such infections can lead to irreversible septic shock and death. Only a few studies found that bio-aerosol generating procedures resulted in transmission of infectious diseases or allergic reactions.Bio-aerosols are generated via multiple sources such as different interventions, instruments and human activity. Bio-aerosols compositions reported are heterogeneous in their microbiological composition dependent on the setting and methodology. Legionella species were found to be a bio-aerosol dependent hazard

  16. Submicronic fungal bioaerosols: high-resolution microscopic characterization and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James; Eduard, Wijnand

    2014-11-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min(-1) airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 10(5) cm(-2), 2.6 × 10(3) cm(-2), and 0.9 × 10(3) cm(-2) for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Differential Mode EMI Filter Design for Isolated DC-DC Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, Morten

    2014-01-01

    A Differential Mode EMI filter for a low input voltage high-current isolated dc-dc boost converter is designed and presented in this paper. The primary side Differential Mode noise voltage is low due to the high transformer turn ratio, however, the input current is very high and since the EMI limit...... also does not change for such converters, it requires greatly optimized design approach for the filter including the correct sizing of the filter components. A complete analytical filter design process is carried out such a way that the Differential Mode noise voltage source in the converter...... is identified first. The DM noise model is then established and based on the harmonic analysis of the noise source voltage waveform, the complete Differential Mode EMI filter, including the filter resonance damping branch, is designed for a 3kW isolated dc-dc boost converter. The noise model and its theoretical...

  18. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)/paraffin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjing; Wang, Liuding; Zhang, Jiangdong; Wei, Gao; Guo, Shaoli; Shen, Zhongyuan

    2014-08-01

    The ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)/paraffin composites were successfully prepared by a facile physical mixing method and an EMI SE of 21-23 dB was achieved at the OMC loading of 5.69 wt.% in the X band. This indicates that the composites are very suitable for an application as effective and lightweight EMI shielding materials. The EMI shielding of the composite shows an absorption-dominant mechanism, i.e., a contribution shift from reflection to absorption is observed with the increase in OMC loading and frequency. This could be explained by the intrinsic properties (electrical conductivity, complex permittivity and potential large defects) and novel structure of the composites.

  19. Affordable Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) Testing on Large Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Edward; Curry, Bruce; Scully, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Perform System-Level EMI testing of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) spacecraft in situ in the Kennedy Space Center's Neil Armstrong Operations & Checkout (O&C) Facility in 6 days. The only way to execute the system-level EMI testing and meet this schedule challenge was to perform the EMI testing in situ in the Final Assembly & System Test (FAST) Cell in a reverberant mode, not the direct illumination mode originally planned. This required the unplanned construction of a Faraday Cage around the vehicle and FAST Cell structure. The presence of massive steel platforms created many challenges to developing an efficient screen room to contain the RF energy and yield an effective reverberant chamber. An initial effectiveness test showed marginal performance, but improvements implemented afterward resulted in the final test performing surprisingly well! The paper will explain the design, the challenges, and the changes that made the difference in performance!

  20. Design, Construction and Validation of a Nose-only Inhalation Exposure System to Study Infectivity of Filtered Bioaerosols in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    USA), which generates the bioaerosol . The system is limited by flow capacity to a single-jet Col- lison nebulizer. A pressure gauge (Dwyer Instruments... BIOAEROSOLS IN MICE Brenton R. Stone, Brian K. Heimbuch Applied Research Associates P.O. Box 40128 Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 Chang-Yu Wu...System to Study Infectivity of Filtered Bioaerosols in Mice FA8650-07-C-5911 0909999F 4915 L0 Q230L7BD *Stone, Brenton R.; *Heimbuch, Brian K.; **Wu

  1. Assessment of Bioaerosol concentrations in a live stocks industrial slaughterhouse in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kasaei nasab

    2013-05-01

    .Conclusion: Bioaerosols concentration in live stocks industrial slaughterhouse is higher than the threshold limit and suggested range. Therefore, it is essential to take measures, such as improving the process and technical-engineering interventions including the use of suitable ventilation systems and also management personal monitoring measures.

  2. Evaluation of bio-aerosols concentration in the different wards of three educational hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Nourmoradi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioaerosols level in the various parts of three educational hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The collection of bioaerosols (including bacterial and fungal microorganisms was carried out with one-stage Anderson sampler. The sampling was carried out at the height of 1.5 m from the floor of various hospitals wards (infectious, surgery, urology wards, and operating room. The volume of each sample was determined based on pre-tests carried and was about 50 L. After sampling, the samples were incubated and analyzed. The effect of various environmental conditions including humidity, temperature, and outdoor bioaerosol levels was also investigated. Results: The lowest numbers of fungal and bacterial concentration were obtained in operating rooms of the hospitals and the highest concentration was observed in infectious disease wards of hospital 1 and 2 and surgery ward of hospital 3. The bacterial concentration was observed to be higher in hospital wards than outdoor, except hospitals′ operating rooms. Conclusion: The findings showed that the bioaerosols level in the hospitals was relatively high. The higher levels of indoor bacteria than outdoor might be associated with the presence of patients, their activity, unsuitable ventilation, and disinfection. Therefore, environmental monitoring and control measures are required to improve hospital environmental quality especially in the wards with immune deficiency patients.

  3. Reduction and characterization of bioaerosols in a wastewater treatment station via ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuesong; Wu, Pianpian; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Weiyi; Li, Lin

    2014-08-01

    Bioaerosols from wastewater treatment processes are a significant subgroup of atmospheric aerosols. In the present study, airborne microorganisms generated from a wastewater treatment station (WWTS) that uses an oxidation ditch process were diminished by ventilation. Conventional sampling and detection methods combined with cloning/sequencing techniques were applied to determine the groups, concentrations, size distributions, and species diversity of airborne microorganisms before and after ventilation. There were 3021 ± 537 CFU/m³ of airborne bacteria and 926 ± 132 CFU/m³ of airborne fungi present in the WWTS bioaerosol. Results showed that the ventilation reduced airborne microorganisms significantly compared to the air in the WWTS. Over 60% of airborne bacteria and airborne fungi could be reduced after 4 hr of air exchange. The highest removal (92.1% for airborne bacteria and 89.1% for fungi) was achieved for 0.65-1.1 μm sized particles. The bioaerosol particles over 4.7 μm were also reduced effectively. Large particles tended to be lost by gravitational settling and small particles were generally carried away, which led to the relatively easy reduction of bioaerosol particles 0.65-1.1 μm and over 4.7 μm in size. An obvious variation occurred in the structure of the bacterial communities when ventilation was applied to control the airborne microorganisms in enclosed spaces. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Detection of airborne Campylobacter with three bioaerosol samplers for alarming bacteria transmission in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In an airborne transmission experiment, Campylobacter in the air was sampled by three types of bioaerosol samplers (all-glass impinger AGI-30, Andersen six-stage impactor, and OMNI-3000) in four broiler rooms. In each room, five 14-day- old broilers inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni were kept in

  5. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  6. Application of ATP-based bioluminescence for bioaerosol quantification: effect of sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taewon; Wren, Melody; DuBois, Kelsey; Therkorn, Jennifer; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-12-01

    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based bioluminescence has potential to offer a quick and affordable method for quantifying bioaerosol samples. Here we report on our investigation into how different bioaerosol aerosolization parameters and sampling methods affect bioluminescence output per bacterium, and implications of that effect for bioaerosol research. Bacillus atrophaeus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria were aerosolized by using a Collison nebulizer (BGI Inc., Waltham, MA) with a glass or polycarbonate jar and then collected for 15 and 60 min with: (1) Button Aerosol Sampler (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) with polycarbonate, PTFE, and cellulose nitrate filters, (2) BioSampler (SKC Inc.) with 5 and 20 mL of collection liquid, and (3) our newly developed Electrostatic Precipitator with Superhydrophobic Surface (EPSS). For all aerosolization and sampling parameters we compared the ATP bioluminescence output per bacterium relative to that before aerosolization and sampling. In addition, we also determined the ATP reagent storage and preparation conditions that that do not affect the bioluminescence signal intensity. Our results show that aerosolization by a Collison nebulizer with a polycarbonate jar yields higher bioluminescence output per bacterium compared to the glass jar. Interestingly enough, the bioluminescence output by P. fluorescens increased substantially after its aerosolization compared to the fresh liquid suspension. For both test microorganisms, the bioluminescence intensity per bacterium after sampling was significantly lower than that before sampling suggesting negative effect of sampling stress on bioluminescence output. The decrease in bioluminescence intensity was more pronounces for longer sampling times and significantly and substantially depended on the sampling method. Among the investigated method, the EPSS was the least injurious for both microorganisms and sampling times. While the ATP-based bioluminescence offers a quick bioaerosol

  7. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Conza

    Full Text Available Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD. Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture and FLA (by culture in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila were detected in 69.3% (61/88 of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba in 92.0% (81/88. L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88 of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012 than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47 were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47 for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8% were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  8. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  9. Accès aux ressources internationales aux fins de la lutte antitabac ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accès aux ressources internationales aux fins de la lutte antitabac en Bolivie : obstacles et possibilités. Malgré certains succès remportés en matière de lutte antitabac à l'échelle nationale et internationale, on dispose de peu de données probantes sur le financement ou le soutien international à cet égard dans les pays en ...

  10. Participation des hommes aux soins aux enfants avant la mise en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation des hommes aux soins aux enfants avant la mise en oeuvre de la composante familiale et communautaire de la stratégie «prise en charge intégrée des ... Aim : The purpose of this study was to assess the role played by the men in front of child illness before the implementation of the family and community ...

  11. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

  12. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

  13. Haemogregarines from western Palaearctic freshwater turtles (genera Emys, Mauremys) are conspecific with Haemogregarina stepanowi Danilewsky, 1885

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, N.; Kvičerová, Jana; Papoušek, I.; Javanbakht, H.; Tiar, G.; Kami, H.; Široký, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 4 (2014), s. 522-530 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/1738 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Haemogregarina * Emys * Mauremys * 18S rDNA * phylogenetic analysis * host specificity * Pelusios Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.560, year: 2014

  14. Research on EMI Reduction of Interleaved Bridgeless Power Factor Corrector using Frequency Dithering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a cost-efficient method to reduce the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of interleaved Bridgeless PFC (IBPFC) system in a wide frequency range by carefully designing and utilizing frequency dithering. In this work, a valuable frequency dithering design is implemented for a 3.5k...

  15. Conduction Losses and Common Mode EMI Analysis on Bridgeless Power Factor Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a review of Bridgeless Boost power factor correction (PFC) converters is presented at first. Performance comparison on conduction losses and common mode electromagnetic interference (EMI) are analyzed between conventional Boost PFC converter and members of Bridgeless PFC family...

  16. EMI Shielding Performance For Varies Frequency by Metal Plating on Mold Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fee Tai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conformal metalization on mold compound offers new possibility for IC package design to improve features such as rigidization of the flexible core, heat sink capability, 3D-circuit patterning and the electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. With the unique processes, the fabrication technology had enabled to achieve the high reliable performance and had passed the electrical test. Following research after the reliability concern, this paper further study the shielding effectiveness of varying coating thickness with respect to laboratory simulated EMI condition, using radio frequency from 10MHz to 5.8 GHz. Different metal namely pure nickel, nickel-phosphorous and pure plated copper are studied for their effectiveness of EMI sheilding. Our first result showed over 35-40dB of shielding effectiveness is achievable on high frequency 868-5800MHz. Nevertheless on low frequency of 10MHz, the shielding effectiveness achievement is below than 25dB. To overcome the shielding need for lower frequency, we further expanded our test by choosing ferromagentic material Nicke/Ironl-alloy in combination with thick copper plating. With this new metal combination, EMI shielding effectiveness for lower frequency is improved to 40dB.

  17. Resonant Interaction, Approximate Symmetry, and Electromagnetic Interaction (EMI) in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2007-03-01

    Only recently (talk by P.A. Mosier-Boss et al, in this session) has it become possible to trigger high energy particle emission and Excess Heat, on demand, in LENR involving PdD. Also, most nuclear physicists are bothered by the fact that the dominant reaction appears to be related to the least common deuteron(d) fusion reaction,d+d ->α+γ. A clear consensus about the underlying effect has also been illusive. One reason for this involves confusion about the approximate (SU2) symmetry: The fact that all d-d fusion reactions conserve isospin has been widely assumed to mean the dynamics is driven by the strong force interaction (SFI), NOT EMI. Thus, most nuclear physicists assume: 1. EMI is static; 2. Dominant reactions have smallest changes in incident kinetic energy (T); and (because of 2), d+d ->α+γ is suppressed. But this assumes a stronger form of SU2 symmetry than is present; d+d ->α+γ reactions are suppressed not because of large changes in T but because the interaction potential involves EMI, is dynamic (not static), the SFI is static, and because the two incident deuterons must have approximate Bose Exchange symmetry and vanishing spin. A generalization of this idea involves a resonant form of reaction, similar to the de-excitation of an atom. These and related (broken gauge) symmetry EMI effects on LENR are discussed.

  18. Comparison of three different Modulators for Power Converters with Respect to EMI Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    Switch-mode Power Converters are well known for emissions in the band of electromagnetic interference (EMI) interest. The spectrum shape depends on the type of modulator and its purpose. This paper gives design guidelines to choose the optimum topology depending on requirements of different...

  19. Elektromagnetiline ühildatavus - probleemide jada aastast 1930 : EMC = EMI + EMS / Peeter Lamster

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamster, Peeter

    2007-01-01

    Elektrisüsteemist lähtuvast seadmete tööd häirivast elektromagnetilisest inferentsist (EMI), elektromagnetilise haavatavuse (EMS) vähendamisest ja elektromagnetilise ühildatavuse (EMC) tagamisest. Elektromagnetilise ühildatavuse tähtsusest sõjanduses

  20. Development of remote controller for an EMI test receiver in site survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K. H.; Hwang, I. G.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    EMI assessment, which is based on the Site survey(the measurement of EMI noise) in an operating plant, can be considered for system design. Our Site survey is being planned to utilize the ESI7 model, to be manufactured as the EMI test receiver by Rodge-Schwaltz GmbH. But the ESI7 is often manipulated by manual if a Site survey is continued for some days in nuclear power plant. The problem can be resolved if a remote controller is implemented for the ESI7 and it controls the ESI7. The Remote Controller has its functions for supporting the ESI7 manual tasks, including storing mass SCAN data onto external PC memory (hard-disk), controlling ESI7, and analyzing the stored SCAN data. These functions have been implemented in 'G' programming of LabVIEW software under a notebook PC with PCMCIA-GPIB card. The Remote Controller prototype will be applied to store the real EMI measurements in the coming Site survey and analyze the data after integrated tests and their evaluation

  1. Foam injection molding of polypropylene/stainless steel fiber composites for efficient EMI shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, A.; Nofar, M.; Saniei, M.; Wang, S.; Park, C. B.

    2016-03-01

    Lightweight polypropylene/stainless-steel fiber (PP-SSF) composites with 15-35% density reduction were fabricated using foam injection molding and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). The electrical percolation threshold, through-plane electrical conductivity, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the PP-SSF composite foams were characterized and compared against the solid samples. The effects of the plasticizing gas and the void fraction on fiber breakage and orientation were also investigated. Microstructure characterization showed that the presence of dissolved CO2 decreased fiber breakage by about 30%, and together with foaming action, contributed to less preferential orientation of fibers. Consequently, the percolation threshold decreased up to four folds from 0.85 to 0.21 vol.% as the void fraction increased from 0 to 35%. The specific EMI SE was also significantly enhanced. A maximum specific EMI SE of 75 dB.g-1cm3 was achieved in PP-1.1 vol.% SSF composite foams, which was highly superior to 38 dB.g-1cm3 of the solid PP-1.0 vol.% SSF composites. The results reveal that light and efficient products with a lower fiber content can be developed by foam for EMI shielding applications.

  2. A modified LLCL-filter with the reduced conducted EMI noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Sun, Yunjie; Lin, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    For a transformerless grid-tied converter using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), the harmonics of grid-injected current, the leakage current and the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) noise are three important issues during design of the output filter. In this paper, the Common-Mode (CM...

  3. A modified LLCL-filter with the reduced conducted EMI noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Sun, Yunjie; Lin, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    For a transformerless grid-tied converter using pulse width modulation, the harmonics of grid-injected current, the leakage current, and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise are three important issues during designing of the output filter. In this paper, the common mode and the differential...

  4. Fast monitoring of indoor bioaerosol concentrations with ATP bioluminescence assay using an electrostatic rod-type sampler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woon Park

    Full Text Available A culture-based colony counting method is the most widely used analytical technique for monitoring bioaerosols in both indoor and outdoor environments. However, this method requires several days for colony formation. In this study, our goal was fast monitoring (Sampling: 3 min, Detection: < 1 min of indoor bioaerosol concentrations with ATP bioluminescence assay using a bioaerosol sampler. For this purpose, a novel hand-held electrostatic rod-type sampler (110 mm wide, 115 mm long, and 200 mm tall was developed and used with a commercial luminometer, which employs the Adenosine triphosphate (ATP bioluminescence method. The sampler consisted of a wire-rod type charger and a cylindrical collector, and was operated with an applied voltage of 4.5 kV and a sampling flow rate of 150.7 lpm. Its performance was tested using Staphylococcus epidermidis which was aerosolized with an atomizer. Bioaerosol concentrations were measured using ATP bioluminescence method with our sampler and compared with the culture-based method using Andersen cascade impactor under controlled laboratory conditions. Indoor bioaerosol concentrations were also measured using both methods in various indoor environments. A linear correlation was obtained between both methods in lab-tests and field-tests. Our proposed sampler with ATP bioluminescence method may be effective for fast monitoring of indoor bioaerosol concentrations.

  5. Evaluation of cable tension sensors of FAST reflector from the perspective of EMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Wang, Qiming; Egan, Dennis; Wu, Mingchang; Sun, Xiao

    2016-06-01

    The active reflector of FAST (five-hundred-meter aperture spherical radio telescope) is supported by a ring beam and a cable-net structure, in which nodes are actively controlled to form series of real-time paraboloids. To ensure the security and stability of the supporting structure, tension must be monitored for some typical cables. Considering the stringent requirements in accuracy and long-term stability, magnetic flux sensor, vibrating wire strain gauge and fiber bragg grating strain gauge are screened for the cable tension monitoring of the supporting cable-net. Specifically, receivers of radio telescopes have strict restriction on electro magnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI). These three types of sensors are evaluated from the view of EMI/RFI. Firstly, these fundamentals are theoretically analyzed. Secondly, typical sensor signals are collected in the time and analyzed in the frequency domain, which shows the characteristic in the frequency domain. Finally, typical sensors are tested in an anechoic chamber to get the EMI levels. Theoretical analysis shows that Fiber Bragg Grating strain gauge itself will not lead to EMI/RFI. According to GJB151A, frequency domain analysis and test results show that for the vibrating wire strain gauge and magnetic flux sensor themselves, testable EMI/RFI levels are typically below the background noise of the anechoic chamber. FAST finally choses these three sensors as the monitoring sensors of its cable tension. The proposed study is also a reference to the monitoring equipment selection of other radio telescopes and large structures.

  6. Verifying interpretive criteria for bioaerosol data using (bootstrap) Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, R Christopher; Gangloff, Harry

    2008-02-01

    A number of interpretive descriptors have been proposed for bioaerosol data due to the lack of health-based numerical standards, but very few have been verified as to their ability to describe a suspect indoor environment. Culturable and nonculturable (spore trap) sampling using the bootstrap version of Monte Carlo simulation (BMC) at several sites during 2003-2006 served as a source of indoor and outdoor data to test various criteria with regard to their variability in characterizing an indoor or outdoor environment. The purpose was to gain some insight for the reliability of some of the interpretive criteria in use as well as to demonstrate the utility of BMC methods as a generalized technique for validation of various interpretive criteria for bioaerosols. The ratio of nonphylloplane (NP) fungi (total of Aspergillus and Penicillium) to phylloplane (P) fungi (total of Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum), or NP/P, is a descriptor that has been used to identify "dominance" of nonphylloplane fungi (NP/P > 1.0), assumed to be indicative of a problematic indoor environment. However, BMC analysis of spore trap and culturable bioaerosol data using the NP/P ratio identified frequent dominance by nonphylloplane fungi in outdoor air. Similarly, the NP/P descriptor indicated dominance of nonphylloplane fungi in buildings with visible mold growth and/or known water intrusion with a frequency often in the range of 0.5 Fixed numerical criteria for spore trap data of 900 and 1300 spores/m(3) for total spores and 750 Aspergillus/Penicillium spores/m(3) exhibited similar variability, as did ratios of nonphylloplane to total fungi, phylloplane to total fungi, and indoor/outdoor ratios for total fungal spores. Analysis of bioaerosol data by BMC indicates that numerical levels or descriptors based on dominance of certain fungi are unreliable as criteria for characterizing a given environment. The utility of BMC analysis lies in its generalized application to test mathematically

  7. Measurement methods and strategies for non-infectious microbial components in bioaerosols at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard, W

    1996-09-01

    Exposure to micro-organisms can be measured by different methods. Traditionally, viable methods and light microscopy have been used for detection of micro-organisms. Most viable methods measure micro-organisms that are able to grow in culture, and these methods are also common for the identification of micro-organisms. More recently, non-viable methods have been developed for the measurement of bioaerosol components originating from micro-organisms that are based on microscopic techniques, bioassays, immunoassays and chemical methods. These methods are important for the assessment of exposure to bioaerosols in work environments as non-infectious micro-organisms and microbial components may cause allergic and toxic reactions independent of viability. It is not clear to what extent micro-organisms should be identified because exposure-response data are limited and many different micro-organisms and microbial components may cause similar health effects. Viable methods have also been used in indoor environments for the detection of specific organisms as markers of indoor growth of micro-organisms. At present, the validity of measurement methods can only be assessed by comparative laboratory and field studies because standard materials of microbial bioaerosol components are not available. Systematic errors may occur especially when results obtained by different methods are compared. Differences between laboratories that use the same methods may also occur as quality assurance schemes of analytical methods for bioaerosol components do not exist. Measurement methods may also have poor precision, especially the viable methods. It therefore seems difficult to meet the criteria for accuracy of measurement methods of workplace exposure that have recently been adopted by the CEN. Risk assessment is limited by the lack of generally accepted reference values or guidelines for microbial bioaerosol components. The cost of measurements of exposure to microbial bioaerosol components

  8. Honoraires versés aux gouverneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    Pour tous les gouverneurs à l'exclusion du président du Conseil : 410 CAD par jour;. • Pour le président du Conseil : 420 CAD par jour; b) Pour ce qui est de la préparation, la présence et la participation aux réunions des comités du. Conseil, les honoraires des gouverneurs doivent être versés selon des taux équivalant à la ...

  9. Adaptation aux changements climatiques dans les zones ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation aux changements climatiques dans les zones périurbaines de l'Asie du Sud-Est. La croissance rapide des zones périurbaines de l'Asie du Sud-Est est caractérisée par un manque de services de base, des milieux bâtis non planifiés et la relative faiblesse des gouvernements. Les habitants de ces zones sont ...

  10. Aux origines de la science moderne

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Aux origines de la science moderne. " Lorsque l'on aborde l'étude d'une pensée qui n'est plus la nôtre, il est important de chercher à oublier ce que nous savons ou croyons savoir. " Pour appréhender cette période fondatrice que fut la Révolution scientifique du XVIIe siècle en Europe, Paolo Rossi nous replonge dans des atmosphères intellectuelles et des modes de pensée depuis longtemps disparus. Des secrets hermétiques aux calculs mathématiques, de la magie au magnétisme et des cabinets de curiosité aux premières académies des sciences défilent ainsi des notions et des individus qui, remis en toute simplicité dans le contexte de leur époque, retrouvent une épaisseur et un sens nouveaux. Ainsi racontée sous la forme d'une histoire des idées, l'histoire des sciences devient accessible à tous.

  11. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols associated with wastewater treatment processes may represent an occupational health risk for workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A high frequency of acute symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract among the wastewater workers at a Danish WWTP has been reported...... an occupational health risk and possibly contribute to the increased frequency of gastrointestinal illness among the workers and should therefore be investigated further. In addition, positive correlations between exposure to endotoxin, bacteria, moulds and NoVs were found and indicate that the exposure...... to bioaerosols may be related to work tasks. This is the first study directly showing an occupational exposure to airborne NoVs by its detection in airborne dust....

  12. Sensitivity of predicted bioaerosol exposure from open windrow composting facilities to ADMS dispersion model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Tyrrel, S F; Kinnersley, R P; Whelan, M; Longhurst, P J; Walsh, K; Pollard, S J T; Drew, G H

    2016-12-15

    Bioaerosols are released in elevated quantities from composting facilities and are associated with negative health effects, although dose-response relationships are not well understood, and require improved exposure classification. Dispersion modelling has great potential to improve exposure classification, but has not yet been extensively used or validated in this context. We present a sensitivity analysis of the ADMS dispersion model specific to input parameter ranges relevant to bioaerosol emissions from open windrow composting. This analysis provides an aid for model calibration by prioritising parameter adjustment and targeting independent parameter estimation. Results showed that predicted exposure was most sensitive to the wet and dry deposition modules and the majority of parameters relating to emission source characteristics, including pollutant emission velocity, source geometry and source height. This research improves understanding of the accuracy of model input data required to provide more reliable exposure predictions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Bioaerosols in indoor environment - a review with special reference to residential and occupational locations

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, J; Brandl, H

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosols such as bacterial and fungal cells and their spores are - along with non-biological particles - part of indoor airborne particulate matter and have been related since a long time to health issues of human beings as well as flora, and fauna. To identify the different risks and to establish exposure thresholds, microbiology of air samples from a series of indoor environments must be characterized, i.e. the different microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) must be identified and quantifi...

  14. Comparison of Endotoxin Exposure Assessment by Bioaerosol Impinger and Filter-Sampling Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Duchaine, Caroline; Thorne, Peter S.; Mériaux, Anne; Grimard, Yan; Whitten, Paul; Cormier, Yvon

    2001-01-01

    Environmental assessment data collected in two prior occupational hygiene studies of swine barns and sawmills allowed the comparison of concurrent, triplicate, side-by-side endotoxin measurements using air sampling filters and bioaerosol impingers. Endotoxin concentrations in impinger solutions and filter eluates were assayed using the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. In sawmills, impinger sampling yielded significantly higher endotoxin concentration measurements and lower variances than filte...

  15. Bioaerosol DNA Extraction Technique from Air Filters Collected from Marine and Freshwater Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, M.; Crandall, S. G.; Barnes, A.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols are composed of microorganisms suspended in air. Among these organisms include bacteria, fungi, virus, and protists. Microbes introduced into the atmosphere can drift, primarily by wind, into natural environments different from their point of origin. Although bioaerosols can impact atmospheric dynamics as well as the ecology and biogeochemistry of terrestrial systems, very little is known about the composition of bioaerosols collected from marine and freshwater environments. The first step to determine composition of airborne microbes is to successfully extract environmental DNA from air filters. We asked 1) can DNA be extracted from quartz (SiO2) air filters? and 2) how can we optimize the DNA yield for downstream metagenomic sequencing? Aerosol filters were collected and archived on a weekly basis from aquatic sites (USA, Bermuda, Israel) over the course of 10 years. We successfully extracted DNA from a subsample of ~ 20 filters. We modified a DNA extraction protocol (Qiagen) by adding a beadbeating step to mechanically shear cell walls in order to optimize our DNA product. We quantified our DNA yield using a spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 1000). Results indicate that DNA can indeed be extracted from quartz filters. The additional beadbeating step helped increase our yield - up to twice as much DNA product was obtained compared to when this step was omitted. Moreover, bioaerosol DNA content does vary across time. For instance, the DNA extracted from filters from Lake Tahoe, USA collected near the end of June decreased from 9.9 ng/μL in 2007 to 3.8 ng/μL in 2008. Further next-generation sequencing analysis of our extracted DNA will be performed to determine the composition of these microbes. We will also model the meteorological and chemical factors that are good predictors for microbial composition for our samples over time and space.

  16. The Use of Bioaerosol Sampling for Airborne Virus Surveillance in Swine Production Facilities: A Mini Review

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin D. Anderson; Benjamin D. Anderson; John A. Lednicky; Montserrat Torremorell; Gregory C. Gray

    2017-01-01

    Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents ...

  17. The Use of Bioaerosol Sampling for Airborne Virus Surveillance in Swine Production Facilities: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Lednicky, John A; Torremorell, Montserrat; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents (i.e., bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, etc.), and efforts to detect viral aerosols in pig farms seem sparse. Data generated by such studies would be particularly useful for assessments of virus transmission and ecology. Here, we summarize the results of a literature review conducted to identify published articles related to bioaerosol generation and detection within swine production facilities, with a focus on airborne viruses. We identified 73 scientific reports, published between 1991 and 2017, which were included in this review. Of these, 19 (26.7%) used sampling methodology for the detection of viruses. Our findings show that bioaerosol sampling methodologies in swine production settings have predominately focused on the detection of bacteria and fungi, with no apparent standardization between different approaches. Information, specifically regarding virus aerosol burden in swine production settings, appears to be limited. However, the number of viral aerosol studies has markedly increased in the past 5 years. With the advent of new sampling technologies and improved diagnostics, viral bioaerosol sampling could be a promising way to conduct non-invasive viral surveillance among swine farms.

  18. The Use of Bioaerosol Sampling for Airborne Virus Surveillance in Swine Production Facilities: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents (i.e., bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, etc., and efforts to detect viral aerosols in pig farms seem sparse. Data generated by such studies would be particularly useful for assessments of virus transmission and ecology. Here, we summarize the results of a literature review conducted to identify published articles related to bioaerosol generation and detection within swine production facilities, with a focus on airborne viruses. We identified 73 scientific reports, published between 1991 and 2017, which were included in this review. Of these, 19 (26.7% used sampling methodology for the detection of viruses. Our findings show that bioaerosol sampling methodologies in swine production settings have predominately focused on the detection of bacteria and fungi, with no apparent standardization between different approaches. Information, specifically regarding virus aerosol burden in swine production settings, appears to be limited. However, the number of viral aerosol studies has markedly increased in the past 5 years. With the advent of new sampling technologies and improved diagnostics, viral bioaerosol sampling could be a promising way to conduct non-invasive viral surveillance among swine farms.

