WorldWideScience

Sample records for autumnal soil cultivation

  1. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  2. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  3. Soil protection through almond tree cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Moreno, J. L.; Bastida, F.; Masciandaro, G.; Mennone, C.; Ceccanti, B.

    2009-01-01

    Most threat to soil are particularly severe in areas with steps slopes and suffering dry periods followed by heavy rain such as the Mediterranean regions. Severity is aggravated by lacking or inappropriate farming systems. Therefore the objective of this work was to demonstrate that land management based on cultivation of new varieties of local crops (almond trees) suited to these conditions may result in a sustainable system to prevent soil degradation. (Author)

  4. Soil moisture control over autumn season methane flux, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

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    C. S. Sturtevant

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of annual budgets of methane (CH4 efflux in arctic regions are severely constrained by the paucity of non-summer measurements. Moreover, the incomplete understanding of the ecosystem-level sensitivity of CH4 emissions to changes in tundra moisture makes prediction of future CH4 release from the Arctic extremely difficult. This study addresses some of these research gaps by presenting an analysis of eddy covariance and chamber measurements of CH4 efflux and supporting environmental variables during the autumn season and associated beginning of soil freeze-up at our large-scale water manipulation site near Barrow, Alaska (the Biocomplexity Experiment. We found that the autumn season CH4 emission is significant (accounting for 21–25% of the average growing season emission, and that this emission is mostly controlled by the fraction of inundated landscape, atmospheric turbulence, and the decline in unfrozen water during the period of soil freezing. Drainage decreased autumn CH4 emission by a factor of 2.4 compared to our flooded treatment. Flooding slowed the soil freezing process which has implications for extending elevated CH4 emissions longer into the winter season.

  5. [Community traits of soil fauna in forestlands converted from cultivated lands in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yuan-Qiug; Guo, Sheng-Mao; Ke, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Xu-Bao; Liu, Wu

    2012-04-01

    This paper studied the variations of the community composition and individuals' number of soil fauna in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province after six years of converting cultivated lands into forestlands. Three converted forestlands, including the lands of mixed multiple-species forest, bamboo-broadleaved forest, and tree-seedling integration, were selected as test objects, with cultivated lands as the comparison. A total of 34 orders, 17 classes, and 6 phyla of soil fauna were observed in the converted forestlands. The dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 86.7% of the total, whereas Acarina, Enchytraeidae, and Collembola were the common groups. In the cultivated lands, soil fauna had 21 orders, 10 classes, and 5 phyla. The dominant group was also Nematoda, accounting 86.7% of the total, and Acarina and Enchytraeidae were the common groups. In the converted forestlands, the group number of rare species was greater than that in the cultivated lands (30 vs. 18), and, except in winter, the group number and average density were significantly higher than those in the cultivated lands (P soil fauna in the soil profiles showed an obvious surface accumulation, which was more apparent in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and the individuals' number had significant differences between the surface (0-5 cm) layer and the 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm layers (P soil fauna in the converted forestlands had a seasonal variation ranked in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and there was a significant difference between summer-autumn and spring-winter. The average density of the soil fauna also had a seasonal variation but ranked as autumn > summer > spring > winter, and the differences among the seasons were significant (P soil fauna was significantly higher in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and was the highest in mixed multiple-species forestland and the least in tree-seedling integration land.

  6. Deep Soil Conditions Make Mediterranean Cork Oak Stem Growth Vulnerable to Autumnal Rainfall Decline in Tunisia

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    Lobna Zribi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree rings provide fruitful information on climate features driving annual forest growth through statistical correlations between annual tree growth and climate features. Indices built upon tree growth limitation by carbon sequestration (source hypothesis or drought-driven cambial phenology (sink hypothesis can be used to better identify underlying processes. We used both analytical frameworks on Quercus suber, a sparsely studied species due to tree ring methodological issues, and growing on a favorable sub-humid Mediterranean climate and deep soil conditions in Tunisia (North Africa. Statistical analysis revealed the major role of autumnal rainfall before the growing season on annual tree growth over the 1918–2008 time series. Using a water budget model, we were able to explain the critical role of the deep soil water refill during the wet season in affecting both the drought onset controlling growth phenology and the summer drought intensity affecting carbon assimilation. Analysis of recent climate changes in the region additionally illustrated an increase in temperatures enhancing the evaporative demand and advancing growth start, and a decline in rainfalls in autumn, two key variables driving stem growth. We concluded on the benefits of using process-based indices in dendrochronological analysis and identified the main vulnerability of this Mediterranean forest to autumnal rainfall decline, a peculiar aspect of climate change under summer-dry climates.

  7. Maize Endophytic Bacterial Diversity as Affected by Soil Cultivation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Arone, Gregorio J

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity). The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from fallow soils. A mean of 30 genera were found in the fallow soil libraries and 47 were in those from the maize-cultivated soils. Both alpha and beta diversity indexes showed clear differences between bacterial endophytic populations from plants with different soil cultivation history and that the soils cultivated for long time requires a higher diversity of endophytes. The number of sequences corresponding to main genera Sphingomonas, Herbaspirillum, Bradyrhizobium and Methylophilus in the maize-cultivated libraries were statistically more abundant than those from the fallow soils. Sequences of genera Dyella and Sreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the libraries from the fallow soils. Relative abundance of genera Burkholderia, candidatus Glomeribacter, Staphylococcus, Variovorax, Bacillus and Chitinophaga were similar among libraries. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relative abundance of the main genera showed that the four libraries distributed in two clearly separated groups. Our results suggest that cultivation history is an important driver of endophytic colonization of maize and that after a long time of cultivation of the soil the maize plants need to increase the richness of the bacterial endophytes communities.

  8. Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated Fields of South Welo, Ethiopia. ... In most of the highlands, crop cultivation is carried out without any type of terracing, while about 74 per cent of this land requires application of contour plowing, broad-based terracing, or bench terracing. The third group of ...

  9. Meeting on the Microbiology of Soils, Autumn 2001: Estimation of protozoan diversity in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Different methods of estimating protozoan diversity in soil are discussed in this paper, with the major emphasis on heterotrophic flagellates. Although many species of ciliates and testate amoebae seem to be unique to the soil environment, the communities of heterotrophic flagellates and naked am...

  10. The utilization of ultisol soil for horticulture crops cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumono; Parinduri, SM; Huda, N.; Ichwan, N.

    2018-02-01

    Ultisol soil is a marginal soil commonly used for palm oil cultivation in Indonesia, its very potential for cultivation of horticulture crops. The utilization of ultisol soil can be done with adding compost with certain proportions. The research aimed to know best proportion of ultisol soil and compost, and proportion of water concentration, and its relationship with fresh and dry weight of horticulture crops . The research was divided 3 steps. The first, mixed ultisol soil and compost with certain proportion and flooding until steady. The second, watering with different concentration to soil mixture. The last, studied its relationship with fresh and dry weight of crops. The result show that physical properties and nutrient content of ultisol soil was increasing with adding compost. SC4 (70% soil and 30% compost) is the best composition to soil mixture. Watering with different concentration show that trend decreased from reference and the bulk density and porosity decreased not significantly at the significant level ∝ = 0.05. Watering affect mass of pakcoynot significantly at the significant level ∝ = 0.05. Hence, ultisol soil was a potential marginal soil to utilizing as a media for cultivating horticulture crops.

  11. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc.

  12. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  13. Morphological studies of some cultivated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, S.

    1966-01-01

    A study was made of those morphological and physical soil properties considered to govern root development.

    A deep and wide-branched root system was shown only to develop in a soil containing a permanent heterogeneous pore system, formed by biological activity in the profile. Therefore a

  14. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  15. 137Cs profiles in erosion plots with different soil cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, A.C.; Appoloni, C.R.; Cassol, E.A.; Melquiades, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Cesium-137 methodology has been successfully used to assess soil erosion. Seven erosion plots were sampled to determine the 137 Cs profile and to assess the erosion rates. Cesium-137 profile for native pasture plot showed an exponential decline below 5 cm depth, with little 137 Cs activity in the superficial layer (0-5 cm). Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation plot in conventional tillage showed a uniform distribution with depth. For this plot, the soil loss occurs more in middle than upper and lower level. Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation and wheat-maize rotation plots in no-tillage showed a similar result to the native pasture, with a minimum soil loss in the superficial layer. Cesium-137 profile for bare soil and cultivated pasture plots are similar, with a soil erosion rate of 229 t ha -1 year -1 . In the plots with a conventional tillage a greater soil loss occur in middle than upper and lower level. In no-tillage cultivation plots occurs soil loss in lower level, but no sign of soil loss neither gain in the upper level is observed. Cesium-137 methodology is a good tool to assess soil erosion and the 137 Cs profile gives a possibility to understand the soil erosion behavior in erosion plots. (author)

  16. Aggregate structure and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in native and cultivated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Metadata only record This study evaluates the impact of cultivation on soil organic matter loss in North American grassland soils by measuring numerous aggregate- and nutrient-related soil indicators. Macroaggregates were more stable in native soil than in cultivated soil. In both soils, more C, N, and P were present in macroaggregates than in microaggregates.

  17. Phytoremediation of radiocesium in different soils using cultivated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasukazu; Saito, Takashi; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A huge amount of radionuclides were released into the environment after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Radiocesium, which is one of the more prevalent radionuclides, was deposited in the soil. It is well known that radiocesium is adsorbed into the soil and binds strongly to clay. As a result, it is difficult to reduce the contamination level in the soil. We examine the possibility of decontamination by means of phytoremediation. Four species of plants (sunflower, sorghum, amaranth, and buckwheat) were sown in light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil. When the plants matured, they were harvested and separated into their different parts, i.e., flower, leaf, stem, and root. The removal percentage of 137 Cs for the aboveground parts, which is defined as the ratio of the total content of 137 Cs in the aboveground biomass of plants to that in the cultivated soil of 0-15 cm depth, was 0.013-0.93% for the light-colored Andosol and 0.0072-0.038% for the gray lowland soil. The plants exhibiting the highest value cultivated in the light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil were amaranth (0.093%) and sunflower (0.038%), respectively. This indicates that it is difficult to remove radiocesium from contaminated soil by means of phytoremediation. (author)

  18. Phytoremediation of radiocesium in different soils using cultivated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasukazu; Saito, Takashi; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    A huge amount of radionuclides were released into the environment after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Radiocesium, which is one of the more prevalent radionuclides, was deposited in the soil. It is well known that radiocesium is adsorbed into the soil and binds strongly to clay. As a result, it is difficult to reduce the contamination level in the soil. We examine the possibility of decontamination by means of phytoremediation. Four species of plants (sunflower, sorghum, amaranth, and buckwheat) were sown in light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil. When the plants matured, they were harvested and separated into their different parts, i.e., flower, leaf, stem, and root. The removal percentage of "1"3"7Cs for the aboveground parts, which is defined as the ratio of the total content of "1"3"7Cs in the aboveground biomass of plants to that in the cultivated soil of 0-15 cm depth, was 0.013- 0.93% for the light-colored Andosol and 0.0072-0.038% for the gray lowland soil. The plants exhibiting the highest value cultivated in the light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil were amaranth (0.093%) and sunflower (0.038%), respectively. This indicates that it is difficult to remove radiocesium from contaminated soil by means of phytoremediation. (author)

  19. SOIL CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN OIL PALM CULTIVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

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    Halus Satriawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many have been concerned with the oil palm cultivation since it may also put land resources in danger and bring about environmental damage. Poor practices in managing agricultural land very often occur due to the inadequate knowledge of soil conservation. Application of soil and water conservation is to maintain the productivity of the land and to prevent further damage by considering land capability classes. This research was aimed at obtaining soil and water conservation techniques which are the most appropriate and optimal for oil palm cultivation areas based on land capability classes which can support sustainable oil palm cultivation. Several soil conservation techniques had been treated to each different class III, IV, and VI of the studied area. These treatment had been performed by a standard plot erosion. The results showed for the land capability class III, Cover plants + Manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce leaching of N (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest erosion (3,73t/ha, and N leaching (0,25%. On land capability class IV, Sediment Trap + cover plants+ manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce organic C and P leaching (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest runoff (127,77 m3/ha, erosion (12,38t/ha, organic C leaching (1,14 %, and P leaching (1,28 ppm. On land capability class VI, there isn’t significant effect of soil conservation, but Bench Terrace + cover plants +manure has the lowest runoff, erosion and soil nutrient leaching.

  20. Reduced soil cultivation and organic fertilization on organic farms: effects on crop yield and soil physical traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surböck, Andreas; Gollner, Gabriele; Klik, Andreas; Freyer, Bernhard; Friedel, Jürgen K.

    2017-04-01

    A continuous investment in soil fertility is necessary to achieve sustainable yields in organic arable farming. Crucial factors here besides the crop rotation are organic fertilization and the soil tillage system. On this topic, an operational group (Project BIOBO*) was established in the frame of an European Innovation Partnership in 2016 consisting of organic farmers, consultants and scientists in the farming region of eastern Austria. The aim of this group is the development and testing of innovative, reduced soil cultivation, green manure and organic fertilization systems under on-farm and on-station conditions to facilitate the sharing and transfer of experience and knowledge within and outside the group. Possibilities for optimization of the farm-specific reduced soil tillage system in combination with green manuring are being studied in field trials on six organic farms. The aim is to determine, how these measures contribute to an increase in soil organic matter contents, yields and income, to an improved nitrogen and nutrient supply to the crops, as well as support soil fertility in general. Within a long-term monitoring project (MUBIL), the effects of different organic fertilization systems on plant and soil traits have been investigated since 2003, when the farm was converted to organic management. The examined organic fertilization systems, i.e. four treatments representing stockless and livestock keeping systems, differ in lucerne management and the supply of organic manure (communal compost, farmyard manure, digestate from a biogas plant). Previous results of this on-station experiment have shown an improvement of some soil properties, especially soil physical properties, since 2003 in all fertilization systems and without differences between them. The infiltration rate of rainwater has increased because of higher hydraulic conductivity. The aggregate stability has shown also positive trends, which reduces the susceptibility to soil erosion by wind and

  1. WATER INFILTRATION IN TWO CULTIVATED SOILS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Ildegardis Bertol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  2. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  3. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  4. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  5. Fast Decline of Pythium zingiberum in Soil and Its Recolonization by Cultivating Susceptible Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    ICHITANI, Takio; SHIMIZU, Tokiya

    1984-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the fast decline of Pythium zingiberum in soil and its recolonization by cultivating mioga, susceptible host plant, and discusses growth and survival of the pathogen in the host rhizosphere in cultivated fields.

  6. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  7. The effect of autumn ridging and inter-row subsoiling on potato tuber yield and quality on a sandy soil in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Christian Martin Bugge; Mølgaard, Jens Peter; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Autumn ridging is a modified version of the ridge tillage system. Instead of setting up ridges during the growing season, they are established in autumn and left for the winter. Previous studies have documented positive effects of autumn ridging on potato yield and we hypothesized that subsoiling...... could enhance these effects. To determine the effect of autumn ridging and inter-row subsoiling on potato yield and quality a field experiment was conducted on sandy soil from 2001 to 2003. Autumn ridging resulted in an average total and marketable tuber yield of 25.6 and 9.2 t ha1, which...... was not significantly different from the average total and marketable yield of 25.6 and 8.9 t ha1 with ploughing. However, autumn ridging significantly reduced the incidence of black scurf from 2.5% to 2.2%. Inter-row subsoiling in the growing season significantly increased marketable potato tuber yield from 8.4 to 9...

  8. Economic and energy assessment of minimalized soil tillage methods in maize cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Szulc; Andrzej Dubas

    2014-01-01

    Grain yield of maize cultivated in the years 1997-2009 in monoculture and with annual tillage simplifications was assessed in energy and economy terms. Effects of no-tillage system and direct sowing (D) with cultivation with autumn deep (A) and shallow (B) ploughing and cultivation with spring pre-sowing ploughing (C) were compared. It was demonstrated that the 13-year maize grain yield in no-tillage system and direct sowing was lower by 10.4% than the yield obtained in conventional tillage s...

  9. Phosphorus content as a function of soil aggregate size and paddy cultivation in highly weathered soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baozhen; Ge, Tida; Xiao, Heai; Zhu, Zhenke; Li, Yong; Shibistova, Olga; Liu, Shoulong; Wu, Jinshui; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Red soils are the major land resource in subtropical and tropical areas and are characterized by low phosphorus (P) availability. To assess the availability of P for plants and the potential stability of P in soil, two pairs of subtropical red soil samples from a paddy field and an adjacent uncultivated upland were collected from Hunan Province, China. Analysis of total P and Olsen P and sequential extraction was used to determine the inorganic and organic P fractions in different aggregate size classes. Our results showed that the soil under paddy cultivation had lower proportions of small aggregates and higher proportions of large aggregates than those from the uncultivated upland soil. The portion of >2-mm-sized aggregates increased by 31 and 20 % at Taoyuan and Guiyang, respectively. The total P and Olsen P contents were 50-150 and 50-300 % higher, respectively, in the paddy soil than those in the upland soil. Higher inorganic and organic P fractions tended to be enriched in both the smallest and largest aggregate size classes compared to the middle size class (0.02-0.2 mm). Furthermore, the proportion of P fractions was higher in smaller aggregate sizes (2 mm). In conclusion, soils under paddy cultivation displayed improved soil aggregate structure, altered distribution patterns of P fractions in different aggregate size classes, and to some extent had enhanced labile P pools.

  10. Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate

  11. Soil water regime and crop yields in relation to various technologies of cultivation in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Beliaev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of crop yield in areas with different technologies of cultivation based on the network of automatic stations that provide data on climatic and soil-hydrological monitoring in the dry steppe during the vegetation period of May–September 2013–2016 . These data  on regional ecological and climatic parameters are of great interest to the ecologists, plant physiologists, and farmers working in the Kulunda Plain (Altai Territory. We compared the following options for cropping technologies: the modern system, which is the "no-till", technology without autumn tillage;the intensive technology of deep autumn tillage by plough PG-3-5 at a depth of 22–24 cm. Cultivation of crops was carried out using the following scheme of crop rotation: the modern system: 1–2–3–4 (wheat – peas – wheat – rape; the intensive system: 5/6 – 7/8 – 9/10 (fallow – wheat – wheat. We believe that the use of modern technology in these conditions is better due to exchange between the different layers of soil. When  the ordinary Soviet system , the so-called "plow sole" , was used , at a depth of 24 cm , we observed that this creates a water conductivity barrier that seems to preclude the possibility of lifting water from the lower horizons. Results of the study of infiltration of soil moisture at the depth of 30 and 60 cm  have shown in some years the advantages of the modern technology over the ordinary Soviet system: in the version with the use of modern technology we can trace better exchange between the various horizons and , probably,  moisture replenishment from the lower horizons. Differences in individual observation periods are comparatively large due to the redistribution of soil moisture, depending on the weather conditions, the crops used in the crop rotations, and cultivation techniques. Moreover, the average moisture reserves within the one meter layer did not show any significant differences during the

  12. CHANGE OF CHOSEN SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHERNOZEM AFTER SEVEN YEARS OF NO-TILL SOIL CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarna Hrckov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical properties were investigated in two types of growing systems - integrated no-till system and conventional system with ploughing, in 1999 2005 on chernozem in maize growing region. Bulk density decreased and total porosity increased during 7 years in both growing systems. In integrated system the improvement of soil physical properties could be explained by remaining of plant residues on soil surface. In conventional system the plant residues were incorporated into soil by ploughing. This led to the higher proportion of organic matter in soil. Soil cultivated conventionally had significantly higher value of reduced bulk density, significantly lower porosity and significantly higher values of soil moisture compared to soil in integrated no-till system. Maximum capillary water capacity was not significantly influenced by soil cultivation. Values of investigated soil physical properties in both systems were not markedly different from the typical values of cultivated chernozem.

  13. Contribution of soil esterase to biodegradation of aliphatic polyester agricultural mulch film in cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Tamura, Kimiko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Watanabe, Takashi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yarimizu, Tohru; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between degradation speed of soil-buried biodegradable polyester film in a farmland and the characteristics of the predominant polyester-degrading soil microorganisms and enzymes were investigated to determine the BP-degrading ability of cultivated soils through characterization of the basal microbial activities and their transition in soils during BP film degradation. Degradation of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) film was evaluated in soil samples from different cultivated fields in Japan for 4 weeks. Both the degradation speed of the PBSA film and the esterase activity were found to be correlated with the ratio of colonies that produced clear zone on fungal minimum medium-agarose plate with emulsified PBSA to the total number colonies counted. Time-dependent change in viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and esterase activities were monitored in soils where buried films showed the most and the least degree of degradation. During the degradation of PBSA film, the viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and the esterase activities in soils, which adhered to the PBSA film, increased with time. The soil, where the film was degraded the fastest, recorded large PBSA-degrading fungal population and showed high esterase activity compared with the other soil samples throughout the incubation period. Meanwhile, esterase activity and viable counts of PBSA-degrading fungi were found to be stable in soils without PBSA film. These results suggest that the higher the distribution ratio of native PBSA-degrading fungi in the soil, the faster the film degradation is. This could be due to the rapid accumulation of secreted esterases in these soils.

  14. REE Distribution in Cultivated and No Cultivated Soils in Two Viticultural Areas of Central Chile: Mineralogical, Pedological and Anthropic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.; Townley, B.; Aburto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Within the scope of a Corfo-Innova Project (I+D Wines of Chile-University of Chile) we have recognized remarkable REE patterns in soils of two vineyards located in traditional vinicultural areas: Casablanca and Santa Cruz. Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location. REE in soil samples were measured by ICP-MS using two digestion methods: lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to obtain REE contents in total soil and MMI® partial extraction technique for REE contents on bioavailable phases.Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce (positive vs negative) in different areas of the same vineyard. Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Enrichments and/or depletions of REE patterns in soils respect to the rock source and Ce anomalies, evidence differential pedogenetic processes occurring at each sampled site. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the

  15. [Effects of different cultivation patterns on soil aggregates and organic carbon fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Lei; Zong, Liang-Gang; Liu, Yi-Fan; Du, Xia-Fei; Luo, Min; Wang, Run-Chi

    2015-03-01

    Combined with the research in an organic farm in the past 10 years, differences of soil aggregates composition, distribution and organic carbon fractions between organic and conventional cultivation were studied by simultaneous sampling analysis. The results showed that the percentages of aggregates (> 1 mm, 1-0.5 mm, 0.5-0.25 mm and organic cultivation were 9.73%, 18.41%, 24.46% and 43.90%, respectively. The percentage of organic cultivation than that in conventional cultivation. Organic cultivation increased soil organic carbon (average of 17.95 g x kg(-1)) and total nitrogen contents (average of 1.51 g x kg(-1)). Among the same aggregates in organic cultivation, the average content of heavy organic carbon fraction was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation. This fraction accumulated in organic carbon. In organic cultivation, the content of labile organic carbon in > 1 mm macro-aggregates was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation, while no significant difference was found among the other aggregates, indicating that the labile organic carbon was enriched in > 1 mm macro-aggregates. Organic cultivation increased the amounts of organic carbon and its fractions, reduced tillage damage to aggregates, and enhanced the stability of organic carbon. Organic cultivation was therefore beneficial for soil carbon sequestration. The findings of this research may provide theoretical basis for further acceleration of the organic agriculture development.

  16. Genetic analysis reveals diversity and genetic relationship among Trichoderma isolates from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Oweisi, Fatma A; Edwards, Simon G; Al-Nadabi, Hamed; Al-Fahdi, Ahmed M

    2015-07-28

    Trichoderma is one of the most common fungi in soil. However, little information is available concerning the diversity of Trichoderma in soil with no previous history of cultivation. This study was conducted to investigate the most common species and the level of genetic relatedness of Trichoderma species from uncultivated soil in relation to cultivated soil and potting media. A total of 24, 15 and 13 Trichoderma isolates were recovered from 84 potting media samples, 45 cultivated soil samples and 65 uncultivated soil samples, respectively. Analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the translation elongation factor gene (EF1) indicated the presence of 9 Trichoderma species: T. harzianum (16 isolates), T. asperellum (13), T. citrinoviride (9), T. orientalis (3), T. ghanense (3), T. hamatum (3), T. longibrachiatum (2), T. atroviride (2), and T. viride (1). All species were found to occur in potting media samples, while five Trichoderma species were recovered from the cultivated soils and four from the uncultivated soils. AFLP analysis of the 52 Trichoderma isolates produced 52 genotypes and 993 polymorphic loci. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity were found within populations of Trichoderma species (H = 0.0780 to 0.2208). Analysis of Molecular Variance indicated the presence of very low levels of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.0002 to 0.0139) among populations of the same Trichoderma species obtained from the potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil. The study provides evidence for occurrence of Trichoderma isolates in soil with no previous history of cultivation. The lack of genetic differentiation among Trichoderma populations from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil suggests that some factors could have been responsible for moving Trichoderma propagules among the three substrates. The study reports for the first time the presence of 4 Trichoderma species in Oman: T

  17. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  18. Aggregate Stability of Tropical Soils Under Long-Term Eucalyptus Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in all Brazilian regions. Despite the large amount of cultivated area, little is known about how this kind of management system affects soil properties, mainly the aggregate stability. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a sensitive tool to measure soi...

  19. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  20. evaluation of nutrients status of soils under rice cultivation in cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CULTIVATION IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. I. N. ONYEKWERE, A. G. ... KEYWORDS: Evaluation, Nutrient status, Soils, Cross River. ... countries like India, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. ... which the rice culture can be established.

  1. Phosphorus critical levels and availability in lowland soils cultivated with flooded rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Isabela Orlando dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowland soils present a great potential for the flooded rice crop. This work aimed to estimate critical levels of P in waterlogged soils cultivated with rice using Mehlich 1 and anion exchange resin as soil-P extractors, compare the performance of these extractors as for the evaluation of the P availability, and study the soil-P fractions involved in the P nutrition of the rice crop. Studied soils consisted of four Histosols: Low Humic Gley (GP, Aluvial (A, Humic Gley (GH and Bog Soil (O which were previously cultivated with beans. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial scheme, using four soils, five P rates (75, 150, 300, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 and two liming treatments (with and without liming, with three replicates. After 60 days of flooding, soil samples were submitted to P extraction by Mehlich 1 and resin, and phosphorous fractionation. Two rice plants were cultivated in pots containing 3 dm³ of waterlogged soils. The labile P and the moderately labile P of the soils contributed for rice nutrition. The two tested extractors presented efficiency in the evaluation of P availability for the rice cultivated in lowland waterlogged soils.

  2. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  3. Adsorption-desorption reactions of selenium (VI) in tropical cultivated and uncultivated soils under Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, J H L; Araujo, A M; Silva, G N T; Guilherme, L R G; Lopes, G

    2016-12-01

    Soil management may affect selenium (Se) adsorption capacity. This study investigated adsorption and desorption of Se (VI) in selected Brazilian soils from the Cerrado biome, an area of ever increasing importance for agriculture expansion in Brazil. Soil samples were collected from cultivated and uncultivated soils, comprising clayed and sandy soils. Following chemical and mineralogical characterization, soil samples were subjected to Se adsorption and desorption tests. Adsorption was evaluated after a 72-h reaction with increasing concentrations of Se (0-2000 μg L -1 ) added as Na 2 SeO 4 in a NaCl electrolyte solution (pH 5.5; ionic strength 15 mmol L -1 ). Desorption, as well as distribution coefficients (K d ) for selenate were also assessed. Soil management affected Se adsorption capacity, i.e., Se adsorbed amounts were higher for uncultivated soils, when compared to cultivated ones. Such results were also supported by data of K d and maximum adsorption capacity of Se. This fact was attributed mainly to the presence of greater amounts of competing anions, especially phosphate, in cultivated soils, due to fertilizer application. Phosphate may compete with selenate for adsorption sites, decreasing Se retention. For the same group of soils (cultivated and uncultivated), Se adsorption was greater in the clayed soils compared to sandy ones. Our results support the idea that adding Se (VI) to the soil is a good strategy to increase Se levels in food crops (agronomic biofortification), especially when crops are grown in soils that have been cultivated over the time due to their low Se adsorption capacity (high Se availability). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of cultivation ages on Cu accumulation in Greenhouse Soils in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Guo, Wenmiao; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we determined the influence of cultivation age on Cu accumulation in greenhouse soils. The concentration of plant available Cu (A-Cu) decreased with depth, and the contents of top soils (0-40 cm) in greenhouses were higher than those of the open field. There was a positive correlation between A-Cu concentrations in soils and cultivation ages (R2=0.572). The contents of total Cu (T-Cu) decreased with depth, and positively correlated with cultivation ages in top soils (0-20cm) (R2=0.446). The long-term usage of manures can cause Cu increase and accumulation in greenhouse soils in comparison to the open field.

  5. Influence of fertilizers on the NORM content in agricultural cultivated soils of Villupuram district, Tamilnadu India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punniyakotti, J.; Lakshmi, K.S.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    2017-01-01

    Natural radioactivity content is determined in ten different types of fertilizers and influence of these, if any, in fertilized agricultural cultivated soil samples is investigated and compared with virgin soil samples. Higher amount of "2"3"8U and "4"0K are observed in single super phosphate and potash fertilizers respectively. In all the fertilizers, "2"3"2Th activity was found to be BDL excepting single super phosphate. The average values of radioactivity content of all the three radionuclides are found to be higher in cultivated soils using fertilizers than in the virgin soil samples. However, all the three radionuclides in both virgin and cultivated soil samples are far lesser than the world average value of 33, 45 and 420 Bq.kg"-"1 for "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K respectively. (author)

  6. Effect of Sowing Date and Sulfur on Yield, Oil Content and Grain Nitrogen of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Autumn Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Safara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays oilseed crops are considered as the second most important sources of energy in the diet. In this regard, cultivation of oilseed crops such as safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is important due to quality of oil seed and medicinal properties. Different planting dates leads to adaptation of vegetative and reproductive growth of plant to temperature, day-length and various solar radiations and as a result affects plant’s development phase and yield. With delayed planting date , temperature and day length increases and development phase will accelerate. In this condition the crop yield will reduce due to crop growth and developmental period will shorten. Sulfur is an essential element for plant nutrition and its role is greater than Phosphorus. Using sulfur increases the heads per plant and grain yield. In order to investigate the effect of sulfur fertilizer under heat stress condition at the terminal growth stages and its role in reducing the negative effects of high temperature stress on safflower, this research was performed. Materials and Methods In order to study effect of planting date and sulfur manure on yield components, nitrogen and oil percent in safflower, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in as split plot arrangement at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan during 2013-2014. The experimental treatments consisted of four planting dates of 30 November, 21 December, 22 January and 1st February were randomly placed in main plots and four levels of sulfur of 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 performed randomly in subplots, Sulfur fertilizer was corporated to soil one week before each planting date. Harvest was performed from the mid-May to early-June, during physiological maturity. To measure the yield on maturity time after the removal of margins, Safflower plants were harvested from one m2 unit area. Nitrogen percent was determined

  7. Variation in soil fertility influences cycle dynamics and crop diversity in shifting cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.; Stomph, T.J.; Clement, C.R.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming in Amazonia is practised mostly through shifting cultivation, which under low population pressure is well adapted to the low-fertility soils that predominate in uplands and to the lack of external inputs. In this paper we investigate the effects of soil heterogeneity (in terms of

  8. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  9. Some heterotrophic flagellates from a cultivated garden soil in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming; Patterson, DJ

    1997-01-01

    The flagellates of an Australian garden soil were studied by placing coverslips on wet soil and subsequently examining the coverslips by light microscopy. A number of genera and species were found which have not previously been reported from soil samples. Besides the three new species, Apusomonas...

  10. Intensification of Shifting Cultivation in Tanzania: Degree, Drivers and Effects on Vegetation and Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilawe, Charles Joseph

    The aim of the present study was to provide a better understanding of the degree and drivers of intensification of shifting cultivation and its effects on vegetation and soils. The study was conducted in uplands and low lands agro-ecological zones of Kilosa District, eastern central Tanzania. Data...... and intensive short fallow systems. They also adopted intensive land preparation methods that involved deep cultivation and burying of vegetation. Intensification in upland was driven by adoption and enforcement of land tenure policies which restrict shifting cultivation whereas in the lowlands, it was driven...... that sustainable intensification of shifting cultivation be sought to prevent further adverse effects on the environment. The present restrictive policy driven approach of intensification of shifting cultivation seems to cause more negative environmental consequences. I recommend development and promotion...

  11. Content of nitrates in potato tubers depending on the organic matter, soil fertilizer, cultivation simplifications applied and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Pobereżny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar 'Satina' after harvest and after 6-mo of storage. Introducing cultivation simplification involves limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as chemical protection limitation. The soil fertilizer was used: 0.6 (autumn, 0.3 (spring, and 0.3 L ha-1 (during the vegetation period. The content of nitrates, was determined with the use of the ion-selective method (multi-purpose computer device CX-721, Elmetron. The lowest amount of nitrates was recorded in the tubers from the plots without the application of organic matter with a 50% rate of mineral fertilization with soil fertilizer (120.5 mg kg-1 FW. The use of varied organic matter resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates in tubers and the lowest effect on their accumulation was reported for straw. The soil fertilizer used significantly decreased the content of nitrates in tubers by 15% for 100% NPK and 10.4% for 50% NPK. After 6-mo storage, irrespective of the experiment factors, the content of nitrates decreased in the fertilization experiment by 26% and in the experiment with a limited protection - by 19.9%.

  12. Bacterial diversity and community structure in lettuce soil are shifted by cultivation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqian; Chang, Qing; Guo, Xu; Yi, Xinxin

    2017-08-01

    Compared with cereal production, vegetable production usually requires a greater degree of management and larger input of nutrients and irrigation, but these systems are not sustainable in the long term. This study aimed to what extent lettuce determine the bacterial community composition in the soil, during lettuce cultivation, pesticides and fertilizers were not apply to soil. Soil samples were collected from depths of 0-20cm and 20-40cm. A highthroughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial communities in lettuce-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. The dominant bacteria in the lettuce soil samples were mainly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimo nadetes, Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the 6 soil samples. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria decreased through time of lettuce cultivation, but the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Nitrospirae increased over time. In the 0-20cm depth group and the 20-40cm depth soil, a similar pattern was observed that the percentage number of only shared OTUs between the early and late stage was lower than that between the early and middle stage soil, the result showed that lettuce growth can affect structure of soil bacterial communities.

  13. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  14. Assessment of the quality of the Harran Plain soils under long-term cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Ali Volkan; Küçük, Çiğdem; Van Es, Harold M

    2017-08-19

    Soil quality refers to the ability of soils to perform their functions well. The soils of the Harran Plain, Turkey, have been put into intensive crop production with the introduction of an irrigation scheme and become increasingly degraded due to unsustainable management and cropping systems that resulted in the loss of production potential. The goal of this study was to quantify the quality of common soil series in the Plain using soil quality indexes (SQI) and to compare SQIs of two long-term crop rotations, cotton and wheat-corn cultivation, and different soil types. Over 400 samples were collected at a 0- to 30-cm depth and analyzed for 31 soil variables. The best representative soil quality variables forming a minimum data set (MDS) were selected using principal component analysis (PCA), and soil quality scores were obtained using both linear and non-linear scoring functions. The MDS included three physical (hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and plant available water content), two biological (soil organic matter and catalase enzyme activity), and nine chemical soil quality indicators (CEC, pH, plant available Cu and Fe, exchangeable Na and K, soluble Ca, Mg, and Na). Because of the low level of SOM, soil qualities were overall low with indexes obtained using two scoring functions ranging from 38.0/100 to 48.7/100. Correlations between SQI obtained using two approaches (linear vs. non-linear; r > 0.61) and using two data sets (all data vs. MDS; r > 0.79) were high. Non-linear scoring functions were more sensitive to management impacts. ANOVA models testing the individual impacts of soil types and crop management on soil quality were statistically different (p < 0.01), but the models including interactions were not. Overall, the fields under cotton cultivation were generally associated with higher clay contents and had the lowest SQIs as a result of intensive cultivation.

  15. Phosphorus fertilization in sugarcane cultivation under different soil managements

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Junior, Paulo R. de; Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Furlani, Carlos E. A.; Prado, Renato de M.; Maldonado Júnior, Walter; Zerbato, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil preparation along with its chemical adjustment is the most important step in sugarcane plantation, especially because it provides proper conditions for plant development. The objective of the present research was to evaluate sugarcane response to the application of different phosphorus doses and their location, associated with both minimum soil tillage and conventional soil tillage. The experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot randomized block design, where the main plots ...

  16. A quantitative model for estimating mean annual soil loss in cultivated land using 137Cs measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hao; Zhao Qiguo; Du Mingyuan; Minami, Katsuyuki; Hatta, Tamao

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 137 Cs has been widely used to determine rates of cultivated soil loss, Many calibration relationships (including both empirical relationships and theoretical models) have been employed to estimate erosion rates from the amount of 137 Cs lost from the cultivated soil profile. However, there are important limitations which restrict the reliability of these models, which consider only the uniform distribution of 137 Cs in the plough layer and the depth. As a result, erosion rates they may be overestimated or underestimated. This article presents a quantitative model for the relation the amount of 137 Cs lost from the cultivate soil profile and the rate of soil erosion. According to a mass balance model, during the construction of this model we considered the following parameters: the remaining fraction of the surface enrichment layer (F R ), the thickness of the surface enrichment layer (H s ), the depth of the plough layer (H p ), input fraction of the total 137 Cs fallout deposition during a given year t (F t ), radioactive decay of 137 Cs (k), and sampling year (t). The simulation results showed that the amounts of erosion rates estimated using this model were very sensitive to changes in the values of the parameters F R , H s , and H p . We also observed that the relationship between the rate of soil loss and 137 Cs depletion is neither linear nor logarithmic, and is very complex. Although the model is an improvement over existing approaches to derive calibration relationships for cultivated soil, it requires empirical information on local soil properties and the behavior of 137 Cs in the soil profile. There is clearly still a need for more precise information on the latter aspect and, in particular, on the retention of 137 Cs fallout in the top few millimeters of the soil profile and on the enrichment and depletion effects associated with soil redistribution (i.e. for determining accurate values of F R and H s ). (author)

  17. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern. The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the

  18. Managing cultivated pastures for improving soil quality in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are concerns that soils under pastures in certain regions of South Africa are degrading as a result of mismanagement, which include practising continuous tillage, improper grazing management, injudicious application of fertilisers and poor irrigation management. Soil quality indicators, which include physical, ...

  19. Approaches for diversity analysis of cultivable and non-cultivable bacteria in real soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štursa, P.; Uhlík, Ondřej; Kurzawová, V.; Koubek, J.; Ionescu, M.; Strohalm, M.; Lovecka, P.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 9 (2009), s. 389-396 ISSN 1214-1178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : PCB * contaminated soil * rhizoremediation * SIP Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2009

  20. The presence of Chernobil contamination in food chain in autumn 1986. In Brezhice-Krshko region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklavzhicj, U.; Korun, M.; Zhele, M.; Fedina, Sh.; Juzhnich, K.; Brajnik, D.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of Chernobyl contamination in food chain measured in autumn 1986 in Bezhice-Krshko region is discussed and compared with the depth distribution of contaminating radionuclei in uncultivated and cultivated soil. It is felt that foliage transfer of resuspended Cs-137, Cs-134 still depositing at average rate of 30 Bq.m-2/month at the end of the year, could retain some future importance. (author). 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Mapping soil total nitrogen of cultivated land at county scale by using hyperspectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Li Yan; Shu, Meiyan; Yang, Guijun

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring total nitrogen content (TNC) in the soil of cultivated land quantitively and mastering its spatial distribution are helpful for crop growing, soil fertility adjustment and sustainable development of agriculture. The study aimed to develop a universal method to map total nitrogen content in soil of cultivated land by HSI image at county scale. Several mathematical transformations were used to improve the expression ability of HSI image. The correlations between soil TNC and the reflectivity and its mathematical transformations were analyzed. Then the susceptible bands and its transformations were screened to develop the optimizing model of map soil TNC in the Anping County based on the method of multiple linear regression. Results showed that the bands of 14th, 16th, 19th, 37th and 60th with different mathematical transformations were screened as susceptible bands. Differential transformation was helpful for reducing the noise interference to the diagnosis ability of the target spectrum. The determination coefficient of the first order differential of logarithmic transformation was biggest (0.505), while the RMSE was lowest. The study confirmed the first order differential of logarithm transformation as the optimal inversion model for soil TNC, which was used to map soil TNC of cultivated land in the study area.

  2. The 134Cs uptake by sunflower (Helianthus anuus, Less) cultivated on soil contaminated with 134Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Putu Sukmabuana

    2008-01-01

    One of the methods for remediation of contaminated environment is phytoremediation techniques, i.e. the environmental remediation using plants. In this research the bioavailability of sunflower plant (Helianthus anuus, Less) in radiocaesium uptake from soil was studied for being considered as a phytoremediator later. Sunflower plants were cultivated on soil contaminated with 134 Cs with the concentrations of 29,3 kBq/kg ; 117,2 kBq/kg ; 557 kBq/kg for 45 days. As control the sunflowers were also cultivated on non contaminated soil. Observation was carried out every 5 days by sampling 3 plants and soils. The plant and soil samples were dried using infra red lamp for 24 hours, and then counted using gamma spectrometer. The counting results i.e. 134 Cs concentration on soil and plant parts were then analyzed to obtain transfer factor (TF) values. The highest TF values was reached on 26 th day, i.e. 0,87; 1,89 ; 2,82 for initial soil 134 Cs concentrations of 29,3 Bq/g ; 117,2 Bq/g ; 557 Bq/g, respectively. The TF values obtained expressed the capability of plants to accumulate 134 Cs from soils. The observation to the plants growth showed that the plants grew normally on the 134 Cs contaminated soil until the concentration of 557 Bq/g. The sunflower can be considered to be phytoremediator of andosol soil contaminated with Cs radionuclides. (author)

  3. Azospirillum brasilense, a Beneficial Soil Bacterium: Isolation and Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gladys

    2017-11-09

    Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum comprise 15 species to date, with A. brasilense the best studied species in the genus. Azospirillum are soil bacteria able to promote the growth of plants from 113 species spanning 35 botanical families. These non-pathogenic and beneficial bacteria are ubiquitous in soils and inhabit the roots of diverse plants. These bacteria are microaerophilic, able to fix nitrogen under free-living conditions, motile, and able to navigate in gradients of various chemicals, including oxygen. These physiological traits are used to isolate these soil bacteria from soil and plant root samples, providing isolates that can be used for studying microbial physiology and plant growth promotion. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  5. Adsorption and desorption behavior of herbicide diuron on various Chinese cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoguang; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2010-06-15

    The adsorption-desorption behaviors of diuron were investigated in six cultivated soils of China. The effect of system pH and temperature were also studied. The data fitted the Freundlich equation very well. The adsorption K(F) values indicated the adsorption of diuron in the six soils was in the sequence of black soil (D)>yellow earth (F)>paddy soil (B)>yellow-brown soil (C)>yellow-cinnamon soil (A)>lateritic red earth (E). The adsorption K(F) and Freundlich exponents n were decreased when temperature was increased from 298 K to 318 K. However, the Gibb's free energy values were found less negative with the increasing temperature. Meanwhile, the extent of diuron adsorption on soil was at rather high level under low pH value conditions and decreased with increasing pH value. In addition, the desorption behavior of diuron in the six soils was in the sequence of lateritic red earth (E)>yellow-cinnamon soil (A)>paddy soil (B)>yellow earth (F)>yellow-brown soil (C)>black soil (D). At the same time, desorption hysteresis of diuron were observed in all of the tested soils. And the soil organic matter content may play an important role in the adsorption-desorption behavior. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of Effects of Sorghum Cultivation on Some Soil Biological Indicators at Different Zinc Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential element for plant growth which its high concentrations can cause pollution and toxicity in plant. In this study, the effects of sorghum cultivation on some indicators of microbial activity and its association with increased zinc concentrations in two soils with relatively similar physical and chemical properties, but different in concentration of heavy metals were investigated. In both soils zinc levels were added to obtain 250, 375 and 500 mg kg-1 (based on the initial nitric acid extractable content. Using plastic boxes containing 8 kg of soil, growth boxes (Rhizobox were prepared. The box interior was divided into three sections S1 (the rhizosphere, S2 (adjacent to the rhizosphere and S3 (bulk soil using nylon net plates. The results showed that at all levels of zinc in both soil types, BCF were bigger than units, so using this indicator, sorghum can be considered as a plant for accumulation of zinc. Microbial respiration and dehydrogenase activity was reduced in all sections adjacent to root in the polluted soil. It is generally understood that substrates and inhibitors (heavy metals compete in the formation of substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, but the effects of sorghum cultivation in increasing biological and enzyme activity indexes in soil 1 (non-polluted was higher than soil 2 (polluted, perhaps due to improvements in microbial activity in the vicinity of the roots, even in concentration higher than stress condition levels for zinc in soil.

  7. Experimental and analytical study on removal of strontium from cultivated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutani, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    Experimental and analytical study was done to estimate the removal of strontium from cultivated soil. The continuous batch tests were made and uneasy desorption form or immobility form was proved to exist. 2-Component Model, which considers easy desorption and uneasy desorption form fraction, was constructed and it showed good explanation of the continuous batch test results. (author)

  8. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers’ rationales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Stomph, T.J.; Clement, C.R.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated farmers’ rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE), and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with

  9. Evaluation of nutrients status of soils under rice cultivation in cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients status of soils under rice cultivation in Cross River State Nigeria was evaluated to ascertain the present status and suggest management practices needed for an increased rice production. A reconnaissance survey of the entire State was undertaken. A total number of eight Local Government Areas, namely ...

  10. Spatial changes in soil organic carbon density and storage of cultivated soils in China from 1980 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanyan; Guo, Zhengtang; Wu, Haibin; Kahmann, Julia A.; Oldfield, Frank

    2009-06-01

    We address the spatial changes in organic carbon density and storage in cultivated soils in China from 1980 to 2000 on the basis of measured data from individual studies and those acquired during the second national soil survey in China. The results show a carbon gain in ˜66% of the cultivated area of China as a whole with the increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) density mostly ranging from 10% to 30%. Soil organic carbon density increased in fluvi-aquic soils (fluvisols, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations) in north China, irrigated silting soils (calcaric fluvisols) in northwest China, latosolic red earths (haplic acrisols/alisols), and paddy soils (fluvisols/cambisols) in south China. In contrast, significant decreases are observed in black soils (phaeozems) in northeast China and latosols (haplic acrisols) in southwest China. No significant changes are detected in loessial soils (calcaric regosols) and dark loessial soils (calcisols) in the loess plateau region. The total SOC storage and average density in the upper 20 cm in the late 1990s are estimated to be ˜5.37 Pg C and 2.77 kg/m2, respectively, compared with the values of ˜5.11 Pg C and 2.63 kg/m2 in the early 1980s. This reveals an increase of SOC storage of 0.26 Pg C and suggests an overall carbon sink for cultivated soils in China, which has contributed 2-3% to the global terrestrial ecosystem carbon absorption from 1980 to 2000. Statistical analyses suggest an insignificant contribution to the observed SOC increase from climate change, and we infer that it is mostly attributable to improved agricultural practices. Despite the SOC density increases over 20 years, the SOC density of the cultivated soils in China in the late 1990s is still ˜30% lower compared to their uncultivated counterparts in comparable soil types, suggesting a considerable potential for SOC restoration through improving management practices. Assuming a restoration of ˜50% of the lost SOC in the next 30

  11. Study of soil redistribution in cultivated fields using fallout cesium-137 at Fateh Jang, Attock, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Iqbal, N.; Akram, W.; Aasi, M.R.

    2009-11-01

    The study was carried out to investigate soil redistribution and net soil losses from two cultivated fields located in the dissected loess plains in the Pothwar Plateau at Mangial (33.6 N; 72.8 E), District Attock, Pakistan. For reference site, soil samples were collected by scrapper plate at 2 cm intervals and bulk cores in a grid, while the cultivated fields were sampled taking bulk cores in grid and along transect. /sup 137/Cs was measured by gamma spectroscopy using Soil 6 (IAEA) as a standard. The established reference inventory of /sup 137/Cs for this area is 3204 Bq/m/sup 2/. The technique provides very clear quantitative information on medium-term erosion and deposition rates at different locations, and net soil loss from cultivated fields, while no other methods available can be applied so simply. Gradient of the cultivated fields play an important role in the soil redistribution and net soil loss. Due to higher gradient of Field 2, the net soil losses determined by PM and MBM-1 using 20 cm plough layer (14.18 t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 16.37 t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ respectively) are much higher than that for Field 1 determined by the same models (0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 and 3.84 t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Therefore, the cultivated fields should be as much leveled as possible. Major implication arises in using soil conversion models when thickness of /sup 137/Cs bearing layer becomes more than the normal plough layer due to deposition of eroded soil at low-lying areas. In case of Field 2, using 30 cm thickness of plough layer having significant /sup 137/Cs in the deposition areas the net erosion estimates using by PM and MBM-1 are 8.71 t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 10.05 t ha-1 yr/sup -1/, respectively, which seem more reliable because maximum /sup 137/Cs inventory is taken into accounted. The herbicide residue varies spatially in the field, but these three distributions corresponding to the three sampling dates indicate reduction in the residue with time. The

  12. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, M; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2011-01-01

    Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations....../volunteers had on avg. 30 kg N ha−1, and the largest N leaching losses were found after stubble cultivation (avg. 55 kg N ha−1). The N leaching losses increased with increasing number of autumn soil cultivations...

  13. Recycling of organic wastes in burnt soils: combined application of poultry manure and plant cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, M C; Petrikova, V; Díaz-Raviña, M; Carballas, T

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a post-fire land management practice, including plant cultivation (Lolium perenne) combined with poultry manure addition, for restoring the protective vegetation cover in soils degraded by high intensity wildfires. The greenhouse experiment was performed with three burnt pine forest soils with added poultry manure at two doses of application and comparing the data with those obtained using NPK fertilizer. A significant effect of the amendment, soil properties and the interaction between amendment and soil properties on vegetation cover (phytomass production, nutrient content) was detected, but often the amendment treatment explained most of the variance. Changes induced by the organic amendment were more marked than those induced by inorganic fertilization. The increase of phytomass and nutrient uptake with poultry manure addition indicated the beneficial effects of this soil management practice. These findings can serve to develop field experiments and burnt soils reclamation technology.

  14. Soil organic carbon stock and distribution in cultivated land converted to grassland in a subtropical region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J H; Li, F C; Wang, Y; Xiong, D H

    2014-02-01

    Land-use change from one type to another affects soil carbon (C) stocks which is associated with fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere. The 10-years converted land selected from previously cultivated land in hilly areas of Sichuan, China was studied to understand the effects of land-use conversion on soil organic casrbon (SOC) sequestration under landscape position influences in a subtropical region of China. The SOC concentrations of the surface soil were greater (P\\0.001) for converted soils than those for cultivated soils but lower (P\\0.001) than those for original uncultivated soils. The SOC inventories (1.90–1.95 kg m-2) in the 0–15 cm surface soils were similar among upper, middle, and lower slope positions on the converted land, while the SOC inventories (1.41–1.65 kg m-2) in this soil layer tended to increase from upper to lower slope positions on the cultivated slope. On the whole, SOC inventories in this soil layer significantly increased following the conversion from cultivated land to grassland (P\\0.001). In the upper slope positions, converted soils (especially in 0–5 cm surface soil) exhibited a higher C/N ratio than cultivated soils (P = 0.012), implying that strong SOC sequestration characteristics exist in upper slope areas where severe soil erosion occurred before land conversion. It is suggested that landscape position impacts on the SOC spatial distribution become insignificant after the conversion of cultivated land to grassland, which is conducive to the immobilization of organic C. We speculate that the conversion of cultivated land to grassland would markedly increase SOC stocks in soil and would especially improve the potential for SOC sequestration in the surface soil over a moderate period of time (10 years).

  15. Estimates of soil erosion and deposition of cultivated soil of Nakhla watershed, Morocco, using 137Cs technique and calibration models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlassa, S.; Moukhchane, M.; Aiachi, A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the effective threat of erosion, for soil preservation and productivity in Morocco, there is still only limited information on rates of soil loss involved. This study is aimed to establish long-term erosion rates on cultivated land in the Nakhla watershed located in the north of the country, using 137 Cs technique. Two sampling strategies were adopted. The first is aimed at establishing areal estimates of erosion, whereas the second, based on a transect approach, intends to determine point erosion. Twenty-one cultivated sites and seven undisturbed sites apparently not affected by erosion or deposition were sampled to 35 cm depth. Nine cores were collected along the transect of 149 m length. The assessment of erosion rates with models varying in complexity from the simple Proportional Model to more complex Mass Balance Models which attempts to include the processes controlling the redistribution of 137 Cs in soil, enables us to demonstrate the significance of soil erosion problem on cultivated land. Erosion rates rises up to 50 t ha -1 yr -1 . The 137 Cs derived erosion rates provide a reliable representation of water erosion pattern in the area, and indicate the importance of tillage process on the redistribution of 137 Cs in soil. For aggrading sites a Constant Rate Supply (CRS) Model had been adapted and introduced to estimate easily the depositional rate. (author) [fr

  16. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Evaluating Soil Suitability for Cassava Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Opeoluwa Ogunde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture in recent times had assumed a different dimension in order to improve on the poor standard of agriculture. Similarly, the upsurge in technological advancement, most especially in the aspect of machine learning and artificial intelligence, is a promising trend towards a positive solution to this problem. Therefore, this research work presents a decision support system for analyzing and mining knowledge from soil data with respect to its suitability for cassava cultivation. Past data consisting of some major soil attributes were obtained from relevant literature sources. This data was preprocessed using the ARFF Converter, available in WEKA. 70% of the data were used as training data set while remaining 30% were used for testing. Classification rule mining was carried out using J48 decision tree algorithm for the data training. ‘If-then’ construct models were then generated from the decision tree, which was used to develop a system for predicting the suitability status of soil for cassava cultivation. The percentage accuracy of the data classification was 76.5% and 23.5% for correctly classified and incorrectly classified instances respectively. Practically, the developed system was esteemed a prospective tool for farmers, soil laboratories and other users in predicting soil suitability for cassava cultivation.

  17. Comparison of the depth distribution processes for 137Cs and 210Pbex in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunqi; Zhang Xinbao; Long Yi; He Xiubin; Yu Xingxiu

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the different processes of 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex depth distribution in cultivated soils. In view of their different fallout deposition processes, considering radionuclide will diffuse from the plough layer to the plough pan layer duo to the concentration gradient between the two layers, the 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex depth distribution processes were theoretically derived. Additionally, the theoretical derivation was verified by the measured 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex values in the soil core collected from wheat field in Fujianzhuang, Shanxi Province, China, and the 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex concentrations variation with depth in soils of the wheat field was explained rationally. The 137 Cs depth distribution state in cultivated soils will consistently vary with time due to 137 Cs continual decay and diffusion as an artificial radionuclide without sustainable fallout input since 1960s. In contrast, the 210 Pb ex depth distribution in cultivated soils will achieve steady state because of sustainable deposition of the naturally occurring 210 Pb ex fallout, and it can be concluded that the differences between the theoretical and the measured values, especially for 210 Pb ex , might be associated with the history of plough depth variation or LUCC. (authors)

  18. Soil Copper and Zinc Accumulation and Bioavailability under a Long Term Vineyard Cultivation in South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lorenzoni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil metal contamination, particularly by copper, is a phenomenon which often occurs in the surface layer of vineyard soils, due to the widespread application of Cu-based products in the plant disease management. Our study was focused on soil Cu and Zn accumulation and bioavailability as related to some soil properties under a long term vineyard cultivation, in a D.O.C. wine area of South Italy (Calabria region. Soils selected from different landscape units, ranging from acid to alkaline, under homogeneous climate conditions and vineyard management system, were investigated. Each soil was sampled in both a vineyard and a fallow area, at the depth levels of 0-10 cm, 10-25 cm and 25-50 cm. The experimental data were analysed by ANOVA, correlation and multiple stepwise regression procedures. As expected, the results indicated a contamination of the vineyard soils by Cu due to the repeated application of Cu-based products in the plant disease control, with increments of total Cu content up to 150% against the fallow soils. On the contrary, the results led to exclude any soil Zn pollution due to the vineyard management and to suppose a main pedogenic origin for this metal. According to the relationships between Cu content and soil properties, Cu accumulation was promoted by higher pH, clay and organic matter contents. These soil properties also showed a strong influence on metal bioavailability, which underwent a significant reduction in soils with higher pH and clay contents. A further result of great significance was the adverse impact of soil erosion, enhanced by the application of not suitable management systems in hilly areas, on soil capability to retain polluting metals. Soil pH, organic matter content and texture, as well as soil management system, are key factors in soil capability to limit polluting metal dispersion in the environment.

  19. Soil Copper and Zinc Accumulation and Bioavailability under a Long Term Vineyard Cultivation in South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Corea

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil metal contamination, particularly by copper, is a phenomenon which often occurs in the surface layer of vineyard soils, due to the widespread application of Cu-based products in the plant disease management. Our study was focused on soil Cu and Zn accumulation and bioavailability as related to some soil properties under a long term vineyard cultivation, in a D.O.C. wine area of South Italy (Calabria region. Soils selected from different landscape units, ranging from acid to alkaline, under homogeneous climate conditions and vineyard management system, were investigated. Each soil was sampled in both a vineyard and a fallow area, at the depth levels of 0-10 cm, 10-25 cm and 25-50 cm. The experimental data were analysed by ANOVA, correlation and multiple stepwise regression procedures. As expected, the results indicated a contamination of the vineyard soils by Cu due to the repeated application of Cu-based products in the plant disease control, with increments of total Cu content up to 150% against the fallow soils. On the contrary, the results led to exclude any soil Zn pollution due to the vineyard management and to suppose a main pedogenic origin for this metal. According to the relationships between Cu content and soil properties, Cu accumulation was promoted by higher pH, clay and organic matter contents. These soil properties also showed a strong influence on metal bioavailability, which underwent a significant reduction in soils with higher pH and clay contents. A further result of great significance was the adverse impact of soil erosion, enhanced by the application of not suitable management systems in hilly areas, on soil capability to retain polluting metals. Soil pH, organic matter content and texture, as well as soil management system, are key factors in soil capability to limit polluting metal dispersion in the environment.

  20. Role of water repellency in aggregate stability of cultivated soils under simulated raindrop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kořenková, Lucia; Matúš, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Soil aggregate stability (AS) is an important indicator of soil physical quality. For the purpose of this research it was hypothesized that particular properties such as water repellency (WR) influence soil aggregation and AS. Directly after sampling, WR was detected for three soils, after a week of air-drying two of these soils still showed some resistance to penetration by a water drop placed on the surface (WDPT test). The study examines AS of air-dried texturally different aggregates of size 0.25-0.5 mm taken from surface layers (5-15 cm depth) of six agriculturally used soils. The procedure involves exposure of soil aggregates to direct impact of water drops. Results showed that soil AS increases in order: cutanic Luvisol (siltic) Chernozem < calcic mollic Fluvisol < mollic grumic Vertisol (pellic) < mollic Fluvisol (calcaric) < gleyic Fluvisol (eutric). Gradual increase in AS can be explained by the increase in soil organic matter content and its hydrophobic properties. Although WR has been most commonly observed in soils under forests and grass cover, the results confirmed that cultivated soils may also create water-stable aggregates, especially in the case when their organic matter induces WR under particular moisture conditions.

  1. Role of Pigeonpea Cultivation on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the smallholder farming system in Ghana is under threat due to soil fertility decline. Mineral fertilizer is sparingly being used by smallholder farmers because of prohibitive cost. Grain legumes such as pigeonpea can play a complementary or alternative role as a source of organic fertilizer due to its ability to enhance soil fertility. Despite its importance, the potential of pigeonpea as a soil fertility improvement crop has not been exploited to any appreciable extent and the amount of land cultivated to pigeonpea in Ghana is vey negligible. This paper synthesizes recent studies that have been carried out on pigeonpea in Ghana and discusses the role of pigeonpea cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability. The paper shows that recent field studies conducted in both the semi-deciduous forest and the forest/savanna transitional agro-ecological zones of Ghana indicate that pigeonpea/maize rotations can increase maize yield by 75–200%. Barrier to widespread adoption of pigeonpea include land tenure, market, and accessibility to early maturing and high yielding varieties. The paper concludes among other things that in order to promote the cultivation of pigeonpea in Ghana, there is the need to introduce varieties that combine early maturity with high yields and other desirable traits based on farmers preferences.

  2. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

  3. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture) is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG) can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG...... and bare soil were measured at weekly to fortnightly intervals with static chamber techniques for a period of 1 year. Cultivation of RCG increased both ER and CH4 emissions, but decreased the N2O emissions. The presence of RCG gave rise to 69, 75 and 85% of total ER at −20, −10 and 0 cm GWL, respectively...... from ER were obviously the dominant RCG-derived GHG flux, but above-ground biomass yields, and preliminary measurements of gross photosynthetic production, showed that ER could be more than balanced due to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by RCG. Our results support that RCG cultivation could be a good...

  4. Medicinal significance of vegetables cultivated over minerals supplemented soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, J.A.; Arif, M.; Khan, F.; Khan, F.; Khan, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Three winter season vegetables Fenugreek/Methi (Trigonella-foenum-graceum), Sarson (Brassica-campestris-var-sarson) and Garlic (Allium-sativum) were included in the present study to determine some of their mineral components and see if some of their mineral (Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe) content could be increased by supplementation through their roots. Thus calculated amount of Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe salts (as fertilizer) were applied in solution form to the roots of vegetables in different concentration as individual or in combinations. These vegetables were grown from seeds in the soil plot. After harvesting vegetables were dried, acid digested and analyzed for Cr, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mg on Hitachi Zeeman Japan Z-8000, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Thus in Fenugreek/Methi (Trigonella-foenum-graceum) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn, Mg and Fe recorded was (10, 94, 10, 256 and 520) mg/Kg dry weight basis; in Sarson (Brassica-campestris-var-sarson) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn and Mg recorded was (12, 30, 22 and 424) mg/Kg dry weight basis and ( Garlic) (Allium-sativum) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe recorded was (14, 28, 4, 4, 116 and 10) mg/Kg dry weight basis. From the present study it can be concluded that by changing the soil minerals environment the uptake of required mineral content of vegetables, perhaps could be enhanced. This could play important role in management of diabetes control and also in the elimination of other deficiency diseases like anemia. (author)

  5. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of bacteria ranged from 3.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in uncontaminated soils and 1.0 × 105 to 3.0 × 105 cfu/g in contaminated soils. The isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium variabilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. The contamination had no significant effect on pH, potassium, sodium, organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soils, while the moisture, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the contaminated soils were significantly different (P < 0.05 compared with the uncontaminated soils. The ability of Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to utilize the refined petroleum products suggest that these bacteria had potential to bioremediate petroleum contaminated soils.

  6. Radiometric research in soils cultivated with sugar cane in Pernambuco - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, Otavio P. dos; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Menezes, Romulo S.C.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Fernandez, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Damascena, Kennedy F.R.; Silva, Rafael R.; Milan, Marvic O., E-mail: rodriguesrs19@gmail.com, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br, E-mail: lino.valcarcel@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-11-01

    The state of Pernambuco is representative of Northeastern Brazil, with respect to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, soil cover, as well as land use. The state is subdivided into five regions: Recife Metropolitan Region, Sao Francisco, Sertao, Agreste and Zona da Mata (Atlantic Forest Region). Each region presents peculiar climatic and economic activities. The Atlantic Forest region, the focus of this study, presents a humid tropical climate and is characterized by large farms and the monoculture of sugarcane. In this scenario, a radioecological investigation was carried out to determine the radiometric potential from the analysis of forty-five soil samples, collected in five soil profiles, to a depth of 60 cm. A non-destructive method was adopted for the radiometric analysis, using High- Resolution Gamma Spectrometry with an HPGe-Be type detector. This method allowed the determination of specific activities of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 in the soil samples. The results will be used as a basis for the determination of a reference value for the natural radioactivity of these soils, to predict the existence of possible environmental impacts resulting from their use for the cultivation of sugar cane, as well as to contribute to guarantee the safety of food crops cultivated in this region. (author)

  7. Radiometric research in soils cultivated with sugar cane in Pernambuco - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Junior, Otavio P. dos; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Menezes, Romulo S.C.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Fernandez, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Damascena, Kennedy F.R.; Silva, Rafael R.; Milan, Marvic O.

    2017-01-01

    The state of Pernambuco is representative of Northeastern Brazil, with respect to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, soil cover, as well as land use. The state is subdivided into five regions: Recife Metropolitan Region, Sao Francisco, Sertao, Agreste and Zona da Mata (Atlantic Forest Region). Each region presents peculiar climatic and economic activities. The Atlantic Forest region, the focus of this study, presents a humid tropical climate and is characterized by large farms and the monoculture of sugarcane. In this scenario, a radioecological investigation was carried out to determine the radiometric potential from the analysis of forty-five soil samples, collected in five soil profiles, to a depth of 60 cm. A non-destructive method was adopted for the radiometric analysis, using High- Resolution Gamma Spectrometry with an HPGe-Be type detector. This method allowed the determination of specific activities of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 in the soil samples. The results will be used as a basis for the determination of a reference value for the natural radioactivity of these soils, to predict the existence of possible environmental impacts resulting from their use for the cultivation of sugar cane, as well as to contribute to guarantee the safety of food crops cultivated in this region. (author)

  8. Impact of commonly used agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, J A; Tetteh, W; Bello, M

    2009-09-01

    The effects of three selected agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soil have been studied. The selected agrochemicals are Cerox (an insecticide), Ceresate and Paraquat (both herbicides). The effect on bacterial population was studied by looking at the total heterotrophic bacteria presence and the effect of the agrochemicals on some selected soil microbes. The soil type used was loamy with pH of 6.0-7.0. The soil was placed in opaque pots and bambara bean (Vigna subterranean) seeds cultivated in them. The agrochemicals were applied two weeks after germination of seeds at concentrations based on manufacturer's recommendation. Plant growth was assessed by weekly measurement of plant height, foliage appearance and number of nodules formed after one month. The results indicated that the diversity index (Di) among the bacteria populations in untreated soil and that of Cerox-treated soils were high with mean diversity index above 0.95. Mean Di for Ceresate-treated soil was 0.88, and that for Paraquattreated soil was 0.85 indicating low bacterial populations in these treatment-type soils. The study also showed that application of the agrochemicals caused reduction in the number of total heterotrophic bacteria population sizes in the soil. Ceresate caused 82.50% reduction in bacteria number from a mean of 40 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) of soil sample to 70 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Paraquat-treated soil showed 92.86% reduction, from a mean of 56 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) to 40 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Application of Cerox to the soil did not have any remarkable reduction in bacterial population number. Total viable cell count studies using Congo red yeast-extract mannitol agar indicated reduction in the number of Rhizobium spp. after application of the agrochemicals. Mean number of Rhizobium population numbers per gram of soil was 180 × 10(4) for the untreated soil. Cerox-treated soil recorded mean number of 138 × 10(4) rhizobial cfu g(-1) of soil, a 23.33% reduction. Ceresate- and

  9. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P heavy machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  10. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  11. Study of phosphorus retention in a quartz ferralitic u soil devoted to citrus cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuviola, A.; Garcia, A.; Vallin, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Alvarez, C.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of a ferralitic quartz yellow-reddish lixiviated soil cultivated with valencia late orange were taken at two depths. Five different doses of phosphorus fertilization were applied there. These samples were worked out in the laboratory by using P 32 radioactive tracers so as to know the characteristics of retention and release of phosphorus. The effect of fertilization on the phosphates forms present in the soil were studied and the influence of each considered variant could be established trough the main components analysis

  12. Persistence of oxyfluorfen in soil, runoff water, sediment and plants of a sunflower cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzos, N; Karakitsou, A; Hela, D; Patakioutas, G; Leneti, E; Konstantinou, I

    2014-02-15

    A field dissipation and transport study of oxyfluorfen in a sunflower cultivation under Mediterranean conditions have been conducted in silty clay plots (cultivated and uncultivated) with two surface slopes (1% and 5%). The soil dissipation and transport of oxyfluorfen in runoff water and sediment, as well as the uptake by sunflower plants, were investigated over a period of 191 days. Among different kinetic models assayed, soil dissipation rate of oxyfluorfen was better described by first-order kinetics. The average half-life was 45 and 45.5 days in cultivated plots with soil slopes 5% and 1% respectively, and 50.9 and 52.9 days in uncultivated plots with soil slopes 5% and 1%. The herbicide was detected below the 10 cm soil layer 45 days after application (DAA). Limited amounts of oxyfluorfen were moved with runoff water and the cumulative losses from tilled and untilled plots with slope 5% were estimated at 0.007% and 0.005% of the initial applied active ingredient, while for the plots with slope of 1%, the respective values were 0.002% and 0.001%. The maximum concentration of oxyfluorfen in sediment ranged from 1.46 μg g(-1) in cultivated plot with soil slope 1% to 2.33 μg g(-1) in uncultivated plot with soil slope 5%. The cumulative losses from tilled and untilled plots with slope 5% were estimated at 0.217% and 0.170% while for the plots with slope of 1%, the respective values were 0.055% and 0.025%. Oxyfluorfen was detected in sunflower plants until the day of harvest; maximum concentrations in stems and leaves (0.042 μg g(-1)) were observed 33 DAA and in roots (0.025 μg g(-1)) 36 DAA. In conclusion, oxyfluorfen hardly moves into silty clay soil and exhibited low run-off potential so it represents a low risk herbicide for the contamination of ground and adjacent water resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Responses of Soil Microbial Community to Four-Decade Long Grazing and Cultivation in a Semi-Arid Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and cultivation are two important management practices worldwide that can cause significant soil organic carbon (SOC losses. However, it remains elusive how soil microbes have responded to soil carbon changes under these two practices. Based on a four-decade long field experiment, this study investigated the effects of grazing and cultivation on SOC stocks and microbial properties in the semi-arid grasslands of China. We hypothesize that grazing and cultivation would deplete SOC and depress microbial activities under both practices. However, our hypotheses were only partially supported. As compared with the adjacent indigenous grasslands, SOC and microbial biomass carbon (MBC were decreased by 20% or more under grazing and cultivation, which is consistent with the reduction of fungi abundance by 40% and 71%, respectively. The abundance of bacteria and actinomycetes was decreased under grazing but increased under cultivation, which likely enhanced microbial diversity in cultivation. Invertase activity decreased under the two treatments, while urease activity increased under grazing. These results suggest that nitrogen fertilizer input during cultivation may preferentially favor bacterial growth, in spite of SOC loss, due to rapid decomposition, while overgrazing may deteriorate the nitrogen supply to belowground microbes, thus stimulating the microbial production of nitrogen acquisition enzymes. This decade-long study demonstrated differential soil microbial responses under grazing and cultivation and has important applications for better management practices in the grassland ecosystem.

  14. Soil erosion from shifting cultivation and other smallholder land use in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Andreas de; Magid, Jakob; Mertz, Ole

    2008-01-01

    to compare soil erosion from three land use types in a shifting cultivation system, namely upland rice, pepper gardens and native forest. We used two sample sites within the humid tropical lowland zone in Sarawak, Malaysia. Both areas had steep slopes between 25° and 50°, and were characterised by a mosaic...... land use of native forest, secondary re-growth, upland rice fields and pepper gardens. Soil samples were collected to 90 cm depth from all three land use types, and analysed for various chemical parameters, including texture, total organic matter and 137Cs content. 137Cs is a radioactive isotope...... in the upper soil layers, are unlikely to change the carbon inventory dramatically. 137Cs content in the soil profile indicated largest retention of original topsoil in the native forest plots, and a loss of 18 and 35% of topsoil from upland rice and pepper gardens, respectively, over the past 40 years. When...

  15. Chinantec shifting cultivation : InTERAcTIVE landuse : a case-study in the Chinantla, Mexico, on secondary vegetation, soils and crop performance under indigenous shifting cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.

    1999-01-01

    The development of secondary vegetation, soils and crop performance was studied in local variants of shifting cultivation in two villages in the Chinantla, Mexico. In Chapter 1, the institutional, social and political context of the research are presented and the reader is advertised that

  16. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  17. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  18. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers' rationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. Junqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated farmers' rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE, and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with farmers in 21 riverine villages along the Madeira River. In order to decide about crop management options to attain their livelihood objectives, farmers rely on an integrated and dynamic understanding of their biophysical and social environment. Farmers associate fallow development with higher crop yields and lower weed pressure, but ADE is always associated with high yields and high weeding requirements. Amazonian dark earths are also seen as an opportunity to grow different crops and/or grow crops in more intensified management systems. However, farmers often maintain simultaneously intensive swiddens on ADE and extensive swiddens on nonanthropogenic soils. Farmers acknowledge numerous changes in their socioeconomic environment that affect their shifting cultivation systems, particularly their growing interaction with market economies and the incorporation of modern agricultural practices. Farmers considered that shifting cultivation systems on ADE tend to be more prone to changes leading to intensification, and we identified cases, e.g., swiddens used for watermelon cultivation, in which market demand led to overintensification and resulted in ADE degradation. This shows that increasing intensification can be a potential threat to ADE and can undermine the importance of these soils for agricultural production, for the conservation of agrobiodiversity, and for local livelihoods. Given that farmers have an integrated knowledge of their context and respond to socioeconomic and agro-ecological changes in their environment, we argue that understanding farmers' knowledge and rationales is crucial to identify sustainable pathways for the future of ADE and of

  19. Carbon dioxide emissions from peat soils under potato cultivation in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Langan, Charlie; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Organic wetland soils in south western Uganda are found in valley bottom wetlands, surrounded by steep, mineral soil hill slopes. Land use change in these papyrus dominated wetlands has taken place over the past forty years, seeing wetland areas cleared of papyrus, rudimentary drainage channel systems dug, and soil cultivated and planted with crops, predominantly potatoes. There has been little research into the cultivation of organic wetlands soils in Uganda, or the impacts on soil carbon dynamics and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study used two rounds of farmer interviews to capture the land management practices on these soils and how they vary over the period of a year. Three potato fields were also randomly selected and sampled for CO2 emissions at four points in time during the year; 1) just after the potato beds had been dug, 2) during the potato growing period, 3) after the potato harvest, and 4) at the end of the fallow season. Carbon dioxide emissions, soil and air temperatures, water table depth, vegetation cover and land use were all recorded in situ in each field on each sampling occasion, from both the raised potato beds and the trenches in between them. There appeared to be a delay in the disturbance effect of digging the peat, with heterotrophic CO2 emissions from the raised beds not immediately increasing after being exposed to the air. Excluding these results, there was a significant linear relationship between mean emissions and water table depth from the raised beds and trenches in each field over time (pgaps which need to be addressed with future studies.

  20. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  1. Fertility status of cultivated floodplain soils in the Zambezi Valley, northern Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimweta, M.; Nyakudya, I. W.; Jimu, L.

    2018-06-01

    Flood-recession cropping improves smallholder farmers' household food security. The objective of this study was to determine the fertility status of cultivated Zambezi Valley floodplain soils, in northern Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at three sites, along tributaries of Musengezi River. Soil samples were taken at 0.20 m depth increments to 0.60 m from hydromorphologically stratified fields, during the cropping season. Sampling points were replicated twice in each stratum at points equidistant from river edges. Relative elevations of sampling points were measured using levelling equipment. Soil was analysed using: core method for bulk density, hydrometer method for texture, loss on ignition for soil organic carbon (SOC), Kjeldahl procedure for total nitrogen (N), 0.01 M CaCl2 for pH, and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) for Mehlich 3 extractable elements. Data from soil analyses were subjected to One Way Analysis of Variance and Pearson's correlation analysis. Bulk density ranged from 1.2 to 1.4 g cm-3 and it was negatively related to distance from river; and positively related to elevation at two sites. Highest values for SOC and total N were 2.04% and 0.36% respectively. Soil pH ranged from 7.70 to 8.60. Soil organic carbon and N were positively related to distance from river but negatively related to elevation. Threshold concentrations for deficiency: fertilizer microdosing are among possible fertility management options.

  2. The effects of cultivation on the organic matter of total soil and in the different soil particle size separates using radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of cultivation on the organic matter and nutrients in the total soil and in five particle size separates were studied through chemical analyses and radiocarbon dating. Samples were taken from the A and B horizons of an uncultivated field and of fields cultivated during 5,60 and 90 years which had never received treatment with fertilizers. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Multipurpose units: combining of technological operations of a soil cultivating and seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Petukhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern domestic market of technique for grain crops seeding differs variety of machines brands and types. The intensive type technologies combining technological operations of a soil cultivating and grain crops seeding in one pass are more widely used. The authors have established that one-operational units in new machine park have to be replaced multipurpose, universal and combined machines. Such approach will reduce number of machines in grain production from 20-30 to 5-6 name titles. Possibilities of multipurpose sowing units for simultaneous fertilizers application, soil cultivating and weeds destruction were analyzed. It was specified that nowadays there are several technologies types with two, four or six operations overlapping. Operational performance, technological and economical efficiency of the best multipurpose and also efficiency of technological operations overlapping at grain crops cultivating in the conditions of their real operation and at a trial establishment in the Kuban research institute of information and technical and economic studies of agro-industrial complex engineering and technical services were studied. Tit was defined that use of multipurpose sowing units and also studied efficiency of decreases operational costs by 48-71 percent, fuel consumption - by 41-76 percent and reduces labor input by 72-80 percent. Thus grain crops seeding is possible in optimal agrotime because of 4-6 technological operations overlapping in one pass.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Growth of Wheat Cultivated in Soil Amended with Digestate from Biogas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana PAMPILL(O)N-GONZ(A)LEZ; Marco LUNA-GUIDO; Olivia FRANCO-HERN(A)NDEZ; Fabián FERN(A)NDEZ-LUQUE(N)O; Octavio PAREDES-L(O)PEZ; Gerardo HERN(A)NDEZ; Luc DENDOOVEN

    2017-01-01

    Digestate,the product obtained after anaerobic digestion of organic waste for biogas production,is rich in plant nutrients and might be used to fertilize crops.Wheat (Triticum spp.L.) was fertilized with digestate,urea,or left unfertilized and cultivated in the greenhouse for 120 d.Emissions of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4),and nitrous oxide (N2O)) were monitored and plant growth characteristics were determined at harvest.The digestate was characterized for heavy metals,pathogens,and C and N mineralization potential in an aerobic incubation experiment.No Salmonella spp.,Shigella spp.,or viable eggs of helminths were detected in the digested pig slurry,but the number of faecal coliforms was as high as 3.6 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 dry digestate.The concentrations of heavy metals did not surpass the upper limits established by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).After 28 d,17% of the organic C (436 g kg-1 dry digestate) and 8% of the organic N (6.92 g kg-1 dry digestate) were mineralized.Emissions of CO2 and CH4 were not significantly affected by fertilization in the wheat-cultivated soil,but digestate significantly increased the cumulative N2O emission by 5 times compared to the urea-amended soil and 63 times compared to the uncultivated unfertilized soil.It could be concluded that digestate was nutrient rich and low in heavy metals and pathogens,and did not affect emissions of CH4 and CO2 when applied to a soil cultivated with wheat,but increased emission of N2O.

  5. Fall into Autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    1999-01-01

    Describes a watercolor lesson based on autumn leaves. Discusses the process, including but not limited to initial thumbnail sketches, how to start the paintings, and how to paint actual leaves onto the preliminary surface treatment. (CMK)

  6. Codonopilate A, a Triterpenyl Ester as Main Autotoxin in Cultivated Soil of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Yan, Zhiqiang; Ren, Xia; Li, Xiuzhuang; Qin, Bo

    2017-03-15

    Codonopilate A (1), a triterpenyl ester, was isolated from monocultivated soil of annual Codonopsis pilosula and identified as the main autotoxin. The yield ratio of codonopilate A in dried soil was calculated as 2.04 μg/g. Other two triterpenoids, taraxeryl acetate (2) and 24-methylenecycloartanol (3), were isolated and identified as well showing weaker autotoxity. This was the first time that the potential allelochemicals and autotoxins in the cultivated soil of Codonopsis pilosula were reported. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by the autotoxins in the root tips of Codonopsis pilosula was considered as an important factor for the phytotoxic effect. This work systematically investigates the allelopathic and autotoxic effect of Codonopsis pilosula, and the preliminary autotoxic action mode of the three autotoxins. These findings are helpful to understand the molecular mechanism of autotoxicity and conducive to explore proper ways to degrade the autotoxins and eliminate the replanting problems of Codonopsis pilosula.

  7. Microbial activity in soil cultivated with different summer legumes in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted for ten years in a sandy soil in the north part of the Paraná State, Brazil. The soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space between the coffee plants, in the following treatments: Control, Leucaena leucocephala, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria breviflora, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna deeringiana, Arachis hypogaea and Vigna unguiculata. The legume crops influenced the microbial activity, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space. The cultivation of Leucaena leucocephala increased the microbial biomass C, N and P. Although L. leucocephala and Arachis hypogaea provided higher microbial biomass, the qCO2 decreased by up to 50% under the coffee canopy and by about 25% in the inter row space. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P due to green manure residue addition.

  8. Addition of residues and reintroduction of microorganisms in Jatropha curcas cultivated in degraded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate, through mycorrhization (root colonization and number of spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - AMF, leaf acid phosphatase and soil chemical characteristics, the effects of the addition of residues (macrophytes and ash, hydrogel and the reintroduction of microorganisms in a degraded area cultivated with jatropha. Degradation occurred when the surface soil was removed during the construction of a hydroelectric power plant. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, using a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial scheme, i.e., two inoculation treatments (with and without soil-inoculum, two hydrogel treatments (with and without and four with the addition of residues (macrophytes - MAC, ash, MAC + ash and control, without residues applied in the planting hole, with 4 replicates and 5 plants in each replicate. Soil from preserved Cerrado area was used as a source of microorganisms, including AMF. The conclusion is that, after 12 months of planting, the hydrogel increased root colonization, while the chemical characteristics of the degraded soil responded positively to the addition of MAC and MAC + ash, with increase in pH and SB and reduction of Al and H + Al. The addition of the soil-inoculum, along with MAC and MAC + ash, promoted higher mycorrhizal colonization and number of spores and reduced amounts of leaf acid phosphatase, indicating increased absorption of P by the host.

  9. Selenium determination in cereal plants and cultivation soils by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Freitas, M.C.; Anawar, H.M.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Kamenik, J.; Kucera, J.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health but it is deficient in at least 1 billion people around the globe. Cereals are by far the most significant agricultural crops, not only on a gross tonnage basis, but also by what they represent in terms of energy supply and dietary intake for human nutrition worldwide. Portugal is no exception to such pattern. The Portuguese situation is difficult to assess though, due to scarce information and lack of consistent studies on the subject. In these terms, the Se status of major cereals and their cultivation soils are dealt with herein. Two species of wheat-bread and durum wheat-were sown at the end of November 2009, and then sampled in different growth stages. Rye was collected during harvest season, and cultivation soils were analyzed as well. Se results were within the range of: 100-225 ng g -1 for soils; 3-55 ng g -1 for durum wheat; 6-80 ng g -1 for bread wheat; and 4-30 ng g -1 for rye. Accuracy of the RNAA procedure was proved by analysis of reference materials NIST-SRM 1515 and NIS-SRM 8433. (author)

  10. Vegetative growth and yield of strawberry under irrigation and soil mulches for different cultivation environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Regina Célia de Matos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetative growth and yield of strawberry in relation to irrigation levels and soil mulches are still not well known, mainly for different environmental conditions. Two experiments were carried out in Atibaia, SP, Brazil, during 1995, one in a protected environment and the other in an open field, to evaluate the cultivar Campinas IAC-2712, under different irrigation levels and soil mulches (black and clear polyethylene. Three water potential levels in the soil were used in order to define irrigation time, corresponding to -0.010 (N1, -0.035 (N2, and -0.070 (N3 MPa, measured through tensiometers installed at the 10 cm depth. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was adopted, as randomized complete block, with 5 replicates. In the protected cultivation, the irrigation levels of -0.010 and -0.035 MPa and the clear plastic mulch favored the vegetative growth, evaluated through plant height, maximum horizontal dimension of the plant, leaf area index, as well as by total marketable fruit yield and its components (mean number and weight of fruits per plant. In the open field cultivation, no effect of treatments due to rainfall were observed.

  11. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  12. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.P. Beldini; R.C. Oliveira Junior; Michael Keller; P.B. de Camargo; P.M. Crill; A. Damasceno da Silva; D. Bentes dos Santos; D. Rocha de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest....

  13. Indicators of structural degradation on intensively cultivated soils of the Piedemonte Llanero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando, Franco H

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the validity of a diagnosis methodology of structural soil degradation based on the combination of internal morphology of aggregates and measurement of resistance to penetration, a reconnaissance survey of physical degradation processes on intensively cultivated soils in the Piedemonte Llanero was carried out. The internal morphology of soil aggregates was classified into five states; micro-aggregate (μ), compacted (∇ μ), very compacted (∇), cracked compacted (φ) and agglomerate (ψ) defined according to morphological characteristics derived from cultivation practices and wheel traffic. Two crops systems were selected: low-lying rice (mono-cropping) during 30 years) and upland rice, maize, soybean cotton crop rotations during 20 years in two landscapes of the alluvial plain of piedmont (medium terraces of the sub-recent piedmont, TM, and No-flooding Lowland Flats of the Recent Piedmont, PR). A natural forest and 20 years cacao tree plantation was include as benchmark systems. It was found that higher values of resistance to penetration and total density are associated to compact layers (∇ μ, ∇ and φ states) and lower values to the μ a ψ states. The ∇ state was particularly evident on TM under mono-cropping e low-lying rice crop. High values of resistance to penetration of topsoil on PR were rather associated to e textural resistance. Under natural forest and cacao e plantation it was found the micro-aggregate state (μ) o on surface soil. High values of weighed mean diameter of water stable aggregates, DMP, (≥ 5mm) were associated to compacted layers in the crop rotation e systems in PR. it was demonstrated that this methodology developed in France (temperate zone) can be applied to tropical soils

  14. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Rozo, José; Sánchez Nieves, Jimena; Uribe Vélez, Daniel; Moreno Chacón, Leonardo; Melgarejo Muñoz, Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofuran degradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soils cultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosum) in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different records of pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for their ability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mg L-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/ or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtai...

  15. The transformation of nitrogen in soil under Robinia Pseudacacia shelterbelt and in adjoining cultivated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Gaca, W.

    2009-04-01

    The shelterbelts perform more than twenty different functions favorable to the environment, human economy, health and culture. The most important for agricultural landscape is increase of water retention, purification of ground waters and prevent of pollution spread in the landscape, restriction of wind and water erosion effects, isolation of polluting elements in the landscape, preservation of biological diversity in agricultural areas and mitigation of effects of unfavorable climatic phenomena. Denitrification is defined as the reduction of nitrate or nitrite coupled to electron transport phosphorylation resulting in gaseous N either as molecular N2 or as an oxide of N. High content of moisture, low oxygen, neutral and basic pH favour the denitrification. Nitrate reductase is an important enzyme involved in the process of denitrification. The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalyzed by nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase is catalyzed reduction nitrite to nitrous oxide. The conversion of N2O to N2 is catalyzed by nitrous oxide reductase. This process leads to the lost of nitrogen in soil mainly in the form of N2 and N2O. Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas which cause significant depletion of the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer. The investigations were carried out in Dezydery Chlapowski Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). Our investigations were focused on the soils under Robinia pseudacacia shelterbelt and in adjoining cultivated field. The afforestation was created 200 years ago and it is consist of mainly Robinia pseudacacia with admixture of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. This shelterbelt and adjoining cultivated field are located on grey-brown podzolic soil. The aim of this study is to present information on the changes of nitrate reductase activity in soil with admixture urea (organic form of nitrogen) in two different concentrations 0,25% N and 0,5% N. Our results have shown that this process

  16. Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, A.; Bronson, K.; Schimel, D.; Valentine, D.; Parton, W.

    1991-03-01

    Measurements of CH4 uptake and N2O emissions in native, nitrogen-fertilized, and wheat-growing prairie soils from spring to late autumn, 1990 are reported. It is found that nitrogen fertilization and cultivation can both decrease CH4 uptake and increase N2O production, thereby contributing to the increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases.

  17. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  18. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, A. M.; Magno, R.; Casacchia, T.; Curci, M.; Baronti, S.; Miglietta, F.; Crecchio, C.; Xiloyannis, C.; Sofo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization). Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities. PMID:24348166

  19. Economic analysis of irrigated melon cultivated in greenhouse with and without soil plastic mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis M. de C. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze technically and economically the irrigated ‘Gália’ melon (Hybrid Nectar, cultivated in greenhouse with and without using plastic mulch covering on the soil. Simultaneously, two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD, in which melon plants were submitted to five water availability levels, defined by 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration, with four replicates. The difference between experiments were only about the soil covering with plastic mulch: with (CC or without (SC plastic mulch. The economically optimal irrigation depths were 208.83 and 186.88 mm, resulting in yields of 50.85 and 44.51 t ha-1 for the experiments with and without mulching, respectively. The results showing the economically optimal irrigation depths were very close to those that produced the highest yield.

  20. Changes in the Diversity of Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi after Cultivation for Biofuel Production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) Tropical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Hernández, Guillermina; Roldán, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems. PMID:22536339

  1. Changes in the diversity of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi after cultivation for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba tropical system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Alguacil

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba, in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems.

  2. Increasing Efficiency of Soil Fertility Map for Rice Cultivation Using Fuzzy Logic, AHP and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad seyedmohammadi

    2017-02-01

    fertility groups for better management of soil and plant nutrition. Weight of soil parameters was0.54, 0.29 and 0.17 for organic carbon, available phosphor and potassium, respectively. Fuzzy map of study area includes five soil fertility groups as: 22.9% very high fertility, 27.7% high fertility, 35.53% medium fertility, 10.48% low fertility and 3.39% very low fertility. Consequently, a separated map for soil fertility prepared to evaluate soil fertility of study area for rice cultivation. Toinvestigatethe efficiency of fuzzy model and AHP in increasing the accuracy of soil fertility map, soil fertility map with Boolean method prepared as well. Boolean map showed 58.88% fertile and 41.12% unfertile.15 soil samples from different soil fertility groups of study area were derived fromcontrol of maps accuracy. 13 renewed samples of 15 and 9 soil samples have matched with fuzzy and Boolean map, respectively. Comparison of parameters mean in fuzzy map fertility groups showed that parameters mean amounts of very high and high fertility groups are higher than optimum level except potassium that is a few lower than optimum level in high fertility group, therefore, addition of fertilizers in these groups could not be useful to increase rice crop production. Phosphorus parameter amount is lower than the critical level in very low, low and medium fertility groups, then in these groups phosphorus fertilizer should be added to the soil toincreaserice production. The amount of potassium parameter is higher than the critical level and lower than optimum limit in very low, low, medium and high fertility groups, then in these groups addition of potassium fertilizer will results in theincrease of production. Organic carbon amount is lower than optimum level in very low and low fertility groups. With regard to the relation between organic carbon andnitrogen and phosphorus, therefore, the addition of organic carbon fertilizer could compensate deficit of nitrogen and phosphorus in these groups

  3. Initial growth and yield structure of selected cultivars of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cultivated on mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwonek Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils and to assess the influence of vegetative biomass development, generative growth and yield components on the yielding of three cranberry cultivars originating in the USA (Stevens, Pilgrim and Ben Lear at two locations in Poland. The key biometrical traits involved in yield formation were taken into account, and the soil and plant chemical conditions were evaluated. All of the measured biometrical characteristics were strongly influenced by the location and the year of cultivation, and varietal differences were also noted. The most important determinants that explained yield variation were: the number of uprights per square meter, floral induction and berry set. However, the participation of each component in yield variation was strongly affected by the location, age of plantation and to a minor extent by the cultivar. The study confirmed the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils with a low pH. The biggest average yield of the three years was collected from cv. Stevens as cultivated on sandy soil in contrast to the same cultivar grown on sandy loam soil. In the case of sandy loam soil after acidification, cv. Pilgrim appeared to be a relatively better yielding cultivar.

  4. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet; Delas; Delmas; Demias; Flanzy; Benard; Puyaubert; Fioramonti; Marty; Barbier; Le Blaye; Michon

    1961-01-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios 90 Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [fr

  5. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  6. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  7. Effect of Bioremediation on Growth of Wheat Plant Cultivated In Contaminated Soil with Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Azis, O.A.; El-Ghandour, I.A.; Galal, Y.G.M.; El-Sheikh, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    Pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the impact of BYFA (bacterial, fungal, yeast, and actinomycetes isolates), and bio fertilizers (mycorrhizas and N 2 fixers) in remedy the heavy metals -polluted soil and its effect on wheat growth. Basal recommended doses of P and N were applied; the treatments were arranged in completely randomized block design. The results showed a positive effect on growth and N uptake by wheat cultivated in polluted soil with (Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Cd). The data cleared that, the lowest content of Pb in the soil was occurred with composite inoculants plus BFYA (274.57μ g/gm) as compared to the other treatments. Reduction in zinc content in soil was recorded with control + BFYA (272.0 μg/g) compared to other one. Similarly, inoculation with (Azo) + (BFYA) induced a reduction in Cu content in soil, Data of 15 N revealed that both the mechanisms of BNF have been occurred. In this respect, it is worthy to mention that, symbiotic bacteria has a considerable role with such cereal crop via BNF or enhancement of plant growth, The inoculation with Rh + AM resulted in the highest percentage of N uptake from fertilizer (29%), followed by AM, then Azo (23.9%, 22.7%, respectively) without BFYA. Another picture was noticed with BFYA whereas the best percentage was recorded with Azospirillum (19.3 %). This treatment is the only one that increased the portion of N derived from fertilizer over those recorded with the control (11.13%). BFYA have the ability to reduce the content of heavy metal in both the contaminated soil and wheat plant. Similar function was detected with bio fertilizers, besides to their effects on enhancement of plant growth via plant growth promotion substances and BNF mechanisms

  8. Does Miscanthus cultivation on organic soils compensate for carbon loss from peat oxidation? A dual label study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Cédric; Leifeld, Jens; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural use of organic soils requires drainage and thereby changes conditions in these soils from anoxic to oxic. As a consequence, organic carbon that had been accumulated over millennia is rapidly mineralized, so that these soils are converted from a CO2 sink to a source. The peat mineralization rate depends mainly on drainage depth, but also on crop type. Various studies show that Miscanthus, a C4 bioenergy plant, shows potential for carbon sequestration in mineral soils because of its high productivity, its dense root system, absence of tillage and high preharvest litterfall. If Miscanthus cropping would have a similar effect in organic soils, peat consumption and thus CO2 emissions might be reduced. For our study we compared two adjacent fields, on which organic soil is cultivated with Miscanthus (since 20 years) and perennial grass (since 6 years). Both sites are located in the Bernese Seeland, the largest former peatland area of Switzerland. To determine wether Miscanthus-derived carbon accumulated in the organic soil, we compared the stable carbon isotopic signatures of the experimental soil with those of an organic soil without any C4-plant cultivation history. To analyze the effect of C4-C accumulation on peat degradability we compared the CO2 emissions by incubating 90 soil samples of the two fields for more than one year. Additionally, we analysed the isotopic CO2 composition (13C, 14C) during the first 25 days of incubation after trapping the emitted CO2 in NaOH and precipitating it as BaCO3. The ∂13C values of the soil imply, that the highest share of C4-C of around 30% is situated at a depth of 10-20 cm. Corn that used to be cultivated on the grassland field before 2009 still accounts for 8% of SOC. O/C and H/C ratios of the peat samples indicate a stronger microbial imprint of organic matter under Miscanthus cultivation. The amount of CO2 emitted was not affected by the cultivation type. On average 57% of the CO2 was C4 derived in the

  9. EFFECTS OF MIXED ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND THE GROWTH OF KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L.) CULTIVATED ON BRIS SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hadi Akbar Basri; Arifin Abdu; Shamshuddin Jusop; Osumanu Haruna Ahmed; Hazandy Abdul-Hamid; Mohd-Ashadie Kusno; Baharom Zainal; Abdul Latib Senin; Nasima Junejo

    2013-01-01

    The demand for kenaf in the world increases rapidly by the years. Cultivation of the crop in Malaysia is a challenging task, especially when kenaf is grown on sandy soils with low fertility, such as the BRIS Soils (Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales). A pot study was conducted in a glasshouse at Universiti Putra Malaysia to evaluate the potential of inorganic and organic fertilizers or their combination for growing kenaf on very sandy BRIS Soils, using variety V36. There were altogether si...