  19. Exposure to ambient bioaerosols is associated with allergic skin diseases in Greater Taipei residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Han, Bor-Cheng; Ting, Yi-Fang; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2016-09-01

    Allergic skin diseases may result from various types of chemical and biological allergens. This study investigated the association between ambient bioaerosol exposure and allergic skin diseases by using the exposure data obtained from land use regression models and interpolated data. Data on daily average outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis (ICD-9-CM 691.8) and contact dermatitis and other eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.9) between November 2011 and August 2012 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the associations between the skin diseases and ambient bioaerosol levels. The results indicated that during the study period, contact dermatitis and other eczema were more prevalent than atopic dermatitis in the study area. Most cases were observed in districts of Taipei City and 3 major districts of New Taipei City, namely Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Xindian. In univariate analysis, most bioaerosols were positively associated with both skin diseases. After adjustment for air pollution and sociodemographic factors, exposure to total fungal spores was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in males (relative risk [RR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.19). Contact dermatitis and other eczema had significant relationships with Cladosporium in males (RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.14) and with Aspergillus/Penicillium in females (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Meteorological parameters, namely wind speed, temperature, and rainfall, were also significantly associated with skin diseases. Our findings reveal that exposure to ambient bioaerosols is a significant and independent risk factor for allergic skin diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Surfactant protein-D and exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater and garbage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshzadeh Tabrizi, R; Bernard, A; Thommen, A M; De Winter, F; Oppliger, A; Hilfiker, S; Tschopp, A; Hotz, P

    2010-12-01

    Bioaerosols and their constituents, such as endotoxins, are capable of causing an inflammatory reaction at the level of the lung-blood barrier, which becomes more permeable. Thus, it was hypothesized that occupational exposure to bioaerosols can increase leakage of surfactant protein-D (SP-D), a lung-specific protein, into the bloodstream. SP-D was determined by ELISA in 316 wastewater workers, 67 garbage collectors, and 395 control subjects. Exposure was assessed with four interview-based indicators and by preliminary endotoxin measurements using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Influence of exposure on serum SP-D was assessed by multiple linear regression considering smoking, glomerular function, lung diseases, obesity, and other confounders. Overall, mean exposure levels to endotoxins were below 100 EU/m(3). However, special tasks of wastewater workers caused higher endotoxin exposure. SP-D concentration was slightly increased in this occupational group and associated with the occurrence of splashes and contact to raw sewage. No effect was found in garbage collectors. Smoking increased serum SP-D. No clinically relevant correlation between spirometry results and SP-D concentrations appeared. These results support the hypothesis that inhalation of bioaerosols, even at low concentrations, has a subclinical effect on the lung-blood barrier, the permeability of which increases without associated spirometric changes.

  1. A Simple Differential Mode EMI Suppressor for the LLCL-Filter-Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Transformerless Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Junhao; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin

    2015-01-01

    The single-phase power converter topologies evolving of photovoltaic applications are still including passive filters, like the LCLor LLCL-filter. Compared with the LCL-filter, the total inductance of the LLCL-filter can be reduced a lot. However, due to the resonant inductor in series...... with the bypass capacitor, the differential mode (DM) electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise attenuation of an LLCL-filter-based grid-tied inverter declines. Conventionally, a capacitor was inserted in parallel with the LC resonant circuit branch of the LLCL-filter to suppress the DM EMI noise. In order...... to achieve a small value of capacitor as well as to minimize the additional reactive power, a novel simple DM EMI suppressor for the LLCL-filter-based system is proposed. The characters of two kinds of DM EMI suppressor are analyzed and compared in detail. Simulations and experiments on a 0.5-kW 110-V/50-Hz...

  2. Conducted EMI Mitigation Schemes in Isolated Switching-Mode Power Supply without the Need of a Y-capacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Yongjiang; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    In order to construct a low impedance loop for common mode electromagnetic interference (EMI) signals, traditional method is to use Y-capacitors as filtering components. However, in the commonly used isolated AC-DC switching mode power supplies (SMPS), the Y-capacitors branch also behaves....... The goal of this paper is try to meet these two demands at the same time. In this paper, a novel non-Y-capacitor EMI design concept for SMPS is proposed for the first time. By getting rid of traditional EMI filtering component---the Y-capacitors, the leakage current can be eliminated entirely. Meanwhile......, to face with EMI design challenge, optimized transformer architecture is presented. Analysis of the transformer architecture as well as the auxiliary winding has been carried out. Then a novel topology suitable for non-Y-capacitors converter is proposed and the design procedure of the proposed topology...

  3. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EMI (ENGLISH MEDIUM INSTRUCTION IN INDONESIAN UNIVERSITIES: ITS OPPORTUNITIES, ITS THREATS, ITS PROBLEMS, AND ITS POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Ibrahim

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I attempt to find out whether EMI (English Medium Instruction can be an effective means of enhancing students' and teachers' language proficiency at university (bilingualism and whether bilingualism necessarily leads to biliteracy. In addition, I would like to propose a model on which a smooth transition to a full EMI implementation can be achieved, should it be adopted. From literature reviews, I conclude that EMI (using English to teach content subjects can be a better means of solving learners' language problems than teaching English as a subject, because it allows learners more exposure to the language (comprehensible input and more opportunity to use it (comprehensible output. However, due to its classroom-based nature, EMI is not likely to develop the four language skills (listening, reading, speaking, & writing equally for both students and teachers. On the other hand, the assumption that EMI will automatically result in biliteracy is unsupported, because only bilinguals competent in both languages can take a full advantage of their bilingualism. Students or teachers who are not adequately developed in the language are likely to suffer academically, socially, and psychologically instead. Since research has found that total/full immersion is not the right method for language-incompetent students, the writer believes that both a bridging program and a partial EMI program are necessary at least at the initial stage of EMI implementation. The bridging program should be based on students' and teachers' academic and linguistic needs (EAP; the partial EMI program may be based on limitations on three factors: the participants, the scope of use, and the settings. Finally, in order for the program to run smoothly, mixed-mode teaching in the classroom should be discouraged and a conducive atmosphere for second language acquisition should be established both in the classroom and outside the classroom

  4. Meeting Students’ Expectations in an Arab ICLHE/EMI Context: Implications for ELT Education Policy and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ali S.M. Al-Issa

    2016-01-01

    Students’ expectations have seldom received any attention in English Language Teaching (ELT) education research in the Arab World in general and in Integrated Content and Language in Higher Education (ICLHE)/English Medium Instruction (EMI) English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in particular, despite their importance for policy and practice. This mixed-method study investigates the expectations of 50 students attending an ICLHE/EMI EAP course at College of Law, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in...

  5. Technique for Geolocation of EMI Emitters by O3B Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    EMITTERS BY O3B SATELLITES by James P. Connolly June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Charles M. Racoosin Second Reader: Herschel H. Loomis THIS PAGE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE TECHNIQUE FOR GEOLOCATION OF EMI EMITTERS BY O3B SATELLITES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James P. Connolly 7. PERFORMING...maximum 200 words) This thesis investigates how and to what effectiveness the O3b commercial satellite constellation could be used for geolocation of

  6. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing int...

  7. The value of Growth Hacking. Business development manual for Emi-Rent Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Elezovic, Velimir

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Emi-Rent Properties, a real estate company based in Bel-grade, Serbia. The main objective of this thesis is to help determine the value of growth hack-er marketing for the case company’s newly commissioned marketing campaign. Secondary objective of this thesis is to present practical advice on the implementation of a successful marketing campaign with strong international aspects. The thesis will cover major marketing concepts and provide an alternative view by...

  8. Investigation of switching frequency variations and EMI properties in self-oscillating class D amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    for its variation. Knowledge of switching frequency variations is of great importance with respect to electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper will investigate, whether the switching frequency is depended on modulation index and audio reference frequency. Validation is done using simulations......, and the results are compared with measurements performed on a 50 W prototype amplifier. The switching frequency is tracked through accurate spectrum measurements, and very good compliance with simulation results are observed....

  9. EMI StAR – Definition of a Storage Accounting Record

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Molnar, Z.; Zappi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this document the EU-project European Middleware Initiative (EMI) describes a storage accounting record (StAR), defined to reflect practical, financial and legal requirements of storage location, usage and space and data flow. The defined record might be the base for a standardized schema or an extension of an existing record like the OGF UR and this document is intended as information to be taken as input for incorporating storage resources into the OGF UR.

  10. La recherche-action participative facilite l'adaptation aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Application de la recherche-action participative à l'adaptation aux changements climatiques en Afrique : manuel de référence fait état des enseignements que les chercheurs ont tirés de leur expérience en recherche-action participative et fournit des renseignements utiles destinés aux chercheurs, aux responsables des ...

  11. Administration des subventions aux institutions Dépenses de projet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Consultants. Cette catégorie comprend toutes les dépenses engagées pour retenir les services d'un consultant aux ... déplacement, d'hébergement et de subsistance, ainsi qu'aux services de soutien retenus directement ... le transport aérien et les autres dépenses afférentes aux déplacements du personnel du projet à.

  12. Optimization of the EMI shielding effectiveness of fine and ultrafine POFA powder mix with OPC powder using Flower Pollination Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narong, L. C.; Sia, C. K.; Yee, S. K.; Ong, P.; Zainudin, A.; Nor, N. H. M.; Kasim, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to solve the electromagnetic interference (EMI) issue and provide a new application for palm oil fuel ash (POFA), POFA was used as the cement filler for enhancing the EMI absorption of cement-based composites. POFA was refined by using water precipitation for 24 hours to remove the filthiness and distinguish the layer 1 (floated) and layer 2 (sink) of POFA. Both layers POFA were dried for 24 hours at 100 ± 5 °C and grind separately for sieve at 140 μm (Fine) and 45 цш sizes (Ultrafine). The micro structure and element content of the both layers POFA were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) respectively. The results showed layer 1 POFA has potentialities for EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) due to its higher carbon content and porous structure. The study reveals that EMI SE also influenced by the particle size of POFA, where smaller particle size can increase 5 % to 13 % of EMI SE. When the specimen consists of 50% POFA with passing through 45 μm sieve, the EMI was shield -13.08 dB in between 50 MHz to 2 GHz range. Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) proves that POFA passing 45 μm sieve with 50% mixed to OPC is optimal parameter. The error between experimental and FPA simulation data is below 1.2 for both layers POFA.

  13. EMI datalib: Joining the best of ARC and gLite data libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, JK; Devresse, A; Molnar, Zs; Nagy, Zs; Salichos, M

    2012-01-01

    To manage data in the grid, with its jungle of protocols and enormous amount of data in different storage solutions, it is important to have a strong, versatile and reliable data management library. While there are several data management tools and libraries available, they all have different strengths and weaknesses, and it can be hard to decide which tool to use for which purpose. EMI is a collaboration between the European middleware providers aiming to take the best out of each middleware to create one consolidated, all-purpose grid middleware. When EMI started there were two main tools for managing data - gLite had lcg util and the GFAL library, ARC had the ARC data tools and libarcdata2. While different in design and purpose, they both have the same goal, to manage data in the grid. The design of the new EMI datalib was ready by the end of 2011, and a first prototype is now implemented and going through a thorough testing phase. This presentation will give the latest results of the consolidated library ...

  14. E2F-dependent accumulation of hEmi1 regulates S phase entry by inhibiting APC(Cdh1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Jerry Y; Reimann, Julie D R; Sørensen, Claus S

    2002-01-01

    . At the G1-S transition, hEmi1 is transcriptionally induced by the E2F transcription factor, much like cyclin A. hEmi1 overexpression accelerates S phase entry and can override a G1 block caused by overexpression of Cdh1 or the E2F-inhibitor p105 retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Depleting cells of hEmi1...

  15. Characterization and quantification of bioaerosols in Saharan dust transported across the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Petya; Maier, Stefanie; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Ditas, Florian; Klimach, Thomas; Prass, Maria; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Blades, Edmund; Holanda, Bruna; Pöhlker, Mira; Maurus, Isabel; Kopper, Gila; Farrell, David; Stevens, Bjorn; Prospero, Joseph M.; Ulrich, Pöschl; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöhlker, Christopher; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Primary biological aerosols (bioaerosols), forming a subset of atmospheric particles, are directly released from the biosphere into the atmosphere. They comprise living and dead organisms (e.g., algae, bacteria, archaea), reproduction units (e.g., pollen, seeds, spores) as well as organism fragments and excretions. They play a key role in the dispersal of otherwise mostly sessile organisms (e.g. plants), but also in the spread of pathogens and diseases. Recently, also soil dust has been described to frequently occur in a close connection with biological particles (Conen et al., 2011). Bioaerosols can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets and ice crystals and may influence the radiative properties of the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2016). It has been well described that dust masses are transported across the Atlantic comprising a large variety of bacteria and fungi, but the origin of the biological material remained largely unknown (Prospero et al., 2005). In the present study we aim to accomplish three major tasks, i.e., 1) Thorough identification and quantification of bioaerosol particles, 2) Characterization of ice nucleating (IN) properties of bioaerosols, and 3) Evaluation of similarities between bioaerosols and biological material in source regions of dust. For our field work we utilized filter techniques to collect aerosol samples of transatlantically transported dust at the easternmost site (Ragged Point) on the Caribbean island Barbados. Sampling took place from July to August 2016, when dust transport volumes were expected to reach peak amounts. Total suspended particles were collected ˜30 m above sea level using a high volume sampler (˜ 500 L min-1) and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI™) to obtain size-resolved samples. Directly after sampling at different time intervals (i.e. 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day samples) the filters were frozen until further analyses. In a

  16. Evaluation of physical sampling efficiency for cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers in moving air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Chen, Bean T; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-09-01

    The need to determine occupational exposure to bioaerosols has notably increased in the past decade, especially for microbiology-related workplaces and laboratories. Recently, two new cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations (RCT & HRB) in Russia to monitor bioaerosol exposure in the workplace. Here, a series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to evaluate the physical sampling performance of these two samplers in moving air conditions, which could provide information for personal biological monitoring in a moving air environment. The experiments were conducted in a small wind tunnel facility using three wind speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m s(-1)) and three sampling orientations (0°, 90°, and 180°) with respect to the wind direction. Monodispersed particles ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were employed as the test aerosols. The evaluation of the physical sampling performance was focused on the aspiration efficiency and capture efficiency of the two samplers. The test results showed that the orientation-averaged aspiration efficiencies of the two samplers closely agreed with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) inhalable convention within the particle sizes used in the evaluation tests, and the effect of the wind speed on the aspiration efficiency was found negligible. The capture efficiencies of these two samplers ranged from 70% to 80%. These data offer important information on the insight into the physical sampling characteristics of the two test samplers.

  17. Types and Levels of Bioaerosols in Healthcare and Community Indoor Settings in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Bioaerosols are associated with a wide spectrum of health effects, including infections and contagious diseases, acute toxicities, allergies, and even cancer. Evidence Acquisition Previous publications describing research conducted in healthcare and community settings during the years 2001 - 2016 were included in this analysis. The words bioaerosol, contamination, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and Iran were explored via the use of search engines such as PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. A total of 28 studies were found. Results The levels of bacterial contamination were higher than those found in the fungal species. The most isolated of the bacterial species were S. aureus (38.24% and Micrococci (31.6%, and the most isolated of the fungal species were Penicillium (32.28% and Aspergillus spp (22.78%. The highest levels of contamination were detected in infectious disease (ID settings (mean = 91 ± 86 cfu/m3 for bacteria and 27 ± 24 for fungi. Moreover, levels of indoor air contamination were lower than the world health organization (WHO standards, with the exception of S. aureus at 201 cfu/m3 and 189 cfu/m3 in infectious disease (ID and intensive care unit (ICU settings, respectively. In terms of geographic area and cultural differences, the numbers of bacterial and fungal agents were not significantly different (i.e., North versus South and East versus West. Moisture levels were significantly related to air contamination (pv = 0.02. Conclusions The levels of air contamination inside hospital and healthcare settings were lower than the WHO mean standard. Active air sampling methods are necessary for measuring bioaerosol contamination. There were no significant differences in the levels of contamination found in various indoor settings in Iran. Efficient ventilation systems and contamination prevention or minimization are necessary for these settings.

  18. Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of Individual Airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Herbert J.; Schafer, Millie P.; Pitesky, Maurice; Fergenson, David P.; Horn, Joanne; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E.

    2005-01-01

    Single-particle laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in the form of bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS), was evaluated as a rapid detector for individual airborne, micron-sized, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra particles, comprised of a single cell or a small number of clumped cells. The BAMS mass spectral signatures for aerosolized M. tuberculosis H37Ra particles were found to be distinct from M. smegmatis, Bacillus atrophaeus, and B. cereus particles, using a distinct biomarker. This is the first time a potentially unique biomarker was measured in M. tuberculosis H37Ra on a single-cell level. In addition, M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. smegmatis were aerosolized into a bioaerosol chamber and were sampled and analyzed using BAMS, an aerodynamic particle sizer, a viable Anderson six-stage sampler, and filter cassette samplers that permitted direct counts of cells. In a background-free environment, BAMS was able to sample and detect M. tuberculosis H37Ra at airborne concentrations of >1 M. tuberculosis H37Ra-containing particles/liter of air in 20 min as determined by direct counts of filter cassette-sampled particles, and concentrations of >40 M. tuberculosis H37Ra CFU/liter of air in 1 min as determined by using viable Andersen six-stage samplers. This is a first step toward the development of a rapid, stand-alone airborne M. tuberculosis particle detector for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis bioaerosols generated by an infectious patient. Additional instrumental development is currently under way to make BAMS useful in realistic environmental and respiratory particle backgrounds expected in tuberculosis diagnostic scenarios. PMID:16204525

  19. Generación de bioaerosoles en estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Ángel; Aguilar, María Isabel; Fenoll, Rocío; Roig, Asunción

    2007-01-01

    [ES] Las operaciones que habitualmente tienen lugar en las estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales dan lugar a la formación de bioaerosoles, o partículas aerotransportables de origen biológico, que en el caso de ser inhalados, pueden suponer un riesgo para la salud tanto para los operarios de la planta como para los habitantes de zonas residenciales vecinas. Se realizó en este trabajo un estudio en una estación depuradora de aguas residuales con el objetivo de identificar los p...

  20. Examen des Réactions D’intolérance aux Aliments et aux Additifs Alimentaires

    OpenAIRE

    Hayder, Hikmat; Mueller, Utz; Bartholomaeus, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    La communauté manifeste un intérêt soutenu à l’égard des réactions d’intolérance aux aliments et aux additifs alimentaires. Pour éclairer les discussions à ce sujet, l’agence FSANZ a entrepris un examen scientifique visant à approfondir les principaux enjeux qui sous‐ tendent le débat public. Le présent document fait état de la compréhension actuelle des intolérances alimentaires et met en évidence la variabilité des réactions d’intolérance selon les individus, de même...

  1. Thermodynamique des moteurs thermiques aux structures dissipatives

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya

    1999-01-01

    Ce livre constitue à la fois une présentation complète de la thermodynamique et une introduction scientifique à l'œuvre de Prigogine. Les auteurs innovent en montrant comment la thermodynamique du non-équilibre est un prolongement naturel de la thermodynamique de l'équilibre. Elle constitue ainsi la science des processus irréversibles - " la flèche du temps " - dont les structures dissipatives sont les témoignages les plus éclatants. Les développements historiques en font, non seulement un texte de référence, mais aussi un livre de culture. Les nombreux exemples et exercices, comme les programmes informatiques et les références aux sites Internet en font un outil de travail irremplaçable.

  2. Chaos analysis and chaotic EMI suppression of DC-DC converters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Introduces chaos theory, its analytical methods and the means to apply chaos to the switching power supply design DC-DC converters are typical switching systems which have plenty of nonlinear behaviors, such as bifurcation and chaos. The nonlinear behaviors of DC-DC converters have been studied heavily over the past 20 years, yet researchers are still unsure of the practical application of bifurcations and chaos in switching converters. The electromagnetic interference (EMI), which resulted from the high rates of changes of voltage and current, has become a major design criterion in DC-DC co

  3. Mitigation of Radiation and EMI Effects on the Vacuum Control System of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pigny, G; Krakowski, P; Rio, B

    2014-01-01

    The 26 km of vacuum chambers where circulates the beam of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) must be maintained under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) to minimize the beam interactions with residual gases, and allow the operation of specific systems. The vacuum level is measured by several thousands of gauges along the accelerator. Bad vacuum quality may trigger a beam dump and close the associated sector valves. The effects of radiation or Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI) on components that may stop the machine must be evaluated and minimized. We report on the actions implemented to mitigate their impact on the vacuum control system.

  4. EMI and BER/PER Analysis of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Communication for CRIP Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravelo, Blaise; Cabral, Jorge; Wagner, Stefan Rahr

    This paper is devoted to the characterization of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects on wireless communication devices for telemedicine healthcare application. The proposed wireless system operates at the 2.4GHz ISM band with a hardware interface communicating by Wi-Fi and BLE (Bluetooth...... Low-Energy) to the medical devices and a USB interface to NFC/RFID (ISO/IEC-18092) and biometrics (ISO/IEC-19794) readers to securely identify medical staff. A scenario with configuration of modules attached to the patient and used by the nurse in the medical care room is considered. The channel ITU...

  5. Time reversal in polarized neutron decay: the emiT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G L; Anaya, J M; Bowles, T J; Chupp, T E; Coulter, K P; Dewey, M S; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; García, A; Greene, G L; Hwang, S R; Lising, L J; Mumm, H P; Nico, J S; Robertson, R G H; Steiger, T D; Teasdale, W A; Thompson, A K; Wasserman, E G; Wietfeldt, F E; Wilkerson, J F

    2000-01-01

    The standard electro-weak model predicts negligible violation of time-reversal invariance in light quark processes. We report on an experimental test of time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons as a search for physics beyond the standard model. The emiT collaboration has measured the time-reversal-violating triple-correlation in neutron beta decay between the neutron spin, electron momentum, and neutrino momentum often referred to as the D coefficient. The first run of the experiment produced 14 million events which are currently being analyzed. However, a second run with improved detectors should provide greater statistical precision and reduced systematic uncertainties.

  6. Meeting Students’ Expectations in an Arab ICLHE/EMI Context: Implications for ELT Education Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S.M. Al-Issa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Students’ expectations have seldom received any attention in English Language Teaching (ELT education research in the Arab World in general and in Integrated Content and Language in Higher Education (ICLHE/English Medium Instruction (EMI English for Academic Purposes (EAP in particular, despite their importance for policy and practice. This mixed-method study investigates the expectations of 50 students attending an ICLHE/EMI EAP course at College of Law, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in the Sultanate of Oman. The results have shown that the students had course materials and content and course pedagogy and design implementation expectations. The results have further revealed that the teacher played a key role in meeting his students’ expectations through his effective teaching. The findings have important implications for ICLHE/EMI policy implementation in other similar local, regional and global contexts.

  7. A method for assessing the disinfection response of microbial bioaerosols retained in antimicrobial filter materials and textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kevin M; Turner, Jane; Hernandez, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of applications utilizing antimicrobial laden textiles continues to grow, yet testing methods based on the liquid loading of cultures to challenge textiles remain unchanged. For bioaerosol applications, liquid challenge methods are unsuitable. We present a method of aerosol based loading and microbial recovery for contextual testing antimicrobial textiles.

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of ventilation types for reducing the occupational exposure to bioaerosols in health care staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Jafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Hospital indoor air contains a wide range of airborne pathogenic bioaerosols which have a significant impact on health care staff’ health and welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ventilation system types on occupational exposure of the health care staffs to airborne bioaerosols in the isolation room based on the patient bed arrangements and the standing locations of the health care staff. Methods: Personal exposures were measured based on five given types of ventilation system, 2 patient bed arrangements (at a corner and in the middle of the room, and two different standing locations for the health care staff (standing close to the patient’s bed, and down a side section of the bed. For personal sampling, filtration method recommended by th e American conference of governmental industrial hygienists(ACGIH was used. Result: The highest exposure to airborne bioaerosols was observed when the ventilation system was switched off. There were significant decreases in the bioaerosols concentration after using all types of ventilation system (P value 0.05. Conclusions : The most effective ventilation system for decreasing health care staff’ exposures in the isolation room was associated with supplying of air from a circular grill located on the northern wall and exhausting it through a linear slot located on the southern wall (type 1 with the ventilation rate of 12 air changes per hour.

  9. Bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries: A case study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Sultan, Sikander; Ahmed, Shakil

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of the concentrations of bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries is scanty. The present investigation was conducted to assess the culturable concentration and size distribution of bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi in two rural and an urban site in Pakistan. The highest indoor culturable bacteria concentration was found at Rural Site II (14,650 CFU/m 3 ) while the outdoor maximum occurred at the urban site (16,416 CFU/m 3 ). With reference to fungi, both indoor and outdoor concentrations were considerably higher at Rural Site I than the other sites. The size distribution of culturable bacteria at all sites showed greater variability than that of culturable fungi. At all sites more than the half (55–93%) of the culturable bacterial and fungal counts were observed in the respirable fraction ( 3 in the indoor environment. ► Elevated levels outdoors due to proximity to cattle and poor sanitary conditions. ► More that 50% of the bacterial and fungal aerosols were respirable. ► Possible increased respiratory exposure of inhabitants. - Bioaerosol concentrations up to 14,650 CFU/m 3 were measured in the indoor environment reflecting the proximity to cattle and poor sanitary conditions. These elevated levels pose a significant health risk.

  10. THz Differential Radar for Detection of Weak Molecular Absorption Lines in Bio-Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid

    2006-03-01

    THz frequency range (300-3000 GHz) promises unique capabilities and advantages for detection of trace gases and biological aerosols immersed in the atmosphere. Techniques used for microwave atmospheric remote sensing can be used within the atmospheric transmission windows to carry out standoff detection of biological markers in real time. THz spectroscopy has been used as an important new tool in investigations of atmospheric molecular gases and a wide range of airborne biological materials. We have embarked upon development of field deployable THz differential radar. Bio-aerosols are the most difficult analytes to face due to their heterogeneity in size, toxicity, and bio/chemical composition. JPL has demonstrated monolithic solid-state THz sources with impressive output power. The sources are enabled by W-band power amplifiers and planar Schottky diode multipliers. These, together with room temperature detectors (based on the same technology), allow one to make a compact and robust transmitter/receiver with sufficient sensitivity and frequency agility to carry out detailed investigation of various molecular vapors and bio-aerosols at standard temperature and pressure. Current status of the THz differential radar technology development effort along with future trends will be presented.

  11. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of coastal bioaerosols using culture dependent and independent techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, R.; Palenik, B.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-02-01

    Bioaerosols are emerging as important yet poorly understood players in atmospheric processes. Microorganisms can impact atmospheric chemistry through metabolic reactions and can potentially influence physical processes by participating in ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Microbial roles in atmospheric processes are thought to be species-specific and potentially dependent on cell viability. Using a coastal pier monitoring site as a sampling platform, culture-dependent (i.e. agar plates) and culture-independent (i.e. DNA clone libraries from filters) approaches were combined with 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene targeting to obtain insight into the local atmospheric microbial composition. From 13 microbial isolates and 42 DNA library clones, a total of 55 sequences were obtained representing four independent sampling events. Sequence analysis revealed that in these coastal samples two fungal phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, predominate among eukaryotes while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominate among bacteria. Furthermore, our culture-dependent study verifies the viability of microbes from all four phyla detected through our culture-independent study. Contrary to our expectations and despite oceanic air mass sources, common marine planktonic bacteria and phytoplankton were not typically found. The abundance of terrestrial and marine sediment-associated microorganisms suggests a potential importance for bioaerosols derived from beaches and/or coastal erosion processes.

  12. Understanding and mitigating the challenge of bioaerosol emissions from urban community composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, L. J.; Akeel, U.; Hewson, C.; Maduka, I.; Pham, P.; Saragossi, J.; Taylor, J.; Lai, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the UK, local and regional government drives to reduce the quantity of waste being sent to landfill have led to an increase in small-scale composting schemes, instigated by local councils and not-for-profit organisations. The composting process relies upon the proliferation of microorganisms, leading to their emission into the ambient environment. In this investigative study, total bacteria and Aspergillus fumigatus emitted from a small-scale composting facility in central London were measured in different spatial and temporal dimensions. Bioaerosols did not disperse in concentrations significantly higher than those measured at 'background' locations, where maximum geometric mean was 55 × 10 2 Colony Forming Units (CFU) per m -3. Concentrations on-site and at the nearest potential receptor were comparable to those found at commercial facilities, reaching 25 × 10 4 and 29 × 10 3 CFU m -3 for total bacteria and A. fumigatus respectively. The room housing the facility was contaminated by moulds; likely to result from high relative humidity of the air (consistently above 80% during this study), building material, and the generation of organic dust. The complex diurnal meteorological variations of urban environments are likely to influence bioaerosol dispersal, and consequent exposure risk for sensitive receptors. Site planning tools including Geographical Information Systems (GIS) mapping with buffer zones around schools and hospitals, and use of computerised models for the design of rooms housing urban composting facilities are proposed as methods for reducing the risk of occupational and off-site receptor exposure.

  13. Bioaerosol standoff detection and correlation assessment with concentration and viability point sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Rowsell, Susan; Roy, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    A standoff bioaerosol sensor based on intensified range-gated spectrometric detection of Laser Induced Fluorescence was used to spectrally characterize bioaerosol simulants during in-chamber and open-air releases at Suffield, Canada, in August 2008 from a standoff position. In total, 42 in-chamber Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var globigii; BG) cloud and 27 open-air releases of either BG, Pantoea agglomerans (formerly Erwinia herbicola; EH), MS2 and ovalbumin (OV) were generated. The clouds were refereed by different point sensors including Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and slit or impingers samplers. The APS monitored the particle size distribution and concentration and the samplers characterized the viable portion of the cloud. The extracted spectral signatures show robustness to different degree. The correlation assessment showed good results in most cases where the LIF signal to noise ratio was significant. The sensor 4σ sensitivity was evaluated to 1 300, 600, 100 and 30 ppl for BG, OV, MS2 and EH respectively. Correlation results are presented by plotting the SINBAHD metric versus the corresponding particle concentration, in which case, the obtained slope is proportional to the material fluorescence cross-section. The different acquired signal is hence compared in terms of their fluorescence cross-section additionally to their spectral characteristics.

  14. Radiated EMC& EMI Management During Design Qualification and Test Phases on LEO Satellites Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeaux, H.; Terral, M.; Gutierrez-Galvan, R.; Baud, C.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the proposed paper is to present the global radiated EMC/EMI approach applied by Thales Alenia Space in the frame of a telecommunication Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites constellation program. The paper will present this approach in term of analyses, of specific characterisation and of sub-system and satellite tests since first design reviews up-to satellite qualification tests on Prototype Flight Model (PFM) and to production tests on reduced FMs. The global aim is : 1 - to reduce risk and cost (units EMC delta qualification, EMC tests at satellite level for the 81 Space Vehicles (SV) through appropriated EMC analyses (in term of methodologies and contours) provided in the frame of design reviews.2 - to early anticipate potential critical case to reduce the impact in term of engineering/qualification/test extra cost and of schedule.3 - to secure/assure the payload and SV design/layout.4 - to define and optimize the EMC/EMI test campaigns to be performed on Prototype Flight Model (PFM) for complete qualification and on some FMs for industrial qualification/validation.The last part of the paper is dedicated to system Bite Error Rate (BER) functional test performed on PFM SV to demonstrate the final compatibility between the three on-board payloads and to the Internal EMC tests performed on PFM and some FMs to demonstrate the SV panel RF shielding efficiency before and after environmental tests and the Thales Alenia Space (TAS) and Orbital AKT (OATK) workmanships reproducibility.

  15. Sensor fusion approaches for EMI and GPR-based subsurface threat identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrione, Peter; Morton, Kenneth, Jr.; Besaw, Lance E.

    2011-06-01

    Despite advances in both electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) sensing and related signal processing, neither sensor alone provides a perfect tool for detecting the myriad of possible buried objects that threaten the lives of Soldiers and civilians. However, while neither GPR nor EMI sensing alone can provide optimal detection across all target types, the two approaches are highly complementary. As a result, many landmine systems seek to make use of both sensing modalities simultaneously and fuse the results from both sensors to improve detection performance for targets with widely varying metal content and GPR responses. Despite this, little work has focused on large-scale comparisons of different approaches to sensor fusion and machine learning for combining data from these highly orthogonal phenomenologies. In this work we explore a wide array of pattern recognition techniques for algorithm development and sensor fusion. Results with the ARA Nemesis landmine detection system suggest that nonlinear and non-parametric classification algorithms provide significant performance benefits for single-sensor algorithm development, and that fusion of multiple algorithms can be performed satisfactorily using basic parametric approaches, such as logistic discriminant classification, for the targets under consideration in our data sets.