  10. Simulation of Soil Quality with Riparian Forests and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Riparian forests are entrusted with important hydrological functions, such as riparian zone protection, filtering sediments and nutrients and mitigation of the amount of nutrients and xenobiotic molecules from the surrounding agro ecosystems. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0,2 and 0.2-0.4 m and its chemical (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, sum of bases-SB, bases saturation, V%, and aluminum saturation, m%); physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological attributes (basal respiration and microbial biomass) were determined. This work aimed to study the liner method of combining data, figures of merit (FoM), weighing process and the scoring functions developed by Wymore and asses the quality of the soil (SQI) by means of chemical, physical and microbiological soil attributes, employing the additive pondered model for two areas of riparian forest at different stages of ecological succession and an adjacent area cultivated with sugar cane, located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. Some hierarchical functions containing FoMs and their parameters were constructed, and from them weights were assigned to each FoM and parameter, in a way that cluster of structures with the same FoMs and parameters with different weights were formed. These clusters were used to calculate the SQI for all vegetal formations considering two types of soil (Oxisol and Podzol), in that way, the SQI was calculated for each combination of vegetation and soil. The SQIs values were usually higher in the oldest riparian forest, while the recent riparian forest showed the smallest SQI values, for both types of soil. The variation of values within a combination vegetation/soil was also different between all combinations, being that the set of values from the oldest riparian forest presented the lowest amplitude. It was also observed that the Oxisols, regardless of the vegetation, presented higher SQIs

  11. Impact of tillage on soil magnetic properties: results over thirty years different cultivation plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesson, Julien; Kessouri, Pauline; Buvat, Solène; Tabbagh, Alain

    2010-05-01

    Cultivation may favour or not different processes such as air and water circulation, organic matter and fertilizers supplies..., consequently it can a priori induce significant changes in local oxido-reduction conditions which determine the magnetic properties of soils: the soil magnetic signal. If laboratory measurements on soil samples can be slow and irreversible, it is also possible to perform in field measurements by using electromagnetic devices that allow quick and easy measuring over the relevant soil thicknesses both in time (TDEM) and frequency (FDEM) domains. The object of this study is to compare the variation of two magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, measured by FDEM apparatus and magnetic viscosity measured by TDEM apparatus) and there ratio along depth for three different types of tillage (no tillage, ploughing, and simplified tillage). An experimental plot of 80 m by 50 m total area, on which these three types of tillage have been conducted for more than thirty years, was surveyed. The plot is divided in five strips of 16 m by 50 m area, each of which being cultivated by one type of tillage only. Each strip is divided in two parts, one half with nitrogen-fixing crop during intercultivation winter period and the other half with bare soil during this period. On each part, the variation along depth of both magnetic properties was assessed by surveying with different devices corresponding to three different volumes of investigation. For the magnetic susceptibility measurements the devices used were the MS2 of Bartington Ltd with the MS2D probe and the CS60 a slingram prototype use in VCP and HCP configurations. For the magnetic viscosity, the devices used were the DECCO from Littlemore ltd. And the VC100, a slingram prototype, used at two heights. Eleven values of the two magnetic properties have been recorded using each device and their medians calculated. The data were inverted to define the median magnetic profiles of each half

  12. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  13. The use of biochar to reduce nitrogen and potassium leaching from soil cultivated with maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient leaching is often a problem especially in tropical areas with soil fertility constraints. This study aims to reveal the effect of biochars on leaching and uptake of nitrogen and potassium from degraded soils cultivated with maize. Each of three types of biochar originated from rice husk, wood, and coconut shell, was applied to the soil placed in PVC tube at four rates (0, 15, 30, and 45 t/ha. Maize was then planted in each pot. All pots received urea (135 kg N/ha, SP36 (36 kg P2O5/ha, and KCl (110 kg K2O/ha. Twelve treatments (three biochars and four application rates were arranged in a factorial randomized block design with three replicates. Results of the study showed interaction effects of biochar materials and biochar rates on nitrate leaching (except on day 1 to 30 and potassium, N uptake, and plant growth. On day 1-30, leaching of nitrate and potassium was reduced by biochar application. The lowest nitrate leaching was observed at rate of 45 t /ha of wood biochar, while application of 45 t coconut shell biochar / ha resulted in the highest K leaching. Beside, wood biochar resulted in a similar nitrate leaching with that of coconut shell biochar, but nitrate leaching increased with increasing rate of rice husk biochar on day 30-60. All biochar materials yielded similar potassium leaching at all rates. Application of 45 t rice husk biochar /ha resulted in the best maize growth.

  14. Water Footprint of Industrial Tomato Cultivations in the Pinios River Basin: Soil Properties Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Evangelou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrial tomatoes are cultivated in about 4000 ha of the Pinios river basin (central Greece, providing significant income to the farmers. In this study, the water footprint (WF of industrial tomatoes between planting and harvest was estimated in 24 different farms for three consecutive years. The selected farms were representative of the main agro-climatic zones and soil textural classes within the river basin. Green, blue and grey WF calculations were based on datasets of the experimental plots for each farm, including irrigation water volume, meteorological, soil, and crop yield data. The results showed that the WF of tomatoes ranged from 37 to 131 m3 water/ton tomatoes with an average of 61 m3/ton. The WF variation depended mainly on crop yield, local agro-climatic and soil conditions. The green, blue, and grey WF components averaged 13, 27 and 21 m3/ton, respectively. The results reveal the importance of WF in understanding how tomato production relates to the sustainable use of freshwater and pollution at local level.

  15. Cultivable fungi present in Antarctic soils: taxonomy, phylogeny, diversity, and bioprospecting of antiparasitic and herbicidal metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eldon C Q; Godinho, Valéria M; Silva, Débora A S; de Paula, Maria T R; Vitoreli, Gislaine A; Zani, Carlos L; Alves, Tânia M A; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane M F; Barbosa, Emerson C; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Oliveira, Fabio S; Carvalho, Camila R; Ferreira, Mariana C; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2018-05-01

    Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, Mortierella parvispora, and Penicillium chrysogenum displayed antiparasitic activities, whilst extracts of P. destructans, Mortierella amoeboidea, Mortierella sp. 3, and P. tardochrysogenum showed herbicidal activities. Reported as pathogenic for bats, different isolates of P. destructans exhibited trypanocidal activities and herbicidal activity, and may be a source of bioactive molecules to be considered for chemotherapy against neglected tropical diseases. The abundant presence of P. destructans in soils of the four islands gives evidence supporting that soils in the Antarctic Peninsula constitute a natural source of strains of this genus, including some P. destructans strains that are phylogenetically close to those that infect bats in North America and Europe/Palearctic Asia.

  16. Environmental hazards related to Miscanthus x giganteus cultivation on heavy metal contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogrzeba M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to recent estimates reaching the target of a 20% share of renewable energy sources (RES in the final energy balance in Poland by 2020 will result in the demand for more than 8 million tons of biomass, which, in turn, will entail the necessity of creating large-scale energy crop plantations. According to EU assumptions the most effective way to produce biomass for energy purposes is cultivation of energy crops in agricultural areas. It is particularly vital for Poland, because these areas constitute a relatively large part of the country (59%, 76% of them being used as farmlands. In Silesia, the most industrialized region of the country, 5-10% of agricultural soils are contaminated with cadmium, lead and zinc. The main objective of the presented study was to estimate the accumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of Miscanthus x giganteus grown on contaminated soils and calculate concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn in crops. It was shown that the large intake of heavy metals by that species could cause high emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere during its improper combustion. As a side effect, winter harvesting led to the loss of even 30% of biomass. Plant residues (leaves can be the source of pollution after decomposing and releasing metals back into the soil. Moreover, miscanthus leaves can be transferred by wind to the surrounding areas. It is very likely that ash coming from the combustion of contaminated biomass cannot be used as a fertilizer.

  17. Pequi leaves incorporated into the soil reduce the initial growth of cultivated, invasive and native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Laísa N; Gomes, Anabele S; Borghetti, Fabian

    2014-12-01

    Studies have identified the phytotoxicity of many native species of the Cerrado; however, most of them were conducted either in inert substrates, or using exaggerate proportions of plant material. We investigated the phytotoxicity of pequi leaves added to substrate soil in quantities compatible with the litter produced by this species. Pequi leaves were triturated and added to red latosol in concentrations of 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%; the control was constituted of leafless soil. These mixtures were added to pots and irrigated daily to keep them moist. Germinated seeds of the cultivated sorghum and sesame, of the invasive brachiaria and of the native purple ipê, were disposed in the pots to grow for five to seven days at 30°C within a photoperiod of 12 h. Seedlings of all the species presented a reduction in their initial growth in a dose-dependent way. In general, the root growth was more affected by the treatments than the shoot growth; moreover, signs of necrosis were observed in the roots of the sorghum, sesame and brachiaria. The phytotoxic effects generated by relatively small quantities of leaves, in a reasonable range of species within a soil substrate, suggest potential allelopathy of pequi leaves under natural conditions.

  18. Pequi leaves incorporated into the soil reduce the initial growth of cultivated, invasive and native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAÍSA N. ALLEM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have identified the phytotoxicity of many native species of the Cerrado; however, most of them were conducted either in inert substrates, or using exaggerate proportions of plant material. We investigated the phytotoxicity of pequi leaves added to substrate soil in quantities compatible with the litter produced by this species. Pequi leaves were triturated and added to red latosol in concentrations of 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%; the control was constituted of leafless soil. These mixtures were added to pots and irrigated daily to keep them moist. Germinated seeds of the cultivated sorghum and sesame, of the invasive brachiaria and of the native purple ipê, were disposed in the pots to grow for five to seven days at 30°C within a photoperiod of 12 h. Seedlings of all the species presented a reduction in their initial growth in a dose-dependent way. In general, the root growth was more affected by the treatments than the shoot growth; moreover, signs of necrosis were observed in the roots of the sorghum, sesame and brachiaria. The phytotoxic effects generated by relatively small quantities of leaves, in a reasonable range of species within a soil substrate, suggest potential allelopathy of pequi leaves under natural conditions.

  19. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  20. Long-term effects of peatland cultivation on soil physical and hydraulic properties: Case study in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis W. Hallema; Jonathan A. Lafond; Yann Périard; Silvio J. Gumiere; Ge Sun; Jean Caron

    2015-01-01

    Organic soils are an excellent substrate for commercial lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) farming; however, drainage accelerates oxidation of the surface layer and reduces the water holding capacity, which is often lethal for crops that are sensitive to water stress. In this case study, we analyzed 942 peat samples from a large cultivated peatland complex...

  1. 29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil.â 780.110 Section 780.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSIN...

  2. Uptake and specification of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, E.H.; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Hansen, M.; Ruzik, R.; Mazurowska, L.; Rasmussen, P.H.; Sloth, J.J.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic

  3. Study and monitoring of the contamination of cultivated soils; Etude et controle de la contamination des sols cultives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Grauby, A.

    1960-07-15

    Arable lands are directly concerned by radioactive fallouts as a large part of radio-elements is fixed in the soil first centimetres in which roots of many plants are growing. The authors report the study of fixations at the level of roots, of the movements of radio-elements in the soil solution at their neighbourhood, and of the influence of leaching (by rainfalls or irrigation). Variations of soil content in calcium and strontium have been achieved to highlight dispersion and inhibition factors. The authors present the implemented experimental method, i.e. how soils have been contaminated, how crop pots have been prepared, and how the experiment is performed. Experiments are performed by using ray grass as a crop. The authors assessed radioactive uptake by aerial parts of the plant, studied the rhizosphere, and discussed radiographies obtained on different pots (contaminated, seeded or not, watered or not, with addition of different quantities of strontium or calcium compound)

  4. Chemical Attributes of Soil Fertilized with Cassava Mill Wastewater and Cultivated with Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Suyane Marques Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA, located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6×5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m3 ha−1; and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater, with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers.

  5. Soil Nutrient Condition of Coffee Cultivation with Industrial Woody-crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  6. Carnauba straw incorporated into the soil for fertilization carrot in organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micharlyson Carlos Morais

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrot is one of the most produced vegetables in Brazil and, with the growing demand for organic vegetables, it is necessary to develop production technologies that are less dependent on external inputs and more accessible to family agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition to soil of carnauba straw as fertilizer, incorporated under different pre-planting periods, for the organic cultivation of the carrot. The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Horta of the Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Ipanguaçu, using the experimental design in randomized blocks with three replicates and five treatments referring to the times of 15; 30; 45 and 60 days for the incorporation of carnauba straw, in the amount of 14 t ha-1, prior to planting the carrot, and a control treatment without addition of straw to the soil. The evaluated characteristics was dry mass of the aerial part, the length and root diameter, and productivity. There was an effect of the incorporation time of the carnauba straw on the length and productivity, being the highest values observed when the straw was incorporated between 15 and 30 days before sowing.

  7. [Chlorine speciation and concentration in cultivated soil in the northeastern China studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lang, Chun-Yan; Ma, Ling-Ling; Xu, Dian-Dou; Zheng, Lei; Lu, Yu-Nanz; Cui Li-Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2014-10-01

    A procedure has been proposed to determine chlorine speciation and concentration in soil with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and this method was applied to study the cultivated soil (bog, dark brown and black cultivated soil) in the Northeastern China. Qualitative analysis was carried out by least-squares fitting of sample spectra with standard spectra of three model compounds (NaCl, 3-chloropropionic acid, chlorophenol red). Linear correlation between the absolute fluorescence intensity of a series of NaCl standards and the Cl concentration was used as quantification standard for measuring the total Cl concentration in samples. The detection limits,relative standard deviation (RSD), recoveries were 2 mg · kg(-1), 0%-5% and 77%-133%, respectively. The average concentration of total Cl was 19 mg · kg(-1). The average relative content was as high as 61% of organochlorine with the concentration of 1-2 times as high as the concentration of inorganic chloride. The distribution trend of the total Cl, inorganic chloride and organic chlorine in different types of soil was: bog arable soil > dark brown soil > black soil. In conclusion, XANES is a reliable method to nondestructively characterize the speciation and concentration of chlorine in soil, which would provide some basic data for the future study of the chlorine's biogeochemical transformations.

  8. Tolerance of cultivated and wild plants of different taxonomy to soil contamination by kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharonova, Natalia; Breus, Irina

    2012-05-01

    In laboratory experiments on leached chernozem contaminated by kerosene (1-15 wt.%), germination of 50 plants from 21 families (cultivated and wild, annual and perennial, mono- and dicotyledonous) as affected by kerosene type and concentration and plant features was determined. Tested plants formed three groups: more tolerant, less tolerant, and intolerant, in which relative germination was more than 70%, 30-70% and less than 30%, respectively. As parameters of soil phytotoxicity, effective kerosene concentrations (EC) causing germination depression of 10%, 25% and 50% were determined. EC values depended on the plant species and varied in a wide range of kerosene concentrations: 0.02-7.3% (EC(10)), 0.05-8.1% (EC(25)), and 0.2-12.7% (EC(50)). The reported data on germination in soils contaminated by oil and petrochemicals were generalized. The comparison showed that at very high contamination levels (10 and 15%) kerosene was 1.3-1.6 times more phytotoxic than diesel fuel and 1.3-1.4 times more toxic than crude oil, and at low (1 and 2%) and medium (3 and 5%) levels the toxicity of these contaminants was close differing by a factor of 1.1-1.2. Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature and, on the average, decreased in the following range of families: Fabaceae (germination decrease of 10-60% as compared to an uncontaminated control)>Brassicaceae (5-70%)>Asteraceae (25-95%)>Poaceae (10-100%). The monocotyledonous species tested were characterized as medium- and low-stable to contamination, whereas representatives of dicotyledonous plants were met in all groups of tolerance. Tested wild plants, contrary to reference data on oil toxicity, were more sensitive to kerosene than cultivated. No correlation was observed between degree of plant tolerance to kerosene and mass of seeds. The evidence indicates factors as structure and properties of testa, structure of germ, type of storage compounds, and type of seed germination (underground or

  9. Development direction of the soil-formation processes for reclaimed soda solonetz-solonchak soils of the Ararat valley during their cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Manukyan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The data of the article show that the long-term cultivation of reclaimed sodium solonetz-solonchak soils entails to further improvement of their properties and in many parameters of chemical compositions of soil solution and soil-absorbing complex they come closer to irrigated meadow-brown soils in the period of 15–20 years of agricultural development. The analysis of the experimental research by the method of non-linear regression shows, that for the enhancement of some yield determining parameters to the level of irrigated meadow-brown soils, a time period of 30–40 years of soil-formation processes is needed and longer time is necessary for humidification. The forecast of soil-formation processes for the long-term period, allows to reveal the intensity and orientation of development of the specified processes and to develop the scientifically-justified actions for their further improvement. Keywords: Soil-formation processes, Reclaimed soda solonetz-solonchaks, Irrigated meadow-brown soils, Multi-year cultivation, Improvement, Forecasting

  10. Impact of cultivation on characterisation of species composition of soil bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, A E.; Grayston, S J.; Prosser, J I.; Glover, L A.

    2001-03-01

    during direct analysis of the same soil and from a wide range of other sample types studied elsewhere. The study demonstrates the value of fine-scale molecular analysis for identification of laboratory isolates and indicates the culturability of approximately 1% of the total population but under a restricted range of media and cultivation conditions.

  11. Rapid Turnover and Minimal Accretion of Mineral Soil Carbon During 60-Years of Pine Forest Growth on Previously Cultivated Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.; Mobley, M. L.; Billings, S. A.; Markewitz, D.

    2016-12-01

    At the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem field experiment (1957-present), reforestation of previously cultivated land over fifty years nearly doubled soil organic carbon (SOC) in surface soils (0 to 7.5-cm) but these gains were offset by significant SOC losses in subsoils (35 to 60-cm). Nearly all of the accretions in surface soils amounted to gains in light fraction SOC, whereas losses at depth were associated with silt and clay-sized particles. These changes are documented in the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem (LTSE) study that resampled soil from 16 plots about every five years and archived all soil samples from four soil layers within the upper 60-cm of mineral soil. We combined soil bulk density, density fractionation, stable isotopes, and radioisotopes to explore changes in SOC and soil organic nitrogen (SON) associated with five decades of the growth of a loblolly pine secondary forest. Isotopic signatures showed relatively large accumulations of contemporary forest-derived carbon in surface soils, and no accumulation of forest-derived carbon in subsoils. We interpret results to indicate that land-use change from cotton fields to secondary pine forests drove soil biogeochemical and hydrological changes that enhanced root and microbial activity and SOM decomposition in subsoils. As pine stands matured and are now transitioning to mixed pines and hardwoods, demands on soil organic matter for nutrients to support aboveground growth has eased due to pine mortality, and bulk SOM and SON and their isotopes in subsoils have stabilized. We anticipate major changes in the next fifty years as 1957 pine trees transition to hardwoods. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term experiments and deep soil measurements when characterizing SOC and SON responses to land use change. There is a remarkable paucity of E long-term soil data deeper than 30 cm.

  12. Adapting the Caesium-137 technique to document soil redistribution rates associated with traditional cultivation practices in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, H; Astorga, R Torres; Joseph, D; Antoine, J S; Mabit, L; Toloza, A; Dercon, G; Walling, Des E

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale deforestation, intensive land use and unfavourable rainfall conditions are responsible for significant continuous degradation of the Haitian uplands. To develop soil conservation strategies, simple and cost-effective methods are needed to assess rates of soil loss from farmland in Haiti. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) provides one such means of documenting medium-term soil redistribution rates. In this contribution, the authors report the first use in Haiti of 137 Cs measurements to document soil redistribution rates and the associated pattern of erosion/sedimentation rates along typical hillslopes within a traditional upland Haitian farming area. The local 137 Cs reference inventory, measured at an adjacent undisturbed flat area, was 670 Bq m -2 (SD = 100 Bq m -2 , CV = 15%, n = 7). Within the study area, where cultivation commenced in 1992 after deforestation, three representative downslope transects were sampled. These were characterized by 137 Cs inventories ranging from 190 to 2200 Bq m -2 . Although, the study area was cultivated by the local farmers, the 137 Cs depth distributions obtained from the area differed markedly from those expected from a cultivated area. They showed little evidence of tillage mixing within the upper part of the soil or, more particularly, of the near-uniform activities normally associated with the plough layer or cultivation horizon. They were very similar to that found at the reference site and were characterized by high 137 Cs activities at the surface and much lower activities at greater depths. This situation is thought to reflect the traditional manual tillage practices which cause limited disturbance and mixing of the upper part of the soil. It precluded the use of the conversion models normally used to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137 Cs measurements on cultivated soils and the Diffusion and Migration conversion model frequently used for uncultivated soils was modified for

  13. Removal of radioactivity and safe vegetables cultivation from highly radioactivity polluted soil in Fukushima using photosynthetic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kei; Okagawa, Masakazu; Takeno, Kenji; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The soil pollution caused by radioactive substances released from the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has been still serious interference against agricultural reconstruction. This study used the soil contaminated with high radioactivity (13,602∼87,181 Bq/kg) in Namie Town, Fukushima Prefecture, and performed decontamination using photosynthetic bacteria in a simple outdoor practical test using a 60 L container. Using the soil after decontamination, the authors cultivated vegetables such as komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach), and bok choy, the results of which are reported. As photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter shaerodes SSI species was used. This paper describes the cultivation method of bacteria, preparation method of immobilization grain, decontamination method, and cultivation method of vegetables. As a result of the experiment, the decontamination efficient of the soil was between 59.5 to 73.3%, and cultured vegetables passed the edible reference value (edible criteria for infants: 50 Bq/kg FW), which was the success of the experiment. (A.O.)

  14. Sewage sludge use in bioenergy production. A case study of its effects on soil properties under Cynara cardunculus L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Lag-Brotons

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy crops cultivation is expected to further increase, which represents an opportunity to establish synergies able to enhance key environmental components (i.e. soil. To reach this benefits crop management is crucial and should be properly assessed. The aim of this work is to provide an insight on the effects of sewage sludge compost (SSC on soil properties, when this material is applied as basal dressing for the cultivation of a Mediterranean energy crop (Cynara cardunculus L.. A 3-years trial (2008/2011 was conducted in Alicante (Southeastern Spain, testing four SSC application rates (0, 30, 50 and 70 t/ha on a heavy textured Anthrosol. The addition of SSC enhanced soil fertility, primarily increasing organic carbon (Cox, Kjeldahl nitrogen (Nk, available P (PBurriel, CuDTPA and ZnDTPA levels. Comparatively with the control (0 t/ha, 30, 50 and 70 t/ha treatments induced a rise of 11%, 19% and 25% in Nk (Control=1.11 g/kg and PBurriel (Control=79 mg/kg, while for Cox (Control=11.8 g/kg was 14%, 21% and 30%. However, these variables apparently did not significantly decrease throughout the experiment, which suggests that the organic matter added was under a stabilization process, favoured by the poor physical properties of the soil. Other elements (NaNH4Ac, KNH4Ac, MnDTPA were accumulated within the soil as time passed by, as a result of soil status, Mediterranean environmental conditions and crop management. The use of SSC as organic fertilizer represents an effective option to optimize cynara cultivation systems while improving soil quality through enhanced long-lasting organic matter pools.

  15. Sewage sludge use in bioenergy production. A case study of its effects on soil properties under Cynara cardunculus L. cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lag-Brotons, A.J.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2015-07-01

    Energy crops cultivation is expected to further increase, which represents an opportunity to establish synergies able to enhance key environmental components (i.e. soil). To reach this benefits crop management is crucial and should be properly assessed. The aim of this work is to provide an insight on the effects of sewage sludge compost (SSC) on soil properties, when this material is applied as basal dressing for the cultivation of a Mediterranean energy crop (Cynara cardunculus L.). A 3-years trial (2008/2011) was conducted in Alicante (Southeastern Spain), testing four SSC application rates (0, 30, 50 and 70 t/ha) on a heavy textured Anthrosol. The addition of SSC enhanced soil fertility, primarily increasing organic carbon (Cox), Kjeldahl nitrogen (Nk), available P (PBurriel), CuDTPA and ZnDTPA levels. Comparatively with the control (0 t/ha), 30, 50 and 70 t/ha treatments induced a rise of 11%, 19% and 25% in Nk (Control=1.11 g/kg) and PBurriel (Control=79 mg/kg), while for Cox (Control=11.8 g/kg) was 14%, 21% and 30%. However, these variables apparently did not significantly decrease throughout the experiment, which suggests that the organic matter added was under a stabilization process, favoured by the poor physical properties of the soil. Other elements (NaNH4Ac, KNH4Ac, MnDTPA) were accumulated within the soil as time passed by, as a result of soil status, Mediterranean environmental conditions and crop management. The use of SSC as organic fertilizer represents an effective option to optimize cynara cultivation systems while improving soil quality through enhanced long-lasting organic matter pools. (Author)

  16. Microbial activity promoted with organic carbon accumulation in macroaggregates of paddy soils under long-term rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalong; Wang, Ping; Ding, Yuanjun; Lu, Haifei; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Filley, Timothy; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Pan, Genxing

    2016-12-01

    While soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and stabilization has been increasingly the focus of ecosystem properties, how it could be linked to soil biological activity enhancement has been poorly assessed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected from a series of rice soils shifted from salt marshes for 0, 50, 100, 300 and 700 years from a coastal area of eastern China. Soil aggregates were fractioned into different sizes of coarse sand (200-2000 µm), fine sand (20-200 µm), silt (2-20 µm) and clay (Soil properties were determined to investigate niche specialization of different soil particle fractions in response to long-term rice cultivation, including recalcitrant and labile organic carbon, microbial diversity of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities, soil respiration and enzyme activity. The results showed that the mass proportion both of coarse-sand (2000-200 µm) and clay (clay fractions (20-25 g kg-1), but was depleted in silt fractions (˜ 10 g kg-1). The recalcitrant carbon pool was higher (33-40 % of SOC) in both coarse-sand and clay fractions than in fine-sand and silt fractions (20-29 % of SOC). However, the ratio of labile organic carbon (LOC) to SOC showed a weakly decreasing trend with decreasing size of aggregate fractions. Total soil DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) content in the size fractions followed a similar trend to that of SOC. Despite the largely similar diversity between the fractions, 16S ribosomal gene abundance of bacteria and of archaeal were concentrated in both coarse-sand and clay fractions. Being the highest generally in coarse-sand fractions, 18S rRNA gene abundance of fungi decreased sharply but the diversity gently, with decreasing size of the aggregate fractions. The soil respiration quotient (ratio of respired CO2-C to SOC) was the highest in the silt fraction, followed by the fine-sand fraction, but the lowest in coarse-sand and clay fractions in the rice soils cultivated over 100 years, whereas the microbial

  17. The investigation of the possibility for using some wild and cultivated plants as hyperaccumulators of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Miroslava; Antonijevic, Milan; Alagic, Sladjana

    2013-02-01

    The copper production in Bor (East Serbia) during the last 100 years presents an important source of the pollution of environment. Dust, waste waters, tailing, and air pollutants influence the quality of soil, water, and air. Over 2,000 ha of fertile soil have been damaged by the flotation tailing from Bor's facilities. The goal of the present work has been to determine the content of Pb, Cu, and Fe in wild plants (17 species) naturally growing in the damaged soil and in fodder crops (nine species) planted at the same place. The content of Pb, Cu, and Fe has been analyzed in damaged soil as well. This study has also searched for native (wild) and cultivated plants which are able to grow in contaminated soil in the area of the intense industrial activity of copper production in Bor, which means that they can accumulate and tolerate heavy metals in their above-ground tissues. It has been found out that the content of all metals in contaminated soil decreases considerably at the end of the experiment. As it has been expected, all plant species could accumulate investigated metals. All tested plants, both wild-growing and cultivated plants, seem to be quite healthy on the substrate which contained extremely high concentrations of copper.

  18. Microbialproperty improvement of saline-alkali soil for vegetable cultivation in Shanghai coastal area and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOU Yiming

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the fertility of saline-alkali soil in Shanghai coastal area,and make it suitable for vegetable cultiration,in the study,the saline-alkali soil was mixed with organic fertilizer,and then sprayed with composite microbes,which have the ability of the synergistically degrading organic substrate.The results showed that the saline-alkali soil added with 5∶1 organic fertilizer can rapidly increase the utilization ability soil organic matter.The soil microbial populations and microbial diversity index were significantly improved when applied with the 0.5% composite microbial liquid which containeds 1∶3∶3∶1 of Bacillus licheniformis,Pseudomonas sp., Flavobacterium sp.and Sphingomonas sp..At the same time,the enzymology indicators of soil urease,phosphatase,cellulase and catalase increased significantly.The vegetable cultivation experiments showed that:the biomass of Brassica chinensis nearly doubled in the original saline-alkali soil,while the yield of organic fertilizer increased 30.2% after 50 days.The research result on of the biological improvement for saline-alkali soil will have good application value in vegetable planting in coastal saline-alkali soil.

  19. The technology of layer-specific rotary soil cultivation for forest crops and equipment for its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlovskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of existing methods and technologies of soil processing for forest crops on establishment and growth of cultivated tree species was studied. It was found that furrow plough processing of soil can interfere with the cultivated trees’ ecological peculiarities, because the furrow floor, where trees are planted, often constitutes the lower part of the turf or the upper part of the ashen-gray layers having unfavorable water-physical conditions and decreased crop-producing power. Whenever conifer trees grow on the bottom of a furrow excavated in medium and heavy clay loam, their growth is significantly decreased and accompanied by remarkable changes in morphology. Processing of shallow humus thickness soil with multiple cutter results in mixing of A0, A1 and A2 (ashen-gray layers. Consequently, the processed horizon obtains a lower amount of fertile substances than the vegetable soil on non-processed places. An apparatus for graded soil tillage, its construction, working principle and usage technology are described. The major peculiarity of the device consists in the ability not to crumbl the soil, but to shake down vegetable earth cut by subsurface plow from beneath. The technology involves removing roots and grass outside cultivated land, so that it cannot be then overgrown with weeds. It was found that exploitation of the device improves soil pulverization quality, enhances percentage of separates less than 10 mm and 10–50 mm, decreases content of the separate larger than 50 mm, and reduced specific energy output almost three-fold. Vertical displacement of control particles while soil processing with common cutter machines and the suggested device was studied. Establishment and growth of Siberian pine was determined in experimental productive cultures at different planting technologies. It was shown that under the suggested technology, forest plants furrow sowing can be done while soil processing, so that making nurseries becomes

  20. Evaluation of Suppressiveness of Soils Exhibiting Soil-Borne Disease Suppression after Long-Term Application of Organic Amendments by the Co-cultivation Method of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and Indigenous Soil Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2018-03-29

    Preventive measures against soil-borne diseases need to be implemented before cultivation because very few countermeasures are available after the development of diseases. Some soils suppress soil-borne diseases despite the presence of a high population density of pathogens. If the suppressiveness of soil against soil-borne diseases may be predicted and diagnosed for crop fields, it may be possible to reduce the labor and cost associated with excessive disinfection practices. We herein evaluated the suppressiveness of soils in fields with the long-term application of organic amendments by examining the growth of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum co-cultivated with indigenous soil microorganisms on agar plates. Soils treated with coffee residue compost or rapeseed meal showed suppressiveness against spinach wilt disease by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or spinach wilt and lettuce root rot diseases by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae and F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, respectively, and the growth of pathogenic Fusarium spp. on agar plates was suppressed when co-cultured with microorganisms in a suspension from these soils before crop cultivation. These results indicate the potential of the growth degree of pathogenic F. oxysporum estimated by this method as a diagnostic indicator of the suppressiveness of soil associated with the inhabiting microorganisms. A correlation was found between the incidence of spinach wilt disease in spinach and the growth degree of F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae by this co-cultivation method, indicating that suppressiveness induced by organic amendment applications against F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae is evaluable by this method. The co-cultivation method may be useful for predicting and diagnosing suppressiveness against soil-borne diseases.

  1. Influence of plant genotype on the cultivable fungi associated to tomato rhizosphere and roots in different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Anna; Lazzari, Alexandra; Prigione, Valeria; Voyron, Samuele; Spadaro, Davide; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere and root-associated microbiota are crucial in determining plant health and in increasing productivity of agricultural crops. To date, research has mainly focused on the bacterial dimension of the microbiota. However, interest in the mycobiota is increasing, since fungi play a key role in soil ecosystems. We examined the effect of plant genotype, soil, and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) on the cultivable component of rhizosphere and root-associated mycobiota of tomato. Resistant and susceptible varieties were cultivated on two different soils (A and B), under glasshouse conditions. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological and molecular approaches. Differences were found between the rhizosphere and the roots, which in general displayed a lower number of species. The structure of the mycobiota was significantly affected by the soil type in the rhizosphere as well as by the plant genotype within the roots (NPERMANOVA, p fungi. Overall, the results indicated that i) soil type and plant genotype affect the fungal communities; ii) plant roots select few species from the rhizosphere; and iii) the fungal community structure is influenced by Fol. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr, Ca, Mg, K and Na in crane's-bill plants cultivated on soil and hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analyan, V L; Sarkisyan, G A [AN Armyanskoj SSR, Erevan. Inst. Agrokhimicheskikh Problem i Gidroponiki

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in plants under the conditions of soil and hydroponic cultures from the viewpoint of the possibility of obtaining ''pure'' vegetable production has been studied. Predominant absorption of /sup 90/Sr by soil plants as compared with calcium is shown. In the course of using the hydroponic cultivation method predominant radiostrontium absorption has been manifested to all investigated nuclides including potassium. The accumulation coefficients analysis has shown that among soil plants the first place is occupied by potassium, while the /sup 90/Sr coefficients are greater than Ca on hydroponics, where the true, not distorted by soil sorption processes absorptive plant capacity has been manifested, the first places in the series are occupied by /sup 90/Sr and K, then come Ca and Mg.

  3. Transfer mechanisms in cultivated soils of waste radionuclides from electronuclear power plants in the system river--irrigated soil--underground water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, A; Grauby, A

    1974-12-31

    From symposinm on environmentl behavior of radionuclides released in the nuclear industry; Aix-en-Provence, France (14 May 1973). The location of nuclear power plants by rivers whose waters are used for irrigation and industrial and domestic consumption necessities a profound study of the river-irrigated soil- ground water system. Mechanisms of radionuclide transport in cultivated soil are considered under three principal aspects: the effect of the quality of the river water, of the irrigation channels, and of the ground water level on the mobility of the radionuclides in the soil; the influence of the type of soil (the four types of soils considered are acid brown soil, calcic brown soil, chalky brown soil, and chalky alluvial soil); and the distribution of radionuclides in the soil (hydrosoluble forms can contminate the ground water level and these are the forms in which they are taken up by plants. A study was made on the following nuclides: /sup 22/Na, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /Sup 54/Mn, /Sup 59/Fe, /Sup 60/ Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 141 in the cultivated soils permit the evaluation of the risks of contmination of the food chain and of the underground water. This study also showed new perspectives of the behavior of radionuclides as a function of their contmination of the organo-mineral wastes of industrial and domestic origin. This pollution interfers largely with the formation of stble complexes carried by the river to irrigated soils. The quality of the water determines the distribution of the radionuclides in the profile. The hydrosoluble complex persists in the soil and migrates toward the underground water level if they are not biodegradable. The stability of these forms as a function of the soil pH and of its physicochemical characteristics, as well as that of the radionuclides considered, permit the formulation of a new balance of the radionuclides in soils. The formulation of new proposals for the contml of nuclear sites is discussed. (tr-auth)

  4. Reduction of soil erosion and mercury losses in agroforestry systems compared to forests and cultivated fields in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Paquet, Serge; Mertens, Frédéric; Passos, Carlos J; Romana, Christine A

    2017-12-01

    In addition to causing physical degradation and nutrient depletion, erosion of cultivated soils in the Amazon affects aquatic ecosystems through the release of natural soil mercury (Hg) towards lakes and rivers. While traditional agriculture is generally cited as being among the main causes of soil erosion, agroforestry practices are increasingly appreciated for soil conservation. This study was carried out in family farms of the rural Tapajós region (Brazil) and aimed at evaluating soil erosion and associated Hg release for three land uses. Soils, runoff water and eroded sediments were collected at three sites representing a land cover gradient: a recently burnt short-cycle cropping system (SCC), a 2-year-old agroforestry system (AFS) and a mature forest (F). At each site, two PVC soil erosion plots (each composed of three 2 × 5 m isolated subplots) were implemented on steep and moderate slopes respectively. Sampling was done after each of the 20 rain events that occurred during a 1-month study period, in the peak of the 2011 rain season. Runoff volume and rate, as well as eroded soil particles with their Hg and cation concentrations were determined. Total Hg and cation losses were then calculated for each subplot. Erosion processes were dominated by land use type over rainfall or soil slope. Eroded soil particles, as well as the amount of Hg and cations (CaMgK) mobilized at the AFS site were similar to those at the F site, but significantly lower than those at the SCC site (p agroforestry systems, even in their early stages of implementation, are characterized by low erosion levels resembling those of local forest environments, thus contributing to the maintenance of soil integrity and to the reduction of Hg and nutrient mobility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Carbon (C sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT. The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea.

  6. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoo, Gayoung

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR) and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT). The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea.

  7. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  8. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  9. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest. Increases in soil bulk density, exchangeable cations and pH were observed in the soy field soil. In the primary forest, soil microbial biomass and basal respiration rates were higher, and the microbial community was metabolically more efficient. The sum of basal respiration across the A, AB and BA horizons on a mass per area basis ranged from 7.31 to 10.05 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1, thus yielding estimates for total soil respiration between 9.6 and 15.5 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1 across sites and seasons. These estimates are in good agreement with literature values for Amazonian ecosystems. The estimates of heterotrophic respiration made in this study help to further constrain the estimates of autotrophic soil respiration and will be useful for monitoring the effects of future land-use in Amazonian ecosystems.

  10. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  11. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meyer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic...... in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content...... of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of gamma...

  12. Relationships between soil parameters and physiological status of Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on soil contaminated with trace elements under NPK fertilisation vs. microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Sitko, Krzysztof; Krzyżak, Jacek; Skalska, Aleksandra; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Ciszek, Dorota; Werle, Sebastian; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Mos, Michal; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2017-06-01

    Crop growth and development can be influenced by a range of parameters, soil health, cultivation and nutrient status all play a major role. Nutrient status of plants can be enhanced both through chemical fertiliser additions (e.g. N, P, K supplementation) or microbial fixation and mobilisation of naturally occurring nutrients. With current EU priorities discouraging the production of biomass on high quality soils there is a need to investigate the potential of more marginal soils to produce these feedstocks and the impacts of soil amendments on crop yields within them. This study investigated the potential for Miscanthus x giganteus to be grown in trace element (TE)-contaminated soils, ideally offering a mechanism to (phyto)manage these contaminated lands. Comprehensive surveys are needed to understand plant-soil interactions under these conditions. Here we studied the impacts of two fertiliser treatments on soil physico-chemical properties under Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on Pb, Cd and Zn contaminated arable land. Results covered a range of parameters, including soil rhizosphere activity, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM), as well as plant physiological parameters associated with photosynthesis, TE leaf concentrations and growth performance. Fertilization increased growth and gas exchange capacity, enhanced rhizosphere microbial activity and increased Zn, Mg and N leaf concentration. Fertilization reduced root colonisation by AMF and caused higher chlorophyll concentration in plant leaves. Microbial inoculation seems to be a promising alternative for chemical fertilizers, especially due to an insignificant influence on the mobility of toxic trace elements (particularly Cd and Zn). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancing the fertility of an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using lime in combination with bio-organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhana, A.; Shamshuddin, J.; Fauziah, C.I.; Panhwar, Q.A.

    2017-01-01

    The acid sulfate soils contain pyrite (FeS/sub 2/) which is due to oxidation results in the production of high amount of acidity, aluminum and iron significantly affecting rice growth. A glasshouse study was arranged to determine the effect of ground magnesium limestone (GML) in combination with bio-organic fertilizer (JITUTM) application on the chemical properties of soils and rice yield. Three rice seedlings were transplanted in pots which were previously amended with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 t/ha GML with or without bio-organic fertilizer. The common rice varieties (MR 219 and MR 253) were cultivated for two seasons in the same pots. The critical Fe2+ and Al3+ activities for MR 219 were 14.45 and 4.23 mu M, while for MR 253 were 7.45 and 5.53 mu M, respectively. However, without applying the amendments, rice grown on the soils was affected severely by the high acidity (Fe2+ and Al3+ toxicity). The soil pH increased to 5 and the higher grain yield of MR 219 (99.77 and 121.38 g/pot) and MR253 (98.63 and 112.60 g/pot) was in first and second season with the application of 2 t GML application combined with 0.25 t JITUTM/ha respectively. In addition, 1000 grain weight, number of panicle, number of spikelets panicle-1 and the percentage of filled spikelet, were also higher than without the soil amendments. Hence, the infertility of acid sulfate soils for sustainable rice cultivation in Malaysia can be improved by applying 2 t GML/ha combined with 0.25 t JITUTM/ha for two seasons in long run. (author)

  14. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controlled [correction of controled] environment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A A; Ushakova, S A; Gribovskaya, I A; Tirranen, L S; Manukovsky, N S; Zolotukhin, I G; Karnachuk, R A; Gros, J B; Lasseur, Ch

    2003-01-01

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. Light intensity of 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m2) as compared to 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  15. High genetic diversity among and within bitter manioc varieties cultivated in different soil types in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols. We tested this hypothesis evaluating the intra-varietal genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among manioc varieties commonly cultivated in Oxisols, ADE and floodplain soils. Genetic results did not agree with ethnobotanical expectation, since the relationships between varieties were variable and most individuals of varieties with the same vernacular name, but grown in ADE and floodplain, were distinct. Although the same vernacular name could not always be associated with genetic similarities, there is still a great amount of variation among the varieties. Many ecological and genetic processes may explain the high genetic diversity and differentiation found for bitter manioc varieties, but all contribute to the maintenance and amplification of genetic diversity within the manioc in Central Amazonia.

  16. Contamination and health risks from heavy metals in cultivated soil in Zhangjiakou City of Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Xue, Zhan-Jun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhi-Mei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Shu-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A total of 79 topsoil samples (ranging from 0 to 20 cm in depth) were collected from a grape cultivation area of Zhangjiakou City, China. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil samples were determined to evaluate pollution levels and associated health risks in each sample. Pollution levels were calculated using enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo). Health risks for adults and children were quantified using hazard indexes (HI) and aggregate carcinogenic risks (ACR). The mean concentrations of measured heavy metals Cd, Hg, and Cu, only in the grape cultivation soil samples, were higher than the background values of heavy metals in Hebei Province. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the anthropogenic activities related to agronomic and fossil fuel combustion practices attributed to higher accumulations of Cd, Hg, and Cu, which have slightly polluted about 10-40% of the sampled soils. However, the HI for all of the heavy metals were lower than 1 (within safe limits), and the ACR of As was in the 10(-6)-10(-4) range (a tolerable level). This suggests the absence of both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks for adults and children through oral ingestion and dermal absorption exposure pathways in the studied area. It should be also noted that the heightened vulnerability of children to health risks was accounted for higher HI and ACR values. Consequently, heavy metal concentrations (e.g., Cd, Hg, Cu) should be periodically monitored in these soils and improved soil management practices are required to minimize possible impacts on children's health.

  17. Accumulation of steroid hormones in soil and its adjacent aquatic environment from a typical intensive vegetable cultivation of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Song; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Xue-Wen; Wang, Dai-Yi; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Nie, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-12-15

    Steroid hormones released from manure agricultural application are a matter of global concern. The residual levels of steroid hormones were studied in a typical intensive vegetable cultivation area in northeast China, with a long history of heavy manure application. Seven steroids (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, testosterone, androstendione and progesterone) were analyzed from soil sampled from vegetable greenhouses, from sediments and water from the adjacent drainage ditch and from the groundwater. The results showed that target steroids were detected in the soil samples, with detection frequencies varying from 3.13 to 100%. The steroid concentrations varied substantially in soils, ranging from below the detection limit to 109.7μg·kg(-1). Three steroids-progesterone, androstendione and estrone-were found to have relatively high residue concentrations in soil, with maximum concentrations of 109.7, 9.83 and 13.30μg·kg(-1), respectively. In adjacent groundwater, all the steroids, with the exception of estrone, were detected in one or more of the 13 groundwater samples. The concentrations of steroids in groundwater ranged from below the method detection limit to 2.38ng·L(-1). Six of the seven (excluding androstendione) were detected in drainage ditch water samples, with concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 14ng·L(-1). Progesterone, androstendione and estrone accumulated relatively easily in soils; their concentrations in groundwater were lower than those of other steroids. The concentrations of testosterone and estriol were relatively low in soil, while in groundwater were higher than those of other steroids. The residual levels of steroids in soil and groundwater showed a clear spatial variation in the study area. The residual levels of steroid hormones in soil varied substantially between differently planted greenhouses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Use of Neutron Probe to Quantify the Soil Moisture Flux in Layers of Cultivated Soil by Chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Gendy, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims to use the neutron moisture meter and the soil moisture retention curve to quantify the soil moisture flux in the soil profile of Nubarria soil in Egypt at 15, 30, 45, and 60-cm depths during the growth season of Chickpea. This method depends on the use of in situ θ measurements via neutron moisture meter and soil matric suction using model of the soil moisture retention curve at different soil depths, which can be determined in situ. Total hydraulic potential values at the different soil depths were calculated as a function (θ) using the derivative model. The gradient of hydraulic potential at any soil depth can be obtained by detecting of the hydraulic potential within the soil profile. The soil water fluxes at the different soil depths were calculated using In situ measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and the gradient of hydraulic potential, which correlated with soil moisture contents as measured by neutron probe. Values of hydraulic potentials after and before irrigation indicate that the direction of soil moisture movement was downward after irrigation and was different before next irrigation. Collecting active roots for water absorption of chickpea were defined from direction of soil water movement from up and down to a certain soil depth was 19 cm depth from the soil surface. Active rooting depth was 53 cm depth, which separates between evapotranspiration and gravity effects The soil water fluxes after and before the next irrigation of chickpea were 1.2453, 0.8613, 0.8197 and 0.6588 cm/hr and 0.0037, - 0.0270,- 0.1341, and 0.2545 cm/hr at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths, respectively. The negative values at 30 and 45 cm depth before the next irrigation indicates there were up ward movement for soil water flux, where finding collecting active roots for water absorption of chickpea at 19 cm depth. Direction of soil water movement, soil water flux, collecting active roots for water absorption and active rooting depth can be determined using

  19. Application of the 137Cs determination to evaluate the erosion rates in cultivated soils in the west part of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Castillo, Reinaldo; Peralta Vital, Jose Luis; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge; Riverol Rosquet, Mario; Penna Valenti, Fermin; Cabrera Calcedo, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows the experience in the application of 137Cs technique to estimate the erosion rates in cultivated soils (Ultisol) in the west part of the country, and the validation of the technique results by comparison against the results from traditional methods (watershed segments). The proportional, the simplified balance of mass and the balance of mass models were used to calculate the erosion rates, for three segments. In the evaluated area, have been obtained erosion rates from 3.5 to 7.1 t/ha/y for the segment I, from 5.17 to 10.3 t/ha/y for the segment III and from 2.3 to 17 t/ha/y for the segment IX. The conclusions are, the 137Cs technique is reliable for the estimation of erosion rates in the evaluated soil and the mass balance model obtained the nearest values to the estimated by watershed segments

  20. A comparison using the caesium-137 technique of the relative importance of cultivation and overland flow on soil erosion in a steep semi-tropical sub-catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiranatha, A.S.; Rose, C.W.; Salama, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The spatial pattern of net soil loss on 6 downslope transects in a small semi-tropical sub-catchment was measured in 1990-91 using the resident caesium-137 deficit technique. The sub-catchment consisted of 2 opposing hillslopes which shed water to an intermittent stream in the valley bottom of the sub-catchment. There were 3 transects on each of the opposing hillslopes, and measurement indicated net soil loss from all 6 transects. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of caesium- 37 deficit did not indicate the accumulation of soil expected due to the slope decrease toward the bottom of the valley. Possible explanations of this finding could be the effect of periodic flooding of the intermittent valley stream, or seepage-accelerated erosion. Pineapple cultivation in the sub-catchment since 1950 included intensive cultivation at 4-year intervals by downslope-moving rotary hoe. The paper develops a theoretical prediction of the spatial pattern of net soil loss expected due to such cultivation, as well as the expected pattern of soil loss due to overland flow on the hillslopes. The spatial patterns of soil loss due to these 2 different soil erosion mechanisms were then compared with the pattern of net soil loss indicated by caesium- 137 depletion to provide an assessment of their likely relative importance in contributing to soil loss. In the upper part of each hillslope, this comparison of spatial trends did not allow the dominant cause of soil erosion to be distinguished. Both the model of erosion due to cultivation and that due to hillside overland flow predicted soil accumulation in the lower valley sides where slope decreased. Neither model represented the net loss of such accumulated soil indicated by caesium- 137 deficit, and this loss possibly occurred during periodically observed flooding of the valley floor, or due to surface burial with caesium-137 depleted subsoil. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

  1. Hydraulic conductivity in sugar cane cultivated in soils previous vin aza application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musso, M.; Pereira, S.; Fajardo, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work analyzes the hydraulic conductivity in soil clay loams developed in Libertad formation in Bella Union where grows sugar cane with vinaza. In the agricultural activities are used different chemical additives such as organic and inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, which interact with the biotic (roots, soil microbiology) and abiotic (clay, soil solution, etc.) elements

  2. The Study of Soil Protection in the System of the Cultivated Lands of Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovchenko, M. A.; Konstantinova, O. B.; Kosolapova, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The heavy metal content in the surface soils is characterized with their ingress for the given period of time. The sources of heavy metals in the soil are precipitation, seeds, dust, organic and mineral fertilizers, and others. The paper studies the heavy metal content in the soils of the waste dumps of the open-pit coal mines.

  3. DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE IN RIVERS AND STREAMS AND ON CULTIVATED SOILS OF THE PODKARPACIE REGION IN THE YEARS 2007–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Noga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms Bacillariophyceae are a specialized, systematic group of algae, living in different types of ecosystems, and they are very good indicators of water quality. Recently, detailed studies have been carried out in the territory of the Podkarpacie Province on the diversity of diatoms in running waters. The area of study covers mostly the catchment of the biggest rivers of the province (mainly the River Wisłok and cultivated soils. Running waters in the Podkarpacie Province are characterized by a huge species richness of diatoms, 738 different taxa have been found so far. The highest number of taxa was noted in the Wisłok River (400, while the Żołynianka and Różanka streams and the Mleczka were also characterized by huge diversity (from 200 to over 350 taxa. In the majority of studied sites diatoms of alkaline (pH>7 and nutrient rich (eutrophic waters dominated: Navicula lanceolata, N. gregaria, N. capitatoradiata, Nitzschia palea, N. dissipata ssp. dissipata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, A. pyrenaicum, Amphora pediculus, Diatoma vulgaris, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis pediculus and C. placentula var. lineata. About 150 taxa were indentified on cultivated soils, among which the largest populations were formed by Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Nitzschia palea, N. pusilla, Pinnularia obscura and Stauroneis thermicola.