  16. On the use of EMI for the assessment of dental implant stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Malfa Ribolla, Emma; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Gulizzi, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    The achievement and the maintenance of dental implant stability are prerequisites for the long-term success of the osseointegration process. Since implant stability occurs at different stages, it is clinically required to monitor an implant over time, i.e. between the surgery and the placement of the artificial tooth. In this framework, non-invasive tests able to assess the degree of osseointegration are necessary. In this paper, the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method is proposed to monitor the stability of dental implants. A 3D finite element model of a piezoceramic transducer (PZT) bonded to a dental implant placed into the bone was created, considering the presence of a bone-implant interface subjected to Young's modulus change. The numerical model was validated experimentally by testing bovine bone samples. The EMI response of a PZT, bonded to the abutment screwed to implants inserted to the bone, was measured. To simulate the osseointegration process a pulp canal sealer was used to secure the implant to the bone. It was found that the PZT's admittance is sensitive to the stiffness variation of the bone-implant interface. The results show that EMIbased method is able (i) to evaluate the material properties around the implant, and (ii) to promote a novel non-invasive monitoring of dental implant surgical procedure.

  17. Communications en cas de catastrophe faisant appel aux TIC pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communications en cas de catastrophe faisant appel aux TIC pour les collectivités vulnérables des Caraïbes. De récents événements survenus dans les Caraïbes ont mis en relief les insuffisances des mesures régionales et nationales de préparation aux catastrophes. On manque particulièrement de systèmes d'alerte ...

  18. Donner aux travailleurs du sexe les moyens de consigner les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans la plupart des sociétés, le travail du sexe est fortement stigmatisé, et ceux qui le pratiquent sont en butte aux reproches, à la désapprobation et à la discrimination. Par conséquent, la violence faite aux travailleurs du sexe se voit peu, et dans certains contextes, elle est même tolérée. On dispose donc de très peu de ...

  19. Resistance aux antibiotiques des bacteries isolees en 2009 au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Contribuer à la surveillance de la résistance bactérienne aux antibiotiques au Togo en étudiant la résistance aux antibiotiques des bactéries. Méthode Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale portant sur les comptes rendus des antibiogrammes réalisés du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2009 au Laboratoire de ...

  20. Donner la parole aux femmes - bourse de recherche sur la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 mai 2016 ... Donner la parole aux femmes - bourse de recherche sur la militarisation et les femmes en Asie du Sud destinée aux journalistes. L'Asie du Sud est la région la plus densément peuplée du monde et, selon les indicateurs de pauvreté, la deuxième plus pauvre, après l'Afrique subsaharienne. Il s'agit ...

  1. Bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au doctorat 2017 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Avant de faire une demande, veuillez lire les documents suivants : Liste de vérification des documents que doit remettre le candidat · Foire aux questions générales · Foire aux questions techniques en cas de difficultés d'ordre technique au moment de remplir la demande en ligne; Lettre type d'approbation du directeur de ...

  2. Intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols and factors affecting their survival in two oxidation ditch process municipal wastewater treatment plants located in different regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Liu, Junxin; Yang, Kaixiong

    2018-06-15

    Samples from two oxidation ditch process municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) (HJK and GXQ) in two regions of China were analysed for bacteria, particles, total organic carbon, and water-soluble ions in bioaerosols. Diversity and potential pathogen populations were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing. Bioaerosol sources, factors affecting intestinal bacterial survival, and the relationship between bioaerosols and water were analysed by Source tracker and partial least squares-discriminant, principal component, and canonical correspondence analyses. Culturable bacteria concentrations were 110-846 and 27-579 CFU/m 3 at HJK and GXQ, respectively. Intestinal bacteria constituted 6-33% of bacteria. Biochemical reaction tank, sludge dewatering house (SDH), and fine screen samples showed the greatest contribution to bioaerosol contamination. Enterobacter aerogenes was the main intestinal bacteria (> 99.5%) in HJK and detected at each sampling site. Enterobacter aerogenes (98.67% in SDH), Aeromonas sp. (76.3% in biochemical reaction tank), and Acinetobacter baumannii (99.89% in fine screens) were the main intestinal bacteria in GXQ. Total suspended particulate masses in SDH were 229.46 and 141.6 μg/m 3 in HJK and GXQ, respectively. Percentages of insoluble compounds in total suspended particulates decreased as height increased. The main soluble ions in bioaerosols were Ca 2+ , Na + , Cl - , and SO 4 2- , which ranged from 3.8 to 27.55 μg/m 3 in the MWTPs. Water was a main source of intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols from the MWTPs. Bioaerosols in HJK but not in GXQ were closely related. Relative humidity and some ions positively influenced intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols, while wind speed and solar illumination had a negative influence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Xavier; Duquenne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Hundreds of different cheeses are produced in France, where 23.9kg of cheese were consumed per inhabitant in 2009, when it was ranked the second cheese-consuming nation. To meet this considerable demand, a large number of cheese factories exist where many workers, especially cheese washers, may be exposed to fungal bioaerosols that can lead to adverse toxinic and allergic effects. Airborne bacteria, fragments, or microbial by-products (endotoxins) are also found and contribute to total worker exposure. However, there is almost no published data concerning worker exposure or characteristics of bioaerosols emitted during these activities. Here, we measured the parameters (concentrations, species present, and size distribution) of the culturable fungal bioaerosol emitted in a French natural-rind cheese-maturing cellar. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and endotoxins were also measured. The main tasks were investigated using stationary or personal sampling over three consecutive days. Depending on the work area, high concentrations of culturable mesophilic microorganisms were measured (using closed-face cassettes): from 10(4) to 2×10(8) CFU m(-3) for fungi and from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU m(-3) for bacteria. These concentrations are 10- to 100000-fold higher than those measured at two reference points (indoor and outdoor) that are assumed not to be contaminated by the plant's activities. Endotoxin concentrations were between 10 and 300 EU m(-3) in the plant. Exposure was further assessed by identifying the predominant culturable fungi (allergenic Mucor fuscus and Penicillium sp.) and by measuring particle size distributions (cascade impactor). Airborne fungal entities (spores, mycelium strands and fragments, agglomerates, etc.) were found with aerodynamic diameters from 3 to over 20 µm. A metrological approach was used to fully characterize the culturable fungal aerosols generated during cheese maturing in this plant. The results show that workers are exposed to

  4. Farm scale application of EMI and FDR sensors to measuring and mapping soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) controls most water exchange processes within and between the soil-plants-atmosphere continuum and can therefore be considered as a practical variable for irrigation farmer choices. A better knowledge of spatial SWC patterns could improve farmer's awareness about critical crop water status conditions and enhance their capacity to characterize their behavior at the field or farm scale. However, accurate soil moisture measurement across spatial and temporal scales is still a challenging task and, specifically at intermediate spatial (0.1-100 ha) and temporal (minutes to days) scales, a data gap remains that limits our understanding over reliability of the SWC spatial measurements and its practical applicability in irrigation scheduling. In this work we compare the integrated EM38 (Geonics Ltd. Canada) response, collected at different sensor positions above ground to that obtained by integrating the depth profile of volumetric SWC measured with Diviner 2000 (Sentek) in conjunction with the depth response function of the EM38 when operated in both horizontal and vertical dipole configurations. On a 1.0-ha Olive grove site in Sicliy (Italy), 200 data points were collected before and after irrigation or precipitation events following a systematic sampling grid with focused measurements around the tree. Inside two different zone of the field, characterized from different soil physical properties, two Diviner 2000 access tube (1.2 m) were installed and used for the EM38 calibration. After calibration, the work aimed to propose the combined use of the FDR and EMI sensors to measuring and mapping root zone soil water content. We found strong correlations (R2 = 0.66) between Diviner 2000 SWC averaged to a depth of 1.2 m and ECa from an EM38 held in the vertical mode above the soil surface. The site-specific relationship between FDR-based SWC and ECa was linear for the purposes of estimating SWC over the explored range of ECa monitored at field levels

  5. Participation du secteur de la sécurité privé aux conflits et aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participation du secteur de la sécurité privé aux conflits et aux opérations de maintien de la paix et d'assistance humanitaire en Afrique. En 2006, l'Institute for Security Studies (ISS) a entrepris un projet portant sur la réglementation du secteur de la sécurité privé en Afrique, financé par le CRDI dans le cadre du projet no ...

  6. Advanced EMI Models and Classification Algorithms: The Next Level of Sophistication to Improve Discrimination of Challenging Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Maximization Algorithm EMI Electromagnetic Induction ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program FCS Former Camp Sibert GSEA...0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Depth [cm] To ta l M ag ne tic F ie ld , | B | d B/ nT TEMTADS: Turns 25

  7. Low cost power lead extended pre-compliance conducted EMI measurement setup and diagnostics with compact LISN

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, Inus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An extended pre-compliance measurement setup has been created in the development laboratory to measure and diagnose conducted EMI up to tOO MHz without the use of a spectrum analyser. A dual compact Line Impedance Stabilisation Network (LISN) had...

  8. EMI environment EMC considerations concerning equipment upgrades at a nuclear utility power generating station a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As equipment is upgraded during scheduled power outages in nuclear power generating stations, more and more utilities will be faced with the problem of dealing with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) issues that have evolved with the trend of manufacturers designing equipment based around state-of-the-art high technology logic devices. This paper lists Commonwealth Edison Company (CECO) equipment that was scrutinized by National Technical Systems (NTS) for its EMI impact. The test requirements and test procedures for assessing EMI and EMC are outlined. Although on-site mapping data was gathered to assist CECO for the upgrade described here of the Auxiliary Electric Equipment Room of a Westinghouse Eagle 21 Reactor Protection System at the Zion Unit No.1 Station, blanket mapping of every location for every upgrade is a short term, expensive solution to the EMI problem. It is concluded that the primary problem of lack of system and component level EMI specifications must be addressed by a governing body. 7 refs., 2 figs

  9. Setup for EMI Shielding Effectiveness Tests of Electrically Conductive Polymer Composites at Frequencies up to 3.0 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira Valente, R.D.; De Ruijter, Chris; Vlasveld, Daniel; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Conductive polymer composites have been receiving increased interest both from the scientific community and industry with a special focus on electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications. In this paper, we present the design, EM wave simulation, and validation through S-parameters

  10. Setup for EMI Shielding Effectiveness Tests of Electrically Conductive Polymer Composites at Frequencies up to 3.0 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, R.; Ruijter, C. de; Vlasveld, D.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Conductive polymer composites have been receiving increased interest both from the scientific community and industry with a special focus on electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications. In this paper, we present the design, EM wave simulation, and validation through S-parameters

  11. Characterization of harpy/Rca1/emi1 mutants: patterning in the absence of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Bruce B; Sweet, Elly M; Heck, Rebecca; Evans, Adrienne; McFarland, Karen N; Warga, Rachel M; Kane, Donald A

    2010-03-01

    We have characterized mutations in the early arrest gene, harpy (hrp), and show that they introduce premature stops in the coding region of early mitotic inhibitor1 (Rca1/emi1). In harpy mutants, cells stop dividing during early gastrulation. Lineage analysis confirms that there is little change in cell number after approximately cycle-14. Gross patterning occurs relatively normally, and many organ primordia are produced on time but with smaller numbers of cells. Despite the lack of cell division, some organ systems continue to increase in cell number, suggesting recruitment from surrounding areas. Analysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation shows that endoreduplication continues in many cells well past the first day of development, but cells cease endoreduplication once they begin to differentiate and express cell-type markers. Despite relatively normal gross patterning, harpy mutants show several defects in morphogenesis, cell migration and differentiation resulting directly or indirectly from the arrest of cell division. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Sensor Placement via Optimal Experiment Design in EMI Sensing of Metallic Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Ping Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work, under the optimal experimental design framework, investigates the sensor placement problem that aims to guide electromagnetic induction (EMI sensing of multiple objects. We use the linearized model covariance matrix as a measure of estimation error to present a sequential experimental design (SED technique. The technique recursively minimizes data misfit to update model parameters and maximizes an information gain function for a future survey relative to previous surveys. The fundamental process of the SED seeks to increase weighted sensitivities to targets when placing sensors. The synthetic and field experiments demonstrate that SED can be used to guide the sensing process for an effective interrogation. It also can serve as a theoretic basis to improve empirical survey operation. We further study the sensitivity of the SED to the number of objects within the sensing range. The tests suggest that an appropriately overrepresented model about expected anomalies might be a feasible choice.

  13. Off-line data processing and display for computed tomographic images (EMI brain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Maruyama, Kiyoshi; Yano, Kesato; Takenaka, Eiichi.

    1978-01-01

    Processing and multi-format display for the CT (EMI) scan data have been tried by using an off-line small computer and an analog memory. Four or six CT images after processing are displayed on the CRT by a small computer with a 16 kilo-words core memory and an analog memory. Multi-format display of the CT image can be selected as follows; multi-slice display, continuative multi-window display, separate multi-window display, and multi-window level display. Electronic zooming for the real size viewing can give magnified CT image with one of displayed images if necessary. Image substraction, edge enhancement, smoothing, non-linear gray scale display, and synthesized image for the plane tomography reconstracted by the normal CT scan data, have been tried by the off-line data processing. A possibility for an effective application of the data base with CT image was obtained by these trials. (auth.)

  14. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE) Interim Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Test specimen configuration was provided by Parker Chomerics. The EMI gasket used in this project was Cho-Seal 6503E. Black oxide alloy steel socket head bolts were used to hold the plates together. Non-conductive spacers were used to control the amount of compression on the gaskets. The following test fixture specifications were provided by Parker Chomerics. The CHO-TP09 test plate sets selected for this project consist of two aluminum plates manufactured to the specifications detailed in CHO­-TP09. The first plate, referred to as the test frame, is illustrated in Figure 1. The test frame is designed with a cutout in the center and two alternating bolt patterns. One pattern is used to bolt the test frame to the corresponding test cover plate (Figure 2), forming a test plate set. The second pattern accepts the hardware used to mount the fully assembled test plate set to the main adapter plate (Figure 3).

  15. Efficient stochastic EMC/EMI analysis using HDMR-generated surrogate models

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2011-08-01

    Stochastic methods have been used extensively to quantify effects due to uncertainty in system parameters (e.g. material, geometrical, and electrical constants) and/or excitation on observables pertinent to electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) analysis (e.g. voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) [1]. In recent years, stochastic collocation (SC) methods, especially those leveraging generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions, have received significant attention [2, 3]. SC-gPC methods probe surrogate models (i.e. compact polynomial input-output representations) to statistically characterize observables. They are nonintrusive, that is they use existing deterministic simulators, and often cost only a fraction of direct Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Unfortunately, SC-gPC-generated surrogate models often lack accuracy (i) when the number of uncertain/random system variables is large and/or (ii) when the observables exhibit rapid variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics; Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this testing is to determine the suitability of trivalent chromium conversion coatings that meet the requirements of MIL-DTL-5541, Type II, for use in applications where high-frequency electrical performance is important. This project will evaluate the ability of coated aluminum to form adequate EMI seals. Testing will assess performance of the trivalent chromium coatings against the known control hexavalent chromium MIL-DTL-5541 Type I Class 3 before and after they have been exposed to a set of environmental conditions. Performance will be assessed by evaluating shielding effectiveness (SE) test data from a variety of test samples comprised of different aluminum types and/or conversion coatings.

  17. Progress in Research on Lightweight Graphene-based EMI Shielding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chan-yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With rapid progresses on the advanced electronic science and technology, electromagnetic irradiations have led to considerable issues, including electromagnetic pollutions, electromagnetic interference and security concerns, in electronics, aeronautics, astronautics, information technology, communication systems and etc. Based on the fundamentals of the electromagnetic interference shielding and general methods for preparing graphene nanosheets, this review involves the recent advances in the electromagnetic interference shielding materials of various applications in four morphologies, which include bulk, lightweight foams, flexible films and those for operation at high temperature. Meanwhile, the major strategical methods and general concept for designing and fabricating graphene-based electromagnetic interference shielding materials have been overviewed, and fundamental issues of electromagnetic interference technology have been further discussed. The perspectives for fabricating novel electromagnetic interference shielding materials, including ultrathin and transparent configuration, and future development have been proposed based on the practical applications, which suggest significant conception for designing next generation lightweight EMI shielding materials.

  18. Detection of pathogenic bioaerosols and occupational risk in a Philippine landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagalilauan, Hera Angela M; Paraoan, Cielo Emar M; Vital, Pierangeli G

    2018-03-04

    Payatas landfill site is one of the major dumpsites in the Philippines. In this study, the landfill was evaluated regarding the presence and concentration of pathogenic bacterial aerosols through culture and molecular techniques. Bioaerosols are biological airborne particles that may or may not cause diseases. Active sampling was done using MAS-100 Air Sampler from both indoor and outdoor locations. To test the accuracy of the culture method, those that were presumptively identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were subjected to molecular analysis using 16s rRNA sequencing, and as a result, they were identified as different species. The exposure assessment done by interview showed matches among prevalent diseases. The results of this study can be used as a basis for creating standards and regulations for workers' and residents' safety and health in the landfill site.

  19. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2017-10-17

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS), on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  20. Use of Large-Scale Multi-Configuration EMI Measurements to Characterize Subsurface Structures of the Vadose Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, J. A.; Brogi, C.; Pätzold, S.; Weihermueller, L.; von Hebel, C.; Van Der Kruk, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface structures of the vadose zone can play a key role in crop yield potential, especially during water stress periods. Geophysical techniques like electromagnetic induction EMI can provide information about dominant shallow subsurface features. However, previous studies with EMI have typically not reached beyond the field scale. We used high-resolution large-scale multi-configuration EMI measurements to characterize patterns of soil structural organization (layering and texture) and their impact on crop productivity at the km2 scale. We collected EMI data on an agricultural area of 1 km2 (102 ha) near Selhausen (NRW, Germany). The area consists of 51 agricultural fields cropped in rotation. Therefore, measurements were collected between April and December 2016, preferably within few days after the harvest. EMI data were automatically filtered, temperature corrected, and interpolated onto a common grid of 1 m resolution. Inspecting the ECa maps, we identified three main sub-areas with different subsurface heterogeneity. We also identified small-scale geomorphological structures as well as anthropogenic activities such as soil management and buried drainage networks. To identify areas with similar subsurface structures, we applied image classification techniques. We fused ECa maps obtained with different coil distances in a multiband image and applied supervised and unsupervised classification methodologies. Both showed good results in reconstructing observed patterns in plant productivity and the subsurface structures associated with them. However, the supervised methodology proved more efficient in classifying the whole study area. In a second step, we selected hundred locations within the study area and obtained a soil profile description with type, depth, and thickness of the soil horizons. Using this ground truth data it was possible to assign a typical soil profile to each of the main classes obtained from the classification. The proposed methodology was

  1. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS) , on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  2. Fertilization effects on the electrical conductivity measured by EMI, ERT, and GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihermueller, L.; Kaufmann, M.; Steinberger, P.; Pätzold, S.; Vereecken, H.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2017-12-01

    Near surface geophysics such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and ground penetrating radar (GPR) are widely used for field characterization, to delineate soil units, and to estimate soil texture, bulk densities and/or soil water contents. Hereby, the measured soil apparent conductivity (ECa) is often used. Soil ECa is governed by horizontal and vertical changes in soil texture, mineralogy, soil water content, and temperature, and the single contributions are not easy to disentangle. Within single fields and between fields fertilization management may vary spatially, which holds especially for field trials. As a result, ECa might vary due to differences in electrolyte concentration and subsequent pore fluid conductivity, but secondary fertilization effects might also play a major role in ECa differences such as differences in soil water uptake by growing plants. To study the direct effect of mineral fertilization on ECa, a field experiment was performed on 21 bare soil plots each of a size of 9 m2, where 7 different fertilization treatments were established in triplicates. As mineral fertilizers, commercial calcium ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride were chosen and applied in dosages of 200, 400, and 2000 kg ha-1 N equivalent. Additionally, soil water, soil temperature, and EC were recorded in a pit at different depths using commercial sensors. Changes in ECa were measured every 10 days using EMI and monthly using GPR and ERT. Additionally, soil samples were monthly taken at all plots and nitrate, chloride, and potassium contents were measured in the lab. The poster will show the effect of ECa changes due to fertilization and corresponding leaching of the fertilized elements over time. The experimental results provide information of how fertilization is influencing ECa readings and how long the fertilizers are influencing ECa measurements with geophysical instruments. This study helps to overcome restricted

  3. Emissions of chemical compounds and bioaerosols during the secondary treatment of paper mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, N; Lavoie, J

    2001-01-01

    This study identified and quantified the main chemical compounds--the substances responsible for the disagreeable odors--and the bioaerosols emitted during the biological treatment of paper mill effluents. It also identified the characteristics of the process that effects the generation or diffusion of these substances. All treatment stages were evaluated. Measuring sites were located as closely as possible to the potential emission sources. Measurements were taken in the summer in 11 paper mills during a 2- to 3-day period in each mill. Chemical compounds were evaluated by direct-reading instruments; bioaerosols were sampled by impaction and counted. Sulfur compounds, emitted into the air when the effluent or the sludge is stirred, had the highest concentrations; their presence was attributable to such things as kraft-type paper pulp. Next in concentration were the carbon and nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and some organic acids, produced by the action of microorganisms. These acids are found mainly in the sludge environment. Terpenes, which come from wood, are present at various locations in paper mills. Odor perception thresholds for most of these substances are much lower than those established to protect the health of workers. Significant concentrations of total bacteria, total molds, and endotoxins were measured at several sites. Gram-negative bacteria were high at only one site, whereas the mold Aspergillus fumigatus was occasionally present at low concentration. No actinomycetes bacteria were detected. The highest concentrations were measured where there was water or dust aerosolization. Emissions are therefore controlled by controlling the operations that lead to the dispersion of water and particles into the air.

  4. Effects of ozone and relative humidity on fluorescence spectra of octapeptide bioaerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Coleman, Mark; Bare, Christopher; Kinahan, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ozone and relative humidity (RH) at common atmospheric levels on the properties of single octapeptide bioaerosol particles were studied using an improved rotating reaction chamber, an aerosol generator, an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS), an improved single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS), and equipments to generate, monitor and control the ozone and RH. Aerosol particles (mean diameter 2 μm) were generated from a slurry of octapeptide in phosphate buffered saline, injected into the rotating chamber, and kept airborne for hours. Bioaerosols were sampled from the chamber hourly for the measurements of particle-size distribution, concentration, total fluorescence excited at 355-nm, and single particle fluorescence spectra excited at 266-nm and 351-nm under different controlled RH (20%, 50%, or 80%) and ozone concentration (0 or 150 ppb). The results show that: (1) Particle size, concentration, and the 263-nm-excited fluorescence intensity decrease at different rates under different combinations of the RH and ozone concentrations used. (2) The 263-nm-excited UV fluorescence (280-400 nm) decreased more rapidly than the 263-nm-excited visible fluorescence (400-560 nm), and decreased most rapidly when ozone is present and RH is high. (3) The UV fluorescence peak near 340 nm slightly shifts to the shorter wavelength (blue-shift), consistent with a more rapid oxidation of tryptophan than tyrosine. (4) The 351/355-nm-excited fluorescence (430-580 nm/380-700 nm) increases when ozone is present, especially when the RH is high. (5) The 351/355-nm-excited fluorescence increase that occurs as the tryptophan emission in the UV decreases, and the observation that these changes occur more rapidly at higher RH with the present of ozone, are consistent with the oxidation of tryptophan by ozone and the conversion of the resulting ozonides to N-formyl kynurenine and kynurenine.

  5. Assessment of bioaerosol contamination (bacteria and fungi) in the largest urban wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Sadegh; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabavi, Samira; Faridi, Sasan; Dehghani, Asghar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Mokamel, Adel; Kashani, Homa; Yarali, Navid; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-10-01

    Bioaerosol concentration was measured in wastewater treatment units in south of Tehran, the largest wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East. Active sampling was carried out around four operational units and a point as background. The results showed that the aeration tank with an average of 1016 CFU/m(3) in winter and 1973 CFU/m(3) in summer had the greatest effect on emission of bacterial bioaerosols. In addition, primary treatment had the highest impact on fungal emission. Among the bacteria, Micrococcus spp. showed the widest emission in the winter, and Bacillus spp. was dominant in summer. Furthermore, fungi such as Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were the dominant types in the seasons. Overall, significant relationship was observed between meteorological parameters and the concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosols.

  6. Sampling port for real time analysis of bioaerosol in whole body exposure system for animal aerosol model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Divey; Hopkins, Gregory W.; Chen, Ching-ju; Seay, Sarah A.; Click, Eva M.; Lee, Sunhee; Hartings, Justin M.; Frothingham, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Multiple factors influence the viability of aerosolized bacteria. The delivery of aerosols is affected by chamber conditions (humidity, temperature, and pressure) and bioaerosol characteristics (particle number, particle size distribution, and viable aerosol concentration). Measurement of viable aerosol concentration and particle size is essential to optimize viability and lung delivery. The Madison chamber is widely used to expose small animals to infectious aerosols. Methods A multiplex sampling port was added to the Madison chamber to measure the chamber conditions and bioaerosol characteristics. Aerosols of three pathogens (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) were generated under constant conditions and their bioaerosol characteristics were analyzed. Airborne microbes were captured using an impinger or BioSampler. The particle size distribution of airborne microbes was determined using an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). Viable aerosol concentration, spray factor (viable aerosol concentration/inoculum concentration), and dose presented to the mouse were calculated. Dose retention efficiency and viable aerosol retention rate were calculated from the sampler titers to determine the efficiency of microbe retention in lungs of mice. Results B. anthracis, Y. pestis, and M. tuberculosis aerosols were sampled through the port. The count mean aerodynamic sizes were 0.98, 0.77, and 0.78 μm with geometric standard deviations of 1.60, 1.90, and 2.37, and viable aerosol concentrations in the chamber were 211, 57, and 1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL, respectively. Based on the aerosol concentrations, the doses presented to mice for the three pathogens were 2.5e5, 2.2e4 and 464 CFU. Discussion Using the multiplex sampling port we determined whether the animals were challenged with an optimum bioaerosol based on dose presented and respirable particle size. PMID:20849964

  7. Sampling port for real-time analysis of bioaerosol in whole body exposure system for animal aerosol model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Divey; Hopkins, Gregory W; Chen, Ching-Ju; Seay, Sarah A; Click, Eva M; Lee, Sunhee; Hartings, Justin M; Frothingham, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Multiple factors influence the viability of aerosolized bacteria. The delivery of aerosols is affected by chamber conditions (humidity, temperature, and pressure) and bioaerosol characteristics (particle number, particle size distribution, and viable aerosol concentration). Measurement of viable aerosol concentration and particle size is essential to optimize viability and lung delivery. The Madison chamber is widely used to expose small animals to infectious aerosols. A multiplex sampling port was added to the Madison chamber to measure the chamber conditions and bioaerosol characteristics. Aerosols of three pathogens (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) were generated under constant conditions and their bioaerosol characteristics were analyzed. Airborne microbes were captured using an impinger or BioSampler. The particle size distribution of airborne microbes was determined using an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). Viable aerosol concentration, spray factor (viable aerosol concentration/inoculum concentration), and dose presented to the mouse were calculated. Dose retention efficiency and viable aerosol retention rate were calculated from the sampler titers to determine the efficiency of microbe retention in lungs of mice. B. anthracis, Y. pestis, and M. tuberculosis aerosols were sampled through the port. The count mean aerodynamic sizes were 0.98, 0.77, and 0.78 μm with geometric standard deviations of 1.60, 1.90, and 2.37, and viable aerosol concentrations in the chamber were 211, 57, and 1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL, respectively. Based on the aerosol concentrations, the doses presented to mice for the three pathogens were 2.5e5, 2.2e4 and 464 CFU. Using the multiplex sampling port we determined whether the animals were challenged with an optimum bioaerosol based on dose presented and respirable particle size. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of bioaerosols from dairy barns: reconstructing the puzzle of occupational respiratory diseases by using molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Veillette, Marc; Marsolais, David; Duchaine, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    To understand the etiology of exposure-related diseases and to establish standards for reducing the risks associated with working in contaminated environments, the exact nature of the bioaerosol components must be defined. Molecular biology tools were used to evaluate airborne bacterial and, for the first time, archaeal content of dairy barns. Three air samplers were tested in each of the 13 barns sampled. Up to 10(6) archaeal and 10(8) bacterial 16S rRNA genes per m(3) of air were detected. Archaeal methanogens, mainly Methanobrevibacter species, were represented. Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, the causative agent of farmer's lung, was quantified to up to 10(7) 16S rRNA genes per m(3) of air. In addition, a wide variety of bacterial agents were present in our air samples within the high airborne bioaerosol concentration range. Despite recommendations regarding hay preservation and baling conditions, farmers still develop an S. rectivirgula-specific humoral immune response, suggesting intense and continuous exposure. Our results demonstrate the complexity of bioaerosol components in dairy barns which could play a role in occupational respiratory diseases.

  9. A comparative and combined study of EMIS and GPR detectors by the use of Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenstjerne, Axel; Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is applied to classify unexploded ordnance (UXO) on laboratory UXO test-field data, acquired by stand-off detection. The data are acquired by an Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS) metal detector and a ground penetrating radar (GPR) detector. The metal...... detector is a GEM-3, which is a monostatic sensor measuring the response of the environment on a multi-frequency constant wave excitation field (300 Hz to 25 kHz), and the GPR detector is a stepped-frequency GPR with a monostatic bow-tie antenna (500MHz to 2.5GHz). For both sensors the in...... are processed by the use of statistical signal processing based on ICA. An unsupervised method based on ICA to detect, discriminate, and classify the UXOs from clutter is suggested. The approach is studied on GPR and EMIS data, separately and compared. The potential is an improved ability: to detect the UXOs...

  10. The Effect of Graphite on the Water Uptake, Mechanical Properties, Morphology, and EMI Shielding Effectiveness of HDPE/Bamboo flour composites

    OpenAIRE

    Jianbin Song; Wenbin Yang; Feng Fu; Yanhua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This goal of this work was to study the effect of graphite on the water uptake, mechanical properties, morphology, and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of HDPE/Bamboo flour composites using the material mechanical testing machine, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and EMI shielding apparatus. The water uptake of the composites was improved by graphite. Compared with the neat HDPE/bamboo composites, the flexural strength of the graphite-filled composites showed a...

  11. Hand-Held EMI Sensor Combined with Inertial Positioning for Cued UXO Discrimination - APG Standardized UXO Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Concept of Operation DAQ Data Acquisition Computer DAS Data Analysis System EMI Electromagnetic Induction GIS Geographic Information System GPS Global...Time, Position, Fix Quality, PDOP NMEA-0183 sentence ROC Receiver Operator Characteristic RTK Real-time Kinematic Rx Receive SAINT Small Area...each transmitter. This is too long for a system that is being swept back and forth at a speed of roughly 0.5 m/s. Both the 2x2 array with GPS

  12. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan R Tovey

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for

  13. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  14. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  15. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Jadoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  16. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2017-10-26

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes\\' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  17. Recherche sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    consortiums travaillent dans des zones vulnérables aux changements climatiques en Afrique et en Asie, notamment dans les bassins hydrographiques alimentés .... Le projet de recherche Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE) vise à réduire les risques et à opti- miser les possibilités de développement ...

  18. Inobservance therapeutique aux anti-retroviraux chez les personnes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buts : Rechercher les facteurs psychologiques ou psychosociaux responsables de l'inobservance thérapeutique (IBT) aux antiretroviraux (ARV) Méthodologie : Il s'agit d'une étude transversale sur 06 mois (mai - octobre 2008) menée au centre de promotion sociale à Lomé chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) ...

  19. L'adaptation aux changements climatiques | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Appuyée par le CRDI, l'Agence canadienne de développement international et le Fonds international de développement agricole, l'initiative WADImena favorise également les ... Les déchets : pollution visuelle, risque pour la santé et polluants environnementaux. ... UNE PLUS GRANDE RÉSILIENCE AUX CATACLYSMES.

  20. evolution de la frequence et des problemes lies aux evacuations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVOLUTION DE LA FREQUENCE ET DES PROBLEMES LIES AUX. EVACUATIONS SANITAIRES VERS LE SERVICE DE GYNECOLOGIE-OBS-. TETRIQUE DE L'HOPITAL COMMUNAUTAIRE DE BANGUI. SEPOU A.1; GODDOT M.1; NGBALE R.1;GAUNEFET C.E.1; DOMANDE-MODANGA Z.1;. FANDEMA E.1 ...

  1. Une societe aux reperes ambigus | Belinga | African Anthropologist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une societe aux reperes ambigus. JMZ Belinga. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aa.v10i1.46101 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  2. Programme mondial de recherche sur l'adaptation aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Programme mondial de recherche sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques (maintenant connu sous le nom d'Initiative de recherche concertée sur l'adaptation en Afrique et en Asie, ou IRCAAA) est un nouveau partenariat entre le CRDI et le Department for International Development du Royaume-Uni.

  3. Exposition et intoxication aux pesticides chez des producteurs de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Dans la perspective d'une meilleure gestion des risques liés aux pesticides, il est nécessaire que tous les acteurs du secteur cotonnier oeuvrent pour le renforcement des mesures préventives. Mots-clés: Exposition, intoxication, pesticides, coton, Togo. English Title: Pesticides exposure and intoxication among ...

  4. Alimentation, santé et adaptation aux changements climatiques en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Est, sont particulièrement vulnérables, à long terme, aux conséquences des changements climatiques et, à court terme, à la variabilité accrue du climat. Ce projet abordera la question des moyens de subsistance dans le " corridor du bétail " de ...

  5. Partage de connaissances sur l'adaptation aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En bref, il sera un outil qui permettra aux africains de prendre charge de la problématique d'adaptation au changements climatiques au niveau local, national et continental, et de ... L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique en Afrique subsaharienne remporte le prix de la diplomatie scientifique.

  6. Determination of gonad, eye and bone marrow doses with EMI-5005 head and whole body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kanae; Iwata, Takeo; Furuya, Yoshiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Hashizume, Tadashi.

    1979-01-01

    Dose determinations of tissues and organs during head and whole body scanning with an EMI computed tomographic equipment have been carried out using a Rando woman phantom. The surface dose on the phantom was measured with a Sakura lith Contact film dosimeter system. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroids, ovaries and the bone marrow were measured with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. The resultant surface doses for head scanning were 2.8 rad (28 mGy) per scan at maximum and 0.26 rad (2.6 mGy) per scan at minimum, and the doses for whole body scanning were 2.7 rad (27 mGy) per scan at maximum and 0.1 rad (1.0 mGy) per scan at minimum. For the complete gynecological scanning consisting of 8 slices, the eye, thyroid, ovary and the bone marrow dose was 2.4 mrad (24 μGy), 3.5 mrad (35 μGy), 500 mrad (5 mGy) and 225 mrad (2.25 mGy), respectively. And, for a typical head scanning consisting of 5 slices, the eye, thyroid, ovary and the bone marrow dose was 1400 mrad (14 mGy), 46 mrad (460 μGy), 0.60 mrad (6 μGy) and 73 mrad (730 μGy), respectively. (author)

  7. An h-adaptive stochastic collocation method for stochastic EMC/EMI analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) phenomena is often fraught by randomness in a system\\'s excitation (e.g., the amplitude, phase, and location of internal noise sources) or configuration (e.g., the routing of cables, the placement of electronic systems, component specifications, etc.). To bound the probability of system malfunction, fast and accurate techniques to quantify the uncertainty in system observables (e.g., voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) are called for. Recently proposed stochastic frameworks [1-2] combine deterministic electromagnetic (EM) simulators with stochastic collocation (SC) methods that approximate system observables using generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPC) [3] (viz. orthogonal polynomials spanning the entire random domain) to estimate their statistical moments and probability density functions (pdfs). When constructing gPC expansions, the EM simulator is used solely to evaluate system observables at collocation points prescribed by the SC-gPC scheme. The frameworks in [1-2] therefore are non-intrusive and straightforward to implement. That said, they become inefficient and inaccurate for system observables that vary rapidly or are discontinuous in the random variables (as their representations may require very high-order polynomials). © 2010 IEEE.

  8. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics: Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Determine the suitability of trivalent chromium conversion coatings that meet the requirements of MIL-DTL-5541, Type II, for use in applications where high-frequency electrical performance is important. Evaluate the ability of hexavalent chrome free pretreated aluminum to form adequate EMI seals, and maintain that seal while being subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Assess the performance of trivalent chromium pretreatments against a known control hexavalent chrome pretreatment before and after they have been exposed to a set of environmental conditions. It is known that environmental testing causes a decrease in shielding effectiveness when hexavalent chrome pretreatments are used (Alodine 1200s). Need to determine how shielding effectiveness will be affected with the use of hexavalent chrome free pretreatments. Performance will be assessed by evaluating shielding effectiveness (SE) test data from a variety of test samples comprised of different aluminum types and/or conversion coatings. The formation of corrosion will be evaluated between the mating surfaces and gasket to assess the corrosion resistant properties of the pretreatments, comparing the hexavalent control to the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments.

  9. Highly Conductive 3D Segregated Graphene Architecture in Polypropylene Composite with Efficient EMI Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr E. Alam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of electronic equipment in modern life causes potential electromagnetic pollution harmful to human health. Therefore, it is of great significance to enhance the electrical conductivity of polymers, which are widely used in electronic components, to screen out electromagnetic waves. The fabrication of graphene/polymer composites has attracted much attention in recent years due to the excellent electrical properties of graphene. However, the uniform distribution of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs in a non-polar polymer matrix like polypropylene (PP still remains a challenge, resulting in the limited improvement of electrical conductivity of PP-based composites achieved to date. Here, we propose a single-step approach to prepare GNPs/PP composites embedded with a segregated architecture of GNPs by coating PP particles with GNPs, followed by hot-pressing. As a result, the electrical conductivity of 10 wt % GNPs-loaded composites reaches 10.86 S·cm−1, which is ≈7 times higher than that of the composites made by the melt-blending process. Accordingly, a high electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE of 19.3 dB can be achieved. Our method is green, low-cost, and scalable to develop 3D GNPs architecture in a polymer matrix, providing a versatile composite material suitable for use in electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries.

  10. Isolation and characterization of an Aux/IAA gene (LaIAA2) from Larix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    auxin would be expected to maintain little Aux/IAA protein, having ARFs dissociated from Aux/IAA proteins. This allows for expression changes in typically auxin-regulated genes. The functions of Aux/IAA proteins in growth and development are determined by mutations in Arabidopsis or other plants. The gain-of-function ...

  11. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  12. Microbial diversity in bioaerosol samples causing ODTS compared to reference bioaerosol samples as measured using Illumina sequencing and MALDI-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Zervas, Athanasios; Tendal, Kira; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2015-07-01

    The importance of the microbial diversity of bioaerosols in relation to occupational exposure and work related health symptoms is not known. The aim of this paper is to gain knowledge on the bacterial and fungal communities in dust causing organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and in reference dust not causing ODTS. Bacterial and fungal communities were described in personal exposure samples from grass seed workers developing ODTS, in dust generated from grass seeds causing ODTS and in dust generated from reference seeds not causing ODTS. Amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal ITS region, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) were used for identification of fungi and bacteria in personal exposure samples and in dust samples from grass seeds causing ODTS and in dust from reference grass seeds. Furthermore, activities of enzymes were measured in the same samples. The sequencing data revealed more than 150 bacterial and 25 fungal genera present in each sample. Streptomyces spp., Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus microsporus were dominating in the dust causing ODTS but not in the reference dust. The dustiness in terms of Mucor sp. and R. microsporus were 100-1000 times higher for problematic seeds compared to reference seeds. The bacterial species in the dust causing ODTS included pathogenic species such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptomyces pneumonia, and it contained increased concentrations of total protein, serine protease, chitinase, and β-glucosidase. Twenty-three bacterial genera covered more than 50% of the total reads in the personal and problematic seed dust. These 23 genera accounted for less than 7% of the total reads in the reference seed dust. The microbial community of the dust from the problematic seeds showed great similarities to that from the personal air samples from the workers. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time a shift in the microbial community in aerosol

  13. Digital Mapping of Soil Salinity and Crop Yield across a Coastal Agricultural Landscape Using Repeated Electromagnetic Induction (EMI Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjiang Yao

    Full Text Available Reliable and real-time information on soil and crop properties is important for the development of management practices in accordance with the requirements of a specific soil and crop within individual field units. This is particularly the case in salt-affected agricultural landscape where managing the spatial variability of soil salinity is essential to minimize salinization and maximize crop output. The primary objectives were to use linear mixed-effects model for soil salinity and crop yield calibration with horizontal and vertical electromagnetic induction (EMI measurements as ancillary data, to characterize the spatial distribution of soil salinity and crop yield and to verify the accuracy of spatial estimation. Horizontal and vertical EMI (type EM38 measurements at 252 locations were made during each survey, and root zone soil samples and crop samples at 64 sampling sites were collected. This work was periodically conducted on eight dates from June 2012 to May 2013 in a coastal salt-affected mud farmland. Multiple linear regression (MLR and restricted maximum likelihood (REML were applied to calibrate root zone soil salinity (ECe and crop annual output (CAO using ancillary data, and spatial distribution of soil ECe and CAO was generated using digital soil mapping (DSM and the precision of spatial estimation was examined using the collected meteorological and groundwater data. Results indicated that a reduced model with EMh as a predictor was satisfactory for root zone ECe calibration, whereas a full model with both EMh and EMv as predictors met the requirement of CAO calibration. The obtained distribution maps of ECe showed consistency with those of EMI measurements at the corresponding time, and the spatial distribution of CAO generated from ancillary data showed agreement with that derived from raw crop data. Statistics of jackknifing procedure confirmed that the spatial estimation of ECe and CAO exhibited reliability and high accuracy

  14. Digital Mapping of Soil Salinity and Crop Yield across a Coastal Agricultural Landscape Using Repeated Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rongjiang; Yang, Jingsong; Wu, Danhua; Xie, Wenping; Gao, Peng; Jin, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and real-time information on soil and crop properties is important for the development of management practices in accordance with the requirements of a specific soil and crop within individual field units. This is particularly the case in salt-affected agricultural landscape where managing the spatial variability of soil salinity is essential to minimize salinization and maximize crop output. The primary objectives were to use linear mixed-effects model for soil salinity and crop yield calibration with horizontal and vertical electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements as ancillary data, to characterize the spatial distribution of soil salinity and crop yield and to verify the accuracy of spatial estimation. Horizontal and vertical EMI (type EM38) measurements at 252 locations were made during each survey, and root zone soil samples and crop samples at 64 sampling sites were collected. This work was periodically conducted on eight dates from June 2012 to May 2013 in a coastal salt-affected mud farmland. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) were applied to calibrate root zone soil salinity (ECe) and crop annual output (CAO) using ancillary data, and spatial distribution of soil ECe and CAO was generated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and the precision of spatial estimation was examined using the collected meteorological and groundwater data. Results indicated that a reduced model with EMh as a predictor was satisfactory for root zone ECe calibration, whereas a full model with both EMh and EMv as predictors met the requirement of CAO calibration. The obtained distribution maps of ECe showed consistency with those of EMI measurements at the corresponding time, and the spatial distribution of CAO generated from ancillary data showed agreement with that derived from raw crop data. Statistics of jackknifing procedure confirmed that the spatial estimation of ECe and CAO exhibited reliability and high accuracy. A general

  15. Preferential aerosolization of bacteria in bioaerosols generated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrott, P; Turgeon, N; Gauthier-Levesque, L; Duchaine, C

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about how bacteria are aerosolized in terms of whether some bacteria will be found in the air more readily than others that are present in the source. This report describes in vitro experiments to compare aerosolization rates (also known as preferential aerosolization) of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as rod- and coccus-shaped bacteria, using two nebulization conditions. A consortium of five bacterial species was aerosolized in a homemade chamber. Aerosols generated with a commercial nebulizer and a homemade bubble-burst aerosol generator were compared. Data suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was preferentially aerosolized in comparison to Moraxella catarrhalis, Lactobacillus paracasei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis, independently of the method of aerosolization. Bacterial integrity of Strep. suis was more preserved compared to other bacteria studied as revealed with PMA-qPCR. We reported the design of an aerosol chamber and bubble-burst generator for the in vitro study of preferential aerosolization. In our setting, preferential aerosolization was influenced by bacterial properties instead of aerosolization mechanism. These findings could have important implications for predicting the composition of bioaerosols in various locations such as wastewater treatment plants, agricultural settings and health care settings. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Size, Composition, and Source Profiles of Inhalable Bioaerosols from Colorado Dairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, Joshua W; Reynolds, Stephen; Magzamen, Sheryl; VanDyke, Amanda; Gottel, Neil R.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Owens, Sarah M.; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Volckens, John

    2017-06-06

    Particulate matter emissions from agricultural livestock operations contain both chemical and biological constituents that represent a potential human health hazard. The size and composition of these dusts, however, have not been well described. We evaluated the full size distribution (from 0 to 100 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and chemical/biological composition of inhalable dusts inside several Colorado dairy parlors. Four aerodynamic size fractions (<3, 3-10, 10-30, and >30 μm) were collected and analyzed using a combination of physiochemical techniques to understand the structure of bacterial communities and chemical constituents. Airborne particulate mass followed a bimodal size distribution (one mode at 3 μm and a second above 30 μm), which also correlated with the relative concentrations of the following microbiological markers: bacterial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, and muramic acid. Sequencing of the 16S- rRNA components of this aerosol revealed a microbiome derived predominantly from animal sources. Bacterial genera included Staphlyococcus, Pseudomonas, and Streptococcus, all of which have proinflammatory and pathogenic capacity. Our results suggest that the size distribution of bioaerosols emitted by dairy operations extends well above 10 μm in diameter and contains a diverse mixture of potentially hazardous constituents and opportunistic pathogens. These findings should inform the development of more effective emissions control strategies.

  17. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McJimpsey, E L; Steele, P T; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M; Tobias, H J; Lebrilla, C

    2006-01-01

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described

  18. Near surface geophysics: application of FD-EMI sounding to the study of historical resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstein, Yu. A.; Manstein, A. K.; Scozzari, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sounding with alternating electromagnetic fields has gained a growing attention and a broad usage during the last three decades, including Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Induction (FD-EMI) sounding methods. A portable electromagnetic sensor (EMS-NEMFIS), developed at IPGG (Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences), which is based on such principle, is described in this work. Among the various application areas of such an instrument, focus in this work is given to the near-surface investigation of historical resources. The description of the device goes through the following steps: - Architecture of the instrument - Signal extraction principle - Tests and characterization Then, experiences made by using frequency-domain EMI soundings for geophysical applications in archaeology are presented, in order to assess the capability of the approach in such operative framework. In particular, case studies from the South Altay mountains and from Siberia have been selected to be shown in this context. The burial mounds of Pazyryk culture, dated 2500-3000 B.C., can be found over the wide area of South Altay mountains in Russia, Mongolia and China. This nomadic civilization belongs to the group of Mediterranean cultures. These people stayed in the Altay mountains for quite a short time - just a couple of centuries. Maybe they escaped from Europe due to Alexander Makedonsky wars or to some other unknown reason, and then went back to Europe. They burial mounds were kept safe because the wooden funeral cameras were buried into permafrost. However, recently, due to global warming, some of those cameras were melt, leading to a decay process. The information about presence of the ice lens inside of the mound is vital for decision to excavate the mound or not. Dozens of such a mounds were explored using NEMFIS during the years 2005 - 2007. Estimation of presence of the ice in some of them helped to find few good conserved burial cameras and safe a lot of resources for

  19. Applying the physically complete EMI models to the ESTCP Camp Sibert Pilot Study EM-63 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamatava, Irma; Shubitidze, Fridon; Barrowes, Benjamin; Fernández, Juan Pablo; Pasion, Leonard R.; O'Neill, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Recently the SERDP/ESTCP office under the UXO Discrimination Pilot Study Program acquired high-density data over hundreds of targets using time-domain EM-63 sensor at Camp Sibert. The data were inverted and analyzed by various research groups using a simple dipole model approach and different classification tools. The studies demonstrated high discrimination probability with a low false-alarm rate. However in order to further improve discrimination between UXO and non-UXO items a better understanding is needed of the limits of current and emerging processing approaches. In this paper, the simple dipole model and a physically complete model called the normalized surface magnetic source (NSMS) the Camp Sibert data sets. The simple, infinitesimal dipole representation is by far the most widely employed model for UXO modeling. In this model, one approximates a target's response when excited by a primary (transmitted) field using an induced infinitesimal dipole (in turn described by a single magnetic polarizability matrix). The greatest advantage of the dipole model is that it is simple and imposes low computation costs. However, researchers have recently begun to realize the limitations of the simple dipole model as an inherently coarse description of the EMI behavior of complex, heterogeneous targets like UXO. To address these limitations, here the NSMS is employed as a more powerful forward model for data inversion and object discrimination. This method is extremely fast and equally applicable to the time or frequency domains. The object's location and orientation are estimated by using a standard nonlinear inversion-scattering approach. The discrimination performance between the dipole and NSMS models are conducted by investigating model fidelity and data density issues, positional accuracy and geological noise effects.

  20. A Novel Method and Its Application to Measuring Pathogen Decay in Bioaerosols from Patients with Respiratory Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R Johnson

    Full Text Available This work aimed to develop an in vivo approach for measuring the duration of human bioaerosol infectivity. To achieve this, techniques designed to target short-term and long-term bioaerosol aging, were combined in a tandem system and optimized for the collection of human respiratory bioaerosols, without contamination. To demonstrate the technique, cough aerosols were sampled from two persons with cystic fibrosis and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Measurements and cultures from aerosol ages of 10, 20, 40, 900 and 2700 seconds were used to determine the optimum droplet nucleus size for pathogen transport and the airborne bacterial biological decay. The droplet nuclei containing the greatest number of colony forming bacteria per unit volume of airborne sputum were between 1.5 and 2.6 μm. Larger nuclei of 3.9 μm, were more likely to produce a colony when impacted onto growth media, because the greater volume of sputum comprising the larger droplet nuclei, compensated for lower concentrations of bacteria within the sputum of larger nuclei. Although more likely to produce a colony, the larger droplet nuclei were small in number, and the greatest numbers of colonies were instead produced by nuclei from 1.5 to 5.7 μm. Very few colonies were produced by smaller droplet nuclei, despite their very large numbers. The concentration of viable bacteria within the dried sputum comprising the droplet nuclei exhibited an orderly dual decay over time with two distinct half-lives. Nuclei exhibiting a rapid biological decay process with a 10 second half-life were quickly exhausted, leaving only a subset characterized by a half-life of greater than 10 minutes. This finding implied that a subset of bacteria present in the aerosol was resistant to rapid biological decay and remained viable in room air long enough to represent an airborne infection risk.

  1. Study of indoor and ambient air fungual bioaerosols and its relation with particulate matters in a hospital of khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Basiri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The climate change and particulate matter emission contented of bioaerosols is known as an important reason of increasing the allergic interactions especially in patients with defect in immunity system. The aim of this study was to investigate fungal bioaerosol concentrations in relation to particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in indoor parts and ambient air of the generd educational hospital of Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 192 samples (168 for indoor and 24 for outdoor were gathered during 6 months at the seven indoor wards and one outdoor unit using Quick Take-30 method  at an airflow rate of 28.3 L/min and sampling time of 2.5 min on to Sabouraud dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. The sampling of particulate matter was carried out by Monitor Dust-Trak 8520. Also, the relative humidity and temperature were surveyed by TES-1360 digital. Results: The results showed that infectious ward with 101.7 CFU/m3 was as the most contaminated part and operating room with 46.4 CFU/m3 was the cleanest part. Cladosporium with 36.75% and Rodotorolla with 1.3% had higher and lower of fungi rates, respectively. The rate of  I/O<1  illustrate that this contamination had an outdoor source. Conclusion: The surveys demonstrated that the increase of temperature and relative humidity have an effective influence on the pollutant accumulation. In addition, between fungi bioaerosols frequency and particulate matter ther was a significant correlation.

  2. Characterization of Bioaerosols from Dairy Barns: Reconstructing the Puzzle of Occupational Respiratory Diseases by Using Molecular Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Veillette, Marc; Marsolais, David; Duchaine, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    To understand the etiology of exposure-related diseases and to establish standards for reducing the risks associated with working in contaminated environments, the exact nature of the bioaerosol components must be defined. Molecular biology tools were used to evaluate airborne bacterial and, for the first time, archaeal content of dairy barns. Three air samplers were tested in each of the 13 barns sampled. Up to 106 archaeal and 108 bacterial 16S rRNA genes per m3 of air were detected. Archae...

  3. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  4. Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gosselin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols pose risks to human health and agriculture and may influence the evolution of mixed-phase clouds and the hydrological cycle on local and regional scales. The availability and reliability of methods and data on the abundance and properties of atmospheric bioaerosols, however, are rather limited. Here we analyze and compare data from different real-time ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF instruments with results from a culture-based spore sampler and offline molecular tracers for airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Commercial UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer and WIBS-3 (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor, version 3 instruments with different excitation and emission wavelengths were utilized to measure fluorescent aerosol particles (FAPs during both dry weather conditions and periods heavily influenced by rain. Seven molecular tracers of bioaerosols were quantified by analysis of total suspended particle (TSP high-volume filter samples using a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD. From the same measurement campaign, Huffman et al. (2013 previously reported dramatic increases in total and fluorescent particle concentrations during and immediately after rainfall and also showed a strong relationship between the concentrations of FAPs and ice nuclei (Huffman et al., 2013; Prenni et al., 2013. Here we investigate molecular tracers and show that during rainy periods the atmospheric concentrations of arabitol (35.2 ± 10.5 ng m−3 and mannitol (44.9 ± 13.8 ng m−3 were 3–4 times higher than during dry periods. During and after rain, the correlations between FAP and tracer mass concentrations were also significantly improved. Fungal spore number concentrations on the order of 104 m−3, accounting for 2–5 % of TSP mass during dry periods and 17–23 % during rainy

  5. Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité)

  6. Adaptation aux changements climatiques des bassins versants en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les résultats de recherche seront diffusés dans des publications scientifiques à comité de lecture, dans le cadre d'une interaction critique avec la sphère des politiques, ainsi qu'à l'occasion d'un institut d'été destiné aux chercheurs et ... The Trustees of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE).

  7. Foire aux questions: Bourse de recherche 2018 du CRDI | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vous remarquerez que d'importantes modifications ont été apportées aux critères d'admissibilité dans les deux dernières années. 2) Je suis étudiant à la maîtrise. Suis-je admissible à une bourse de recherche ? En principe oui. Toutefois, il est important de lire les spécifications du programme qui vous intéresse, car les ...

  8. Pour en finir avec la violence faite aux Palestiniennes | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 févr. 2011 ... À Gaza, la violence faite aux femmes est, fondamentalement, synonyme de violence au foyer », affirme Aitemad Muhanna, conseillère en recherche. « Les femmes sont battues par leur mari, battues par leur père et même battues par leurs frères. » Les femmes sont battues parce qu'elles ne remplissent ...

  9. CRDI foire aux questions | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1. Quels sont les éléments importants à mentionner dans ma demande d'emploi ? Il importe de démontrer, au moyen d'exemples concrets, de quelle façon vos qualifications correspondent aux exigences du poste en ce qui concerne les études, l'expérience et la langue. 2. Comment saurai-je si ma demande d'emploi a bel ...

  10. La recherche-action participative facilite l'adaptation aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ces travaux comprenaient un riche portefeuille de recherches sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques dans le secteur de l'agriculture. La méthodologie privilégiée dans le cadre du programme, la recherche-action participative, s'est avérée fructueuse et a permis de mettre au point et de déployer des solutions ...

  11. Accroissement du recours aux politiques fiscales dans la lutte ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence de la hausse des taxes sur le tabac et du prix des produits du tabac en Ukraine, en Russie et au Bélarus. La recherche destinée aux responsables des politiques de l'Ukraine, de la Russie et du Bélarus mettra en évidence la façon dont les mesures de taxation des produits du tabac peuvent contribuer.

  12. Soutien aux processus d'élaboration des politiques de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les innovations biotechnologiques, ou bio-innovations, peuvent offrir des solutions aux problèmes liés à la sécurité alimentaire, à la pauvreté et à la détérioration de l'environnement. C'est notamment le cas des plantes génétiquement modifiées (GM), qui permettent d'accroître la production alimentaire tout en réduisant ...

  13. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet porte sur l'élevage du tilapia dans de petits étangs fermiers ou des cages flottantes dans les rivières et les réservoirs du nord de la Thaïlande. Les chercheurs exploreront des façons d'adapter les pratiques aquacoles aux changements climatiques et analyseront la valeur de l'aquaculture comme stratégie ...

  14. Le microdosage des engrais, une innovation qui profite aux femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 juin 2016 ... Plus de 1 000 agriculteurs, dont 30 % sont des femmes, ont ainsi obtenu davantage d'engrais qui ont servi à la production de cultures vivrières. Résultat : les femmes ont augmenté les superficies cultivées en ayant recours aux techniques de microdosage des engrais et de collecte des eaux de pluie, ...

  15. Use of large-scale multi-configuration EMI measurements to characterize heterogeneous subsurface structures and their impact on crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Cosimo; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Kaufmann, Manuela Sarah; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Soil subsurface structures can play a key role in crop performance, especially during water stress periods. Geophysical techniques like electromagnetic induction EMI have been shown to be able of providing information about dominant shallow subsurface features. However, previous work with EMI has typically not reached beyond the field scale. The objective of this study is to use large-scale multi-configuration EMI to characterize patterns of soil structural organization (layering and texture) and the associated impact on crop vegetation at the km2 scale. For this, we carried out an intensive measurement campaign and collected high spatial resolution multi-configuration EMI data on an agricultural area of approx. 1 km2 (102 ha) near Selhausen (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) with a maximum depth of investigation of around 2.5 m. We measured using two EMI instruments simultaneously with a total of nine coil configurations. The instruments were placed inside polyethylene sleds that were pulled by an all-terrain-vehicle along parallel lines with a spacing of 2 to 2.5 m. The driving speed was between 5 and 7 km h-1 and we used a 0.2 Hz sampling frequency to obtain an in-line resolution of approximately 0.3 m. The survey area consists of almost 50 different fields managed in different way. The EMI measurements were collected between April and December 2016 within a few days after the harvest of each field. After data acquisition, EMI data were automatically filtered, temperature corrected, and interpolated onto a common grid. The resulting EMI maps allowed us to identify three main areas with different subsurface heterogeneities. The differences between these areas are likely related to the late quaternary geological history (Pleistocene and Holocene) of the area that resulted in spatially variable soil texture and layering, which has a strong impact on spatio-temporal soil water content variability. The high resolution surveys also allowed us to identify small scale

  16. A study on EMI shielding enhancement behaviors of Ni-plated CFs-reinforced polymer matrix composites by post heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Woo; Han, Woong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Byung-Joo; An, Kay-Hyeok

    2017-09-01

    In order to develop the high quality electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI-SE) materials, Ni-plated carbon fiber fabrics (Ni-CFFs) were prepared by an electroless method. Effects of post heat-treatment conditions on EMI-SE and electrical conductivity of Ni-CFFs/epoxy composites were also investigated. The morphologies and structural properties of Ni-CFFs were measured by a SEM and a XRD. It was found that all the Ni peaks increased with increasing post-heat treatment temperature, indicating that some impurities were removed and nickel particle sharp crystalline peaks. Also, It was found that the EMI-SE of composites enhanced was increased after post heat-treatment. In the frequency range of electromagnetic wave occurred from appliances (3.0 × 107-6.0 × 108), EMI-SE of post-heat treatment Ni-CFs was increased. This result concludes that the EMI-SE of the composites can be enhanced according to the microstructure of Ni in the Ni-CFFs/epoxy composites.

  17. Bioaerosol emissions and detection of airborne antibiotic resistance genes from a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Liantong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Xu, Caijia; Dong, Liming; Yao, Maosheng

    2016-01-01

    Air samples from twelve sampling sites (including seven intra-plant sites, one upwind site and four downwind sites) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing were collected using a Reuter Centrifugal Sampler High Flow (RCS); and their microbial fractions were studied using culturing and high throughput gene sequence. In addition, the viable (fluorescent) bioaerosol concentrations for 7 intra-plant sites were also monitored for 30 min each using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS). Both air and water samples collected from the plant were investigated for possible bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and integrons using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the air near sludge thickening basin was detected to have the highest level of culturable bacterial aerosols (up to 1697 CFU/m3) and fungal aerosols (up to 930 CFU/m3). For most sampling sites, fluorescent peaks were observed at around 3-4 μm, except the office building with a peak at 1.5 μm, with a number concentration level up to 1233-6533 Particles/m3. About 300 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, such as Comamonas Testosteroni and Moraxella Osloensis, were detected from the air samples collected over the biological reaction basin. In addition, we have detected the sul2 gene resistant to cotrimoxazole (also known as septra, bactrim and TMP-SMX) and class 1 integrase gene from the air samples collected from the screen room and the biological reaction basin. Overall, the screen room, sludge thickening basin and biological reaction basin imposed significant microbial exposure risks, including those from airborne antibiotic resistance genes.

  18. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  19. Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha A. M. Harper

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and afternoon at each site on each sampling day. The rooms were divided into two groups: Group 1, in which morning sampling was post-cleaning and afternoon sampling was during activity, and Group 2, in which morning sampling was pre-cleaning and afternoon sampling was post-cleaning. The total aerobic bacterial plate counts per m3 and bacterial identification were done using standard microbiological methods. Results: A total of 14 bacterial genera were isolated with the most frequent being Micrococcus spp. followed by species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. There was a significant interaction between location and time for rooms in Group 1 (p=0.0028 but not in Group 2 (p>0.05. Microbial counts for rooms in Group 2 were significantly greater in the mornings than in the afternoon (p=0.0049. The microbial counts were also significantly different between some rooms (p=0.0333. Conclusion: The detection of significantly higher airborne microbial loads in different rooms at different times of the day suggests that the probability of acquiring nosocomial infections is higher at these times and locations.