  4. Water Use Efficiency in Saline Soils under Cotton Cultivation in the Tarim River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tarim River Basin, the largest area of Chinese cotton production, is receiving increased attention because of serious environmental problems. At two experimental stations (Korla and Aksu, we studied the influence of salinity on cotton yield. Soil chemical and physical properties, soil water content, soil total suction and matric suction, cotton yield and water use efficiency under plastic mulched drip irrigation in different saline soils was measured during cotton growth season. The salinity (mS·cm−1 were 17–25 (low at Aksu and Korla, 29–50 (middle at Aksu and 52–62 (high at Aksu for ECe (Electrical conductivity measured in saturation-paste extract of soil over the 100 cm soil profile. The soil water characteristic curves in different saline soils showed that the soil water content (15%–23% at top 40 cm soil, lower total suction power (below 3500 kPa and lower matric suction (below 30 kPa in low saline soil at Korla had the highest water use efficiency (10 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest irrigation water use efficiency (12 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest yield (6.64 t·ha−1. Higher water content below 30 cm in high saline soil increased the salinity risk and led to lower yield (2.39 t·ha−1. Compared to low saline soils at Aksu, the low saline soil at Korla saved 110 mm irrigation and 103 mm total water to reach 1 t·ha−1 yield and increased water use efficiency by 5 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and 7 kg·ha−1·mm−1 for water use efficiency (WUE and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE respectively.

  5. Extensive cultivation of soil and water samples yields various pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis but not Burkholderia multivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Charlotte; Depoorter, Eliza; Praet, Jessy; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-11-01

    While the epidemiology of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suggests that Burkholderia multivorans is acquired from environmental sources, this species has rarely been isolated from soil and water samples. Multiple isolation strategies were applied to water and soil samples that were previously shown to be B. multivorans PCR positive. These included direct plating and liquid enrichment procedures and the use of selective media, acclimatizing recovery and co-cultivation with CF sputum. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes were used to identify all isolates. None of the approaches yielded B. multivorans isolates. Other Burkholderia species, several Gram-negative non-fermenting bacteria (including Cupriavidus, Inquilinus, Pandoraea, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (including Mycobacterium chelonae) were all isolated from water and soil samples. The use of Bcc isolation media yielded a surprisingly wide array of rare but often clinically relevant CF pathogens, confirming that soil and water are reservoirs of these infectious agents. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil management and application of agricultural gypsum in a Planosol for soybean cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesan, Enio; Tonetto, Felipe; Teló, Gustavo Mack; Coelho, Lucas Lopes; Aramburu, Bruno Behenck; Trivisiol, Vinicius Severo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of soil management systems, tillage, and application of gypsum agricultural to soil, on soybean development in lowland areas. The experiment was carried out on an Alfisol in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement. The two soil tillage practices were without deep tillage and with deep tillage. Gypsum treatments were no gypsum application, 500kg of gypsum ha-1, 1000kg of gypsum ha-1, and 1500kg of gypsum ha-1. Deep tillage res...

  7. Mitigating Soil Moisture Evaporation via Organic Mulch Application in Cultivated Agricultural Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahbi, Ammar; Avery, William A.; Dercon, Gerd; Heng, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Soil evaporation constitutes one of the most significant sources of water loss from agricultural soils around the world, particularly in arid regions. Changing climate and precipitation patterns combined with population growth will drive a need to reduce soil water evaporation for better water resource management. This work represents a preliminary effort to develop simple tools for determining the fate of crop residues, or mulch, when applied to an agricultural field, over the course of a growing season

  8. Determination of some micro and macro element's concentrations in cotton-cultivated and fallow soils in the rural area of Damascus using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khalifa, K.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Samel, N.

    2003-12-01

    This study was conducted in the rural area of Damascus in the region where cotton is frequently planted. The aim of the study is to determine the concentration of some trace elements and other important elements for soil such as (Fe, Ca, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). In order to demonstrate the depletion of such elements by absorption in cotton, results are compared between cultivated soils already planted by cotton and others which is considered fallow soil. Results, for four regions under investigation, showed that concentration of most elements in fallow soil is higher than that cultivated by cotton. However, concentration of some elements were close in two different soil samples in each region. on the other side , concentration of some elements were higher in cultivated soil by cotton compared to the one fallow soil. The study has shown that a decrease in the concentration of some elements are noticeable as the location of region is directed towards north-east. Results reveal a clear absorption phenomena of some elements by cotton when compared to fallow soil. It is important to consider the presented results as a first indicator which needs more studies to confirm its results in other regions being planted by cotton in Syria. (author)

  9. Determination of some micro and macro element concentrations in cotton-cultivated and fallow soils in the rural area of Damascus using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Samel, N.; Khalifa, K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in the rural area of Damascus in the region where cotton is frequently planted. The aim of the study is to determine the concentration of some trace elements and other important elements for soil such as (Fe, Ca, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). In order to demonstrate the depletion of such elements by absorption in cotton, results are compared with cultivated soils already planted by cotton and others which are considered Fallow soil. Results, for four regions under investigation, showed that concentration of most elements in fallow soil is higher than that cultivated by cotton. However, concentration of some elements were close in two different soil samples in each region. On the other side, concentration of some elements was higher in soil cultivated by cotton compared with the fallow soil. The study has shown that a decrease in the concentration of some elements in the location of region is directed towards northeast. Result reveal a clear absorption phenomena of some elements by cotton when compared with fallow soil. It is important to consider the presented result as a first indicator which needs more studies to confirm its results in other region planted by cotton in Syria. (author)

  10. Analysis of Selected Environmental Indicators in the Cultivation System of Energy Crops

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    Šoltysová Božena Š

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of selected chemical parameters were observed in Gleyic Fluvisols. The field experiment was established as a twofactor experiment with four energy crops (Arundo donax L., Miscanthus × giganteus, Elymus elongatus Gaertner, Sida hermafrodita and two variants of fertilization (nitrogen fertilization in rate 60 kg ha-1, without nitrogen fertilization. Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0 to 0.3 m at the beginning of the experiment in the autumn 2012 and at the end of reference period in the autumn 2015. Land management conversion from market crops to perennial energy crops cultivation has influenced changes of selected soil chemical parameters. The contents of soil organic carbon were affected by cultivated energy crops differently. It was found out that Arundo increased the organic carbon content and Miscanthus, Elymus and Sida decreased its content. At the same time, the same impact of the crops on content of available phosphorus and potassium and soil reaction was found. It was recorded that each cultivated crop decreased the soil reaction and available phosphorus content and increased the content of available potassium.

  11. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  12. Fungal Genetics and Functional Diversity of Microbial Communities in the Soil under Long-Term Monoculture of Maize Using Different Cultivation Techniques

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    Anna Gałązka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity in the soil may be limited under natural conditions by inappropriate environmental factors such as: nutrient resources, biotic and abiotic factors, tillage system and microbial interactions that prevent the occurrence or survival of the species in the environment. The aim of this paper was to determine fungal genetic diversity and community level physiological profiling of microbial communities in the soil under long-term maize monoculture. The experimental scheme involved four cultivation techniques: direct sowing (DS, reduced tillage (RT, full tillage (FT, and crop rotation (CR. Soil samples were taken in two stages: before sowing of maize (DSBS-direct sowing, RTBS-reduced tillage, FTBS-full tillage, CRBS-crop rotation and the flowering stage of maize growth (DSF-direct sowing, RTF-reduced tillage, FTF-full tillage, CRF-crop rotation. The following plants were used in the crop rotation: spring barley, winter wheat and maize. The study included fungal genetic diversity assessment by ITS-1 next generation sequencing (NGS analyses as well as the characterization of the catabolic potential of microbial communities (Biolog EcoPlates in the soil under long-term monoculture of maize using different cultivation techniques. The results obtained from the ITS-1 NGS technique enabled to classify and correlate the fungi species or genus to the soil metabolome. The research methods used in this paper have contributed to a better understanding of genetic diversity and composition of the population of fungi in the soil under the influence of the changes that have occurred in the soil under long-term maize cultivation. In all cultivation techniques, the season had a great influence on the fungal genetic structure in the soil. Significant differences were found on the family level (P = 0.032, F = 3.895, genus level (P = 0.026, F = 3.313 and on the species level (P = 0.033, F = 2.718. This study has shown that: (1 fungal diversity was changed

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Valdez, F.; Fernández-Luqueño, F.; Luna-Suárez, S.; Dendooven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO 2 and N 2 O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N 2 O emissions but not CO 2 emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  15. A Comparative Study of the Soil Fauna in forests and cultivated land on sandy soils in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, van der J.

    1963-01-01

    1. In the coastal area of Suriname the soil and surface fauna were studied in various types of agricultural land, and compared with the fauna in the adjacent forests. 2. In primeval forest the soil macroarthropods are less numerous than in secondary forest (Formicidae excluded). They range generally

  16. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different responses to the high concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. Rice plants accumulated higher Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations and were more sensitive to high concentrations of these elements in the soil, absorbing them more easily compared to the soybean plants. However, high available Zn concentrations in the soil caused phytotoxicity symptoms in rice and soybean, mainly chlorosis and inhibited plant growth. Further, high Zn concentrations in the soil reduced the Fe concentration in the shoots of soybean and rice plants to levels considered deficient.

  17. Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann

    2014-01-01

    The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl 2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. - Highlights: • Earthworm bioturbation increases phytoavailability of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. • Earthworm activity influences soil structure and increases pH. • Plant metal uptake was not correlated with CaCl 2 , EDTA estimated phytoavailability. • Increased metal phytoavailability with bioturbation could increase human exposure. - Earthworm activities can increase metal phytoavailability and subsequent human exposure to metals in consumed vegetables

  18. Diversity of cultivated aerobic poly-hydrolytic bacteria in saline alkaline soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Kolganova, Tatiana V.; Khijniak, Tatiana V.; Jones, Brian E.; Kublanov, Ilya V.

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline saline soils, known also as ''soda solonchaks'', represent a natural soda habitat which differs from soda lake sediments by higher aeration and lower humidity. The microbiology of soda soils, in contrast to the more intensively studied soda lakes, remains poorly explored. In this work we

  19. Urban cultivation in allotments maintains soil qualities adversely affected by conventional agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-08-01

    Modern agriculture, in seeking to maximize yields to meet growing global food demand, has caused loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and compaction, impairing critical regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which humans also depend. Own-growing makes an important contribution to food security in urban areas globally, but its effects on soil qualities that underpin ecosystem service provision are currently unknown. We compared the main indicators of soil quality; SOC storage, total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and bulk density (BD) in urban allotments to soils from the surrounding agricultural region, and between the allotments and other urban greenspaces in a typical UK city. A questionnaire was used to investigate allotment management practices that influence soil properties. Allotment soils had 32% higher SOC concentrations and 36% higher C : N ratios than pastures and arable fields and 25% higher TN and 10% lower BD than arable soils. There was no significant difference between SOC concentration in allotments and urban non-domestic greenspaces, but it was higher in domestic gardens beneath woody vegetation. Allotment soil C : N ratio exceeded that in non-domestic greenspaces, but was lower than that in garden soil. Three-quarters of surveyed allotment plot holders added manure, 95% composted biomass on-site, and many added organic-based fertilizers and commercial composts. This may explain the maintenance of SOC, C : N ratios, TN and low BD, which are positively associated with soil functioning. Synthesis and applications . Maintenance and protection of the quality of our soil resource is essential for sustainable food production and for regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which we depend. Our study establishes, for the first time, that small-scale urban food production can occur without the penalty of soil degradation seen in conventional agriculture, and maintains the high soil quality seen in urban greenspaces. Given the

  20. RSM Outlook Autumn 2005 : Branding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kemp (Gail); R. Morris (Rebecca)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Contents The inaugural issue of RSM Outlook from autumn 2005 includes the opening of the new T-building, and how RSM celebrated its 35th birthday with a wine-tasting session. There are also articles on Professor Cees van Riel and reputation management, the re-branding of the

  1. Soil-Water Storage Predictions for Cultivated Crops on the Záhorská Lowlands

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    Jarabicová Miroslava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of climate change on the soil-water regime of the Záhorská lowlands. The consequences of climate change on soil-water storage were analyzed for two crops: spring barley and maize. We analyzed the consequences of climate change on soil-water storage for two crops: spring barley and maize. The soil-water storage was simulated with the GLOBAL mathematical model. The data entered into the model as upper boundary conditions were established by the SRES A2 and SRES B1 climate scenarios and the KNMI regional climate model for the years from 2071 to 2100 (in the text called the time horizon 2085 which is in the middle this period. For the reference period the data from the years 1961-1990 was used. The results of this paper predict soil-water storage until the end of this century for the crops evaluated, as well as a comparison of the soil-water storage predictions with the course of the soil-water storage during the reference period.

  2. Heavy metal dynamics in the soil-leaf-fruit system under intensive apple cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtić Senad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems confronting agricultural production is heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils, which imposes considerable limitations on productivity and leads to great consumer health and safety concerns about the products obtained on these soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal dynamics in the soil-leaf-fruit system in an intensive apple cv. 'Idared' planting located in the Municipality of Goražde. Heavy metal contents in the soil samples and plant material were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu 7000 AA device, according to the instructions specified in the ISO 11047 method. The dynamics of the heavy metals analyzed, excepting zinc, in the soil-leaf-fruit system was characterized by relatively high total levels of heavy metals in the soil and a very low degree of their accumulation in the leaves and in particular the fruits. No fruit sample was found to have toxic levels of any of the heavy metals analyzed. In terms of soil contamination, this suggests the suitability of the study location for safe apple fruit production.

  3. Effect of rice husk biochar application to soil insect diversity on potato cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilin, A.; Rubiana, R.

    2018-02-01

    High intensity of disease infection and the intensive use of fertilizers and pesticidescause saturated fertilizer and pesticide to the land. Remediation using biochar rice husk is one of the technology to decrease fertilizer and pesticide residue. The diversity of soil insects can be used as bioindicators because of their existence dependsg on soil structure and condition. This study was aimed to study the diversity and structure communities of soil insect in potatoes on difference husk rice biochar application. The sampling of soil insects was done on potato farmer’s land with four treatments i.e control (farmers’ technique), trichokompos without biochar, trichokompos + biochar with dose 1 ton/ha, and trichokompos + biochar with dose 2 ton / ha. At each point a single pitfall trap was installed for two nights and then it was taken for identification. The results showed that biochar application had significant effect on the number of soil insect species (P = 0.037). The soil insect species composition pattern also showed significant differences between the four treatments (R: 0.2306, Pvalue = 0.001). This mean that the application of biochar affects the number of insects species and plays a role in the formation of soil insect diversity beta patterns.

  4. Runoff losses of sediment and phosphorus from no-till and cultivated soils receiving dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbree, David A; Duiker, Sjoerd W; Kleinman, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    Managing manure in no-till systems is a water quality concern because surface application of manure can enrich runoff with dissolved phosphorus (P), and incorporation by tillage increases particulate P loss. This study compared runoff from well-drained and somewhat poorly drained soils under corn (Zea mays, L.) production that had been in no-till for more than 10 yr. Dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure was broadcast into a fall planted cover crop before no-till corn planting or incorporated by chisel/disk tillage in the absence of a cover crop. Rainfall simulations (60 mm h(-1)) were performed after planting, mid-season, and post-harvest in 2007 and 2008. In both years and on both soils, no-till yielded significantly less sediment than did chisel/disking. Relative effects of tillage on runoff and P loss differed with soil. On the well-drained soil, runoff depths from no-till were much lower than with chisel/disking, producing significantly lower total P loads (22-50% less). On the somewhat poorly drained soil, there was little to no reduction in runoff depth with no-till, and total P loads were significantly greater than with chisel/disking (40-47% greater). Particulate P losses outweighed dissolved P losses as the major concern on the well-drained soil, whereas dissolved P from surface applied manure was more important on the somewhat poorly drained soil. This study confirms the benefit of no-till to erosion and total P runoff control on well-drained soils but highlights trade-offs in no-till management on somewhat poorly drained soils where the absence of manure incorporation can exacerbate total P losses.

  5. Effect of two organic fertilizers on food webs of soil cultivated with blackberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Orozco Aceves

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertilization with organic fertilizers comprises a practice that improves the soil biological properties; however, the effect of these on the soil food web (SFW has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two commercial organic fertilizers on the structure of the SFW associated with roots of blackberry plants (Rubus adenotrichos. The research was conducted in two blackberry plantations located one in San Martín de León Cortés, and the other one in Buena Vista de Pérez Zeledón in San José, Costa Rica, from August to December, 2010. In the two plantations, plants were fertilized with compost or vermicompost. The roots of blackberry plants surrounding soil were sampled in order to quantify groups of the SFW through the following techniques: bacteria and filamentous fungi by plate count, protozoa by the most probable number, spores from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nematodes by flotation-centrifugation, microarthropods, macroarthropods, and worms were directly counted in soil samples. The dataset was analyzed by multidimensional scaling analysis. The addition of organic fertilizers to soil caused a differential effect on the structure of the SFW (as compared with non-fertilized soils. The effect differed in soil from each of the experimental plantations according to fertilizer type. The groups of organisms mainly affected were actinomycetes and protozoa, which implies that the structure of SFW and consequently, the function of soil were not affected by the addition of organic fertilizers.

  6. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-04-03

    Cs accumulation characteristics by Sorghum bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50-1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW), and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system. The aerial parts of S. bicolor contributed to 86-92% of the total removed amounts of Cs from soil. Cs level in solution at 100 μmol/L gave the highest BCF and TF values of S. bicolor. Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. In soil, the plant grew well when Cs spiked level was 100 mg/kg soil, but was inhibited by Cs at 400 mg/kg soil with Cs content in sorghum reaching 1147 mg/kg (roots), 2473 mg/kg (stems), and 2939 mg/kg (leaves). In hydroponic system, average Cs level in sorghum reached 5270 mg/kg (roots) and 4513 mg/kg (aerial parts), without significant damages to its biomass at 30 days after starting Cs treatment. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium.

  7. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2015-06-15

    For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Home gardens (n=63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1+F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references. We recommend thorough washing of vegetables

  8. Yields and nutrient pools in soils cultivated with Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea in Nigerian rainforest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.J. Adekunle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the yield of the two most prominent exotic species in southwest Nigeria and the nutrient status of soils cultivated with these species. The impacts of plantation development on soil nutrients were also examined. The plantations species are Gmelina arborea (Gmelina stands established in 1984, 1988, 1990 and 1994 and Tectona grandis (Teak established in 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996 and 1997. Growth data and composite soil samples from 3 depths (0–15, 15–30 and 30–60 cm were collected from five equal sized plots (20 × 20 m2 randomly located in the plantation of the two species. Also, soil samples were collected from the adjacent natural forest for comparison. The results for both species show that tree growth variables increased substantially with increase in tree age. There was significant difference in number of trees per hectare, dominant diameter, volume/ha and MAI for the Gmelina stands. In the Teak stand, there was significant difference in most of the tree growth variables also. Nutrients required by plants to survive were present in the soil samples from the plantations and the natural forest in different proportions. There was high correlation between percentage sand and most of the tree growth variables for both species. The pH value obtained for the Gmelina stands ranged between 6.47 and 7.47 while that of Teak stands ranged between 5.57 and 8.33. There was also a high and positive relationship between some soil chemical properties and tree growth variables. The highest significant correlation coefficient existed between phosphorus concentration and basal area for stands of both species. The r-values are 0.98 and 0.96 for Gmelina and Teak, respectively. While a high, negative and significant r-value (−0.88 was also obtained between potassium and volume/ha for the Gmelina stands, a high positive r-value was obtained between the potassium and basal area for the Teak stands. Comparison of soil nutrients in the

  9. Barium and sodium in sunflower plants cultivated in soil treated with wastes of drilling of oil well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésus Sampaio Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of two types of oil drilling wastes on the development and absorption of barium (Ba and sodium (Na by sunflower plants. The waste materials were generated during the drilling of the 7-MGP-98D-BA oil well, located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: Control – without Ba application, comprising only its natural levels in the soil; Corrected control – with fertilization and without wastes; and the Ba doses of 300, 3000 and 6000 mg kg-1, which were equivalent to the applications of 16.6, 165.9 and 331.8 Mg ha-1 of waste from the dryer, and 2.6, 25.7 and 51.3 Mg ha-1 of waste from the centrifugal. Plants cultivated using the first dose of dryer waste and the second dose of centrifugal waste showed growth and dry matter accumulation equal to those of plants under ideal conditions of cultivation (corrected control. The highest doses of dryer and centrifugal wastes affected the development of the plants. The absorption of Ba by sunflower plants was not affected by the increase in the doses. Na proved to be the most critical element present in the residues, interfering with sunflower development.

  10. Influence of hydroponic and soil cultivation on quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L. Laterr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Foschia, Martina; Tomasi, Nicola; Maifreni, Michela; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Marino, Marilena; Cortella, Giovanni; Cesco, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the hydroponic floating system to cultivate leafy vegetables for ready-to-eat salads. It is reasonable that different growing systems could affect the quality and shelf life of these salads. The quality and shelf life of ready-to-eat lamb's lettuce grown in protected environment in soil plot or in soil-less system over hydroponic solution with or without the addition of 30 µmol L⁻¹ silicon were evaluated. Minimum effects were observed on colour, firmness and microbial counts. Hydroponic cultivation largely affected plant tissue hydration, leading to weight loss and structural modifications during refrigerated storage. The shelf life of lamb's lettuce was limited by the development of visually detectable unpleasant sensory properties. Shelf life, calculated by survival analysis of consumer acceptability data, resulted about 7 days for soil-cultivated salad and 2 days for the hydroponically grown ones. The addition of silicon to the hydroponic solution resulted in an interesting strategy to increase plant tissue yield and reduce nitrate accumulation. Although hydroponic cultivation may have critical consequences on product quality and shelf life, these disadvantages could be largely counterbalance by increased yield and a reduction of nitrate accumulation when cultivation is performed on nutritive solutions with supplemental addition of silicon. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Disposal of Low-Activity Waste and Accumulation in Cultivated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, G.; Michon, G.

    1960-01-01

    The paper describes a method of accumulating long-lived radioisotopes in soils and calculating the maximum contamination they would cause in vegetables grown on these soils. The authors suggest a way of expressing this contamination and a formula by which the maximum contamination of one kilogramme of the harvested produce in relation to the tolerated contamination per litre of irrigation water could be calculated. (author) [fr

  12. Disposal of Low-Activity Waste and Accumulation in Cultivated Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baubier, G. [Central Agricultural Research Station, Versailles (France); Michon, G. [Atomic Health Physics Service, Saclay Nuclear Research Centre (France)

    1960-07-01

    The paper describes a method of accumulating long-lived radioisotopes in soils and calculating the maximum contamination they would cause in vegetables grown on these soils. The authors suggest a way of expressing this contamination and a formula by which the maximum contamination of one kilogramme of the harvested produce in relation to the tolerated contamination per litre of irrigation water could be calculated. (author)

  13. Reuse of Ablution Water to Improve Peat Soil Characteristics for Ornamental Landscape Plants Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reuse of ablution water for washing peat soil in order to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in these soils which might effect negatively on the plant growth. The washing process design was similar to horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW consist of layers of peat and sand soil and surrounded by gravel on both sides. Strelitzia sp. was used to detect the presence negative effect of the washing process on the morphological characteristics of the plants. The physical and chemical characteristics of ablution water was examined before and after the washing process by using Inductively Couple Plasma- Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The characteristics of peat soil before and after the washing process were examined by using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF. The results revealed that the percentage of FeO3in peat soil reduced from 45.80 to 1.01%. The percentage of SiO2 in sand soil dropped from 87.7 to 67.10%. Parameters of ablution water resulted from the washing process which including Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and heavy metals have increased but still within the standard limits for the disposal of ablution water into the environment. No atrophy was observed in Strelitzia sp. leaves, indicating the ability of plant to grow normally. It can be concluded that the utilization of ablution water in the washing of peat soil has improve the characteristics of the soil without effect on their organic constitutes.

  14. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  15. Model to the evolution of the organic matter in the pampa's soil. Relation with cultivation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriulo, Adrian; Mary, Bruno; Guerif, Jerome; Balesdent, Jerome

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the work is to present a model to describe the evolution of the organic matter in soils of the Argentine's pampa. This model can be utilised to evaluate the evolution of the soil's fertility in the agricultural production at this moment. Three kinds of assay were done. The determination of organic carbon made possible to prove the Henin-Dupuis model and a derived model

  16. Experimental Study of Soil Organic Matter Loss From Cultivated Field Plots In The Venezuelan Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, B.; Huon, S.; Velasquez, F.; Vallès, V.; Girardin A, C.; Mariotti, A. B.

    The question of discriminating sources of organic matter in suspended particles of stream flows can be addressed by using total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and stable isotope (13C, 15N) measurements when constant fluxes of organic matter supply can be assumed. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic matter release during soil erosion and on the temporal stability of its isotopic signature. In this study, we have monitored soil organic carbon loss and water runoff using natural rainfall events on three experimental field plots with different vegetation cover (bare soil, maize and coffee fields), set up on natural slopes of a tropical mountainous watershed in NW Venezuela (09°13'32'' ­ 09°10'00''N, 70°13'49'' ­ 70°18'34''W). Runoff and soil loss are markedly superior for the bare field plot than for the coffee field plot: by a factor 15 ­ 36, respectively, for the five-month experiment, and by a factor 30 ­ 120, respectively, during a single rainfall event experiment. Since runoff and soil organic matter loss are closely linked during most of the flow (at the time scales of this study), TOC concentration in suspended matter is constant. Furthermore, stable isotope compositions reflect those of top-soil organic matter from which they originate.

  17. Nutrients, Trace Elements and Water Deficit in Greek Soils Cultivated with Olive Trees

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    Theodore Karyotis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The studied soils consist of alluvial and/or colluvial deposits  located in the Prefecture of Messinia, Western Peloponnese (Greece. A total number of 263 surface soil layers were selected and analysed for the main properties. Minimum and maximum values and  the distribution of soil properties varied greatly and can be attributed mainly to various fertilization practices adopted by  farmers, inputs of nutrients by irrigation water and differences due to inherent soil conditions. Lower variability was recorded for the parameters pH, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC, total soil nitrogen (N and soil organic matter (SOM, while coefficients of variation for properties that can be affected easily by human activities such as available phosphorus and micronutrients, are much higher. Minor content for trace elements was observed in the following order:Zinc (Zn>Manganese (Mn>Boron (B>Iron (Fe. During the dry period, irrigation of olive trees is recommended and the appropriate irrigation demands were defined, taking into account rainfall and  water requirements.

  18. Conversion from long-term cultivated wheat field to Jerusalem artichoke plantation changed soil fungal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingang; Zhang, Jianhui; Gao, Danmei; Gao, Huan; Guo, Meiyu; Li, Li; Zhao, Mengliang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding soil microbial communities in agroecosystems has the potential to contribute to the improvement of agricultural productivity and sustainability. Effects of conversion from long-term wheat plantation to Jerusalem artichoke (JA) plantation on soil fungal communities were determined by amplicon sequencing of total fungal ITS regions. Quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were also used to analyze total fungal and Trichoderma spp. ITS regions and Fusarium spp. Ef1α genes. Results showed that soil organic carbon was higher in the first cropping of JA and Olsen P was lower in the third cropping of JA. Plantation conversion changed soil total fungal and Fusarium but not Trichoderma spp. community structures and compositions. The third cropping of JA had the lowest total fungal community diversity and Fusarium spp. community abundance, but had the highest total fungal and Trichoderma spp. community abundances. The relative abundances of potential fungal pathogens of wheat were higher in the wheat field. Fungal taxa with plant growth promoting, plant pathogen or insect antagonistic potentials were enriched in the first and second cropping of JA. Overall, short-term conversion from wheat to JA plantation changed soil fungal communities, which is related to changes in soil organic carbon and Olsen P contents.

  19. Management options to increase soil organic matter and nitrogen availability in cultivated drylands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Cropping of dryland soils in marginal regions with an emphasis on economic rather than ecological sustainability has generally led to decline in soil organic matter reserves and hence nutrient availability. Outputs commonly exceed inputs, with degradation of soil structure, reduction in infiltration and increase in runoff. Biological productivity is severely affected, leading to a vicious cycle of events usually culminating in decreased N release, excessive soil loss and ultimately desertification. Reducing the incidence of bare fallow, increasing crop-residue retention, strategic N-fertilizer application and shifting to cereal-legume rotations (as opposed to monocultures) and intercropping can slow the spiral. Simulation models such as DSSAT and SOCRATES provide suitable and easy-to-use platforms to evaluate these management strategies in terms of soil organic matter accumulation and yield performance. Through the linkage of these models to global information systems and the use of spatial-characterization software to identify zones of similarity, it is now possible to examine the transportability and risk of a particular management strategy under a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. (author)

  20. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Lammel

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC, organic (OC and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB or Arachis pintoi (IA were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN, microbial activity (C-CO2, metabolic quotient (qCO2, the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  1. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  2. Water and energy balance in the cultivated and bake soil in a montane area in Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose Romualdo de Sousa

    2004-02-01

    In the areas of rain fed agriculture it is very important to quantify losses of water by evapotranspiration and soil evaporation. The methods used for measuring evapotranspiration and/or evaporation varies from direct measurements techniques, using lysimeters, to measurements of the water and energy balances. The precision lysimeters have high cost, being only used for research purposes. The water and energy balances methods have been very used due the simplicity, robustness and lower cost. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the water and energy balance components in the soil cultivated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) and without vegetation, besides comparing the methods used to determine the cowpea evapotranspiration. Two experiments (2002 and 2003) were performed in the 4 ha area of the Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, municipality of Areia, Paraiba State (6 deg C 58 S, 5 deg C 41 W). To determine the energy balance, the area was instrumented with a rain gauge, a pyrano meter, a net radiometer, and sensors for measuring air temperature and humidity, and wind speed in two levels. Two locals, in the soil, were instrumented with two temperature sensors located at 2.0 cm and 8.0 cm below soil surface and one heat flux plate placed at 5.0 cm below soil surface. The measurements were recorded every 30 minutes on a data logger. To determine the water balance, three plots were installed, composed one-meter access tube for neutron probe measurements, and 8 tensiometers. The results show very good correlation between the aerodynamic method and the Bowen ration energy balance method, for all atmospherics and soil water conditions. For the two years, in average 72% of the net radiation was used by crop evapotranspiration. The energy and water balance can be used, the determine the crop evapotranspiration and soil evaporation, and regardless of the method used, the major water use by crop occurred in the reproductive stage. In the year of 2002

  3. Study of the trace metal ion influence on the turnover of soil organic matter in cultivated contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumat, C.; Quenea, K.; Bermond, A.; Toinen, S.; Benedetti, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    The role of metals in the behaviour of soil organic matter (SOM) is not well documented. Therefore, we investigated the influence of metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) on the dynamic of SOM in contaminated soils where maize (C 4 plant) replaced C 3 cultures. Three pseudogley brown leached soil profiles under maize with a decreasing gradient in metals concentrations were sampled. On size fractions, stable carbon isotopic ratio (δ 13 C), metals, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations were measured in function of depth. The determined sequence for the amount of C 4 organic matter in the bulk fractions: M 3 (0.9) > M 2 (0.4) > M 1 (0.3) is in agreement with a significant influence of metals on the SOM turnover. New C 4 SOM, mainly present in the labile coarser fractions and less contaminated by metals than the stabilised C 3 SOM of the clay fraction, is more easily degraded by microorganisms. - Measure of δ 13 C and total metal concentrations in size fractions of contaminated soils suggests an influence of metals on the soil organic matter dynamic

  4. Soil physical and microbiological attributes cultivated with the common bean under two management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Adriana De Gennaro

    Full Text Available Agricultural management systems can alter the physical and biological soil quality, interfering with crop development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and microbiological attributes of a Red Latosol, and its relationship to the biometric parameters of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, irrigated and grown under two management systems (conventional tillage and direct seeding, in Campinas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, with a split-plot arrangement for the management system and soil depth, analysed during the 2006/7 and 2007/8 harvest seasons, with 4 replications. The soil physical and microbiological attributes were evaluated at depths of 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The following were determined for the crop: density, number of pods per plant, number of beans per pod, thousand seed weight, total weight of the shoots and harvest index. Direct seeding resulted in a lower soil physical quality at a depth of 0.00-0.05 m compared to conventional tillage, while the opposite occurred at a depth of 0.05-0.10 m. The direct seeding showed higher soil biological quality, mainly indicated by the microbial biomass nitrogen, basal respiration and metabolic quotient. The biometric parameters in the bean were higher under the direct seeding compared to conventional tillage.

  5. Tillage systems and cover crops on soil physical properties after soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil management alters soil physical attributes and may affect crop yield. In order to evaluate soil physical attributes in layers from 0 to 0.40 m and soybean grain yield, in the 2012/2013 agricultural year, an essay was installed in the experimental area of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS/CPCS. Soil tillage systems were: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no tillage (DS, the cover crops used were millet, sunn hemp and fallow. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plots. For the layer of 0.20-0.30 m, millet provided the best results for soil bulk density, macro and microporosity. The resistance to penetration (RP was influenced in the layer of 0-0.10 m, and millet provided lower RP. The DS provided the lowest RP values for the layer of 0.10-0.20 m. The treatments did not influence yield or thousand-seed weight.

  6. Distribution of heavy metals in plants cultivated with wastewater irrigated soils during different periods of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Mireles, A.; Reyes-Solis, I.E.; Garcia-Calderon, N.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Pina, C.U.; Flocchini, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mezquital valley is a vast area near Mexico city that has been irrigated with wastewater from Mexico city for more than 50 years. At present, this water source continues to be used while new irrigation areas are being incorporated according to rural demand. This research study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the accumulation of metals in soils and plants and the physicochemical properties of soils irrigated in this manner for 50 and 100 years, respectively. Soil properties such as pH and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined by conventional methods. Plant and soil total trace metals Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Lower pH and TOC contents were obtained for soils irrigated during 100 years, indicating a higher metal bioavailability. This is not reflected in plant content for most of the reported elements, but Zn and Pb show a higher absorption in 100 years old plots (26-79%) than in 50-year-olds plots, indicating a pH dependence

  7. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-03-22

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution.

  8. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study’s aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution. PMID:28327541

  9. Impact of different soil cultivation on weed species in winter rape (oilseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A community of weeds and crops is affected by a number of factors, including, among other things, also tillage. In the years 2000–2002, the composition of weed species in rape stands was evaluated on the fields with the total area of 551 hectares (1 hectar equals to some 2.47 acres. The evaluation was carried out with the application of methodology developed by Kühn (1982. On the fields located in the cadastral area of Olomouc – Holice, which had been cultivated in a traditional manner, 115 relevés were recorded. On the fields in the cadastral area of Bohuňovice, which had been cultivated with the application of reduced tillage, 97 relevés were recorded and evaluated. All of the above fields were subjected to the application of chemical agents reducing the occurrence of weeds. The data thus received were processed by means of multidimensional analysis of ecological data with the application of a RDA method (Redundancy Analysis. In the course of three years, 75 weed species were found on the fields under conventional tillage, on the average, 8.2 species per a relevé, while 66 weed species were found during the same period of time on the fields cultivated by means of reduced tillage, on the average, 8.6 species per a relevé. The application of RDA analysis enabled us to sort out the selected species of weeds (i.e. those the frequency of occurrence of which exceeded 15 % into three groups. The conditions provided by the conventional tillage appeared to be more satisfactory for the weed species included in the first group (Arctium tomentosum, Elytrigia repens, Helianthus tuberosus, Chenopodium album, Lolium perenne and Papaver rhoeas. The species included in the second group, i.e. Alsinula media, Apera spica-venti, Atriplex patula, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Equisetum arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Myosotis arvensis and Thlaspi arvense., responded to reduced tillage by the increase in cover or by increased frequency of

  10. Changes in bacterial diversity and community structure following pesticides addition to soil estimated by cultivation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of increasing concentrations of fenitrothion (2, 10 and 200 mg a.i./kg soil), diuron (1.5, 7.5 and 150 mg a.i./kg soil) and thiram (3.5, 17.5 and 350 mg a.i./kg soil) on soil respiration, bacterial counts and changes in culturable fraction of soil bacteria. To ascertain these changes, the community structure, bacterial biodiversity and process of colony formation, based on the r/K strategy concept, EP- and CD-indices and the FOR model, respectively, were determined. The results showed that the measured parameters were generally unaffected by the lowest dosages of pesticides, corresponding to the recommended field rates. The highest dosages of fenitrothion and thiram suppressed the peak SIR by 15-70% and 20-80%, respectively, while diuron increased respiration rate by 17-25% during the 28-day experiment. Also, the total numbers of bacteria increased in pesticide-treated soils. However, the reverse effect on day 1 and, in addition, in case of the highest dosages of insecticide on days 14 and 28, was observed. Analysis of the community structure revealed that in all soil treatments bacterial communities were generally dominated by K-strategists. Moreover, differences in the distribution of individual bacteria classes and the gradual domination of bacteria populations belonging to r-strategists during the experiment, as compared to control, was observed. However, on day 1, at the highest pesticide dosages, fast growing bacteria constituted only 1-10% of the total colonies number during 48 h of plate incubation, whereas in remaining samples they reached from 20 to 40% of total cfu. This effect, in case of fenitrothion, lasted till the end of the experiment. At the highest dosages of fenitrothion, diuron and at all dosages of thiram the decrease of biodiversity, as indicated by EP- and CD-indices on day 1, was found. At the next sampling time, no significant retarding or stimulating effect

  11. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  12. Early Hg mobility in cultivated tropical soils one year after slash-and-burn of the primary forest, in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Lopes, Luis Otávio do Canto; Paquet, Serge

    2009-07-15

    In the Brazilian Amazon, forest conversion to agricultural lands (slash-and-burn cultivation) contributes to soil mercury (Hg) release and to aquatic ecosystem contamination. Recent studies have shown that soil Hg loss occurs rapidly after deforestation, suggesting that Hg mobility could be related to the massive cation input resulting from biomass burning. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the first year of slash-and-burn agriculture on soil Hg levels at the regional scale of the Tapajós River, in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. A total of 429 soil samples were collected in 26 farms of five riparian communities of the Tapajós basin. In September 2004, soil samples were collected from primary forest sites planned for slash-and-burn cultivation. In August 2005, one year after the initial burning, a second campaign was held and the exact same sites were re-sampled. Our results showed that total Hg levels in soils did not change significantly during the first year following slash-and-burn, suggesting no immediate release of soil Hg at that point in time. However, an early Hg mobility was detected near the surface (0-5 cm), reflected by a significant shift in Hg distribution in soil fractions. Indeed, a transfer of Hg from fine to coarser soil particles was observed, indicating that chemical bonds between Hg and fine particles could have been altered. A correspondence analysis (CA) showed that this process could be linked to a chemical competition caused by cation enrichment. The regional dimension of the study highlighted the prevailing importance of soil types in Hg dynamics, as shown by differentiated soil responses following deforestation according to soil texture. Confirming an early Hg mobility and indicating an eventual Hg release out of the soil, our results reinforce the call for the development of more sustainable agricultural practices in the Amazon.

  13. Nitrogen dynamics in soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Borges Alves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper disposal of pig manure is of great importance because, when mishandled, it can contaminate water resources. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrogen dynamics in a Cerrado Oxisol and its absorption, over time, by a maize crop managed with pig slurry associated with mineral fertilization (N P K. The study was conducted at a private farm, in the region of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The maize crop was able to recover 62% of the mineral nitrogen that entered the soil-plant system, while 9% leached as nitrate and, to a lesser amount, as ammonium. The maximum average content of nitrate and ammonium of 92 kg ha-1 and 43 kg ha-1, respectively, was observed in the 0 to 0.3 m soil layer during the early crop development stage. A minimum content of 5.8 kg ha-1 of nitrate and 9.0 kg ha-1 of ammonium, respectively, was measured at the end of the cycle. In addition, the nitrate content at that soil layer, at the end of the maize cycle, remained below the values measured at the native Cerrado, indicating that the agricultural use of the land poses no additional risk to the nitrate accumulation and leaching into the soil profile.

  14. Change in peat coverage in Danish cultivated soils during the past 35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the spatial and temporal changes of peatland in farming systems is crucial to the study of soil quality and productivity and the modeling of the global carbon cycle (in relation to climate change). This study compiles a contemporary map (2010) of peatland coverage (according to Kyoto prot...

  15. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazif, W. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Marzouk, E.R. [Division of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Suez Canal University, North Sinai 45516 (Egypt); Perveen, S. [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Crout, N.M.J. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with {sup 70}Zn{sup 2+}; comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO{sub 3} and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na{sub 2}-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1 + F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO{sub 3} was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO{sub 3}. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (PCO{sub 2} controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent ‘adsorption’ model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO{sub 3}. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn{sup 2+}) data, although the apparent value of log{sub 10} Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO{sub 3}). - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Zn in the calcareous soils of Peshawar is extremely low. • There is no evidence of topsoil enrichment from the use of wastewater for irrigation. • Solubility

  16. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazif, W.; Marzouk, E.R.; Perveen, S.; Crout, N.M.J.; Young, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with 70 Zn 2+ ; comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO 3 and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na 2 -EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1 + F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO 3 was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO 3 . This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (PCO 2 controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent ‘adsorption’ model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO 3 . The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn 2+ ) data, although the apparent value of log 10 Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO 3 ). - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Zn in the calcareous soils of Peshawar is extremely low. • There is no evidence of topsoil enrichment from the use of wastewater for irrigation. • Solubility products for smithsonite and hydrozincite fail to describe Zn 2

  17. Influence of plant roots on electrical resistivity measurements of cultivated soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Blanchy, Guillaume; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity methods have been widely used for the last 40 years in many fields: groundwater investigation, soil and water pollution, engineering application for subsurface surveys, etc. Many factors can influence the electrical resistivity of a media, and thus influence the ERT measurements. Among those factors, it is known that plant roots affect bulk electrical resistivity. However, this impact is not yet well understood. The goals of this experiment are to quantify the effect of plant roots on electrical resistivity of the soil subsurface and to map a plant roots system in space and time with ERT technique in a soil column. For this research, it is assumed that roots system affect the electrical properties of the rhizosphere. Indeed the root activity (by transporting ions, releasing exudates, changing the soil structure,…) will modify the rhizosphere electrical conductivity (Lobet G. et al, 2013). This experiment is included in a bigger research project about the influence of roots system on geophysics measurements. Measurements are made on cylinders of 45 cm high and a diameter of 20 cm, filled with saturated loam on which seeds of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. are sowed. Columns are equipped with electrodes, TDR probes and temperature sensors. Experiments are conducted at Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, in a growing chamber with controlled conditions: temperature of the air is fixed to 20° C, photoperiod is equal to 14 hours, photosynthetically active radiation is equal to 200 μmol m-2s-1, and air relative humidity is fixed to 80 %. Columns are fully saturated the first day of the measurements duration then no more irrigation is done till the end of the experiment. The poster will report the first results analysis of the electrical resistivity distribution in the soil columns through space and time. These results will be discussed according to the plant development and other controlled factors. Water content of the soil will also be detailed

  18. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  19. Gamma-ray measurements of natural radioactivity in cultivated and reclaimed soil, Upper Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.E.; Taha, S.

    2007-01-01

    Specific activity of primordial radionuclides in soil samples from 10 different locations in Qena governorate and wadi Elakita were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 50 soil samples were collected from different sorts of soil with depth ranged from 0 - 25 cm . The energy peaks used were: 352.0 KeV of 214 Pb and 609.3, 1120.3 and 1764.5 KeV of 214 Bi for 226 Ra. In the case of 232 Th the energy peaks used were: 238.6 KeV of 212 Pb, 2615 of 208 Ti and 911.1 KeV of 228 Ac. While the radioactivity of 40 K was obtained from the single photopeak of this isotope at 1460.75 KeV. The total uncertainty of the obtained values of the radioactivity was calculated from the systematic and the random error of the measurements. Concentrations of radionuclides in soils analyzed in this study ranged from 7.5 to 85.5, 7.2 to 19.3 and 77.3 to 267.5 with mean values are 18.8 ± 3.4, 11.4 ± 3.4 and 150.8 ±12.3 (Bq.kg -1 ) for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ,respectively. The results obtained were compared with those from other studies in the world. The radiological health implication to the population that may result from these values is found to be very low and almost insignificant. No artificial radionuclide, however, was detected in any of the samples, hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the soil in studying areas

  20. Nutrient critical levels and availability in soils cultivated with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. in Santo Domingo de Los Tsáchilas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Quezada Crespo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the most important exporter of canned peach palm, however, to date ideal soil fertility characteristics for peach palm growers remain unknown. The aim of this research was to determine optimal levels of soil nutrients for the cultivation of peach palm, specifically with regards to soil cation exchange capacity in order to obtain higher yields. We worked with 20 farmsteads and their soils from the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas during the second half of 2014. Fields were evaluated based on a relative yield and extractable (modified Olsen nutrient contents in each soil were determined using regression modeling to determine critical levels of each nutrient and specifically to determine the ideal soil cation exchange capacity under peach palm cultivation. Our analysis established critical levels of soil pH (6.3; OM 6.5%; P 12.3 mg.dm-3; K 0.67 cmol.dm-3 K; Ca 5.1 cmol.dm-3 ; Mg 0.97 cmol.dm-3; and S 7.5 mg.dm-3. The ideal Ca: Mg: K soil cation exchange capacity was determined to be 76:14:10.

  1. EFFECT OF FALLOW LAND, CULTIVATED PASTURE AND ABANDONED PASTURE ON SOIL FERTILITY IN TWO DEFORESTED AMAZONIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A DIEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  2. Predictive mapping of soil organic carbon in wet cultivated lands using classification-tree based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Rania Bou; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2010-01-01

    the geographic distribution of SOC across Denmark using remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GISs) and decision-tree modeling (un-pruned and pruned classification trees). Seventeen parameters, i.e. parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, mean curvature...... field measurements in the area of interest (Denmark). A large number of tree-based classification models (588) were developed using (i) all of the parameters, (ii) all Digital Elevation Model (DEM) parameters only, (iii) the primary DEM parameters only, (iv), the remote sensing (RS) indices only, (v......) selected pairs of parameters, (vi) soil type, parent material and landscape type only, and (vii) the parameters having a high impact on SOC distribution in built pruned trees. The best constructed classification tree models (in the number of three) with the lowest misclassification error (ME...