  20. Toward a rapid 3D spectral deconvolution of EMI conductivities measured with portable multi-configuration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemoteau, Julien; Tronicke, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Portable loop-loop electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors using multiple coil configurations are of growing interest in hydrological, archaeological and agricultural studies for mapping the subsurface electrical conductivity. In contrast with EMI methods employing larger scale geometries (e.g., magnetotellurics, marine EM, airborne EM, transient EM, large offset loop-loop harmonic source EM), the portable EMI multi-configuration sensors operate in the low induction number (LIN) domain as they employ a rather low frequency harmonic source (the LIN domain, electrical conductivity has a minor effect on the forward modelling kernel. Accordingly, we have developed an algorithm to model this kind of data, which is based on a homogeneous half-space kernel. By formulating the problem in the hybrid spectral-spatial domain (kx, ky, z), we show that it is possible to generate large data maps containing more than 100,000 stations within a minute on a standard modern laptop computer. We compared this forward modelling approach to a robust approach based on the integral equation (IE) method. Our results show that, as long as the LIN approximation is fulfilled (i.e., for the system of interest, if the electrical conductivity is smaller than 0.5 S/m), the linear theory allows to accurately and robustly handle the structural characteristics of the subsurface conductivity distribution. We therefore expect that our forward modelling procedure can be implemented in rapid multi-channel deconvolution procedures in order to rapidly extract the structural properties of the subsurface conductivity distribution from data sets acquired across rather large (hectare scale) areas.

  1. Identification and Simulation of Subsurface Soil patterns using hidden Markov random fields and remote sensing and geophysical EMI data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wellmann, Florian; Verweij, Elizabeth; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Lateral and vertical spatial heterogeneity of subsurface properties such as soil texture and structure influences the available water and resource supply for crop growth. High-resolution mapping of subsurface structures using non-invasive geo-referenced geophysical measurements, like electromagnetic induction (EMI), enables a characterization of 3D soil structures, which have shown correlations to remote sensing information of the crop states. The benefit of EMI is that it can return 3D subsurface information, however the spatial dimensions are limited due to the labor intensive measurement procedure. Although active and passive sensors mounted on air- or space-borne platforms return 2D images, they have much larger spatial dimensions. Combining both approaches provides us with a potential pathway to extend the detailed 3D geophysical information to a larger area by using remote sensing information. In this study, we aim at extracting and providing insights into the spatial and statistical correlation of the geophysical and remote sensing observations of the soil/vegetation continuum system. To this end, two key points need to be addressed: 1) how to detect and recognize the geometric patterns (i.e., spatial heterogeneity) from multiple data sets, and 2) how to quantitatively describe the statistical correlation between remote sensing information and geophysical measurements. In the current study, the spatial domain is restricted to shallow depths up to 3 meters, and the geostatistical database contains normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from RapidEye satellite images and apparent electrical conductivities (ECa) measured from multi-receiver EMI sensors for nine depths of exploration ranging from 0-2.7 m. The integrated data sets are mapped into both the physical space (i.e. the spatial domain) and feature space (i.e. a two-dimensional space framed by the NDVI and the ECa data). Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) are employed to model the

  2. New insights into broad spectrum communities of the Early Holocene Near East: The birds of Hallan Çemi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeder, Melinda A.; Spitzer, Megan D.

    2016-11-01

    The Early Holocene in Near East was a pivotal transitional period that witnessed dramatic changes in climate and environment, human settlement, major changes in subsistence strategies focusing on a broad range of different plant and animal resources, and a radical restructuring of social relations. The remarkable corpus of avifauna from the Early Holocene site of Hallan Çemi in southeastern Turkey sheds new light on key issues about this dynamic period that has been termed the ;Broad Spectrum Revolution;. The avifauna from this important site demonstrate how Hallan Çemi occupants took advantage of the site's strategic location at the junction of multiple environmental zones by extracting a diverse range of seasonally available resources from both near-by and more distant eco-zones to cobble together a stable subsistence economy capable of supporting this small community throughout the year. They give testimony to the impacts of resource utilization over time, especially on species unable to rebound from sustained human hunting. At the same time, they show how Hallan Çemi residents mitigated these impacts by replacing depleted resources with alternative, more resilient ones that could be more sustainably harvested. They open a window onto the growing investment in feasting and ritual activity that helped bind this community together. In so doing they provide a means of empirically evaluating the efficacy of contrasting explanatory frameworks for the Broad Spectrum Revolution that gave rise to the subsequent domestication of plant and animals in the Near East. Contrary to frameworks that cast these developments as responses to resource depression, lessons learned from the Hallan Çemi avifauna lend support to frameworks that emphasize the human capacity to strategically target, capitalize, and improve upon circumscribed resource rich environments in a way that permits more permanent occupation of these niches. And they underscore the degree to which social and

  3. Mutational studies of the Aux/IAA proteins in Physcomitrella reveal novel insights into their function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sibo; Estelle, Mark

    2018-02-20

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin signaling involves hormone perception by the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE/AUXIN F-BOX (TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA co-receptor system, and the subsequent degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. This leads to the activation of downstream gene expression and diverse physiological responses. Here, we investigate how the structural elements in the Aux/IAAs determine their function in Auxin perception and transcriptional repression. We took advantage of the facile genetics of the moss Physcomitrella patens to determine the activity of wild-type and mutant PpIAA1a proteins in a Δaux/iaa null background. In this way, Aux/IAA function was characterized at the molecular and physiological levels without the interference of genetic redundancy. We identified and characterized degron variants in Aux/IAAs that affect their stability and Auxin response. We also demonstrated that neither the Aux/IAA EAR motif nor Aux/IAA oligomerization is essential for the repressive function of Aux/IAA. Our study demonstrates how key elements within the Aux/IAA proteins fine tune stability and repressor activity, as well as the long-term developmental outcome. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Biophysical analysis of bacterial and viral systems. A shock tube study of bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/nanosims investigation of vaccinia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Sean Damien [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The work presented herein is concerned with the development of biophysical methodology designed to address pertinent questions regarding the behavior and structure of select pathogenic agents. Two distinct studies are documented: a shock tube analysis of endospore-laden bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/NanoSIMS study of the structure of vaccinia virus.

  5. Investigation of the Efficiencies of Bioaerosol Samplers for Collecting Aerosolized Bacteria Using a Fluorescent Tracer. II: Sampling Efficiency and Half-Life Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Doornenbal, P.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Landman, W.J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using uranine as a physical tracer, this study assessed the sampling efficiencies of four bioaerosol samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all glass impinger “AGI-30,” OMNI-3000, and Airport MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria

  6. An Effective Surrogate Tracer Technique for S. aureus Bioaerosols in a Mechanically Ventilated Hospital Room Replica Using Dilute Aqueous Lithium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco-Felipe King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding a non-pathogenic surrogate aerosol that represents the deposition of typical bioaerosols in healthcare settings is beneficial from the perspective of hospital facility testing, general infection control and outbreak analysis. This study considers aerosolization of dilute aqueous lithium chloride (LiCl and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions as surrogate tracers capable of representing Staphylococcus aureus bioaerosol deposition on surfaces in mechanically ventilated rooms. Tests were conducted in a biological test chamber set up as a replica hospital single patient room. Petri dishes on surfaces were used to collect the Li, Na and S. aureus aerosols separately after release. Biological samples were analyzed using cultivation techniques on solid media, and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure Li and Na atom concentrations. Spatial deposition distribution of Li tracer correlated well with S. aureus aerosols (96% of pairs within a 95% confidence interval. In the patient hospital room replica, results show that the most contaminated areas were on surfaces 2 m away from the source. This indicates that the room’s airflow patterns play a significant role in bioaerosol transport. NaCl proved not to be sensitive to spatial deposition patterns. LiCl as a surrogate tracer for bioaerosol deposition was most reliable as it was robust to outliers, sensitive to spatial heterogeneity and found to require less replicates than the S. aureus counterpart to be in good spatial agreement with biological results.

  7. Investigation of the Efficiencies of Bioaerosol Samplers for Collecting Aerosolized Bacteria Using a Fluorescent Tracer. I: Effects of Non-sampling Processes on Bacterial Culturability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Doornenbal, P.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    By sampling aerosolized microorganisms, the efficiency of a bioaerosol sampler can be calculated depending on its ability both to collect microorganisms and to preserve their culturability during a sampling process. However, those culturability losses in the non-sampling processes should not be

  8. Atmospheric bioaerosols originating from Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae): Ecological observations of airborne bacteria at Hukuro Cove, Langhovde, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Noda, Takuji; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Takahashi, Akinori; Imura, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between atmospheric bioaerosols and ecosystems is currently of global importance. Antarctica has an extreme climate, meaning that ecosystem behavior in this region is relatively simple. Direct sampling of atmospheric bioaerosols was performed at an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony at Hukuro Cove, Langhovde, Antarctica on 22 January 2013. The aim of the sampling was to reveal the effect of the penguins on the Antarctic ecosystem within the atmospheric bioaerosols. Samples were bio-analyzed using a next-generation sequencing method. Biomass concentrations of Bacilli-class bacteria were 19.4 times higher when sampled leeward of the penguin colony compared with windward sampling. The source of these bacteria was the feces of the penguins. Predicted atmospheric trajectories indicate that the bacteria disperse towards the Southern Ocean. The largest biomass concentration in the windward bacteria was of the Gammaproteobacteria class, which decreased markedly with distance through the penguin colony, being deposited on soil, surface water, and ocean. It is concluded that bioaerosols and ecosystems near the penguin colony strongly influence each other.

  9. Final Test Report: Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    The test results for Salt Spray Resistance, Static Heat and Humidity and Marine Environment can be found in Sections 3.1.3.3, 3.1.4.3 and 3.1.5.3 respectively. In summary, both the Metalast TCP and SurTec 650 Type 2 conversion coatings perform very similar to the incumbent Type 1 conversion coating against both 6061 and 5052 aluminum under all three test conditions. Significant prior work was performed to select the aluminum and conversion coating included within this test cycle; Reference - NASA GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Final Pretreatments Test Report Task Order: NNH12AA45D September 01, 2013. As illustrated in the data, the 6061 aluminum panels SLIGHTLY out-performed the 5052 aluminum panels. Individual shielding effectiveness graphs for each panel are included within Appendix C and D. One other notable effect found during review of the data is that the Test Panels exposed to B117 Salt Fog reduced in shielding effectiveness significantly more than the Marine Environment Test Panels. The shielding effectiveness of the Marine Test Panels was approximately 20dB higher than the Test Panels that underwent B117 Salt Fog Exposure. The intent of this evaluation was not to maximize shielding effectiveness values. The same Parker Chomerics Cho-Seal 6503 gasket material was used for all panels with aluminum and conversion coating variants. A typical EMI gasket design for corrosive environments would be done quite differently. The intent was to execute a test that would provide the best possible evaluation of different aluminum materials and conversion coatings in corrosive environments. The test program achieved this intent. The fact that the two aluminums and two Type II conversion coatings performed similar to the incumbent Type 1 conversion coating is a positive outcome. It was desired to have an outcome that further differentiation the performance of two aluminum types and two conversion coating types but this could not be extracted by the test

  10. A next generation sequencing approach with a suitable bioinformatics workflow to study fungal diversity in bioaerosols released from two different types of composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbareche, Hamza; Veillette, Marc; Bonifait, Laetitia; Dubuis, Marie-Eve; Benard, Yves; Marchand, Geneviève; Bilodeau, Guillaume J; Duchaine, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    Composting is used all over the world to transform different types of organic matter through the actions of complex microbial communities. Moving and handling composting material may lead to the emission of high concentrations of bioaerosols. High exposure levels are associated with adverse health effects among compost industry workers. Fungal spores are suspected to play a role in many respiratory illnesses. There is a paucity of information related to the detailed fungal diversity in compost as well as in the aerosols emitted through composting activities. The aim of this study was to analyze the fungal diversity of both organic matter and aerosols present in facilities that process domestic compost and facilities that process pig carcasses. This was accomplished using a next generation sequencing approach that targets the ITS1 genomic region. Multivariate analyses revealed differences in the fungal community present in samples coming from compost treating both raw materials. Furthermore, results show that the compost type affects the fungal diversity of aerosols emitted. Although 8 classes were evenly distributed in all samples, Eurotiomycetes were more dominant in carcass compost while Sordariomycetes were dominant in domestic compost. A large diversity profile was observed in bioaerosols from both compost types showing the presence of a number of pathogenic fungi newly identified in bioaerosols emitted from composting plants. Members of the family Herpotrichiellaceae and Gymnoascaceae which have been shown to cause human diseases were detected in compost and air samples. Moreover, some fungi were identified in higher proportion in air compared to compost. This is the first study to identify a high level of fungal diversity in bioaerosols present in composting plants suggesting a potential exposure risk for workers. This study suggests the need for creating guidelines that address human exposure to bioaerosols. The implementation of technical and organizational

  11. One year record of bioaerosols and particles concentration in Indo-Gangetic Plain: Implications of biomass burning emissions to high-level of endotoxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Anjum, Manzar Hussain; Gupta, Tarun

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies worldwide have suggested the potential role of bioaerosols as ice-nuclei and cloud-condensation nuclei. Furthermore, their participation in regulating the global carbon cycle urges systematic studies from different environmental conditions throughout the globe. Towards this through one-year study, conducted from June 2015-May 2016, we report on atmospheric abundance and variability of viable bioaerosols, organic carbon (OC) and particles number and deduced mass concentrations from Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP; at Kanpur). Among viable bioaerosols, the highest concentrations of Gram-positive bacteria (GPB), Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and Fungi were recorded during December-January (Avg.: 189 CFU/m 3 ), November (244 CFU/m 3 ) and September months (188 CFU/m 3 ), respectively. Annual average concentration of GPB, GNB and Fungi were 105 ± 58, 144 ± 82 and 116 ± 51 CFU/m 3 . Particle number concentration (PNC) associated with fine-fraction aerosols (FFA) predominates throughout the year. However, mineral dust (coarser particle) remains a perennial constituent of atmospheric aerosols over the IGP. Temporal variability records and significant positive linear relationship (p meteorological parameters on viable bioaerosols abundance has been rigorously investigated herein. Accordingly, ambient temperature seems to be more affecting the bacteria (anti-correlation), whereas wet-precipitation (1-4 mm) relates to higher abundance of Fungi. High abundance of GNB during large-scale biomass burning emissions has implications to endotoxin exposure on human health. Field-based data-set of bioaerosols, OC, PNC and deduced mass concentrations reported herein could serve to better constraint their role in human health and climate relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Common-Mode EMI Reduction in Switching Flyback Power Supply by Implementing Cancellation Method of Heat-Sink Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rouholah Yazdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic compatibility in switching power converters which are noise sources themselves, has a special importance. Electromagnetic interference (EMI in the form of conducted or radiated reaches to sensitive sections and interferes with their operation. On the other, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC standards causes another forces to reduce noise in switching converters. Major part of noise is due to the common-mode (CM current passes through parasitic elements to the circuit ground (Earth. One of the important parasitic elements from the CM noise viewpoint is the switch heat-sink capacitor (common-mode capacitor. In this paper, a cancellation method of the heat-sink capacitor via a passive circuit is proposed in a 50W isolated flyback converter and is also modeled in OrCAD software. Also, experimental measurement results of the CM electromagnetic interference in regular and proposed flyback converter prototypes are presented to examine the modeling accuracy. Based on the experimental results, significant reduction of CM-EMI is verified after applying the cancellation method of the heat-sink capacitor.

  13. Penerapan Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP untuk Sistem Informasi Pembelian, Persedian dan Penjualan Barang pada Toko EMI GROSIR dan ECERAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On Emi Store wholesale and retail business processes of purchasing, inventory, and sales are still made in the traditional and manual. This led to some problems, among others, is often an error occurred recording of purchases and sales of goods, calculation of the transaction, as well as the latest information the availability of goods in the warehouse. Therefore, it is necessary the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system for purchase information, inventory, and sales of goods aimed at overcoming these problems. ERP implementation stage began with the study of introduction. Its activities namely the introduction of the company as a whole with interviews and observation, identifying the business processes of purchasing, inventory, and sales of goods that are currently running and then make a proposal system in terkomputerisasinya, which is described by using the Business Process Model Notation (BPMN, as well as the depiction of a working model of the system to be applied using use case diagrams. The next stage is to conduct a study of the literature of a variety of books and journals to find a foundation theory and related research. Then do the selection of ERP software, configuration and customization of the ERP software modules, as well as the last application and testing. The results of this study indicate that ERP software that have been selected and applied IE applications can address in Odoo Stores Emi wholesale and retail.

  14. Un meilleur accès des pauvres aux produits d'assurance : politiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un meilleur accès des pauvres aux produits d'assurance : politiques, réglementation et surveillance de la microassurance. Ce projet a pour objectif de faciliter l'accès des pauvres aux produits d'assurance afin de réduire leur vulnérabilité face aux risques. Pour ce faire, des études de cas seront réalisées dans cinq pays.

  15. Risques et possibilités liés aux changements climatiques pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... sociaux et environnementaux précis. Le projet permettra de diffuser des résultats aux milieux d'affaires, aux professionnels du développement, et aux principaux décideurs. Le partenaire local, Fundación Impulsora de un Nuevo Sector en la Economia Sistema B, possède des bureaux au Chili, en Colombie et au Pérou.

  16. Lancement de l'appel des bourses du CRDI aux chercheurs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 avr. 2018 ... Cet appel à propositions s'adresse aux citoyens canadiens, aux résidents permanents du Canada et aux citoyens de pays en développement inscrits au doctorat dans une université canadienne. Ces bourses servent à financer la réalisation de travaux de recherche sur le terrain visant à améliorer les ...

  17. Culturable bioaerosols along an urban waterfront are primarily associated with coarse particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Montero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The source, characteristics and transport of viable microbial aerosols in urban centers are topics of significant environmental and public health concern. Recent studies have identified adjacent waterways, and especially polluted waterways, as an important source of microbial aerosols to urban air. The size of these aerosols influences how far they travel, their resistance to environmental stress, and their inhalation potential. In this study, we utilize a cascade impactor and aerosol particle monitor to characterize the size distribution of particles and culturable bacterial and fungal aerosols along the waterfront of a New York City embayment. We seek to address the potential contribution of bacterial aerosols from local sources and to determine how their number, size distribution, and taxonomic identity are affected by wind speed and wind direction (onshore vs. offshore. Total culturable microbial counts were higher under offshore winds (average of 778 CFU/m3 ± 67, with bacteria comprising the majority of colonies (58.5%, as compared to onshore winds (580 CFU/m3 ± 110 where fungi were dominant (87.7%. The majority of cultured bacteria and fungi sampled during both offshore winds (88% and onshore winds (72% were associated with coarse aerosols (>2.1 µm, indicative of production from local sources. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.05 of wind speed with both total and coarse culturable microbial aerosol concentrations. Taxonomic analysis, based on DNA sequencing, showed that Actinobacteria was the dominant phylum among aerosol isolates. In particular, Streptomyces and Bacillus, both spore forming genera that are often soil-associated, were abundant under both offshore and onshore wind conditions. Comparisons of bacterial communities present in the bioaerosol sequence libraries revealed that particle size played an important role in microbial aerosol taxonomy. Onshore and offshore coarse libraries were found to be most similar

  18. Résistance aux antibiotiques de Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    2001 : séquençage du génome de Yersinia pestis2004 : séquençage du génome de Rattus norvegicus. Une des préoccupations majeures du Programme national de lutte contre la peste (PNLP) à Madagascar est la surveillance de la sensibilité des souches de Y. pestis aux antibiotiques classiquement utilisables dans le traitement de cette maladie (streptomycine, tétracycline, chloramphénicol, gentamycine, sulfaméthoxazole-triméthoprime, ampicilline). Le PNLP recommande la chimioprophylaxie des sujets co...

  19. Foire aux questions: Bourse de recherche 2017 du CRDI | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1) Si l'on décide de m'attribuer une bourse de recherche, aurai-je besoin d'un permis de travail ? Veuillez lire les détails sur ce sujet sous la rubrique Admissibilité à la page Web de l'appel. Vous remarquerez que d'importantes modifications ont été apportées aux critères d'admissibilité cette année. 2) Je suis étudiant à la ...

  20. Aspects Phenotypiques De La Resistance Aux Β- Lactamines Des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Décrire les phénotypes de résistance aux bèta-lactamines des souches de Pseudomonas aeruginosa par la technique de l'antibiogramme en milieu gélosé. Matériel et méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude transversale réalisée du 1er septembre 2011 au 29 février 2012 sur des souches de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...

  1. Indoor air quality in a middle school, Part II: Development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, P A; Paulius, V K; Curtis, L; Conroy, L M

    2000-11-01

    A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, Illinois, with no known air quality problems, was selected for a baseline indoor air quality survey. The study was designed to measure and evaluate air quality at the middle school with the objective of providing a benchmark for comparisons with measurements in schools with potential air quality problems. The focus of this article is on the development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols. The school was characterized as having no health complaints and good maintenance schedules. Four indoor locations including the cafeteria, a science classroom, an art classroom, the lobby outside the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February 1997. Integrated samples (eight-hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements (two-minute samples, three times per day) for bioaerosols were collected on three consecutive days at each of the sampling sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the lobby area. A linear relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. A completely mixed space, one compartment mass balance model with estimated CO2 generation rates and actual CO2 and particulate matter concentrations was used to model ventilation and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors for occupancy were represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy scatter plots. The following particle and bioaerosol emission factors were derived from the indoor measurements: total particles: 1.28 mg/hr/person-hr; respirable particles: 0.154 g/hr/person-hr; total fungi: 167 CFU/hr/person-min; thermophilic fungi: 35.8 CFU/hr/person-min; mesophilic fungi: 119 CFU/hr/person-min; total

  2. Investigation of type and density of bio-aerosols in air samples from educational hospital wards of Kerman city, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bio-aerosols in the air of hospital wards have an important role in the development of infections. It is important to make quantitative and qualitative estimations of microorganisms in the air of these wards as an index for environmental hygiene applicable to different hospital wards. The aim of the study was to investigate degrees of diversity and density of bio-aerosols in the education hospitals of Kerman city. Methods: This study applied a descriptive-cross-sectional methodology in the second half of 2014 in the education hospitals of Kerman city, with bed capacity of over 300. As many as 200 samples were collected from the air in different wards of each hospital using the standard method of the National Occupational Health and Safety Institute. Following collection, samples were placed in an incubator for 48 hours and then bio-aerosol detections were made for and resulting data reported as colonies/m3. Results: Results indicated that maximum and minimum degrees of bacterial density were observed in operation rooms and in the intensive care unit (ICU of Shafa hospital. Furthermore, comparison showedthat the operating room at Afzalipour hospital had the lowest level of fungal contamination, while ICU at Bahonar hospital had the highest level of fungal contamination. The emitted fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium along with the bacteria, staphylococci and Acinetobacter had greater frequencies. The means of bacterial density and fungal density were not equal across the studied hospitals and significant statistical, difference was observed between means of bacterial and fungal density (P ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Amounts of bacterial and fungal density were greater than those proposed in the American Industrial Health State Conference in 73.3% of the wards in the educational hospitals of Kerman city sampled in this study. Therefore it is suggested that implementation of some, necessary measures for continuous monitoring, promotion of

  3. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'&e...

  4. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  5. EMI performance comparison of two-level and three-level inverters in small dc-link capacitors based motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.

    2012-01-01

    The size of passive components in an adjustable speed drive can be reduced by using small dc-link capacitors. The EMI filter in the drive also consists of passive components. The size of the filter can be reduced by using a three-level inverter, which can have low output voltage distortion. Howev....... Results show that the conducted emission from the three-level inverter is lower than that of the two-level inverter. Thus, a three-level inverter requires a smaller EMI filter in motor drives with small dc-link capacitors.......The size of passive components in an adjustable speed drive can be reduced by using small dc-link capacitors. The EMI filter in the drive also consists of passive components. The size of the filter can be reduced by using a three-level inverter, which can have low output voltage distortion. However......, the three-level inverter based on small dc-link capacitors requires a PWM strategy to maintain neutral-point voltage balance. In this paper, the common mode voltage, which is the determining factor for the EMI filter size, is analyzed for a virtual-vector-based PWM strategy. The common mode voltage...

  6. Microbial contents of vacuum cleaner bag dust and emitted bioaerosols and their implications for human exposure indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, Marc; Knibbs, Luke D; Pelletier, Ariane; Charlebois, Remi; Blais Lecours, Pascale; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Duchaine, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    Vacuum cleaners can release large concentrations of particles, both in their exhaust air and from resuspension of settled dust. However, the size, variability, and microbial diversity of these emissions are unknown, despite evidence to suggest they may contribute to allergic responses and infection transmission indoors. This study aimed to evaluate bioaerosol emission from various vacuum cleaners. We sampled the air in an experimental flow tunnel where vacuum cleaners were run, and their airborne emissions were sampled with closed-face cassettes. Dust samples were also collected from the dust bag. Total bacteria, total archaea, Penicillium/Aspergillus, and total Clostridium cluster 1 were quantified with specific quantitative PCR protocols, and emission rates were calculated. Clostridium botulinum and antibiotic resistance genes were detected in each sample using endpoint PCR. Bacterial diversity was also analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), image analysis, and band sequencing. We demonstrated that emission of bacteria and molds (Penicillium/Aspergillus) can reach values as high as 1E5 cell equivalents/min and that those emissions are not related to each other. The bag dust bacterial and mold content was also consistent across the vacuums we assessed, reaching up to 1E7 bacterial or mold cell equivalents/g. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected in several samples. No archaea or C. botulinum was detected in any air samples. Diversity analyses showed that most bacteria are from human sources, in keeping with other recent results. These results highlight the potential capability of vacuum cleaners to disseminate appreciable quantities of molds and human-associated bacteria indoors and their role as a source of exposure to bioaerosols.

  7. Protection de la communauté urbaine de Cotonou face aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Protection de la communauté urbaine de Cotonou face aux changements climatiques (Bénin). Ce projet vise à renforcer la capacité d'adaptation des populations de la communauté urbaine de Cotonou aux inondations. Il le fera en mettant en oeuvre un processus participatif de diagnostic, d'analyse et de planification de ...

  8. Un observatoire régional pour l'adaptation des producteurs aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 avr. 2016 ... La présente note est le fruit de deux projets subventionnés par le programme Adaptation aux changements climatiques en Afrique : le projet de recherche InfoClim : plateforme pour l'adaptation des communautés vulnérables aux ... Participatory GIS for resource management in Africa: Taking stock.

  9. Un accès difficile aux services essentiels | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 oct. 2015 ... Mise à jour | Villes sûres et inclusives​ Quelles sont les causes de la violence urbaine ? Un accès difficile aux services essentiels peut fomenter la concurrence et les conflits entre les groupes. Des solutions possibles ? Rendre accessibles aux communautés vulnérables l'eau potable, les services ...

  10. Lightweight nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) and Al nanoparticles: Structural, thermal and mechanical characterization and EMI shielding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz-Andrés, J., E-mail: jarranz@ictp.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros (ICTP-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Pulido-González, N. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros (ICTP-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Fonseca, C. [POLCA, Departamento de Química Industrial y Polímeros, E. T. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia, 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Pérez, E.; Cerrada, M.L. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros (ICTP-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Novel (nano)composites based on PVDF and different content of Al nanoparticles have been prepared in order to learn about their electromagnetic interference shielding capability. Very promising results are obtained, with an excellent balance between shielding and sample weight, so that these materials are potentially good alternatives to replace neat metals for that application. Moreover, a complete structural and morphological characterization, as well as an evaluation of their thermal and mechanical behavior, has been also performed. - Graphical abstract: EMI shielding capability in lightweight nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) and Al nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Novel hybrids based on PVDF and different contents of Al nanoparticles have been prepared. • A complete characterization of the nanocomposites has been performed. • Interactions between PVDF matrix and Al nanoparticles are deduced from FTIR. • Attenuation of the electromagnetic radiation increases spectacularly with the Al content.

  11. Computed tomography in neoplastic diseases of the skull base and adjacent areas using EMI scanner CT-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yoshimi; Ohtake, Eiji; Asakura, Koichi; Tanohata, Kazunori; Ito, Otomasa

    1980-01-01

    CT-findings of 145 patients with and without neoplastic diseases of the skull base were evaluated using EMI CT-1000. Analysis of 64 patients without any lesion at the skull base showed more artifacts compared with that of higher slices, so that good or fair images were obtained only in 64% of this groups of patients. The most important factor in producing artifacts are considered to be caused by patient's movement. We also evaluated the tumor extension to the skull base in 81 patients. They were 24 brain tumors, 21 pituitary adenomas, and 36 nasopharyngeal and paranasal cancers. Four out of 24 brain tumors showed extracranial extension, 12 pituitary adenomas infiltrating outside of the sella turcica, and 10 cases of nasopharyngeal cancers showed intracranial extension. It was concluded that CT presented an excellent information in evaluating the degree of extension of neoplasms which invading to the skull base. (author)

  12. Carthage : la ‘Fontaine aux mille amphores’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Laporte

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Découverte par L. Carton en 1918, puis dégagée sous sa direction en 1919, la « Fontaine aux 1000 amphores » est aujourd’hui inaccessible. On peut cependant l’étudier grâce à différents textes, un plan et une coupe, ainsi que des cartes postales des années 1920-1935 environ . On pourra se demander quelle était la nature et la destination exacte de ce monument qui a connu plusieurs importants remaniements successifs. Il s’agissait en fait d’une source sacrée, probablement aménagée en nymphée, avec toutes les caractéristiques, maintenant bien connues, de ce genre d’établissement.

  13. L’ethnologue aux prises avec les archives - Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Dominique Mouton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Les textes présentés ici invitent à une réflexion sur les matériaux de terrain et plus largement sur la relation qui unit l’ethnologue aux archives, qu’il s’agisse des siennes, données vivantes, inspiratrices de sa recherche, de celles de ses aînés, devenues objets d’étude après leur dépôt dans une institution, ou de toutes les autres archives, constituées et rassemblées, à différentes époques, dans des perspectives administratives, juridiques, historiques ou religieuses, envisagées ici au tr...

  14. Time-course monitoring of urban bioaerosol bacterial communities and its use in microbial hazard identification during Asian Dust events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microbial communities transported by Asian dust events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported airborne microbes may strongly influence the downwind ecosystems and potentially human health in East Asia. Bioaerosol study has received relatively little attention and their characterization and risk assessments remain poorly developed. We used high throughput 16S rRNA gene targeted pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor airborne bacterial communities and assess their potential risk. We monitored microbial communities in bioaerosol in Seoul between 2011 and 2013 using high volume air samplers. Six samples were collected during Asian dust (AD) events and the other 34 samples were urban air collected during non-Asian dust (non-AD) events. According to the qPCR result, the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes were significantly higher during the AD events (P culture methods. 16S rRNA gene sequences of several pathogens were detected and their relative abundances appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM10. About 1% of Bacillus isolates were identified as known pathogenic B. cereus, confirming their presence in Asian dust samples. The qPCR detection of bceT gene, which codes for an enterotoxin in B. cereus group, was significantly increased in the AD dust samples over the non-AD samples. The following MLST assessment and virulence test of cultivated Bacillus isolates showed that B. cereus, B. licheniformis and B. mycoides were identified as pathogenic bacteria, and these pathogenic bacteria were usually more abundant during AD events. To assess the possible associations of identified pathogens on the hospital stroke admissions of residents in Seoul, we identified sixteen bioaerosol episodes using Poisson regression and calculated relative risk. The findings are useful in building a database for bacterial pathogens in AD events.