  3. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Erik H.; Hansen, Marianne; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Sloth, Jens J. [Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Department of Food Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); Lobinski, Ryszard; Ruzik, Rafal; Mazurowska, Lena [CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland); Burger-Meyer, Karin; Scholten, Olga [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kik, Chris [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University and Research Centre, Centre for Genetic Resources, The Netherlands (CGN), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes, which ensured liberation of selenium species contained in peptides or proteins. Separate extractions using an aqueous solution of enzyme-deactivating hydroxylamine hydrochloride counteracted the possible degradation of labile selenium species by enzymes (such as alliinase) that occur naturally in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few percent of the total chromatographed selenium in all garlic samples. Se-allyl-selenocysteine and Se-propyl-selenocysteine, which are selenium analogues of biologically active sulfur-containing amino acids known to occur in garlic, were searched for but not detected in any of the extracts. The amendment of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine and {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenomethionine in isolated chromatographic fractions by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  4. Changes in carbon stability and microbial activity in size fractions of micro-aggregates in a rice soil chronosequence under long term rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Genxing; Liu, Yalong; Wang, Ping; Li, Lianqinfg; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Bian, Rongjun; Ding, Yuanjun; Ma, Chong

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown soil carbon sequestration through physical protection of relative labile carbon intra micro-aggregates with formation of large sized macro-aggregates under good management of soil and agricultural systems. While carbon stabilization had been increasingly concerned as ecosystem properties, the mechanisms underspin bioactivity of soil carbon with increased carbon stability has been still poorly understood. In this study, topsoil samples were collected from rice soils derived from salt marsh under different length of rice cultivation up to 700 years from eastern China. Particle size fractions (PSF) of soil aggregates were separated using a low energy dispersion protocol. Carbon fractions in the PSFs were analyzed either with FTIR spectroscopy. Soil microbial community of bacterial, fungal and archaeal were analyzed with molecular fingerprinting using specific gene primers. Soil respiration and carbon gain from amended maize as well as enzyme activities were measured using lab incubation protocols. While the PSFs were dominated by the fine sand (200-20μm) and silt fraction (20-2μm), the mass proportion both of sand (2000-200μm) and clay (soil aggregates (also referred to aggregate stability). Soil organic carbon was found most enriched in coarse sand fraction (40-60g/kg), followed by the clay fraction (20-24.5g/kg), but depleted in the silt fraction (~10g/kg). Phenolic and aromatic carbon as recalcitrant pool were high (33-40% of total SOC) in both coarse sand and clay fractions than in both fine sand and silt fractions (20-29% of total SOC). However, the ratio of LOC/total SOC showed a weak decreasing trend with decreasing size of the aggregate fractions. Total gene content in the size fractions followed a similar trend to that of SOC. Bacterial and archaeal gene abundance was concentrated in both sand and clay fractions but that of fungi in sand fraction, and sharply decreased with the decreasing size of aggregate fraction. Gene abundance

  5. The growth productivity, and environmental impact of the cultivation of energy crops on sandy soil in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, V. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Ellerbrock, R. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. Muencheberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Energy plants, cultivated on set-aside land, could substitute nearly 3% of the primary energy in Germany and could raise the income of farmers. However, the substitution of fossil fuels by plants requires the selection of plant species with high site suitability, an ecologically benign farming system and high yields. This paper describes results of the cultivation of 10 energy plant species suitable for combustion. Over a period of 6 yr, yield, energy gain, and environmentally relevant substances in the plant and the soil were determined under practical conditions. Fertilization was carried out in four variants each ranging from 0 to 150 kgNha{sup -1} and with wood- and straw-ashes, as well as basic mineral fertilizer. Plant protection products were entirely dispensed with. The results show that, except for topinambur haulm (Jerusalem artichoke) and short rotation coppice with undersown crops, the mean yield ranges between 8 and 12 t{sub DM} ha{sup -1} and that a reduction of nitrogen application from 150 to 75 kgNh{sup -1} causes only slight yield losses. Without fertilization, yields diminish by 20-40% after 6 years, except for poplars, which reach similarly a high yield level as with fertilization. The contents of the emission- and combustion-relevant plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium, sulfur and chlorine, are significantly lower in poplars and willows than in grass, rye, triticale and hemp. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead, are absorbed differently. Hemp, poplars, and winter rye allow high-energy yields to be achieved. Even if nitrogen fertilization is reduced, net energy gains of more than 120 GJha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (3.2 kl oil equivalent ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) are reached. (author)

  6. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, Roberta [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Hashim, Dana [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Donna, Filippo [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina [Department of Food Chemistry, Metal Laboratory, IZSLER, Brescia (Italy); Beone, Gian Maria [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Università Cattolica, Piacenza (Italy); Lucchini, Roberto G. [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (United States); Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Background: For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods: Home gardens (n = 63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions: Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1 + F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references

  7. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R.; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods: Home gardens (n = 63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions: Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1 + F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references

  8. Preliminary assessment of the potential for using cesium-137 technique to estimate rates of soil erosion on cultivated land in La Victoria I, Camaguey province of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, F.O.; Gandarilla Benitez, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a growing awareness that erosion on cultivated land in Cuba is a potential hazard to long term productivity, there is still only limited information on the rates involved, particularly long term values. The potential for using the radionuclide Caesium-137 as an environmental tracer to indicate sources of soil erosion on cultivated soils in La Victoria catchment is introduced. Use of Caesium-137 measurements to estimate rates of erosion and deposition is founded on comparison of the Caesium-137 inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory representing the local Caesium fallout input and thus the inventory to be expected at the site experiencing neither erosion nor deposition. Two models for converting Caesium-137 measurements to estimates of soil redistribution rates on studied site have been used, the Proportional Model and Mass Balance Model. Using the first one net soil erosion was calculated to be 17.6 t. Ha 1 - .year 1 - . Estimates of soil loss using a Mass Balance Model (Simplified Model 1 and Model 2) were found to be 30.2 and 30.6 t. Ha 1 - .year 1 - ,respectively. Preliminary results suggest that Caesium-137 technique may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss and a reliable tool for developing of soil conservation program

  9. [Simulation for balanced effect of soil and water resources on cultivated land in Naoli River Basin, Northeast China under the RCPs climate scene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Lei, Guo Ping; Yang, Xue Xin; Zhao, Yu Hui; Zhang, Ji Xin

    2018-04-01

    Under the scenarios of climate change, balancing the land and water resources is one of the key problems needed to be solved in land development. To reveal the water dynamics of the cultivated land in Naoli River Basin, we simulated the future scenarios by using the future land use simulation model based on Landsat Satellite images, the DEM data and the meteorological data. Results showed that the growth rate of cultivated land gradually decreased. It showed different changing characteristics in different time periods, which led to different balancing effect between land and water resources. In 1990, the water dynamics of the cultivated land resources was in good state, At the same time, the adjustment of crops structure caused the paddy fields increased dramatically. During 2002 to 2014, the cultivated land that in moderate and serious moisture shortage state increased slightly, the water deficit was deteriorating to a certain degree, and maintained sound development of water profit and loss situation gradually. By comparing the simulation accuracy with different spatial resolutions and time scales, we selected 200 m as the spatial resolution of the simulation, and simulated the land use status in 2038. The simulation results showed that the cultivated land's water profit and loss degree in the river basin showed significant polarization characteristic, in that the water profit and loss degree of the cultivated land would be further intensified, the area with the higher grades of moisture profit and loss degree would distribute more centralized, and partially high evaluated grades for the moisture shortage would expand. It is needed to develop the cultivated land irrigation schemes and adjust the cultivated land in Naoli River Basin to balance soil and water resources.

  10. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  11. 'Baldin autumn' and gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is the reminiscences of the participant of the gauge field theory beginning and the first 'Baldin Autumn' conference in 1969. This conference was named 'Vector Mesons and Electromagnetic Interactions'. At that time, just the processes with vector mesons participation contained some experimental indications of new universal interactions existence. Vector dominance was the experimental evidence of physical reasons of the gauge field theory. In the course of time the gauge field theory form, which was under discussion thirty seven years ago, became generally recognized and experimentally corroborated. It led to construction of the well-known Standard Model of elementary particle interactions

  12. Efeito da mobilização do solo nas micorrizas arbusculares de cereais de Inverno Effects of soil management on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in autumn-sown crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brito

    2007-01-01

    sua capacidade para gerar novas colonizações no período cultural. Com o objectivo de avaliar a diversidade dos Glomeromycota presentes no campo de ensaios em estudo, sujeito aos dois tipos de mobilização do solo (SD e MT, foi usada a técnica de amplificação de sequências de rDNA destes fungos a partir de DNA total do solo. Esta técnica permite uma avaliação abrangente, evitando a morosidade e complexidade da abordagem clássica através de culturas armadilha. No total foram analisadas 87 sequencias, provenientes de solo perturbado e não perturbado, e encontrados 11 tipos ribosomais. Considerando as diferenças de frequência dos tipos ribosomais presentes em cada tipo de solo, os resultados parecem confirmar que os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares são diferencialmente susceptíveis à perturbação do solo, não só em termos de diversidade como ao nível da estrutura da comunidade.Soil tillage may markedly reduce the rate of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM establishment by breaking up the living AM fungal mycelium in the soil. In no till or reduced till management, this mycelium can allow earlier AM formation. Work under field conditions in a Mediterranean climate clearly confirmed that wheat plants cultivated under no-till system had a 6 fold greater mycorrhizal colonization than those grown using a conventional tillage system. Pot experiments were initiated to determine the benefit of the timing of colonization on plants. Soil disturbance induced by tillage practices was simulated by passing the soil through a 4 mm sieve at the start of each successive period of 3 weeks plant growth cycles. After 4 cycles of plant growth (wheat, significant effects in all colonization parameters were detected. Arbuscular, vesicular and hyphal colonization were clearly higher in undisturbed soil. To gain a global overview of the diversity of Glomeromycota under the 2 cultivation systems in the experimental field, rDNA sequences from the fungi have been amplified

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Valdez, F., E-mail: flopez2072@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, F. [Natural and Energetic Resources, Cinvestav-Saltillo, C.P. 25900, Coahuila (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Suarez, S. [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Dendooven, L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions but not CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  14. A Geographical Study of Soil Characteristic in Sugarcane Cultivation of Rahuri Tahsil of Ahmedngar District (MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Mahipati Nalage

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane requires more water compare to other crops within growth periods. Its requires more water in summer season due to increases in temperature. Its growth is found successfully where the annual rainfall received 1400 to 2500 mm. pH in water is high (more than 8.1) is found in 21.72 percent villages. These villages come under canal and other source of irrigation. Less than 7.5 pH is found in 44 percent villages in the study area. EC in soil is suggested that it’s sufficient range in 25.5...

  15. Concentration of radioactive elements (U, Th and K derived from phosphatic fertilizers in cultivated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Antonio Becegato

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma spectrometric measurements were obtained for the agricultural soils aiming at characterizing the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentrations (K, eU and eTh, as well for the samples of phosphatic fertilizers and agricultural gypsum. In the study areas, three types of soils occured: Eutrophic Red Nitosol (Alfisoil, Eutroferric Red Latosol of clayey texture (Oxisoil and Dystrophic Red Latosol of medium texture (Oxisoil. The results showed that the radionuclide concentrations in more clayey soils were higher than in more sandy soils, mainly as a function of a higher adsorption capacity of the former. For the area where human activity predominated, the average contents of K, eU and eTh were respectively 54.75; 10.22 and 7.27 Bq/Kg, significantly higher than those for the area where no fertilizers were used (34.15 Bq/Kg K; 1.69 Bq/Kg eU, and 5.36 Bq/Kg eTh. Variations in the radionuclide concentrations were also observed in various fertilizer formula used in soybean and wheat crops.Medições gamaespectrométricas foram obtidas em solos agrícolas objetivando caracterizar a distribuição espacial das concentrações de radionuclídeos (K, eU e eTh, bem como em amostras de fertilizantes fosfatados e gesso agrícola. Na área ocorrem três tipos de solos: Nitossolo Vermelho Eutrófico, Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico textura argilosa e Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico textura média. Constatou-se que as concentrações de radionuclídeos nos solos mais argilosos foram maiores do que nos solos mais arenosos, em função, principalmente, da maior adsorção pelos primeiros. Os teores médios em Bq/Kg de K, eU e eTh na área com atividade antrópica foram respectivamente de 54,75; 10,22 e 7,27, significativamente maiores do que em áreas virgens sem aplicação de fertilizantes (34,15 de K; 1,69 de eU e 5,36 de eTh. Foram também observadas variações nas concentrações de radionuclídeos em diferentes formulações de adubos utilizados nas

  16. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K., E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H. [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173 (Japan); Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T. [Sasaki Taro memorial PIXE Center, Asano-cho 5, Hakodate 040-0076 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K. We also measured {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of {sup 40}K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of {sup 137}Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with {sup 137}Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  17. Effectiveness of FitoMas-E in the cultivation of chickpea under two soil moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitza Meriño Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of FitoMas-E on the performance of the chickpea, in conditions of drought stress, was the objective of this investigation. An experiment was conducted in the Intensive Garden "Río de Guisa" in the municipality of Guisa during the period from November to February 2014. Four treatments were applied, distributed in a randomized block design with three repetitions, on a "Pardo mullido grisaceo" soil, comparing the application of FitoMas-E under two soil moisture regimes, with and without water stress. The yield of grain and its components were evaluated at the time of harvest maturity, to analyze the responses of these variables to the treatments applied. An analysis of variance was performed using the statistical package STASTISTICA version 8.0 for Windows and the means of the treatments were compared using the Tukey Multiple Range test. The variables that showed a greater response to the treatments imposed were the number of legumes per plant, number of seeds per plant, the mass of 100 seeds and the yield of grain, which ranged between 0.9 and 0.93 t ha-1 for the treatments 2 and 4 respectively. The results obtained in this research showed that the chickpea crop achieved the best productive indicators when the plants were under water stress conditions and received the application of FitoMas-E.

  18. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recycling of biological sludge for the fertilizing of soils cultivated with Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been elaborated with the aim of justifying the high efficiency of in-situ slaughterhouse sludge recycling and its usage in Lolium perenne cultures. Stabilized slaughterhouse sludge was used to complete the high deficiency in nutrients of the poor terrains. Slaughterhouse sludge represents an excessive, final by product from a meat-processing unit in Western Romania. It contains 59.78-90.77% easily bio-degradable organic substances. Moreover, it has compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus, total N=1.922-3.318%, total P=1107-1126mg•kg-1D.M. The experimental variants have been prepared, having the following characteristics: control variants of non-fertilized soils and variants of soils fertilized with slaughterhouse sludge, 50t•ha-1. The experimental variants used were arranged in a completely randomized block design, with three replicates each. The efficiency of fertilization with slaughterhouse sludge was a 30-35% rise in the quantity of grass harvested vs. the quantities harvested from the control variants. The quantity of Cd and Pb has been determined from the aerial parts of the harvested plants and they were below the maximum limit admitted by the sanitary regulations in Romania. Cr didn’t bio-accumulate in plants at a detection limit. The quantity of other metals determined from the aerial parts of the plants was low: i.e. <10mg•kg-1D.M. for Cu or Ni <50mg•kg-1D.M. for Zn, <150mg•kg-1D.M.for Mn. Green feed harvested from fields fertilized with slaughterhouse sludge can be part of animal nutrition.

  20. Meta-transcriptomics indicates biotic cross-tolerance in willow trees cultivated on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Marleau, Julie; Guidi Nissim, Werther; Labrecque, Michel; Pitre, Frederic E; Joly, Simon

    2015-10-12

    High concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) pollution can be hazardous to human health and leave soils incapable of supporting agricultural crops. A cheap solution, which can help restore biodiversity and bring land back to productivity, is cultivation of high biomass yielding willow trees. However, the genetic mechanisms which allow these fast-growing trees to tolerate PHCs are as yet unclear. Salix purpurea 'Fish Creek' trees were pot-grown in soil from a former petroleum refinery, either lacking or enriched with C10-C50 PHCs. De novo assembled transcriptomes were compared between tree organs and impartially annotated without a priori constraint to any organism. Over 45% of differentially expressed genes originated from foreign organisms, the majority from the two-spotted spidermite, Tetranychus urticae. Over 99% of T. urticae transcripts were differentially expressed with greater abundance in non-contaminated trees. Plant transcripts involved in the polypropanoid pathway, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), had greater expression in contaminated trees whereas most resistance genes showed higher expression in non-contaminated trees. The impartial approach to annotation of the de novo transcriptomes, allowing for the possibility for multiple species identification, was essential for interpretation of the crop's response treatment. The meta-transcriptomic pattern of expression suggests a cross-tolerance mechanism whereby abiotic stress resistance systems provide improved biotic resistance. These findings highlight a valuable but complex biotic and abiotic stress response to real-world, multidimensional contamination which could, in part, help explain why crops such as willow can produce uniquely high biomass yields on challenging marginal land.

  1. Isolation of β-1,3-Glucanase-Producing Microorganisms from Poria cocos Cultivation Soil via Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulan Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available β-1,3-Glucanase is considered as a useful enzymatic tool for β-1,3-glucan degradation to produce (1→3-linked β-glucan oligosaccharides with pharmacological activity properties. To validly isolate β-1,3-glucanase-producing microorganisms, the soil of Wolfiporia extensa, considered an environment rich in β-1,3-glucan-degrading microorganisms, was subjected to high throughput sequencing. The results demonstrated that the genera Streptomyces (1.90% and Arthrobacter (0.78% belonging to the order Actinomycetales (8.64% in the phylum Actinobacteria (18.64% were observed in soil for P. cocos cultivation (FTL1. Actinomycetes were considered as the candidates for isolation of glucan-degrading microorganisms. Out of 58 isolates, only 11 exhibited β-1,3-glucan-degrading activity. The isolate SYBCQL belonging to the genus Kitasatospora with β-1,3-glucan-degrading activity was found and reported for the first time and the isolate SYBC17 displayed the highest yield (1.02 U/mg among the isolates. To check the β-1,3-glucanase contribution to β-1,3-glucan-degrading activity, two genes, 17-W and 17-Q, encoding β-1,3-glucanase in SYBC17 and one gene QLK1 in SYBCQL were cloned and expressed for verification at the molecular level. Our findings collectively showed that the isolates able to secrete β-1,3-glucanase could be obtained with the assistance of high-throughput sequencing and genes expression analysis. These methods provided technical support for isolating β-1,3-glucanase-producing microorganisms.

  2. Separation of Aeruginosin-865 from Cultivated Soil Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography combined with Gel Permeation Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheel, José; Minceva, Mirjana; Urajová, Petra; Aslam, Rabya; Hrouzek, Pavel; Kopecký, Jiří

    2015-10-01

    Aeruginosin-865 was isolated from cultivated soil cyanobacteria using a combination of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and gel permeation chromatography. The solubility of Aer-865 in different solvents was evaluated using the conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS). The CPC separation was performed in descending mode with a biphasic solvent system composed of water-n-BuOH-acetic acid (5:4:1, v/v/v). The upper phase was used as a stationary phase, whereas the lower phase was employed as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The revolution speed and temperature of the separation column were 1700 rpm and 25 degrees C, respectively. Preparative CPC separation followed by gel permeation chromatography was performed on 50 mg of crude extract yielding Aer-865 (3.5 mg), with a purity over 95% as determined by HPLC. The chemical identity of the isolated compound was confirmed by comparing its spectroscopic data (UV, HRESI-MS, HRESI-MS/MS) with those of an authentic standard and data available in the literature.

  3. Two-Step Separation of Nostotrebin 6 from Cultivated Soil Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp. by High Performance Countercurrent Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cheel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC was successfully applied for the separation of nostotrebin 6 from cultivated soil cyanobacteria in a two-step operation. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (4:5:4:5, v/v/v/v was employed for the HPCCC separation. In the first-step operation, its neutral upper phase was used as stationary phase and its basic lower phase (1% NH3 in lower phase was employed as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. In the second operation step, its neutral upper phase was used as stationary phase, whereas both its neutral lower phase and basic lower phase were employed as mobile phase with a linear gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The revolution speed and temperature of the separation column were 1,000 rpm and 30 °C, respectively. Using HPCCC followed by clean-up on Sephadex LH-20 gel, 4 mg of nostotrebin 6 with a purity of 99% as determined by HPLC/DAD-ESI-HRMS was obtained from 100 mg of crude extract. The chemical identity of the isolated compound was confirmed by comparing its spectroscopic data (UV, ESI-HRMS, ESI-HRMS2 with those of an authentic standard and data available in the literature.

  4. Nutrient inputs in soil cultivated with coffee crop fertigated with domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tauzene Afonso Matangue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertigation with wastewaters is a great option for reuse of effluents in agriculture. Domestic effluent can be reused after primary treatment, reducing treatment costs and pollution, also providing water and nutrients to crops. This work aimed to quantify the nutrients income in coffee crop fertigated with domestic sewage. Five treatments were used. T1 received only clean water, and treatments T2, T3, T4 e T5 received 180, 350, 480 and 638 mm of sewage, respectively, during four months. Monthly soil analyses allowed to quantify nutrient inputs of 67.45 kg ha-1 of N, 81.89 kg ha-1 of P, 33.34 kg ha-1 of K+, 173.24 kg ha-1 of Ca2+, 49.18 kg ha-1 of Mg2+, 161.56 kg ha-1 of Na+ and 116.19 kg ha-1 of S. Even though the treatments promoted reductions in fertilization and liming, it was still necessary to complement fertilization of coffee crop fertigated with domestic sewage.

  5. Microbacterium horti sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Cucurbita maxima cultivating soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shahina; Park, Jae Hee; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain THG-SL1(T) was isolated from a soil sample of Cucurbita maxima garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain was aerobic, catalase positive and weakly positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis but it shared highest similarity with Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (96.6 %), indicating that strain THG-SL1(T) belongs to the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G + C content of the isolate was 68.9 mol %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (39.7 %), anteiso-C17: 0 (24.4 %) and iso-C16: 0 (18.5 %). The major polar lipids of strain THG-SL1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and an unidentified glycolipid (GL). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine. Based on the results of polyphasic characterization, strain THG-SL1(T) represented a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SL1(T) (=KACC 18286(T)=CCTCC AB 2015117(T)).

  6. Physical-hydraulic properties of a sandy loam typic paleudalf soil under organic cultivation of 'montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Valverde dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are the most important fruit species in the world, with emphasis to oranges, mandarins and lemons. In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, most fruit production is found on small properties under organic cultivation. Soil compaction is one of the factors limiting production and due to the fixed row placement of this crop, compaction can arise in various manners in the interrows of the orchard. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and water infiltration capacity in response to interrow management in an orchard of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore 'Montenegrina' under organic cultivation. Interrow management was performed through harrowing, logs in em "V", mowing, and cutting/knocking down plants with a knife roller. Soil physical properties were evaluated in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, between the wheel tracks (BWT, and in the area under the line projection of the canopy (CLP, with undisturbed soil samples collected in the 0.00-0.15, 0.15-0.30, 0.30-0.45, and 0.45-0.60 m layers, with four replicates. The soil water infiltration test was performed using the concentric cylinder method, with a maximum time of 90 min for each test. In general, soil analysis showed a variation in the physical-hydraulic properties of the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico (sandy loam Typic Paleudalf in the three sampling sites in all layers, regardless of the management procedure in the interrows. Machinery traffic leads to heterogeneity in the soil physical-hydraulic properties in the interrows of the orchard. Soil porosity and bulk density are affected especially in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, which causes a reduction in the constant rate of infiltration and in the accumulated infiltration of water in this sampling site. The use of the disk harrow and mower leads to greater harmful effects on the soil, which can interfere with mandarin production.

  7. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controled environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A.; Ushakova, S.; Gribovskaya, I.; Tirranen, L.; Manukovsky, N.; Zolotukhin, I.

    To investigate feasibility of enhancing closedness in a new generation of biological life support systems (LSS) to involve the inedible phytomass into intrasystem mass exchange the vermicomposting method we have chosen made possible to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) suitable for growing plants. However, to use the SLS in life support systems call for investigation of its physical, chemical and other parameters. Of special importance among them is the capacity of SLS to provide the LSS photosynthesizing component with required mineral elements in selected cultivation conditions. In this connection the aim of this work was to study opportunities of enhancing pr4oduction activity of wheat and radish cenoses by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) without decreasing the harvest index. Increase of light intensity to 250 W/m 2 PAR decreased the intensity of visible photosynthesis of wheat cenosi and slightly increased visible photosynthesis of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. The maximum productivity of wheat cenosis both total and seeds corresponded to the irradiance of 200 W/m 2 PAR. The light intensity of 250 W/m2 PAR decreased productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect of the productivity of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and SLS was determined by the condition of plants, development phase and PAR intensity. By the end of wheat vegetation under 250 W/m 2 there were an order more bacteria of the colon rod group and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and SLS than under other illumination conditions. Investigation of the mineral composition of SLS and the watering solution demonstrated that one of the reasons of inadequate response of the cenosis under study to elevated PAR intensity may be deficiency of accessible forms of some mineral elements, e.g. nitrogen. The above said materials evidence that

  8. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr, Ca, Mg, K and Na in crane's-bill plants cultivated on soil and hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analyan, V.L.; Sarkisyan, G.A. (AN Armyanskoj SSR, Erevan. Inst. Agrokhimicheskikh Problem i Gidroponiki)

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in plants under the conditions of soil and hydroponic cultures from the viewpoint of the possibility of obtaining ''pure'' vegetable production has been studied. Predominant absorption of /sup 90/Sr by soil plants as compared with calcium is shown. In the course of using the hydroponic cultivation method predominant radiostrontium absorption has been manifested to all investigated nuclides including potassium. The accumulation coefficients analysis has shown that among soil plants the first place is occupied by potassium, while the /sup 90/Sr coefficients are greater than Ca on hydroponics, where the true, not distorted by soil sorption processes absorptive plant capacity has been manifested, the first places in the series are occupied by /sup 90/Sr and K, then come Ca and Mg.

  9. Emission of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O from soil cultivated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fertilized with different N sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Luqueno, F.; Reyes-Varela, V.; Martinez-Suarez, C.; Reynoso-Keller, R.E.; Mendez-Bautista, J.; Ruiz-Romero, E. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, F. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Luna-Guido, M.L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Addition of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer to cultivated soil is known to affect carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. In this study, the effect of urea, wastewater sludge and vermicompost on emissions of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O in soil cultivated with bean was investigated. Beans were cultivated in the greenhouse in three consecutive experiments, fertilized with or without wastewater sludge at two application rates (33 and 55 Mg fresh wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, i.e. 48 and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} considering a N mineralization rate of 40%), vermicompost derived from the wastewater sludge (212 Mg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}) or urea (170 kg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}), while pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), inorganic nitrogen and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions were monitored. Vermicompost added to soil increased EC at onset of the experiment, but thereafter values were similar to the other treatments. Most of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taken up by the plants, although some was leached from the upper to the lower soil layer. CO{sub 2} emission was 375 C kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil, 340 kg C ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the urea-amended soil and 839 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the vermicompost-amended soil. N{sub 2}O emission was 2.92 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in soil amended with 55 Mg wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, but only 0.03 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil. The emission of CO{sub 2} was affected by the phenological stage of the plant while organic fertilizer increased the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emission, and the yield per plant. Environmental and economic implications must to be considered to decide how many, how often and what kind of organic fertilizer could be used to increase yields, while limiting soil deterioration and greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Arsenic transfer and impacts on snails exposed to stabilized and untreated As-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeurdassier, M.; Scheifler, R.; Mench, M.; Crini, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; de Vaufleury, A. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2010-06-15

    An As-contaminated soil (Unt) was amended with either iron grit (Z), a coal fly ash (beringite, B) or B + Z (BZ) and placed in lysimeters in 1997. An uncontaminated soil (R) was also studied. In summer and autumn 2003, lettuces were cultivated in the lysimeters and snails were caged for one month. Lettuce As concentrations were higher during the summer, while no differences occurred in snails between seasons. Snail As concentrations ({mu} g g{sup -1} DW) ranged from 2.5 to 7.0 in B, Z and BZ, and peaked at 17.5 in Unt. In summer, snail survival was affected in Unt and Z compared to R and B while no mortality was noticed in autumn. Snail growth decreased only in B, BZ and Unt in autumn. Snail As concentrations suggest a risk for their predators even on the remediated soils.

  11. Impact of potato cultivation and cattle farming on physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of Neotropical high Andean Páramo ecosystem soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; León Sicard, Tomás Enrique; Torres Rojas, Esperanza

    2018-08-01

    The Andean Páramos are high mountain ecosystems whose soils are essential for the management of South American water resources, but research on anthropic impacts to these soils is currently minimal and insufficient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivation and livestock on the physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities that determine the soil quality of the Neotropical high Andean Páramo ecosystem in the Nevados National Natural Park (Nevados NNP) in Colombia. It was hypothesised that sites with potato crops and livestock farming would exhibit significant changes in soil physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities compared with Páramo sites that have been conserved without agriculture. Samples were collected from soils under potato cultivation, livestock and Páramo (subject to the lowest degree of human intervention possible), on three farms in the El Bosque District at three different altitudes (Buenos Aires, El Edén and La Secreta) during two seasons (dry and rainy). The results showed that none of the physical parameters under study presented statistically significant differences due to the type of use (livestock, potato crop or Páramo), season of sampling (dry or rainy season) or altitude (different farms). The chemical parameters that statistically significantly differed due to land use were organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, calcium, potassium, and ammonium and those that showed statistically significant differences associated with the sampling timing were organic carbon, nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, total carbon, C/N and nitrate. Additionally, there were differences in organic carbon due to the altitude of the farms. With respect to enzymatic activities, those of β-glucosidase, phosphodiesterase and urease significantly decreased in soils under potato cultivation and livestock relative to those of Páramo, but those of acid phosphatase and protease increased

  12. Persistência de imazaquin em latossolo roxo cultivado com soja Imazaquin persistence in Rhodic Eutrudox soil cultivated with soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo S. S. Novo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola de 1988/89 foi realizadoc um experimento de campo na Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Preto, do Instituto Agronômico, com o objetivo de estudar a persistência de imazaquin aplicado em pré emergência na cultura da soja cv IAC-8, em latossolo roxo, textura argilosa e verificar sua influência no rendimento de grãos. O experimento foi disposto em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e repetidos quatro vezes. Nas parcelas foram estudadas as doses de imazaquin 0, 75, 150 e 300g/ha. As linhas das parcelas foram sorteadas e cada época de amostragem de solo foi retirada de uma das entre linhas constituindo-se nas sub-parcelas. A atividade residual do imazaquin foi avaliada por meio de bioensaios, sendo usado o pepino (Cucumis sativus L. cv Sprent, como planta-teste. O número de dias que cada dose levaria para não apresentar mais efeito residual no solo foi determinada através de análise de regressão polinomial, estabelecida por dose. Verificou-se que onde haviam sido aplicados 75 e 150g/ha de imazaquin, aos 10 dias não havia mais efeito no crescimento da planta-teste. Para a dose de 300g/ha somente aos 22 dias deixou de existir efeito residual. Entretant o, aos 60, 48 e 43 dias após a aplicação do produto, respectivamente para 75, 150 e 300g/h a, novamente foi observada redução no crescimento da planta-teste com sintomas típicos nas folhas de pepino. Somente a partir de 89 dias para a dose de 75g/ha e 104 dias para as doses 150 e 300g/h a do imazaquin estimou-se que não seria mais observado atividade residual do produto em latossolo roxo. Não houve efeito de doses de imazaquin no rendimento de grãos de soja.In order to study the imazaquin persistence in a Rhodic Eutrudox Soil cultivated with soybean cv IAC-8, a field experiment was carried out at Ribeirão Preto Experimental Station, in 1988/89. A complete split-plot randomized block design with four replication was used. In the main plots were studied the

  13. Atividade microbiana em solo do semi-árido sob cultivo de Atriplex nummularia Microbial activity in a semiarid soil cultivated with Atriplex nummularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Valéria Pereira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Métodos para avaliar a atividade microbiana no solo são fundamentais no monitoramento ambiental de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a atividade microbiana de solo do semi-árido cultivado com Atriplex nummularia Lindl. em áreas que receberam rejeito salino durante um e três anos, em comparação com um solo nativo, sem cultivo e não irrigada. O solo cultivado por três anos e que recebeu rejeito salino apresentou, no período seco, valores de pH, CE e atividade de hidrólise do diacetato de fluoresceína (FDA superiores aos das demais áreas. No entanto, foi observada correlação negativa entre o carbono microbiano e os valores do quociente metabólico (qCO2. A biomassa microbiana e a fosfatase alcalina também foram superiores no solo cultivado por três anos e que recebeu rejeito salino em relação ao solo nativo sem irrigação, confirmando o desempenho de plantas halófitas na melhoria da qualidade do solo sob condições de estresse salino. O cultivo de A. nummularia constitui uma das alternativas para utilização de rejeito salino proveniente da dessalinização por osmose reversa.Methods used to estimate the soil microbial activity are important to environmental monitoring of degraded areas. The objective of this research was to investigate the microbial activity of a semiarid soil cultivated with Atriplex nummularia Lindl. in a field receiving saline waste during one and three years, in comparison with an area without crop and irrigation. Soil cultivated during three years presented, during the dry season, values of pH, CE, and activity of FDA hydrolyses higher than those registered in other areas. However, a negative correlation between the microbial carbon and values of qCO2 was observed. The microbial biomass and the alkaline phosphates were also higher in the three years cultivated soil, in comparison with the native soil, non irrigated, confirming the role of halophytes for enhancing quality of

  14. Metals and metalloids in fruits of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and their cultivation soils in the Basque Country: concentrations and accumulation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Trebolazabala, Josu; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-04-15

    The concentrations of several elements (Al, Fe, As, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn) were measured in soils and the edible part of different vegetables (tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum "Raf") peppers (Capsicum annuum), chards (Betavulgaris var. cicla), artichokes (Cynarascholymus)) and fruits (Raspberries (Rubusidaeus)) from 13 orchards in the Basque Country affected by different pollution sources. Multivariate analysis of data was used to look for possible correlations between metals in soil and metals in the edible part of the plant. Only manganese showed a correlation significantly different from zero. The metal concentrations found in the edible part were always below the upper limits recommended by the European legislation in force. The Bioaccumulation Index was used to investigate how efficient the plant is to uptake an element from the cultivation soil and to preserve its edible part from the element. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin; Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian; Lopez-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A.; Dendooven, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO 2 from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N 2 O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH 4 + , NO 2 - and NO 3 - decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH 4 + and NO 2 - , but the concentration of NO 3 - was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  16. Interannual variability of net ecosystem productivity in forests is explained by carbon flux phenology in autumn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chaoyang; Chen, Xi Jing; Black, T. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of autumn phenology in controlling interannual variability of forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and to derive new phenological metrics to explain the interannual variability of NEP. North America and Europe. Flux data from nine deciduous broadleaf forests (DBF......, soil water content and precipitation, were also used to explain the phenological variations. We found that interannual variability of NEP can be largely explained by autumn phenology, i.e. the autumn lag. While variation in neither annual gross primary productivity (GPP) nor in annual ecosystem...

  17. Validating the use of 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion represents an important threat to the long-term sustainability of agriculture and forestry in many areas of the world, including southern Italy. Numerous models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution, based on the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management. However, there remains an important need for empirical measurements to provide a basis for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures as well as to support specific investigations and experiments. In this context, erosion plots provide useful information on gross rates of soil loss, but are unable to document the efficiency of the onward transfer of the eroded sediment within a field and towards the stream system, and thus net rates of soil loss from larger areas. The use of environmental radionuclides, particularly caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and excess lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex ), as a means of estimating rates of soil erosion and deposition has attracted increasing attention in recent years and the approach has now been recognised as possessing several important advantages. In order to provide further confirmation of the validity of the estimates of longer-term erosion and soil redistribution rates provided by 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements, there is a need for studies aimed explicitly at validating the results obtained. In this context, the authors directed attention to the potential offered by a set of small erosion plots located near Reggio Calabria in southern Italy, for validating estimates of soil loss provided by 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements. A preliminary assessment suggested that, notwithstanding the limitations and constraints involved, a worthwhile investigation aimed at validating the use of 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land could be undertaken. The results demonstrate a close consistency between the measured rates of soil loss and

  18. Radiological aspects of choice of a system of cultivation of sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with different degree of humidity on lands of Mogilev region contaminated with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevich, S.S.; Ermolenko, A.V.; Shapsheeva, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented data about the influence of technological factors on entry of 137Cs into plant products (grain and green mass). In course of the study there were analyzed the following variants of soil cultivation: moldboard plowing; subsurface chisel soil tillage; subsurface surface soil tillage; minimal tillage. There were presented data on specific activity of 137Cs in plant product samples of oat (Avena sativa) grain; field pea (Pisum arvense L.) and oat mixture grain and green mass; wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain. There were determined the main principles of influence of cultivation systems of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil with different degree of humidity on transition of 137Cs into plants depending on the degree of soil and crop humidity. On the automorphic soil there was revealed a tendency of increased transition of 137Cs into grain and green mass after application of subsurface surface soil tillage system

  19. A skilful prediction scheme for West China autumn precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Song, Wenling; Dong, Wenjie; Ke, Zongjian; Sun, Linhai; Wen, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    West China is one of the country's largest precipitation centres in autumn. This region's agriculture and people are highly vulnerable to the variability in the autumn rain. This study documents that the water vapour for West China autumn precipitation (WCAP) is from the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea and the Western Pacific. A strong convergence of the three water vapour transports (WVTs) and their encounter with the cold air from the northern trough over Lake Barkersh-Lake Baikal result in the intense WCAP. Three predictors in the preceding spring or summer are identified for the interannual variability of WCAP: (1) sea surface temperature in the Indo-Pacific warm pool in summer, (2) soil moisture from the Hexi Corridor to the Hetao Plain in summer and (3) snow cover extent over East Europe and West Siberian in spring. The cold SSTAs contribute to an abnormal regional meridional circulation and intensified WVTs. The wet soil results in greater air humidity and anomalous southerly emerging over East Asia. Reduced snow cover stimulates a Rossby wave train that weakens the cold air, favouring autumn rainfall in West China. The three predictors, which demonstrate the influences of air-sea interaction, land surface processes and the cryosphere on the WCAP, have clear physical significance and are independent with each other. We then develop a new statistical prediction model with these predictors and the multilinear regression analysis method. The predicted and observed WCAP shows high correlation coefficients of 0.63 and 0.51 using cross-validation tests and independent hindcasts, respectively.

  20. Levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with direct sowing soybean cultivation in north pampasic region of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzzo, Pablo J. [Grupo Materiales Polimericos, INIFTA - Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (UNLP-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, CC 16 Suc 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Porta, Atilio A. [CIMA - Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Division Quimica Analitica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: aporta@quimica.unlp.edu.ar; Ronco, Alicia E. [CIMA - Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    Levels of glyphosate were determined in water, soil and sediment samples from a transgenic soybean cultivation area located near to tributaries streams of the Pergamino-Arrecifes system in the north of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Field work took into account both the pesticide application and the rains occurring after applications. The pesticide was analysed by HPLC-UV detection, previous derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl). In addition, SoilFug multimedia model was used to analyse the environmental distribution of the pesticides. In the field, levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg/L, while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg/Kg. Temporal variation of glyphosate levels depended directly on the time of application and the rain events. The results obtained from the application of the model are in accordance with the values found in the field. - Glyphosate concentrations in the environment from a region where little information exists about this and intensive cultivation activities predominate in large areas.

  1. Levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with direct sowing soybean cultivation in north pampasic region of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruzzo, Pablo J.; Porta, Atilio A.; Ronco, Alicia E.

    2008-01-01

    Levels of glyphosate were determined in water, soil and sediment samples from a transgenic soybean cultivation area located near to tributaries streams of the Pergamino-Arrecifes system in the north of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Field work took into account both the pesticide application and the rains occurring after applications. The pesticide was analysed by HPLC-UV detection, previous derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl). In addition, SoilFug multimedia model was used to analyse the environmental distribution of the pesticides. In the field, levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg/L, while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg/Kg. Temporal variation of glyphosate levels depended directly on the time of application and the rain events. The results obtained from the application of the model are in accordance with the values found in the field. - Glyphosate concentrations in the environment from a region where little information exists about this and intensive cultivation activities predominate in large areas

  2. Recovering greater fungal diversity from pristine and diesel fuel contaminated Sub-Antarctic soil through cultivation using a high and a novel low nutrient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Carlene Ferrari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel cultivation strategies for bacteria are widespread and are well described for recovering greater diversity from the hitherto unculturable majority. While similar approaches have not been demonstrated for fungi it has been suggested that of the 1.5 million estimated species less than 5% have been recovered into pure culture. Fungi are known to be involved in many degradative processes, including the breakdown of hydrocarbons, and it has been speculated that in Polar Regions they contribute significantly to bioremediation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. Given the biotechnological potential of fungi there is a need to increase efforts for greater species recovery, particularly from extreme environments such as sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. In this study, like the hitherto unculturable bacteria, high concentrations of nutrients selected for predominantly different species to that recovered using low nutrient media. By combining both approaches to cultivation from contaminated and non-contaminated soils, 99 fungal species were recovered, including 42 yet unidentified species, several of which were isolated from soils containing high concentrations of diesel fuel. These novel species will now be characterized for their potential role in hydrocarbon degradation.

  3. Effects of long-term Salix cultivation on total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jan; Ledin, S.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the project was to study how total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil are affected by the large amounts of Cadmium that are removed during the harvesting of Salix. Eight long-term Salix plantations, 8-30 years old, were chosen. At each place soil samples were taken in 4 areas in the stands of Salix and in 4 neighbouring areas with comparable soil conditions, but without Salix (reference areas). Cd in three fractions of different bonding strength were determined in the soil samples. The fractions roughly correspond to the total concentration, the exchangeable fraction, and the fraction dissolved in the soil solution. The result showed a relatively minor effect of the Salix plantation on the total concentrations. In six of eight cases, however, the concentrations tended to be lower in the Salix plantations than in the reference areas. When consideration was given to certain pH differences, the exchangeable, and particularly the most soluble fraction, showed a clear tendency for concentrations to be lower in the Salix stands than in the reference areas.The concentrations in stem samples from growing stands were generally lower than those measured in harvest-mature stems in other studies. The concentrations in foliage were of the same magnitude as those in the stems, implying that there is an important return of Cd to the soil at leaf-fall. The negligible effect on the total content in the soil may depend on uptake occurring both in the topsoil and in the subsoil. Re-circulation via the leaves will also result in redistribution of Cd from the subsoil to the topsoil, compensating the uptake from the topsoil. The conclusion reached was that Salix cultivation results in a reduction of the plant-available Cd in the soil, but the effect is not concentrated to the topsoil. 13 refs, 5 tabs, 4 figs

  4. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Yanchenko; A. V. Malyshev; S. N. Sakhnov; N. V. Fedotova; O. Yu. Orlova; I. V. Grishenko; Z. A. Exuzyan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes) were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day), cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day), and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day). Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day). 10 controls (20 eyes) were ...

  5. A study of soil erosion on a steep cultivated slope in the Mt. Gongga region near Luding, Sichuan, China, using the 137Cs technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.B.; Wen, A.B.; Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation of soil erosion on a steep cultivated slope in the Mt Gongga region of the Upper Yangtze River Basin, Southwest China, using the 137 Cs technique. The effective 137 Cs reference inventory for the study field, estimated from the bottom layer of a 137 Cs depth profile at the deposition zones, is 2373.9 Bq/m2, accounting for 65.8% the local 137 Cs reference inventory of 3607.7 Bq/m2. It strongly indicates that a considerable amount of 137 Cs input was lost prior to incorporation into the ploughing layer from the study field during the nuclear weapons testing period because of 137 Cs surface enrichment. The average erosion rate is estimated to be 4914 t/km 2 yr for a typical cultivated steep slope with an angle of 34 deg at the subtropical zone in the Mt Gongga region. It can reach to 22856 t/km 2 yr for a failure slope under cultivation. (author)

  6. Validating the use of 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion represents an important threat to the long-term sustainability of agriculture and forestry in many areas of the world, including southern Italy. Numerous models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution, based on the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management. However, there remains an important need for empirical measurements to provide a basis for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures as well as to support specific investigations and experiments. In this context, erosion plots provide useful information on gross rates of soil loss, but are unable to document the efficiency of the onward transfer of the eroded sediment within a field and towards the stream system, and thus net rates of soil loss from larger areas. The use of environmental radionuclides, particularly caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and excess lead-210 ((210)Pb(ex)), as a means of estimating rates of soil erosion and deposition has attracted increasing attention in recent years and the approach has now been recognised as possessing several important advantages. In order to provide further confirmation of the validity of the estimates of longer-term erosion and soil redistribution rates provided by (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements, there is a need for studies aimed explicitly at validating the results obtained. In this context, the authors directed attention to the potential offered by a set of small erosion plots located near Reggio Calabria in southern Italy, for validating estimates of soil loss provided by (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements. A preliminary assessment suggested that, notwithstanding the limitations and constraints involved, a worthwhile investigation aimed at validating the use of (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land could be undertaken. The results demonstrate a close consistency between the measured rates of soil

  7. Assessing the bioavailability of dissolved organic phosphorus in pasture and cultivated soils treated with different rates of nitrogen fertiliser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDowell, R.W.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    A proportion of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in soil leachates is readily available for uptake by aquatic organisms and, therefore, can represent a hazard to surface water quality. A study was conducted to characterise DOP in water extracts and soil P fractions of lysimeter soils (pasture

  8. Impacts of pine species, stump removal, cultivation, and fertilization on soil properties half a century after planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Felipe G Sanchez; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the long-term effects of species selection and forest management practices on soil quality and soil C retention, we analyzed soil samples from an experimental planting of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), longleaf ((Pinus palustris Mill.), and slash ((Pinus elliottii Engelm.) pines under...

  9. Effect of aggregate size and superficial horizon differentiation on the friability index of soils cultivated with sugar cane: a multivariate approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Alvaro Avila P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil friability is a physical property that provides valuable information for minimizing energy consumption during soil tillage and for preparing the edaphic medium for plant development. Its quantitative determination is generally carried out with aggregates obtained from soil blocks taken at fixed depths of profiles without considering the superficial horizons of the soil. The objective of the this study was to determine the effect of aggregate size and superficial horizon differentiation on the friability index (FI of some soils cultivated with sugar cane in the Geographic Valley of the Cauca River (Colombia, using univariate (CVu and multivariate (CVm coefficients of variation. The FI was evaluated using a compression test with four aggregate-size ranges taken from the Ap and A1 superficial horizons of 182 sampling sites located on 18 sugar cane farms. Of the five types of studied soils (Inceptisols, Mollisols, Vertisols, Alfisols and Ultisols, 7,280 aggregates were collected that were air dried and subsequently dried in a low-temperature oven before determining the tensile strength (TS, which was in turn used to calculate the FI using the coefficient of variation method. This study found that the FI varied with the aggregate size and the soil depth (first two horizons. Only three of the four size ranges initially selected were relevant. The CVm proved to be very useful for the selection of a more relevant value from the confidence interval of the TS from the CVu method for friability and established that the lower limit value (FIi of the TS CVu was the FI value that was closest to the multivariate measurement.

  10. Unifying the functional diversity in natural and cultivated soils using the overall body-mass distribution of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Christian; Maas, Rob

    2017-11-28

    Sustainable use of our soils is a key goal for environmental protection. As many ecosystem services are supported belowground at different trophic levels by nematodes, soil nematodes are expected to provide objective metrics for biological quality to integrate physical and chemical soil variables. Trait measurements of body mass carried out at the individual level can in this way be correlated with environmental properties that influence the performance of soil biota. Soil samples were collected across 200 sites (4 soil types and 5 land-use types resulting in 9 combinations) during a long-term monitoring programme in the Netherlands and the functional diversity of nematode communities was investigated. Using three commonly used functional diversity indices applicable to single traits (Divergence, Evenness and Richness), a unified index of overall body-mass distribution is proposed to better illustrate the application of functional metrics as a descriptor of land use. Effects of land use and soil chemistry on the functional diversity of nematodes were demonstrated and a combination of environmental factors accounts for the low functional value of Scots Pine forest soils in comparison to the high functional value of heathland soils, whereas human factors account for the low functional and chemical values of arable fields. These findings show an unexpected high functional vulnerability of nematodes inhabiting clay-rich soils in comparison to sandy soils and support the notion that soil C:N ratio is a major driver of biodiversity. The higher the C:N ratio, the higher the overall diversity, as soil nematodes cope better with nutrient-poor agroecosystems under less intense fertilization. A trait-based way focusing on size distribution of nematodes is proposed to maintain environmental health by monitoring the overall diversity in soil biota, keeping agriculture and forestry sustainable.

  11. Effect of Miscanthus cultivation on metal fractionation and human bioaccessibility in metal-contaminated soils: comparison between greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Kleckerová, Andrea; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Douay, Francis; Waterlot, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The in situ stabilization of metals in soils using plants with great biomass value is a promising, cost-effective, and ecologically friendly alternative to manage metal-polluted sites. The goal of phytostabilization is to reduce the bioavailable concentrations of metals in polluted soil and thus reduce the risk to the environment and human health. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating Miscanthus × giganteus efficiency in phytostabilizing metals on three contaminated agricultural sites after short-term exposure under greenhouse conditions and after long-term exposure under field conditions. Particular attention was paid to the influence of Miscanthus cultivation on (i) Cd, Pb, and Zn fractionation using sequential extractions and (ii) metal bioaccessibility using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion test. Data gave evidence of (i) different behaviors between the greenhouse and the field; (ii) metal redistribution in soils induced by Miscanthus culture, more specifically under field conditions; (iii) higher environmental availability for Cd than for Pb and Zn was found in both conditions; and (iv) overall, a higher bioaccessible fraction for Pb (about 80 %) and Cd (65-77 %) than for Zn (36-52 %) was recorded in the gastric phase, with a sharp decrease in the intestinal phase (18-35 % for Cd, 5-30 % for Pb, and 36-52 % for Zn). Compared to soils without culture, the results showed that phytostabilization using Miscanthus culture provided evidence for substantial effects on oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  12. Photosynthesis and growth of young “Niágara Branca” vines (Vitis labrusca L. cultivated in soil with high levels of copper and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Daniel José

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic response and growth of young grape “Niagara Branca” vines grown in soil with high content of Cu and liming. The experiment was conducted in controlled environment with soil subjected to three levels of liming, with 0, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha−1 of lime. The effect of additional 50 mg kg−1 Cu in half of soil treatments was evaluated. The CO2 measurements, assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration were carried out in the tenth cultivation week using the IRGA equipment (Infrared Gaz Analyzer. Plant height, fresh weight and dry weight, concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were measured. For most variables, the Cu had damaging effect on 0 and 1.5 Mg ha−1 liming treatments however, there was no significant damage in the 3.0 Mg ha−1 treatment. Rates of CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were increased with the addition of 50 mg kg−1 Cu. Liming to raise the pH of the soil is an effective practice to reduce the effects of Cu toxicity in young “Niagara Branca” grape vines.