  15. The on-line detection of biological particle emissions from selected agricultural materials using the WIBS-4 (Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, David J.; Healy, David A.; Sodeau, John R.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural activities have, for some time, been linked to adverse health effects such as Farmers' lung, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, aspergillosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) This connection is known to be, at least in part, due to the numerous microbiological organisms that live and grow on materials found in occupational settings such as barns, animal shelters, stables and composting sites. Traditional techniques for determining biological release of fungal spores and bacteria require intensive, experienced human resources and considerable time to determine ambient concentrations. However more recently the fluorescence and light scattering signals obtained from primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) have been utilised for their near real-time counting and characterisation abilities. In the current study, data collected for the bioaerosol types released from hay and silage were counted and identified using a combination of the WIBS-4 bioaerosol sensor approach and impaction/optical microscopy. Particle emissions were characterised according to particle numbers, their size distributions, particle asymmetry values and fluorescence characteristics. The variables obtained were shown to provide potential “fingerprint” signatures for PBAP emissions emanating from two important compost components, namely, silage and hay. Comparisons between the data acquired by the WIBS-4 bioaerosol sensor, optical microscopy findings and also previous literature suggest that the likely identification of Aspergillus/Penicillium type spores and bacterial species released from hay and silage was achieved on a relatively rapid time-scale.

  16. Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

  17. Transferts aux petites échelles : application au rayonnement thermique, aux forces de Casimir et à la conduction thermique

    OpenAIRE

    Joulain, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Cette habilitation traite des transferts de chaleur et de quantité de mouvement aux courtes échelles d'espace et de temps. Une première partie du travail s'interesse au propriétés du rayonnement thermique en champ proche. Il est montré qu'en présence de matériaux supportant des ondes de surface, le champ électromagnétique d'origine thermique peut voir ses propriétés de cohérence changées entre le champ proche et le champ lointain, en particulier lorsque les matériaux mis en jeu supportent des...

  18. Variation in auxin sensing guides AUX/IAA transcriptional repressor ubiquitylation and destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Martin; Niemeyer, Michael; Hellmuth, Antje; Janitza, Philipp; Christ, Gideon; Samodelov, Sophia L; Wilde, Verona; Majovsky, Petra; Trujillo, Marco; Zurbriggen, Matias D; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Quint, Marcel; Calderón Villalobos, Luz Irina A

    2017-06-07

    Auxin is a small molecule morphogen that bridges SCF TIR1/AFB -AUX/IAA co-receptor interactions leading to ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA transcriptional repressors. Here, we systematically dissect auxin sensing by SCF TIR1 -IAA6 and SCF TIR1 -IAA19 co-receptor complexes, and assess IAA6/IAA19 ubiquitylation in vitro and IAA6/IAA19 degradation in vivo. We show that TIR1-IAA19 and TIR1-IAA6 have distinct auxin affinities that correlate with ubiquitylation and turnover dynamics of the AUX/IAA. We establish a system to track AUX/IAA ubiquitylation in IAA6 and IAA19 in vitro and show that it occurs in flexible hotspots in degron-flanking regions adorned with specific Lys residues. We propose that this signature is exploited during auxin-mediated SCF TIR1 -AUX/IAA interactions. We present evidence for an evolving AUX/IAA repertoire, typified by the IAA6/IAA19 ohnologues, that discriminates the range of auxin concentrations found in plants. We postulate that the intrinsic flexibility of AUX/IAAs might bias their ubiquitylation and destruction kinetics enabling specific auxin responses.

  19. Task 4 - EMI/RFI Issues Potentially Impacting Electromagnetic Compatibility of I&C Systems (NRCHQ6014D0015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) regulations in Part 50, “Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,” of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50) state that structures, systems, and components important to safety in a nuclear power plant are to be designed to accommodate the effects of environmental conditions (i.e., remain functional under all postulated service conditions) and that design control measures such as testing are to be used to check the adequacy of design. Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.180 was developed to provide guidance to licensees and applicants on methods acceptable to the NRC staff for complying with the NRC’s regulations on design, installation, and testing practices for addressing the effects of electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI) and power surges on safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. The first revision of RG 1.180 was issued in January 2000 and a second revision was issued in October 2003*. The second revision differed from the first revision in endorsing Military Standard (MIL-STD)-461E and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard (Std) 61000 series of EMI/RFI test methods, extending the guidance to cover signal line testing, incorporating frequency ranges where portable communications devices are experiencing increasing use, and relaxing the operating envelopes (test levels) when experience and confirmatory research warranted. It also offered exemptions from specific test criteria based on technical considerations such as plant conditions and the intended location of the safety-related I&C equipment. Since the last revision, new requirements have been identified, associated RGs have been created and updated, and additional industry guidance has been developed. Additionally, the operational environment has changed with the increase in wireless communication technology for both personal (smartphone) and industrial

  20. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  1. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  2. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  3. The identification and characterization of specific ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogan, Naden T; Berleth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The current model of auxin-inducible transcription describes numerous regulatory interactions between AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. However, specific relationships between individual members of these families in planta remain largely uncharacterized. Using a systems biology approach, the entire suite of Aux/IAA genes directly regulated by the developmentally pivotal ARF MONOPTEROS (MP) was recently determined for multiple Arabidopsis tissue types. This study showed that MP directly targets distinct subclades of Aux/IAAs, revealing potential regulatory modules of redundantly acting Aux/IAAs involved in MP-dependent processes. Further, functional analyses indicated that the protein products of these targeted Aux/IAAs negatively feedback on MP. Thus, comprehensive identification of Aux/IAAs targeted by individual ARFs will generate biologically meaningful networks of ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules controlling distinct plant pathways.

  4. Performance characteristics of the ferilab 15-foot bubble chamber with a 1/3-scale internal picket fence (IPF) and a two-plane external muon identifier (EMI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, M.L.

    1978-06-01

    The Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber has been exposed to a quadrupole triplet neutrino beam. During this exposure, a 2-plane EMI and a 1/3-scale IPF, were in operation down-stream of the bubble chamber. The IPF consisted of sixteen 0.1 m/sup 2/ drift chambers (pickets) placed inside the vacuum tank of the bubble chamber to record temporal information from neutrino interactions. When a greater than or equal to 5-fold time coincidence between one or more of the pickets of the IPF and the EMI was formed, one was able to search the nagmetic tapes for dimuon candidates. Even with 1/3 geometrical coverage by the IPF, this system identified 70% of the dimuon candidates before the film was scanned. Other performance characteristics of the system will be presented with emphasis on the usefulness of the IPF.

  5. Outils d'acces aux donnees d'un PLC "Automate Web Access (AWA)"

    CERN Document Server

    Palluel, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    Cette note presente un moniteur d'acces aux donnees d'un PLC Schneider ou Siemens, pouvant fonctionner sur n'importe quelle plateforme (Windows, Linux...) equipee d'un navigateur WEB sans telechargement de logiciel ("Applets").

  6. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  7. Aux limites de la physique les paradoxes quantiques

    CERN Document Server

    Rothen, François

    2012-01-01

    Dans l’esprit des pères fondateurs de la science moderne, les phénomènes matériels se déroulent selon un schéma unique. La cause précède nécessairement l’effet, et la connaissance de l’effet permet de remonter à la cause. Sur la scène de la nature, le hasard n’occupe qu’une place congrue. On ne fait appel à lui que pour pallier notre ignorance. Dans les années 1920, la révolution quantique bouleverse ce cadre rigide. Elle accorde une place de choix au hasard, si malmené jusqu’alors, puis elle met en scène une constellation de phénomènes inexplicables aux yeux de la science dite classique. Après une courte introduction historique, l’auteur met ses lecteurs au contact de certains de ces phénomènes si contraires à l’intuition. Refusant l’aide du langage mathématique, il les convie à pénétrer dans un monde quantique qui déconcerte le novice avant de l’éblouir par sa nouveauté et sa cohérence. Un accent particulier est mis sur une application nouvelle de la physiqu...

  8. La transformation de la recherche aux Suds: politiques et résultats

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David O'Brien;Rigas Arvanitis

    des résultats de la recherche scientifique ; et les leçons relatives aux politiques publiques. Les propositions ... transformations et les écarts par rapport aux cadres de définition des politiques précédents. Dans leur ... l'impact de la recherche ainsi que des développements nouveaux ou expérimentaux, y compris des outils.

  9. Impact, en ce qui a trait aux revenus et à la santé, de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact, en ce qui a trait aux revenus et à la santé, de la restructuration de la taxe d'accise sur le tabac aux Philippines. Un projet de loi déposé par le gouvernement des Philippines visant à augmenter de 215 % la taxe d'accise sur le tabac est susceptible d'avoir une incidence sur la lutte antitabac et la consommation de ...

  10. Amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aux Philippines, on estime à 14 % la proportion d'écoliers qui souffrent de malnutrition aiguë. Les écoles offrent des voies stratégiques et ciblées pour fournir une alimentation nutritive aux enfants et, indirectement, à leurs familles et leurs collectivités. Un projet de recherche d'une durée de trois ans (de 2012 à 2015) a mis ...

  11. Résilience des villes face aux changements climatiques en Asie du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résilience des villes face aux changements climatiques en Asie du Sud-Est. La préparation aux changements climatiques est une tâche énorme pour les gouvernements de la région du Mékong, en Asie du Sud-Est. Le présent projet les aidera à gérer ces changements dans un contexte caractérisé par des capacités ...

  12. Adjoint aux conférences et au soutien administratif (h/f) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L' adjoint aux conférences et au soutien administratif est responsable du suivi et de la mise à jour de l'ensemble de formulaires, contrats et modèles utilisés dans les fonctions de gestion d'événements ainsi que de l'administration du site intranet des Services de conférence. L'adjoint aux conférences et au soutien ...

  13. Il faut agir pour aider Le Cap à s'adapter aux changements climatiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juin 2016 ... Ce livre porte sur les expériences menées au Cap et décrit les mesures novatrices qui y sont prises en vue de l'adaptation de la ville aux changements climatiques. On y présente les résultats du projet Gouvernance axée sur la collaboration : gestion des risques associés aux inondations et à l'élévation du ...

  14. Création d'une assise d'expertise en adaptation aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    De 2006 à 2012, 212 organismes ont participé à des projets de recherche subventionnés par le programme Adaptation aux changements climatiques en Afrique (ACCA), et 89 % d'entre eux étaient des organismes africains. Comme il n'y avait guère d'établissements africains qui se penchaient sur les questions reliées aux ...

  15. Renforcement de la capacité d'adaptation aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renforcement de la capacité d'adaptation aux changements climatiques en Zambie et au Zimbabwe. Ce projet vise à améliorer les mesures incitatives et les possibilités qui s'offrent aux ménages du sud de la Zambie et du sud-ouest du Zimbabwe pour composer avec les changements climatiques. Pour ce faire, les ...

  16. L'intensite du capital au Canada et aux Etats-Unis, 1987 a 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, John R.; Fisher, Anthony; Gu, Wulong; Lee, Frank C; Robidoux, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    Les donnees officielles produites par les organismes statistiques ne sont pas toujours ideales aux fins de comparaisons entre pays en raison de differences relatives aux sources de donnees et de la methodologie. Les analystes qui procedent a des comparaisons entre pays doivent choisir avec soin entre plusieurs options et parfois adapter les donnees a leurs propres fins. Dans le present document, nous elaborons des estimations comparables du stock de capital pour examiner l'intensite relative ...

  17. À la suite de la parution d'un rapport sur les subventions aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 juin 2016 ... Scott Wallace / The World Bank. John Cockburn. La protection sociale par le truchement de transferts en espèces peut-elle aider le Ghana à réduire l'écart grandissant que ses subventions aux carburants ont contribué à créer entre les riches et les pauvres ? Une récente étude sur les subventions aux ...

  18. Mettre un terme à la violence faite aux femmes | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 nov. 2012 ... Il est essentiel que la violence faite aux femmes et aux filles sorte au grand jour, qu'on cesse de la justifier au nom de la “culture” ou de la “tradition” et que, collectivement, nous refusions d'excuser les ... Asia Justice and Rights (AJAR) ... Elle s'inscrit dans une culture où elle est sournoisement admise.

  19. Technology-based management of environmental organizations using an Environmental Management Information System (EMIS): Design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in environmental management has become a significant demand nowadays with the rapid growth of environmental information. This paper presents a prototype Environmental Management Information System (EMIS) that was developed to provide a systematic way of managing environmental data and human resources of an environmental organization. The system was designed using programming languages, a Database Management System (DBMS) and other technologies and programming tools and combines information from the relational database in order to achieve the principal goals of the environmental organization. The developed application can be used to store and elaborate information regarding: human resources data, environmental projects, observations, reports, data about the protected species, environmental measurements of pollutant factors or other kinds of analytical measurements and also the financial data of the organization. Furthermore, the system supports the visualization of spatial data structures by using geographic information systems (GIS) and web mapping technologies. This paper describes this prototype software application, its structure, its functions and how this system can be utilized to facilitate technology-based environmental management and decision-making process.

  20. Unexpected early extinction of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Sweden and climatic impact on its Holocene range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert S; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Persson, Arne; Bringsøe, Henrik; Rhodin, Anders G J; Schneeweiss, Norbert; Siroký, Pavel; Bachmann, Lutz; Fritz, Uwe

    2009-03-01

    Using ancient DNA sequences of subfossil European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) from Britain, Central and North Europe and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating for turtle remains from most Swedish sites, we provide evidence for a Holocene range expansion of the pond turtle from the southeastern Balkans into Britain, Central Europe and Scandinavia, according to the 'grasshopper pattern' of Hewitt. Northeastern Europe and adjacent Asia were colonized from another refuge located further east. With increasing annual mean temperatures, pond turtles reached southern Sweden approximately 9800 years ago. Until approximately 5500 years ago, rising temperatures facilitated a further range expansion up to Ostergötland, Sweden (approximately 58 degrees 30'N). However, around 5500 years ago pond turtle records suddenly terminate in Sweden, some 1500 years before the Holocene thermal maximum ended in Scandinavia and distinctly earlier than previously thought. This extinction coincides with a temporary cooling oscillation during the Holocene thermal maximum and is likely related to lower summer temperatures deteriorating reproductive success. Although climatic conditions improved later again, recolonization of Sweden from southern source populations was prevented by the Holocene submergence of the previous land connection via the Danish Straits that occurred approximately 8500 years ago.

  1. Temperature Effects on Development and Phenotype in a Free-Living Population of Western Pond Turtles (Emys marmorata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Nicole E; Geist, Nicholas R

    Changes in temperature regimes are occurring globally due to climate change as well as habitat alterations. Temperatures are expected to continue to rise in the future, along with a greater degree of climatic instability. Such changes could have potentially serious consequences for oviparous ectotherms, especially those with temperature-dependent sex determination. To investigate the effects of temperature on a range of developmental phenomena in a population of western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), we placed temperature sensors on top of each layer of eggs within nests and recorded temperatures hourly through the first 2-3 mo of incubation. These methods allowed us to look at in situ nest temperatures with high resolution. We found that mean incubation temperatures were similar between different nests and at different levels within nests but that incubation temperature fluctuations and maximum incubation temperatures differed greatly in both cases. The hatchling turtles were more likely to be female if they spent 30% or more of their sex-determining period of incubation above 29°C. Hatching success was best predicted by the maximum incubation temperature. We also found that incubation duration tended to be shorter as the mean temperature increased. However, exposure to either extremely high or low temperatures extended incubation times.

  2. Updated distribution of the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758 and its conservation issues in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizmanić Imre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis has been included in studies for several decades, the information about its distribution and the state of populations in Serbia is still incomplete. The data collected from the available literature sources, and those based on the authors’ own field investigations, indicate that E. orbicularis occupies a large part of the territory of the Republic of Serbia, preferring aquatic biotopes at lower altitudes. We compiled a list of 287 localities where the presence of the pond turtle has been recorded. Of those, 14% (40 localities were known only from literature sources, localities added during our field investigations represent 82% (235 sites, 4% (12 localities confirming literature data. We also gathered information on the main negative threats to the endurance of the pond turtle in Serbia. These are habitat pollution, degradation and destruction, and the spread of allochthonous invasive turtle species. Some protective and conservation measures are suggested in the conclusion. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173043

  3. Mercury exposure associated with altered plasma thyroid hormones in the declining western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) from California mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erik; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Sparling, Donald; Blumenshine, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat to wildlife health that can impair many physiological processes. Mercury has well-documented endocrine activity; however, little work on the effects of Hg on the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in aquatic wildlife exists despite the fact that it is a sensitive endpoint of contaminant exposure. An emerging body of evidence points to the toxicological susceptibility of aquatic reptiles to Hg exposure. We examined the endocrine disrupting potential of Hg in the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata), a long-lived reptile that is in decline throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. We measured total Hg (THg) concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma T3 and T4 of turtles from several locations in California that have been impacted by historic gold mining. Across all turtles from all sites, the geometric mean and standard error THg concentration was 0.805 ± 0.025 μg/g dry weight. Sampling region and mass were the strongest determinants of RBC THg. Relationships between RBC THg and T3 and T4 were consistent with Hg-induced disruption of T4 deiodination, a mechanism of toxicity that may cause excess T4 levels and depressed concentrations of biologically active T3.

  4. Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants: Molecular Structure, Regulation, and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxin plays a crucial role in the diverse cellular and developmental responses of plants across their lifespan. Plants can quickly sense and respond to changes in auxin levels, and these responses involve several major classes of auxin-responsive genes, including the Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA family, the auxin response factor (ARF family, small auxin upregulated RNA (SAUR, and the auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3 family. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins comprising several highly conserved domains that are encoded by the auxin early response gene family. These proteins have specific domains that interact with ARFs and inhibit the transcription of genes activated by ARFs. Molecular studies have revealed that Aux/IAA family members can form diverse dimers with ARFs to regulate genes in various ways. Functional analyses of Aux/IAA family members have indicated that they have various roles in plant development, such as root development, shoot growth, and fruit ripening. In this review, recently discovered details regarding the molecular characteristics, regulation, and protein–protein interactions of the Aux/IAA proteins are discussed. These details provide new insights into the molecular basis of the Aux/IAA protein functions in plant developmental processes.

  5. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbottam ePiya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs. Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs.

  6. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs.

  7. Des tables pascales aux tables astronomiques et retour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lejbowicz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article étudie la naissance et le développement du calendrier ecclésiastique chrétien, i. e. le comput, depuis les premiers témoignages de la célébration annuelle de la résurrection de Jésus jusqu’aux traductions des tables astronomiques arabes au xiie siècle. Il privilégie les procédures qui aboutissent à la détermination des dates pascales et à leur mise en forme tabulaire. Les analyses sont conduites à partir d’un double point de vue. L’un est scientifique. Il s’appuie sur les données astronomiques retenues par Ptolémée et sur l’apport de la tradition mathématique grecque au calcul par approximations. Les cycles soli-lunaires sont posés à partir des fractions continues et le cycle soli-hebdomadaire à partir du plus petit commun multiple. Le second point de vue est social : l’unification du comput participe à celle de la chrétienté comprise comme une configuration politico-religieuse. Deux conclusions s’imposent. Quelle que soit l’importance que la civilisation médiévale a attribuée au comput, il reste que : 1 / les Pâques sont porteuses de significations irréductibles aux techniques chronométriques qui inscrivent cette fête dans le déroulement de l’année ; 2 / ces techniques ont toutefois marqué profondément les curiosités intellectuelles des Latins et les ont préparé à accueillir avec ferveur les zīj et la numération de position.The article studies the birth and development of the Christian ecclesiastical calendar, i.e. the computus, from the first witnesses to the yearly celebration of the resurrection of Jesus to the translations of arabic astronomical tables in the 12th century. It focuses on the procedures which resulted in determinig the dates of Easter and their being put into tabular form. These analyses were undertaken from two perspectives. One was scientific, relying on the astronomical data preserved by Ptolemy and on the contribution of the Greek mathematical

  8. BioSense/SR-BioSpectra demonstrations of wide area/early warning for bioaerosol threats: program description and early test and evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Buteau, Sylvie; Lahaie, Pierre; Mathieu, Pierre; Roy, Gilles; Nadeau, Denis; McFee, John; Ho, Jim; Rowsell, Susan; Ho, Nicolas; Babin, François; Cantin, Daniel; Healey, Dave; Robinson, Jennifer; Wood, Scott; Hsu, Jack

    2011-11-01

    Threats associated with bioaerosol weapons have been around for several decades and have been mostly associated with terrorist activities or rogue nations. Up to the turn of the millennium, defence concepts against such menaces relied mainly on point or in-situ detection technologies. Over the last 10 years, significant efforts have been deployed by multiple countries to supplement the limited spatial coverage of a network of one or more point bio-detectors using lidar technology. The addition of such technology makes it possible to detect within seconds suspect aerosol clouds over area of several tens of square kilometers and track their trajectories. These additional capabilities are paramount in directing presumptive ID missions, mapping hazardous areas, establishing efficient counter-measures and supporting subsequent forensic investigations. In order to develop such capabilities, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological-Nuclear, and Explosives Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) have supported two major demonstrations based on spectrally resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) lidar: BioSense, aimed at defence military missions in wide open spaces, and SR-BioSpectra, aimed at surveillance of enclosed or semienclosed wide spaces common to defence and public security missions. This article first reviews briefly the modeling behind these demonstration concepts. Second, the lidar-adapted and the benchtop bioaerosol LIF chambers (BSL1), developed to challenge the constructed detection systems and to accelerate the population of the library of spectral LIF properties of bioaerosols and interferents of interest, will be described. Next, the most recent test and evaluation (T&E) results obtained with SR-BioSpectra and BioSense are reported. Finally, a brief discussion stating the way ahead for a complete defence suite is provided.

  9. Preparation of flower-like CuS by solvothermal method for photocatalytic, UV protection and EMI shielding applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiao-Sai; Shen, Yong, E-mail: shenyong@sues.edu.cn; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Li-Ming; Lu, Li-sha; Zhang, Ya-ting

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The flower-like CuS was synthesized by a facil solvothermal method. • The as-prepared flower-like CuS showed better solar light-driven photocatalytic activity. • The as-prepared CuS could act as a novel UV blocker. • The flower-like CuS potentially hold promise as electromagnetic shielding material. - Abstract: The flower-like CuS hierarchical structures were synthesized by solvothermal method. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–vis optical absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results demonstrated that the as-prepared flower-like CuS with the diameter of 1–5 um was pure hexagonal phase CuS and had well-defined flower-like structures. (1) The as-prepared CuS was proved to possess high photocatalytic performance with band gap of 1.45 eV. The degradation rate of Methylene blue (MB) was up to, 98.26%, 100% after 30 min under UV and visible irradiation. (2)The UPF of cotton fabric treated with CuS reached up to 174 compared with the original untreated fabric with the UPF 20.62. (3) The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of CuS coating was up to 27–31 dB when the content of CuS increased to 28.6%wt in the frequency of 300 KHz–3 GHz. Furthermore, the influence of reaction conditions on the morphology of the as-prepared CuS was investigated systematically and the possible formation mechanism of the CuS hierarchical structure was also proposed.

  10. Illicit drug use among gay and bisexual men in 44 cities: Findings from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel J; Bourne, Adam; Weatherburn, Peter; Reid, David; Marcus, Ulrich; Hickson, Ford

    2016-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are increasingly combining sex and illicit drugs (an activity referred to as 'chemsex'), in particular GHB/GBL, ketamine, crystal meth, or mephedrone (here called 4-chems). Use of such drugs has been associated with mental health and sexual health harms. We aim to compare patterns of illicit drug use among MSM in 44 European urban centres. In 2010, EMIS recruited 174,209 men from 38 countries to an anonymous online questionnaire in 25 languages. As harm reduction services for drugs and sex are organised at a local level, we chose to compare cities rather than countries. We defined 44 cities based on region/postal code and settlement size. For multivariable regression analyses, three comparison groups of MSM not living in these cities were applied: MSM living in Germany, the UK, and elsewhere in Europe. Data from 55,446 MSM living in 44 urban centres were included. Use of 4-chems (past 4 weeks) was highest in Brighton (16.3%), Manchester (15.5%), London (13.2%), Amsterdam (11.2%), Barcelona (7.9%), Zurich (7.0%) and Berlin (5.3%). It was lowest in Sofia (0.4%). The rank order was largely consistent when controlling for age, HIV diagnosis, and number of sexual partners. City of residence was the strongest demographic predictor of chemsex-drug use. Use of drugs associated with chemsex among MSM varies substantially across European cities. As city is the strongest predictor of chemsex-drug use, effective harm reduction programmes must include structural as well as individual interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Villes côtières en danger aux Philippines : investir dans la résilience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les villes côtières des Philippines sont très vulnérables aux effets des changements climatiques et aux catastrophes qui en découlent. Un examen des plans et des programmes de gestion des catastrophes en vigueur aux Philippines montre que la plupart d'entre eux ne s'appuient pas sur une méthode d'appréciation ...

  12. Accorder l'accès aux données économiques pour prévenir les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet permettra aux chercheurs, aux responsables des politiques et aux défenseurs de la santé publique de prendre davantage connaissance des données économiques et stratégiques susceptibles de fonder des politiques de lutte contre le tabac et l'alcool en Afrique subsaharienne, et de jouir d'un meilleur accès à ...

  13. Des usines à la campagne aux villes industrielles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Bonnaud

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de cet article est de retracer sociologiquement l’histoire du droit des installations classées ou plutôt de la partie de ce droit qui concerne l’urbanisation autour des établissements dangereux et qui entend ainsi encadrer les relations entre la ville et l’industrie. Cette perspective permet d’envisager deux aspects complémentaires de cette question : d’une part, on examine le droit comme une façon de représenter un problème et notamment comment la place de la question urbaine y a été pensée et définie ; d’autre part, on s’intéresse aux règles juridiques comme des outils, des ressources de catégories, de concepts qui définissent des cadres pour l’action publique. Ainsi, l'histoire du droit des installations classées contribue à mettre en lumière la façon dont la gestion de la proximité ville/industrie articule en permanence (mais selon des modalités qui varient au fil du temps les dimensions sociales, économiques et environnementales qui permettent aujourd'hui d'appréhender et de définir le développement durable.The main aim of this paper is to relate the history of a part of the environmental French law, the one which govern the urban development in the vicinity of the dangerous chemical plants. From a sociological point of view, two aspects of this issue may be simultaneously analysed. In one hand, we examine the law as a way to represent the problem of cohabitation between urban area and industry: how this question has been successively thought out and defined? On the other hand, we take an interest in the juridical rules considered as tools, resources and concepts for public management. According to this approach, the history of this part of French law highlight how urban planning and risk management permanently link the social, economical and environmental dimensions of sustainability. But it shows also that those three factors play a part that vary from time to time.

  14. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  15. Exposure to bioaerosols during the growth season of tomatoes in an organic greenhouse using Supresivit (Trichoderma harzianum) and Mycostop (Streptomyces griseoviridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Vinni Mona; Winding, Anne; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2010-09-01

    In working environments, especially in confined spaces like greenhouses, elevated concentrations of airborne microorganisms may become a problem for workers' health. Additionally, the use of microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) may increase exposure to microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate tomato growers' exposure to naturally occurring bioaerosol components [dust, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, and endotoxin] and MPCAs applied by drip irrigation. Airborne dust was collected with filter samplers and analyzed for microorganisms by plate counts and total counts using a microscope. Analysis of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and endotoxin content was performed by kinetic, chromatic Limulus amoebocyte lysate tests. The fungal strain (Trichoderma harzianum) from the biocontrol product Supresivit was identified by PCR analysis. Measurements were performed on the day of drip irrigation and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the irrigation. T. harzianum from Supresivit could be detected only on the day of treatment. Streptomyces griseoviridis, an applied MPCA, was not detected in the air during this investigation. We found that bioaerosol exposure increases during the growth season and that exposure to fungi, bacteria, and endotoxin can reach levels during the harvest period that may cause respiratory symptoms in growers. The collected data indicate that MPCAs applied by drip irrigation do not become airborne later in the season.

  16. Formation en TIC destinée aux personnes handicapées en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Formation en TIC destinée aux personnes handicapées en Amérique latine. En Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes, les personnes handicapées représentent environ 10 % de la population. La population de cette région affiche des taux de pauvreté et de chômage élevés; assurer des moyens de subsistance décents aux ...

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswari Paul

    Full Text Available Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa. Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309. Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  19. Intégration des sexospécificités et de l'équité aux recherches et aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plus particulièrement, les extrants comprendront un cadre permettant de comprendre la violence à l'endroit des femmes, l'adaptation du modèle des " trois délais " en matière de mortalité maternelle aux milieux pauvres et fortement sexistes ainsi qu'une procédure de gestion des complications et des risques liés à la ...

  20. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Amélioration de la résilience aux répercussions des changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amélioration de la résilience aux répercussions des changements climatiques sur les ressources en eau dans le corridor du bétail en Ouganda ... Il est particulièrement vulnérable aux changements climatiques. Ce projet fournira ... Water Resource Management and the Changing Climate in Angola's Coastal Settlements.

  2. Adaptation aux répercussions de l'élévation du niveau de la mer ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , la pollution, l'utilisation intensive des terres, la croissance démographique et la dégradation des écosystèmes. Elles sont par ailleurs exposées aux répercussions de la hausse du niveau de la mer et notamment aux inondations. Réduire la ...

  3. Photoactivated CRY1 and phyB Interact Directly with AUX/IAA Proteins to Inhibit Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; He, Shengbo; Zhang, Jingyi; Mao, Zhilei; Wang, Wenxiu; Li, Ting; Hua, Jie; Du, Shasha; Xu, Pengbo; Li, Ling; Lian, Hongli; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2017-12-19

    Light is a key environmental cue that inhibits hypocotyl cell elongation through the blue and red/far-red light photoreceptors cryptochrome- and phytochrome-mediated pathways in Arabidopsis. In contrast, as a pivotal endogenous phytohormone auxin promotes hypocotyl elongation through the auxin receptors TIR1/AFBs-mediated degradation of AUX/IAA proteins (AUX/IAAs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antagonistic interaction of light and auxin signaling remain unclear. Here, we report that light inhibits auxin signaling through stabilization of AUX/IAAs by blue and red light-dependent interactions of cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) and phytochrome B with AUX/IAAs, respectively. Blue light-triggered interactions of CRY1 with AUX/IAAs inhibit the associations of TIR1 with AUX/IAAs, leading to the repression of auxin-induced degradation of these proteins. Our results indicate that photoreceptors share AUX/IAAs with auxin receptors as the same direct downstream signaling components. We propose that antagonistic regulation of AUX/IAA protein stability by photoreceptors and auxin receptors allows plants to balance light and auxin signals to optimize their growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. EMI in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    differentiation in upper secondary education leads to other conclusions than restricting the analyses to the conventional distinction between the traditional degree levels. In our analyses of university choice, we investigate whether the introduction of university ranking lists has created a new qualitative...

  5. Phosphonium–based ionic liquid as dispersing agent for MWCNT in melt-mixing polystyrene blends: Rheology, electrical properties and EMI shielding effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares da Silva, Jéssica P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoléculas, 21941-598, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Soares, Bluma G., E-mail: bluma@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoléculas, 21941-598, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais - COPPE, Centro de Tecnologia, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Livi, Sebastien [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon (France); INSA Lyon, F-69621, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR 5223, Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (France); Barra, Guilherme M.O. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    Conducting nanocomposites composed with polystyrene (PS) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared by melt mixing procedure assisted by trihexyl-(tetradecyl)-phosphonium combined with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide counteranion (TFSI) as the ionic liquid (IL). The non-covalent functionalization of MWCNT with the IL was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The functionalized MWCNT provided better dispersion of the MWCNT within PS matrix, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and also an electrical conductivity as high as 10{sup −1} S/m with 0.66 m% of MWCNT combined with 3.34 m% of IL. This value is around four orders of magnitude higher when compared to nanocomposites with similar amount of untreated MWCNT. From rheological studies, it was observed that the transition between liquid-like to solid-like behavior occurred at lower frequencies for the systems containing functionalized MWCNT. Moreover, an improvement of around 170% in the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) in the X-band frequency range was observed for the nanocomposites containing 1% of MWCNT non-covalently functionalized with the IL, that is, 1% of MWCNT and 5% of IL. - Highlights: • MWCNT well dispersed in PS matrix, in the presence of ionic liquid. • Outstanding electric conductivity of PS/MWCNT nanocomposite. • Improved EMI shielding effectiveness by addition of ionic liquid in PS/MWCNT nanocomposite.

  6. Experimental investigations and guidelines for PCB design for a fuel injection ECU to meet automotive environmental, EMI/EMC and ESD standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyankar-Narwade, Supriya; Kumar, C. Ramesh; Patil, Sanjay A.

    2017-11-01

    Engine Management ECU plays a vital role in controlling different important features related to the engine performance. ECU is an embedded system which includes hardware and firmware platform for control logics. However, it is necessary to verify its smooth performance by its functionality testing in the Electromagnetic environment for approval. If these requirements are not known at earlier stages, then ECU may not fulfil functional requirements during required automotive electronic test standards. Hence, focusing on EMS ECU, this paper highlights hardware, layout and software guidelines for solving problems related with Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) to comply ISO 7637, CISPR 25 standard, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) to comply ISO 11452-4,5 standard, Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) to comply ISO 10605 standard and Environmental Testing to comply standards as per IEC standards. This paper specifies initially the importance, need and guidelines for reducing the EMI effect on PCB i.e. making ECU more electromagnetically compatible as per automotive standards. The guidelines are useful for the designers to avoid pitfalls at the later stage. After mentioned modifications in the paper, ECU successfully passed the requirements for all standard tests.

  7. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Liu, Yaxue; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Huimin; Liu, Jiaxi; Tan, Jiaxin; He, Jiadai; Bai, Jingwen

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens) to 63 (Glycine max). The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution. PMID:28991190

  8. Auxin sensitivities of all Arabidopsis Aux/IAAs for degradation in the presence of every TIR1/AFB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu-Mitao, Yasushi; Kakimoto, Tatsuo

    2014-08-01

    Auxin plays a key role in regulation of almost all processes of plant growth and development. Different physiological processes are regulated by different ranges of auxin concentrations; however, the underlying mechanisms creating these differences are largely unknown. The first step of auxin signaling is auxin-dependent interaction of an auxin receptor with transcriptional co-repressors (Aux/IAA), which leads to Aux/IAA degradation. Arabidopsis has six homologous auxin receptors (TIR1 and five AFBs), 29 Aux/IAA proteins and two types of active auxins, IAA and phenylacetic acid (PAA). Therefore, a large number of possible combinations between these three factors may contribute to the creation of complex auxin responses. Using a yeast heterologous reconstitution system, we investigated auxin-dependent degradation of all Arabidopsis Aux/IAAs in combination with every TIR or AFB receptor component. We found that TIR1 and AFB2 were effective in mediating Aux/IAA degradation. We confirmed that the Aux/IAA domain II, which binds TIR1, is essential for degradation. IAA and other natural auxins, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) and PAA, induced Aux/IAA degradation; and IAA and 4-Cl-IAA had higher activity than PAA. Effective auxin concentrations for Aux/IAA degradation depended on both Aux/IAAs and TIR1 or AFB2 receptors, which is consistent with the Aux/IAA-TIR1/AFB co-receptor concept. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens to 63 (Glycine max. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  10. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Jenni, E-mail: jenni.k.lehtinen@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most

  11. Solutions d'adaptation liées aux changements climatiques et à l'eau ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à faire connaître les solutions d'adaptation concrètes aux changements climatiques découlant de recherches financées par le CRDI. ... Le projet sera mis en oeuvre dans le cadre d'un partenariat de recherche entre Local Governments for Sustainability Management (ICLEI) et l'Université de Waterloo.

  12. Vulnérabilité et adaptation face aux changements climatiques et au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vulnérabilité et adaptation face aux changements climatiques et au VIH/sida en Afrique du Sud. Les changements climatiques et le VIH/sida sont largement reconnus comme des facteurs aggravants de la pauvreté chronique qui sévit en Afrique subsaharienne. Dans le cadre de ce projet, on cherchera à mieux comprendre ...

  13. Création d'un contexte concurrentiel et propice aux entreprises en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Création d'un contexte concurrentiel et propice aux entreprises en Cisjordanie et à Gaza. Certains facteurs - la durée indéterminée de l'occupation des ... governance in Palestine [Arabic language]. 45572. Papers. Impact of the draft company law on the performance of the private sector in Palestine [Arabic language].

  14. L'évaluation comme partie intégrante du processus d'adaptation aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    nbeaulieu

    Le programme Adaptation aux changements climatiques en Afrique (ACCA), une initiative conjointe du Département du Royaume Uni pour le développement international (DfID) et du. Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI), met un accent important sur l'évaluation, et en particulier sur les ...

  15. Monitoring the performance of Aux. Feedwater Pump using Smart Sensing Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques equipped with learning systems have recently been proposed to monitor sensors and components in NPPs. Therefore, the objective of this study is the development of an integrity evaluation method for safety critical components such as Aux. feedwater pump, high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump, etc. using smart sensing models based on AI techniques. In this work, the smart sensing model is developed at first to predict the performance of Aux. feedwater pump by estimating flowrate using group method of data handing (GMDH) method. If the performance prediction is achieved by this feasibility study, the smart sensing model will be applied to development of the integrity evaluation method for safety critical components. Also, the proposed algorithm for the performance prediction is verified by comparison with the simulation data of the MARS code for station blackout (SBO) events. In this study, the smart sensing model for the prediction performance of Aux. feedwater pump has been developed. In order to develop the smart sensing model, the GMDH algorithm is employed. The GMDH algorithm is the way to find a function that can well express a dependent variable from independent variables. This method uses a data structure similar to that of multiple regression models. The proposed GMDH model can accurately predict the performance of Aux

  16. Neuf nouvelles subventions permettront d'améliorer l'accès aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 avr. 2017 ... ... nouvelles subventions permettront à neuf de ces équipes d'appliquer à grande échelle des interventions prometteuses et à combler le besoin d'information sur la planification familiale, de soutien aux mères adolescentes et de services et de renseignements en matière de santé sexuelle et reproductive.

  17. Prévalence et susceptibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prévalence et susceptibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de Salmonella spp. non typhiques isolées de la viande de poulets au Tchad. Hamadou Abba, Marius K. Somda, Ban-bo Bebanto Antipas, Nicolas Barro, Alfred S. Traore ...

  18. Les gagnants de la bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les gagnants de la bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au doctorat de 2017. 30 novembre 2017. Cérémonie de certificat pour un programme de formation en entreprenariat en Ouganda, mai 2017. Michelle Savard. Michelle Savard, une récipiendaire de 2016, remet un certificat pour l'achèvement d'un programme ...

  19. Réduire les risques alimentaires associés aux maladies non ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il permettra de générer de nouvelles connaissances sur le lien de causalité entre l'évolution des systèmes d'alimentation, pratiques alimentaires et tendances relatives aux maladies et les facteurs démographiques, épidémiologiques, socioculturels, économiques et comportementaux connexes. Les travaux de recherche ...

  20. Offrir un choix aux agriculteurs pauvres: Harsha de Silva (Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ans de nombreux pays en développement, les téléphones mobiles permettent aux pauvres de profiter des avantages des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Des travaux de recherche appuyés par le CRDI et dirigés par Learning Initiatives on Reforms for Network Economies (LIRNEasia), ...

  1. De la recherche aux politiques - Établissement de liens entre l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La recherche sur les changements climatiques et leurs effets sur les populations vulnérables est assez avancée en Afrique australe. Toutefois, il y a peu de transfert des connaissances des scientifiques aux responsables des politiques. Ce projet vise à faciliter la traduction des résultats de la recherche en politiques de ...

  2. Le marche aux fetiches (lantassime) d'Akodessewa a Lome (Togo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    observation et les enquêtes par questionnaires a permis de montrer que le marché aux fétiches occupe des fonctions commerciale, sociale, cultuelle et mystique, économique et touristique. Il couvre une superficie de 1200 m² avec 15 stands sous ...

  3. Adapter les pratiques agricoles aux différentes conditions pédoclimatiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turpin, N.; Perret, E.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Hose, D' T.; Evert, van F.K.

    2016-01-01

    Les pratiques agricoles qui réduisent la quantité de carbone dans le sol peuvent perturber son activité microbienne, modifier sa structure, et sa capacité à fournir eau et nutriments aux cultures. Elles peuvent aussi limiter la capacité des sols agricoles à lutter contre le changement climatique. Le

  4. Moyens que prennent les collectivités pour faire face aux souvenirs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des années plus tard, les habitants de ces territoires sont toujours en proie aux traumatismes du passé. Cette recherche comparative analyse le processus de réparation en cours en Aceh et au Timor-Leste. Elle veut permettre de mieux comprendre comment les collectivités et les victimes individuelles de violations ...

  5. Isolation and characterization of an Aux/IAA gene ( LaIAA2 ) from Larix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. To investigate the effects of auxin on gene expression during the rooting process of Larix cuttings, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed and ...

  6. Amélioration de la durée de conservation des bananes plantain aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amélioration de la durée de conservation des bananes plantain aux températures ambiantes. A Lepengue, I Mouaragadja, E Dick, B Mbatchi, S Ake. Abstract. La banane plantain est le premier aliment de base au Gabon. Malheureusement 30 à 40% de sa production sont perdues, par manque de techniques de ...

  7. Peptidyl-prolyl isomerization targets rice Aux/IAAs for proteasomal degradation during auxin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hongwei; Yang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Xuehui; Zheng, Huakun; Dong, Guojun; Nian, Jinqiang; Feng, Jian; Xia, Bin; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zuo, Jianru

    2015-06-22

    In plants, auxin signalling is initiated by the auxin-promoted interaction between the auxin receptor TIR1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, which are subsequently degraded by the proteasome. Gain-of-function mutations in the highly conserved domain II of Aux/IAAs abolish the TIR1-Aux/IAA interaction and thus cause an auxin-resistant phenotype. Here we show that peptidyl-prolyl isomerization of rice OsIAA11 catalysed by LATERAL ROOTLESS2 (LRT2), a cyclophilin-type peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, directly regulates the stability of OsIAA11. NMR spectroscopy reveals that LRT2 efficiently catalyses the cis/trans isomerization of OsIAA11. The lrt2 mutation reduces OsTIR1-OsIAA11 interaction and consequently causes the accumulation of a higher level of OsIAA11 protein. Moreover, knockdown of the OsIAA11 expression partially rescues the lrt2 mutant phenotype in lateral root development. Together, these results illustrate cyclophilin-catalysed peptidyl-prolyl isomerization promotes Aux/IAA degradation, as a mechanism regulating auxin signalling.

  8. Réduire les risques et les pertes attribuables aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    examiner comment des villes comme Le Cap peuvent le mieux mettre en application des processus décisionnels efficaces dans le contexte de l'adaptation aux changements climatiques et d'un niveau élevé d'informalité.

  9. Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les zones hypo et hyper endémiques d'ulcère de Buruli en Côte d'Ivoire. C. Cisse Boni, E. Ehouman, D. Soro, M.W. Kone, A. Bakayoko, F. Dembele, K. Bauthire, M Dosso ...

  10. Mise en place d'un réseau d'adaptation aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet a pour objectif de concevoir un mécanisme de gestion des risques accrus liés aux changements climatiques en appliquant le principe reconnu des ... Adaptation to Climate Change: Stakeholder engagement and understanding impacts - International Council for Local Environment Initiatives (ICLEI) (Section 21).

  11. Isolation and characterization of an Aux/IAA gene (LaIAA2) from Larix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    superfamily have been cloned from several species, includeing Arabidopsis thaliana, pea, Pisum sativum L., soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz, tobacco, cucumber, loblolly pine and tomato (Goldfarb et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2007). The precise biochemical functions of Aux/IAA gene.

  12. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Toprak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4 are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper.

    All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was

  13. Habitat characteristics of nesting areas and of predated nests in a Mediterranean population of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis galloitalica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A.L. Zuffi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available one of the largest population of Emys orbicularis galloitalica of central Italy inhabits the canal system wet areas within a natural protected park. Features of nesting habitats, nest structure, and predation patterns of 209 nests of a large population of the European pond turtle are here presented and analysed. Nest sites were characterised by sunny bushy areas in strip habitat, digged along north-south oriented canals, on average with about 26% of the area covered by vegetation, less than one meter distant from 30 cm height bushes, at about 11 m from water and at about 13 m distance from wooded areas, 28 m away from a road. Principal Component and discriminant analyses were used on 20 selected variables in order to reduce the number of physical variables, and indicate that canal border, strip habitat, and canal orientation are grouping variables, that correctly classified 41.6%, 66.5%, and 100 % respectively of nest presence.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Brunner, A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  15. Le Carnaval de Schignano : un dernier salut aux émigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Del Biaggio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour arriver à Schignano, il faut passer par una cürva al giazz e una cürva al suu [Un virage dans la glace et un virage au soleil], comme disent les mots en dialecte d’une récente chanson écrite par Davide Van De Sfroos, compositeur-interprète de la région. C’est dans ce petit hameau de la Vallée d’Intelvi, au-dessus du Lac de Côme, que, tous les ans, le carnaval anime le village. Une fête populaire spontanée, sans règles écrites, ni lois, qui survit grâce aux habitants qui l’animent, aux ar...

  16. L’orthographe : des systèmes aux usages

    OpenAIRE

    Fayol, Michel; Jaffré, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Ce texte propose un éclairage à la fois linguistique et psycholinguistique sur l’orthographe. Au-delà de la spécificité inhérente, par définition, aux deux domaines, il illustre la complémentarité épistémologique qui s’est développée entre eux au cours des dernières décennies. La psycholinguistique a très souvent fait appel aux descriptions linguistiques pour élaborer ses hypothèses de travail et, de son côté, la linguistique s’est inspirée à maintes reprises des observations psycholinguistiq...

  17. Soutien à la recherche économique et sociale aux fins de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le nouveau site Web facilitera l'enregistrement des événements démographiques afin d'améliorer l'accès aux services pour tous. Le nouveau site Web et la nouvelle bibliothèque de ressources aideront à améliorer les systèmes d'information et d'enregistrement des faits d'état civil dans les pays en développement.

  18. Accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en enseignement supérieur en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les politiques dans le domaine de l'enseignement supérieur en matière de technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) présument qu'un accès accru aux TIC encourage leur utilisation. Une première collecte de données effectuée en 2004 et 2007 fournit une base des plus nécessaires sur laquelle fonder la ...

  19. Adaptation des politiques de pêche aux changements climatiques à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation des politiques de pêche aux changements climatiques à l'aide des savoirs scientifiques et de connaissances endogènes (Afrique de l'Ouest). Le secteur de la pêche ressente les changements climatiques de différents manières, soit dans la composition des populations animales et végétales, dans des ...

  20. Justice sociale face aux mariages précoces en Afrique de l'Ouest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Justice sociale face aux mariages précoces en Afrique de l'Ouest. Au Sénégal et en Côte d'Ivoire, les statistiques courantes montrent un relèvement de l'âge moyen du premier mariage des filles à plus de 18 ans. Cependant, l'évaluation des programmes de lutte contre ces phénomènes dans ces pays ont montré que ces ...

  1. Réduire les risques et les pertes attribuables aux changements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 août 2014 ... Entre-temps, dans les pays plus riches, comme le Japon et les États‑Unis, les bâtiments et l'infrastructure font l'objet de nouvelles conceptions visant à prévenir les conséquences des tremblements de terre. Quelle comparaison feriez‑vous entre les plans d'adaptation aux tremblements de terre et les ...

  2. Aux/IAA gene family is conserved in the gymnosperm, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Barry; Lanz-Garcia, Carmen; Lian, Zhigang; Whetten, Ross

    2003-12-01

    We isolated five members of the Aux/IAA gene family in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Degenerate primers complementary to conserved regions of angiosperm Aux/IAA genes were used to amplify fragments that were, in turn, used as probes to screen a cDNA library constructed from auxin-treated hypocotyls. The five unique clones, named PTIAA1-5, contain the four highly conserved domains that are characteristic of the Aux/IAA proteins. All clones contain the bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) between Domains I and II that is predicted in most angiosperm Aux/IAA genes, but only one, PTIAA2, contains the conserved NLS in Domain IV. The five invariant residues in Domain II that have been found to constitute part of a protein destabilization element in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. are conserved in all the PTIAAs. A postulated phosphorylation site located between Domains I and II and proximal to the conserved bipartite NLS was conserved in 20 out of 36 genes in this analysis, including the pine genes. Transcripts of all five PTIAAs accumulated specifically in the hypocotyls in response to exogenous auxin treatment and were induced by all auxins tested. Transcript abundance above basal levels in response to 1-naphthaleneacetic acid treatment was first detected after 10 min (PTIAA3) to 3 h (PTIAA2) in the different genes and remained above basal levels throughout 7 days. Induction of PTIAA2 was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, indicating that PTIAA2 is a secondary response gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all five pine genes clustered within a single class (Class I) of the dendrogram. Clone PTIAA2 has a sequence that is relatively distinct from the other four and is the most closely related to the angiosperm genes of Class I. Class I contains both primary and secondary auxin response genes, suggesting that it is the original lineage and that other gene classes have evolved subsequent to the angiosperm/gymnosperm divergence.

  3. Communiquer les risques associés au climat aux collectivités ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 mai 2015 ... Le Vietnam est particulièrement vulnérable aux changements climatiques et à la hausse du niveau des océans qui en découle, puisqu'une partie importante de sa population vit dans les basses terres des deltas et le long de la côte, des zones à haut risque. En 2011, d'importantes inondations ont ...

  4. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Philippines : Aux Philippines, les progrès ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 déc. 2010 ... Aux Philippines, le système de suivi communautaire de la pauvreté, d'abord projet pilote, s'est étendu, en 14 ans, à l'échelle nationale, appuyé par tous les ordres de gouvernement. Les données orientent la planification et le ciblage des programmes, les affectations budgétaires, ainsi que le suivi des ...

  5. Adaptation aux effets qu'ont les changements climatiques sur les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet a pour objectif général d'appuyer la capacité d'adaptation aux effets que les changements climatiques ont sur les ressources en eau au Canada, ... de transfert et d'application des connaissances ayant trait à la salubrité du climat et à la gestion des risques que les changements climatiques présentent pour la ...

  6. Point saillant : Des scientifiques répondent aux défis du changement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plus de 2 200 scientifiques et chercheurs de premier plan ont participé à la conférence scientifique Notre avenir commun sous le changement climatique qui s'est déroulée à Paris, en France, en juillet. La conférence s'est attardée aux grandes questions liées au climat en amont de la 21e Conférence des parties de la ...

  7. Suspicion de la résistance aux benzimidazoles chez les strongles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspicion de la résistance aux benzimidazoles chez les strongles gastrointestinaux du caprin à Lubumbashi, R.D. Congo. EV Okombe, SEW Pongombo. Abstract. Cent vingt-quatre caprins sélectionnés dans deux fermes de la région de Lubumbashi en R.D. Congo, ont été examinés en utilisant le test de réduction de ...

  8. Vulnérabilité et adaptation aux changements climatiques des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... Madagascar, la quatrième plus grande île au monde, héberge une multitude de formes de vie qu'on ne trouve nulle part ailleurs sur la planète. Dans la plupart des cas, cette biodiversité est extrêmement vulnérable aux changements climatiques, tout comme l'agriculture pluviale, la pêche et la foresterie, ...

  9. Solutions de remplacement à la culture du tabac et aux activités ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Solutions de remplacement à la culture du tabac et aux activités connexes (Inde) ... L'Inde fait toutefois partie du groupe de travail sur les activités de remplacement de la culture du tabac économiquement viables de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) et dispose de ... India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia ...

  10. Adaptation à la variabilité du climat et aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 avr. 2014 ... En même temps, selon les prévisions, les changements climatiques entraîneront une hausse des températures et une baisse des précipitations. Étant donné le rôle de la région dans l'économie chilienne, une stratégie d'adaptation aux changements climatiques s'impose de toute urgence. Wine production ...

  11. La vulnérabilité aux changements climatiques, une expérience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2011 ... Madagascar, la quatrième plus grande île au monde, héberge une multitude de formes de vie qu'on ne trouve nulle part ailleurs sur la planète. Dans la plupart des cas, cette biodiversité est extrêmement vulnérable aux changements climatiques, tout comme l'agriculture pluviale, la pêche et la foresterie, ...

  12. Amélioration de l'adaptation aux changements climatiques des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amélioration de l'adaptation aux changements climatiques des pasteurs du nord du Kenya. Près de 13 % des 30 millions d'habitants du Kenya sont des pasteurs dont les troupeaux vivent dans des terres arides et semi-arides qui composent environ 75 % de la masse terrestre du pays. Ces régions sont sujettes à une ...

  13. Adaptation aux changements climatiques dans la vallée de Mantaro ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les inondations dues aux phénomènes météorologiques extrêmes causent de plus en plus de ravages le long du río de la Plata en Argentine et en Uruguay. Des chercheurs subventionnés par le CRDI ont constaté que le changement des conditions météorologiques et l'intensité des phénomènes météorologique.

  14. Accès des femmes aux terres : appel à propositions | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accès des femmes aux terres : appel à propositions. Ce projet est né du besoin de mieux comprendre, au-delà du cadre juridique, les obstacles que doivent surmonter les femmes qui veulent accéder à la propriété foncière ou à d'autres ressources de production. En 2005, le CRDI a apporté son soutien à quelques études ...

  15. 211 Vulnérabilité des troupeaux transhumants aux mutations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZAKARI SOUF

    L'économie locale est dominée par l'agriculture, l'élevage et la pêche qui emploient l'essentiel de la population active. Les principales productions ...... du W (Bénin), Mémoire de Diplôme d'Etudes Approfondies, FSA/UAC, (2011), 100 p. [7] - S. N. I. Djenontin, Vulnérabilité des ressources en eau face aux changements ...

  16. Moyens que prennent les collectivités pour faire face aux souvenirs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moyens que prennent les collectivités pour faire face aux souvenirs traumatiques - enseignements tirés d'Aceh et du Timor-Leste. La province d'Aceh et l'État maintenant indépendant du Timor-Leste (auparavant le Timor oriental) ont vécu des décennies de conflit et des violations massives des droits de la personne sous la ...

  17. Gestion de la biodiversité agricole aux fins de la nutrition, de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les qualités nutritionnelles des aliments provenant des systèmes de production alimentaire de l'Afrique se dégradent, comme l'indiquent la prévalence accrue de carences en micronutriments et de maladies chroniques et la faible résistance aux maladies infectieuses. En s'appuyant sur les expériences antérieures dans ...

  18. Le CRDI aide l'Inde à s'adapter aux changements climatiques au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 févr. 2018 ... Plans d'action sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques pour gérer le stress thermique dans les villes indiennes (Integrated Research and Action for Development, 1 001 800 $). Le projet vise à améliorer la gestion des risques associés au stress thermique en Inde grâce à l'élaboration de plans ...

  19. Des bananes plus nutritives et qui résistent aux maladies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... Les petits agriculteurs jouissent de meilleurs revenus et d'une sécurité alimentaire accrue grâce à des variétés de bananes à haut rendement qui résistent aux maladies. Au cours des années 1980 et 1990, avec le soutien du CRDI, la Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agricola (FHIA) a mis au point ...

  20. Renforcement de la résilience aux changements climatiques pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 sept. 2016 ... Les chercheurs de Cenicafé bénéficieront également de l'aide du personnel du Partenariat de café de Tim Hortons, un programme de soutien aux cultivateurs mis sur pied par Tim Hortons en 2005 en vue d'améliorer les activités et les conditions de vie des caféiculteurs. Le groupe travaillera dans deux ...

  1. Liste de vérification Bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vous ne pouvez présenter une demande que deux fois pour ce concours du CRDI, et ce, pour deux années consécutives. Si une bourse ne vous a pas été accordée lors de l'appel de la Bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au doctorat de mai 2016 et que vous envisagez de présenter une demande une deuxième ...

  2. Renforcement des droits fonciers communautaires et réactions aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    De telles menaces qui planent sur les droits fonciers et environnementaux des collectivités sont un indice de tensions plus grandes au sein de l'appareil d'État et du système de justice. Dans ce ... Des droits internationaux aux pratiques locales : la réforme constitutionnelle et la participation en Amérique latine. Ce projet ...

  3. Evaluation in vitro de la sensibilité de Pythium aphanidermatum aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La pourriture des racines et du collet du papayer en Côte d'Ivoire sévit dans les plantations, causant des pertes énormes. Cependant, malgré les traitements fongiques, la maladie persiste. L'objectif de cette étude est de tester in vitro la sensibilité de Pythium aphanidermatum, responsable de la maladie, aux fongicides ...

  4. L'arbre des problèmes, des racines jusqu'aux ramilles | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 janv. 2011 ... Après avoir utilisé l'« arbre de problèmes », les Katkari ont eu recours à d'autres outils offerts par les SAS², tels que la dynamique causale et l'analyse des parties prenantes, pour déterminer s'il convenait de porter leur cause devant les autorités gouvernementales. Ces outils ont permis aux Katkari de ...

  5. Des services en santé mentale accessibles aux Kényans vivant en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 juil. 2013 ... Ces principes sont applicables non seulement au Kenya, mais aussi à d'autres pays à faible revenu qui souhaitent améliorer l'accès aux services en santé mentale. Cet article a été rédigé par Esmé Lanktree, agente de gestion de programme à l'IRSM, et révisé par Gyde Shepherd et Marie-Danielle Smith.

  6. Comportement expérimental aux cisaillements roulant et de voile de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dans le sens de la longueur du panneau (L) et pour moitié dans le sens perpendiculaire ou transversal (T) en utilisant deux dispositifs ... Le sens de la découpe influe peu sur la résistance au cisaillement laquelle montre une augmentation avec .... L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer la résistance aux cisaillements ...

  7. Offrir un choix aux agriculteurs pauvres: Harsha de Silva (Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nos travaux sont vraiment à la fine pointe, en ce sens qu'ils visent à offrir des choix aux agriculteurs, à les rendre plus autonomes grâce au téléphone mobile. Nous venons d'achever une étude exhaustive sur l'utilisation que font des TIC 10 000 personnes pauvres au Pakistan, en Inde, au Sri Lanka, au Bangladesh, ...

  8. Un partenariat pour lutter contre la résistance aux antimicrobiens ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 avr. 2018 ... Le CRDI et le Global AMR Innovation Fund du Royaume-Uni, qui sera géré par le Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) du Royaume-Uni, rentre dans un nouveau partenariat pour une nouvelle initiative dont l'objectif est de réduire les risques émergents que pose la résistance aux antimicrobiens ...

  9. Le Sri Lanka mieux préparé aux futurs tsunamis | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 nov. 2012 ... Les collectivités côtières vulnérables du Sri Lanka sont désormais mieux outillées pour survivre aux tsunamis, cyclones et autres catastrophes naturelles survenant soudainement. Ce degré accru de préparation est le fruit de travaux de recherche financés par le CRDI qui visaient à cerner les meilleurs ...

  10. Mobiliser les investissements du secteur privé dans l'adaptation aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette recherche vise à examiner divers moyens d'élargir le champ des options disponibles pour inciter le secteur privé à investir dans l'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Elle étudiera aussi diverses possibilités d'exploiter le financement privé pour appliquer à plus grande échelle les efforts d'adaptation dans les ...

  11. Financement de base du Rimisp aux fins de la recherche pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Financement de base du Rimisp aux fins de la recherche pour le développement rural (Amérique latine et Caraïbes). Il est urgent que l'Amérique latine mette en place des politiques qui favorisent une dynamique rurale contribuant à la croissance économique, à l'inclusion sociale et à une saine gouvernance de ...

  12. Impact des prestations de l'agence pour la promotion et l'appui aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leurs dépenses sociales ou investissements sur le capital humain (santé, éducation, alimentation, cérémonies diverses, etc.) sont donc améliorées grâce à PAPME. Sans l'accès au micro crédit et aux services financiers, les petites et micro entreprises ne pourront pas faire des investissements qui créent et soutiennent les ...

  13. Au-delà de l'accès : Donner la première place aux femmes en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 sept. 2017 ... Nous savons, par exemple, que si les femmes avaient accès aux mêmes ressources de production, comme les engrais, les machines et la documentation que les hommes, elles pourraient améliorer le rendement de leurs fermes de 20 à 30 pour 100. Mais combler les écarts en ce qui concerne l'accès aux ...

  14. Étude sur l'escalade de la violence faite aux femmes en Amérique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Étude sur l'escalade de la violence faite aux femmes en Amérique centrale. 21 juin 2016. Ana Carcedo. En Amérique centrale, on assiste à une escalade de la violence faite aux femmes et du nombre de meurtres de femmes (ou femicides). Or, il y a des lacunes sur le plan du signalement. Primo, malgré les efforts déployés ...

  15. Amélioration de l'accès à la justice et aux services essentiels dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plus de la moitié des résidents de Nairobi, au Kenya, occupent des établissements spontanés, ou bidonvilles, dans des conditions difficiles. Leurs logements sont inadéquats et ils ont un accès insuffisant à l'eau potable, aux services d'assainissement, aux services de santé, à l'école et à d'autres services publics essentiels ...

  16. Ne réduisez pas les programmes destinés aux femmes. Intégrez-les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 juil. 2017 ... Au cours des derniers mois, nous avons entendu dire que l'administration Trump a prévu de réduire le financement de plusieurs programmes s'adressant aux femmes, comme le Bureau des affaires mondiales relatives aux femmes du département d'État. Ce n'est pas le seul programme. Une évaluation ...