  13. Growth and nutrition of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. cultivated in different rhizosphere soils collected from Tetraclinis stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five representative plant species (Withania frutescens Pauquy, Lavandula multifida L., Pistacia atlantica Desf., Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster (Hoffmanns. & Link Negodi and Tetraclinis articulata [Vahl] Mast. were selected from Moroccan Tetraclinis woodland in order to evaluate their mycorrhizal potential and to compare the impact of their rhizosphere soil on growth and nutrition of Tetraclinis articulata seedlings. We observed that roots of selected plants were highly colonized by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi. Lavandula multifida roots showed the highest colonization percentage (100%. We recovered AM fungal spores from the rhizosphere soils of the five plant species and we found that the spores number from L. multifida and T. articulata rhizosphere was significantly different from that of other plants. We assessed the mycorrhizal potential of the indigenous soils by using the Most Probable Number (MPN approach. We found that MPN in soils collected near the five plant species was significantly higher than the one in the bare soil. The average of MPN per 100 g of dry soil was 11.8 (from 5.6 to 25.0 in the bare soil and 228.5 (from 108.0 to 476.0 in L. multifida rhizosphere. This result indicates that the soil surrounding the target plants can be used as inoculum for mycorrhization. We conducted a nursery experiment in which L. multifida soil yielded a high mycorrhizal percentage in T. articulata plants, thus contributing to improve the plant growth. However, the highest formation of arbuscules in T. articulata grown in Lavandula soil did not significantly affect the growth or the nutrition of plants compared to Tetraclinis soil, except for potassium concentration. Our investigation clearly showed that L. multifida soil can be used as biofertilizer to inoculate nurseries for T. articulata production. This will greatly contribute to sustain Tetraclinis woodland.

  14. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Department of Electromechanics, Renewable Energy Engineering, UTTulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, Fernando [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); C.I.B.A.-I.P.N., Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO{sub 2} from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N{sub 2}O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant

  15. Closure of mass exchange under use of a vegetable conveyer cultivated on a neutral and soil-like substrates as applied to BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander; Ushakova, Sofya

    To increase a closure level of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) including a human a technology of plants cultivation on a soil-like substrate (SLS) consisting in a gradual decomposition of inedible plants biomass under its addition in the SLS was developed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Russia). In the given work the effect of periodical introduction of inedible plant biomass in the SLS on plants photosynthetic productivity and on the closure of mass exchange has been analyzed. Thereupon CO2 gas exchange and the certain vegetables' productivity under their cultivation in a conveyor regime on the SLS and on a neutral substrate with reference to the closure of mass exchange processes in BLSS have been studied in this work. The vegetables Raphanus sativus L., Brassica caulorapa L. Daucus carota L. and Beta vulgaris L. being prospective plantsrepresentatives of the BLSS phototrophic unit were taken as the research objects. The SLS was taken as an experiment substrate and an expanded clay aggregate as the control. The changeable Knop solution was used for the control, and an irrigation solution with the SLS extract was used for the experiment. Rapidity dynamics of CO2 consumption showed sharp distinctions of the ‘plants-SLS' system from the ‘plantsexpanded clay aggregate' system connected with the oxidation processes coursing in the SLS. The intensity of CO2 evolution from the SLS on average was 70% of the total plants conveyor's respiration. Thus a balance between the system's respiration and photosynthesis was often determined by the processes coursing in the SLS. Here the sharp CO2 evolution was recorded after introduction of the plants inedible biomass in the SLS. That peak was gradually coming down during 10-14 days after the beginning of every cycle of plants cultivation that was connected with intensification of plants photosynthesis and drop of decomposition intensity of the biomass introduced. Comparative

  16. Variability and correlation of physical attributes of soils cultivated with cacao trees in two climate zones in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a very important crop in southern Bahia, Brazil, which needs good climate and soil conditions and management for great productivity. In this region, the culture is developed in a large variety of soils, which indicates differentiated products. The aim of this study was to ...

  17. Physiology-biochemical features of the Raphanus sativus seedlings during cultivation in aqueous extracts from technogenic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shupranova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil pollution influence on functional state of the garden radish seedlings is studied. It has been shown that the variability of soil’s mineral composition from different technogenic zones entails active reorganization in a protein system and in antioxidant cell protection from the heavy metals superfluous accumulation in soil as well.

  18. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J. K.; Nørgaard, Trine; Loung, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables......, and tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the field scale for the inert solute transport under a steady-state irrigation rate which produced near-saturated conditions. Sixty-five undisturbed soil columns approximately 20 cm in height and diameter were sampled from the loamy topsoil of an agricultural field...... to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the column...

  19. Harmful potential toxic elements in greenhouse soils under long-term cultivation in Almería (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Bech, Jaume; Gil, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metals (HM) are considered highly significant environmental contaminants and are the object of many scientific research works into the soil environment. Activities like agriculture or industry can increase the concentration of these contaminants in soils and waters, which can affect the food chain. Intensification of certain agricultural practices, constant and excessive use of fertilizers and phytosanitary products, and using machinery, increase the HM content in agricultural soils. Many studies have dealt with HM accumulation over time. Despite these works, the influence of long periods of time on these contents, the dynamics and evolution of these elements in agricultural soils, especially soils used for intensive farming purposes under greenhouse conditions, remain unknown to a certain extent. The western Almería region (Spain) is a very important area from both the socio-economic and agricultural viewpoints. A common practice in greenhouse agriculture is the addition of agrochemicals to soils and crops to improve nutrient supply or crop protection and disease control. Such intense agricultural activity has a strong impact, which may have negative repercussions on both these greenhouse soils and the environment. A research has been carried out to determine the total and available levels of six harmful potentially toxic elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Co), and to assess long-term variations in the greenhouse soils of western Almeria. The results indicate that managing soils in the greenhouse preparation stage determines major changes in total and available HM contents. Furthermore, Cd, Cu and Pb enrichment in soil was observed depending on the element and years of growth.

  20. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet; Delas; Delmas; Demias; Flanzy; Benard; Puyaubert; Fioramonti; Marty; Barbier; Le Blaye; Michon

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  1. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet,; Delas,; Delmas,; Demias,; Flanzy,; Benard,; Puyaubert,; Fioramonti,; Marty,; Barbier,; Blaye, Le; Michon,

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  2. Disposal of Low-Activity Waste and Accumulation in Cultivated Soils; Rejets d'Effluents Faiblement Radioactifs et Accumulation dans les Sols Cultives; 0416 0418 0414 ; Desechos y Efluentes de Baja Actividad: Su Acumulacion en los Terrenos Cultivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, G. [Station Centrale d' Agronomie, Versailles (France); Michon, G. [Service d' Hygiene Atomique et de Radiopathologie, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The paper describes a method of accumulating long-lived radioisotopes in soils and calculating the maximum contamination they would cause in vegetables grown on these soils. The authors suggest a way of expressing this contamination and a formula by which the maximum contamination of one kilogramme of the harvested produce in relation to the tolerated contamination per litre of irrigation water could be calculated. (author) [French] L'article decrit une methode destinee a prevoir l'accumulation des radioelements de longue periode dans les sols et a chiffrer la contamination limite qui en resultera pour des legumes cultives sur ces sols. Les auteurs proposent un mode d'expression de cette contamination et une formule qui permettrait de calculer la contamination limite d'un kg de produit recolte par rapport a la contamination toleree d'un litre d'eau d'irrigation. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describe un metodo para evaluar la acumulacion de los radioelementos de periodo largo en los terrenos y para calcular la contaminacion limite resultante para las hortalizas cultivadas en dichos terrenos. Los autores proponen un metodo para expresar dicha contaminacion y una formula que permita determinar la contaminacion limite de un kilogramo de producto cosechado en funcion de la contaminacion admisible por litre de agua de riego. (author) [Russian] V stat'e opisyvaetsja metod, pozvoljajushhij predvidet' nakoplenie dolgozhivushhih radioaktivnyh izotopov v pochve i opredeljat' predel'nyj uroven' vytekajushhego iz jetogo zarazhenija dlja ovoshhej, vyrashhivaemyh na jetih zemljah. Avtory stat'i predlagajut metod vyrazhenija jetogo zarazhenija i formulu, pozvoljajushhuju vychislit' predel'nyj uroven' zarazhenija odnogo kilogramma ovoshhej po otnosheniju k dopustimomu urovnju zarazhenija odnogo litra oroshajushhej vody. (author)

  3. ORGANIC CARBON AND CARBON STOCK: RELATIONS WITH PHYSICAL INDICATORS AND SOIL AGGREGATION IN AREAS CULTIVATED WITH SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tolentino de Lima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon and carbon stock influence, directly or indirectly, most of soil aggregate stability indicators. The objective of this study was to quantify the production of dry biomass (DB, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon stock (CStk in soil, and to evaluate their influence on some indicators of aggregation in an Oxisol at a Cerrado biome in Uberaba-MG, Brazil. The design was completely randomized blocks, in two evaluation periods: three and six cuts, at six depths (0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, 0.2-0.3, 0.3-0.4, 0.4-0.5 and 0.5-0.6 m. It was evaluated: soil density (SD, volumetric humidity (VH, aggregate stability index (AEI, weighted mean diameter (WDA, mean diameter (GDA, index of aggregates with diameter greater than 2 mm (AI and sensitivity index (SI, replicated by 4. The best AEI of the soil and the highest TOC contents were found in the most superficial layers, 0 to 0.2 m, for both cuttings. The greater values of TOC and CStk, occurred at the sixth cut area, where there was a higher amount of DB on soil surface. The higher levels of organic matter did not provide higher AEI in the area of sixth cut, when compared to that of the third cut. The TOC and CStk levels in both areas generally had a positive influence on soil aggregation indicators for both cuts.

  4. Effects of Pheretima Guillelmi Cultivation Time on Microbial Community Diversity and Characteristics of Carbon Metabolism in Vegetable Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Xian-qing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different biological tillage time (Pheretima guillelmi on soil microbial community metabolic functions in different soil depths, we set a location test in vegetable field at Chongming Island in Shanghai to analyze the changes of soil microbial community and carbon utilization abilities (Average well- color development, AWCD by using biolog eco-plate method. The three-year results showed that: Bio-tillage significantly improved microbial community activity, and with the increase of tillage years, biological tillage could make the average AWCD 3 to 7 times higher. The Simpson index and Shannon index of the biological tillage treatments were significantly higher than that of the control. The cumulative increase of 0~5 cm soil layer was 49 and 6.28 respectively, and the cumulative increase of 5~20 cm soil layer was 31 and 2.55 respectively. Earthworm bio-tillage significantly increased the soil microbial metabolic ability of 6 kinds of carbon sources, and increased the carbohydrate metabolism activity. In this study, earthworm bio-tillage is an effective way to increase the microbial activity of microbial soil.

  5. Laboratory degradation studies of 14C-atrazine and -isoproturon in soil from sugarcane cultivated fields under Kenyan tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getenga, Z M; Dörfler, U; Schroll, R

    2009-06-01

    A study to compare the degradation rates of atrazine (6-chloro-N(2)-ethyl-N(4)-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diammine) and isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] in soils from sugarcane fields with different practices of herbicides application was carried out. (14)C-atrazine was poorly mineralized to (14)CO(2) (1.10% +/- 0.22%) after 139 days of incubation in soil without previous exposure to atrazine. In the same soil also with no previous isoproturon exposure isoproturon was mineralized to (14)CO(2) by 7.70% +/- 0.94%. Atrazine mineralization after 98 days was 13.4% +/- 0.30% in soil which discontinued the use of atrazine in 1997 while it was 89.9% +/- 1.23% in soil in which atrazine is currently being used. The isoproturon mineralization values were 7.24% +/- 0.85% and 22.97% +/- 0.96% in soil which discontinued atrazine and soil currently using atrazine, respectively.

  6. The formation of microorganism communities in the soil under the effect of chitosan and runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Pięta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies was the soil with introduced solutions containing 0,1% chitosan. These materials were obtained from the Institute of Chemical Fibres in L6d2 (in the form of a microcrystalline gel and also from the Department of Food Biochemistry and Chemistry of the University of Agriculture in Lublin (in a liquid form,i.e.dissolved in acetic acid. In order to set an experiment in a growth chamber, grey brown podzolic soil formed from loesses and taken from a mechanically treated belt of black fallow was used. The soil (1000 g was watered every 8 days with 100 ml of examined chitosan solutions per pot. Control soil was watered with sterile distilled water. Seven days after each watering, soil samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Then 25 runner bean seeds were sown into each pot. After six weeks of plants' growth the experiment was finished and the number of plants was counted, their healthiness determined and soil microbiological analysis was performed. Regardless of chitosan form introduced to the soil it stimulated the growth of bacteria and fungi, since in these experimental combinations was found a significantly higher number of microorganisms as compared with the control. A particular high increase in the number of microorganism colonies was observed with simultaneous growth of plants and the application of chitosan. A considerable increase of fungi colonies from the Trichoderma genus was found in the soil treated with chitosan in the form ofboth a microcrystalline gel and a liquid. The species of this genus are considered to be antagonists; it affects pathogenic fungi through competition, antibiosis and over-parasitism. An increase in colonies of saprophytic microorganisms, including antagonistic ones of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. was observed in the soil treated with chitosan . On the other hand, in the soil after the growth of bean and treated watered with chitosan only few colonies of Fusarium oxysporum f

  7. Occurrence and distribution of trifluralin, ethalfluralin, and pendimethalin in soils used for long-term intensive cotton cultivation in central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasali, Helen; Pavlidis, George; Marousopoulou, Anna; Ambrus, Arpad

    2017-10-03

    In the present study, a soil monitoring program was undertaken in Greek cotton cultivated areas in 2012. Twenty-seven soil samples were collected from the entire Thessaly plain in early summer of 2012, corresponding to approximately three months (current use of pendimethalin), up to one year (for the banned ethalfluralin), and three years (for the also banned trifluralin), after the last dinitroaniline application. Low but not negligible levels of dinitroanilines were detected, ranging from 0.01 to 0.21 μg g -1 d.w. for trifluralin and 0.01-0.048 μg g -1 d.w. for pendimethalin, respectively. Trifluralin was the herbicide most frequently detected (44.4%). The high historic application of trifluralin and its high persistence and accumulation potential is in line with the abundance of the detected residues. The present data indicate that soil samples contain extractable residues of banned trifluralin, but based on the comparison of the theoretical PECplateau for trifluralin (0.277 µg g -1 ) and the maximum Measured Environmental Concentration, it was concluded that the detected residues should be attributed to previous years' application. The latter suggested the need for continual monitoring of the dinitroaniline family of pesticides, including the banned substances, aiming thus to an improved environmental profile for agricultural areas.

  8. Qualidade ambiental em solo com diferentes ciclos de cultivo do meloeiro irrigado Environmental quality in soil with different growing season cultivated w ith muskmelon irrigated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celsemy Eleutério Maia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O solo é um importante componente do ecossistema terrestre, porque preserva reservas de nutrientes e dá suporte a processos biológicos. Para a preservação desse recurso, é necessário em primeiro lugar saber as condições e os processos que acontecem no solo, obtidos por meio de índices que determinam a sua qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade ambiental em Latossolo Vermelho cultivado com diferentes ciclos da cultura do melão. Foram coletadas amostras de solos de nove áreas com diferentes ciclos de cultivo e comparados com as da mata nativa. Concluiu-se que a qualidade ambiental diminuiu com os ciclos de cultivo, quando comparada com a área de referência de mata nativa.Soil is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems because it preserves nutrient reserves, supports many biological. To preserve this resource and its functions, it is necessary first of all to know the conditions and the processes occurring in it, for example, through the determination of soil quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality in Oxisol cultivated with different growing season of muskmelon. Were collected soil samples from nine areas with different growing season and compared with the native forest. It was concluded that environmental quality decreased with crop cycles when compared with the reference area of native forest.

  9. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and soil aggregation as affected by cultivation of various crops during the sugarcane fallow period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Viviane Truber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Management systems involving crop rotation, ground cover species and reduced soil tillage can improve the soil physical and biological properties and reduce degradation. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of various crops grown during the sugarcane fallow period on the production of glomalin and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Latosols, as well as their influence on soil aggregation. The experiment was conducted on an eutroferric Red Latosol with high-clay texture (680 g clay kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol with clayey texture (440 g kg-1 clay in Jaboticabal (São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized block design involving five blocks and four crops [soybean (S, soybean/fallow/soybean (SFS, soybean/millet/soybean (SMS and soybean/sunn hemp/soybean (SHS] was used to this end. Soil samples for analysis were collected in June 2011. No significant differences in total glomalin production were detected between the soils after the different crops. However, total external mycelium length was greater in the soils under SMS and SHS. Also, there were differences in easily extractable glomalin, total glomalin and aggregate stability, which were all greater in the eutroferric Red Latosol than in the acric Red Latosol. None of the cover crops planted in the fallow period of sugarcane improved aggregate stability in either Latosol.

  11. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, J. K.; Norgaard, T.; Luong, N. M.; Vendelboe, A. L.; Moldrup, P.; Jarvis, N. J.; Lamandé, M.; Iversen, B. V.; Wollesen de Jonge, L.

    2013-02-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables, and tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the field scale for the inert solute transport under a steady-state irrigation rate which produced near-saturated conditions. Sixty-five undisturbed soil columns approximately 20 cm in height and diameter were sampled from the loamy topsoil of an agricultural field site in Silstrup (Denmark) at a sampling distance of approximately 15 m (with a few exceptions), covering an area of approximately 1 ha (60 m × 165 m). For 64 of the 65 investigated soil columns, we observed BTC shapes indicating a strong preferential transport. The strength of preferential transport was positively correlated with the bulk density and the degree of water saturation. The latter suggests that preferential macropore transport was the dominating transport process. Increased bulk densities were presumably related with a decrease in near-saturated hydraulic conductivities and as a consequence to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the column scale have to be upscaled when applied to the field scale or larger.

  12. Magnitude of Annual Soil Loss from a Hilly Cultivated Slope in Northern Vietnam and Evaluation of Factors Controlling Water Erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, K.; Hai Do, N.; Nguyen, T.C.; Egashira, K.

    2010-01-01

    A soil erosion experiment was conducted in northern Vietnam over three rainy seasons to clarify the magnitude of soil loss and factors controlling water erosion. The plot had a low (8%) or medium (14.5%) slope with land-cover of cassava or morning glory or being bare. Annual soil loss (177 to 2,361 g/m 2 ) was a tolerable level in all low-slope plots but was not in some medium-slope plots. The effects of slope gradient and seasonal rainfall on the mean daily soil loss of the season were confirmed, but the effect of land-cover was not, owing to the small canopy cover ratio or leaf area index during the season. The very high annual soil loss (>2,200 g/m 2 ) observed in the first year of some medium-slope plots was the site-specific effect from initial land preparation. Since the site-specific effect was large, the preparation must be done carefully on the slope

  13. Híbridos experimentais de melão rendilhado cultivados em solo e substrato Net melon experimental hybrids cultivated in soil and substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton César de Oliveira Charlo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o desempenho de híbridos experimentais de melão rendilhado em dois sistemas de cultivo. Foram avaliados seis híbridos experimentais (Jab 07#16, Jab 07#17, Jab 07#23, Jab 07#24, Jab 07#26, Jab 07#28 e três híbridos comerciais (Bônus nº 2, Louis e Fantasy, em dois sistemas de cultivo (em solo e em fibra da casca de coco. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições, para cada experimento, realizando-se análise conjunta dos dados. Foram avaliados: massa média do fruto; produtividade; diâmetro médio transversal do fruto; diâmetro médio longitudinal do fruto; índice de formato de fruto; diâmetro médio transversal do lóculo; diâmetro médio longitudinal do lóculo; índice de formato do lóculo; espessura do mesocarpo; diâmetro médio da inserção do pedúnculo dos frutos; sólidos solúveis; pH; vitamina C; rendilhamento da casca; e firmeza do fruto. Pode-se concluir que, para o sistema de cultivo em fibra da casca de coco, todos os híbridos são recomendados, exceto o Jab 07#17, enquanto os híbridos Bônus nº 2, Fantasy, Jab 07#26, Jab 07#28 e Jab 07#16 devem ser cultivados em solo.This work aimed check net melon experimental hybrids performance in two cultivation systems. Six experimental hybrids (Jab 07#16, Jab 07#17, Jab 07#23, Jab 07#24, Jab 07#26, and Jab 07#28 and three commercial hybrids (Bônus nº 2, Louis, and Fantasy were evaluated, in two cultivation systems (soil and coconut fiber cultivation. The statistical design used was the randomized blocks, with nine treatments and four replications, and the data analysis was done together. The evaluations were: fruit weight, productivity, transversal fruit diameter, longitudinal fruit diameter, fruit shape index, transversal locule diameter, longitudinal locule diameter, locule shape index, mesocarp thickness, insertion diameter of the stalk's insertion, soluble

  14. How unusual was autumn 2006 in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. van Oldenborgh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperatures in large parts of Europe have been record high during the meteorological autumn of 2006. Compared to 1961–1990, the 2 m temperature was more than three degrees Celsius above normal from the North side of the Alps to southern Norway. This made it by far the warmest autumn on record in the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, with the records in Central England going back to 1659, in the Netherlands to 1706 and in Denmark to 1768. The deviations were so large that under the obviously false assumption that the climate does not change, the observed temperatures for 2006 would occur with a probability of less than once every 10 000 years in a large part of Europe, given the distribution defined by the temperatures in the autumn 1901–2005.

    A better description of the temperature distribution is to assume that the mean changes proportional to the global mean temperature, but the shape of the distribution remains the same. This includes to first order the effects of global warming. Even under this assumption the autumn temperatures were very unusual, with estimates of the return time of 200 to 2000 years in this region. The lower bound of the 95% confidence interval is more than 100 to 300 years.

    Apart from global warming, linear effects of a southerly circulation are found to give the largest contributions, explaining about half of the anomalies. SST anomalies in the North Sea were also important along the coast.

    Climate models that simulate the current atmospheric circulation well underestimate the observed mean rise in autumn temperatures. They do not simulate a change in the shape of the distribution that would increase the probability of warm events under global warming. This implies that the warm autumn 2006 either was a very rare coincidence, or the local temperature rise is much stronger than modelled, or non-linear physics that is missing from these models

  15. The Use of Adsorbent Materials of Improving the Characteristics of Polluted Soils, Part 1 Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Oil Products, Cultivated with Technical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study are presented in pot experimental variants regarding alternatives to improve the characteristics of soils polluted with 74.12 ± 3.50 g·kg-1 D.M. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH in order to apply the phytoremediation process using technical plants from the common flax (Linum usitatissimum. The harmful effects of TPH polluted soils to plants was reduced by using fly ash from thermal plant as temporary adsorbent of non-polar pollutants, petroleum products. The increase of water retention capacity of the soil was achieved by treatments with indigenous volcanic tuff. The lack of nutrients, based on N and P in soils contaminated with TPH rich in C compounds are completed using sewage sludge anaerobically stabilized. The use of appropriate amounts of fly ash and fertilizer agents in the presence of volcanic tuff caused the formation of strong networks of roots and rich harvests of plants, stems and seeds from the treated soil. The TPH reduction efficiency of TPH polluted soils treated with fly ash (TPH soil: fly ash ratio 12:1 wt. / wt. and anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge respectively indigenous volcanic tuff during one vegetative cycle of crops was in the range of 56.2 - 63.25 %.

  16. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 in cultivable soil by fast and slow pyrolysis-generated biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is a byproduct of incomplete combustion of organic matter, producing a fine, grainy, highly porous material. Benefits of biochar production include generation of bio-fuels, useful soil amendments for fertilizing crops, binding heavy metals, sequestering environmental biocarbon, and reducing...

  17. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen effects on soil CO2 flux from a pasture upon return to cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil CO2 efflux patterns associated with converting pastures back to row crop production remain understudied in the Southeastern U.S. A 10-year study of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé) response to elevated CO2 was conducted using open top field chambers on a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous,...

  18. Metal-free cultivation of Glomus sp. BEG 140 isolated from Mn-contaminated soil reduces tolerance to Mn

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malcová, Radka; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2003), s. 151-157 ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA MŠk OC 838.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * soil contamination * manganese toxicity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.870, year: 2003

  19. Graft union formation in artichoke grafting onto wild and cultivated cardoon: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchera, Alessandra; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Rinaldi, Simona; Crinò, Paola; Temperini, Olindo; Rea, Elvira

    2013-12-15

    In order to develop a non-chemical method such as grafting effective against well-known artichoke soil borne diseases, an anatomical study of union formation in artichoke grafted onto selected wild and cultivated cardoon rootstocks, both resistant to Verticillium wilt, was performed. The cardoon accessions Belgio (cultivated cardoon) and Sardo (wild cardoon) were selected as rootstocks for grafting combinations with the artichoke cv. Romolo. Grafting experiments were carried out in the autumn and spring. The anatomical investigation of grafting union formation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the grafting portions at the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 12th day after grafting. For the autumn experiment only, SEM analysis was also performed at 30 d after grafting. A high affinity between artichoke scion and cardoon rootstocks was observed, with some genotype differences in healing time between the two bionts. SEM images of scion/rootstock longitudinal sections revealed the appearance of many interconnecting structures between the two grafting components just 3d after grafting, followed by a vascular rearrangement and a callus development during graft union formation. De novo formation of many plasmodesmata between scion and rootstock confirmed their high compatibility, particularly in the globe artichoke/wild cardoon combination. Moreover, the duration of the early-stage grafting process could be influenced not only by the scion/rootstock compatibility, but also by the seasonal conditions, being favored by lower temperatures and a reduced light/dark photoperiod. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Olive Mill Wastewater on Soil Microarthropods and Soil Chemistry in Two Different Cultivation Scenarios in Israel and Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Peter Kurtz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although olive mill wastewater (OMW is often applied onto soil and is known to be phytotoxic, its impact on soil fauna is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate how OMW spreading in olive orchards affects Oribatida and Collembola communities, physicochemical soil properties and their interdependency. For this, we treated plots in two study sites (Gilat, Bait Reema with OMW. Among others, the sites differed in irrigation practice, soil type and climate. We observed that soil acidity and water repellency developed to a lower extent in Gilat than in Bait Reema. This may be explained by irrigation-induced dilution and leaching of OMW compounds in Gilat. In Bait Reema, OMW application suppressed emergence of Oribatida and induced a community shift, but the abundance of Collembola increased in OMW and water-treated plots. In Gilat, Oribatida abundance increased after OMW application. The effects of OMW application on soil biota result from an interaction between stimulation of biological activity and suppression of sensitive species by toxic compounds. Environmental and management conditions are relevant for the degree and persistence of the effects. Moreover, this study underlines the need for detailed research on the ecotoxicological effects of OMW at different application rates.

  1. Widespread dissemination of class 1 integron components in soils and related ecosystems as revealed by cultivation-independent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechalke, Sven; Schreiter, Susanne; Wolters, Birgit; Dealtry, Simone; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-01-01

    Class 1 integrons contribute to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in human medicine by acquisition, exchange, and expression of resistance genes embedded within gene cassettes. Besides the clinical setting they were recently reported from environmental habitats and often located on plasmids and transposons, facilitating their transfer and spread within bacterial communities. In this study we aimed to provide insights into the occurrence of genes typically associated with the class 1 integrons in previously not studied environments with or without human impact and their association with IncP-1 plasmids. Total community DNA was extracted from manure-treated and untreated soils, lettuce and potato rhizosphere, digestates, and an on-farm biopurification system and screened by PCR with subsequent Southern blot hybridization for the presence of the class 1 integrase gene intI1 as well as qacE and qacEΔ 1 resistance genes. The results revealed a widespread dissemination of class 1 integrons in the environments analyzed, mainly related to the presence of qacEΔ 1 genes. All 28 IncP-1ε plasmids carrying class 1 integrons, which were captured exogenously in a recent study from piggery manure and soils treated with manure, carried qacEΔ 1 genes. Based on the strong hybridization signals in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to the potato rhizosphere, the abundances of intI1, qacE/qacEΔ 1, and sul1 genes were quantified relative to the 16S rRNA gene abundance by real-time PCR in the rhizosphere of lettuce planted in three different soils and in the corresponding bulk soil. A significant enrichment of intI1 and qacE/qacEΔ 1 genes was confirmed in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to bulk soil. Additionally, the relative abundance of korB genes specific for IncP-1 plasmids was enriched in the rhizosphere and correlated to the intI1 gene abundance indicating that IncP-1 plasmids might have contributed to the spread of class 1 integrons in the analyzed soils.

  2. Widespread dissemination of class 1 integron components in soils and related ecosystems as revealed by cultivation-independent analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eJechalke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons contribute to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in human medicine by acquisition, exchange, and expression of resistance genes embedded within gene cassettes. Besides the clinical setting they were recently reported from environmental habitats and often located on plasmids and transposons, facilitating their transfer and spread within bacterial communities. In this study we aimed to provide insights into the occurrence of genes typically associated with the class 1 integrons in previously not studied environments with or without human impact and their association with IncP-1 plasmids. Total community DNA was extracted from manure-treated and untreated soils, lettuce and potato rhizosphere, digestates, and an on-farm biopurification system and screened by PCR with subsequent Southern blot hybridization for the presence of the class 1 integrase gene intI1 as well as qacE and qacEΔ1 resistance genes. The results revealed a widespread dissemination of class 1 integrons in the environments analyzed, mainly related to the presence of qacEΔ1 genes. All 28 IncP-1ε plasmids carrying class 1 integrons, which were captured exogenously in a recent study from piggery manure and soils treated with manure, carried qacEΔ1 genes. Based on the strong hybridization signals in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to the potato rhizosphere, the abundances of intI1, qacE/qacEΔ1, and sul1 genes were quantified relative to the 16S rRNA gene abundance by real time PCR in the rhizosphere of lettuce planted in three different soils and in the corresponding bulk soil. A significant enrichment of intI1 and qacE/qacEΔ1 genes was confirmed in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to bulk soil. Additionally, the relative abundance of korB genes specific for IncP-1 plasmids was enriched in the rhizosphere and correlated to the intI1 gene abundance indicating that IncP-1 plasmids might have contributed to the spread of class 1 integrons in the

  3. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  4. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  5. Metal and metalloid accumulation in cultivated urban soils: A medium-term study of trends in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2015-12-15

    This study aims to examine the elemental enrichment patterns in low to medium traffic areas over a three year period in Toronto, Canada. Soils were sampled at three locations with different volumes of traffic between 2010 and 2013. A range of elements, including V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Cd, As, Sb and Pb, were measured in acid digested samples using ICP-MS. While the concentrations of Cd, Sb and Pb were found to be relatively low, a significant, albeit small increase in their levels over time was determined for all sites. For the low traffic areas, median Cd, Sb and Pb concentrations increased from 0.18mg Cd/kg, 0.14mg Sb/kg and 12mg Pb/kg in 2010 to 0.38mg Cd/kg, 0.21mg Sb/kg and 15mg Pb/kg in 2012, respectively. For the medium traffic site, the respective levels of Cd and Sb rose from 0.19mg Cd/kg and 0.14mg Sb/kg in 2010 to 0.49mg Cd/kg and 0.28mg Sb/kg in 2012. Median Pb concentrations at the medium traffic site were comparable to those at the low traffic sites (13mg/kg in 2010 and 15mg/kg in 2012). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the existence of two components (rotated), which explained 77% of the variance for all sites: 1. PC1 with large loadings of V, Cr, Co and Cu that likely originate from the commercial soil originally used for monitoring purposes, and 2. PC2 with high correlations between Cd, Sb and Pb, attributed to traffic sources of emissions. The resuspension and transport of more mobile fractions of contaminated dust and soil particles is hypothesized to be contributing to an elemental enrichment of soils located in low traffic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of long-term organic material applications and green manure crop cultivation on soil organic carbon in rain fed area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Sugino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term field experiment on organic material application and crop rotation with green manure crops has been conducted since 1976 at Lopburi Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Agriculture, Lop Buri Province, Thailand, to clarify the effect of organic materials and green manure crop on soil organic carbon changes. The stock change factors that stand for the relative change of soil organic carbon on the carbon stock in a reference condition (native vegetation that is not degraded or improved. Stock change factor for input of organic matter (FI, representing different levels of C input to soil such as organic material application, crop residue treatment and green manure crop cultivation, was computed with the present field experimental results. While the computed FI of "High input with manure" was within the range of IPCC default FI value, some of the computed FI of " High input without manure" was much higher than the IPCC default though it was varied due to the biomass production and nutrient contents of the green manure crops planted as the second crops after corn. Therefore, the FI computed by field experimental results can contribute to more accurate estimation of SOC changes in farm land especially in Southeast Asia because the default FI mostly depends on the experimental data in temperate zones. Moreover, the field experiment has focused the effect of reduced tillage practices on SOC changes and corn yield since 2011. The results of the experiment will be used to compute Stock change factor for management regime (FMG which represents the effects of tillage operations.

  7. Persistência do herbicida sulfentrazone em solo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar Persistence of the herbicida sulfentrazone in soil cultivated with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Martins Garcia Blanco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o comportamento do herbicida sulfentrazone em solo franco-argilo-arenoso cultivado com cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições e três tratamentos de sulfentrazone (0,0; 0,6 e 1,2 kg ha-1, aplicado como pré-emergente. Foram coletadas periodicamente amostras de solo (0-10 cm, em 23 épocas entre 0 e 704 dias após o tratamento (DAT. O comportamento do herbicida sulfentrazone foi avaliado por bioensaios usando a beterraba como planta-teste, sendo determinada que para a menor dose (0,6 kg ha-1, o herbicida persistiu até 601 DAT. Para a dose de 1,2 kg ha-1, até o fim do ensaio aos 704 DAT, o herbicida ainda persistia. A persistência do herbicida sulfentrazone no solo é longa e proporcional à dose aplicada.The objective here was to determine the behavior of sulfentrazone in sandy clay soil cultivated with sugar cane. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five replications and three treatments of sulfentrazone (0.0, 0.6 and 1.2 kg ha-1, applied as pre-emergent. Samples of soil (0-10 cm, were regularly collected at 23 times between 0 and 704 days after treatment (DAT. The behavior of sulfentrazone was evaluated by bioassays using sugar beet as test plant, and analysis indicated that for the lower dose (0.6 kg ha-1, the herbicide persisted until 601 DAT. At the end of the test, 704 DAT, the herbicide still persisted for the dose of 1.2 kg ha-1. The persistence of sulfentrazone in soil is long and proportional to applied dose.

  8. Risk assessment, spatial distribution, and source apportionment of heavy metals in Chinese surface soils from a typically tobacco cultivated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiwei; Wang, Haiyun; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jumin; Peng, Yaodong; Li, Xiuchun; Shi, Yi; He, Kuanxin; Zhang, Qiming

    2018-06-01

    The heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields in Jiangxi Province were analyzed, and the mean heavy metal concentrations were 3.55, 0.19, 25.89, 14.96, 0.25, 10.89, 27.80, and 44.00 mg/kg, respectively. Spatial distribution analysis showed that the highest concentrations were recorded in the north-western, south-western, and mid-eastern parts of the study area. The index of geo-accumulation and pollution index indicated modest enrichment with Cd and Hg, which were the only two metals posing a potentially high ecological risk to the local agricultural environment. The health risk assessment showed no considerable non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risks for children and adults from these elements. The principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) found that the variations in the Cr and Ni concentrations were largely on account of the soil parent rocks, but the As, Cd, Cu, and Hg variations in the soil were largely owing to agricultural practices of years. However, the main factor influencing Pb and Zn was atmospheric deposition.

  9. Use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate as applied to closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The technology of ‘wet incineration' of human exometabolites and inedible plants biomass by means of H2 O2 in alternating electromagnetic field to increase a closure of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) was developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). Human exometabolites mineralized can be used in a nutrient solution for plants cultivation in the BLSS phototrophic link. The objective of the given work appears to be the study of use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels processed by the abovementioned method for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The mineralized human wastes were tested for the purpose of their sterility. Then the effect of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels both on wheat productivity and on the SLS microflora composition was examined. The SLS extract with a definite amount of human mineralized wastes was used as an irrigation solution. The conducted experiments demonstrated that the H2 O2 decreasing to 1 ml on 1 g of feces and to 0.25 ml on 1 ml of urine had not affected the sterility of mineralized human wastes. Wheat cultivation on the SLS with the addition in an irrigation solution of mineralized human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of a daily human diet showed the absence of basic dependence of plants productivity on oxidation level of human exometabolites. Yet the analysis of the microflora composition of the irrigation solutions demonstrated its dependence on the oxidation level of the exometabolites introduced. The amount of yeast-like fungi increased in 20 times in the solutions containing less oxidized exometabolites in comparison with the variant in which the human wastes were subjected to a full-scale oxidation. Besides, the solutions with less oxidized exometabolites displayed a bigger content of plant pathogenic bacteria and denitrifies. Consequently the

  10. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter

    2015-08-05

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season.

  11. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Iaşi contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7

  12. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  13. Efeito do cultivo da soja na dinâmica da população bacteriana, em solos de cerrado Effects of soybean cultivation on the bacterial population dynamics in cerrado soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO CARLOS PEREIRA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência do cultivo da soja sobre a dinâmica da população bacteriana, em dois solos de Cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, originalmente cobertos com Paspalum notatum (em Barretos e Brachiaria decumbens (em S��o Carlos. Nesses solos, a densidade da população de bactérias em geral variou de 398,1 x 10³ a 467,7 x 10³ e de 123 x 10³ a 218,8 x 10³ ufc (unidades formadoras de colônias/g de solo seco, respectivamente. O cultivo da soja, em ambos os solos, resultou em incrementos variados nos números de ufc/g de solo seco da população de bactérias em geral, das resistentes aos antibióticos estreptomicina e cloranfenicol, e de actinomicetos. A população de actinomicetos ocorreu no solo principalmente como esporos, e as variações das relações esporos/hifas entre os solos não-rizosférico e rizosférico não foram significativas. Os resultados evidenciam que o cultivo da soja influenciou de forma diferenciada a população desses solos.The effect of soybean cultivation on the population dynamics of the bacterial community was evaluated in two "Cerrado" soils of São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental areas, in the vicinities of the cities of São Carlos and Barretos, were previously cultivated, respectively, with Paspalum notatum and Brachiaria decumbens. The bacterial population densities in these soils varied from 398.1 x 10³ to 467.7 x 10³ cfu (colony forming units and from 123 x 10³ to 218.8 x 10³ cfu/g of dried soil, respectively, in São Carlos and Barretos soils. Soybean cultivation in both soils resulted in increments in the total bacterial population density, in the actinomycetes population, and in the bacterial population resistant to the antibiotics streptomycin and chloramphenicol. Actinomycetes were present in these soils mainly as spores. Soybean cultivation did not alter the actinomycetes spores/hyphae ratio when comparing rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils

  14. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 9, Autumn 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Peters, Jr. Production Coordinator Calvin B. Kelley Senior Copy Editor Justin Burkhart Editorial Intern (Summer 1995) The Typography and Design ...J. Rokke ■ C O N T E N T S 2 JFQ / Autumn 1995 ■ O U T O F J O I N T 24 Jointness by Design , Not Accident by Michael C. Vitale ■ J F Q F O R U M...take power, or Iran and Iraq have a free hand, U.S. interests would suffer a serious setback. These factors have altered the region’s geo- graphic

  15. Proceedings of the KNS 2016 Autumn Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-10-15

    This proceedings contains articles of 2016 autumn meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on Oct. 26-28 in Kyungju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C, human factors and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  16. VITAMINS’ DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN DURING AUTUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Gromova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal provision with vitamins is widely spread among children. Its significance, to a considerable degree, is determined by season, and the most active forming of vitamins’ insufficiency occurs in the beginning of autumn. The necessity of correction of these states is assigned with the fact that the most of the vitamins are water-soluble, and organism can’t accumulate it. The administration of vitamin complexes allows achieving proper compensation of present vitamins’ insufficiency, and to prevent its development in future.Key words: children, vitamins, insufficiency, season.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(5:111-114

  17. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Carvalho Jr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  18. Soil organic carbon changes in the cultivation of energy crops: Implications for GHG balances and soil quality for use in LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Miguel; Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Clift, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of different land-use systems for energy, up to the farm or forest 'gate', has been quantified with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Four representative crops are considered: OilSeed Rape (OSR), Miscanthus, Short-Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and forest residues. The focus of the LCA is on changes in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) but energy use, emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs), acidification and eutrophication are also considered. In addition to providing an indicator of soil quality, changes in SOC are shown to have a dominant effect on total GHG emissions. Miscanthus is the best land-use option for GHG emissions and soil quality as it sequesters C at a higher rate than the other crops, but this has to be weighed against other environmental impacts where Miscanthus performs worse, such as acidification and eutrophication. OSR shows the worst performance across all categories. Because forest residues are treated as a by-product, their environmental impacts are small in all categories. The analysis highlights the need for detailed site-specific modelling of SOC changes, and for consequential LCAs of the whole fuel cycle including transport and use.

  19. Influence of Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation and phosphorus application on growth and arsenic accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivated on an arsenic-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, I; Beone, G M; Gonnelli, C

    2015-05-01

    Southern Tuscany (Italy) is characterized by extensive arsenic (As) anomalies, with concentrations of up to 2000 mg kg soil(-1). Samples from the location of Scarlino, containing about 200 mg kg(-1) of As, were used to study the influence of the inoculation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis, previously known as Glomus intraradices) and of phosphorus (P) application, separately and in combination, on As speciation in the rhizosphere of Zea mays on plant growth and As accumulation. Also, P distribution in plant parts was investigated. Each treatment produced a moderate rise of As(III) in the rhizosphere, increased As(III) and lowered As(V) concentration in shoots. P treatment, alone or in combination with AM, augmented the plant biomass. The treatments did not affect total As concentration in the shoots (with all the values <1 mg kg(-1) dry weight), while in the roots it was lowered by P treatment alone. Such decrease was probably a consequence of the competition between P and As(V) for the same transport systems, interestingly nullified by the combination with AM treatment. P concentration was higher with AM only in both shoots and roots. Therefore, the obtained results can be extremely encouraging for maize cultivation on a marginal land, like the one studied.

  20. Influence of sewage sludge compost applications on uptake of element by cultivated crops in a brown forest soil. Measurement by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Nogawa, Norio; Kawate, Minoru; Sawahata, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the absorption of various elements into oats and carrots cultivated in brown forest soil after three years' applications of chemical fertilizer and two types of sewage sludge compost mixed with sawdust (SD compost) or rice husk (RH compost). The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows. 1) The application of SD compost led to a significant increase on the concentrations of Mn, Zn, Ag and Ba in oat root, of Zn and Br in oat shoot, of Cl and Zn in oat ears, of Mg, Sc, Mn, Zn, Br, Ba and La in carrot peel, of Mn, Fe, Co and Zn in carrot edible portion and of Na, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co and Sm in carrot shoot. 2) The application of RH compost increased the concentrations of Mn, Zn, and Ag in oat root, of K, Cr, Mn, Zn and Br in oat shoot, of Zn and Br in oat ears, of Mg, Mn and Br in carrot peel, of Cl, Mn, Zn and Br in carrot edible portion and of Na, Mn, Zn, Br and Sm in carrot shoot. (author)

  1. Estimating the Consequences of Fire Exclusion for Food Crop Production, Soil Fertility, and Fallow Recovery in Shifting Cultivation Landscapes in the Humid Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgrove, Lindsey; Hauser, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    In the Congo Basin, smallholder farmers practice slash-and-burn shifting cultivation. Yet, deliberate burning might no longer be sustainable under reduced fallow scenarios. We synthesized data from the Forest Margins Benchmark Area (FMBA), comprising 1.54 million hectares (ha), in southern Cameroon and assessed the impact of fire exclusion on yield, labor inputs, soil fertility, ecosystem carbon stocks, and fallow recovery indicators in two common field types (plantain and maize) under both current and reduced fallow scenarios. While we could not distinguish between impacts of standard farmer burning practice and fire exclusion treatments for the current fallow scenario, we concluded that fire exclusion would lead to higher yields, higher ecosystem carbon stocks as well as potentially faster fallow recovery under the reduced fallow scenario. While its implementation would increase labor requirements, we estimated increased revenues of 421 and 388 US ha-1 for plantain and maize, respectively. Applied to the FMBA, and assuming a 6-year reduced fallow scenario, fire exclusion in plantain fields would potentially retain 240,464 Mg more ecosystem carbon, comprising topsoil carbon plus tree biomass carbon, than standard farmer practice. Results demonstrate a potential "win-win scenario" where yield benefits, albeit modest, and conservation benefits can be obtained simultaneously. This could be considered as a transitional phase towards higher input use and thus higher yielding systems.

  2. Olive Cultivation, its Impact on Soil Erosion and its Progression into Yield Impacts in Southern Spain in the Past as a Key to a Future of Increasing Climate Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a review of the current situation regarding the impact of olive cultivation in Southern Spain (Andalusia on soil degradation processes and its progression into yield impacts, due to diminishing soil profile depth and climate change in the sloping areas where it is usually cultivated. Finally, it explores the possible implications in the regional agricultural policy these results might have. It tries to show how the expansion and intensification of olive cultivation in Andalusia, especially since the late 18th century, had as a consequence an acceleration of erosion processes that can be identified by several indicators and techniques. Experimental and model analysis indicates that the rate of soil erosion accelerated since the expansion of mechanization in the late 1950s. In addition, that unsustainable erosion rates have prevailed in the region since the shift to a more intense olive cultivation systems by the end of the 17th Century. Although agroenvironmental measures implemented since the early 2000s have reduced erosion rates, they are still unsustainably high in a large fraction of the olive area in the region. In the case of olive orchards located in steeper areas with soils of lower water-holding capacity (due to coarse texture and stone content, cumulative erosion has already had a high impact on reducing their potential productivity. This is one of the factors that contributes towards increasing the gap between these less intensified orchards in the mountainous areas and those in the hilly areas with more gentle slopes, such as for instance the lower stretches of the Guadalquivir River Valley. In the case of olive orchards in the hilly areas with better soils, easier access to irrigation and lower production costs per unit, the efforts on soil conservation should be oriented towards limiting off-site damage, since the soil water-storage function of these soils may be preserved in the medium term even at the

  3. Crop growth and nitrogen turnover under increased temperatures and low autumn and winter light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    The rise in mean annual temperatures under the projected climate change will affect both soil organic matter turnover and cropping patterns in agriculture. Nitrogen (N) mineralization may be higher during autumn and winter and may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Our study tested whether...... before the late sowing of wheat caused generally higher levels of inorganic N to accumulate in soil. Despite the higher mineralization under the raised temperatures, at T+8 the late-sown winter wheat was able to reduce soil inorganic N to a lower level than late-sown wheat at the two lower temperatures...

  4. Numerical modeling of the autumnal thermal bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.

    2018-03-01

    The autumnal riverine thermal bar of Kamloops Lake has been simulated using atmospheric data from December 1, 2015, to January 4, 2016. The nonhydrostatic 2.5D mathematical model developed takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes and wind on the lake surface. The average values for shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat fluxes were 19.7 W/m2, - 95.9 W/m2, - 11.8 W/m2, and - 32.0 W/m2 respectively. Analysis of the wind regime data showed prevailing easterly winds and maximum speed of 11 m/s on the 8th and 19th days. Numerical experiments with different boundary conditions at the lake surface were conducted to evaluate effects of variable heat flux and wind stress. The results of modeling demonstrated that the variable heat flux affects the process of thermal bar evolution, especially during the lengthy night cooling. However, the wind had the greatest impact on the behavior of the autumnal thermal bar: The easterly winds contributed to an earlier appearance of the thermal bar, but the strong winds generating the intensive circulations (the velocity of the upper lake flow increased to 6 cm/s) may destroy the thermal bar front.

  5. Foliar and soil application of 15N-labelled fertilizers in the cultivation of common bean and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanicolaou, E.P.; Skarlou, V.D.; Apostolakis, C.G.; Katranis, N.