  17. Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS) using size-resolved biological and interfering particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nicole J.; Krentz, Christine E.; Könemann, Tobias; Han, Taewon T.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric particles of biological origin, also referred to as bioaerosols or primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), are important to various human health and environmental systems. There has been a recent steep increase in the frequency of published studies utilizing commercial instrumentation based on ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF), such as the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor) or UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer), for bioaerosol detection both outdoors and in the built environment. Significant work over several decades supported the development of the general technologies, but efforts to systematically characterize the operation of new commercial sensors have remained lacking. Specifically, there have been gaps in the understanding of how different classes of biological and non-biological particles can influence the detection ability of LIF instrumentation. Here we present a systematic characterization of the WIBS-4A instrument using 69 types of aerosol materials, including a representative list of pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria as well as the most important groups of non-biological materials reported to exhibit interfering fluorescent properties. Broad separation can be seen between the biological and non-biological particles directly using the five WIBS output parameters and by taking advantage of the particle classification analysis introduced by Perring et al. (2015). We highlight the importance that particle size plays on observed fluorescence properties and thus in the Perring-style particle classification. We also discuss several particle analysis strategies, including the commonly used fluorescence threshold defined as the mean instrument background (forced trigger; FT) plus 3 standard deviations (σ) of the measurement. Changing the particle fluorescence threshold was shown to have a significant impact on fluorescence fraction and particle type classification. We conclude that raising the

  18. Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS using size-resolved biological and interfering particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Savage

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particles of biological origin, also referred to as bioaerosols or primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP, are important to various human health and environmental systems. There has been a recent steep increase in the frequency of published studies utilizing commercial instrumentation based on ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF, such as the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor or UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer, for bioaerosol detection both outdoors and in the built environment. Significant work over several decades supported the development of the general technologies, but efforts to systematically characterize the operation of new commercial sensors have remained lacking. Specifically, there have been gaps in the understanding of how different classes of biological and non-biological particles can influence the detection ability of LIF instrumentation. Here we present a systematic characterization of the WIBS-4A instrument using 69 types of aerosol materials, including a representative list of pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria as well as the most important groups of non-biological materials reported to exhibit interfering fluorescent properties. Broad separation can be seen between the biological and non-biological particles directly using the five WIBS output parameters and by taking advantage of the particle classification analysis introduced by Perring et al. (2015. We highlight the importance that particle size plays on observed fluorescence properties and thus in the Perring-style particle classification. We also discuss several particle analysis strategies, including the commonly used fluorescence threshold defined as the mean instrument background (forced trigger; FT plus 3 standard deviations (σ of the measurement. Changing the particle fluorescence threshold was shown to have a significant impact on fluorescence fraction and particle type classification. We conclude that

  19. Développement d'immunoessais associés aux électrodes sérigraphiées: des particules superparamagnétiques aux nanobodies

    OpenAIRE

    Patris, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse a pour vocation de contribuer au développement de différents immunocapteurs ampérométriques associés aux électrodes sérigraphiées (SPE). Les immunocapteurs sont des dispositifs simples associant un anticorps ou un antigène qui assurent la sélectivité à un transducteur (ici une SPE) ;ce dernier transforme la liaison anticorps/antigène en un signal mesurable (ici ampérométrique).Le travail est divisé en deux volets principaux.Le premier est consacré à la mise en œuvre de différents ...

  20. Développement d'immunoessais associés aux électrodes sérigraphies: des particules superparamagnétiques aux nanobodies

    OpenAIRE

    Patris, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse a pour vocation de contribuer au développement de différents immunocapteurs ampérométriques associés aux électrodes sérigraphiées (SPE). Les immunocapteurs sont des dispositifs simples associant un anticorps ou un antigène qui assurent la sélectivité à un transducteur (ici une SPE) ;ce dernier transforme la liaison anticorps/antigène en un signal mesurable (ici ampérométrique). Le travail est divisé en deux volets principaux. Le premier est consacré à la mise en œuvre de dif...

  1. Understanding the link between meteorology and speciated abundance of bioaerosols in an urban environment using colocated flow cytometry and real-time autofluorescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Marty, Arnaldo; DeLeon-Rodriguez, Natasha; Waters, Samantha; Ziemba, Luke; Anderson, Bruce; Bergin, Michael; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2017-04-01

    The abundance and speciation of primary biological atmospheric particles (PBAP) has been of great interest due to their potential impact on human health, cloud formation and contribution to atmospheric nutrient deposition [1, 2]. During this study state-of-the-art sampling techniques and protocols have been developed and combined with the speciation of PBAP by flow cytometry (FCM). An effective FCM protocol has been developed to identify and quantify speciated bioaerosols populations. In addition, a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS) has been used to understand the temporal variability of the PBAP, by measuring the autofluorescence of the atmospheric particles [3]. The techniques developed here have been applied to understand the PBAP variability and abundance in downtown Atlanta under different meteorological conditions. FCM results show the presence of a low nucleic acid (LNA) and a high nucleic acid (HNA) content subpopulation. The contribution of each subpopulation to the total biological atmospheric particles (TBAP) varies depending on the predominant meteorological conditions. Results suggest the HNA subpopulation, named fungal spores, dominates the composition of the TBAP during humid and warm days after rain events. However, during dry episodes the HNA subpopulation is diminished and the LNA subpopulation dominates the composition of the TBAP in downtown Atlanta. WIBS size distribution shifts between dry periods and humid and warm periods agreed well with the LNA and HNA subpopulations behavior. Our finding suggests Atlanta average PBAP concentration is around 1-8 x 104 part. /m3during Spring, where WIBS represents the lower bound and FCM the upper bound of the quantification. Additional experiments performed with different types of pollen, fungi and bacteria were used to better understand the scattering and fluorescence properties of them under different growing phases. References: [1] Morris, C. E., F. Conen, J. Alex Huffman, V. Phillips, U

  2. Evaluation du procédé d'abattage des bovins aux abattoirs de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La viande est une denrée alimentaire hautement périssable dont la qualité hygiénique dépend de la contamination pendant les opérations d'abattage et de découpe. L'objectif de l'étude est d'évaluer le procédé d'abattage des bovins aux abattoirs de Cotonou-Porto-Novo au sud-Bénin. L'analyse du procédé d'abattage a ...

  3. Methodes spectrales paralleles et applications aux simulations de couches de melange compressibles

    OpenAIRE

    Male , Jean-Michel; Fezoui , Loula ,

    1993-01-01

    La resolution des equations de Navier-Stokes en methodes spectrales pour des ecoulements compressibles peut etre assez gourmande en temps de calcul. On etudie donc ici la parallelisation d'un tel algorithme et son implantation sur une machine massivement parallele, la connection-machine CM-2. La methode spectrale s'adapte bien aux exigences du parallelisme massif, mais l'un des outils de base de cette methode, la transformee de Fourier rapide (lorsqu'elle doit etre appliquee sur les deux dime...

  4. Mortalite liee au VIH chez les enfants aux Chu campus et tokoin de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Le but de ce travail était d'étudier la mortalité liée au VIH chez les enfants séropositifs aux CHU-Campus et Tokoin de Lomé. Patients et méthode. Il s'est agi d'une étude prospective qui s'est déroulée dans les services de pédiatrie des CHU-Campus et Tokoin de Lomé et qui a couvert une période de 6 mois ...

  5. Perception des risques liés aux changements climatiques dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 sept. 2014 ... L'équipe du projet Perception du risque et vulnérabilité des milieux humides sur la côte atlantique de l'Amérique du Sud, qui a commencé en 2012, privilégie une démarche de gestion intégrée des zones côtières et s'appuie sur les perceptions que les parties prenantes ont des risques liés aux ...

  6. Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    remplacement ont un prix : elles sont plus pesantes sur le plan logistique et impliquent des risques opérationnels pour les forces de l’OTAN. En...très importante, de l’interopérabilité dans le transfert de secteurs qui ont été minés par un pays non-signataire de la Convention d’Ottawa. Le...SEINE CEDEX, FRANCE RTO TECHNICAL REPORT 40(I) Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel) Military

  7. William Dab, Danielle Salomon, Agir face aux risques sanitaires. Pour un pacte de confiance

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Bertho, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Écrit à deux mains, « Agir face aux risques sanitaires » présente une réflexion sur la gestion actuelle des risques sanitaires en France. Les auteurs William Dab, ancien directeur général de la santé en France et actuel directeur de l’École des sciences industrielles et technologies de l’information au Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (CNAM) et Danielle Salomon, sociologue des organisations et des risques, offrent dans ce livre une analyse de la politique sécuritaire sanitaire franç...

  8. Vulnérabilité des troupeaux transhumants aux mutations climatiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'élevage bovin occupe une place importante parmi les activités des populations du Nord-Est du Bénin. Cette activité est très vulnérable aux mutations climatiques dans le bassin de la Sota à Malanville situé à l'extrême Nord-Est du Bénin. La présente recherche vise, d'une part, à appréhender, les perceptions des ...

  9. Conference - Découvrez notre région - Aux bornes de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      Les premières bornes-frontière sont posées en 1816 aux confins du royaume de Sardaigne, d’autres feront leur apparition dès 1818 du côté du royaume de France. Deux cents ans plus tard, on retrouve toujours ces pierres, témoins de la naissance du canton et patrimoine partagé des communes genevoises, gessiennes et savoisiennes qui font notre région.  

  10. Development of a methodological approach for the characterization of bioaerosols in exhaust air from pig fattening farms with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmüller, Katharina; Gärtner, Andrea; Jäckel, Udo; Klug, Kerstin; Schiffels, Johannes; Günther, Klaus; Elbers, Gereon

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a cultivation-independent, routinely applicable approach to identify microbial fractions in bioaerosol emission samples. We developed a streamlined protocol in line with the German state-of-the-art impingement sampling guideline. Following isokinetic sampling, a fast and reliable pre-treatment methodology involving a series of cascade filtration steps was implemented, which produced fractions for spectrometric measurement devoid of interfering substances. We sampled the exhaust air from eight pig fattening farms around western Germany, which yielded two sets of samples for both method development and validation. For method development, in total 65 bacterial isolates were produced directly from the exhaust air samples, taxonomically classified by 16S rRNA-Gene sequencing, and subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis. In this way, we could assign fingerprint biomarkers to classified bacterial genera or even species to build up a preliminary reference database. For verification of the novel methodology and application of the reference database, we subjected the second set of exhaust air samples to the developed protocol. Here, 18 out of 21 bacterial species deposited in the database were successfully retrieved, including organisms classified in risk group 2, which might be used to evaluate the pathogenic potential of sampled exhaust air. Overall, this study pursues an entirely new approach to rapidly analyze airborne microbial fractions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. Les représentations sociales du travail dans des parcours de retour aux études aux niveaux collégial et universitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Julie Bourque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur le volet éducatif de la production et de la reproduction de la main-d’œuvre hautement qualifiée par l’examen des processus en jeu au moment des retours aux études dans des programmes de formation technique et de génie. Nous nous intéressons en particulier à une situation emblématique des référentiels politiques récents en matière d’éducation, soit les retours aux études. Nous cherchons à mieux comprendre comment le retour aux études se réalise, comment les représentations professionnelles agissent sur ce dernier et comment l’expérience scolaire influence les projets des individus. Notre analyse met l’accent sur les ressorts sociaux et culturels des décisions relatives au choix de programmes et à l’orientation professionnelle d’étudiants qui ont interrompu leurs études et qui y retournent. Nous explorons le discours d’étudiants et d’étudiantes qui ont choisi de profiter de la souplesse du système d’éducation québécois pour compléter ou bonifier leur formation initiale ou encore pour tenter une réorientation professionnelle. En particulier, nous désirons savoir comment les différentes formes d’articulation entre éducation et travail influencent les représentations sociales des étudiants au sujet des titres scolaires, de l’évolution de leur carrière scolaire et de leur projet professionnel personnel.This paper deals with the educational aspect of the production and reproduction of highly qualified manpower through examining the processes at play when people return to school by enrolling in technical or engineering training programs. Our interest is focussed specifically on returning to school as an emblematic situation in recent educational policy frameworks. We are trying to better understand how school return is done, how professional representations act upon it and how previous school experience influences individual projects. Our analysis focuses on the

  12. Edgar Morin, aux risques d'une pensée libre

    CERN Document Server

    Pena Vega, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    8 juillet 2011 ; Edgar Morin fête ses 90 ans et 60 ans passés au sein du CNRS. Une occasion unique pour l'équipe d'Hermès et Dominique Wolton, d'analyser et de critiquer la pensée de ce grand intellectuel. Aspiration à la liberté, attention à la complexité du monde et une profonde originalité épistémologique, Edgar Morin a bouleversé aussi bien la philosophie, la politique que la physique ou les mathématiques. Avec un souci constant : faire communiquer et interagir toutes les sciences pour relever le défi de la compréhension. Plus qu'un simple hommage, ce numéro questionne l'œuvre d'Edgar Morin au filtre de la communication, dévoilant les mécaniques de cette vision du monde profondément originale, échappant aux cloisonnements et aux certitudes académiques, portée par un projet central, celui d'une réforme des connaissances. Suivant les cheminements intellectuels et politiques de ce chercheur itinérant et passionné à travers l'Europe, l'Est, l'Amérique latine ou les États-Unis, ce...

  13. Aux cartes citoyens. La démocratie par les cartes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Chapuis

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Les cartes, images puissantes rendant visible et compréhensibles des informations nombreuses et complexes, ont une vocation naturelle à servir de support aux débats sur l'aménagement du territoire et aux actions de développement, et en cela être un des outils privilégiés de la démocratie. Plusieurs expériences au sein de collectivités territoriales en France et au sein d'organismes de développement en Inde nous ont démontré que l'utilisation de cartes et matrices pour l'aide à la décision est le plus souvent jugée dangereuse. Bien construites elles sont révélatrices des déséquilibres spatiaux, des enjeux de pouvoir et bien entendu de la corruption. Nous présentons quelques unes de ces expériences avec en arrière plan les enjeux de la démocratie et de la Transparence tant vantées et si peu pratiquées.

  14. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 sa...

  15. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    >Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 s...

  16. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations...

  17. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  18. De la forêt aux champs en Côte d'Ivoire | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 févr. 2011 ... Aujourd'hui, Buyo fait partie de la « nouvelle ceinture du café et du cacao » de la Côte d'Ivoire et est devenu un pôle d'attraction pour les immigrants économiques. La plupart y viennent en quête de terres où s'adonner aux cultures marchandes destinées à l'exportation ou aux marchés locaux. Certains ...

  19. Étude de propriétés structurales et dynamiques par dynamique moléculaire ab initio : application aux verres et aux liquides vitreux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarellol, A.

    2003-09-01

    La dynamique moléculaire ab initio est une méthode de simulation dans laquelle l'évolution de la structure électronique est prise en compte explicitement. Après une brève description de la méthode, son application aux systèmes vitreux est illustrée à travers des études de SiO2 et de GeSe2. Dans le contexte des systèmes vitreux, les méthodes ab initio servent tout d'abord à la génération de modèles structuraux. Ensuite, ces méthodes peuvent être étendues à l'étude des propriétés vibrationnelles. Les méthodes ab initio constituent aujourd'hui un outil indispensable permettant l'analyse d'une variété de propriétés expérimentales dans le contexte d'un seul cadre théorique cohérent.

  20. Three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI EMI shielding fabric with high Microwave Absorption Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Wei; Yu, Dan

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI EMI shielding fabric with a layer by layer structure was designed and prepared to obtain excellent microwave attenuation performance. Firstly, PANI/PI fabric was prepared via in-situ deposition method. Then, the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles functionalized by oleic acid were uniformly dispersed in epoxy resin and coated on the top and bottom of PANI/PI fabric with 0.041 mm total thickness. The investigation of chemical structure and surface morphologies indicated the composite structure of f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric. Various parameters like magnetic property, reflection loss and attenuation constant were used to evaluate its microwave attenuation performance. The results demonstrated that the 30f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric had a highest attenuation effectiveness with the minimum reflection loss value of -42.5 dB (>90% attenuation) at 12.5 GHz and the effective absorption bandwidth was 3.4 GHz. The study of attenuation mechanism indicated that the dielectric loss from PANI, the magnetic loss caused by f-NiFe2O4 and the layer by layer structure effectively improved microwave attenuation performance of composite fabric. Furthermore, the favorable flexibility and dimensional stability of this resultant fabric would allow the composite fabric for a long time service under pressure or foldable conditions. In sum, the study clearly indicated that three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric was a good candidate as electromagnetic shielding materials in many fields.

  1. Seasonal and diel environmental conditions predict western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) behavior at a perennial and an ephemeral stream in Sequoia National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Gabrielle; Meyer, Erik; Das, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Managers making decisions may benefit from a well-informed understanding of a species' population size and trends. Given the cryptic nature and habitat characteristics of the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata), however, imperfect detection may be high and population estimates are frequently varied and unreliable. As a case study to investigate this issue, we used temperature dataloggers to examine turtle behavior at 2 long-term monitoring sites with different hydrological characteristics in Sequoia National Park, California, to determine if common stream-survey techniques are consistent with site-specific turtle behavior. Sycamore Creek is an intermittent stream that dries up every summer while the North Fork Kaweah River flows year-round. We found that while turtles spent most of the recorded time in the water (55% in Sycamore Creek and 82% in the North Fork Kaweah River), the timing of traditional surveys only coincided with the turtles' aquatic activity in the North Fork Kaweah River. At Sycamore Creek, turtles were most likely to be in the water at night. In contrast, failure to detect turtles in North Fork Kaweah River is likely owing to the larger size and complexity of the underwater habitat. In both streams, turtles were also more likely to be in the water in the weeks leading up to important changes in hydroperiods. Our findings illustrate the effects that differences in water permanence can have on turtle behavior within the same watershed and how phenotypic plasticity may then affect detection during surveys. Our study highlights the importance of tailoring survey practices to the site-specific behavioral traits of the target species.

  2. Standoff detection of bioaerosols over wide area using a newly developed sensor combining a cloud mapper and a spectrometric LIF lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Roy, Gilles; Lahaie, Pierre; Nadeau, Denis; Mathieu, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    A standoff sensor called BioSense was developed to demonstrate the capacity to map, track and classify bioaerosol clouds from a distant range and over wide area. The concept of the system is based on a two steps dynamic surveillance: 1) cloud detection using an infrared (IR) scanning cloud mapper and 2) cloud classification based on a staring ultraviolet (UV) Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) interrogation. The system can be operated either in an automatic surveillance mode or using manual intervention. The automatic surveillance operation includes several steps: mission planning, sensor deployment, background monitoring, surveillance, cloud detection, classification and finally alarm generation based on the classification result. One of the main challenges is the classification step which relies on a spectrally resolved UV LIF signature library. The construction of this library relies currently on in-chamber releases of various materials that are simultaneously characterized with the standoff sensor and referenced with point sensors such as Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® (APS). The system was tested at three different locations in order to evaluate its capacity to operate in diverse types of surroundings and various environmental conditions. The system showed generally good performances even though the troubleshooting of the system was not completed before initiating the Test and Evaluation (T&E) process. The standoff system performances appeared to be highly dependent on the type of challenges, on the climatic conditions and on the period of day. The real-time results combined with the experience acquired during the 2012 T & E allowed to identify future ameliorations and investigation avenues.

  3. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  4. Les stratégies d'adaptation aux cyclones dans la région d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    appui au développement de la culture du poivre et de la vanille pourrait contribuer à réduire la vulnérabilité des producteurs de clou de girofle en les aidant à s'adapter aux changements climatiques et à l'intensité croissante ...

  5. A. Lacassagne : de l’archive mineure aux Archives d’anthropologie criminelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Artières

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1921, le médecin Alexandre Lacassagne offre à la ville de Lyon ses archives et son importante bibliothèque. Depuis son installation au début des années 1880, Lacassagne qui y détient la chaire de médecine légale et de toxicologie, est devenu l’une des figures les plus célèbre de la ville. Il est intervenu à plusieurs reprises dans les affaires municipales et notamment en matière d’hygiène urbaine, il a surtout pris part comme expert aux grandes affaires criminelles ; il a ainsi fait de Lyo...

  6. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  7. Dynamiques de résistance aux normes révolutionnaires à Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffray, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Les normes du régime révolutionnaire sont, à Cuba, inscrites dans l’espace. Elles fonctionnent comme des signes performatifs qui à la fois rappellent constamment la présence du pouvoir et catégorisent les individus selon leur conformité aux normes. Mais, depuis la crise économique des années 1990, des logiques centrifuges à l’œuvre au sein de la société cubaine viennent remettre en question la capacité du régime à générer une socialisation révolutionnaire homogène. On observe des dynamiques s...

  8. Report on nuclear safety and transparency 2011 - Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA centre, this report indicates the different safety measures in the different nuclear base installations (INB) of this site (measures related to different risks, to emergency situations, to inspections and audits). It describes measures related to radiation protection: organisation, dosimetry results. It presents the different significant events which occurred in 2011 and were declared to the ASN. It discusses the results of measurements of liquid, gaseous and chemical releases from the installations and their impact on the environment. It addresses the radioactive waste management (measures to limit their volume and to limit their impact on health and on the environment, notably on water and soils, type and quantities of wastes stored in INBs). It presents the different measures and actions related to information transparency

  9. Observation spatiale et SIG: des outils pour cartographier les zones sensibles aux mouvements de terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves SCANVIC

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les niveaux de sensibilité des sols aux mouvements de terrain ont été cartographiés dans différents bassins de risques en Bolivie, en Colombie et à Taïwan, selon une méthodologie développée au BRGM et fondée en partie sur l’extraction visuelle et numérique d’informations contenues dans les données de télédétection spatiale stéréoscopiques et leur gestion-valorisation dans un SIG. Ces cartes font apparaître l’intérêt de l’imagerie Spot pour la gestion du risque naturel.

  10. Safety Training: Ergonomie - Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours d'ergonomie (durée : 1 jour) Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  11. Marjane Satrapi’s Poulet aux Prunes: fetish, desire, and illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  12. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691); Moderation des neutrons aux tres basses temperatures (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-04-15

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Partant de l'experience de Harwell faite dans une pile de faible puissance, nous nous sommes propose de maintenir une cellule d'hydrogene liquide dans un canal de la pile EL3 de Saclay dont le flux de neutrons thermiques est de 10{sup 14} neutrons par seconde et par cm{sup 2}. Nous avons cherche a realiser une installation donnant un faisceau de neutrons froids important, et pouvant fonctionner d'une maniere aussi automatique que possible, pendant des periodes de plusieurs jours sans arret. Plusieurs circuits aux tres basses temperatures ont deja ete realises, mais

  13. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  14. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  15. Former aux TICE : entre compétences techniques et modèles pédagogiques

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Béziat

    2012-01-01

    [Français] Cette contribution discute des enjeux et des limites d’une formation aux compétences techniques attendues des futurs enseignants d’école primaire. Une formation est certainement nécessaire pour espérer voir des pratiques pédagogiques avec les TICE se développer en classe. Mais ce n’est qu’un des leviers pour leur intégration dans les pratiques scolaires. Une formation aux TICE suppose que l’on mette l’accent sur l’analyse de pratiques. Plus que de former « simplement » à l’usage pé...

  16. Former aux TICE : entre compétences techniques et modèles pédagogiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Béziat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution discute des enjeux et des limites d’une formation aux compétences techniques attendues des futurs enseignants d’école primaire. Une formation est certainement nécessaire pour espérer voir des pratiques pédagogiques avec les TICE se développer en classe. Mais ce n’est qu’un des leviers pour leur intégration dans les pratiques scolaires. Une formation aux TICE suppose que l’on mette l’accent sur l’analyse de pratiques. Plus que de former « simplement » à l’usage pédagogique d’outils numériques, il est indispensable de former à la complexité de leurs enjeux intellectuels et pratiques.

  17. Order of 30 March 1988 on licensing of gaseous radioactive effluent releases by the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the documents and information the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre must provide to the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) and lays down the permissible effluent release limits for the Centre [fr

  18. Recours aux TIC pour résoudre les problèmes d'eau en Ouganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) peuvent grandement aider les collectivités à se préparer et à s'adapter aux effets des changements climatiques. Divers projets rendent compte de l'utilité de recourir à de nouvelles technologies (telles que le téléphone mobile) et à des technologies classiques ...

  19. Recours aux TIC pour résoudre les problèmes d'eau en Ouganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 janv. 2012 ... Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) peuvent grandement aider les collectivités à se préparer et à s'adapter aux effets des changements climatiques. Divers projets rendent compte de l'utilité de recourir à de nouvelles technologies (telles que le téléphone mobile) et à des ...

  20. Systèmes locaux d'alerte précoce et de réponse aux urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... RÉSUMÉ. Objectif : L'étude vise à analyser le fonctionnement des observatoires de Suivi de la Vulnérabilité (OSV) et des. Structures Communautaires d'Alerte Précoce et des Réponses aux Urgences (SCAP-RU) au Niger. Méthodologie et résultats : l'étude a été conduite sur la base des enquêtes terrain ...

  1. Accroître la participation des femmes aux marchés du bétail | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 juin 2016 ... Lorsqu'elles gèrent leurs propres revenus, les femmes peuvent jouir d'un plus grand pouvoir de négociation, réduire la violence conjugale dont elles font l'objet et améliorer l'état nutritionnel de leurs enfants. Cela dit, il est difficile pour les femmes de participer aux marchés en raison de leur mobilité ...

  2. Facilitation de l'accès des personnes aux prises avec des difficultés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le nombre d'enfants aux prises avec des difficultés mentales est important et augmente à un rythme alarmant en Inde. On estime qu'environ 1 % des enfants sont atteints de troubles du spectre autistique, et que de 2 à 5 % des enfants souffrent d'un problème de traitement de l'information auditive. Ces enfants se heurtent à ...

  3. Vulnérabilité des systèmes d'approvisionnement en Eau Face aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C'est ainsi qu'il sera judicieux de renforcer la protection des dispositifs en place pour augmenter leur résilience aux inondations. A court terme, il est préconisé des technologies résilientes. A long terme, la solution durable serait d'intégrer une gestion adaptative de la ressource en eau au niveau des bassins versants pour ...

  4. Étude sur l'escalade de la violence faite aux femmes en Amérique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juin 2016 ... En Amérique centrale, on assiste à une escalade de la violence faite aux femmes et du nombre de meurtres de femmes (ou femicides). Or, il y a des lacunes sur le plan du signalement. Primo, malgré les efforts déployés par les organisations féministes, les groupes de défense des droits de la personne, les ...

  5. Accroître la participation des femmes aux marchés du bétail | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 juin 2016 ... Lorsqu'elles gèrent leurs propres revenus, les femmes peuvent jouir d'un plus grand pouvoir de négociation, réduire la violence conjugale dont elles font l'objet et améliorer l'état nutritionnel de leurs enfants. Cela dit, il est difficile pour les femmes de participer aux marchés en raison de leur mobilité ...

  6. GESTION BANCAIRE DU RISQUE DE NON-REMBOURSEMENT DES CREDITS AUX ENTREPRISES : UNE REVUE DE LA LITTERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Véronique Rougès

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Les banquiers subissent un risque de nonremboursement des crédits aux entreprises. Ce risque peut être réduit lors des deux phases du crédit : lors de l'octroi, par une analyse du risque de défaillance et la rédaction de contrats incitatifs, et en cours de vie, par un suivi actif du crédit.

  7. Accès aux prix sur petit écran en vue de transformer les marchés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 oct. 2010 ... Toute l'attention est portée à la vente; le prix a évidemment son importance, mais il est d'avis que l'information aux étapes précédant la vente importe elle ... In Sri Lanka, the government is aiming to double fish consumption per capita from 11 to 22 kg per year by the end of 2014 to boost dietary protein.

  8. Second meeting of the Atomic and Molecular Data Centre network. Fontenay aux Roses, 23-24 May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.

    1980-11-01

    Summary report of the Second A+M Data Centre Network (DCN) meeting convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section at the CEA Laboratory at Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, 23-24 May 1980. The meeting was attended by 20 representatives from centres and groups from six Member States concerned with the coordinated international management of atomic and molecular data pertinent to controlled fusion research and technology

  9. Amélioration de la capacité d'adaptation sociale et écologique aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amélioration de la capacité d'adaptation sociale et écologique aux changements climatiques dans le bassin versant du fleuve Orotoy, en Colombie. En Colombie, les inondations, les glissements de terrain et les sécheresses de plus en plus intenses se multiplient en raison des phénomènes météorologiques extrêmes.

  10. Amélioration de l'accès à la justice et aux services essentiels dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amélioration de l'accès à la justice et aux services essentiels dans les établissements spontanés de Nairobi. Plus de la moitié des résidents de Nairobi, au Kenya, occupent des établissements spontanés, ou bidonvilles, dans des conditions difficiles. Leurs logements sont inadéquats et ils ont un accès insuffisant à l'eau ...

  11. Comment utiliser les TIC pour s'attaquer aux problèmes de santé ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On appelle souvent cybersanté l'utilisation des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) dans les systèmes de santé. ... à réfléchir aux tendances que l'on observe actuellement au chapitre de la cybersanté et du renforcement des systèmes de santé, et à trouver sa niche dans ce dynamique champ de ...

  12. Systèmes locaux d'alerte précoce et de réponse aux urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le Dispositif National de Prévention et de Gestion des Catastrophes et Crises Alimentaires (DNPGCCA) ne peut donc fonctionner en marge de cette initiative qui a gagné le mérite de faire avancer le système d'alerte précoce et de réponse aux urgences par une meilleure responsabilisation des communautés et des élus ...

  13. Etude de l'auto-adaptivité du filtre actif parallèle aux variations de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour assurer l'auto-additivité du filtre aux variations de la charge, deux schémas de régulation à base du régulateur P sont proposés, l'un pour la tension continue et ... To ensure filter auto-adaptivity, two control schemes based on P controller are proposed; one for dc voltage control and the second for the injected current ...

  14. Facteurs associes aux décès des nouveau-nés suspects d'infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facteurs associes aux décès des nouveau-nés suspects d'infections bactériennes au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Solange Odile Yugbaré Ouédraogo, Désiré Méda, Lassina Dao, Fla Kouéta, Kam Ludovic, Ramata Ouédraogo Traoré, Diarra Yé ...

  15. Améliorer l'accès aux soins de santé en Afrique subsaharienne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 juin 2016 ... Aux quatre coins de l'Afrique, les systèmes de santé sont minés par l'absence de ressources adéquates et le fardeau de plus en plus lourd des maladies. Pour lutter contre les maladies et améliorer le bien-être et la santé des populations, il faut s'assurer que les habitants peuvent accéder en temps ...

  16. Facilitation de l'accès des personnes aux prises avec des difficultés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à un petit groupe d'enfants de surmonter de sérieuses difficultés grâce à l'utilisation judicieuse des TIC et, dans la foulée, de valider une méthodologie peu coûteuse visant à faciliter l'apprentissage et la communication chez les enfants aux prises avec des difficultés mentales. La documentation ...

  17. Trousse de suivi et d'évaluation destinée aux initiatives d'adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En Afrique, bon nombre de pays, de régions et d'organismes se dotent de programmes d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Pour que ces programmes portent leurs fruits, ils devront régulièrement faire l'objet d'un suivi et d'une évaluation. Cette subvention servira à financer l'intégration d'un volet suivi et évaluation ...

  18. Application des innovations liées aux légumineuses pour la sécurité ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Éthiopie présente l'un des taux de prévalence les plus élevés au monde quant à la malnutrition protéinocalorique et aux carences en micronutriments. Ce projet donnera lieu à l'application à grande échelle de nouveaux produits dérivés des légumineuses (les pois chiches et les haricots, par exemple) dans le sud de ...

  19. La politique européenne d’aide à la mise aux normes de qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vialatte Philippe

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available La Commission européenne peut aider les pays en développement à financer des programmes de mise aux normes de qualité pour contribuer à la lutte contre la pauvreté, améliorer les conditions de vie des populations locales et leur permettre de bénéficier encore plus largement des opportunités offertes par le marché européen.

  20. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGolan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1,000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA. To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development.