    1979-01-01

    In two field experiments (one with beans and one with soybeans) during 1977, the influence of soil application of different nitrogen fertilizers and also of foliar application of the Hanway nutrient solution (N-P-K-S) on nitrogen fixation, grain yield and fertilizer utilization was studied. The nodule data for soybeans indicated that urea applied as starter, topdress or foliar spray adversely affected nodule number and weight. Starter (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 had an effect similar to urea, while starter NH 4 NO 3 had slight or no adverse effect. Use of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 or NH 4 NO 3 in the Hanway solution had a strong adverse effect. Yield data of the soybean experiment indicated that urea, applied as starter or starter plus topdress, had no essential effect while foliar spray showed a clear adverse effect on the grain yield of soybean-nod. When (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 or NH 4 NO 3 were used in the foliar spray, the adverse effect was more evident. Non-nod soybean showed slight yield response to topdress N and significant positive response to Hanway foliar spray. In the bean experiment some evidence of positive response to topdress N plus Hanway foliar spray was observed in the non-nod crop, but it was not significant. The utilization coefficient of the applied fertilizers varied with the treatments. The highest utilization coefficient (50-70%), for both experiments, was observed when urea was applied as foliar spray. Application of urea as starter gave low utilization while topdress application gave high utilization in the soybean experiment and low in that of common bean. Under the experimental conditions starter urea was better utilized than starter ammonium sulphate or nitrate. (author)

  6. The scale effect on soil erosion. A plot approach to understand connectivity on slopes under cultivation at variable plot sizes and under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Ferro, Vito; Iovino, Massimo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; González Camarena, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    . Flosi. 2016. Large-Scale Modeling of Soil Erosion with RUSLE for Conservationist Planning of Degraded Cultivated Brazilian Pastures. Land Degradation and Development 27 (3): 773-784. doi:10.1002/ldr.2414. Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C., R. J. Batalla, A. Cerdá, and M. de Luis. 2010. Contribution of the Largest Events to Suspended Sediment Transport Across the USA. Land Degradation and Development 21 (2): 83-91. doi:10.1002/ldr.897. Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C., R. J. Batalla, A. Cerdà, and M. de Luis. 2012. A Regional Analysis of the Effects of Largest Events on Soil Erosion. Catena 95: 85-90. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2012.03.006. Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C., R. J. Batalla, and A. Cerdà. 2013. Catchment Size and Contribution of the Largest Daily Events to Suspended Sediment Load on a Continental Scale. Catena 102: 40-45. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2010.10.011. López-Vicente, M., E. Nadal-Romero, and E. L. H. Cammeraat. 2016. Hydrological Connectivity does Change Over 70 Years of Abandonment and Afforestation in the Spanish Pyrenees. Land Degradation and Development. doi:10.1002/ldr.2531. López-Vicente, M., L. Quijano, L. Palazón, L. Gaspar, and A. Navas. 2015. Assessment of Soil Redistribution at Catchment Scale by Coupling a Soil Erosion Model and a Sediment Connectivity Index (Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees). Cuadernos De Investigacion Geografica 41 (1): 127-147. doi:10.18172/cig.2649. Marchamalo, M., J. M. Hooke, and P. J. Sandercock. 2016. Flow and Sediment Connectivity in Semi-Arid Landscapes in SE Spain: Patterns and Controls. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1032-1044. doi:10.1002/ldr.2352. Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A., M. C. Ramos, and G. Benites. 2016. Soil and Water Assessment Tool Soil Loss Simulation at the Sub-Basin Scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia Vineyard Region (Ne Spain) in the 2000s. Land Degradation and Development 27 (2): 160-170. doi:10.1002/ldr.2240. Masselink, R.J.H., S.D. Keesstra, A J.A.M. Temme, M. Seeger, R. Giménez, J. Casalí. 2016. Modelling Discharge and

  7. Use of human wastes oxidized to different degrees in cultivation of higher plants on the soil-like substrate intended for closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    To close mass exchange loops in bioregenerative life support systems more efficiently, researchers of the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) have developed a procedure of wet combustion of human wastes and inedible parts of plants using H 2O 2 in alternating electromagnetic field. Human wastes pretreated in this way can be used as nutrient solutions to grow plants in the phototrophic unit of the LSS. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibilities of using human wastes oxidized to different degrees to grow plants cultivated on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The treated human wastes were analyzed to test their sterility. Then we investigated the effects produced by human wastes oxidized to different degrees on growth and development of wheat plants and on the composition of microflora in the SLS. The irrigation solution contained water, substances extracted from the substrate, and certain amounts of the mineralized human wastes. The experiments showed that the human wastes oxidized using reduced amounts of 30% H 2O 2: 1 ml/g of feces and 0.25 ml/ml of urine were still sterile. The experiments with wheat plants grown on the SLS and irrigated by the solution containing treated human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of the daily diet of a human showed that the degree of oxidation of human wastes did not significantly affect plant productivity. On the other hand, the composition of the microbiota of irrigation solutions was affected by the oxidation level of the added metabolites. In the solutions supplemented with partially oxidized metabolites yeast-like microscopic fungi were 20 times more abundant than in the solutions containing fully oxidized metabolites. Moreover, in the solutions containing incompletely oxidized human wastes the amounts of phytopathogenic bacteria and denitrifying microorganisms were larger. Thus, insufficiently oxidized sterile human wastes added to the irrigation solutions significantly affect the composition of

  8. Transfer and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in cabbage cultivated on contaminated manure-amended soil under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, D; Vasquez, G A; Muyanja, C; Ryckeboer, J; Geeraerd, A H; Springael, D

    2011-01-31

    Surface contamination and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest (120 days post-transplantation) following amendment of contaminated bovine manure to soil at different times during crop cultivation were investigated under tropical field conditions in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Fresh bovine manure inoculated with rifampicin-resistant derivatives of non-virulent strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium was incorporated into the soil to achieve inoculum concentrations of 4 and 7 log CFU/g at the point of transplantation, 56 or 105 days post-transplantation of cabbage seedlings. Frequent sampling of the soil enabled the accurate identification of the survival kinetics in soil, which could be described by the Double Weibull model in all but one of the cases. The persistence of 4 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in the soil was limited, i.e. only inocula applied 105 days post-transplantation were still present at harvest. Moreover, no internalisation in cabbage leaf tissues was observed. In contrast, at the 7 log CFU/g inoculum level, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in the soil throughout the cultivation period. All plants (18/18) examined for leaf contamination were positive for E. coli O157:H7 at harvest irrespective of the time of manure application. A similar incidence of leaf contamination was found for S. Typhimurium. On the other hand, only plants (18/18) cultivated on soil amended with contaminated manure at the point of transplantation showed internalised E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at harvest. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, the risk of surface contamination and internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest depend on the inoculum concentration and the time of manure application. Moreover, the internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues

  9. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Autumn – a season for renewal

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Autumn is not usually thought of as the season for renewal, but in the world of particle physics, this year is different. Around the world, many of CERN’s old friends and colleagues are moving on and making way for new faces.   In China, Chen Hesheng, who has been Director of the nation’s Institute for High Energy Physics since 1998, is taking up a new position, passing the baton to Wang Yifang. In Italy, Roberto Petronzio steps down after seven years at the helm of INFN, handing over the Presidency to Fernando Ferroni. In the UK, John Womersley has been appointed chief executive of the Science and Technology Facilities Council, taking over from Keith Mason. And in the USA, Jim Siegrist has been appointed to the leadership of the Department of Energy’s High Energy Physics Office following Denis Kovar’s retirement. Earlier in the year, Victor Matveev was elected to be the next Director of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, followin...

  11. Future atmospheric CO2 leads to delayed autumnal senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail Taylor; Matthew J. Tallis; Christian P. Giardina; Kevin E. Percy; Franco Miglietta; Pooja S. Gupta; Beniamin Gioli; Carlo Calfapietra; Birgit Gielen; Mark E. Kubiske; Giuseppe E. Scarascia-Mugnozza; Katre Kets; Stephen P. Long; David F. Karnosky

    2008-01-01

    Growing seasons are getting longer, a phenomenon partially explained by increasing global temperatures. Recent reports suggest that a strong correlation exists between warming and advances in spring phenology but that a weaker correlation is evident between warming and autumnal events implying that other factors may be influencing the timing of autumnal phenology....

  12. Arsenic transfer and impacts on snails exposed to stabilized and untreated As-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeurdassier, M.; Scheifler, R.; Mench, M.; Crini, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2010-01-01

    An As-contaminated soil (Unt) was amended with either iron grit (Z), a coal fly ash (beringite, B) or B + Z (BZ) and placed in lysimeters in 1997. An uncontaminated soil (R) was also studied. In summer and autumn 2003, lettuces were cultivated in the lysimeters and snails were caged for one month. Lettuce As concentrations were higher during the summer, while no differences occurred in snails between seasons. Snail As concentrations (μg g -1 DW) ranged from 2.5 to 7.0 in B, Z and BZ, and peaked at 17.5 in Unt. In summer, snail survival was affected in Unt and Z compared to R and B while no mortality was noticed in autumn. Snail growth decreased only in B, BZ and Unt in autumn. Snail As concentrations suggest a risk for their predators even on the remediated soils. - The addition of beringite along with iron grit into an As-contaminated soil decreases As transfer to and impacts on snails.

  13. PRODUCTION OF LETTUCE UNDER GREEN MANURING WITH Calotropis procera IN TWO CULTIVATION SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÊNIO GOMES FLÔR SOUZA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of vegetable crops is characterized by intensive land use, high input demands and the requirement of strategic management adoption with an agro - ecological approach. In this study, agronomic indicators were evaluated in lettuce fertilized with different amounts of roostertree biomass; fertilizer was incorporated into the soil at distinct times and seedlings were planted in two cropping seasons (spring and autumn - winter in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco state, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized complete blocks with three replications and treatments arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme. The first factor was the amounts of roostertree biomass (5.4, 8.8, 12.2, and 15.6 t ha - 1 on a dry basis and the second the manure incorporation times (0, 10, 20, and 30 days before lettuce transplanting. The variables evaluated in the lettuce crop were: plant height and diameter, number of leaves per plant, productivity of green mass, and dry shoot mass. Maximum productivity and dry shoot mass were obtained using fertilization with 15.6 t ha - 1 . A synchrony between supply of nutrients by green manure and the period of maximum demand by lettuce was observed in the incorporation times of 10 (spring and 20 (autumn - winter days before transplanting. Cultivation in the spring resulted in higher vegetative growth.

  14. Climatology of the autumn Red Sea trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Sudan low and the associated Red Sea trough (RST) are objectively identified using the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset covering the period 1955-2015. The Sudan low was detected in approximately 60.6% of the autumn periods, and approximately 83% of the detected low-pressure systems extended into RSTs, with most generated at night and during cold months. The distribution of the RSTs demonstrated that Sudan, South Sudan and Red Sea are the primary development areas of the RSTs, generating 97% of the RSTs in the study period. In addition, the outermost areas affected by RSTs, which include the southern, central and northern Red Sea areas, received approximately 91% of the RSTs originating from the primary generation areas. The synoptic features indicated that a Sudan low developed into an RST when the Sudan low deepened in the atmosphere, while the low pressures over the southern Arabian Peninsula are shallow and the anticyclonic systems are weakened over the northern Red Sea. Moreover, stabile areas over Africa and Arabian Peninsula form a high stability gradient around the Red Sea and the upper maximum winds weaken. The results of the case studies indicate that RSTs extend northward when the upper cyclonic and anticyclonic systems form a high geopotential gradient over Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, the RST is oriented from the west to the east when the Azores high extends eastward and the Siberian high shrinks eastward or shifts northward.

  15. A Preliminary Study of the Application of Electromagnetic Conductivity Meter on Soil Properties of Paddy Cultivation Areas at Wue Village, Jantho, Aceh Besar District, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan,

    2015-01-01

    Conventional soil sampling is time consuming and requires meticulous laboratory analysis. Hence, mapping of soil apparent in respect to electrical conductivity (ECa) has been developed to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. Such ECa values are represent measures of soil properties. The sensor system, GF Instrument model CMD-4 were used to analyze soil physical properties. This system consists of three important parts, ECa sensor, data logger and Global Positioning System (DGPS) rec...

  16. Bioremediation of recalcitrant chemical pollutant-contaminated soil. Applying edible mushroom cultivation waste to bioremediation; Kinoko kinsho ni yoru nanbunkaisei busshitsu osendo no bioremidiation. Kinoko kinsho no rigunin bunkai koso kassei to takan hokozoku tanka suiso no bunkaino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S.; Oide, E.; Oshima, Y.; Tsuji, H. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    Bioremediation is a viable and cost effective method for soil contaminated with a variety of chemical pollutants. White-rot fungi, with emitted extracellular free radicals, are known to be able to decompose lignin, which is usually nonbiodegradable by most bacteria. The decomposition mechanism has been shown to be attributed, at least in part, to lignolytic peroxidases. We examined a method that utilizes edible mushroom cultivation waste as the microbial source, and found that these waste materials have high lignolytic peroxidase activity and degradated polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sands. (author)

  17. Effect of organic cultivation of rooibos tea plants ( Aspalathus linearis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shoots of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) plants, cultivated organically by small-scale farmers in Nieuwoudtville, are harvested for the production of tea. These practices could lead to decreasing soil fertility. It was hypothesised that soil from cultivated rooibos plots will have lower nutrient ...

  18. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with sulfentrazone by the cultivation time of Canavalia ensiformis = Fitorremediação de solo contaminado com sulfentrazone em função do tempo de cultivo de Canavalia ensiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Madalão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an option for the decontamination of areas that have received intensive applications of herbicide. Determining the minimum period that a species should remain for remediation of the soil is critical for the optimisation of areas to be cultivated without the risks of carryover. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cultivation time of Canavalia ensiformis in soil contaminated with the herbicide sulfentrazone, for the species to remediate the soil to satisfactory levels. The experiment was set up in a greenhouse, using 10 dm3 pots in a randomised block design and a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors comprised five periods of phytoremediation, i.e. cultivation times of the green-manure species of phytoremediator (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days after sowing - DAS, cultivated both with and without the presence of sulfentrazone (400 g ha-1. The species of bio-indicator was Pennisetum glaucum, grown for 42 DAS. During this period the following variables were evaluated: plant height (cm; visual toxicity (%, using a scale from 0 to 100 for the absence of symptoms and death of the plant respectively; and shoot dry matter (g. At 75 days of growth of the phytoremediator species, there was no difference between the soil that received the herbicide application and the soil with no application, for the variables visual toxicity, height and shoot dry matter of the bio-indicator species. Cultivation of C. ensiformis needs to be for a minimum period of 75 days to decontaminate soils with sulfentrazone to satisfactory levels. = A fitorremediação é uma alternativa para a descontaminação de áreas que receberam intensas aplicações de herbicidas. Determinar o período mínimo que as espécies devem permanecer remediando o solo é fundamental para a otimização das áreas a serem cultivadas sem riscos de carryover. Objetivouse com este trabalho avaliar o tempo de cultivo de Canavalia ensiformis em solos contaminados

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Application of Electromagnetic Conductivity Meter on Soil Properties of Paddy Cultivation Areas at Wue Village, Jantho, Aceh Besar District, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional soil sampling is time consuming and requires meticulous laboratory analysis. Hence, mapping of soil apparent in respect to electrical conductivity (ECa has been developed to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. Such ECa values are represent measures of soil properties. The sensor system, GF Instrument model CMD-4 were used to analyze soil physical properties. This system consists of three important parts, ECa sensor, data logger and Global Positioning System (DGPS receiver. This research was aimed to evaluate the relationships between ECa and soil properties as well as the yield of rice (paddy in paddy’s farming fields. One study site was chosen. The sensor was pulled through a plotted area of 0.25 km2. The distribution map of ECa was developed to identify the contrast of ECa. More than 100 ECa of data points were collected in 3-hour for the large plot. The data was later transferred to a notebook computer for generation of ECa maps using Surfer 11 software. According to the data analyses, field and ECa showed positive correlation. The average values of ECa are significantly different between hilly area and drainage canal area signifying differences in soil structure. Soil ECa could provide a measure of the spatial differences associated with soil physical and chemical properties, which for paddy soil may be a measure of soil suitability for crop growth and its productivity. This sensor can measure the soil ECa through the field quickly for detailed features of the soil and can be operated by just one worker. The ECa map provides some ideas for future soil management

  20. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  1. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  2. Timing and duration of autumn leaf development in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmgren, Kjell

    2014-05-01

    The growing season is changing in both ends and autumn phases seem to be responding in more diverse ways than spring events. Indeed, we know little about autumn leaf phenological strategies and how they are correlated with fitness components or ecosystem properties, and how they vary between species and over bioclimatic gradients. In this study more than 10 000 students were involved in observing autumn leaf development at 378 sites all over Sweden (55-68°N). They followed an image based observation protocol classifying autumn leaf development into five levels, from summer green (level 0) to 100% autumn leaf colored (level 4) canopy. In total, they submitted almost 12 000 observations between August 9 and November 15. 75% of the observations were made on the common species of Populus tremula, Betula pendula/pubescens and Sorbus aucuparia. The expected (negative) correlation between latitude and start of leaf senescence (level 2) was found in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. The duration of the leaf senescence period, defined as the period between 1/3 (level 2) and 100% (level 4) of the canopy autumn leaf colored, was negatively correlated with latitude in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. There was also a strong (negative) correlation of the start (level 2) and the duration of the leaf senescence in the early senescing Sorbus and Betula, while this effect was weaker in the late senescing Populus.

  3. Efeito da solarização e biofumigação, durante o outono, na incidência de murcha-bacteriana e produtividade da batata Effect of soil solarization and biofumigation during autumn on bacterial wilt incidence and potato yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Josefina Baptista

    2006-03-01

    disease control with potential for bacterial wilt control. The method should be used during the hot season and depends on weather conditions. It is important to evaluate this method in other seasons, associated with other control methods. Biofumigation is the soil disinfestation through organic residue amendment. During decomposition, these residues release toxic substances to soilborne pathogens. An experiment was carried out during the autumn (May to June, to evaluate the effect of amendment with chicken litter (biofumigation and solarization on bacterial wilt incidence and yield of potato plants. The treatments were chicken litter amendment (20 t/ha, urea (100 kg/ha, methyl bromide application and no amendment (control, all treatments with or without solarization. Weekly evaluations of bacterial wilt incidence permitted to obtain the area under the disease progress curve for each treatment. In infested areas, only methil bromide application reduced bacterial wilt incidence, but methyl bromide application and chicken litter amendment combined with soil solarization allowed higher potato tuber production. The effect of soil solarization associated with biofumigation on potato yield in R. solanacearum-infested areas needs to be better investigated.

  4. First record of entomopathogenic fungi on autumn leaf Caterpillar (Doleschallia bisaltide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanti, A. K.; Sholahuddin; Yunus, A.; Subositi, D.

    2018-03-01

    Caricature plant is one of the medicinal plants in Indonesia to cure hemorrhoids, menstruation, and others. The cultivation constraints of caricature plant is autumn leaf caterpillars (Doleschallia bisaltide). Utilization of synthetic insecticides is not allowed to avoid bioaccumulation of chemical residues. Entomopathogenic fungi is an alternative way to control D. bisaltide. The objective of the research was to obtain isolates of entomopathogenic fungi of D. bisaltide. The research conducted by two steps, which were exsploration of infecfted D. bisaltide. The second step was identification of the fungi. Exploration results of 16 pupae of D. Bisaltide were infected by fungi. Identification done by classify the mcroscopic and microscopic fungi isolate characteristic. One from five fungal isolates were entomopathogenic fungi from Verticillium genera.

  5. Efeito do boro na nodulação da ervilha cultivada em solos de várzea Boron effects on nodule development in pea plants cultivated in lowland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Rogério de Azevedo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do boro na nodulação da ervilha (Pisum sativum L. cv. Torta de Flor Roxa, cultivada em solos de várzea em condições de casa de vegetação, entre maio e julho de 1998. Amostras de Neossolo Flúvico, Gleissolo Háplico, Gleissolo Melânico e Organossolo Mésico artificialmente drenado foram coletadas na camada de 0-20 cm. Essas amostras foram previamente cultivadas com rabanete, e receberam calcário, P, K, S, Cu e Zn e seis doses de B (0,0, 0,25, 0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 6,0 mg dm-3. Por ocasião do cultivo da ervilha aplicou-se apenas K (100 mg dm-3. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x6, com três repetições. Foram cultivadas três plantas por vaso, cujas sementes, na época da semeadura, foram submetidas à inoculação com estirpes de Rhizobium leguminosarum (BR 618 e BR 619. Para verificação da existência de estirpes nativas de rizóbio, cultivaram-se sem inoculação nas sementes, três vasos, de cada solo, que haviam recebido a mesma dose de calcário, a mesma adubação básica e 0,5 mg dm-3 de boro. Aos 45 dias após o plantio, em pleno florescimento, colheu-se o experimento. Não foram observadas estirpes nativas nos solos avaliados. Nos solos Gleissolo Háplico e Organossolo Mésico artificialmente drenado, as doses de B influenciaram a nodulação e a atividade da nitrogenase.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of boron on nodule development in pea Pisum sativum L. plants cultivated in lowland soils under greenhouse conditions from May to July, 1998. Samples of Alluvial Soil, Low Humic Gley, Humic Gley and artificially drained Bog Soil were collected from a layer 0-20 cm deep. The samples were previously cultivated with radish plants that received lime, P, K, S, Cu and Zn and doses of B (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg dm-3. Before pea cultivation only K was applied (100 mg dm-3. The experimental design was totally

  6. Concentrations of some macro and micro plant nutrient of cultivated soils in Central and Eastern Blacksea Region and their mapping by inverse distance weighted (IDW method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine plant nutrients content and to in terms of soil variables their soil database and generate maps of their distribution on agricultural land in Central and Eastern Black Sea Region using geographical information system (GIS. In this research, total 3400 soil samples (0-20 cm depth were taken at 2.5 x 2.5 km grid points representing agricultural soils. Total nitrogen, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, boron, iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents were analysed in collected soil samples. Analysis results of these samples were classified and evaluated for deficiency, sufficiency or excess with respect to plant nutrients. Afterwards, in terms of GIS, a soil database and maps for current status of the study area were created by using inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation method. According to this research results, it was determined sufficient plant nutrient elements in terms of total nitrogen, extractable iron, copper and manganese in arable soils of Central and Eastern Blacksea Region while, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium were found good and moderate level in 66.88%, 81.44% and 64.56% of total soil samples, respectively. In addition, insufficient boron and zinc concentration were found in 34.35% and 51.36% of soil samples, respectively.

  7. Molecular comparison of cultivable protozoa from a pristine and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polluted site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lara, E; Berney, C; Ekelund, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    We compared the abundance and diversity of cultivable protozoa (flagellates and amoebae) in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil and an unpolluted control, by isolating and cultivating clonal strains. The number of cultivable protozoa was higher in the polluted soil; however...

  8. The Influence of Agroforestry on Soil Fertility in Coffee Cultivations : A Review and a Field Study on Smallholding Coffee Farms in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ekqvist, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is, together with cacao, the crop most commonly cultivated under shade trees in order to cope with physiological stress (as drought and sun radiation) and erosion as well as to generate additional income for the farmer. However, today this agroforestry coffee management is increasingly transformed into industrial plantation with little or no shade using varieties that tolerates full sun and can be planted with higher density. This conversion most often brings an intensified use of exte...

  9. Effect of Nitrogen Inhibitors on Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Pasture Growth After an Autumn Application in Volcanic Soil Efecto de Inhibidores de Nitrógeno en las Emisiones de Óxido Nitroso y Crecimiento de la Pradera después de la Aplicación Otoñal en un Suelo Volcánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Vistoso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A range of technologies is available to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems. Among these, applying N transformation inhibitors is promising in reducing nitrous oxide (N2O emissions in both arable and pastoral soils. A randomized complete block design with six replicates was used to quantify the effect of urease (UI and nitrification (NI inhibitors on N2O emissions and pasture production from permanent pasture in an Andisol after autumn-applied urea. The N2O emissions were measured periodically for 8 wk with PVC stationary chambers. Mineral N, DM yield, N concentration, and N uptake were analyzed. Our results show that adding fertilizer (40 kg N ha-1 significantly increased N2O emissions by 281% over the control treatment (P Una gama de tecnologías están disponibles para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero desde sistemas agrícolas. Entre éstas, la aplicación de inhibidores de transformación del N es considerada prometedora para reducir emisiones de oxido nitroso (N2O en suelos de cultivo y praderas. Un diseño de bloques completos al azar con seis repeticiones se utilizó para cuantificar el efecto de inhibidores de ureasa (UI y nitrificación (NI sobre emisiones de N2O y producción de pradera permanente sobre un Andisol después de la aplicación otoñal de urea. Las emisiones de N2O se midieron periódicamente durante 8 semanas en cámara estacionaria de PVC. Se analizaron N mineral, rendimiento de MS, concentración de N, y absorción de N. Los resultados muestran que la aplicación de fertilizante (40 kg N ha-1 aumentó significativamente las emisiones de N2O en 281% sobre el tratamiento control (P < 0,05 y generó 10-29% de reducción de emisiones. Ambos inhibidores redujeron la producción de N-nitrato en el Andisol serie Osorno por detener la hidrólisis de urea o el proceso de nitrificación. Se midieron aumentos en producción (8-13%, concentración N (7-9% y absorción N (46-56% con la adici

  10. The use of coal refuse bike substratoun in cultivate techniques without soils; Utilizacion de los Esteriles de Carbon como Sustratos en Cultivos sin Suelo 2 Fase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Coal refuse poses several problems as regards both their storage and environmental impact: landscape alteration, pollution, high costs, an increasing difficulty in finding appropriate places for storage, etc. Therefore, the companies HUMOSA, HORPLASA and the C. S. I. C. Centre for Environmental Sciences carried out a joint study financed by OCICARBON. This study, completing other ones carried out previously, was aimed at determining the use as both a soilless medium for growing other vegetables than tomatoes and a basic component for container gardening. Then, based on previous experiments, two types of coal refuse were selected: coal refuse from dumps and burnt coal refuse. The characterization of the coal refuse was carried out and the investigation-line was established: (I) the adaption of techniques and know-how obtained up to that moment to the production of kidney beans faba de la granja, green beans and pepper; (II) to study the possibilities of coal refuse as basic components of substrates for container gardening of decorative outdoor plants different from the already investigated conifers in order examine thoroughly the cultivation techniques and, in particular, the methods of fertilization by irrigation. Exhaustive controls were carried out with both types of cultivation using as reference other cultivations with conventional substrates. The results obtained proved that coal refuse can be used as soilles growing medium for vegetables and for container gardening of decorative plants.

  11. Out of sight - Profiling soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial communities affected by organic amendments down to one meter in a long-term maize cultivation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide

    2016-04-01

    Soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial activity in the deeper soil layers are topics not of-ten covered in agricultural studies since the main interest lies within the most active topsoils and deep soils are more time-consuming to sample. Studies have shown that deep soil does matter, although biogeochemical cycles are not fully understood yet. The main aim of this study is to investigate the soil organic matter dynamics, nutrients and microbial community composition in the first meter of the soil profiles in the long-term maize cropping system ex-periment Tetto Frati, in the vicinity of the Po River in Northern Italy. The trial site lies on a deep, calcareous, free-draining soil with a loamy texture. The following treatments have been applied since 1992: 1) maize for silage with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue removal, CRR), 2) maize for grain with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue incorporation, CRI), 3) maize for silage with 250 kg bovine slurry N ha-1 (SLU), 4) maize for silage with 250 kg farm yard manure N ha-1 (FYM). Soil characteristics (pH, carbonate content, soil organic carbon (SOC), aggregate stability (WSA)), and nutrients (total nitrogen (Nt), CAL-extractable phos-phorous (P) and potassium (K), potential N mineralisation) were investigated. Bacteri-al community composition was investigated with Ion PGM high-throughput sequencing at the depth of 8000 sequences per sample. Soil pH was moderately alkaline in all soil samples, in-creasing with increasing soil depth, as the carbonate content increased. SOC was significantly higher in the treatments with organic amendments (CRI, SLU and FYM) compared to CRR in 0-25 cm (11.1, 11.6, 14.7 vs. 9.8 g kg-1, respectively), but not in the deeper soil. At 50-75 cm soil depth FYM treatment revealed higher WSA compared to CRR, as well as higher CAL-extractable K (25 and 15 mg kg-1, respectively) and potential N mineralisation (11.30 and 8.78 mg N kg-1 7d-1, respectively). At 75-100 cm soil depth, SLU and

  12. Biodegradation of glyphosate in rhizospheric soil cultivated with Glycine max, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum Biodegradação de glyphosate em solo rizosférico de Glycine max, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of glyphosate was evaluated in rhizospheric soil cultivated with Glycine max (soybean, var. BRS245-RR, Canavalia ensiformis and Stizolobium aterrimum. After these species were cultivated for 60 days, soil samples were collected, placed in flasks and treated with 14C-glyphosate. After 30 days of incubation, the total release rate of C-CO2 was determined along with microbial biomass (MBC, metabolic quotient (qCO2, and degradation percentage of the radio-labeled glyphosate released as 14C-CO2. A higher mass of rhizosphere-associated microorganisms was verified in the soil samples from pots cultivated with soybean, regardless of glyphosate addition. However, in the presence of the herbicide, this characteristic was the most negatively affected. Microorganisms from the C. ensiformis rhizosphere released a lower amount of 14C-CO2, while for those originated from S. aterrimum, the amount released reached 1.3% more than the total carbon derived from the respiratory activity. The rhizospheric soil from S. aterrimum also presented higher glyphosate degradation efficiency per microbial biomass unit. However, considering qCO2, the microbiota of the rhizospheric soil cultivated with soybean was more efficient in herbicide degradation.Avaliou-se neste trabalho a degradação de glyphosate em solo rizosférico proveniente do cultivo de Glycine max (soja var. BRS245-RR, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum. Para isso, após o cultivo, em vasos, das citadas espécies por 60 dias, coletaram-se amostras de solo, as quais foram acondicionadas em frascos e tratadas com 14C-glyphosate. Após 32 dias de incubação, foram determinados a taxa de desprendimento total de C-CO2, a biomassa microbiana (MBC, o quociente metabólico (qCO2 e a porcentagem de degradação do glyphosate radiomarcado liberado na forma de 14C-CO2. Verificou-se a maior massa de microrganismos associados à rizosfera em amostras de solo proveniente de vasos cultivados com a

  13. Características hidráulicas e perdas de solo e água sob cultivo do feijoeiro no semi-árido Hydraulic characteristics and soil and water losses under bean cultivation in the semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais E. M. dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A região semi-árida apresenta chuvas escassas, irregulares e de secas freqüentes, sendo usual a ocorrência de eventos de alta intensidade. Os solos são pedregosos e rasos, dificultam a prática regular da agropecuária, comprometem freqüentemente a produtividade e tornam esses ambientes vulneráveis à erosão. Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de práticas conservacionistas sob a cultura do feijoeiro, no controle de perdas de solo e água por erosão hídrica, em Neossolo Flúvico do semi-árido, com cultivo de sequeiro. Chuvas simuladas com intensidades de 60 mm h-1 foram aplicadas sobre os seguintes tratamentos: cultivo em nível (N1 com barramentos de pedra entre cada fileira de plantio, no espaçamento de 0,5 m; cultivo em nível (N2 com barramentos de pedra no espaçamento de 1,0 m; cultivo morro abaixo (MA; cultivo em nível com cobertura morta (CM, de palha de feijão; parcelas desmatadas (D e com cobertura natural (CN. Dentre os tratamentos avaliados, verificou-se que a adoção de cobertura morta permitiu, em média, redução nas perdas de solo de 86,91% em relação à parcela sem cobertura, com valores próximos ao da condição ideal de cobertura, que é a condição natural, durante todo o ciclo da cultura.The semiarid zone presents scarce and irregular rainfall with frequent droughts, with the occurrence of high intensity events being usual. The soils are shallow and stony, which limits regular agriculture practice, usually reducing productivity and turning this environment susceptible to erosion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of conservation practices, under bean crop, upon soil and water losses by the hydric erosion, in a Fluvic Neossol in the semiarid zone, with rainfed crop. Simulated rainfall has been applied with 60 mm h-1 intensity under the following treatments: cultivation in contour lines (N1 with rock barriers between each row of plantation, spacing 0.5 m; cultivation in contour lines

  14. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees Mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob diferentes preparos de solo e coberturas permanentes intercalares em pomar de laranjeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a mineralização do Carbono e Nitrogênio devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes coberturas permanentes em pomar de laranjeira. O experimento foi

  15. Indicadores de qualidade do solo em sistemas de cultivo orgânico e convencional no semi-árido cearense Soil quality indicators in organic and conventional cultivation systems in the semi arid areas of Ceara - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdjania Veras de Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade do solo pode mudar com o passar do tempo, em decorrência de eventos naturais ou ações antrópicas. A adoção de práticas de cultivo orgânico reduz o revolvimento do solo, favorecendo a recuperação de suas propriedades físicas e químicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas de solos cultivados com algodão em bases orgânicas e no sistema convencional, assim como identificar as que possam ser utilizadas como indicadores de qualidade do solo. Selecionaram-se seis áreas submetidas ao cultivo orgânico e três ao cultivo convencional para coleta de amostras de solo deformadas e indeformadas, nas camadas de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm. Técnicas de estatística univariada e multivariada foram utilizadas para análise dos dados. Os resultados mostraram que os indicadores físicos e químicos testados individualmente não foram sensíveis para diferenciar as áreas sob sistema de cultivo orgânico daquelas sob cultivo convencional. No entanto, a aplicação de técnicas de análise multivariada - no caso, componentes principais e a discriminante de Anderson - permitiu a distinção entre algumas áreas cultivadas sob cultivo orgânico comparativamente às convencionais, até mesmo as que estavam em transição. Dos indicadores biológicos, a fauna edáfica mostrou-se mais precisa na avaliação da qualidade do solo, distinguindo de forma satisfatória as áreas sob sistema de cultivo orgânico das que estavam sob sistema convencional.Soil quality can change along the time due to natural events or anthropic activities. The use of organic management practices reduces soil tillage and favors the recovery of soil physical and chemical properties. The objective of this study was to compare the physical, chemical and biological properties of cultivated soils under organic system or conventional tillage system. Six organic and three conventional cultivated areas were selected and soil

  16. Simulating trends in crop yield and soil carbon in a long-term experiment - effects of rising CO2, N deposition and improved cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of crop yield and soil carbon in the Bad Lauchstädt long-term fertiliser experiment were analysed with the FASSET model. The model satisfactorily predicted yield and soil carbon development in four treatments: no fertiliser, mineral fertiliser, farmyard manure and farmyard manure plus...... was the use of new crop varieties and/or pesticides, while the increase in atmospheris CO2 and changes in local N deposition were of lesser importance. The rise in CO2 thus only explained 9-37% of the yield increase. The observed and simulated developments in soil carbon were quite different in the four...

  17. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  18. Utilization of peatlands as possible land resource for low-input agriculture: cultivation of Vaccinium species as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Rodima, Ako; Rannik, Kaire; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2013-04-01

    The best way of soil protection is its sustainable and expedient use, which secures soils ecological functioning. Recent years, by exploitation of peat soils for their different use, has raised important issues concerning their input to global climate change as important source of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitters. The dynamics of GHG are determined by different factors as: site specific conditions including hydrology, soil type, vegetation, area management, including meteorological and climatic conditions. Therefore, in this current paper we are presenting the study results were we estimated CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from exhausted cultivated peatland with Vaccinium species and determined the soil chemical composition. For comparision a virgin state peatland was observed. The main goals of the paper are: (1) to present the experimental results of greenhouse gases generation and peat chemical composition (antioxidant activity of peat, C/N ratio, fiber content, water extractable phenolics) relationships on different microsites either on natural plant cover or Vaccinium species cultivation area on exhausted milled peat area; (2) to discuss how peat soil quality contributes to greenhouse gases emission; (3) and what kind of relationship reveals between low input agricultural system in which Vaccinium species are cultivated on exhausted milled peat area. The study are is located in nearby Ilmatsalu (58°23'N, 26°31'E) in South Estonia, inside of which the three microsites are determined. Microsites are different from each other by exploitation and plant cover type. 1). Natural plant cover, 2). Cultivated area with Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum, 3). Cultivated area with Vaccinium angustifolium. The determined soil type according to WRB was Fibri Dystric Histosol. The main part of study focuses on the analyses of greenhouse gases. For this purpose the closed chamber method was used. The greenhouse gas samples were collected from spring to autumn 2011 throughout

  19. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction and analyses methodology by HPLC for determination of diuron and its metabolites in soil cultivation of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josefa Santos Yabe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Diuron, N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-N, N-dimethylurea can be transformed into the soil through the biodegradation of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methylurea (DCPMU, 3.4-diclorofenilureia (DCPU and 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA. This study aimed to optimize and validate a method of extraction and analysis of these substances in the soil by HPLC/DAD. There was extracted with methanol in the bath ultrasonic and analysis in a liquid chromatograph/detector brand Waters. The condition of analysis optimized for separation of analytes was mobile phase methanol: water 50:50 (v / v, flow 1 mL min-1. Wavelength of 240 nm was selected for the DCA and 254 nm for diuron, DCPMU and DCPU. It was used column and pre column Waters Xterra RP18, 5 um, 4.6 and 3.9 x 150 mm x 20 mm. The calibration curve was obtained from the fortification of the soil with the mixture of patterns in the range of 5 mg Kg-1 to 200 mg Kg-1 of soil. The recovery was obtained in two concentration levels of 5 and 200 mg. Kg-1 of soil was between 85 and 99%. The repeatability was 0.78%, 2.20%, 2.17% and 1.72% and intermediate precision was 2.48%, 2.11%, 3.10% and 2.77% for diuron, DCPMU, DCPU and DCA, respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.25 mg Kg-1 soil. The concentration of diuron found in some bioaugmented soil samples ranged from 5.5 to 8.9 mg Kg-1 soil, but was not detected the presence of their metabolites.

  20. Uptake of rare earth elements by dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of uptake of rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated, particularly those by REE accumulator species (autumn fern). Rare earth elements are practically insoluble under natural conditions, suggesting some unknown mechanisms in REE accumulator species. In the present investigation, two notable phenomena were observed. (1) Concerning the ionic-radius dependence of REE uptake by leaves, nonaccumulator species showed an extremely high uptake for Y compared with the adjacent-ionic-radius REEs in the multitracer, while accumulator species showed no anomaly. (2) REE uptake by autumn fern was influenced by the addition of chelating chemical reagents in the uptake solution, while no effect was observed for nonaccumulator species. (author)

  1. The distribution of 137Cs in maize (Zea mays L.) and two millet species (Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) cultivated on the cesium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrzejewska-Nowacka, G.; Nowacka, R.

    2004-01-01

    The plant of three species (Zea mays L., Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) were grown on the soil contaminated with 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137 Cs, in greenhouse. For all the species, the fresh-to-dry weight ratio was equal in the cesium-treated plants and in the central group after 3 weeks of culture. The shoot-to root fresh weight and dry weight ratios were decreased in maize, unchanged in Panicum miliaceum and increased in Panicum maximum, comparing to the control without cesium treatment. The shoot/soil and also root/soil transfer (TF) for 137 Cs (measured by means of Na I gamma spectrometer) were always the highest in maize, then lower in Panicum miliaceum and the lowest in Panicum maximum. All the plants seem to be hyperaccumulators of cesium. The root/soil Tf was especially high in maize, i.e. 55 (kBq kg -1 biomass)/kBq Kg -1 soil). The shoot/root concentration factor (CF) for 137 Cs was the lowest in maize, higher in Panicum miliaceum and highest in Panicum maximum. The proved ability of the investigated plants for phytoextraction of the soil cesium points to the (author). The detectability and reliin soil bioremediation. From this point of view, Panicum maximum seems to be the most useful plant because it accumulates cesium mainly in the shoot, and maize would be the least useful spices since it has the highest accumulation in root. (author)

  2. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Paasikallio

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and serai-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasture; the activity concentration of plants reached a maximum in June, a lesser increase occurred later in the autumn. In 1993, which was considered an average year with respect to 137Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively.

  3. Water and energy balance in the cultivated and bake soil in a montane area in Paraiba, Brazil; Balanco hidrico e de energia em solo cultivado e sem vegetacao, para as condicoes do brejo paraibano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jose Romualdo de Sousa

    2004-02-01

    In the areas of rain fed agriculture it is very important to quantify losses of water by evapotranspiration and soil evaporation. The methods used for measuring evapotranspiration and/or evaporation varies from direct measurements techniques, using lysimeters, to measurements of the water and energy balances. The precision lysimeters have high cost, being only used for research purposes. The water and energy balances methods have been very used due the simplicity, robustness and lower cost. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the water and energy balance components in the soil cultivated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) and without vegetation, besides comparing the methods used to determine the cowpea evapotranspiration. Two experiments (2002 and 2003) were performed in the 4 ha area of the Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, municipality of Areia, Paraiba State (6 deg C 58 S, 5 deg C 41 W). To determine the energy balance, the area was instrumented with a rain gauge, a pyrano meter, a net radiometer, and sensors for measuring air temperature and humidity, and wind speed in two levels. Two locals, in the soil, were instrumented with two temperature sensors located at 2.0 cm and 8.0 cm below soil surface and one heat flux plate placed at 5.0 cm below soil surface. The measurements were recorded every 30 minutes on a data logger. To determine the water balance, three plots were installed, composed one-meter access tube for neutron probe measurements, and 8 tensiometers. The results show very good correlation between the aerodynamic method and the Bowen ration energy balance method, for all atmospherics and soil water conditions. For the two years, in average 72% of the net radiation was used by crop evapotranspiration. The energy and water balance can be used, the determine the crop evapotranspiration and soil evaporation, and regardless of the method used, the major water use by crop occurred in the reproductive stage. In the year of 2002

  4. Growth, Metabolism and Yield of Rice Cultivated in Soils Amended with Fly Ash and Cyanobacteria and Metal Loads in Plant Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra N. Padhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment with fly ash (FA and combined supplementation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria masses as biofertilizer were done in field experiments with rice. Amendments with FA levels, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kg/m2, caused increase in growth and yield of rice up to 8.0 kg/m2, monitored with several parameters. Pigment contents and enzyme activities of leaves were enhanced by FA, with the maximum level of FA at 10.0 kg/m2. Protein content of rice seeds was the highest in plants grown at FA level 4.0 kg/m2. Basic soil properties, pH value, percentage of silt, percentage of clay, water-holding capacity, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content increased due to the FA amendment. Parallel supplementation of FA amended plots with 1.0 kg/m2 N2-fixing cyanobacteria mass caused further significant increments of the most soil properties, and rice growth and yield parameters. 1000-grain weight of rice plants grown at FA level 4.0 kg/m2 along with cyanobacteria supplementation was the maximum. Cyanobacteria supplementation caused increase of important basic properties of soil including the total N-content. Estimations of elemental content in soils and plant parts (root and seed were done by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Accumulations of K, P, Fe and several plant micronutrients (Mn, Ni, Co, Zn and Cu and toxic elements (Pb, Cr and Cd increased in soils and plant parts as a function of the FA gradation, but Na content remained almost unchanged in soils and seeds. Supplementation of cyanobacteria had ameliorating effect on toxic metal contents of soils and plant parts. The FA level 4.0 kg/m2, with 1.0 kg/m2 cyanobacteria mass supplementation, could be taken ideal, since there would be recharging of the soil with essential micronutrients as well as toxic chemicals in comparative lesser proportions, and cyanobacteria mass would cause lessening toxic metal loads with usual N2-fixation.

  5. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  6. Proceedings of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Autumn Meeting 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of 1998 Autumn meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on November 13-14, 1998 in Seoul, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 5 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: general nuclear medicine, neurology, radiopharmacy and biology, nuclear cardiology, physics and instrumentation. (Yi, J. H.)

  7. Proceedings of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Autumn Meeting 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of 1997 autumn meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on November 21, 1997 in Kwangju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 5 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: general nuclear medicine, neurology, radiopharmacy and biology, nuclear cardiology, physics and instrumentation. (Yi, J. H.)

  8. Offshore Seabird Distributions during Summer and Autumn at West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    . During the autumn the numbers of seabirds increase as migrants from local and international populations of mainly thick-billed murre and little auk arrive to spend the winter in West Greenland waters. Huge concentrations of thick-billed murres, common eiders and king-eiders may occur then...

  9. Effect of growing degree days on autumn planted sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) having high degree of adaptability under wide range of climatic conditions, allow the crop to be productive in broad range of environments. Field experiments in autumn were laid out at Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan for two years (2007 and 2008), ...

  10. Report on the Autumn 2011 HEPiX Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Lo Presti, Giuseppe; Martelli, Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    The Autumn 2011 meeting of HEPiX was held at TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada on 24-28 October 2011. HEPiX is a global organization of service managers and support staff providing computing facilities for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics community. The speakers will present a summary of the subjects addressed during the meeting.

  11. Proceedings of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Autumn Meeting 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of 2002 autumn meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on November 15-16, 2002 in Seoul, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 5 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: Cancer, Physics of nuclear medicine, Neurology, Radiopharmacy and biology, General nuclear medicine. (Yi, J. H.)

  12. Proceedings of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Autumn Meeting 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of 2001 autumn meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on November 16-17, 2001 in Seoul, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 6 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: Cancer, Physics of nuclear medicine, Neurology, Radiopharmacy and biology, Nuclear cardiology, General nuclear medicine. (Yi, J. H.)

  13. Bats in Dutch offshore wind farms in autumn 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Haselager, R.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In the autumn of 2012, we conducted a pilot study with ultrasonic recorders to assess the occurrence of bats over the North Sea. At Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) a recorder was installed at the meteorological mast and at Princess Amalia Wind Farm (PAWP) a recorder was attached to the

  14. 45th IGE (Institute of Gas Engineers) Autumn Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, T; De Winton, C

    1980-01-01

    Topics discussed at the 45th Institute of Gas Engineers Autumn Meeting (London, 1979) are outlined, including safety standards and recommendations for gas transmission and distribution systems, gas characteristics and utilization, heat transfer research, gas receiver stresses, the potential of hydrogen as an energy fuel, gas appliances and controls, pipe failure, refactories in gasifiers, synthetic natural gas, coal conversion techniques, and technological innovations.

  15. Cultivar of Gerbera grown in soil less culture on inert substrates with open and closed systems in comparison with a traditional cultivation on soil in beds; Coltivazione di gerbera in idroponica su substrato con sistema di irrigazione a ciclo aperto e a ciclo chiuso a confronto con la coltivazione tradizionale in cassone su terriccio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavi, A [MIRAAF, Istituto Sperimentale per l` Orticultura (Italy). Sezione di Ascoli Piceno; Venezia, A [Istituto Sperimentale per l` Orticoltura (Italy). Sezione di Montanaso Lomabardo; Martignon, G [Centro Ricerca Ambiente e Materiali, Unita` Calore residuo e Biomasse, Gruppo Agritermia, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was the evaluation of the yield of several cultivar of gerbera grown in soil less culture on inert substrates with open and closed systems, in comparison with a traditional cultivation on soil in beds. The trial was carried out in the experimental station at Tavazzano (Milan), in a iron plastic greenhouse heated with the waste water discharged by the local thermo electrical power plant. Two inert substrates (rokwool and perlite) were tested in soil less culture both with an open system and a closed system, based on the reuse of the drained nutrient solution. The cultivars Rosula, Pascal, Queen Rebecca, Horizon, Sunspot e Fleur were utilized, grown with a plant density of 10 plants/mq. The trial started in april 1993 and ended in december 1994. The results have pointed out statistically significative differences in the production of cut flower in the growing systems tested. Plants grown in soil less culture with open system gave a number of cut flowers/plant higher both than those grown on soil and with soil less closed system. Agriperlite gave a better commercially yield than rockwool in soil less culture. The distribution of commercial cut flowers in the three category considered (extra, first and second class) was the same for the all thesis; the not marketable production was lower for plant grown on soil than on both the soil less culture systems. With regard to the response of the cultivar, Queen Rebecca and Pascal gave a commercial yield of about 30 cut flowers/plant higher than Rosula, Horizon and Fleur; the cultivar SunSpot showed the lower yield (17 cut flowers/plant).

  16. Effects of different cultivation techniques on vineyard fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulas, J.; Kutasi, Cs.; Mark, V.; Balog, A.

    2002-01-01

    Green covering compared to soil cultivation enhanced the number of individuals of Araneae living on or near soil. No differences between the different soil management systems were found for the number of individuals of Staphylinidae and Carabidae. The typical main species of the two systems were different for all groups analyzed (Araneae, Staphylinidae and Carabidae).

  17. Simulated herbivory advances autumn phenology in Acer rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkner, Rebecca E

    2014-05-01

    To determine the degree to which herbivory contributes to phenotypic variation in autumn phenology for deciduous trees, red maple (Acer rubrum) branches were subjected to low and high levels of simulated herbivory and surveyed at the end of the season to assess abscission and degree of autumn coloration. Overall, branches with simulated herbivory abscised ∼7 % more leaves at each autumn survey date than did control branches within trees. While branches subjected to high levels of damage showed advanced phenology, abscission rates did not differ from those of undamaged branches within trees because heavy damage induced earlier leaf loss on adjacent branch nodes in this treatment. Damaged branches had greater proportions of leaf area colored than undamaged branches within trees, having twice the amount of leaf area colored at the onset of autumn and having ~16 % greater leaf area colored in late October when nearly all leaves were colored. When senescence was scored as the percent of all leaves abscised and/or colored, branches in both treatments reached peak senescence earlier than did control branches within trees: dates of 50 % senescence occurred 2.5 days earlier for low herbivory branches and 9.7 days earlier for branches with high levels of simulated damage. These advanced rates are of the same time length as reported delays in autumn senescence and advances in spring onset due to climate warming. Thus, results suggest that should insect damage increase as a consequence of climate change, it may offset a lengthening of leaf life spans in some tree species.

  18. Desempenho da cultura do feijão após diferentes formas de uso do solo no inverno Performance of common bean cultivated after different soil use during the winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso e manejo do solo durante o inverno pode alterar as características físicas do solo, a cobertura remanescente e o desempenho da cultura semeada em sucessão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de formas de uso do solo no inverno sobre essas variáveis, semeando-se a cultura do feijão em sucessão, manejada em plantio direto. Na safra 2007/08, foram conduzidos três experimentos na região do Planalto Norte Catarinense, onde foram avaliadas cinco formas de uso do solo durante o inverno: 1 consórcio de aveia preta + azevém + ervilhaca + trevo vesiculoso manejado sem pastejo e sem adubação nitrogenada (consórcio cobertura; 2 o mesmo consórcio, com pastejo e com 100kg ha-1 de N em cobertura (pastagem com N; 3 o mesmo consórcio, com pastejo e sem adubação nitrogenada (pastagem sem N; 4 nabo forrageiro, sem pastejo e sem adubação nitrogenada (nabo forrageiro; e 5 pousio, sem pastejo e sem adubação nitrogenada (pousio. O consórcio cobertura proporciona maior quantidade de palha para o cultivo de feijão em sucessão, mas as formas de uso do solo no inverno estudadas não afetam expressivamente a densidade e a macroporosidade do solo. O uso do solo no inverno com pastagem anual em sistema integração lavoura-pecuária, coberturas de solo e pousio não afeta o desempenho da cultura do feijão semeada em sucessão, manejada em plantio direto.Soil use and management during the winter can affect soil physical properties, reminiscent straw and performance of the crop cultivated in succession. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter soil use on these variables, cultivating black bean under no tillage system in the summer. Three experiments were carried out in the North Plateau of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, during 2007/08 crop season, with five strategies of soil use during the winter: 1 multicropping with black oat + ryegrass + commom vetch + arrow leaf clover without grazing and nitrogen

  19. Variabilidade espacial de perdas de solo, do potencial natural e risco de erosão em áreas intensamente cultivadas Spatial variability of the soil loss, natural potential and erosion risk in intensively cultivated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia de Mello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar a variabilidade espacial do potencial natural de erosão, das perdas de solo e do risco de erosão em duas áreas intensamente cultivadas, com o intuito de fornecer subsídios na descrição de padrões de ocorrência de erosão. O solo da área, localizado em Monte Alto, SP, foi classificado como Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo (PVA, relevo ondulado e sob diferentes manejos. O solo da área localizado em Jaboticabal, SP, foi classificado como Latossolo Vermelho (LV, relevo suave, cultivado com cana-de-açúcar. O esquema de amostragem constituiu em uma malha irregular. Amostras de solo foram obtidas na profundidade de 0-0,2 m, para cada malha: 88 amostras para a área de Monte Alto (1465 ha e 128 amostras para a área de Jaboticabal (2597 ha. Para obtenção dos valores das variáveis estudadas, empregou-se a EUPS para cada ponto amostrado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e geoestatística para definição dos semivariogramas. Para os modelos foi utilizada a interpolação por krigagem. Observou-se a ocorrência de dependência espacial para todas as variáveis. O solo PVA apresentou maiores riscos de erosão, devido ao relevo, uso atual e manejo, comparado com o solo LV.The objective of this work was to identify the spatial variability of the natural erosion potential, soil loss and erosion risk in two intensely cultivated areas, in order to assess the erosion occurrence patterns. The soil of the area located at Monte Alto, São Paulo state, was classified as Paleudalf (PVA with moderately slope, with different managements. The soil of the area located at Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, was classified as Haplortox(LV with gentle slope and cultivated with sugarcane. A irregular grid was imposed on the experimental areas. Soil samples were obtained from 0-0.2 m depth at each grid point: 88 samples in Monte Alto area (1465 ha and 128 samples at Jaboticabal area (2597 ha. In order

  20. Development and application of a selective pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach to detect a recently cultivated Bacillus group predominant in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzeneva, V.A.; Li, Y.; Felske, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vaughan, E.E.; Smidt, H.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide presence of a hitherto-nondescribed group of predominant soil microorganisms related to Bacillus benzoevorans was analyzed after development of two sets of selective primers targeting 16S rRNA genes in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The high abundance

  1. Arthropofauna of soil associated with cultivation Dominico Hartón (Musa AAB in Calarcá, Quindío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Rico Ligia Janneth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the edaphic arthropod community structure associated to a secondary forest in Calarcá-Quindío, and a plantain crop under organic amendments (Necromasa, Compost and under agrochemicals, with two planting distances between plant and plant (1.7m and 2.5m, between June 2013 and January 2014, under the methodology proposed by the Programme Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility; during the analysed period were taken three (3 soil monoliths every month. Were collected 18929 individuals distributed in 52 families of insects, 16 of millipedes, 8 of arachnids and 1 crustaceans. Sampling effort is represented by ACE and Chao 1 estimators higher than 82% for both coverages (crop and forest. In general, there were no differences in the community structure due to the treatments. Nevertheless the arachnid and myriapod communities were substantially affected, while insects were altered by the crop microclimate variation. It is concluded that the type of fertilization and planting distances do not affect the soil arthropods, but modifies the soil microclimatic and biological conditions.

  2. The synergetic effect of moisture protection, substrate quality and biotic acclimation on soil organic carbon persistence along a cultivated loamy hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiaux, François; Vanclooster, Marnik; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    The combination of hydrologic, geomorphic and biogeochemical approaches is required to determine organic carbon (OC) persistence and dynamics within landscapes. Here, we used soil in-situ surface heterotrophic respiration measurement as an indicator of OC persistence along a hillslope (crop field on the loess belt under temperate climate), characterized by an important erosion-induced OC stock colluvium downslope. Along this topographical gradient, we quantified the space-time structure of soil water and temperature, and soil OC amount and quality (from a chemical point of view based on NaOCl oxidation) in relation to CO2 fluxes. We used a Generalized Least Square (GLS) regression model to identify the role of each abiotic factor as well as their interactions on observed soil respiration rates, and to calculate time-average values of these CO2 fluxes at each studied slope positions. We observed significant differences between the observed respiration rates along the topographical gradient (up to 30% more CO2 emissions downslope and 50% backslope, relative to un-eroded summit position). Despite mean CO2 fluxes (standardized at 15°C) at the bottom of the slope are significantly higher (ppedo-climatic ecosystem would be changed.

  3. Distribuição mensal da emergência de seis ervas daninhas em solos com e sem cultivos Monthly emergence of six weeds in cultived and undisturbed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio G. Blanco

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados no período de 14 meses, com início em outubro de 1988, levantamentos demográficos mensais para registro da dinâmica de emergência de seis espécies de ervas daninhas anuais, submetidas mensalmente a um dos seguintes sistemas de manejo da população: grade de disco, grade de disco seguida de rolo compactador do solo, enxada rotativa, e herbicida de contato. Os resultados mostraram que a distribuição mensal da emergência de Digitaria horizontalis Willd. (capim-colchão, Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. (capim-marmelada, Bidens pilosa L. (picão-preto, e Amaranthus viridis L. (caruru-de-mancha, se configurou com um pico de emergência muito alto em outubro (acima de 80% do total emergido no período, com reinfestações pouco significativas nos meses seguintes, e que o manejo através do cultivo do solo favoreceu a emergência dessas espécies. O modelo de emergência de Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. (capim-pé-de-galinha, e Eragrostis pilosa (L. Beauv. (capim-barba-de-alemão, por outro lado, apresentou um grau de emergência baixo em outubro, elevando-se até janeiro quando ocorreu o fluxo de maior pico. O manejo sem revolvimento do solo dessas duas espécies incrementou a geminação dos propágulos do banco de sementes. De um modo geral, quando não se permitiu a multiplicação sexuada, a taxa de população foi extremamente reduzida no ciclo seguinte.In lhe period of October/l988 to December/1989 a research was carried out to study lhe emergence dynamics of six weeds through monthly samplings under four weed managements: destruction of lhe former flora by cultivation with harrow, harrow following compaction by soil roller, rotary harrow and use of a contact herbicide without soil disturbance. The results showed that lhe initial emergence in October is very high for Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus viridis compared with lhe emergence in lhe following months and that

  4. Decontamination Trials for the Bed-Log Cultivation of Mushroom in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Hirano, Yurika; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Murayama, Kazunari [Macoho Co. Ltd., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Suzuki, Kin-ichi [Abukuma Cooperative for Best Use of Broad-leaved Trees (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive nuclear dispersed in environment from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNP) Accident-contaminated forests in Fukushima Prefecture, especially in Abukuma mountainous region located 10 to 20 Km west from FNP. Broad-leaved trees such as Quercus serrata, chestnut tree, oak, chinquapin tree, Japanese beech are widely planting in Abukuma area. Many prefectures in Japan depends on supply of bed-log from Fukushima prefecture, especially Abukuma area. North part of Abukuma mountain area has highly contaminated by radioactive nuclear, however, the contamination level in the south part of Abkuma area was about ten times lower than the north part. The outside (bark, leaves and twigs) of broad-leaved trees was highly contaminated above 10,000 Bq/kg in Iidate and Kawamata villages located the north part of Abkuma ears, 35 to 40 km from FNP. On the other hand, the contamination level of the outside of broad-leaved trees in the south part of Abukuma ears was 100-500 Bq/kg and the contamination of the inside tree was lower than 10 Bq/kg. For the bed-log cultivation of mushrooms using broad-leaved trees, two methods were used in Japan. The mushrooms incubated broad-leaved trees (90 cm of length and 15 cm of diameter) were setting in the lack on the ground in forest from winter to autumn. This method was mainly used for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The second method was used for Maitake (Grifola frondosa) cultivation. The mushroom incubated broad-leaved trees (20 cm of length and 20 cm of diameter) were setting in the ground holes and covered by soil (2 cm) and litters. The maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms harvesting October 2013 at Iidate, the evaluation area, contained 120 Bq/kg, even though the soil on the broad-leaved trees contained more than 20,000 Bq/kg. The outside contamination of broad-leaved trees supplied from the south part of Abkuma ears were washed by the wet blasting. 80 % of radiocesium on the bark was efficiently

  5. A new approach for assessing integrated potential conditions of soil and climate for the cultivation of vines in the Azores Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Sampaio, João; Pinheiro, Jorge; Madeira, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Being fairly common belief that the particular soil conditions are of great importance in defining the characteristics and qualities of the wine as the final product, it is also recognized the difficulty of establishing and interpreting this relationship clearly. The geological diversity seems to correlate with the characteristics defined in accordance with the classification system employed in France Appellation d' Origine Contrôlée (AOC), suggesting that, in addition to the variety and climate, geology and soil play an important role the properties and characteristics of the grapes produced in a given geographical location. Moreover, although it is known that the vine is tailored to a wide diversity of soil types, it appears also that many of the world's most famous vineyards are installed in poor and rocky terrain where no other crop would be grown in favorable conditions. Such is the case almost extreme implanted in the land of "cracker " and " Lagido " which are the traditional names in the archipelago of the Azores to the cracked surfaces of basaltic lava fields of heterogeneous size ranging from gravel to blocks of Azorean vineyards, whose vines manage to substrate cracks survival and production, albeit in modest yields. Apart from this traditional model of Azorean "terroir" of recognized cultural and landscape value where some interesting wines have been produced and quality recognized, there are significant areas in the islands whose soil and climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of careful assessment, with a view to a possible study of integrated experimental basis. We refer specifically to landscape units of the lower area of some islands, in many cases presently devoted to pasture during the summer where productivity tends to be marginal, because strongly affected by water stress. Such areas preferably South exposed and of gentle slopes providing moderate exposure to the

  6. SOIL NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS AND ROLE OF LIGHT FRACTION ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depletion of soil organic matter through cultivation may alter substrate availability for microbes, altering the dynamic balance between nitrogen (N) immobilization and mineralization. Soil light fraction (LF) organic matter is an active pool that decreases upon cultivation, and...

  7. Avaliação da atividade de microrganismos do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo de soja Evaluation of nitrogen fixation and soil microorganisms in soybean under conventional and minimal cultivation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. de Castro

    1993-09-01

    experiment that consisted of continuous soybean or corn-soybean rotations as summer crops, with oats or Crotalaria juncea as winter crops. Treatments totaled eight cropping system regimes includig the coventional and minimal cultivation. Soil from a nearby natural forest was used as control. There were six replicate pots for each treatment, three of which were additionally inoculated with K japonicum inoculum when soybeans were sown. Plants were harvested at flowering and shoot dry matter and nitrogen concentration were determined, as well as nodule number, nodule weight and percent mycorrhizal colonization of roots. Soil samples from each field treatment that had been kept in the refrigerator were evaluated to determine the total number of bacteria, fungi, cellulolytic microorganisms and nitrifying bacteria. Soybeans grown in soil from minimal cultivation plots and from crop rotations demonstrated significantly greater nodulation and larger cellulolytic populations. Other microbial groups were not highly affected. Percent mycorrhizal infection of roots was extremely low in all treatments, probably due to the high available phosphate levels in all soils.

  8. Changes in the structure of bacterial complexes of vegetable crops in the course of their growth on a cultivated soddy-podzolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Khusnetdinova, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of population density and taxonomic structure of epiphytic bacterial communities on the leaves and roots of potatoes, carrots, and beets have been studied. Significant changes take place in the ontogenesis of these vegetables with substitution of hydrolytic bacteria for eccrisotrophic bacteria feeding on products of plant exosmosis. The frequency of domination of representatives of different taxa of epiphytic bacteria on the studied plants has been determined for the entire period of their growth. Bacteria of different genera have been isolated from the aboveground and underground organs of vegetables; their functions are discussed. It is shown that the taxonomic structure of bacterial communities in the soil under studied plants is not subjected to considerable changes and is characterized by the domination of typical soil bacteria— Arthrobacter and bacilli—with the appearance of Rhodococcus as a codominant at the end of the season (before harvesting).

  9. ALTERAÇÕES EM ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS DE SOLO CULTIVADO COM CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR E ADIÇÃO DE VINHAÇA CHEMICAL CHANGES IN SOILS CULTIVATED WITH SUGARCANE AND ADDITION OF VINASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cabral de Vasconcellos Barretto

    2010-08-01

    ; micronutrientes.

    The research aimed to evaluate the effect of vinasse on the chemical properties of a eutrophic Alfissol cultivated with sugarcane (S. officinarum spp., for 10 years, in two areas of the Usina São José do Pinheiro, located in the city of Laranjeiras, Sergipe State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with ten replications, which consisted of two areas (Area A - cultivated with sugarcane and fertirrigated with vinasse, for over 10 years; and Area B - cultivated with sugarcane without vinasse fertigation and three soil sampling depths (treatments: 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-45 cm. The experimental areas dimensions were 50 m x 20 m (1,000 m2 and 30 samples were collected from each site. After the analysis of pH, soil organic matter (SOM, and levels of macro and micronutrients from soil samples, it was observed that the addition of vinasse to sugarcane crops, for ten years, has altered the soil chemical properties, with increase of soil organic matter and macronutrient content and decrease of micronutrients availability. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the application of vinasse increases the fertility of soil cultivated with sugarcane.

    KEY-WORDS: Saccharum officinarum; organic matter; soil conditioning; macronutrients

  10. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence, in organic cultivation of eggplant, of the doses of nitrogen and soil green cover on the incidence of Corythaica cyathicollis in different periods of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul de Lucena Duarte Ribeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Solanum melongena L., eggplant, is a culture that suffers many problems through pests, being a host of diverse species of bacteria, fungi, mites and insects. The “chinch bug”, Corythaica cyathicollis (Costa, 1864 (Hemiptera, Tingidae is known to cause serious damage to the culture. This research was conducted in August of 2005, at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ. The aim was to evaluate the effects of different doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 200 and 300kg/ha, different soil coverings (grass and Arachis pintoi, and periods of the day (morning, afternoon, evening on the population of the insect C. cyathycollis associated with the culture of S. melongena under organic system production. The delineation was in randomized blocks, with 12 treatments and 4 replications. Interaction was not verified among the studied factors (doses of nitrogen, soil covering and period of the day, but it was observed that the use of soil covering and low doses of nitrogen caused a reduction in the number of insect. The majority of insects were found during the period of the morning (39.2%.

  12. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  13. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. M. Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  14. Atividade microbiana do solo em pomar de laranja em resposta ao cultivo de adubos verdes Soil microbialactivities in orchard citrus as a response to green manure cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Nucci Buzinaro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adubos verdes (AVs são condicionadores do solo utilizados para a melhoria da estrutura e fertilidade do solo. Este estudo avaliou o efeito de Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (crotalária, Cajanus cajan (L Millsp (guandu e Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (braquiária nas propriedades microbiológicas e bioquímicas do solo sob laranjal. As leguminosas foram plantadas nas entrelinhas do laranjal e, após 3 meses, cortadas e lançadas nas entrelinhas. A braquiária, já estabelecida, foi roçada e lançada nas entrelinhas. Após 5 meses, as amostras de solo foram coletadas na entrelinha e na linha, na profundidade de 0-20 cm. O delineamento experimental foi em parcela subdividida. Efeito significativo (pGreen manure (GM is a soil conditioner used to improve soil structure and fertility. This study evaluated the effect of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy rattlebox, Cajanus cajan (L Millsp (pigeonpea and Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (brachiaria on soil microbial and biochemical attributes of the citrus orchard. The leguminous was planted at the intercrops and, after 3 months, they were cut and applied in the intercrops. The grown brachiaria was cut and applied in the intercrops. After 5 months, the soil samples were taken from the rows and intercrops in the depth of 0-20 cm. A split-plot design was used. Significant effect (p < 0.05% from the GM application on the bacteria counts and dehydrogenase and nitrifying activities was obtained an it increased, on average, 20, 39, and 190%, respectively. Fungi number decreased 57%. Urease and solubilizing activities and organic matter and moisture contents were not influenced by the GM application. Among the plants, significant responses were found due to the stimulating activities of dehydrogenase of 57% by pigeonpea, urease 58% by brachiaria, solubilizing 346% by showy rattlebox and nitrifying 236% by pigeonpea or brachiaria in relation to the others GM. These results suggest that GM application for successive

  15. Potential microbial risk factors related to soil amendments and irrigation water of potato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, M V; Allende, A; López-Gálvez, F; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R; Gil, M I

    2007-12-01

    This study assesses the potential microbial risk factors related to the use of soil amendments and irrigation water on potato crops, cultivated in one traditional and two intensive farms during two harvest seasons. The natural microbiota and potentially pathogenic micro-organisms were evaluated in the soil amendment, irrigation water, soil and produce. Uncomposted amendments and residual and creek water samples showed the highest microbial counts. The microbial load of potatoes harvested in spring was similar among the tested farms despite the diverse microbial levels of Listeria spp. and faecal coliforms in the potential risk sources. However, differences in total coliform load of potato were found between farms cultivated in the autumn. Immunochromatographic rapid tests and the BAM's reference method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual; AOAC International) were used to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the potential risk sources and produce. Confirmation of the positive results by polymerase chain reaction procedures showed that the immunochromatographic assay was not reliable as it led to false-positive results. The potentially pathogenic micro-organisms of soil amendment, irrigation water and soil samples changed with the harvest seasons and the use of different agricultural practices. However, the microbial load of the produce was not always influenced by these risk sources. Improvements in environmental sample preparation are needed to avoid interferences in the use of immunochromatographic rapid tests. The potential microbial risk sources of fresh produce should be regularly controlled using reliable detection methods to guarantee their microbial safety.

  16. Effect of conservation tillage and peat application on weed infestation on a clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amendment of soil with peat is an attempt to avoid crop yield variation in the transition to conservation tillage, as it improves seedbed conditions and crop growth in drought-sensitive clay soils. Weed infestations were compared in 1999-2000 between the original and peat-amended clay (Typic Cryaquept, very fine, illitic or mixed under different autumn tillage systems in an oats-barley rotation. In a field experiment, sphagnum peat (H = 4 had been spread (0.02 m 3 m -2 on the soil surface in August 1995. Tillage treatments included mouldboard ploughing (to 20 cm and stubble cultivations of different working depths (8 or 15 cm and intensity (once or twice. Weed biomass and density were assessed by an area of 1 m 2 per field plot in August 1999-2000 and June 2000. The 1999 season was dry, but soil moisture conditions were more favourable in 2000. Peat application tended to increase the number of volunteer oats and Chenopodium album in 1999, while decreasing Galium spurium biomass. Ploughing significantly increased the abundance of Chenopodium album and Lamium purpureum in barley (Hordeum vulgare in 1999. Weed infestation was much lower in 2000, and tillage effect on Chenopodium album was minor in oats (Avena sativa. Growth of Lamium purpureum and Fumaria officinalis was stimulated in ploughed soils both years. Intensity and working depth of stubble cultivation had no significant effect on weeds.;

  17. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. New publications Autumn 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Publications Catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA issued and forthcoming for the period Autumn 2003 - early 2004. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is indicated at the bottom of the book entry. A complete listing of all IAEA priced publications is available on the IAEA's web site: http://www.iaea.org/books

  18. Autumn predation of northern red oak seed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner

    1995-01-01

    Production and autumn predation of northern red oak acorns was measured over four years in five Pennsylvania stands dominated by this species. Mean annual production was 41,779/acre, of which an average of 7.9% was destroyed by insects or decay following insect attack, and an average of 38.6% was destroyed or removed by vertebrates. White-tailed deer appeared to be the...

  19. Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2014-05-01

    The European Environment Agency estimates that c.a. 250 000 sites required clean up and that about 100 000 ha could have been contaminated by metals in Europe. Numerous remediation techniques have been therefore tested and phytoremediation appears as a sustainable and low cost in situ technique particularly for large-scale remediation of polluted arable soils. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are already used in phytoextraction or phytostabilisation of many metal(loid)s (GU ET AL., 2013, SHARMA AND SHARMA, 2013). However, while plant inoculation with AMF will mostly result of an increase of the plant biomass, the response for lead accumulation in shoots is contrasted (LEBEAU ET AL., 2008). Furthermore, nothing is actually known for Sb transfer to plants phytoremediation-assisted AMF. Yet recently, many researches concern the accumulation of Sb in the environment, its (eco)toxicity and the risk of bioaccumulation in vegetables (FENG ET AL., 2013), especially in some China areas where Sb mining activities have widely contaminated arable lands (WU ET AL., 2011). Our research project, which is part of a national program for urban gardens (JASSUR, http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr), focused on polluted soils in associative urban gardens with both geogenic and anthropogenic origins for Pb and Sb. The impact of Pb and Sb on AMF density and diversity was studied using morphological and biomolecular approaches. The role of AMF symbiosis with Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) on Pb and Sb compartmentalization, speciation and phytoavailability was investigated. The influence of soil organic matters on these processes was examined. Eventually, the part of metal(loid)s available for humans in case of ingestion of lettuces unfit for human consumption (FOUCAULT ET AL., 2013; XIONG ET AL., 2013) will be assessed in relation with the influence of AMF symbiosis and organic matter. Key Words: Mycorrhiza, Antimony, Compartmentation, Speciation, Edible Plants, Urban Agriculture

  20. Differential expression of CURS gene during various growth stages, climatic condition and soil nutrients in turmeric (Curcuma longa): Towards site specific cultivation for high curcumin yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, I Sriram; Das, Suryasnata; Nasim, Noohi; Mishra, Antaryami; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Sujata

    2017-09-01

    Curcuma longa L., accumulates substantial amount of curcumin and essential oil. Little is known about the differential expression of curcumin synthase (CURS) gene and consequent curcumin content variations at different agroclimatic zones. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of climate, soil and harvesting phase on expression of CURS gene for curcumin yield in two high yielding turmeric cultivars. Expression of CURS gene at different experimental zones as well as at different harvesting phase was studied through transcriptional analysis by qRT-PCR. Curcumin varied from 1.5 to 5% and 1.4-5% in Surama and Roma respectively. The expression of CURS also varied from 0.402 to 5.584 fold in Surama and 0.856-5.217 fold in Roma. Difference in curcumin content at a particular zone varied among different harvesting period from 3.95 to 4.31% in Surama and 3.57-3.83% in Roma. Expression of CURS gene was also effected by harvesting time of the rhizome which varied from 7.389 to 16.882 fold in Surama and 4.41-8.342 fold in Roma. The CURS gene expression was found regardless of variations in curcumin content at different experimental zones. This may be due to the effects of soil and environmental variables. Expression was positively correlated with curcumin content with different harvesting time at a particular zone. This find indicates effect of soil and environment on molecular and biochemical dynamics of curcumin biosynthesis and could be useful in genetic improvement of turmeric. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury emission from a temperate lake during autumn turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes in temperate regions stratify during summer and winter months, creating distinct layers of water differentiated by their physical and chemical characteristics. When lakes mix in autumn and spring, mercury cycling may be affected by the chemical changes that occur during mixing. Sampling was conducted in Lake Lacawac, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA, throughout the autumn of 2007 to characterize changes in emission of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from the lake surface and dissolved mercury profiles in the water column during mixing. Water chemistry and weather parameters were also measured, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), iron, and solar radiation which have been shown to interact with mercury species. Results indicate that emission of Hg 0 from the lake to the atmosphere during turnover was controlled both by solar radiation and by surface water mercury concentration. As autumn turnover progressed through the months of October and November, higher mercury concentration water from the hypolimnion mixed with epilimnetic water, increasing mercury concentration in epilimnetic waters. Dissolved absorbance was significantly correlated with mercury concentrations and with iron, but DOC concentrations were essentially constant throughout the study period and did not exhibit a relationship with either dissolved mercury concentrations or emission rates. Positive correlations between dissolved mercury and iron and manganese also suggest a role for these elements in mercury transport within the lake, but iron and manganese did not demonstrate a relationship with emission rates. This research indicates that consideration of seasonal processes in lakes is important when evaluating mercury cycling in aquatic systems

  2. Growth, Metabolism and Yield of Rice Cultivated in Soils Amended with Fly Ash and Cyanobacteria and Metal Loads in Plant Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Rabindra N. Padhy; Nabakishore Nayak; Rajesh R. Dash-Mohini; Shakti Rath; Rajani K. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Soil amendment with fly ash (FA) and combined supplementation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria masses as biofertilizer were done in field experiments with rice. Amendments with FA levels, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kg/m2, caused increase in growth and yield of rice up to 8.0 kg/m2, monitored with several parameters. Pigment contents and enzyme activities of leaves were enhanced by FA, with the maximum level of FA at 10.0 kg/m2. Protein content of rice seeds was the highest in plants grow...

  3. Land use and rainfall effect on soil CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Lizaga, Iván; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Soils are the largest C reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in regulating the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and soil controls the balance of C in soils. The CO2 fluxes may be influenced by climate conditions and land use and cover change especially in the upper soil organic layer. Understanding C dynamics is important for maintaining C stocks to sustain and improve soil quality and to enhance sink C capacity of soils. This study focuses on the response of the CO2 emitted to rainfall events from different land uses (i.e. forest, abandoned cultivated soils and winter cereal cultivated soils) in a representative Mediterranean agroforestry ecosystem in the central part of the Ebro basin, NE Spain (30T 4698723N 646424E). A total of 30 measurement points with the same soil type (classified as Calcisols) were selected. Soil CO2 flux was measured in situ using a portable EGM-4 CO2 analyzer PPSystems connected to a dynamic chamber system (model CFX-1, PPSystems) weekly during autumn 2016. Eleven different rainfall events were measured at least 24 hours before (n=7) and after the rainfall event (n=4). Soil water content and temperature were measured at each sampling point within the first 5 cm. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment to determine soil organic carbon (SOC) content using a LECO RC-612. The mean SOC for forest, abandoned and cultivated soils were 2.5, 2.7 and 0.6 %, respectively. The results indicated differences in soil CO2 fluxes between land uses. The field measurements of CO2 flux show that before cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in the abandoned soils varying from 56.1 to 171.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 whereas after cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in cultivated soils ranged between 37.8 and 116.2 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 indicating the agricultural impact on CO2 fluxes. In cultivated soils, lower mean CO2 fluxes were measured after direct seeding

  4. BEHAVIOR OF CÓRDIA AFRICANA (Cordia africana Lam. CULTIVATED IN SOIL CONTAMINATED BY HEAVY METALS AND TREATED WITH AMENDMENT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Callegario Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810544This study aimed to evaluate the remediation of two soils contaminated with heavy metals from soil excavations, located near the port of Itaguaí, through the techniques of chemical immobilization and phytostabilization using the species Cordia africana. The data were collected in the ore courtyard from ‘Companhia Siderúgica Nacional’ (CSN, in the port of Itaguaí, Rio de Janeiro state. In order to reduce the solubility of heavy metals present in these substrates, two industrial waste products produced by CSN were used as ameliorating products, the steelmaking slag and the mill scale, in different concentrations. The plant species was considered with potential to be used in programs of phytostabilization, due to its heavy metal tolerance studied and to high accumulation of such elements in roots and stem. In the substrate of low combination, the lowest accumulation of Zinc and Cadmium in stems and leaves occurred with the use of 4% of soothing. In the substrate of high accumaltion it was 6%.

  5. Influences of observation method, season, soil depth, land use and management practice on soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqi; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhisheng; Zhang, Wei; Han, Shenghui

    2018-08-01

    Quantifications of soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations, together with other relevant variables, are needed to understand the carbon biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil dissolvable organic carbon can generally be grouped into two incomparable categories. One is soil extractable organic carbon (EOC), which is measured by extracting with an aqueous extractant (distilled water or a salt solution). The other is soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is measured by sampling soil water using tension-free lysimeters or tension samplers. The influences of observation methods, natural factors and management practices on the measured concentrations, which ranged from 2.5-3970 (mean: 69) mg kg -1 of EOC and 0.4-200 (mean: 12) mg L -1 of DOC, were investigated through a meta-analysis. The observation methods (e.g., extractant, extractant-to-soil ratio and pre-treatment) had significant effects on EOC concentrations. The most significant divergence (approximately 109%) occurred especially at the extractant of potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ) solutions compared to distilled water. As EOC concentrations were significantly different (approximately 47%) between non-cultivated and cultivated soils, they were more suitable than DOC concentrations for assessing the influence of land use on soil dissolvable organic carbon levels. While season did not significantly affect EOC concentrations, DOC concentrations showed significant differences (approximately 50%) in summer and autumn compared to spring. For management practices, applications of crop residues and nitrogen fertilizers showed positive effects (approximately 23% to 91%) on soil EOC concentrations, while tillage displayed negative effects (approximately -17%), compared to no straw, no nitrogen fertilizer and no tillage. Compared to no nitrogen, applications of synthetic nitrogen also appeared to significantly enhance DOC concentrations (approximately 32%). However, further studies are needed in the future

  6. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K

    2014-03-03

    Contamination of fresh produce could represent a public health concern because no terminal kill step is applied during harvest or at the processing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants during the postharvest processing step. The objective of the current study was to determine the potential internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into spinach roots and subsequent transfer to the edible parts. Because curli are involved in biofilm formation, we investigated whether their presence influence the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach. Further, the effect of the spinach cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was evaluated. Spinach plants were grown in contaminated soil as well as hydroponically to prevent mechanical wounding of the roots and inadvertent transfer of pathogens from the contamination source to the non-exposed plant surfaces. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 could internalize into hydroponically grown intact spinach plants through the root system and move to the stem and leaf level. The incidence of internalization was significantly higher in hydroponically grown plants when roots were exposed to 7 log CFU/mL compared to those exposed to 5 log CFU/mL. The effect of cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was not significant (P>0.05) for the analyzed spinach varieties, internalization incidences showing almost equal distribution between Space and Waitiki, 49.06% and 50.94% respectively. Wounding of the root system in hydroponically grown spinach increased the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 internalization and translocation to the edible portions of the plant. Experimental contamination of the plants grown in soil resulted in a greater number of internalization events then in those grown hydroponically, suggesting that E. coli O157:H7 internalization is dependent on root damage, which is more likely to occur when plants are grown in soil

  7. Recuperação de um solo salinizado após cultivo em ambiente protegido Reclamation of a salinized soil after cultivation in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio F. Blanco

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O excesso de fertilizantes e o manejo inadequado da irrigação nos cultivos em ambiente protegido, têm levado à salinização dos solos, o que resulta na redução da produtividade das culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes lâminas de lavagem e métodos de aplicação na recuperação de um solo salinizado em ambiente protegido. Foram utilizadas três diferentes frações (2/3, 1 e 3/2 da lâmina calculada, aplicadas por gotejamento e inundação, resultando em um esquema fatorial 2 x 3, com três repetições. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a aplicação por gotejamento foi mais eficiente na lixiviação dos sais acumulados no solo, devendo-se utilizar lâmina relativa de lavagem e coeficiente k de 0,9 e 0,1 para gotejamento e de 1,3 e 0,2 para inundação, respectivamente.Overapplication of fertilizers and inadequate irrigation management in greenhouse crops have caused soil salinization, resulting in reduction of crop yields. The aim of this work was to evaluate different depths of leaching and methods of application for reclamation of a salinized soil under greenhouse conditions. Three relative water depths (2/3, 1, 3/2, based on calculated leaching water depth, were applied by drip irrigation and flooding, in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, with 3 replications. From the obtained results, it may be concluded that the application by drip was more efficient than flooding in leaching the accumulated salts in the soil and the relative water depth and coefficient k of 0.9 and 0.1 for drip and 1.3 and 0.2 for flooding, respectively, should be used.

  8. Tamanho e forma de parcela em experimentos com morangueiro cultivado em solo ou em hidroponia Plot size and shape in trials using strawberry cultivated with soil or using hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Cocco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a forma e o tamanho de parcela ótimos para ensaios com a cultura do morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa em cultivo hidropônico e em solo. Foram conduzidos dois, experimentos, um em cultivo convencional no solo, em túneis baixos, e outro em cultivo hidropônico. Em cada experimento, avaliaram-se os efeitos do tamanho e do formato das parcelas sobre a precisão experimental. Cada planta foi considerada uma unidade básica, e o número de unidades básicas por parcela variou de 1 (48 parcelas a 24 (duas parcelas. Foram ajustadas funções para a determinação do coeficiente de variação entre as parcelas e para a determinação da variância por unidade básica entre as parcelas. O cultivo no solo apresentou maior variabilidade experimental que o cultivo hidropônico. O aumento no número de plantas por parcela causou redução acentuada na variabilidade experimental, especialmente quando se usou o formato de parcela retangular. O tamanho ótimo estimado das parcelas é de dez plantas, no cultivo com solo, e de seis plantas, no cultivo hidropônico.The objective of this work was to estimate the optimal size and shape of plots to be used in experiments of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cultivation in soil or using hydroponics. Two experiments were conducted, one in soil in low tunnels, and another in a hydroponic system. In each experiment, the effects of plot sizes and shapes on experimental accuracy were evaluated. Each plant was considered an experimental basic unit, and the number of plants per plot varied from 1 (48 plots to 24 (two plots. Functions were adjusted to determine the coefficient of variation among plots and the variance per basic unit between plots. Plants grown in soil had higher experimental variability than the plants grown in hydroponics. Increasing the number of plants per plot caused strong reduction in the experimental variability, especially when a rectangular plot shape was used

  9. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  10. Structural quality of soils cultivated with coffee and pasture in an environmental protection area Qualidade estrutural de solos cultivados com café e pastagem em área de proteção ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vico Mendes Pereira Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of soils in Environmental Protection Areas (EPAs are of great importance, because they are an essential component of ecosystems, directly interfering in environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural quality of soil cultivated with coffee and used as pasture in the Capituva's River microbasin, which is located in the Environmental Protection Area in Coqueiral, south of the state of Minas Gerais. Uniaxial compression test (preconsolidation test and soil resistance to penetration were used. Undisturbed samples were taken from the surface layer (0-5 cm of the soils in the area: a typic dystrophic Red Latosol (LVd - Oxisol, a typic eutrophic Red Argisol (PVe - Ultisol, and a typic dystrophic Haplic Cambisol (CXbd - Inceptisol. A significant linear positive correlation was observed between the results of the preconsolidation test and soil resistance to penetration. Load bearing capacity of soil could be estimated accordingly by means of penetration resistance for LVd, PVe, and CXbd. Cambisol - CXbd showed lower loading support capacity and resistance to penetration than LVd and PVe, due to the better crop management in this soil that resulted in higher physical quality which accounts for higher production and environmental sustainability.O estudo do solo em áreas de proteção ambiental (APAs é de grande importância, pelo fato deste ser componente essencial dos ecossistemas, interferindo diretamente na sustentabilidade do ambiente. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a qualidade estrutural de solos cultivados com café e pastagem na microbacia do Ribeirão Capituvas, inserido na APA Coqueiral, tendo por base uma caracterização pedológica e utilizando-se os ensaios de compressão uniaxial e resistência do solo à penetração. Coletaram-se amostras indeformadas na camada superficial (0-5 cm do Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico (LVd, do Argissolo Vermelho eutrófico típico (PVe e do

  11. Escherichia coli in the surface waters and in oysters of two cultivations of Guaratuba Bay - Paraná - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Forcelini,Helenita Catharina Dalla-Lana; Kolm,Hedda Elisabeth; Absher,Theresinha Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the contamination of Escherichia coli in the surface waters and oysters from two cultivations of Guaratuba Bay and to analyze the correlation patterns among the concentrations of E. coli in the waters and in the oysters with the local physical-chemical parameters. Samples were collected in the spring of 2007 and summer, autumn and winter of 2008 from two points of the bay (internal point and external point). From each cultivation and sampling period, 18 oyst...

  12. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  13. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  14. The hydrological response of a small catchment after the abandonment of terrace cultivation. A study case in northwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Adán, Jose A.; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Galilea, Ianire; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificacion

    2015-04-01

    Terrace construction for cultivation results in a complete transformation of the hillslopes to a series of flat sectors and almost vertical steps. This strategy, which involves a redistribution of soils and a re-organization of the drainage network, provides fertile soil over steep slopes, improves infiltration and controls overland flow under conditions of intense rainstorms. In Camero Viejo (north-western Iberian ranges) most of the hillslopes are occupied by terraced fields. During the XXth century, rural population declined and agricultural practices were abandoned. In this area, a small catchment (1.9 km2) was monitored in 2012 for studying how the abandonment of agricultural terraces affect water and sediment transfer from the hillslopes to the channels. Terraces occupy 40% of the catchment and are covered by sparse grass and shrubs. The equipment installed in the catchment registers continuously meteorological data, discharge and water table fluctuations. Data on suspended sediment transport is obtained by means of a rising-stage sampler. Here we present the hydrological results corresponding to the years 2012-13 and 2013-14. The hydrological response of the catchment was moderate (annual runoff coefficient < 0.20), which could be in part explained by the high evapotranspiration rates reported in the area. Lows flows were recorded in summer and autumn, when the water reserves of the catchment were dry, and high flows occurred from January, when the catchment became wetter. The shape of the hydrographs, with slow response times, moderate peakflows and long recession limbs suggested a large contribution of subsurface flow, probably favored by deep and well structured soils in the bench terraces. Soil saturation areas were not observed during the study period, suggesting that soil infiltration processes and subsurface flow are important, and that the drainage system of the terraces is probably well maintained. No suspended sediment has been collected so far

  15. The autumn when 27 gas power plants disappeared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, Jan

    2003-01-01

    In the autumn of 2002 the influx of water to the hydropower plants in the Nordic countries was only half the normal value. The probability of such an extreme failure is less than 0.5 per cent. Prices rose during the autumn, which led to import to the hydropower system and start-up of stand by production capacity and consumption cut. The market and trade essentially worked well and the high prices were the prime mover. Hydropower is an unstable resource and one therefore needs trade possibilities and flexibility in consumption and production to handle variation of the influx. Also, perhaps, one should stimulate the reservoir owners to retain some more water in the reservoirs. A weak energy balance increases the risk of dry year crises. An active grip on this is necessary to reduce vulnerability in the future. While there was plenty of water in the first part of 2002, the influx to the power plants failed fatally during autumn; from week number 31 to the rest of the year only the equivalent of 35 TWh, which is half that of a normal year. This is a historic all-time low. Early next year the influx of water was less than normal. The energy shortage due to hydropower failure during the last 20 weeks of 2002 was greater than it would have been if instead all the Swedish nuclear power had failed. If an energy failure this size should have been covered by means of gas power, 24 gas power works of 400 MW each would be required. At the same time, the import from the Continent was restricted by problems with two cables corresponding to a loss of tree more gas power plants. Thus, the power crisis of the autumn of 2002 corresponds to 27 gas power plants. Gas power plants is a controversial issue in the energy policy debate in Norway, but there are plans for a 400 MW plant. This is food for thought for all those politicians who are worried about the possible environmental impact of gas power plants.

  16. The Significance of Hunting : "The Bear" and "Delta Autumn"

    OpenAIRE

    海上, 順代; Nobuyo", "Unagami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the significance of hunting in "The Bear" and "Delta Autumn", the fifth and sixth stories in William Faulkner‟s Go Down, Moses (1942). In this paper, I would like to show that hunting plays an important role in Faulkner's Southern society, referring to the studies of Maria Mies, a German sociologist. In her view, hunting is useful to a patriarchal society, which strictly distinguishes men from women. As a part of a social system, hunting succeeds in g...

  17. Coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes controlling variability of nitrogen species in streamflow during autumn in an upland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Shanley, James B.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Kendall, Carol; Doctor, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    show direct and rapid effects on forest streams that may be widespread, although undocumented, throughout nitrogen-polluted temperate forests. In contrast to a week-long nitrate decline during peak autumn litterfall, base flow DON concentrations increased after leaf fall and remained high for 2 months. Dissolved organic nitrogen was hydrologically flushed to the stream from riparian soils during stormflow. In contrast to distinct seasonal changes in base flow nitrate and DON concentrations, ammonium concentrations were typically at or below the detection limit, similar to the rest of the year. Our findings reveal couplings among catchment flow paths, nutrient sources, and transformations that control seasonal extremes of stream nitrogen in forested landscapes.

  18. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann using different soils as source of casing materials Cultivo de Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann usando diferentes solos como fonte de material para a camada de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonçalves de Siqueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial productivity of the Agaricus blazei mushroom is closely related to both the quality of the compost and the choice of soil to be used as a casing material. This study aims to evaluate Agaricus blazei's productivity using two compost formulations and three soils. The two compost formulations were (i crushed sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum (L. and Coastcross hay (Cynidon dactylon (L. Pers., and (ii crushed sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum (L. and corn husk (Zea mays L.; they were amended with wheat bran, lime, gypsum, superphosphate and urea. The casing materials were extracted from three soils classed as Rhodic Hapludox, Xanthic Hapludox, and Humic Haplaquox. The Rhodic Hapludox soil material was mixed with fragments of Eucalyptus charcoal in the proportion of 4:1. The compost was prepared during six weeks and thereafter heat treated during 48 h at the end of the composting period. The sugarcane bagasse:coast-hay compost was superior to the sugarcane bagasse: corn husk compost. The Rhodic Hapludox plus charcoal casing material showed to be a better casing material than either the Xanthic Hapludox and Humic Haplaquox soil materials. The choice of the soils where the casing material is taken is an important factor to the success of the Agaricus blazei mushroom cultivation.A produtividade do cogumelo Agaricus blazei depende da qualidade do composto e da terra de cobertura. Avaliou-se a produtividade deste cogumelo utilizando-se duas formulações de composto e materiais retirados de três tipos de solo usados como camada de cobertura. As duas formulações de composto consistiram em (i bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum (L. e capim Coastcross (Cynidon dactylon (L. Pers., e (ii bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum (L. e palha de milho (Zea mays L.. As duas formulações foram suplementadas com farelo de trigo, calcário, gesso, superfosfato simples e uréia. Como camadas de cobertura foram

  19. Efeito da solarização e da adubação sobre artrópodes em solo cultivado com alface Solarization, organic and chemical fertilization combined effects on arthropods community in soil cultivated with lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene G da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização e da adubação química e orgânica na comunidade de artrópodes de solo na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em blocos ao acaso, um com solarização e o outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica + NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com plástico transparente. Os artrópodes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas tipo alçapão em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento, após a solarização e após a colheita. Foram utilizados índices faunísticos e de diversidade em cada experimento, tratamento e épocas. Os principais grupos coletados foram: Collembola (82,8%, Acari (7,1%, Hymenoptera (6,1% Coleoptera (1,3% e outros (2,7%. A classe Collembola foi a mais abundante, mesmo na colheita, quando a subordem Acari aumentou substancialmente. As espécies de Collembola predominantes foram: Proisotoma tenella (Reuter (34,3%; Seira atrolutea (Arlé (29%; Folsomides centralis (Denis (7,2%; Isotomurus sp. 161 (2,4% e Sminthurides sp. 98 (1,6%. Observou-se que a diversidade e abundância da comunidade de artrópodes não foi influenciada pela solarização ou adubação.To evaluate the effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on soil arthropods community in lettuce, two blocks plots trials were carried out in Brasília, Brazil. One research was conducted with solarization and the other without solarization in a soil cultivated with lettuce, cv Veronica, under protected cultivation. Each trial consisted of five fertilization treatments: T1= organic fertilization; T2= amoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; T3= chemical fertilization; T4= organic and chemical fertilization; T5= control (without fertilization. In the solarized trial, the soil was covered for 132

  20. Efeitos do boro em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em vasos contendo solo Effects of boron on sugarcane cultivated in pots with soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Espironelo

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaios em vasos foram estudados os efeitos do boro na cana-de-açúcar var. CB 41-14 (cana-planta e cana-soca, através da administração de doses crescentes do elemento à cana-planta cultivada em solo da série Ibitiruna, do Município de Piracicaba, com teor muito baixo de boro solúvel em água quente. Ao solo dos vasos (80 litros de capacidade foram administradas as doses de 0, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 8 ppm B, sob a forma de ácido bórico. Foram obtidos dados de produção de cana (planta e soca e do teor de boro em folhas de três posições na planta (+3, +1 e -1, em amostragens feitas aos cinco e oito meses de idade da cana-planta, e calcularam-se dados de açúcar-provável (cana-planta e soca. O boro aplicado ao solo não proporcionou aumentos nas produções de cana e de açúcar-provável, tanto em cana-planta como em cana-soca, induzindo, entretanto, efeito depressivo em ambos os casos, pela dose mais elevada (8 ppm B na cana-planta. Os teores de B nas folhas ( + 3, +1 e -1 de cana-planta, aos cinco meses de idade, cresceram com as doses administradas ao solo, alcançando níveis muito elevados (289 ppm no tratamento 8 ppm B, com a média geral atingindo 124,4 ppm B. Aos oito meses, os valores foram bem mais baixos (média geral 61,4 ppm B e não seletivos em relação à dose do boro aplicada. A melhor época de amostragem estaria em torno de cinco meses. As três posições de folha estudadas mostraram-se eficientes em relação às doses de boro aplicadas ao solo, sendo que +3 e +1 deram valores mais altos do que -1.The effects of boron on the behaviour of sugarcane (plant-crop and first ratton crop var. CB 41-14 were studied in a trial pot with increasing doses of this micronutrient to Ibitiruna soil from Piracicaba, SP, considered poor in boron content. The boron applied did not increase cane growth nor sugar content, but 8 ppm B reduced both cane and sugar production. Chemical analysis with leaves 5 months old revealed

  1. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  2. Experimental temperature manipulations alter songbird autumnal nocturnal migratory restlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berchtold Adrienne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Migrating birds may respond to a variety of environmental cues in order to time migration. During the migration season nocturnally migrating songbirds may migrate or stop-over at their current location, and when migrating they may vary the rate or distance of migration on any given night. It has long been known that a variety of weather-related factors including wind speed and direction, and temperature, are correlated with migration in free-living birds, however these variables are often correlated with each other. In this study we experimentally manipulated temperature to determine if it would directly modulate nocturnal migratory restlessness in songbirds. We experimentally manipulated temperature between 4, 14, and 24°C and monitored nocturnal migratory restlessness during autumn in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated sparrows are relatively shortdistance migrants with a prolonged autumnal migration, and we thus predicted they might be sensitive to weatherrelated cues when deciding whether to migrate or stopover. At warm temperatures (24°C none of the birds exhibited migratory restlessness. The probability of exhibiting migratory restlessness, and the intensity of this restlessness (number of infra-red beam breaks increased at cooler (14°C, 4°C temperatures. These data support the hypothesis that one of the many factors that birds use when making behavioural decisions during migration is temperature, and that birds can respond to temperature directly independently of other weather-related cues.

  3. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  4. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  5. Assessment of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) field surface soil and water in a predominantly paddy-cultivated area at Puducherry (Pondicherry, India), and effects of the agricultural runoff on the elemental concentrations of a receiving rivulet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Vikram; Satpathy, Deepmala; Dhiviya, K Shyamala

    2013-08-01

    The concentrations of toxic heavy metals-Cd and Pb and micronutrients-Cu, Mn, and Zn were assessed in the surface soil and water of three different stages of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) fields, the stage I-the first stage in the field soon after transplantation of the paddy seedlings, holding adequate amount of water on soil surface, stage II-the middle stage with paddy plants of stem of about 40 cm length, with sufficient amount of water on the soil surface, and stage III-the final stage with fully grown rice plants and very little amount of water in the field at Bahour, a predominantly paddy cultivating area in Puducherry located on the southeast Coast of India. Comparison of the heavy metal and micronutrient concentrations of the soil and water across the three stages of paddy field showed their concentrations were significantly higher in soil compared with that of water (p soil. The elemental concentrations in paddy soil as well as water was in the ranking order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb indicating concentration of Cd was maximum and Pb was minimum. The elemental concentrations in both soil and water across the three stages showed a ranking order of stage II > stage III > stage I. The runoff from the paddy fields has affected the elemental concentrations of the water and sediment of an adjacent receiving rivulet.

  6. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs