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Sample records for autre produit utilise

  1. Utilisations des produits forestiers autres que le bois (PFAB au Cameroun. Cas du projet forestier du Mont Koupé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiamala-Tshibangu, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Non Wood Forest Products in Cameroon. The Case of the Forest Project of the Koupe Mont. A survey using some elements of the RAA method described by Gueye and Schoonmaker (4 led to the identification of 26 plant species belonging to 15 botanical families in the Koupe Mountain forest project (Cameroon. This study deals with the utilization of non wood forest products. The small number of species reported by the study can be explained by the fact that the survey took into account only the species really used by the local population and not all those present in the forest. Study established that : harvesting and utilization of these resources generate incomes, create jobs and allow local population satisfying their needs of food, fodder, medicine, resins, dyes, fiber, handicrafts, flavorings, building materials... Unfortunately, due to organizational problems and absence of structures, the commercialization of these products does not contribute to the welfare of the local population and to the development of the production area which remained dominated by agriculture. In order to ensure the perennial characteristic of the highly demanded species, measures permitting their conservation and their sustainable utilization such as : regulation of the type and the rate of harvesting, use of non destructive harvesting techniques, their domestication through agroforestry techniques, their introduction in home-gardens... should be taken. The management of these resources requires the involvement and effective participation of the rural community. This can be achieved through mass sensitization, training and use of the media.

  2. Utilisation des sous-produits agroalimentaires dans l’alimentation des poissons d’élevage en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimou Nestor B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue l’impact de l’utilisation des sous-produits agroalimentaires dans l’alimentation des poissons d’élevage en Côte d’Ivoire. Une enquête a été réalisée en 2013 dans quinze principales zones piscicoles sur les caractéristiques technico-économiques des fermes, le profil socio-économique des promoteurs et les pratiques aquacoles, particulièrement l’alimentation des poissons. Les résultats révèlent que 71 % des pisciculteurs enquêtés utilisent des sous-produits agricoles durant au moins un stade de production. Parmi eux, 53 % utilisent exclusivement des sous-produits. Le son de riz (52 % et le mélange de sons de riz et de maïs (28 % sont les plus utilisés. Les prix moyens de ces sous-produits varient entre 20 et 105 FCFA/kg. Oreochromis niloticus et Heterotis niloticus sont les principales espèces élevées en polyculture sur les fermes. Les sous-produits sont utilisés en système semi-intensif, extensif et en rizipisciculture, en majorité en zone rurale. Les pisciculteurs sont pour la plupart des agriculteurs, âgés de plus de 40 ans. Les taux d’utilisation des sous-produits sont plus élevés dans les régions de l’Ouest, du Centre-Ouest et du Sud-Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire, par rapport à celles du Sud et de l’Est. Les rendements des fermes sont relativement faibles (544 à 2445 kg/ha/an, avec des gains moyens quotidiens de 0,87 et 9,97 g/j pour le tilapia et l’heterotis respectivement. L’analyse des stratégies des acteurs suggère la nécessité de définir des mécanismes d’accompagnement et de financement de la pisciculture, afin que ces acteurs puissent améliorer les formulations alimentaires à partir des matières premières locales et accessibles.

  3. Separation of fission products by the use of recoil; Separation des produits de fission par utilisation du recul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R; Beydon, J; Bardy, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    We have studied fission recoil in U{sub 3}O{sub 8} organic solvent mixtures. The organic phase chosen was first naphtalene then terphenyl. Graphite and activated carbon were also tried out as recoil media. We first verified that the fission fragments are ejected from the uranium oxide particles under our experimental conditions. The retention phenomenon observed is due to an adsorption occurring either during irradiation or during the chemical treatment. Using naphthalene or terphenyl, the individual separation of the fission products has made it possible to show the influence of the chemical nature of the recoil medium on the retention of each fission product. We put forward a hypothesis concerning this phenomenon: experiments carried out using 'scavengers', together with kinetic studies make it possible to explain the retention phenomenon and to choose the most favorable conditions for reducing this retention to a low value. The thermal recombination kinetics demonstrate the influence of the fission ion charge on the final value of the retention for a given temperature. The origins of this thermal recombination are discussed. (author) [French] On a etudie le recul de fission dans les melanges U{sub 3}0{sub 8}, phase organique. La phase organique choisie a ete le naphtalene puis le terphenyle. Le graphite et le charbon actif ont egalement ete essayes comme milieux de recul. On a d'abord determine que les fragments de fission sortent des particules d'oxyde d'uranium avec un rendement de 100 pour cent dans nos conditions experimentales. Le phenomene de retention observe est du a une adsorption ayant lieu pendant l'irradiation ou pendant le traitement chimique. Dans le naphtalene et le terphenyle, la separation individuelle des produits de fission a permis de mettre en evidence l'influence de la nature chimique du milieu de recul sur la retention de chaque produit de fission. On avance une hypothese sur ce phenomene: des experiences effectuees avec des 'scavengers

  4. The use of recoil for the separation of uranium fission products; Utilisation du recul pour la separation des produits de fission de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R; Herczec, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The recoil distance of fission fragments in U{sub 3}O{sub 8} is about 8 microns. By using highly diluted suspensions of uranium oxide particles having dimension much smaller than this figure (mean diameter 0,5 micron), we were able to study the re-adsorption of fission products on uranium oxide. Separation results have been studied as a function of the nature of the irradiation medium (solid or liquid) and the separation medium, of particle size and of concentration of particles in the dispersing medium. Decay curves can be used to discriminate between {sup 239}Np and mixed fission products. Most of the {sup 239}Np is found in the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} particles. The location of fission products in solid dispersing media has been determined, fission products being found always inside the dispersing medium particles. The results obtained can be applied to the rapid separation of short-lived fission products from a uranium-free starting material. (author) [French] Le parcours de recul des fragments de fission est en moyenne de 8 microns dans l'U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. En prenant des suspensions d'oxyde d'uranium dont les particules, tres diluees, ont des dimensions nettement inferieures a cette valeur (diametre moyen 0,5 micron), on a pu etudier directement la readsorption des produits de fission sur l'oxyde d'uranium. Les resultats de separation ont ete etudies en fonction de la nature du milieu d'irradiation (solide ou liquide) et du milieu de separation, de la taille des particules d'oxyde et de leur concentration dans le milieu dispersant. Les courbes de decroissance permettent de determiner la perturbation apportee dans les mesures par le {sup 239}Np qui reste en majorite dans les grains d'U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. On a determine enfin l'emplacement des produits de fission dans le cas des melanges solides; ils se trouvent toujours a l'interieur des grains du milieu recepteur. Les resultats obtenus permettent d'envisager la separation rapide de produits de fission a periode courte a

  5. Utilisation des huiles végétales et de leurs produits de transestérification comme carburants Diesel Use of Vegetable Oils and Their Transesterification Products As Diesel Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation d'huiles végétales et de leurs dérivés comme carburants Diesel a fait l'objet, depuis 1981, de plusieurs études financées par l'Agence Française pour la Maîtrise de l'Energie (AFME et réalisées par l'institut Français du Pétrole (lFP en collaboration avec Elf Renault, le Centre d'Etudes et d'Expérimentation du Machinisme Agricole Tropical (CEEMAT et l'institut de Recherches pour les Huiles et Oléagineux (IRHO. Ce document rassemble les résultats obtenus au banc d'essai sur plusieurs types de moteurs représentant un assez large éventail d'applications, depuis le motoculteur utilisé en agriculture africaine jusqu'au moteur classique de tracteur ou de camion. Deux types de produits ont été examinés : les huiles végétales elles-mêmes employées pures ou en mélange au gazole, et les esters méthyliques de ces huiles utilisés tels quels. Lors d'un fonctionnement de courte durée les huiles aussi bien que les esters conduisent globalement à un fonctionnement satisfaisant du moteur; les pertes de performances par rapport au gazole restent modérées voire imperceptibles. Les seuls problèmes dans ce cas concernent la mise en oeuvre, difficile avec les huiles en raison de leur très forte viscosité, beaucoup plus aisée avec les esters. En endurance, l'inconvénient majeur des huiles végétales et de leurs dérivés concerne la formation de dépôts au nez des injecteurs. Sur les moteurs rustiques à préchambre (type Hatz ce phénomène reste limité puisqu'il a été possible de conduire, sans incident, un ensemble d'essais d'endurance de 1100 h avec différents types d'huiles pures (arachide, coton, palme. Sur les moteurs à Injection directe la formation de dépôts constitue une très sérieuse contrainte puisqu'elle conduit pratiquement à proscrire l'utilisation d'huiles même en mélange (25 ou 50 % dans le gazole. Les esters peuvent alors être proposés à condition qu'un certain nombre de pr

  6. Mais oui, il était un joli temps du passé comme les autres, mon joli petit hypocoristique…

    OpenAIRE

    Bres, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Comment rendre compte de l'imparfait dans le tour hypocoristique ? Les explications proposées consistent, de différentes manières, à ne pas prendre l'imparfait pour ce qu'il est et à lui imputer des valeurs produites par d'autres paramètres co(n)textuels. J'avance que, dans le tour hypocoristique comme dans tous ses autres emplois, l'imparfait donne la même instruction temporalo-aspectuelle; et que l'effet de sens hypocoristique est produit résultativement par l'intera...

  7. The Use of Ionizing Radiation as a Means of Processing Foodstuffs for Storage: Present Status and Future Prospects; Utilisation des Rayonnements Ionisants pour la Conservation de Produits Alimentaires: Situation Actuelle et Perspectives; Sostoyanie i perspektivy primeneniya ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij dlya obrabotki pishchevykh produktov v svyazi s ikh khraneniem; Estado Actual y Perspectivas del Empleo de las Radiaciones Ionizantes para la Conservacion de los Productos Alimenticios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogachev, V. I. [Vsesojuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Konservnoj i Ovoshesushil' noj Promyshlennosti Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-11-15

    The use of ionizing radiation for processing foodstuffs is being studied in the USSR, particularly in connection with the following: (a) prevention of sprouting in potatoes and onions; (b) disinfestation of foodstuffs; (c) suppression of microbe activity; either sterilization or partial inhibition of microflora activity to prolong the shelf life of various foodstuffs; and (d) alterations in the ripening time of fruits and vegetables after picking and/or harvesting. The paper reports the status of work performed in the USSR during recent years on each of these general topics and the prospects for the practical application of irradiation to a number of products are considered. Among the products in question are meat and meat products (raw and cooked semi-finished products, sausage products), domestic poultry, various fruits and vegetables, potatoes, grain, dehydrated products (dried fruits and vegetables, dried food concentrates). Practical methods of irradiating potatoes and onions to prevent sprouting during storage have already been developed, and very soon it will be possible to use radiation for the disinfestation of foodstuffs on an industrial scale. (author) [French] Les etudes sur l'utilisation des rayonnements ionisants pour la conservation des produits alimentaires se poursuivent en URSS.dans les domaines suivants: a) prevention de la germination des pommes de terre et des oignons; b) desinsection des produits alimentaires; c) elimination de l'activite biologique des micro-organismes en vue de la sterilisation ou de l'elimination partielle de l'activite biologique de la microflore en vue de prolonger les delais de conservation de divers produits alimentaires; et d) modifications des delais de maturite apres recolte des fruits et legumes. Pour chacun de ces domaines, l'auteur indique l'etat des travaux effectues en URSS pendant ces dernieres annees et examine les perspectives d'utilisation des rayonnements pour un certain nombre de produits. Au nombre de ces

  8. Problems and energy choices in Burkina Faso[Energie ; Economie domestique ; Bois de feu ; Produits petroliers ; Legislation fonciere ; Electricite]; Burkina : Problemes et choix energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-15

    Burkina sont lies a la cuisson des aliments, aux combustibles liquides destines aux transports routier et ferroviaire et aux combustibles utilises dans l industrie et pour la production de l electricite. En ce qui concerne le secteur des transports, il n existe a present aucune possibilite de substitution aux produits petroliers, hormis l utilisation de l ethanol dilue dans l essence. Au niveau industriel la bagasse et les autres residus agro- industriels constituent d ores et deja la principale source d energie tant pour la production de chaleur industrielle que pour celle de l electricite. Pour le reseau public d'alimentation en electricite, la production repose exclusivement sur des centrales diesel. Face donc aux immenses besoins de ses populations en energie, le Burkina ne dispose que de ressources tres limitees. La biomasse utilisee a des fins domestiques ne peut continuellement assurer aux menages, l approvisionnement energetique necessaire a la cuisson des aliments. Quant aux residus agro- industriels, ils ne peuvent reduire la consommation industrielle de produits petroliers. Il y a aussi les ressources hydrauliques dont l'exploitation judicieuse pourrait contribuer a diminuer la consommation de fuel pour la production de l electricite. En somme, il faudrait ameliorer la reglementation en matiere d approvisionnement en bois de feu, promouvoir l utilisation des foyers a bois ameliores, planifier les approvisionnements en produits petroliers et assister la SONABEL dans le renforcement des capacites de production electrique de ses centrales au fuel.

  9. Les produits agricoles traditionnels peuvent améliorer la nutrition et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 janv. 2013 ... Ce n'est un secret pour personne que les produits agricoles traditionnels comme les mils et les légumineuses à graines sont très nutritifs. C'est pourquoi des chercheurs collaborent actuellement avec des femmes en Inde et en Éthiopie pour faciliter l'utilisation à des fins personnelles (pour la préparation ...

  10. Use of proportional counter in X-Ray spectrometry between 5 and 100 keV. Application to the detection of fission products and to the determination of absolute X-Ray disintegration rates; Utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel en spectrometrie de rayons X entre 5 et 100 keV. Application a la detection des produits de fission et a la determination des taux d'emission X absolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerf, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    'un melange d'argon et de methane a la pression de trois atmospheres environ dans un domaine d'energie de 5 100 kev. Utilise dans ces conditions, ce compteur nous a permis de mesurer le taux d'emission absolu de rayonnements X du {sup 133}Ba et du {sup 75}Se, et de proceder a l'etude d'un echantillon de produits de fission. De meme, nous avons egalement utilise des melanges gazeux a base de xenon, afin d'augmenter le rendement du detecteur; dans ce dernier cas, nous avons particulierement examine les limitations introduites par la presence de nombreuses raies parasites issues du gaz. C'est ainsi que nous avons mis en evidence, outre les pics d'echappement, la raie de fluorescence du gaz dont l'origine est difficilement explicable. (auteur)

  11. Technostress et autres revers du travail nomade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Internet et l'utilisation des ordinateurs portables, des téléphones mobiles et des tablettes ont accru l'importance du « travail nomade». Ce type de travail, sans contrainte de lieu ni de temps, peut entraîner, d’après ce working paper, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande flexibilité pour

  12. L’utilisation du prémélange de monensin chez les vaches laitières : un suivi simple et essentiel pour s’assurer d’une utilisation adéquate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; Baril, Jean; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Le prémélange de monensin est utilisé fréquemment sur les fermes laitières canadiennes. L’ingrédient actif de ce produit est le monensin sodique. Bien que son utilisation chez les vaches laitières soit sécuritaire, des cas de surdose ont été rapportés à la suite de consommation de niveaux de monensin plus élevés que ceux recommandés. Un suivi hebdomadaire du pourcentage de matières grasses du réservoir de lait de la ferme devrait être fait de routine suite à la livraison d’aliment médicamenteux contenant du monensin pour détecter rapidement les situations de surdose. L’observation d’une baisse soudaine de la consommation volontaire de matière sèche et l’apparition de diarrhée dans un troupeau sont d’autres signes cliniques de surdose de monensin. Une détection rapide de ces cas permettra de corriger la situation. PMID:19721781

  13. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Deuxième partie : Les différentes filières d'obtention des carburols. Analyse technico-économique Using Oxygenated Organic Products As Fuels in Engines. Part Two: Different Systems for Producing Alcohol Fuels. Technico-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvel A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les produits à même d'être substitués aux hydrocarbures pour la constitution des carburants, les composés organiques oxygénés occupent une place prépondérante à cause de leurs caractéristiques favorables à la combustion dans les moteurs, qu'ils soient employés purs ou mélangés (seuls ou à plusieurs aux hydrocarbures, constituants des carburants classiques. Dans cet article, ces composés oxygénés sont désignés sous le nom de carburols. Alors que l'objet de la première partie de l'étude a été d'examiner les conséquences techniques de l'emploi de ces produits sur les circuits de distribution et le fonctionnement des véhicules, il s'agit dans la présente partie d'analyser les caractéristiques technico-économiques de leur fabrication. En particulier, on y aborde successivement les points suivants : - disponibilités en matières premières : ressources fossiles et végétales ; - analyse technique des divers modes d'obtention - analyse économique ; - programmes nationaux. Among products that can be substituted for hydrocarbons for producing fuels, oxygenated organic compounds occupy a preponderant position because of their favorable characteristics for combustion in engines whether they are used in a pure form or in mixtures (alone or severally with hydrocarbons which are used to make up conventional fuels. In this article these oxygenated compounds are given the name carburols (alcohol fuels. Whereas the aim of Part 1 was to examine the technical consequences of using such products in distribution circuits and for vehicle operating, Part 2 is an analysis of the technico-economic aspects of manufacturing them. In particular, the following points are taken up successively: (a availabilities of raw materials. fossil and vegetebal resources; (b technical analysis of various production methods; (c economic analysis; (d national programs. Depending on the amounts involved, a distinction is made among alternative

  14. Analytical chemistry equipment for radioactive products; Installation de chimie analytique pour produits radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, M; Guillon, A; Laurent, H; Sauvagnac, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The report deals with a shielded enclosure, hermetic, for analytical examination and handling of radioactive products. Remote handling for the following is provided: pipette absorption - weighing - centrifuging - desiccation - volumetric - pH measurement - potentiometric - colorimetric - polarographic. The above list is not restrictive: the enclosure is designed for the rapid installation of other equipment. Powerfully ventilated and screened to 400 m-curies long life fission product levels by 5 cm of lead, the enclosure is fully safe to the stated level. (author) [French] La presente communication decrit une enceinte etanche et blindee permettant un travail et un controle analytique sur des produits radioactifs. Les techniques suivantes sont adaptees pour une manipulation a distance: pipettage, pesees, centrifugation, dessiccation, volumetrie, mesure de pH, potentiometrie, colorimetrie, polarographie. Cette liste n'est pas limitative. La conception de l'installation permet la mise en place rapide d'autres appareils. Protegee par 5 cm de plomb et fortement ventilee, elle donne toute securite de manipulation jusqu'a un niveau d'activite 400 mcuries en produits de fission a vie longue. (auteur)

  15. Utilisation des "algues-fourrage" en aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Robert, Rene; His, Edouard

    1986-01-01

    Les travaux concernant l'utilisation d'algues unicellulaires pour la nutrtion de larves et de juvéniles de bivalves d'intérêt commercial sont analysés. Sur une cinquantaine d'espèces d'algues testées, un dizaine seulement sont produites en grande quantité dans des écloseries commerciales sous le non "d'algues fourrage". Les principales espèces employées sont décrites et leurs caractéristiques majeures illustrées. Les critères permettant de retenir une espèce pour son utilisation en aquacultur...

  16. Approches de l'utilisation des eaux usées urbaines dans l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 févr. 2011 ... Quant aux systèmes de traitement des eaux financés par le CRDI qui utilisent la laitue d'eau à Dakar ... les eaux usées dans les cultures de salade, produit qui se mange cru. » .... Rompre le cycle de la pauvreté urbaine.

  17. Croire en soi, croire en l'autre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Enriquez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La croyance aux Dieux ou en un Dieu unique c'est-à-dire à l'incroyable est fort répandue et semble normale comme avoir confiance en soi et en l'autre. Mais croire en soi et en l'autre apparaît étonnant car ce serait se mettre sur le même rang que Dieu. Effectivement l'homme essaie de ressembler à Dieu. Mais à Dieu blessé, faillible, s'interrogeant constamment. Ce Dieu nouveau est un "sujet amoureux" amoureux de soi, de l'autre et de la vie. Il se conduit comme un "Dichter" assumant une responsabilité morale. Il est difficile, voire souvent impossible de se situer comme un "Dichter". C'est pourtant la tâche à laquelle l'homme contemporain est confronté.

  18. Valorisation des algues et autres végétaux aquatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Delepine, René; Gaillard, René; Morand, Philippe

    1988-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, relatif à la "Valorisation des algues et autres végétaux aquatiques", est publié à un moment où la réflexion menée sur la protection du milieu naturel rejoint les préoccupations économiques de gestion de l'eau et des ressources aquatiques. Il devrait collaborer à la mise en place de stratégies de développement, tant dans le domaine de l'exploitation des algues marines que dans celui de l'utilisation des végétaux d'eau douce. Cet ouvrage s'adresse certes aux acteurs directement...

  19. The Use of Fuel Gas as Stripping Medium in Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil L’utilisation de gaz combustible comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères en distillation atmosphérique du pétrole brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plellis-Tsaltakis C.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stripping of petroleum fractions aims to remove the light ends that spoil some of their properties, such as the flash point. Stripping usually employs steam for that purpose. Except for steam, other substances can perform the same function, among them light hydrocarbons. In this article, we investigate the use of refinery fuel gas as stripping medium for a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. L’extraction des fractions légères du pétrole vise à enlever les produits nuisibles à certaines propriétés comme le point d’éclair. Cette opération utilise habituellement de la vapeur d’eau. D’autres substances peuvent remplir la même fonction, comme les hydrocarbures légers. Dans cet article, on étudie l’utilisation du gaz combustible de la raffinerie comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères dans une unité de distillation atmosphérique.

  20. Une rencontre PAS comme les autres | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 oct. 2010 ... Dans ce récit à la première personne, Angelica Ospina, administratrice de programmes principale au CRDI , raconte sa rencontre avec Orlando, un jeune graphiste péruvien remarquable qui lutte en première ligne contre le VIH/sida dans son pays. Angelica a fait la connaissance d'Orlando et d'autres ...

  1. Aspects of biogas utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, L.

    1992-01-01

    Utilisation of biogas has received considerable attention over the last decade, its full potential has not been reached however. The paper discusses various options for utilisation of biogas and the limitations that may occur as far as they are associated with the characteristics of biogas. As a result the prospects for the future are presented. (au)

  2. Pour une comparaison des utilisations atypiques des constructions verbales chez les locuteurs bilingues anglais/français et anglais/allemand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasart, Charles

    2013-09-01

    lesquelles un verbe se voit affublé d'une désinence issue d'une autre langue, elles ont souvent été considérées illicites, c'est-à-dire ne pouvant être produites spontanément par les locuteurs, et font encore débat (POPLACK , 1980, MACSWAN, 1999, SEBBA, 2009. Malgré cela, une analyse du traitement du verbe chez les bilingues fondée sur l'étude de deux corpus oraux nous conduit à postuler que c'est souvent l'inverse qui se produit. En effet, chez les locuteurs bilingues français/anglais et anglais/allemand dont la pratique discursive est analysée pour cette étude, le groupe verbal semble être un lieu privilégié du passage d'une langue à l'autre et, de plus, ce passage prend des formes diverses et qui sont souvent similaires d'un couple de langue à un autre. C'est peut-être là d'ailleurs que se situe l'un des éléme nts phares dégagés par cette étude, à savoir que dans deux paires de langues se retrouvent des tendances syntaxiques et grammaticales communes. Nous souhaitons ainsi montrer que les locuteurs bilingues peuvent faire un usage similaire d'outils différents pour arriver au même but --communiquer un message précis --, quelles que soient les langues parlées. Après avoir présenté la méthodologie de la recherche dans le domaine de l'alternance codique, nous prendrons pour exemples les cas où les grammaires des deux langues en jeu sont rendues compatibles entre elles par divers " bricolages " syntaxiques, produisant des énoncés qui, en regard de la grammaire de chaque langue, seraient fautifs. Nous poursuivrons en nous penchant sur des énoncés où la rencontre des langues permet d'associer des propriétés qui n'existent que dans l'une ou l'autre. Ceci sera également l'occasion d'analyser les conflagrations morphologiques, dans lesquelles des désinences de langue X sont associées à des bases verbales de langue Y. Nous montrerons qu'il n'existe pas de systématicité dans l'utilisation ou non de ces conflagrations par les

  3. Contribution to the study of the diffusion of fission products in uranium; Contribution a l'etude de la diffusion des produits de fission dans l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-15

    In this work we have developed a simple method for determining the diffusion constants and the solid-state solubilities of a metal which is volatile and only slightly soluble in second metal. This method has been applied to the behaviour of certain fission products in {gamma} uranium: strontium, barium, lanthanum, samarium and cerium. This work has made it possible to show the effect of the atomic radius of the solute on the diffusion constants. (author) [French] Dans ce travail nous avons mis au point une methode simple permettant de determiner les constantes de diffusion ainsi que les solubilites a l'etat solide d'un metal volatil et peu soluble dans un autre. Cette methode a ete appliquee au comportement de certains produits de fission dans l'uranium {gamma}: strontium, baryum, lanthane, samarium et cerium. Cette etude a permis de mettre en evidence le role du rayon atomique du solute sur les constantes de diffusion. (auteur)

  4. Other applications of neutron beams in material sciences; Autres utilisations des faisceaux de neutrons en science des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novion, C.H. de

    1997-12-31

    The various applications of neutron beams are reviewed. The different mechanisms involved in neutron interaction with matter are explained. We notice that generally neutron radiation effects are unfavorable but can be turned into efficient tools to add new structures or properties to materials, silicon doping is an example. The basis principles of neutron activation analysis and neutron radiography are described. (A.C.)

  5. Optimisation des produits de base (Afrique subsaharienne) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis 2004, de nombreux pays de l'Afrique subsaharienne exportateurs de produits de base ont assisté à l'essor du prix de ces derniers. Si une telle hausse offre de nombreuses possibilités à un continent riche en ressources naturelles, elle n'est pas sans poser une sérieuse menace pour la gouvernance, la gestion ...

  6. Fast Plasma from a Coaxial Gun; Plasma Rapide Produit par un Canon Coaxial; Bystraya plazma iz koaksial'nogo inzhektora; Produccion de Plasma Rapido Mediante un Inyector Coaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.; Henins, I. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1966-04-15

    volume around the jet. Fast plasma is emitted in a narrow conical distribution with an open centre. The high voltage which accelerates the fast deuterohs also accelerates wall material ions if the fast plasma bombards a glass wall and evaporates it. (author) [French] Le canon coaxial utilise dans cette experience est une source de deux plasmas differents produits par des mecanismes separes. Un plasma de deuterium abondant et lent ( Tilde-Operator 10{sup 7} cm/s) est produit directement par l'interaction du type j xli ou j est le courant de plasma radial et if le champ magnetique produit par le courant d'alimentation le long de l'electrode centrale. La perturbation de courant se deplace, a travers le gaz injecte, vers l'ouverture du canon, a une vitesse d'environ 2,5 * 10{sup 7} cm/s et emmagasine de l'energie a l'arriere sous forme de champ magnetique et d'energie cinetique de plasma. Par son energie emmagasinee, le canon fonctionne comme un generateur electrique de basse impedence et de grande puissance de maniere a lancer dans le vide au-dela de l'ouverture du canon un jet de courant qui est la source de plasma rapide ( Tilde-Operator 5 x 10{sup 17} deuterons, Tilde-Operator 10{sup 8} cm/s). Le jet de courant ainsi que le plasma qu'il produit font l'objet des experiences decrites dans ce memoire. Le mecanisme de l'acceleration est complique et n'est pas parfaitement connu, mais beaucoup d'enseignements ont ete tires d'un grand nombre d'experiences dans lesquelles ont ete utilises les diagnostics suivants: boucles de captage diamagnetique externes, boucles Rogowsky sous vide, sondes electriques, electrode de captage capacitive externe, analyse de la deflection magnetique et electrostatique de particules, spectroscopic, photographie de la lumiere emise par les cibles, mesure de temps de vol avec ou sans champ de guidage, neutrons emis par le volume,du plasma par suite de la reaction d-d, etc. Il en resulte que le mecanisme d'acceleration consiste en un processus magneto

  7. La Palestine comme écran, ou comment passer « de l’autre côté du miroir »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Fourest

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’indétermination qui entoure le terme de « Palestine », provoquée notamment par la disparition de son référent géographique depuis la création de l’État d’Israël, a généré une multitude de représentations concurrentes qui ont fait de ce terme un écran. Ce dernier révèle la complexité des enjeux géopolitiques qui s’y cristallisent, mais rend extrêmement difficile la formulation d’un récit et d’une représentation palestiniens propres. Travailler sur la production cinématographique palestinienne revient à s’interroger sur la manière dont les cinéastes composent avec les multiples représentations de leur terre et de son peuple telles qu’elles sont produites par l’Autre, qu’il soit Israélien ou occidental. Cet article s’appuie sur l’un des dispositifs les plus convaincants de cette production : dans Port of Memory [2009], Kamal Aljafari s’empare de séquences de films israélien et hollywoodien réalisés à Jaffa dans les années 1970 et 1980 qui en ont relégué sa présence palestinienne hors-cadre. Interrogeant cette représentation mutilée du lieu, il propose de rectifier ces images par les moyens du cinéma, faisant de la mémoire visuelle de l’Autre le lieu de son expression artistique et politique.

  8. Chemical Utilisation of CO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Chemical Utilisation of CO2: A Challenge for the Sustainable World. Dinesh Jagadeesan Bhaskar Joshi Prashant Parameswaran. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 165-176 ...

  9. Risques d'exposition aux résidus de pesticides via les produits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOM

    peut également affecter les organismes non ciblés. Ainsi beaucoup d'insectes .... Pour les produits agricoles, une micro- extraction de ..... sont les principaux facteurs de la .... Contrôle des pesticides organochlors dans le lait et produits laitiers.

  10. Tirer le meilleur parti possible des produits de base | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 avr. 2014 ... Pétrole, cuivre, diamants, or et bois d'oeuvre : L'Afrique est riche en ressources naturelles et en produits de base. La production de produits de base peut favoriser une croissance rapide, mais aussi exposer les pays à une croissance en dents de scie attribuable à l'incertitude des marchés mondiaux.

  11. Review of the United States Army Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food Program (1955-1966); Apercu du Programme d'Etudes de l'Armee des Etats Unis sur la Comestibilite des Produits Alimentaires Irradies (1955-1966); Obzor programmy Amerikanskoj armii po voprosu sokhraneniya vkusovykh i pitatel'nykh'kachestv obluchennykh pishchevykh produktov (1955-1966); Programa del Ejercito de Los Estados Unidos Relativo a la Comestibilidad de los Alimentos Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, N. Jr. [United States Army Medical Research And Nutrition Laboratory, Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); Howie, D. L. [United States Army Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Surgeon General, Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-11-15

    irradiated with {sup 60}Co or with 10-MeV electrons; (d) Irradiated foods are, in general, as acceptable as non-irradiated foods. In the light of these conclusions, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved irradiation of the following foods: bacon with 4.5 Mrads - {sup 60}Co or 10 MeV electrons; wheat and wheat products with 50 krads - {sup 60}Co; potatoes with 10 krads - 2-MeV electrons. Other petitions are pending or are being prepared. (author) [French] L'Armee des Etats-Unis s'occupe activement de l'execution d'un programme general de recherches sur les nombreuses questions non encore resolues touchant l'utilisation des rayonnements ionisants pour la conservation des produits alimentaires. L'auteur examine dans le present rapport les donnees relatives a la question de la comestibilite (securite toxicologique, nutritive et, en partie, microbiologique) des produits alimentaires irradies. Les etudes a long terme d'alimentation ont ete faites; elles ont demontre que les produits alimentaires irradies sont aussi comestibles, et dans l'ensemble aussi acceptables, que les produits traites selon les procedes classiques. Les donnees ont ete obtenues grace aux travaux de plus de 30 laboratoires universitaires, commerciaux et gouvernementaux et comprennent les resultats d.'experiences sur plus de 15 000 souris, 5000 rats d'une meme souche, 300 chiens et 37 singes, au moyen de 21 produits alimentaires irradies (viandes, poissons, fruits et legumes). En general, les produits alimentaires utilises ont ete irradies a 2,79 et 5,58 Mrad avec un barreau de combustible epuise, des sources au {sup 60}Co ou des sources d'electrons de 10 MeV, et ont ete stockes pendant un minimum de trois mois a la temperature ambiante avant d'etre donnes aux animaux. Des produits alimentaires temoins non irradies ont ete conserves par congelation jusqu'a leur utilisation. Deux especes differentes ont ete nourries'pendant deux-ans avec des aliments contenant 35% (en poids sec) de denrees

  12. Instruments de mesure de l’utilisation de produits phytosanitaires dans un contexte de développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steurbaut W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments aimed to measure pesticide use in the framework of sustainable development. Indicators are proposed in order to be able to measure progress towards sustainability in crop protection strategies requiring the use of pesticides. According to the fixed objectives, such indicators can be either simple (figure easily obtainable or more complex (set of figures obtained using more or less complex algorithms. The most simple indicators are indicators of use (tonnage which has been used in a well defined geographic area, number of treatments during a cropping season. While interesting for their simplicity and for their readily availability, those indicators present some drawbacks because they do not allow to take into account trends in the impact of pesticides on man (as a pesticide applicator, as an agricultural worker or as a consumer of treated foodstuffs or on the environment (harmful effects on soil, water, air and on the organisms living therein. The present paper describes a set of indicators related to the usage (Tonnage, Frequency of application, to the soil and water pressure (SEPTWA and to the impact (Seq, SyPEP, POCER, that has been used in Belgium in order to measure some progress towards sustainable development. Examples of application are provided in the framework of Integrated Pest Management. They deal with the choice of active Ingredients, commercial preparations, application modes and treatment schemes that, using such indicators, are identified as safer for man and for the environment.

  13. Encadrement des produits et des procédés : réglementation et normalisation du commerce international

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morin Odile

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Produits et procédés sont encadrés à la fois par des réglementations et, à un autre niveau, par des normes du commerce international. Cette présentation traite des textes réglementaires au niveau communautaire et national. On rappellera que l’entrée en vigueur d’un règlement européen est suivie d’une transposition dans le droit de chaque pays membre et que la réglementation nationale s’applique en l’absence de dispositions communautaires. En matière de commerce international, seront évoquées les actions de normalisation du Conseil Oléicole International (COI pour les huiles d’olive et de grignons d’olive et celles du Codex Alimentarius pour les huiles et graisses comestibles. L’ensemble des dispositions réglementaires constitue un cadre englobant les productions de l’amont vers l’aval, à la fois sur un plan vertical (oléagineux, huiles et corps gras, huiles d’olive, margarines, procédés de raffinage et transversalement (composés organiques volatils, OGM, solvants d’extraction, additifs, contaminants…. Le cas de l’huile d’olive est particulier en ce qu’il bénéficie d’un encadrement au niveau international (normes commerciales COI et Codex Alimentarius, européen et national (réglementation. Le Codex Alimentarius, quant à lui, établit des normes à caractère vertical (huiles végétales, graisses animales, huiles d’olive, matières grasses tartinables… et horizontal (additifs, résidus de pesticides…. L’essentiel de cet encadrement est résumé dans les tableaux qui illustrent cette contribution.

  14. Produits locaux entre vente directe, circuit-court et action collective. Entretien avec Bertil Sylvander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Amilien

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available V.A. : Bertil Sylvander, vous êtes un des pères de la notion de conventions de qualité en matière de produits de qualité et d’origine, et vous possédez une profonde connaissance des aspects socio-économiques de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation locale, incluant les produits aux origines déterminées et les produits labellisés... et c’est d'ailleurs à ce titre que vous nous accordez un entretien aujourd’hui, pour le numéro sur les produits alimentaires locaux du journal AoFood. Je commencerai ...

  15. D’un discours galant l’autre : que sont nos discours devenus ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Viala

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet exposé présentera, comme un exemple, un travail que j’ai en ce moment en chantier. Il se situe dans la lignée d’un livre que j’ai récemment publié et qui s’intitule Lettre sur l’intérêt littéraire. Dans ce livre, j’analyse comment la littérature produit de l’intérêt, quel que soit le sujet qu’elle aborde, en suscitant de la curiosité et de l’émotion, et comment elle produit par là de l’adhésion. Je m’y suis donné la liberté de prendre pour interlocuteur (il convient de le préciser ici Je...

  16. Autre type d'évaluation du secteur agraire au Guatemala, dix ans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ), organisation non gouvernementale indépendante, participe aux recherches et aux activités de promotion en matière de législation agraire depuis l'adoption des accords de paix il y a dix ans. Le CEIDEPAZ se propose de mener un autre ...

  17. Biocarburants : la Commission propose d’encourager leur utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis longtemps, la Commission, le Parlement et le Conseil encouragent le développement des sources d’énergie renouvelables, et plus particulièrement des biocarburants. Cela s’est traduit, entre autres, par la publication en novembre 2000 d’un livre vert intitulé « Vers une stratégie européenne de sécurité d’approvisionnement énergétique », qui fixe comme objectif, d’ici 2020, le remplacement de 20% des carburants classiques par des carburants de substitution pour le transport routier. Plus récemment, en juin 2001, au sommet de Göteborg, a été souligné le rôle important des biocarburants dans la lutte contre le changement climatique et le développement des énergies propres. Ces encouragements restaient au niveau de la déclaration d’intention faute de moyens administratifs et fiscaux pour bâtir une véritable stratégie. Depuis le 7 novembre 2001, les choses semblent évoluer : en effet, à cette date, le collège des Commissaires a adopté une communication sur les carburants de substitution pour les transports routiers et une série de mesures visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants. De plus - et c’est ce qui est fondamental - cette communication était assortie de deux propositions de directives, l’une visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants dans les transports, l’autre concernant la possibilité d’appliquer un taux d’accises réduit sur certaines huiles minérales qui contiennent des biocarburants et sur les biocarburants.

  18. Industrial treatment of solutions of fission products. Separation of caesium-137; Traitement industriel de solutions de produits de fission. Separation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C; Raggenbass, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Two types of chemical treatment can be considered for the manufacture of solid sources for industrial uses from fission product solutions remaining after plutonium extraction: a) concentration of the solution and preparation of solid sources from the bulk material, without separation, b) separation of one or several fission products from which the sources are made. Examination of the radio-chemical composition of the mixture of fission products that will be available from the Marcoule reactors (G1, G2 and G3) shows that caesium-137 accounts for 30 per cent of the {gamma} energy available immediately after the plutonium separation, 70 per cent two years after and 100 per cent after five years. There is practically no advantage in making sources from bulk fission products, since the separation of caesium-137 is no more complicated and yet it results in a material with more potential uses. The separation of caesium-137 by a method based on the standard phospho-tungstate precipitation method has been considered. Previously, the precipitated caesium phospho-tungstate was dissolved and caesium was recovered from the solution by cation-exchange or by removal of phosphate and tungstate ions by anion-exchange. A study has now been made, of the metathesis of caesium phospho-tungstate to barium phosphate and tungstate by the action of barium hydroxide, the caesium being obtained in solution as the hydroxide. The advantages of this new procedure are: - greater decontamination of caesium-137 without further purification, - possibility of direct transformation to caesium sulphate, - general simplification of the procedure and, consequently, of the equipment. (author) [French] Deux types de traitement chimique peuvent etre envisages pour amener a l'etat de sources solides utilisables industriellement les produits de fission contenus dans les solutions residuaires de l'extraction du plutonium. Ces traitements sont les suivants: a) concentration des solutions et confection de

  19. Industrial treatment of solutions of fission products. Separation of caesium-137; Traitement industriel de solutions de produits de fission. Separation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.; Raggenbass, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Two types of chemical treatment can be considered for the manufacture of solid sources for industrial uses from fission product solutions remaining after plutonium extraction: a) concentration of the solution and preparation of solid sources from the bulk material, without separation, b) separation of one or several fission products from which the sources are made. Examination of the radio-chemical composition of the mixture of fission products that will be available from the Marcoule reactors (G1, G2 and G3) shows that caesium-137 accounts for 30 per cent of the {gamma} energy available immediately after the plutonium separation, 70 per cent two years after and 100 per cent after five years. There is practically no advantage in making sources from bulk fission products, since the separation of caesium-137 is no more complicated and yet it results in a material with more potential uses. The separation of caesium-137 by a method based on the standard phospho-tungstate precipitation method has been considered. Previously, the precipitated caesium phospho-tungstate was dissolved and caesium was recovered from the solution by cation-exchange or by removal of phosphate and tungstate ions by anion-exchange. A study has now been made, of the metathesis of caesium phospho-tungstate to barium phosphate and tungstate by the action of barium hydroxide, the caesium being obtained in solution as the hydroxide. The advantages of this new procedure are: - greater decontamination of caesium-137 without further purification, - possibility of direct transformation to caesium sulphate, - general simplification of the procedure and, consequently, of the equipment. (author) [French] Deux types de traitement chimique peuvent etre envisages pour amener a l'etat de sources solides utilisables industriellement les produits de fission contenus dans les solutions residuaires de l'extraction du plutonium. Ces traitements sont les suivants: a) concentration des solutions et

  20. « Rêver à un autre mythe de Phèdre »

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafteberg, Alexandre Planque

    2010-01-01

    Pourquoi avoir peint, pendant des siècles, l’amour malheureux de Phèdre pour son beau-fils, Hippolyte, si la réalité était autre, comme semblent le confirmer certaines découvertes archéologiques ? Quel est donc le véritable secret de Phèdre, non pas ce secret qui cache un amour interdit, mais le...

  1. Obésité abdominale et autres biomarqueurs de risque ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obésité abdominale et autres biomarqueurs de risque cardiométabolique: influence du niveau socioéconomique et du mode de vie dans deux populations noires apparentées, Cotonou (Bénin) et Port-au-Prince (Haïti). Asma EL Mabchour, Hélène Delisle, Colette Vilgrain, Phillipe Larco, Roger Sodjinou ...

  2. Produits locaux entre nature et culture : de la ferme voisine au terroir. Entretien avec Laurence Bérard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Amilien

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available V.A. : Laurence Bérard, vous représentez la moitié du célèbre duo Bérard et Marchenay, dont articles et ouvrages sur produits de terroir en France sont incontournables, et c’est à ce titre que vous nous accordez un entretien aujourd’hui pour le numéro sur les produits alimentaires locaux du journal Anthropology of Food. Alors je commencerais par la traditionnelle question : si je vous dis produits locaux, à quoi pensez-vous ?  L.B. : Produits locaux… et pas de produits de terroir…I.T. : Non j...

  3. Evaluation des méthodes chimiques, spectroscopiques et chromatographiques utilisables pour l'identification des polluants pétroliers en mer Evaluation of Chemical, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Methods Used to Identify Offshore Oil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaigés J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on passe en revue les différentes méthodes utilisables pour l'identification des principaux polluants pétroliers de la mer par l'analyse quantitativé de leurs « marqueurs passifs x (soufre, azote, nickel, vanadium, paraffine et asphaltènes et la détermination d'autres caractéristiques intrinsèques. II s'agit de méthodes chimiques, spectroscop iques (infrarouge, ultraviolette et chromatographiques (chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation de flamme, photométrie de flamme et capture d'électrons. Les mesures ont concerné une grande variété de produits susceptibles de polluer la côte méditerranéenne espagnole - pétrole brut des gisements offshore d'Amposta et de Castellôn; - pétroles bruts importés traités dans les raffineries côtières (Boscan, Es Sider, Kuwait, Arabian light, etc.; - fractions lourdes provenant de ces raffineries (fuel-cils, asphaltes, lubrifiants; - polluants réels; - échantillons altérés artificiellement en laboratoire afin de mettre en évidence l'action progressive des éléments naturels. On a trouvé que les méthodes les plus intéressantes étaient : - le dosage chimique du soufre, du nickel et du vanadium; - la spectroscopie infrarouge; - la chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation et photométrie de flamme. This article reviews the different methods that con be used to identify the leading petroleum pollutants of the sea by quantitative analysis of their a passive markers » (sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, paraffin, asphaltenes and by determining other intrinsic properties. These methods are chemical, spectroscopic (infrared, ultraviolet and chromatographic (high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, flame photometry and electron capture. Measurements were made of a great variety of products capable of polluting the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including

  4. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates; Utilisation d'un evaporateur a couche mince pour l'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefillatre, G; Rodier, J; Hullo, R; Cudel, Y; Rodi, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors) [French] A la suite de la mise au point en laboratoire d'un procede d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats d'evaporation, une etude technologique de cet enrobage a ete entreprise. Ce rapport decrit une installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats utilisant un evaporateur a couche mince LUWA L 150. La premiere serie d'essais en inactif a eu pour but de definir les capacites maximales et optimales de l'evaporateur en faisant varier les dosages en bitume et en concentrats, la vitesse du rotor et la temperature du thermo-fluide. Deux rotors ont ete testes, l'un de type classique, l'autre d'un modele special concu pour les produits de haute viscosite. La capacite d'evaporation maximale de l'appareil est de 72 kg/h d'eau pour une temperature de chauffage de 221 deg. C. En marche normale l'evaporateur peut debiter 50 kg/h d'enrobe compose de 55 a 60

  5. L'adoption des produits cosmétiques par les consommateurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés : adoption des produits cosmétiques, consommateurs, perception de la ... Keywords: adoption of cosmetics, consumers, perception of novelty, methods of ...... Bauer R (1960), Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking Dynamic Marketing for a changing ... via job mobility, Journal of economic Behaviour and Organization, ...

  6. Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du tabac en Argentine, en Bolivie et au Chili. Partout en Amérique du Sud, les adultes et les enfants font une grande ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all. A new website and resource library will help improve ...

  7. Les produits agricoles traditionnels peuvent améliorer la nutrition et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 janv. 2013 ... Les produits agricoles traditionnels peuvent améliorer la nutrition et augmenter le revenu des femmes ... des élèves en matière de nutrition; dans le cas des femmes, cette augmentation a été de 7 à 8 %. .... Articles connexes ...

  8. Mesures en matière de taxation des produits du tabac en Afrique de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mesures en matière de taxation des produits du tabac en Afrique de l'Ouest. En décembre 2007, le programme Recherche pour la lutte mondiale contre le tabac (RMCT) a entrepris une initiative afin de comprendre les facteurs cruciaux qui peuvent déterminer le succès de la lutte antitabac en Afrique subsaharienne.

  9. German mires - Utilisation and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderfeld, H.

    1996-01-01

    Mires in Germany are mainly used for agriculture. Peat mining is important regionally, but forest utilisation less so. Twenty years ago in the former West Germany, the first steps from peatland utilisation to peatland protection were taken. Bog protection programmes were developed first. Nowadays research directed to fen protection has begun, prompted by the decreasing importance of agriculture in Central Europe and an increasing environmental awareness. The situation regarding mire protection in Germany is presented for each Federal State individually. A rough estimate suggests 45 000 ha of protected bogs and 25 000 ha of protected fens. These areas include natural and semi-natural mires as well as rewetted mires. (30 refs.)

  10. La Physique des autres projets
    Les neutrinos et les muons - Partie I

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Un autre programme de R&D mené de manière très active à travers le monde (mais pas au CERN) concerne la production intense de muons et de neutrinos, en vue de l'exploitation de collisionneurs à muons de précision ou de haute énergie, et d'usines ou de super-faisceaux de neutrinos. Ce programme d'avant-garde ambitieux et ses motivations scientifiques seront discutés.

  11. Consommation des produits lactés chez l’enfant et l’adolescent marocain de 2 à 16 ans: une étude monocentrique Consumption of milk products among Moroccan children and adolescents aged 2-16 years: a monocentric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrani, Hajar; Alaoui, Asmae Mdaghri; Ettair, Said; Mouane, Nezha; Izgua, Amal Thimou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Evaluer la consommation quotidienne des produits laitiers dans une population d’enfants marocains et déterminer les facteurs associés pouvant influencer cette consommation. Méthodes Etude prospective du 1er octobre 2013 au 31 avril 2014. Les enfants âgés entre 2 et 16 ans ont été inclus. Le recrutement a eu lieu dans la ville de Fès. Le recueil des données s’est fait à l’aide d’un questionnaire fréquentiel. Les parents et les enfants inclus ont été interrogés sur la consommation des produits laitiers et les facteurs socio-démographiques avec une évaluation anthropométrique des enfants. L’association des variables à la consommation des produits laitiers a été analysée en analyse univariée et multivariée par un modèle de régression logistique. Résultats L’enquête alimentaire avait intéressé 286 enfants dont 151 filles (52,8 %) et 131 garçons (45,8%). Les enfants âgés de 2 à 3 ans représentaient 26,4 %, ceux âgés de 4 à 7 ans 28,9 %, ceux âgés de 7 à 9 ans 18,3 % et les adolescents âgés de 10 à 16 ans 26,4 %. Les enfants consommaient en moyenne 2.5±1 produits laitiers par jour. Les enfants consommaient au moins 3 produits laitiers par jour dans 57,8% chez les enfants âgés de 2 à 3 ans, 53,6% chez les enfants âgés de 4 à 6 ans, 40% chez les enfants âgés de 7 à 9 ans et 41.2% chez les enfants âgés de 10 à 16 ans. Les facteurs associés à la consommation de trois produits laitiers minimum par jour en analyse univariée étaient le niveau d’instruction maternel analphabète p 90° percentiles p 90° percentiles p = 0.01 OR = 3.9 est et la quantité consommée des produits laitiers et négatif avec le faible niveau de scolarité maternel analphabète p = 0.008 OR = 0.1 et primaire p = 0.009 OR = 0.1. Conclusion La consommation du lait et des autres produits laitiers était inappropriée en particulier chez l’enfant âgé de 7 à 9 ans et l’adolescent de 10 à 16 ans. Le faible niveau d

  12. From tourist product to ordinary food? De produit touristique à produit alimentaire ? Le rôle du tourisme rural dans le développement des produits locaux et du patrimoine alimentaire en Norvège.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Vittersø

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Local food products, either new, “traditional”, or based on a specific conception of food heritage, play an important role in the development of the rural tourism sector in Norway. Building on different concrete Norwegian case studies, this article seeks to better understand the role tourism plays in the creation, or revival, of cultural identity based on local food products and food heritage. The paper uses the concept of the “tourist gaze” in order to analyze tourists and local consumers’ perceptions and appropriation of local food. The article highlights the consequences of the emergence of culinary and local food heritage for tourists in Norway, and concludes that tourism increases the awareness of food heritage and strengthens local identity, although these food products are not much used in ordinary food consumption.Les produits locaux, nouveaux, basés sur des recettes « traditionnelles », voire sur une conception particulière du patrimoine alimentaire, jouent un rôle important dans le développement du secteur touristique rural en Norvège. Fondé sur différents cas d’études norvégiens concrets, cet article permet de mieux comprendre le rôle joué par le tourisme dans la création, ou la construction, de l’identité culturelle basée sur le patrimoine alimentaire et le développement récent des produits locaux. Afin d’analyser la perception et l’appropriation des produits localisés par les consommateurs, nous proposons une approche fondée sur la notion de « regard touristique ». Cet article s’achève finalement sur les conséquences de l’émergence du patrimoine alimentaire local dans le tourisme, soulignant à la fois l’influence sur les pratiques alimentaires et sur la mise en valeur d’une identité culturelle locale, bien que ces produits locaux restent peu utilisés dans les habitudes alimentaires quotidiennes.

  13. Colloquium C.L.I. operators and others... the becoming of radioactive products after use; Les CLI, les exploitants et les autres... Le devenir des produits radioactifs apres utilisaiton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancelin, G.; Artus, J.C.; Atteia, M.; Audebert, P.; Ballat, J.; Balle, St.; Bardols, M.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Baylet, J.M.; Bazot, G.; Beaufils, B.; Benech, R.; Bongiovanni, J.; Bontoux, J.; Boueilh, M.; Brunet, F.; Calafat, A.; Cartier, M.; Cavereau, S.; Cavereau, G.; Chambon, B.; Chouchan, M.; Criton, P.; Coudre-Genetti, S.; Bretesche, O. de la; Delcourt, R.; Delibes, J.L.; Diaham, A.; Dupouis, N.; Dutil, V.; Eimer, M.; Fauvre, D.; Figueredo, G.; Fongaro, G.; Gaillard, P.; Gazal, S.; Graschaire, G.; Grenier, St.; Ibert, J.; Jacob, E.; Kozlowski, E.; Laroche, D.; Le Bars, Y.; Linfort, J.M.; Sabatier, M.A.; Sasseigne, Ph.; Saut, C.; Sornein, J.F.; Terrenne, J.P.; Donzac, M. de; Thiese, I.; Tfibel, V.; Vidal, J.; Vieillard-Baron, B.; Vincent, D

    2006-07-01

    Colloquium to Golfech on September 17. and 18., 2003. The 3. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I. took place to Golfech, to Alexis Calafat invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Golfech. The reserved subject was ' the C.L.I., the developers and the others: than can bring the various bodies of the nuclear power to the C.L.I.? ' A half-day was dedicated in particular to the future of the radioactive products after use, where the question of the transport of radioactive products was approached. 80 persons participated. The titles of the approached subjects were: dimensions of the expertise and the construction of the information; the C.L.I and its various interlocutors; C.L.I.N., the developer, the others and the transparency of the information; waste and radioactive waste in a hospital environment; safety of the transport of radioactive material; the relations of the Golfech C.N.P.E. with the C.L.I.; the new institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety; the national agency for the management of the radioactive waste, what projects; Implementation of municipal protection plans on the C.L.I. initiative; Socio-economic effects from the installation of Paluel and Penly C.N.P.E.; The case of the Garonne: the iodine 131 contamination; Analysis of the environment in contact with the secondary school of Bar-sur-Aube; C.L.I., the developer and the others: what relations. (N.C.)

  14. Economics of Food Irradiation; Aspects Economiques de l'Irradiation des Produits Alimentaires; Voprosy ehkonomichnosti obrabotki produktov pitaniya posredstvom oblucheniya; Aspectos Economicos de la Irradiacion de Alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindorf, H. [A/S Radest, Herstedoester (Denmark)

    1966-11-15

    , pour un industriel, la question de savoir s'il adoptera cette technique depend principalement de considerations d'ordre economique. Au Danemark, une entreprise industrielle a maintenant juge qu'il etait rentable de construire une installation de taille industrielle a fins multiples, equipee d'une machine americaine Linac, qui permettra de traiter des produits alimentaires. Jusqu'a present, seules quelques entreprises dans le monde disposent de donnees concretes sur les prix de revient pour le traitement industriel des produits alimentaires, mais les chiffres concernant d'autres domaines peuvent donner des indications. Pour les calculs pratiques, il est utile de classer les installations selon la caracteristique principale des operations, par exemple: traitement des produits 'en vrac', des articles 'moyens', des articles ' petits', et installations a ' fins multiples'; les produits alimentaires peuvent entrer sous n'importe laquelle de ces rubriques. Le cout de l'irradiation depend des proprietes du produit, du type d'installation, des quantites annuelles et mensuelles traitees, des doses, des normes de controle, des exigences speciales pour le reemballage et autres operations de manutention, etc. Dans chaque cas particulier on ne peut obtenir de chiffres surs que par un calcul precis, mais pour une evaluation preliminaire l'industriel dispose de plusieurs gammes generales de prix et il est deja evident, en ce qui concerne diverses operations, que l'irradiation est economiquement rentable. Outre l'economie de l'installation, il serait bon que l'entrepreneur etudie certains problemes commerciaux generaux, tels que la preference du consommateur et la structure du marche pour la denree en question. Le plus souvent, le meilleur moyen a cette fin consiste a commercialiser une production pilote avant de decider d'investir de grosses sommes dans du materiel tres specialise. Pour certains produits, des essais fructueux ont deja ete faits sur le marche par des organismes de

  15. Effet de la capacité d’une annonce à évoquer la nostalgie sur l’intention d’achat du produit : un essai de modélisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lefi Hajlaoui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available À l’ère de la modernité dans laquelle nous vivons, une tendance « rétro » se développe se basant sur le postulat que les choses étaient meilleures avant. Cette idée de nostalgie de passé a fait que les spécialistes de la communication l’utilisent de plus en plus dans leurs campagnes publicitaires. Cette recherche a pour objectif de comprendre le mécanisme par lequel une annonce nostalgique pourra influencer l’intention d’achat du produit de la marque promue. Une enquête a été menée auprès d’un échantillon de 225 consommateurs tunisiens. Les résultats indiquent l’existence d’une relation positive entre la capacité de l’annonce à déclencher la nostalgie et le comportement du consommateur envers la marque influençant ainsi la décision d’achat du produit de la marque promue.

  16. Development and Testing of Xanthan Products for Eor-Applications in the North Sea Développement et essais des produits à base de xanthane pour les applications de RAH en mer du Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foss P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A program for development and evaluation of xanthan for use in enhanced oil recovery projects in the North Sea has been performed. Xanthan was produced using different fermentation conditions. Rheological measurements and filterability tests have been done. Xanthan products, which readily dissolve in sea water and give high viscosity and low aggregation have been produced. The fermentation process used for this type of product was scaled up from 10 litres to 20,000 litres production volume without significant changes in polymer solution properties. Un programme de développement et d'évaluation du xanthane pour utilisation dans les projets de récupération assistée des hydrocarbures en mer du Nord a été réalisé. Le xanthane est obtenu par différents procédés de fermentation. On a effectué des mesures rhéologiques et des essais de filtrabilité. Les produits à base de xanthane se dissolvent facilement dans l'eau de mer, ils donnent une forte viscosité et une faible agrégation. Avec le procédé de fermentation utilisé pour ce type de produit, on a pu faire passer la production de 10 litres à 20000 litres sans modification notable des propriétés de la solution de polymère.

  17. Incidence de la hausse des taxes sur le tabac et du prix des produits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La recherche destinée aux responsables des politiques de l'Ukraine, de la Russie et du Bélarus mettra en évidence la façon dont les mesures de taxation des produits du tabac peuvent contribuer à l'atteinte d'objectifs en matière de santé ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  18. Des atomes d'antihydrogene produits en quantites substantielles au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Sevestre, G

    2002-01-01

    "Des quantites relativement substantielles d'atomes d'antihydrogene a basse temperature ont ete produites cet ete au Laboratoire europeen de physique des particules, le CERN a Geneve, ouvrant la voie a une etude approfondie de cette antimatiere qui pourrait remettre en cause les theories actuelles, a annonce mercredi sur le site Internet de la revue Nature une equipe internationale de chercheurs" (1 page).

  19. Caractérisation physicochimique des huiles d'olive produites dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2015 ... trituration et de stockage des huiles d'olive influent la qualité de l'huile produite. Par conséquent, il ... Détermination de l'indice de peroxyde : 1g d'huile d'olive est ... Ensuite 60 ml d'eau distillée et 1 ml d'une solution d'empois ...

  20. DESIGNOR: une méthode nouvelle d'aide à la conception des produits industriels

    OpenAIRE

    Choffray, Jean-Marie

    1980-01-01

    Cet article présente une méthode nouvelle, appelée DESIGNOR, d'aide à la décision marketing. Son objectif est d'accroître la créativité au cours du processus de développement d'un nouveau produit industriel et de réduire les risques d'échec commercial.

  1. Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du tabac en Argentine, en Bolivie et au Chili. Partout en Amérique du Sud, les adultes et les enfants font une grande consommation de tabac. Un nouveau projet de recherche se penchera sur les avantages et les limites des stratégies de fixation des prix et de ...

  2. Élaboration d'une nouvelle politique de taxation des produits du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le moyen le plus direct et le plus efficace de réduire la consommation de tabac consiste à augmenter le prix des produits du tabac en haussant les taxes. La hausse des prix favorise l'abandon du tabac, empêche des fumeurs potentiels de commencer à fumer et réduit la consommation chez ceux qui ne cessent pas de ...

  3. Proposition of resolution aiming at the creation of an inquiry commission relative to the safety of the french nuclear installations and the protection of inhabitants face to the risks of radioactive contaminations coming to uranium leakages or any other product used in the nuclear power plants and the radioactive waste storage facilities; Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative a la securite des installations electro-nucleaires francaises et la protection des habitants face aux risques de contaminations radioactives dues aux fuites d'uranium ou de tout autre produit utilise dans les centrales nucleaires et les installations de stockage de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This commission will have for mission to establish the facts relative to the Tricastin accident and the previous pollutions around this site; to appreciate the delay, the transparency and the public information modalities, both by the company and by the authorities; to establish a systematic and precise statement of the radioactive contaminations on the sites and around the french nuclear facilities ( included the waste storage sites); to measure the ecological damages on the ecosystems and the sanitary risks for the populations; to evaluate the prevention programmes management and the safety of these facilities; to identify the dysfunctions of the french nuclear sector and give propositions to improve the safety of these facilities. (N.C.)

  4. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature; Etude de quelques echangeurs mineraux utilisables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hure, J; Platzer, R; Bittel, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Fourre, J [Societe le Carbone Lorraine, 75 - Paris (France); Wey, R [Faculte des Sciences de Strasbourg, Lab. de Mineralogie, 67 (France)

    1958-07-01

    these impurities (that is to say capable of de-mineralizing polluted water). This paper describes the preliminary results of the investigation. (author) [French] L'etude de l'utilisation des echangeurs d'ions a haute temperature a ete essentiellement faite en vue de l'epuration de l'eau des reacteurs. On connait l'interet qu'il y a a garder dans un circuit de reacteur de l'eau de tres haute resistivite (plusieurs centaines a quelques millions {omega}.cm): abaissement de la corrosion, abaissement du taux de radiolyse, abaissement de la radioactivite des circuits et canalisations, les elements autres que les constituants de l'eau transportes par celle-ci devenant generalement radioactifs par leur passage au coeur du reacteur. Si la circulation d'eau se fait a des temperatures inferieures a 45 deg. C, les resines echangeuses d'ions organiques utilisees en lit melange resolvent tres bien le probleme de l'epuration en continu. Par contre, pour des temperatures plus elevees surtout au-dessus de 100 deg. C, leur utilisation n'est pas possible, la degradation de ces hauts polymeres etant tres rapide. De meme, l'action des rayonnements, par exemple ceux des produits fixes par les echangeurs d'ions, detruit irremediablement les chaines organiques constituant le squelette de ces echangeurs. Nous avons donc cherche d'es composes pouvant assurer une bonne deionisation de l'eau, mais de structures telles qu'elles ne soient pas deteriorees par l'action de la temperature et des rayonnements. Nous nous sommes particulierement orientes dans trois voies: - echangeurs d'ions naturels a structure minerale (argile du type montmorillonite), - composes mineraux naturels traites pour leur conferer les proprietes d'echangeurs d'ions (charbons actives), - composes mineraux synthetiques (sels tres peu solubles, phosphate et hydroxyde de zirconium et de thorium). Dans ces etudes, nous nous sommes attaches a obtenir des produits stables en presence d'eau a haute temperature, tres insolubles et non

  5. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  6. Thermochemical Conversion of Lignin for Fuels and Chemicals: A Review Conversion thermochimique de la lignine en carburants et produits chimiques : une revue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffres B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is one of the biomass components potentially usable as renewable resource to produce fuels or chemicals. After separation from the lignocellulosic matrix, this macromolecule is nowadays essentially valorized by combustion in paper mills. If second generation ethanol is produced in the future from lignocellulosic biomass, some increasing reserves of lignin will be available in addition to the ones coming from the paper industry. The main thermochemical ways such as pyrolysis, solvolysis, hydrothermal conversion and hydroconversion considered for the valorization of the lignin are reviewed in this article. La lignine est une des composantes de la biomasse lignocellulosique potentiellement valorisable comme ressource renouvelable pour la production de carburants ou de produits chimiques. Après séparation de la matrice lignocellulosique, cette macromolécule est de nos jours essentiellement utilisée comme combustible dans l’industrie papetière. Outre cette filière papetière, la production d’éthanol de seconde génération à partir de la cellulose aura comme conséquence la mise à disponibilité d’encore plus grandes quantités de lignine. De nouvelles applications pourront donc être proposées pour l’utilisation de cette bio-ressource. Les différentes voies thermochimiques : pyrolyse, solvolyse, conversion hydrothermale et hydroconversion envisagées pour la valorisation de la lignine sont décrites dans cet article.

  7. DEGRADATION PHOTOCATALYTIQUE DE L’ISOPROTURON EN SUSPENSIONS AQUEUSES DU BIOXYDE DE TITANE IRRADIEE PAR UV: CINETIQUE DE DEGRADATION, PRODUITS INTERMEDIAIRES ET MECANISME REACTIONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S AZIZI

    2008-06-01

    sur la dégradation de IP a été également étudié. Les produits intermédiaires ont été identifiés par chromatographie liquide couplée à la spectrométrie de masse (LC-MS. Les produits principaux par ordre d'importance étaient les produits ortho- et méta hydroxylé et composés d'oxydation sur la chaînes urée qui mène au produit de la déméthylation

  8. Transformation et commercialisation améliorées des produits du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à aborder le problème en mettant à l'essai des séchoirs solaires et en en faisant la promotion. Ces séchoirs peuvent améliorer la durée de conservation des petits poissons et la qualité du produit. Plus précisément, les chercheurs testeront des méthodes de séchage sur trois espèces de petits poissons :

  9. Étude et mise en pratique d'un service autour des produits

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Peguet

    2013-01-01

    Depuis une vingtaine d'années, nous assistons à une démocratisation des services dans les entreprises industrielles. De nombreux types de services autour des produits sont ainsi mis en place : installation de matériels, assistance, formations, etc. Un des objectifs principal de la mise en place de ces différents services est l'augmentation de l'attachement des clients à l'entreprise. Cette fidélité permet d'engendrer des profits directement et indirectement. Directement par l'augmentation du ...

  10. Incidence de la hausse des taxes sur le tabac et du prix des produits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La recherche destinée aux responsables des politiques de l'Ukraine, de la Russie et du Bélarus mettra en évidence la façon dont les mesures de taxation des produits du tabac peuvent contribuer à l'atteinte d'objectifs en matière de santé publique et à la réduction de la charge de morbidité et de mortalité liée au tabagisme ...

  11. Le big bang n'est pas une théorie comme les autres

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc; Leglu, Dominique; Reinisch, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Le big bang n'est pas une théorie comme les autres. Ce n'est d'ailleurs pas une théorie physique au sens propre du terme, mais un scénario cosmologique issu des équations de la relativité générale. Il est le modèle qui s'ajuste le mieux aux observations actuelles, mais à quel prix ? Il nous livre un Univers composé à 96 % de matière et d'énergie noires inconnues. C'est donc un euphémisme que de dire que le big bang semble poser autant - sinon plus - de questions qu'il n'en résout. En ce sens, le big bang apparaît davantage comme une paramétrisation de notre ignorance plutôt que comme une modélisation d'un phénomène. Pourtant, le succès du big bang et l'adhésion qu'il suscite, tant dans la sphère scientifique que dans la sphère médiatique, ne se démentent pas. Surmédiatisé, son statut dépasse celui de modèle théorique, et la simple évocation de son nom suffit pour justifier des opérations de marketing scientifique ou rejeter des cosmologies alternatives. Pour éclaircir les pr...

  12. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezovska, M.

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal contain humic acids but lignite from Novaky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated from of humic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of coals humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water. Oxidised coal with high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and can help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabilize toxic metal residues already present in soil. (author)

  13. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  14. La gestion des stocks de produits périssables et l’utilisation des intégrateurs temps - température

    OpenAIRE

    Kouki , Chaaben

    2010-01-01

    One of the implicit assumptions made in research related to inventory control is to keep products indefinitely in inventory to meet future demand. However, such an assumption is not true for a large wide of products characterized by a limited lifetime. The economic impact of managing such products led to substantial work in perishable inventory control literature. Investigations developed so far underline the complexity of modeling perishable inventory. Moreover, the dependency of the lifetim...

  15. Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) -- Indication des états de surface dans la documentation technique de produits

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    La présente Norme internationale spécifie les règles pour l'indication des états de surface dans la documentation technique de produits (par exemple dessins, spécifications, contrats, rapports) au moyen de symboles graphiques et d'indications textuelles. Elle est applicable à l'indication des exigences sur les surfaces au moyen de paramètres de profil conformément à l'ISO 4287, relatifs au profil R (paramètres de rugosité), au profil W (paramètres d'ondulation) et au profil P (paramètres de structure), de paramètres liés aux motifs conformément à l'ISO 12085, relatifs au motif de rugosité et au motif d'ondulation, et de paramètres relatifs à la courbe du taux de longueur portante conformément à l'ISO 13565-2 et à l'ISO 13565-3. NOTE Quant à l'indication des exigences concernant les imperfections de surface (pores, stries, etc.), qui ne peuvent pas être spécifiées à l'aide des paramètres d'état de surface, référence est faite à l'ISO 8785 qui couvre les imperfections de surface...

  16. Evaluation quantitative des produits formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique Quantitative Evaluation of Products Formed During the Geochemical Evolution of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évaluation quantitative des produits mobiles formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique est nécessaire parce qu'on ne peut jamais retrouver ces produits en place dans. la roche où ils ont pris naissance. Ils ont, en effet, pu migrer durant l'histoire géologique, et de toute manière une fraction, importante et non connue, se perd lors de la prise des échantillons puis de leur conservation avant analyse. La connaissance de l'analyse d'un état E et d'un état plus évolué E' ne suffit pas pour reconstituer les quantités de produits formés. La pyrolyse type Rock-Eval sur kérogènes, avec détermination du carbone résiduel, permet par contre, à partir d'une hypothèse raisonnable, de calculer les hydrocarbures produits. L'analyse élémentaire permet d'y ajouter CO2, H2O, H2S et N2 (considérés comme seuls produits à côté des hydrocarbures. Une analyse chromatographique sommaire supplémentaire permet d'estimer la composition globale des hydrocarbures. Dans le cas des roches, on propose des techniques de correction de l'effet de matrice pratiquement utilisables et qui permettent de retrouver les résultats précédents, au prix d'une incertitude accrue. The mobile products formed during the geochemical evolution of organic matter must be quantitatively evaluated because these products can never be found in place in the rock where they were formed. Indeed, they may have migrated during geological history, and in any case a large and unknown fraction gets lost when samples are taken and then stored before being analysed. Knowing the elemental analysis of a state E and of a more evolved state E' does not suffice for recreating the amounts of products formed. On the other hand Rock-Eval type pyrolysis of kerogens, including the determination of the residual carbon, can be used to compute the hydrocarbons produced, on the basis of a reasonable hypothesis. Elemental analysis then enables the evaluation of CO2, H2O

  17. Le laser comme moyen de dégagement de produits de corrosion sur un objet archéologique : le cas de la dorure sur alliage cuivreux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Brodard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Le dégagement des produits de corrosion présents sur les objets archéologiques en alliage cuivreux dorés comporte d’importants risques d’altération. Lors d’un dégagement mécanique se pose le problème de la rayure de la surface dorée. Lors d’un traitement chimique, une accélération des processus de corrosion des alliages en présence risque de se produire.Dans ce travail, nous avons testé l’utilisation du laser comme méthode alternative de dégagement des produits de corrosion sur ce type d’objets. Trois lasers Nd:YAG ont été utilisés lors de cette étude : un laser Short free running, un laser long Q-switch et un laser Q-switch. Les tests ont été effectués sur des coupons en cuivre dorés fabriqués d’après deux masques précolombiens. Nos résultats montrent que ces lasers ne permettent pas un dégagement des produits de corrosion sans altérer la surface dorée. Par contre, il existe la possibilité de tester des lasers offrant une vitesse d’impulsion plus rapide comme le laser femtoseconde.The removal of corrosion products from archaeological gilded copper alloys lead to high risks of damage. A mechanical cleaning may induce abrasions of the gilding when a chemical cleaning might increase the corrosion processes.In this thesis, we have tested the use of laser as an alternative for the removal of corrosion products on gilded copper alloy. Three lasers Nd:YAG  were used during our tests : a laser Short free running, a laser Long Q-switch and a laser Q-switch. The tests have been done on gilded copper samples prepared after two pre-Columbian masks. The results prove that lasers don’t permit the removal of corrosion products without damage on the gilded surface. However a laser with a faster pulse like a femtosecond laser may allow the cleaning of gilded copper without any damage

  18. Effective utilisation of generation Y Quantity Surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together and tested by means of open interview discussions with senior QS professionals. ... employers could better utilise generation Y employees. 2. Literature review .... Literature was reviewed by using search engines (Emerald, Business.

  19. Radioisotope Power Sources; Sources d'energie utilisant les radiobotopes; Radioizotopnye istochniki ehnergii; Fuentes radio isotopicas de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culwell, J. P. [USAEC, Washington, D.C (United States)

    1963-11-15

    hazards. (author) [French] Le programme de production d'energie au moyen des radioisotopes, execute par la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats-Unis, a donne naissance a toute une technologie nouvelle de l'emploi des radioisotopes comme source d'energie dans des generateurs. Les sources d'energie utilisant des radioisotopes conviennent particulierement pour les applications a distance, qui exigent des alimentations de longue duree, de faibles dimensions et de fonctionnement sur. Ces ''batteries nucleaires'', qui peuvent fonctionner de maniere satisfaisante dans des conditions extremes de temperature et d'exposition aux rayons solaires et aux rayonnements electromagnetiques, constituent des sources d'energie interessantes pour differents types d'engins telecommandes tels que ceux qui sont destines a recueillir des renseignements ou a assurer une surveillance ainsi que les satellites et autres vehicules spatiaux. Les radioisotopes utilises comme sources d'energie sont generalement des emetteuis alpha ou beta. Les emetteurs alpha sont preferables, mais ils sont plus couteux et plus rares et on les reserve generalement pour les applications spatiales. A l'heure actuelle les emetteurs beta, obtenus par separation des dechets de la fission nucleaire, sont utilises exclusivement dans les engins terrestres et marins. On peut neanmoins prevoir que des emetteurs beta, comme le strontium-90, seront eventuellement utilises dans l'espace. On fait actuellement des recherches sur des generateurs qui utiliseront comme sources des melanges de produits de fission. Ces sources seront d'un prix de revient moins eleve qile les radioisotopes purs car les couts de la separation et de la purification seront supprimes. Des prototypes de generateurs thermoelectriques, utilisant le strontium-90 et le cesium-137 comme sources, fonctionnent actuellement ou sont mis au point dans des stations meteorologiques, des engins de balisage et des appareils pour la survellance des profondeurs marines. Le

  20. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  1. Enhancing Cloud Resource Utilisation using Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sijin He; Li Guo; Yike Guo

    2014-01-01

    Resource provisioning based on virtual machine (VM) has been widely accepted and adopted in cloud computing environments. A key problem resulting from using static scheduling approaches for allocating VMs on different physical machines (PMs) is that resources tend to be not fully utilised. Although some existing cloud reconfiguration algorithms have been developed to address the problem, they normally result in high migration costs and low resource utilisation due to ignoring the multi-dimens...

  2. Recent Advances in Food Irradiation Research in Japan; Recents Progres de l'Irradiation des Produits Alimentaires au Japon; Poslednie dostizheniya v issledovaniyakh po oblucheniyu produktov pitaniya v Yaponii; Progresos Recientes de las Investigaciones Sobre Irradiacion de Alimentos Realizadas en el Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, A. [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1966-11-15

    , les modifications de qualite decelables immediatement apres l'irradiation se sont revelees insignifiantes apres huit mois de conservation d'apres l'analyse statistique des donnees organoleptiques. Deuxiemement, etude de l'elimination des agents biologiques et biochimiques nuisibles dans les produits, du point de vue de la sante publique. La sensibilite aux rayonnements de la toxine produite par Cl. botulinum E a ete etudiee en rapport avec l'innocuite des produits irradies. Troisiemement, l'utilisation des effets chimiques des rayonnements. On a etudie par exemple l'irradiation d'algues marines a des doses de 0,5 a 0,7 Mrad en vue d'ameliorer la qualite et la quantite de la gelose extraite, ainsi que l'acceleration, par des doses de rayonnement atteignant 0,5 Mrad, du vieillissement des boissons alcooliques, notamment des liqueurs distillees. Outre ces etudes de caractere pratique, on s'est occupe activement des problemes fondamentaux comprenant la radiosensibilisation des micro-organismes, l'inactivation des enzymes par les rayonnements et d'autres questions de radiochimie interessant l'irradiation des denrees alimentaires. (author) [Spanish] En la actualidad parecen perfilarse los planes para establecer en el Japon un programa nacional de irradiacion de alimentos orientado hacia los problemas fundamentales y practicos. La Comision de Energia Atomica ha comenzado ya a preparar el programa de estudios fundamentales y sus aplicaciones, que se emprendera probablemente en 1967. Gracias a la colaboracion de especialistas se ha constituido la Sociedad japonesa de investigaciones sobre irradiacion de alimentos; se espera que esta organizacion desempene una labor importante en la ejecucion del programa nacional. En la actualidad, el Japon dispone de unas 30 fuentes radioisotopicas del orden del kilocurie, y casi del mismo numero de generadores de electrones, incluidas varias plantas piloto de irradiacion. En el Japon los estudios practicos sobre irradiacion de alimentos se

  3. Use of particles other than neutrons in activation analysis; Emploi de particules autres que les neutrons en analyse par actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    Nuclear reactions obtained by irradiation in {gamma} Bremsstrahlung, {alpha} particles and protons are particularly suitable for dosing very small traces of light elements. We consider the possibilities presented by activation in {gamma} radiation of 28 MeV maximum energy, mainly for the measurement of C, F, N, O, P and S. Non-destructive methods of analysis for beryllium are described. Under certain conditions they may also be used for other elements such as B, Ca, Li and Na. We give also the results of our first experiments carried out in an attempt to find a method for dosing carbon and oxygen by irradiation in {alpha} particles and protons. For each type of activation the possible types of interference with other nuclear refections are considered. (author) [French] Des reactions nucleaires obtenues par irradiation dans des rayons {gamma} de freinage, des particules {alpha} et des protons, sont particulierement indiquees pour les dosages de traces ultimes de certains elements legers. Nous etudions les possibilites offertes par les activations en rayons {alpha} d'energie maximum 28 MeV, principalement pour les dosages de C, F, N, O, P et S. Des methodes d'analyse non destructives appliquees au beryllium sont decrites. Sous certaines conditions, elles peuvent egalement etre utilisees pour d'autres materiaux comme B, Ca, Li et Na. Nous donnons d'autre part les resultats de nos premieres experiences effectuees pour la mise au point des methodes de dosage du carbone et de l'oxygene par irradiation dans les particules {alpha} et les protons. Pour chaque type d'activation, les possibilites d'interferences avec d'autres reactions nucleaires sont examinees. (auteur)

  4. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature; Etude de quelques echangeurs mineraux utilisables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hure, J.; Platzer, R.; Bittel, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Fourre, J. [Societe le Carbone Lorraine, 75 - Paris (France); Wey, R. [Faculte des Sciences de Strasbourg, Lab. de Mineralogie, 67 (France)

    1958-07-01

    these impurities (that is to say capable of de-mineralizing polluted water). This paper describes the preliminary results of the investigation. (author) [French] L'etude de l'utilisation des echangeurs d'ions a haute temperature a ete essentiellement faite en vue de l'epuration de l'eau des reacteurs. On connait l'interet qu'il y a a garder dans un circuit de reacteur de l'eau de tres haute resistivite (plusieurs centaines a quelques millions {omega}.cm): abaissement de la corrosion, abaissement du taux de radiolyse, abaissement de la radioactivite des circuits et canalisations, les elements autres que les constituants de l'eau transportes par celle-ci devenant generalement radioactifs par leur passage au coeur du reacteur. Si la circulation d'eau se fait a des temperatures inferieures a 45 deg. C, les resines echangeuses d'ions organiques utilisees en lit melange resolvent tres bien le probleme de l'epuration en continu. Par contre, pour des temperatures plus elevees surtout au-dessus de 100 deg. C, leur utilisation n'est pas possible, la degradation de ces hauts polymeres etant tres rapide. De meme, l'action des rayonnements, par exemple ceux des produits fixes par les echangeurs d'ions, detruit irremediablement les chaines organiques constituant le squelette de ces echangeurs. Nous avons donc cherche d'es composes pouvant assurer une bonne deionisation de l'eau, mais de structures telles qu'elles ne soient pas deteriorees par l'action de la temperature et des rayonnements. Nous nous sommes particulierement orientes dans trois voies: - echangeurs d'ions naturels a structure minerale (argile du type montmorillonite), - composes mineraux naturels traites pour leur conferer les proprietes d'echangeurs d'ions (charbons actives), - composes mineraux synthetiques (sels tres peu solubles, phosphate et hydroxyde de zirconium et de thorium). Dans ces etudes, nous nous

  5. Amount and activity of fission products which will be obtainable in France in the immediate future taking into account the development of atomic energy; Quantite et activite des produits de fission abtenus en France dans les annees a venir compte tenu du developpement de l'energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirlet, J; Lavie, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    By using the Wigner and Way formula, the activity of the complex mixture of fission products produced in a pile may be estimated theoretically in advance. This study was carried out on the basis of forecasts, in the case of France for the production of electricity of atomic origin up to the year 1975. The uranium was assumed to be in the pile during periods of three months and six months. It is also possible to find the activity of a particular fission product and to give its decay rate. The element chosen is strontium for a three months' activation period. Each set of curves gives at any moment the total activity accumulated, and the characteristic activity of the fission products corresponding to a given half-life. (author) [French] En utilisant la formule de Wigner et Way, il est possible de prevoir theoriquement l'activite du melange complexe de produits de fission provenant d'une pile. L'etude a ete faite en tenant compte de previsions, en ce qui concerne la France, de la production d'electricite d'origine atomique jusqu'en 1975. On a suppose des temps de sejour en pile de l'uranium de trois mois et de six mois. Il est possible egalement de trouver l'activite d'un produit de fission particulier, et de donner sa decroissance. Le corps choisi est le strontium pour un temps d'activation de trois mois. Chaque ensemble de courbes donne a tout instant l'activite totale accumulee, et l'activite propre des produits de fission correspondant a une periode donnee. (auteur)

  6. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total of 400 questionnaires were analyzed. Based on the results, the undergraduates’ utilisation level of smartphones for communication and collaboration tool was at a high level. Meanwhile, utilisation for operations and concepts tool and research and information fluency tool were at moderate level. Finally, smartphones utilisation as digital citizenship tool and critical thinking, problem solving and creativity tool were both at a low level. Hence, more training and workshops should be given to the students in order to encourage them to fully utilise smartphones in enhancing the higher order thinking skills.

  7. Liquid Scintillation Detection of Tritium and other Radioisotopes in Insoluble or Quenching Organic Samples; Detection par compteur a scintillations a liquides du tritium et des autres radioelements contenus dans des echantillons organiques insolubles ou coupeurs; Obnaruzhenie tritiya metodom zhidkostnoj stsintillyatsii v nerastvorimykh ili sposo'nykh gasit' izluchenie organicheskikh o'raztsakh; Deteccion del tritio u otros radioisotopos por centelleo liquido en muestras organicas insolubles o que provocan extincion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, J F; Westbrook, H L; Gonzales, D [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    raisons: beaucoup d'echantillons organiques provoquent le coupage; d'autres echantillons sont peu solubles. Ces limitations sont particulierement frequentes dans le cas des substances importantes du point de vue biologique. Le procede mis au point par les auteurs comporte la combustion de l'echantillon enveloppe de papier filtre, dans un ballon rempli d'oxygene; la dissolution des produits de combustion dans un solvant approprie ajoute au ballon avant la combustion; enfin, le comptage de la solution. Parmi les avantages de ce procede, on relevera - outre le fait qu'il permet d'elargir le champ d'application de la methode en supprimant les limitations mentionnees plus haut - son efficacite pour des echantillons ayant des activites extremement diverses (dans certains cas, elles ne depassent pas 1 {mu}c par mole), son excellente precision (aussi grande que celle de toute autre methode generale de radioanalyse du tritium) et la possibilite de l'appliquer a d'autres emetteurs beta mous ({sup 14}C et {sup 35}S). Avec un spectrotnetre a scintillations et le procede mis au point par les auteurs, des echantillons marques par trois indicateurs (tritium, carbone-14 et soufre-35) peuvent faire l'objet d'une radioanalyse differentielle. Les auteurs donnent des details sur les solvants utilises et les techniques mises au point, et indiquent les resultats de l'analyse pour des matieres provoquant le coupage telles que les dinitro-2,4, phenylhydrazones et les colorants au thiazole, ainsi que pour des matieres insolubles telles que les proteines et les hydrates de carbone. Ils rendent compte de l'application du procede a l'evaluation des effets isotopiques {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H dans certaines reactions de reduction. (author) [Spanish] Para facilitar el estudio del efecto isotopico {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H en la reduccion de compuestos organicos, ha sido preciso idear procedimientos a fin de vencer los dos inconvenientes principales que presenta el metodo de radioanalisis general mas apropiado para

  8. Utilisation des mousses et des pâtes syntactiques pour combler les lacunes des poteries archéologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bechoux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Filling potteries missing parts with plaster raises now complex problems during the de-restoration treatments. Ceramics restorers have recurrently questions on the use of plaster in the field of archaeological ceramics restoration. Some researches point to the choice of other filling materials. At the present time other methods can be devised by proposing plaster replacement by a lightened composite material: syntactic foams and pastes.Le comblement des lacunes des poteries à partir du plâtre pose actuellement des problèmes complexes lors des traitements de dérestauration. Les restaurateurs de céramiques s'interrogent de manière récurrente sur l'utilisation du plâtre dans le domaine de la restauration des céramiques archéologiques. Des recherches s'orientent vers le choix d'autres matériaux d'obturation. Actuellement, d'autres méthodes peuvent être mises en place en proposant le remplacement du plâtre par un matériau composite allégé, les mousses et les pâtes syntactiques.

  9. Adsorption of fission products on mediterranean mud; Adsorption des produits de fission sur des vases de mediterranee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P; Gailledreau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Partition coefficients of some fission products have been measured in sea water on mud taken from the bottom of the Mediterranean sea. A discussion follows on the behaviour of these radioisotopes. (author) [French] On a mesure les coefficients de partage dans l'eau de mer de quelques produits de fission a longue periode sur des echantillons de vase preleves en Mediterranee. Les valeurs trouvees sont elevees. Le comportement de ces isotopes radioactifs est discutee. (auteur)

  10. Energetic utilisation of biomass in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barotfi, I.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic utilisation of biomass has been known since prehistoric times and was only pushed into the background by the technological developments of the last century. The energy crisis and, more recently, environmental problems have now brought it back to the fore, and efforts are being made worldwide to find modern technical applications for biomass and contribute to its advance. (orig.) [de

  11. Missed Opportunities: Emergency Contraception Utilisation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although contraceptives, including emergency contraceptives, are widely available free at public health facilities in South Africa, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy are high. This paper analyses awareness and utilisation of emergency contraception amongst 193 young women (aged 15-24 years) attending public ...

  12. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  13. Du neuf dans les relations de l'Église orthodoxe avec les autres chrétiens

    OpenAIRE

    Famerée, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Cette note évoque quatre réunions scientifiques (Athènes, Chambésy, Thessalonique, Iasi) qui, coup sur coup, de mai 2013 à mai 2014, ont permis à des Orthodoxes d’échanger avec d’autres chrétiens, catholiques notamment, sur des sujets théologiques et œcuméniques importants pour l’évolution des différentes Églises. Une nouvelle génération de théologiens orthodoxes se lève, osant parler librement à propos de leur Église et montrer l’écart entre l’Orthodoxie idéale et l’Orthodoxie réelle, spécia...

  14. Un outil pour la mise en valeur de l’architecture du XXe siècle : l’édition de proximité et ses produits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Monnier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Le guide d’architecture est devenu un ouvrage de référence, au contenu scientifique incontestable. Mais il atteint ses limites : devenu un ouvrage de 300 à 400 pages, lourd, quelquefois démultiplié en plusieurs volumes, il n’a plus de guide que le nom. D’autres formes de publications sont possibles, que nous réunissons sous le terme générique de produits de l’édition de proximité (PEP ; sous la forme de la fiche, de la notice, du dépliant, ou de la mini brochure, les PEP se sont imposés dans les années 1990 et depuis. Contenu monographique, association de l’image et du texte, forme concise du texte, unité du lieu, informations pratiques, distribution gratuite : le PEP est un outil léger, mais capable de hautes performances. Il est élaboré dans une perspective de communication (qui le rapproche de la presse imprimée, d’intervention (qui en fait un outil pour une manifestation locale et de service (qui en fait un mode d’emploi : horaires d’accès, et itinéraire de visite ; il n’appartient pas en général au circuit de l’industrie du livre et échappe (à tort le plus souvent au principe du dépôt légal. Sa distribution s’écarte des structures de la diffusion ; le PEP fait l’objet d’une diffusion locale exclusive : une diffusion sur place, une mise à la disposition du public en accès libre et hors commerce.The architecture guide has become a reference work, the scientific content undeniable. But it reached its limits became a book of 300 to 400 pages, heavy, sometimes multiplied into several volumes; it has no guide but the name. Other forms of publications are possible, as we gather under the generic products of the local edition (PEP in the form of sheet, leaflet, or mini-brochure, PEP were imposed in the 1990s and since. Content monographic combination of image and text, concise text, unity of place, practical information, free distribution: PEP is a lightweight, but capable of high performance

  15. Consommation responsable et perception de produits : au-delà de l’environnement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marchand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses some specific results pertaining to a larger study that aimed at examining the perceptions and preferences of identified ‘responsible, sustainable consumers’ with respect to consumer products. Based on empirical data gathered among citizens attempting to follow sustainable lifestyles, the study indicates that the adoption of sustainable consumption patterns is not only motivated by altruistic and environmental considerations, but also, significantly, by perceived personal benefits, including an expected increase in personal and/or familial well-being. These motivations, together with how they unfold into preferences for particular product characteristics, are exposed. While recognising the danger that may represent an understanding of sustainable consumption that merely focuses on individual benefits, the paper concludes that the understanding of such motives, along with their implications for the ways in which products and services are conceived and positioned, may warrant further research as it may represent a key incentive for change towards a more sustainable future.RÉSUMÉCet article présente et discute certains résultats spécifiques provenant d’une étude plus large qui visait à explorer le rapport qu’entretiennent les consommateurs responsables aux biens de consommation. Sur la base de données empiriques collectées auprès de citoyens qui se sont tournés vers des modes de consommation à moindres impacts écologiques, il a été remarqué que l’adoption d’habitudes de « consommation durable » n’est pas seulement motivée par des considérations altruistes et environnementales, mais également par des bénéfices personnels et/ou familiaux perçus, incluant une augmentation attendue du bien-être. Ces dernières motivations, ainsi que la manière avec laquelle elles s’expriment à travers des préférences pour certaines caractéristiques que présentent des produits de

  16. Modelling Adsorption of Foam-Forming Surfactants Modélisation de l'adsorption des produits tensio-actifs moussants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannhardt K.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the use of foam-forming surfactants for mobility control in gas flooding enhanced oil recovery processes. The success of any such process is strongly affected by the rate of propagation of the surfactant through the reservoir. A sound understanding of surfactant adsorption on rock surfaces at reservoir conditions is therefore essential. This paper describes a model for the evaluation of adsorption during flow of surfactant solutions through porous media. The adsorption term in the flow equation is expressed in terms of the surface excess which proves to be more generally applicable than, for example, the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Adsorption isotherms of three types of commercially available foam-forming surfactants are determined from core flooding data at different temperatures and brine salinities. L'utilisation de produits tensio-actifs moussants pour le contrôle de mobilité dans les procédés de récupération assistée du pétrole par injection de gaz suscite actuellement un grand intérêt. Mais le succès d'un tel procédé dépend largement de la vitesse de propagation du tensioactif dans le réservoir. Il est donc indispensable d'avoir une bonne connaissance de l'adsorption du tensio-actif sur les surfaces de la roche, dans les conditions de réservoir. Cet article décrit un modèle qui permet d'évaluer l'adsorption pendant l'écoulement de solutions tensio-actives en milieu poreux. Le terme qui représente l'adsorption dans l'équation de l'écoulement est exprimé en fonction de l'excédent de surface, concept qui s'est révélé d'une application plus générale que, par exemple, l'isotherme d'adsorption de Langmuir. Les isothermes d'adsorption de trois types de tensio-actifs moussants disponibles sur le marché sont déterminées à partir de données obtenues lors d'essais de déplacement dans des carottes, à différentes températures et avec des saumures de différentes salinités.

  17. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-01-01

    The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S) among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total ...

  18. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  19. Inflation and capacity utilisation in Nigeria's manufacturing sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the relationship between inflation and capacity utilisation empirically leaning on the model employed by Baylor (2001). It utilised time series secondary data using least square multiple regression technique. The quarterly data utilised were tested for stationarity using ADF test. The multiple regression ...

  20. Conceptualiser l’addiction : entre l’écueil du mythe et celui de la maladie comme les autres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Trouessin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La mise en évidence du statut de construction socioculturelle de l’addiction, le fait que l’on pourrait devenir addict à tout et la critique de la notion de perte de contrôle parlent, entre autres, en faveur d’un scepticisme vis-à-vis de l’addiction, auquel appartiennent ceux qui pensent que l’addiction consiste dans un choix pleinement assumé de l’individu, au sein d’un mode de vie. Une telle conception, empreinte ou non de moralisme, impute cependant une responsabilité à l’individu addict, un stigmate social ou moral très fort, synonyme d’un moins bon accès au soin. C’est pour contrecarrer cette stigmatisation que s’est instaurée une reconfiguration de l’addiction autour de la notion de maladie : si celle-ci n’est pas neuve, elle va depuis peu de pair avec l’ambition que les maladies mentales, a fortiori l’addiction, ne soient plus considérées comme des « maladies à part » mais « comme les autres » au même titre que le diabète, l’asthme ou le cancer. Dans cette optique, les neurosciences revêtent une importance particulière puisqu’elles offrent à la psychiatrie la possibilité de s’objectiver en identifiant les substrats organiques – neurobiologiques – des troubles mentaux. Mais la question se pose de savoir si une maladie a besoin d’être organique pour être dite réelle. Il nous semble que certains chercheurs, dans leur lutte contre le mythe de l’addiction, risquent de tomber dans l’écueil inverse de la normalisation des maladies mentales. En outre, même si nous n’adhérons pas à la conception sceptique de l’addiction, il y a cependant certains éléments – mis en évidence par les partisans de l’addiction comme mythe – que nous pensons devoir être pris en compte dans une enquête sur la nature de l’addiction.

  1. L'utilisation des eaux usées organiques en pisciculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMIDT G.

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation des eaux usées en pisciculture nécessite un traitement minimum indispensable (lagunage, épuration classique, prédilution, dilution simultanée. Une deuxième condition, non moins importante, est la sélection exclusive des eaux usées domestiques et rurales afin d'éviter la présence de métaux lourds et autres substances toxiques des rejets industriels. Dans un tel milieu enrichi, la production piscicole peut être doublée et même triplée sans nourriture additionnelle. Cependant, même si on arrive à de bons résultats, certains dangers subsistent : possibilité d'anoxie due à la dégradation des matières organiques, présence d'ammoniac, de nitrites, de détergents, risques d'infections virales et bactériennes. Des études ultérieures devraient préciser ces problèmes et tenter de les résoudre.

  2. La convergence des rôles respectifs des relationnistes et des journalistes influence-t-elle la perception qu'ils ont les uns des autres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    la convergence des rôles respectifs des praticiens des relations publiques et des journalistes a un effet favorable sur la perception qu’ils ont les uns des autres. L’effet est plus marqué chez les praticiens des relations publiques, car leur vision de la profession en journalisme correspond à celle...

  3. Quantitative analysis of fission products by {gamma} spectrography; Analyse quantitative des produits de fission par spectrographie {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, G

    1962-07-01

    The activity of the fission products present in treated solutions of irradiated fuels is given as a function of the time of cooling and of the irradiation time. The variation of the ratio ({sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr activity/{sup 137}Cs activity) as a function of these same parameters is also given. From these results a method is deduced giving the 'age' of the solution analyzed. By {gamma}-scintillation spectrography it was possible to estimate the following elements individually: {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru + {sup 106}Rh, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 95}Zr + {sup 95}Nb. Yield curves are given for the case of a single emitter. Of the various existing methods, that of the least squares was used for the quantitative analysis of the afore-mentioned fission products. The accuracy attained varies from 3 to 10%. (author) [French] L'activite des produits de fission presents dans les solutions de traitement de combustibles irradies est donnee en fonction du temps de refroidissement et du temps d'irradiation. On etudie de plus la variation du rapport Activite du {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr /Activite du {sup 137}Cs en fonction de ces memes parametres. De ces resultats, on deduit une methode donnant l'age de la solution analysee. La spectrographie {gamma} a scintillation a permis le dosage individuel des produits suivants: {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce + {sup 144}Pr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru + {sup 106}Rh, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 95}Zr + {sup 95}Nb. Des courbes de rendement sont donnees dans le cas d'un emetteur unique. Des differentes methodes existantes, la methode des moindres carres a ete employee pour l'analyse quantitative des produits de fission precites. La precision obtenue varie entre 3 et 10 pour cent. (auteur)

  4. Mesure de la faisabilité pour une ONG suisse de développer un produit financier

    OpenAIRE

    Büchelin, Patrick; Maeder, Eric

    2008-01-01

    De nos jours, la recherche de nouvelles sources de financement reste une priorité pour les ONG, ceci quel que soit leur domaine d’activité. Le marché financier actuel propose aux investisseurs institutionnels ou privés une gamme de produits d’investissements relativement complète, mais le mode d’investissement mute et la prise en considération d’éléments extra financiers prend de plus en plus d’importance. Mon travail consiste à évaluer la possibilité qu’a une ONG suisse de créer un fonds de ...

  5. Le reportage en bande dessinée dans la presse actuelle : un autre regard sur le monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Bourdieu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La bande dessinée sort de sa bulle et s’aventure du côté du réel, du documentaire et du factuel. À partir d’un corpus de reportages en bande dessinée parus dans des périodiques francophones au cours de la dernière décennie, nous nous interrogerons sur les enjeux de cette rencontre entre presse et littérature et sur la légitimité de ce genre en cours de constitution. On montrera ensuite que ce médium mixte, parce qu’il allie ressources graphiques et littéraires, est particulièrement approprié pour restituer à la fois la « chose vue » et l’expérience vécue par le reporter sur le terrain, offrant ainsi au lecteur un autre regard sur le monde.

  6. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation classiques destinees aux mesures de puissance. Enfin, nous avons realise deux

  7. Substrate utilisation by plant-cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M W

    1982-01-01

    Plant cell cultures have been grown on a wide range of carbon sources in addition to the traditional ones of sucrose and glucose. Biomass yields and growth rates vary greatly between the different carbon sources and there is a variation in response between different cell cultures to individual carbon sources. Some attempts have been made to grow cell cultures on 'waste' and related carbon sources, such as lactose, maltose, starch, molasses and milk whey. Only maltose was found to support growth to anything near the levels observed with glucose and sucrose. In the case of molasses carbon source cell growth was either non-existent or only just measurable. All the data point to glucose as being the most suitable carbon source, principally on the grounds of biomass yield and growth rate. It should be noted, however, that other carbon sources do appear to have a major (positive) influence on natural product synthesis. Uptake into the cell is an important aspect of carbohydrate utilisation. There is strong evidence that from disaccharides upwards, major degradation to smaller units occurs before uptake. In some cases the necessary enzymes appear to be excreted into the culture broth, in others they may be located within the cell wall; invertase that hydrolyses sucrose is a good example. Once the products of carbohydrate degradation and mobilisation enter the cell they may suffer one of two fates, oxidation or utilisation for biosynthesis. The precise split between these two varies depending on such factors as cell growth rate, cell size, nutrient broth composition and carbohydrate status of the cells. In general rapidly growing cells have a high rate of oxidation, whereas cells growing more slowly tend to be more directed towards biosynthesis. Carbohydrate utilisation is a key area of study, underpinning as it does both biomass yield and natural product synthesis. (Refs. 13).

  8. L’exposition prolongée des consommateurs à un nouveau produit permet-elle d’accroître son adoption ?

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Josselin; Aurier, Philippe; D'hauteville, François

    2010-01-01

    Cette recherche évalue l’effet de la consommation à domicile d’un nouveau produit (le vin à teneur réduite en alcool) sur son acceptabilité à long terme par les consommateurs, et suppose que l’exposition au produit et l’information non-sensorielle influenceront leurs évaluations hédoniques. Deux groupes de consommateurs ont alors été exposés soit à un vin normal, soit à un vin à teneur réduite en alcool, en condition aveugle le premier mois puis avec l’indication de leurs teneurs en alcool le...

  9. Recent progress in fission product separation; Progres recents de la separation des produits de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    saturated with magnesium in order to avoid as far as possible the extraction of strontium, extraction of strontium at pH 4. (author) [French] La methode decrite a Geneve en 1958 a ete experimentee avec succes. Des ameliorations importantes ont ete apportees a ce procede: 1 - Initialement, la precipitation phosphotungstique du cesium etait suivie d'une reprise a la baryte en centrifugeuse et d'une distillation de l'ammoniac dans un concentrateur. Ensuite, l'hydroxyde de baryum etait elimine par precipitation carbonique et centrifugation. 1 - Il a ete prouve que la distillation de l'ammoniac pouvait etre remplacee par une evaporation au cours de la centrifugation, ce qui supprime le concentrateur. Il a ensuite ete possible d'effectuer la carbonatation sur le melange solide-liquide provenant de l'attaque a la baryte. 2 - Pour appliquer le precedent procede au traitement des solutions provenant des combustibles uranium-molybdene, nous avons recommande une concentration qui maintient en solution le molybdene par complexation par l'acide phosphorique. Cette complexation fournit une suspension de phosphate de zirconium et de phosphotungstate d'ammonium. Ils sont separes en repassant en milieu basique qui fait precipiter la zircone, puis en revenant en milieu acide, la suite du traitement restant le meme. 3 - Les etudes sur les proprietes d'echange des sels d'hetero-polyacides poursuivies dans plusieurs pays ont toujours rencontre l'ecueil des mauvaises qualites mecaniques de ces produits. Cette difficulte a ete surmontee en emprisonnant le phosphotungstate d'ammonium dans une matrice en phosphate de zirconium. L'echangeur obtenu possede: - des proprietes mecaniques satisfaisantes - une capacite de 0,1 milliequivalent par gramme en milieu acide nitrique concentre. II est eluable et regenerable par une solution d'un sel d'ammonium. Le schema de recuperation de ces differents produits de fission est succinctement le suivant: - extraction des terres rares par l'acide di-2-ethyl hexyl

  10. Utilising UDT to push the bandwidth envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, B.; Davies, B.

    eScience applications, in particular High Energy Physics, often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries, and are thus not easily handled by today's networking infrastructures. By utilising the switched lightpath connections provided by the UKLight network it has been possible to research the use of alternate protocols for data transport. While the HEP projects make use of a number of middleware solutions for data storage and transport, they all rely on GridFTP for WAN transport. The GridFTP protocol runs over TCP as the layer 3 protocol by default, however with the latest released of the Globus toolkit it is possible to utilise alternate protocols at the layer 3 level. One of the alternatives is a reliable version of UDP called UDT. This report presents the results of the tests measuring the performance of single-threaded file transfers using GridFTP running over both TCP and the UDT protocol.

  11. Energy analysis of various grassland utilisation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Ržonca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 and 2004 was carried out the energy analysis of the different types of permanent grassland utilization on the Hrubý Jeseník locality. There were estimated values of the particular entrances of additional energy. Energy entrances moved according to the pratotechnologies from 2.17 GJ. ha–1 to 22.70 GJ.ha–1. The biggest share on energy entrances had fertilizers. It was 84.93% by the nitrogen fertilisation. The most energy benefit of brutto and nettoenergy was marked by the low intensive utilisation (33.40 GJ.ha–1 NEL and 32.40 GJ.ha–1 NEV on average. The highest value of energy efficiency (13.23% was marked by the low intensive utilization of permanent grassland. By using of higher doses of industrial fertilizers has energy efficiency decreased. From view of energy benefit and intensiveness on energy entrances it appears the most available utilisation of permanent grassland with three cuts per year (first cut on May 31st at the latest, every next after 60 days or two cuts per year (first cut on July 15th, next cuts after 90 days.

  12. Utilisation de la clairance plasmatique de l'iolthalamate pour la détermination du débit de filtration glomérulaire chez le chien : comparaison avec les autres méthodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mourou, M.

    2002-01-01

    Le diagnostic de l'insuffisance rénale chronique (IRC) est souvent tardif et de pronostic mauvais. Les manifestations cliniques apparaissent lorsque 75% des reins sont lésés. Une exploration fonctionnelle rénale précoce est donc primordiale. Le débit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) est la variable physiologie d'intérêt pour évaluer la fonction rénale. Après une étude des principales caractéristiques histologiques et physiologiques de la fonction rénale (et plus précisément de la filtration g...

  13. SpoonEMF, une brique logicielle pour l'utilisation de l'IDM dans le cadre de la réingénierie de programmes Java5

    OpenAIRE

    Barais , Olivier

    2006-01-01

    2 ième Journée sur l'Ingénièrie Dirigée par les Modèles; Ce document présente succinctement SpoonEMF, une brique logicielle pour l'utilisation de l'IDM dans le cadre de la réingénierie d'applications écrites en Java. L'accent dans cette courte présentation est mis sur les cas d'utilisation possibles de cette brique logicielle et l'intérêt des choix techniques retenus : le framework EMF pour l'expression du méta-modèle afin de favoriser l'interopérabilité avec d'autres outils et l'intégration ...

  14. Considérations sur la littérature d’adab. Présence et effets de la voix et autres problèmes connexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheikh-Moussa, Abdallah

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Le propos de cet article est de montrer que l’écrit médiéval ne possède ni le même statut, ni tout à fait les mêmes valeurs qu’aujourd’hui, et, par là-même, de réagir contre l’oppsosition, souvent reconduite entre oral et écrit, qui est utilisée à propos de la littérature arabe à ses débuts. La thèse avancée est que, jusqu’à la deuxième moitié, sinon la fin du IIIème siècle de l’Hégire, si les textes d’adab ont bien été composés, produits par écrit, ils l’ont été avec l’idée que leur circulation, c’est-à-dire leur communication et leur réception, sera faite, elle, le plus souvent par la voix. C’est bien ce phénomène, entre autres aspects qui seront abordés, qui rend compte du statut de l’adab, de ses « auteurs », et de la nature des œuvres qui le constituent.



    El propósito de este artículo es mostrar que el escrito medieval no posee el mismo estatuto ni los mismos valores que hoy en día y, a partir de ahí, reaccionar ante la oposición entre lo oral y lo escrito que se utiliza a propósito de la literatura árabe en sus comienzos. La tesis propuesta defiende que, hasta la segunda mitad, si no hasta el final del siglo III de la Hégira, los textos de adab, aunque compuestos y producidos por escrito, lo habían sido en la idea de que su circulación, su comunicación y recepción se haría, en la mayor parte de los casos, oralmente. Es este fenómeno el que define el estatus del adab de sus «autores», y de la naturaleza de las obras que lo constituyen.

  15. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  16. Design of neutron detectors utilising luminescent glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spowart, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Impetus for the development of new neutron detector designs has derived from the worldwide commissioning of neutron spallation sources. The design concepts, and principal methods of utilisation of these major installations, have been recently reviewed. Their principal feature of interest is their broadband neutron emission allowing neutron investigations of all types of structure in materials from biological molecules to steels. Conventional neutron detectors are gas-filled devices, based on BF/sub 3/ or /sup 3/He gas. Their major advantage is their intrinsically low background count. Their principal disadvantage is their slow response time (10-100 μs), high cost and relative lack of flexibility in design to cope with large areas or complex geometry detection. They are, however, long established and the research facilities around the world have a heavy investment in the interpretative hardware for gas detectors

  17. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  18. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  19. Optimum utilisation of the uranium resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S. E.; Wilson, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many challenges, notably to maximise safety, secure an adequate energy supply, manage wastes satisfactorily and achieve political acceptability. One way forward is to optimise together the various interdependent stages of the fuel cycle - the now familiar 'holistic approach'. Many of the issues will demand large R and D expenditure, most effectively met through international collaboration. Sustainable development requires optimum utilisation of energy potential, to which the most accessible key is recycling uranium and the plutonium bred from it. Realising anything like this full potential requires fast-neutron reactors, and therefore BNFL continues to sustain the UK involvement in their international development. Meanwhile, current R and D programmes must aim to make the nuclear option more competitive against fossil resources, while maintaining and developing the necessary skills for more advanced technologies The paper outlines the strategies being pursued and highlights BNFL 's programmes. (author)

  20. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...

  1. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  2. Le Plan Maroc Vert et l’autosuffisance alimentaire en produits de base à l’horizon 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Nouréini Sayouti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude a pour objectif d’analyser les effets probables de la nouvelle stratégie agricole marocaine (le Plan Maroc Vert sur la situation alimentaire (dépendance ou autosuffisance alimentaire du Maroc à l’horizon 2020. Elle a concerné sept produits de base indispensables à la diète marocaine à savoir : le lait, le sucre, l’huile de table, la viande rouge, la viande blanche, le blé tendre et le blé dur. L’approche méthodologique utilisée consiste à prévoir la demande alimentaire du pays, pour l’horizon 2020, en ces denrées. La méthode utilisée pour la prévision de la demande prend en compte la taille de la population, l’élasticité-revenu et l’évolution du niveau de revenu par habitant. La demande projetée est comparée aux niveaux de production prévus par le Plan Maroc Vert pour le même horizon. Ces prévisions ont révélé que malgré les efforts d’augmentation des niveaux de production prévus dans le cadre du Plan Maroc Vert, le Maroc ne pourrait pas atteindre une autosuffisance alimentaire pour le blé tendre, le blé dur, le sucre et les huiles de table à l’horizon 2020. Par contre, cette autosuffisance serait possible pour le lait, les viandes rouges et les viandes blanches. Ces résultats montrent que les décideurs politiques devraient mieux orienter l’intervention de l’Etat pour améliorer l’offre du pays pour le premier groupe des produits. En revanche, les possibilités d’exportation devraient être encouragées pour le deuxième groupe de produits notamment vers les marchés émergents tels que ceux de l’Afrique Subsaharienne.

  3. Radio-chemical applications of columns of precipitated insoluble sulphates - contribution to the study of fission product solutions (1962); Applications en radiochimie de colonnes de precipites de sulfates insolubles - contribution a l'etude des solutions vieillies de produits de fission (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvagnac, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Barrachina, M [Junta de la Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1962-07-01

    After describing the preparation of SrSO{sub 4} and BaS0{sub 4} columns, the authors study the following variables affecting fixation of Sr{sup 90}: - influence of pH, of the SO{sub 4}{sup --} concentration in the solution studied, of the column density, of the flow rate, of the use of the EDTA complex. A mechanism is proposed for the exchange and fixation. Once the column characteristics had been chosen, the fixation of rare-earths in the absence or presence of EDTA was studied. - it was observed that for nitrate or chloride concentrations of over 2 mg/ml, or in the presence of stronger than 1 N HNO{sub 3} or HCl, barium was fixed selectively. - these results were applied to radiochemical separations in fission product solutions: Ba{sup 140} and Sr{sup 90} separation, and that of the ceric earth group and the yttric earth group. - In order to establish a complete scheme for the radio-chemical separation in fission product solution, after at least one year ageing, the techniques of column separation and of solvent extraction using thenoyltrifluoroacetone and bis di-ethylhexylphosphoric acid are combined. (authors) [French] Apres avoir decrit la preparation des colonnes de SrS0{sub 4} et BaS0{sub 4}, on etudie les variables suivantes pour la fixation de {sup 90}Sr: - influence du pH, de la concentration en SO{sub 4}{sup --} dans la solution etudiee, de la densite de la colonne, de la vitesse de passage, de l'emploi du complexant EDTA. On propose une explication du mode d'echange et de fixation. Les caracteristiques de la colonne etant choisies, on a etudie la fixation des terres rares en presence ou non de EDTA. - on a d'autre part constate qu'en milieu chlorure ou nitrate, de concentration superieure a 2 mg/ml, ou en presence de HNO{sub 3} ou HCl superieur a 1 N, on fixait selectivement le baryum. - on a applique ces resultats a des separations radiochimiques dans des solutions de produits de fission: separation de {sup 140}Ba, {sup 90}Sr, separation du groupe des

  4. Application of Radiation for the Control of Salmonellae in Various Foods; Destruction des Salmonellae par les Rayonnements dans Divers Produits Alimentaires; Primenenie izluchenij dlya unichtozheniya salmonell v razlichnykh pishchevykh produktakh; Empleo de las Radiaciones Ionizantes en la Lucha Contra las Salmonellae de Diferentes Aumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, F. J. [Wantage Research Laboratory (A.E.R.E.), Wantage, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-11-15

    serologiques presentes. Etant donne que ces conditions ne peuvent jamais etre reproduites exactement en laboratoire, le choix de la dose doit etre confirme par des recherches suffisamment etendues sur le meme produit contamine par voie naturelle. Il est apparu que, pour traiter differents produits alimentaires, il faut utiliser des doses comprises entre 0,5 et.1,0 Mrad qui permettent de reduire d'un facteur allant de 10{sup 5} a 10{sup 7} l'importance numerique des populations initiales. Les procedes qui semblent devoir donner de meilleurs resultats sont ceux que l'on envisage d'utiliser pour les produits a base d'oeufs congeles et deshydrates, les viandes congelees et les produits destines a l'alimentation animale. (author) [Spanish] Los estudios microbiologicos sobre el empleo de las radiaciones ionizantes para eliminar las Salmonellae de varios alimentos muestran que en la radiosensibilidad de esos microorganismos puede influir toda una serie de factores. Entre estos cabe citar la naturaleza del propio alimento y su temperatura durante la irradiacion, por ejemplo, si esta congelado o sin congelar. Tambien se han puesto claramente de manifiesto las diferencias de resistencia de distintos serotipos de Salmonellae irradiados en identicas condiciones. Por consiguiente, las curvas de dosis/supervivencia, que se preparen con el fin de seleccionar la dosis para una aplicacion particular, deben trazarse con arreglo a las condiciones practicas que se prevean y basarse en el serotipo mas resistente de los presentes. Como estas condiciones nunca pueden reproducirse exactamente en el laboratorio, la eleccion de la dosis debe confirmarse realizando amplios trabajos con alimentos naturalmente contaminados. Se llega a la conclusion de que las dosis necessarias para tratar varios alimentos son del orden de 0,5 a 1,0 Mrad, con lo que se logra reducir entre 10{sup 5} y 10{sup 7} veces la poblacion inicial. Los procedimientos mas interesantes son los aplicados a los huevos congelados y

  5. Optimisation d’un Système de Séchage Solaire des Produits Agro‐alimentaires.

    OpenAIRE

    MISSOUM, Djamel Eddine

    2016-01-01

    Le séchage est l'une des principales techniques de préservation des produits agricoles et alimentaires. L’étude théorique menée sur l’optimisation d’un séchoir solaire de type indirect fonctionnant en convection forcée. Elle consisteà développer un modèle mathématique permettant de décrire le comportement thermique et le pouvoir énergétique de ce séchoir. Ce modèle mathématique a été obtenu par application des lois de transfert de c...

  6. Prospects for the Use of Plutonium in Reactors; Prospective d'Utilisation du Plutonium dans les Reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossoul, E.; Haubert, P. [BELGONUCLEAIRE (Belgium); Hirschberg, D.; Morlet, E. [International Business Machines of Belgium, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    The introduction, at an increasing rate, of power reactors using slightly enriched uranium will inevitably lead to the production of considerable quantities of plutonium over the next decade. Fast reactors will not be capable of absorbing this material before 1980. The question thus arises of whether one should store the plutonium far future use in fast reactors, recycle it in existing thermal reactors, or try to sell it. The problem has been studied for an electric power generating system that does not foresee selling the plutonium produced by its reactors and does not buy plutonium outside, which enables a good approximation to be made and eliminates the major unknown quantity represented by the future market price of plutonium. Assuming within this system a programme that provides for the construction of power reactors of a given type and capacity at specific dates, the utilization of the plutonium produced can be optimized by linear programming techniques so as to minimize the discounted total cost of the power generated over a given period. A later stage consists in optimizing, by various techniques, not only the utilization but also the production of plutonium by appropriate selection of the power reactor types to be constructed. (author) [French] L'implantation, a un rythme croissant, de centrales nucleaires a uranium legerement enrichi entrainera la production ineluctable d'une quantite importante de plutonium au cours de la prochaine decennie. Les reacteurs a neutrons rapides ne seront capables d'absorber cette production qu'apres 1980. La question se pose donc de savoir s'il est preferable de stocker le plutonium en vue de son utilisation ulterieure dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides plutot que de le recycler dans les reacteurs actuels a neutrons thermiques ou d'essayer de le vendre. Ce probleme a ete etudie dans le cadre d'un systeme de production d'energie electrique qui ne prevoirait pas la vente du plutonium produit par ses reacteurs nucleaires ni

  7. Utilisation des espèces du genre Aframomum ( Aframomum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La génération des radicaux libres résultant de l'oxydation des lipides est l'un des problèmes associés à la perte des aliments et des maladies notamment celles liées au surpoids et à l'obésité. Les espèces oxygénées réactives telles que le radical hydroxyle et les hydroperoxydes sont généralement produites par des ...

  8. System factors influencing utilisation of Research4Life databases by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a comprehensive investigation of the influence of system factors on utilisation of Research4Life databases. It is part of a doctoral dissertation. Research4Life databases are new innovative technologies being investigated in a new context – utilisation by NARIs scientists for research. The study adopted the descriptive ...

  9. Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. AAG Jimoh. Abstract. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the utilisation of antenatal care at the Provincial Specialist Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria, paying close attention to the confounding factors affecting ...

  10. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the influence of globalisation on labour utilisation in Nigeria using the construction industry as a case study. It reveals that the era of globalisation has given rise to profound changes in the way labour is utilised, specifically in terms of employment patterns as well as the related issues of earnings, job ...

  11. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  12. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  13. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  14. Trends, determinants and inequities of 4+ ANC utilisation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Begum, Tahmina; Ahmed, Sayem; Alam, Nurul; Anwar, Iqbal

    2017-01-13

    The objectives of this study are to document the trend on utilisation of four or more (4 + ) antenatal care (ANC) over the last 22 years period and to explore the determinants and inequity of 4 + ANC utilisation as reported by the last two Bangladesh Demographic and Health surveys (BDHS) (2011 and 2014). The data related to ANC have been extracted from the BDHS data set which is available online as an open source. STATA 13 software was used for organising and analysing the data. The outcome variable considered for this study was utilisation of 4 + ANC. Trends of 4 + ANC were measured in percentage and predictors for 4 + ANC were measured through bivariate and multivariable analysis. The concentration index was estimated for assessing inequity in 4 + ANC utilisation. Utilisation of 4 + ANC has increased by about 26% between the year 1994 and 2014. Higher level of education, residing in urban region and richest wealth quintile were found to be significant predictors. The utilisation of 4 + ANC has decreased with increasing parity and maternal age. The inequity indices showed consistent inequities in 4 + ANC utilisation, and such inequities were increased between 2011 and 2014. In Bangladesh, the utilisation of any ANC rose steadily between 1994 and 2014, but progress in terms of 4 + ANC utilisation was much slower as the expectation was to achieve the national set target (50%: 4 + ANC utilisation) by 2016. Socio-economic inequities were observed in groups that failed to attend a 4 + ANC visit. Policymakers should pay special attention to increase the 4 + ANC coverage where this study can facilitate to identify the target groups whom need to be intervened on priority basis.

  15. Contribution de la pyrolyse des produits lourds à la valorisation des pétroles bruts Contribution of the Pyrolysis of Heavy Products to the Upgrading of Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlot J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le raffineur achète des pétroles bruts, de différentes qualités et d'origines variées, et il fabrique un certain nombre de produits répondant à des spécifications de qualité pour les vendre dans des proportions correspondant aux besoins du marché. Il est nécessaire pour cela d'assurer l'équilibre général entre l'approvisionnement en brut et la demande du marché en produits finis. Les facteurs traduisant l'évolution des pétroles bruts (souci de diversification géographique et politique, désir des producteurs de traiter les bruts faciles et d'exporter les lourds, compétitivité de plus en plus grande des bruts non-conventionnels, grande disponibilité d'huiles lourdes montrent l'alourdissement progressif des approvisionnements. L'enchérissement des produits pétroliers provoque de plus en plus un allègement des besoins du marché (légère augmentation des carburants, baisse des distillats moyens, chute importante des fuels lourds. Du fait de l'alourdissement des bruts conventionnels, de la grande disponibilité des huiles lourdes et de l'allègement considérable du marché des produits finis, il devient nécessaire d'utiliser des charges de plus en plus lourdes dans les procédés de conversion. La production d'oléfines peut s'effectuer à partir d'une gamme très large de coupes pétrolières, mais lorsqu'on cherche à alourdir la charge des unités de pyrolyse, il faut se poser les questions suivantes : - quelle est la souplesse des unités existantes et à venir par rapport à la charge ? - quelle est la limite industrielle et l'alourdissement de la charge ? - quel est le rôle des impuretés sur le fonctionnement des unités ? - quels sont les problèmes technologiques posés par le traitement de ces charges ? - qu'en est-il de l'amélioration des bilans énergétiques et économiques lorsque la charge s'alourdit ? A refiner buys crude oils of different qualities and varying origins and he manufactures a certain number

  16. SRUNs - sustainable resource utilisation networks for regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemetz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it cannot be denied that fossil resources will approach or over-run their maximum global production rate within the 21st century. In addition to this resource constraints climate change has to be considered in parallel, requiring a drastic reduction in carbon emissions. These two trends clearly show that a fundamental shift is needed within the next decades, from fossil towards renewable resources. This transition gives rise to a change in the supply chains: while fossil fuels are typically exploited from point sources, nearly all renewable resources depend, either directly or indirectly, on solar radiation and area is required for their provision. This poses a new challenge for political, economic and social actors who can decide about land use. Within this thesis a conceptual framework of so called SRUNs – sustainable resource utilisation networks for regions - is developed. Regions have a responsibility in providing goods and services for the society within sustainable networks and bring the spatial dimension into consideration as well. The way how these networks are constructed is described in detail covering spatial planning, the stakeholder process, drivers and barriers as well as elements and features for SRUNs. Using the Process Network Synthesis (PNS) as an optimisation tool, the economic optimum of a network can be found and different scenarios compared. To show the ecological pressure of an established network an evaluation with the Sustainable Process Index (SPI) is carried out. Both computer tools are described and their application is shown in several case studies which are the versatility of the methods in practical implementation and application. Decision support tools offer the possibility for regional actors to analyse their region and to get a feeling about SRUNs. These tools provide an insight into the necessary changes which are needed to manage the shift towards a low carbon and sustainable society. (author) [de

  17. Sur deux mémoires de d'Alembert l'un concernant le calcul des probabilités, l'autre l'inoculation

    CERN Document Server

    Diderot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""M. d'Alembert vient de publier ses Opuscules mathématiques. Il y a dans ce recueil deux mémoires qu'il n'est pas impossible de réduire à la langue ordinaire de la raison. L'un a pour objet le calcul des probabilités ; calcul dont l'application a tant d'importance et d'étendu. C'est proprement la science physico-mathématique de la vie. L'autre traite des avantages ou désavantages de l'inoculation.""

  18. Comparative emergency department resource utilisation across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Ellen; Martin-Khan, Melinda G; Gray, Leonard C

    2017-12-11

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess comparative emergency department (ED) resource utilisation across age groups. Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected in the National Non-admitted Patient Emergency Department Care Database was undertaken to assess comparative ED resource utilisation across six age groups (0-14, 15-35, 36-64, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 years) with previously used surrogate markers of ED resource utilisation. Results Older people had significantly higher resource utilisation for their individual ED episodes of care than younger people, with the effect increasing with advancing age. Conclusion With ED care of older people demonstrated to be more resource intensive than care for younger people, the projected increase in older person presentations anticipated with population aging will have a magnified effect on ED services. These predicted changes in demand for ED care will only be able to be optimally managed if Australian health policy, ED funding instruments and ED models of care are adjusted to take into account the specific care and resource needs of older people. What is known about the topic? Current Australian ED funding models do not adjust for patient age. Several regional studies have suggested higher resource utilisation of ED patients aged ≥65 years. Anticipated rapid population aging mandates that contribution of age to ED visit resource utilisation be further explored. What does this paper add? The present study of national Australian ED presentations compared ED resource utilisation across age groups using surrogate markers of ED cost. Older people were found to have significantly higher resource utilisation in the ED, with the effect increasing further with advancing age. What are the implications for practitioners? The higher resource utilisation of older people in the ED warrants a review of current ED funding models to ensure that they will continue to meet the needs of an aging population.

  19. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...... by combining different strands of this literature....

  20. Determination of bore efficiency loss employed as powder in boral fabrication, proportionately to the dimension of grain; Determination de la reduction d'efficacite du bore ou d'un autre absorbeur employe sous forme de poudre dissemine dans un produit non absorbant, en fonction de la grosseur des grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforge, P; Millot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Authors' mind was attracted by the importance of bore granulometry when employed as powder in boral fabrication. The calculation, object of this report, permits to give values for bore efficiency loss, proportionately to the dimension of spherical or ellipsoidal supposed grains. Grains to be employed should exceptionally only exceed 20 {mu} for a correspondent efficiency loss of 8 per cent about. (author) [French] L'attention des auteurs a ete attiree sur l'importance de la granulometrie du bore employe sous forme de poudre dans la fabrication du boral. Le calcul qui fait l'objet de ce rapport permet de chiffrer la perte d'efficacite du bore en fonction de la dimension des grains supposes spheriques ou ellipsoidaux. Les grains a employer ne devraient qu'exceptionnellement etre superieurs a 20 microns, ce qui correspond a une perte d'efficacite d'environ 8 pour cent. (auteur)

  1. Study of the A{sub 1}, A{sub 2} and of other mesonic states in {pi}{sup -}p interactions at 11 GeV/c; Etude des tripions A{sub 1}, A{sub 2} et d'autres complexes mesoniques produits dans les interactions {pi}{sup -}p a 11 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochowski, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    Study of the {pi}{sup -} p interactions with at least four bodies in the final states at 11 GeV/c, carried out in the 1.50 m british and in the 2 m CERN liquid hydrogen bubble chambers at the CERN proton synchrotron. One observes a production of the A{sub 1}{sup -} in the {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} decay mode, of the A{sub 2}{sup -} in the {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} and {eta} {pi}{sup -} modes, and of the A{sub 3}{sup -} in the dominant f{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} mode. For the {pi}{sup -} p {yields} p {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} reaction, we have checked the validity of the one pion exchange model, which allows the estimation of the background under the A enhancements produced in this reaction. A tentative determination of the J{sup P} quantum numbers for the A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} has been made. (author) [French] Etude des interactions {pi}{sup -} p a au moins quatre corps dans l'etat final, a 11 GeV/c, effectuee a l'aide des chambres a bulles britanniques de 1.50 m et de 2 m du CERN, exposees aupres du synchrotron a protons au CERN. On observe une production de A{sub 1}{sup -} dans le mode {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}, du A{sub 2} dans les modes {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} et {eta} {pi}{sup -}, et du A{sub 3}{sup -} dans le mode dominant f{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}. Le modele d'echange d'un pion dont on a mis a l'epreuve la validite pour la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {yields} p {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -}, permet de rendre compte du fond present sous ces complexes formes dans la reaction a quatre corps. Une tentative de determination des nombres J{sup P} du A{sub 1} et du A{sub 2} a egalement ete faite. (auteur)

  2. Study of the A{sub 1}, A{sub 2} and of other mesonic states in {pi}{sup -}p interactions at 11 GeV/c; Etude des tripions A{sub 1}, A{sub 2} et d'autres complexes mesoniques produits dans les interactions {pi}{sup -}p a 11 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochowski, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    Study of the {pi}{sup -} p interactions with at least four bodies in the final states at 11 GeV/c, carried out in the 1.50 m british and in the 2 m CERN liquid hydrogen bubble chambers at the CERN proton synchrotron. One observes a production of the A{sub 1}{sup -} in the {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} decay mode, of the A{sub 2}{sup -} in the {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} and {eta} {pi}{sup -} modes, and of the A{sub 3}{sup -} in the dominant f{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} mode. For the {pi}{sup -} p {yields} p {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} reaction, we have checked the validity of the one pion exchange model, which allows the estimation of the background under the A enhancements produced in this reaction. A tentative determination of the J{sup P} quantum numbers for the A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} has been made. (author) [French] Etude des interactions {pi}{sup -} p a au moins quatre corps dans l'etat final, a 11 GeV/c, effectuee a l'aide des chambres a bulles britanniques de 1.50 m et de 2 m du CERN, exposees aupres du synchrotron a protons au CERN. On observe une production de A{sub 1}{sup -} dans le mode {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}, du A{sub 2} dans les modes {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} et {eta} {pi}{sup -}, et du A{sub 3}{sup -} dans le mode dominant f{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}. Le modele d'echange d'un pion dont on a mis a l'epreuve la validite pour la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {yields} p {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -}, permet de rendre compte du fond present sous ces complexes formes dans la reaction a quatre corps. Une tentative de determination des nombres J{sup P} du A{sub 1} et du A{sub 2} a egalement ete faite. (auteur)

  3. Spéciation de l’arsenic dans les produits de la pêche par couplage HPLC/ICP-MS. Estimation de sa bioaccessibilité en ligne et applications à d'autres éléments traces métalliques d'intérêt

    OpenAIRE

    Leufroy , Axelle

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is an element present in all compartments of the environment, and seafood constitutes a major source of exposure to arsenic through human consumption. Although there is currently no legislation on arsenic in food in France, government agencies generally assess the safety of food items based solely on the total concentration of the element, without taking into account its different species or their bioaccessibility. Therefore, the development of speciation analysis methods is particula...

  4. Solidification of residual fission-product solutions; laboratory studies; Solidification de solutions residuaires concentrees de produits de fission: etudes de laboratoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniaud, R; Cohen, P; Sombret, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper describes the results obtained, at laboratory scale, during the study of the incorporation of fission products into glasses and synthetic micas. The rate of leaching of fission products from the glass and their volatility during firing were measured. A hot cell was built to complete these results. (author) [French] Ce rapport resume le resultat des etudes faites en laboratoire (activite de l'ordre du millicurie) sur l'incorporation des produits de fission dans des verres et micas synthetiques. On a mesure le taux de lixiviation des produits de fission et leur volatilisation au cours de la cuisson. Une cellule chaude a ete installee pour completer ces resultats au moyen d'essais realises avec une activite superieure. (auteur)

  5. Consommation des produits écologiques et inégalités sociales. Le cas tunisien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Abdmouleh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Le public tunisien méconnaît l’existence des produits écologiques sur le marché local, mais exprime en même temps son intention d’en consommer. Cette disposition résulte de la prise de conscience des enjeux écologiques et du sentiment d’implication vis-à-vis de l’environnement et de la collectivité. Le capital financier et culturel n’est pas non plus étranger à ce désir. Les produits écologiques demeurent-ils perçus comme une sorte de luxe et un privilège réservés aux classes sociales aisées ? Finalement, en dépit de sa bonne cause, la problématique environnementaliste n’échappe pas au découpage de classes et à la reproduction des inégalités sociales, d’où la nécessité de reconsidérer les conceptions et les relations traditionnelles entre les sphères économiques et sociales et la sphère environnementale. The study demonstrates the Tunisian public’s ignorancethat ecological products exist on the local market as well as the public’s willingness to consume them. Thispreference results from a growing awareness of ecological issues as well as a perceived need to get involved vis-à-vis the environment and the community. It is also depending on the individual’s financial and cultural capitals. The question is whether ecological products remain a luxury and a privilege restricted to the affluent social class. Despite its noble cause, the environmentalist issue can escape neither from class categorization nor from the reproduction of social injustices. As a result, traditional conceptions and relations between the economic and social spaces and the environmental space need to be reconsidered.

  6. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    operation. The market is expected to move forward but the available public information is very limited, especially concerning the technologies used and volumes produced. Woody feedstocks will be the main raw material source. The utilisation rate of forest industry residues and by-products is relatively high in the EU and wood supply in Central Europe remains more or less stable, hence the price of the raw material is at a fairly high level. The utilities' capability to pay for the product depends mainly on the national feed-in tariffs of green electricity. The energy price for the user is at least twice as high as that of coal. (orig.)

  7. Pilot study of nitrogen utilisation in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futo, I.; Palcsu, L.; Vodila, G.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the cooperation between KITE Ltd., Nadudvar, Hungary and the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, the aim was to determine the ideal locations of fertilising, the ideal distance of rows for the ideal production yield. To track the nitrogen utilisation of maize (Zea mays) 15 N enriched NH 4 NO 3 fertiliser was introduced among the usual fertilisers in the maize field of KITE Ltd. Nadudvar, Hungary on 30 th March 2012, before sowing. Four maize samples were taken from different areas of different fertiliser treatment (non-fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and labelled between the rows and fertilised and labelled within the rows) and from different development stages of the plant on 22 nd May, 8 th June, 6 th July and 7 th September being sampling periods 1-4, respectively. The plant samples were subsampled based on organs: root, stem and leaf. Samples were dried to constant mass and pulverised. The 15 N measurements were made by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled with an elemental analyser. In case of non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, all the three organs were getting 15 N depleted with time, most intensively the stem and the less intensively the root (Figure 1). For the leaves and stems of the fertilised and non-labelled plants, the tendency in time is very similar to the ones of the non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, however, the roots of the fertilised and non-labelled plants got significantly enriched in the sample of September. In case of the fertilised and labelled between-the-rows samples, labelling is slightly seen as the delta values are positive. These values are significantly lower than the ones for the fertilised and labelled-within-the-rows plants. It is seen that fertiliser got to the vegetation in the largest extent in this layout. Labelling showed its maximum intensity in the second sampling (8 th June) showing that

  8. A drug utilisation study investigating prescribed daily doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and drug groups. Design. Retrospective drug utilisation study using data .... drugs that were prescribed 20 or fewer times during the period under ... occurs in women and men at different ages and with different severity. group. On average, men ...

  9. Facilitating nurses' knowledge of the utilisation of reflexology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-18

    May 18, 2012 ... scientific evidence on the utilisation of reflexology as CAM modality to promote .... reflexology therapy, zone therapy and foot massage and ...... perceived quality of care and cultural beliefs', Family Pracfice 21(6), 654−660.

  10. Exploring the extent to which ELT students utilise smartphones for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zehra

    2015-11-09

    Nov 9, 2015 ... aimed to explore the extent to which English Language Teaching (ELT) students utilise ... Given the fact that almost all students have a personal smartphone, and use it ..... ears as a disadvantage for smartphones (Kétyi,.

  11. Study of some continuous spectra produced by nuclear reactions with light nuclei; Etude de quelques spectres continus produits par reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, L

    1966-07-01

    The continuous spectra coming from several nuclear reactions with light nuclei were measured. The spectra can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism; however, the reactions produced by {sup 6}Li are different. A mechanism was proposed to explain their spectra based on the following assumptions: {sup 6}Li makes a nuclear molecule with the target which subsequently breaks up in such a way that an {alpha} particle comes out with the kinetic energy that it has in the molecule. The calculated spectra and those measured are in good agreement. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les spectres continus produits dans plusieurs reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers. A l'exception des spectres produits par {sup 6}Li, on a trouve qu'on pouvait expliquer ces spectres par le mecanisme des reactions en deux etapes. Nous avons propose un mecanisme pour expliquer les spectres produits par {sup 6}Li. On suppose que {sup 6}Li forme une molecule nucleaire avec la cible qui eclate ensuite de facon telle qu'une particule alpha de la molecule sort avec l'energie cinetique de son mouvement propre dans la molecule. Les spectres calcules avec ces hypotheses et les spectres mesures sont en bon accord. (auteur)

  12. Alimentation animale et valeur nutritionnelle induite sur les produits dérivés consommés par l’homme : Les lipides sont-ils principalement concernés ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans quelle mesure la nourriture reçue par les animaux induit-elle une modification (amélioration ou au contraire dégradation de la valeur nutritionnelle des aliments qui en sont issus pour la nourriture de l’homme ? La réponse à cette question varie selon la nature des nutriments (vitamines, minéraux, acides gras poly-insaturés indispensables des graisses, acides aminés indispensables des protéines, et aussi de l’espèce considérée. Le problème est de rechercher l’impact réel des formulations des rations utilisées dans les élevages sur la valeur nutritionnelle des produits (viandes, lait et laitages, fromages et œufs, etc., et donc leur influence sur la santé du consommateur, évidemment dans un sens favorable. Les acides gras poly-insaturés oméga-3 (ω3 bénéficient de deux grands axes de valorisation. Le premier réside dans leur importance quantitative et leurs rôles dans le cadre de la mise en place et du maintien de divers organes, le cerveau au premier chef. Le second se trouve dans la prévention de diverses pathologies, les maladies cardio-vasculaires occupant une place prépondérante \\; avec, depuis peu, les maladies neuro-psychiatriques, stress, dépression et démence. Compte tenu des implications en termes de maladies, cardio-cérébro-vasculaires entre autres, le contrôle de la nature des acides gras constitutifs des graisses représente donc un enjeu considérable en ce qui concerne les viandes issues d’animaux terrestres, maritimes et aériens, du lait, des laitages, fromages et des œufs. Car la qualité des graisses données en nourriture animale détermine fondamentalement la valeur nutritionnelle des aliments qui en sont dérivés, pour la consommation humaine. Bien évidemment, il est relativement difficile de modifier la composition en acides gras des phospholipides constitutifs des membranes biologiques intégrées dans la multitude de types cellulaires, dont la spécificité est largement

  13. Price and utilisation differences for statins between four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc Phuoc; Vitry, Agnes Isabelle; Moss, John Robert

    2018-02-01

    Australia, England, France and New Zealand use different policies to regulate their medicines market, which can impact on utilisation and price. To compare the prices and utilisation of statins in Australia, England, France and New Zealand from 2011 to 2013. Utilisation of statins in the four countries was compared using Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per year. Pairwise Laspeyres and Paasche index comparisons were conducted comparing the price and utilisation of statins. The results showed that the price of statins in New Zealand was the cheapest. The price of statins in Australia was most expensive in 2011 and 2012 but France was more expensive in 2013. There were large differences between the Laspeyres index and Paasche index when comparing the price and utilisation of England with Australia and France. The policies that regulate the New Zealand and England medicines markets were more effective in reducing the price of expensive statins. The relative utilisation of cheaper statins was greatest in England and had a large effect on the differences between the two index results. The pricing policies in Australia have been only partly effective in reducing the price of statins compared to other countries.

  14. Some aspects of nuclear graphite production in France; Etude generale sur les graphites nucleaires produits en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueron, J; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legendre, A [Pechiney, 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    1) Manufacturing: A summary and results on the CEA-Pechiney purification process are given. Variations in the preparation of green pastes and their effects on graphitized material are described. 2) Physical and mechanical properties: Results are given on: - Statistics of dimensional variatior products having square cross-section. - Statistical variation of thermal expansion coefficients and of electrical conductivity. - Density of normals to carbon layer planes and their connexion with thermal expansion. - Stress-strain cycles and conclusions drawn therefrom. - Mechanical resistance and gas permeability of items for supporting fuel elements. 3) Behaviour under radiation: Alteration under radiation of French graphites irradiated either in G1 pile or in experimental piles, and thermal annealing of those alterations, are given. (author)Fren. [French] 1) Fabrication: On resume le procede d'epuration CEA-PECHINEY, ainsi que diverses modalites de preparation des pates et on expose les resultats obtenus. 2) Proprietes physiques et mecaniques: On indique le resultat d'etudes sur: - la statistique des dimensions de produits a section carree. - celle des variations des coefficients de dilatation thermique et de la conductibilite electrique. - la densite des normales aux plans graphitiques et leur connexion avec la dilatation thermique. - la compression mecanique du graphite. - la solidite mecanique et la permeabilite aux gaz de pieces destinees a supporter des cartouches de combustible. 3) Tenue sous rayonnement: Modification sous rayonnement des graphites fran is irradies soit dans la pile G1, soit dans des piles experimentales, et guerison thermique de ces modifications. (auteur)

  15. Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R.

    2006-01-01

    During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D 9 = 16.21 ± 0.20 μm) is finer than the CCRs (D 9 = 19.72 ± 0.18 μm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 }and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2Fe 2 O 3 SO 3 .5H 2 O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO 2 }, mullite {3Al 2 O 3 .2SiO 2 } and hematite {Fe 2 O 3 }. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26 ± 0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498 ± 0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66 ± 0.18%), sulphur (12.23 ± 0.2%) and zinc (8.243 ± 0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon ( 27.41 ± 0.74%), aluminium (15

  16. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels improvement and extension of the solvent extraction process; Le traitement des combustibles irradies amelioration et extension du procede utilisant les solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Chesne, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Improvements made in the conventional tri-butylphosphate process are described, in particular. the concentration and the purification of plutonium by one extraction cycle using tri-butyl-phosphate with reflux; and the use of an apparatus working continuously for precipitating plutonium oxalate, for calcining the oxalate, and for fluorinating the oxide. The modifications proposed for the treatment of irradiated uranium - molybdenum alloys are described, in particular, the dissolution of the fuel, and the concentration of the fission product solutions. The solvent extraction treatment is used also for the plutonium fuels utilized for the fast breeder reactor (Rapsodie) An outline of the process is presented and discussed, as well as the first experimental results and the plans for a pilot plant having a capacity of 1 kg/day. The possible use of tn-lauryl-amine in the plutonium purification cycle is now under consideration for the processing plant at La Hague. The flowsheet for this process and its performance are presented. The possibility of vitrification is considered for the final treatment of the concentrated radioactive wastes from the Marcoule (irradiated uranium) and La Hague (irradiated uranium-molybdenum) Centers. Three possible processes are described and discussed, as well as the results obtained from the operation of the corresponding experimental units using tracers. (authors) [French] On decrit les ameliorations apportees au procede classique utilisant le phosphate tributylique, et notamment la concentration et la purification du plutonium par un cycle d'extraction au tributylphosphate avec reflux, l'utilisation d'un appareillage continu de precipitation d'oxalate de plutonium, de calcination de l'oxalate, et de fluoration de l'oxyde. On presente les modifications envisagees pour le traitement des alliages uranium-molybdene irradies, principalement en ce qui concerne la dissolution du combustible et la concentration des solutions de produits de fission

  17. Toxicological study of a polyphenyl-type chemical compound used by the thermal transfer department; Etude toxicologique d'un produit chimique du type polyphenyle utilise par la section des transferts thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, R.; Alix, D.

    1961-07-01

    This note reports an experimentation of toxicological tests performed on two mice breed by different ways (skin absorption, respiratory route, digestive tract) in order to assess the toxicology of a chemical compound containing a bi-phenyl eutectic and bi-phenyl oxide. The authors describe effects noticed among mice depending on the absorption way. They notice the caustic action of the product, but that an accidental absorption through the digestive tract would not result in an acute and severe intoxication. As far as chronic intoxication is concerned, daily inhalations do not seem to have any haematological impact on mice.

  18. Facteurs socio-économiques affectant l'utilisation des sous-produits agro-industriels pour l'embouche bovine à contre-saison dans l'Adamaoua, Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deffo V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic factors affecting the use of agro-industrial by-products for cattle fattening in the dry season in Adamawa, Cameroon. Cattle production is the major economic activity in the Adamawa. Feed deficiency that causes about 129 to 187 g weight loss per day is an important constraint during the dry season. A possible alternative to overcome this constraint is the use of agro-industrial by-products. However, the adoption and effective use of these potentials are still to be encouraged. This study, which objective was to find out the socio-economic factors that may affect the usage of these resources, permitted to show, through interviews and surveys, that more than 8,200 t of agro-industrial by-products (maize and wheat bran, soybean seed and maize seed cake useable for cattle feeding were produced annually in Adamawa and that only 16 % of this production were used by livestock farmers. Among the factors affecting the effective use of these by-products, prices were the most determinant. The herds size and the number of sedentary animals had also shown a significant positive effect. On the other hand, livestock farming experience and the farmer’s age had instead shown a strong negative correlation with the use of by-products; same was the level of farmer’s education which showed positive correlation only with respect to cotton seed cake use. The distance from the livestock farming sites to the by-products production/distribution centre and/or difficult access to the sites had strong positive correlations with the by-products’ prices. The problem of supplies as a result of long distance or of difficult access to cattle production sites, the high and unstable prices of agro-industrial by-products and poor awareness of the different types of by-products produced in the Adamawa, were noted as major constraints for their use as cattle feed. Based on the above results, an effective extension system and well organized farmers groupings could improve the level of utilization of agro-industrial by-products for cattle feeding.

  19. Utilisation des micro-ordinateurs en ecriture aux cycles primaire et moyen: methodes, roles, attitudes et produits. L'education et la technologie (Writing with Microcomputers in the Elementary Grades: Process, Roles, Attitudes, and Products. Education and Technology Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Sylvia; And Others

    A study examined and compared writing with and without microcomputers in elementary schools. Specifically, the study examined (1) how the products of writing instruction with a computer differ from the products of traditionally taught writing, (2) the process of teaching writing, (3) teacher-pupil roles when pupils are writing, (4) teacher…

  20. Forecasting the Quantity and Activity of Fission Products in France in Future Years in the Light of Atomic Energy Development; Quantite et Activite des Produits de Fission Obtenus en France dans les Annees a Venir Compte Tenu du Developpement de l'Energie Atomique; 041a 041e 041b 0414 ; Cantidad y Actividad de los Productos de Fision que se Obtendran en Francia en los Anos Venideros, Habida Cuenta del Desarrollo de la Energia Atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirlet, J.; Lavie, J. M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    With the aid of Wigner and Way's formula it is possible to predict theoretically the activity of the complex mixture of fission products originating in a reactor. Account is taken in the study of prospective nuclear power production in France up to 1975. It is assumed that the uranium stays in the reactor for periods of three and of six months. It is also possible to determine the activity of a given fission product and to calculate its decay time. The substance selected was strontium for an activation period of three months. Each group of curves shows total activity at any moment and the activity of particular fission products over a given period. (author) [French] En utilisant la formule de Wigner et Way, il est possible de prevoir theoriquement l'activite du melange complexe de produits de fission provenant d'une pile. L'etude a ete faite en tenant compte de previsions en ce qui concerne en France la production d'electricite d'origine atomique jusqu'en 1975. On a suppose des temps de sejour en pile de l'uranium de trois mois et de six mois. Il est possible egalement de trouver l'activite d'un produit de fission particulier, et de donner sa decroissance. Le corps choisi est le strontium pour un temps d'activation de trois mois. Chaque ensemble de courbes donne a tout instant l'activite totale, et l'activite propre des produits de fission correspondant a une periode donnee. (author) [Spanish] Empleando la formula de Wigner y Way se puede calcular teoricamente la actividad de la mezcla compleja de productos de fision procedentes de una pila. Para esta memoria se han tenido en cuenta las previsiones de produccion de electricidad nucleoelectrica en Francia hasta 1975. Los autores suponen que el uranio permanece tres o seis meses en la pila y han conseguido determinar la actividad de un producto de fision determinado, asi como su periodo de desintegracion. Han escogido el estroncio, con un tiempo de activacion de 3 meses. Cada conjunto de curvas da la actividad total

  1. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  2. Affaire Khlaifia et autres v. Italie: Estándares del debido proceso aplicados al procedimiento administrativo de migraciones y expulsión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Cortés Cabrera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En septiembre de 2015, el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos resolvió el caso caratulado Affaire Khlaifia et autres v. Italie (Caso Khlaifia y otros c. Italia, relativo al reclamo presentado contra Italia por la retención ilegal, condiciones de detención, e infracciones al debido proceso de migrantes tunecinos que ingresaron ilegalmente al país, a través de embarcaciones ligeras. El fallo es sumamente interesante, pues analiza ciertos estándares jurídicos que deben aplicarse al procedimiento administrativo observado por el Estado, para la expulsión del país de los inmigrantes. El presente trabajo busca identificar los principales criterios establecidos en la sentencia, y compararlos con los estándares establecidos previamente por la doctrina y los otros sistemas de derechos humanos.

  3. « Ecoute, lecteur... » : la représentation de la lecture dans L’Autre monde de Cyrano de Bergerac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Nédélec

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available L'Autre monde, ou les Etats et Empires de la lune de Cyrano de Bergerac s'ouvre sur une conversation : les amis du narrateur s'amusent à proposer des définitions burlesques de la lune ; tout à coup, celui-ci s'écrie :Et moy, [...] je croys sans m'amuser aux imaginations pointuës dont vous chatouillez le temps pour le faire marcher plus viste, que la Lune est un monde comme celuy-ci à qui le nostre sert de Lune.On se moque de lui ; mais il ne renonce pas à son hypothèse :Cette pensée dont la h...

  4. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babadagli T.

    2012-05-01

    compositions of bioDiesel in steam at 1.8 MPa pressure and 205°C are at least one order of magnitude higher than the requested bioDiesel dosages. Further tests are planned by reducing bioDiesel dosages to about 0.5 to 1.0 g-bioDiesel/kilogram-steam and by monitoring the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen. L’utilisation d’additifs pour améliorer l’efficacité des procédés de récupération thermique d’huile lourde et de bitume a été étudiée de manière approfondie pendant des décennies. Deux types courants d’additifs utilisés dans des applications thermiques, principalement en récupération assistée par injection de vapeur, consistent en des solvants et des agents tensioactifs. L’utilisation de solvants présente des inconvénients du fait de leur coût élevé et de la difficulté à les récupérer. Le coût et la stabilité des agents tensioactifs aux température et pression de réservoir limitent leur usage. Nous proposons l’utilisation d’un biogazole tel qu’un ester méthylique d’acides gras en tant qu’additif tensioactif pour réduire la tension interfaciale huile lourde/bitume-eau dans les procédés de récupération assistée par injection de vapeur. Les avantages de l’utilisation d’un biogazole en tant qu’additif tensioactif consistent en ce que le biogazole est chimiquement stable aux pression et température d’exploitation du réservoir, qu’il ne dégrade pas la qualité des hydrocarbures produits ni la composition chimique des eaux de production et que son utilisation est économiquement viable. Nous avons mené une série d’expériences de récupération assistée de bitume par injection de vapeur afin de clarifier le potentiel de récupération additionnelle et la capacité d’amélioration d’efficacité du biogazole. De la vapeur à 1,8 MPa et 205 °C a été utilisée au cours de ces essais, à un débit de 900 g/h. Le milieu poreux utilisé consistait en un sable pétrolifère à teneur normale en bitume

  5. SITUATIONS ET TENDANCES Les agricultures familiales africaines face à la mondialisation : le défi d‘une autre transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosc Pierre-Marie

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available L’agriculture africaine fait face à une situation inédite liée au processus de mondialisation, mais aussi à la forte croissance relative de sa population agricole durant le dernier quart du xxe siècle, contrairement à d’autres continents (ou pays continents. Paradoxalement, alors que l’Afrique se trouve marginalisée dans les échanges commerciaux, sur lesquels se focalise le débat international en matière agricole, l’agriculture africaine et le développement rural restent des domaines stratégiques pour les politiques publiques qui doivent prendre en compte la configuration démographique et économique spécifique du continent. La question du type d’agriculture qui accompagnera la nécessaire transition économique et agricole africaine est en débat. Alors que certains opérateurs et décideurs soutiennent le développement d’une agriculture d’entreprise, les organisations paysannes font massivement le choix de défendre l’agriculture familiale comme axe privilégié de développement, car elle fournit emplois et revenus pour le plus grand nombre. Cependant, les organisations doivent faire face à un rapport de force inégal avec les autres acteurs privés issus du processus de libération. Renforcer leurs capacités de proposition et de négociation apparaît dès lors comme une condition permettant d’envisager une refondation des politiques publiques sur la base d’une réelle contribution des ruraux.

  6. Genèse phénoménologique de la reconnaissance: La chair, l’autre et le corps propre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David-Le-Duc Tiaha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En amont des représentations collectives et des formes instituées de la vie sociale, cet article se propose d’étudier l’articulation de l’intersubjectivité et de l’incarnation dans la constitution du soi et de l’autre comme une genèse phénoménologique de la reconnaissance à travers la lecture ricoeurienne de la cinquième des Méditations cartésiennes publiée dans À l’école de la phénoménologie. Lors de la donation du sens ego dans l’intersubjectivité, la constitution de la reconnaissance sur le plan de la perception se fait grâce aux distinctions entre corps (Körper et chair (Leib d’une part, et, d’autre part entre chair (Leib et corps propre (Leibkörper. L’analyse des textes sur "Le sentiment,” repris dans À l’école de la phénoménologie, et sur "La fragilité affective" dans L’homme faillible, propose une phénoménologie de la reconnaissance sur le plan de l’affection. Le désir est révélé par le "sentiment ontologique" comme la racine affective de l’intersubjectivité dont les modalités sont objectivées par les dimensions économique, politique et culturelle de l’espace social correspondantes aux requêtes affectives différenciées de la reconnaissance sociale telles que l’avoir, le pouvoir et le valoir.

  7. Etude de l'exploitation et du marché des produits forestiers non ligneux à Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biloso, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of Non Woody Forest Products Exploitation and Market in Kinshasa. In spite of the considerable number of ethnobotanic studies carried out in many regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo, almost no information is available on the exploitation and commerce of the wild products (non woody forest products, "produits forestiers non ligneux" – PFNL of the Congolese provinces in general and the urban province of Kinshasa in particular. Nevertheless, these products are largely used and marketed. Therefore, direct observations in situ, and socio-economic and ethnoecologic investigations (including interviews were organized in the urban province of Kinshasa to analyse various aspects of consumption of these wild products. The purpose of these investigations was to collect information regarding the use and the marketing of PFNL products by the populations living in the zones surrounding the urban area. The analysis of the various types of exploitation and use of the PFNL has shown twelve categories of PFNL use: energy, food, construction of music instruments, saw mill applications, drink, drugs, dye, packing, construction of baskets, textile fabrication, construction and ornamentation. The majority of these PFNL originate not only from the secondary forests and from forest galleries, but from shrubby savannas and the marshes as well. The exploitations and uses of the PFNL vary rather largely with the level of income, the purchasing power, the attachment with food practices and with local traditions. The various levels of semi-monthly income by owner of the PFNL are estimated for the following plants which were used as vegetables: Gnetum africanum Welw., (275.0 $; Pteridium aquilinium Hieron. (166.7 $; Dracaena camerooniana Baker. (75.5 $; Dioscorea praehensilis (Benth. (71.0 $; Psophocarpus scandens (Endl. Verdc. (58.7 $. The average income resulting from the firewood sale was estimated at 80 $ per month and per person, for a group of 25 owners

  8. Utilisation of phosphate by jute from jute growing soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.; Suiha, A.K.

    1974-01-01

    The uptake and utilisation of phosphate from different jute growing soils of West Bengal viz., Humaipur (24-Parganas), Haripal (Hooghly), Panagarh (Burdwan) and the Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Barrackpore (24-Parganas) were studied in pot under fertilizer combination of NP, PK and NPK. The soils from 24-Parganas district behaved in a similar manner with respect to dry matter yield, fertilizer P uptake and per cent utilisation of added P. The P deficient between the two, Humaipur soil, showed comparatively higher P utilisation. Other two soils, Haripal and Panagarh, though of different origin behaved similarly, highest soil P has been contributed by the P rich soil (J.A.R.I.) to the crop, though it showed minimum P fixation. (author)

  9. Aerosols produced by evaporation of a uranium wire; Aerosols produits par evaporation d'un fil d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the aerosols formed when an uranium wire is evaporated in a normal or rarefied atmosphere, either with or without a drying agent. The heating of the wire can be either fast or slow. The first part is a study of aerosol production apparatus and of methods of measuring the aerosol. The second part presents the results obtained with various aerosols: the particles produced by the wire are less than one micron; during rapid heating, the granulometric distribution of the aerosol obeys a log-normal law; during slow heating, the distribution has two modes: one near 0.05 micron, the other close to 0.01 micron. (author) [French] Ce travail est consacre a l'etude des aerosols formes lors de l'evaporation d un fil d'uranium en atmosphere normale ou rarefiee en presence ou non de dessechant. Le chauffage du fil peut etre rapide ou lent. La premiere partie est une etude des appareils de production et des methodes de mesures de l'aerosol. La seconde partie consigne les resultats obtenus sur les differents aerosols: les particules emises par le fil sont inferieures au micron; lors d'un chauffage rapide, la repartition granulometrique de l'aerosol suit une loi log-normale; lors d un chauffage lent, la repartition presente deux modes: l'un voisin de 0.05 micron, l'autre voisin de 0.01 micron. (auteur)

  10. The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Tauchenová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This master´s thesis is called The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing. It presents Youtubers as idols of today´s young people and introduces options of utilization of their power for marketing purposes. The first chapter introduces the reader to the general matters of online marketing and offers basic knowledge about this area. The second chapter is dedicated to social networks and their utilisation in marketing field. The third chapter introduces the topic YouTube. It...

  11. Influence of C-Peptide on Glucose Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years, multiple studies demonstrated that C-peptide is not an inert peptide, but exerts important physiological effects. C-peptide binds to cell membranes, stimulates the Na,K-ATPase and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase. Moreover, there is evidence that C-peptide decreases glomerular hyperfiltration and increases glucose utilisation. Nevertheless, there is still limited knowledge concerning mechanisms leading to an increased glucose utilisation either in rats or in humans. The aim of this paper is to give an overview over the published studies regarding C-peptide and glucose metabolism from in vitro studies to longer lasting studies in humans.

  12. Utilisation of geothermal energy by the municipal works in Neubrandenburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, H.

    1994-01-01

    A long distance energy supply plant has been operated on the basis of geothermal energy in Neubrandenburg since September 1988. At present it is still the largest heat generation plant for the utilisation of low thermal pore storage in Germany. The setup and the function of the plant are explained. After the municipal works of Neubrandenburg took over the plant, it was redesigned in order to give a better guarantee for the supply, to improve the economic efficiency and to minimise the environmental impact. At present long distance energy can be provided at a price of 99,00 DM/Mwh for 2000 utilisation hours per year. (BWI) [de

  13. La patrimonialisation des produits dits de terroir Heritage-making and the enhancement of so-called ‘terroir’ products: when rural meets urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Delfosse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aujourd’hui, le phénomène de patrimonialisation des produits agro-alimentaires concerne des campagnes rêvées à forte identité, mais aussi des espaces apparemment « sans qualité », des espaces « en creux ». La patrimonialisation des produits de terroir passe par différents processus : par le biais de fêtes, de la mise en art, de la gastronomie, ainsi que par des modes de vente comme le marché… Ces processus à l’œuvre montrent que la relation au monde rural est complexe. En effet, la patrimonialisation des produits de terroir peut aussi bien être le fait d’acteurs ruraux que d’acteurs urbains, de politiques de territoire urbaines que rurales. Les produits de terroir apparaissent comme un dénominateur commun réunissant, au moins occasionnellement, anciens, nouveaux habitants, voire habitants temporaires de territoires qui se dessinent. Ce phénomène est analysé à partir de trois exemples pris dans la région Rhône-Alpes: la fête de la fourme et des Côtes du Forez et la stratégie d’affirmation d’une petite ville, Montbrison, comme capitale d’un pays, le Forez ; Bourg-en-Bresse et sa volaille, ou comment des produits de terroir peuvent contribuer à affirmer une urbanité ; enfin, l’analyse de la création d’une marque territoriale pour affirmer l’existence d’un espace « sans nom », situé à l’ombre de métropoles et la nécessité de protéger sa ruralité face au phénomène de résidentialisation.Today, the enhancement of food heritage concerns not only rural areas with cultural identities but also areas which seem « without quality » or « hollowed out». The enhancement of local products (produits de terroir entails various processes such as festivals, art events, local gastronomy and sales outlets provided by local markets. These processes reveal just how complex the links with local places are. In fact, local product enhancement can result as much from rural activities (local

  14. Les représentations mentales du mode de production des produits alimentaires (France Mental representations related to food production modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Salvador-Perignon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche se propose d’aborder le mode de production du produit alimentaire sous l’angle des représentations mentales en France. Dans le langage commun on entend souvent les termes « industriel » ou « artisanal » pour caractériser les produits alimentaires, sans que l’on sache vraiment ce que ces termes désignent. Le contexte actuel d’incertitude et de méconnaissance des systèmes de production chez les consommateurs nous permet d’émettre l’hypothèse de l’existence d’une représentation mentale du mode de production. Nous tentons de vérifier cette hypothèse par une étude qualitative à l’issue de laquelle les premières caractéristiques du produit alimentaire industriel ou artisanal sont précisées.This research approaches the food product through the mental representations concerning manufacturing processes. In the common language we often find such terms as “industrial” or “traditional” to qualify production methods and characterize food products, but do we know what these terms really mean? Uncertainties and misunderstandings regarding food production enable us to highlight the existence of consumers’ mental representations regarding manufacturing processes. Such representations have been studied by means of a qualitative study which enabled us to define the primary characteristics of industrial or traditional food products.

  15. problematique de l'utilisation des engrais mineraux dans les zones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    de riz pluvial, une enquête a été réalisée à Saïoua, auprès de 7 associations de riziculteurs ... obtenu les produits par le biais d'Organisations Non Gouvernementales (ONG) à la faveur de projets ... nationale, reste encore de type traditionnel,.

  16. The study by means of a photomultiplier of the scintillations produced by {alpha} particles striking a zinc sulphide screen; Etude, au photomultiplicateur, des scintillations produites par les particules {alpha} dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Application a la numeration precise des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The object of the study is the accurate counting of {alpha} particles by p-m. detection of their scintillations upon impact with a zinc sulphide screen. The main advantage of the method is the extreme simplicity of the electronics used: the possibility of obtaining a utilizable pulse from the p-m. (EMI5311) without any amplification, and in linear response, is demonstrated. The scintillation produced by an impact on Zn-S has also been studied experimentally. The decrease of light intensity in relation to time may be interpreted by the exponential relation: I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) whereby {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. The relation between scintillation intensity and remaining trajectory after travel through a given air-space has also been determined. Possible suitable applications of this method of {alpha} counting are those where good stability and low background are necessary. Results stated bear on air contamination studies, isotopic composition variation measurement of uranium, bismuth content measurement in alloys by irradiation of specimens in a thermal neutron flux and {alpha} count on the Po formed. (author) [French] Ce travail est consacre a l'etude de la numeration precise des particules {alpha} par detection au photomultiplicateur des scintillations produites par ces particules dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Le principal avantage de cette methode reside dans l'extreme simplicite de l'appareillage electronique; il est en effet montre qu'il est possible, tout en convoyant une reponse lineaire, d'obtenir du photomultiplicateur (EMI5311) un signal electrique utilisable sans aucune amplification. La scintillation produite par l'impact des particules {alpha} sur un ecran de Zn-S est etudiee experimentalement. La decroissance de l'intensite lumineuse en fonction du temps est interpretable par la relation exponentielle I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) avec {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. La relation entre l'intensite de la scintillation et le

  17. Utilisation of family planning techniques among women: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...

  18. Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

  19. High-performance hybrid-fibre concrete : Development and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Although concrete is the most utilised building material nowdays, this material has a large shortcoming: it has a good resistance against compressive stresses, but a very low resistance against tensile stresses. Usual way to solve this problem is the application of steel reinforcement in concrete

  20. Utilisation of insecticide treated nets among pregnant women in Gulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Results: 35% of pregnant women (95% CI 31% - 38%) had utilised ITNs. Factors that promoted ... 0.050) and being single/widow/divorced (AOR 0.22, p-value 0.000). Conclusion: .... being engaged in business (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.08. - 2.26 ...

  1. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  2. Deterrents on the Over Utilisation of Stand Alone Photovoltaic (PV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At inception of the programme, systems were either undersized, or over utilised as clients did not reveal their usage needs in an attempt to reduce costs. This resulted in battery failures and other system breakdowns. The NPVREP categorised systems in order to alleviate the problem of under sizing and/or over utilization of ...

  3. CERN un physicien dénonce des utilisations militaires

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    André Gsponer, ancien chercheur au CERN, a écrit un rapport qui dénone les utilisations militaires développées par certains Etat, dont l'Irak, sur la base des technologies mises au point au CERN (1 page).

  4. Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  5. Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, B.

    2004-01-01

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder the import of crude oil from neighbouring countries and of the fact that Jordan has limited fossil fuel resources, strategies to meet energy demand are being addressed and examined together with their consequences and the ways in which they could be utilised. This paper assesses for the first time, the potential of using alternative energy technologies in Jordan, including the utilisation of solar energy for water heating, for wind towers in rural areas and also for biogas production from waste. Approximately 2% of unconventional renewable energy resources are being utilised. The data and scenarios of this study were presented in a manner that would assist decision makers, funding agencies, researchers and other related parties to establish programmes that will be helpful in meeting the energy demand, while preserving the environment and maintaining sustainability. (author)

  6. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, for each extra gram of dietary free amino acid content/kg diet, the rate of lay and egg output decreased by 3.0% and 2.5 g per day, respectively, and the efficiency of methionine utilisation decreased by 4.3%. There was no interaction between frequency of feeding and amino acid supplementation. These results ...

  7. Assessment of frog meat utilisation in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frogs are among the most threatened species of wildlife in IUCN red list. Its utilisation in Ibadan, a major depot in western Nigeria was therefore conducted with the aim of assessing the forms and trend of use; and amongst others, reasons for frog meat consumption. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire, ...

  8. Utilisation of outpatient services at Red Cross War Memorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for outpatient services continues to grow at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCCH). To determine current utilisation patterns, we conducted a 2-week survey in the outpatient department (OPD). In addition, we reviewed the RCCH Annual Reports for the period 1961 - 1988. Annual outpatient ...

  9. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  10. Acquisition And Utilisation Of Human Resources In Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the acquisition and utilisation of human resources in public secondary schools for students with special needs in Oyo State. The study employed a descriptive research design. The entire 196 teachers and 16 supportive staff formed the sample. The research instrument for the study was a questionnaire ...

  11. Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop improvement. ... smallholder households to obtain improved seed and invest more of their land and labour in the crop. ... is to make a greater contribution to household income and rural development in SSA. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Improving the utilisation of management information systems in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support

  13. Paediatric utilisation of a teaching hospital and a community health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to Red Cross Children's Hospital (RXH) that could be more ... better access and perceived quality. S Atr Med ... tertiary resources, low levels of efficiency and staff ... However, central to improved patterns of utilisation is the .... the modei were: (/) age of the child; (it) duration of residence ... There was no significant association.

  14. Policy framework for utilisation. A pillar of better accessibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The goals and frameworks for traffic and transport policy for the Netherlands to 2020 are described in the Mobility Document. Whereas government policy previously viewed mobility as a problem or as something permissible, the assumption is now that mobility is a must. Mobility, for people as well as goods, is a prerequisite for society and the economy to function well. The Mobility Document contains ambitious goals to deal with current and anticipated traffic and transport problems: door to door, faster, cleaner and safer. Three interrelated pillars are to help achieve these goals: Building, Pricing and Utilisation. Work is being done on the Building and Pricing pillars; Utilisation is elaborated further in this policy framework. The Policy Framework for Utilisation is an elaboration of the Mobility Document for the 2008-2020 period and aims for faster, cleaner, safer travel from door to door. The purpose of this policy framework is to describe the direction of development of utilisation, in terms of content as well as process, to indicate actions that are required and to provide perspective on the expected effects. The policy framework is in line with current developments or plans, caters to new opportunities (technological and otherwise), encourages the innovative potential of the market and provides room for joint ventures between the government and the market. It will result in actions for the short term and provide direction for activities and developments for the longer term

  15. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-12-05

    Dec 5, 2007 ... the firms in the industry is determined solely by the dictates of ... L'étude examine l'impact de la mondialisation sur l'utilisation de la .... globalisation has been the most influential in government policy .... social, and has economic implications for both the individual worker ..... with the payment of low wages.

  16. SUPPLY AND UTILISATION OF FOOD CROPS IN GHANA, 1960 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    Due to that much attention has been placed on sustainable management of agricultural ... Supply (import and export) and utilisation (for food, feed, seed, farm manure, waste and other uses) of food crops have ..... Cassava is mainly used in non-poultry livestock production, i.e., for goats, sheep, pigs and some ruminants.

  17. Utilisation of mobile health by medical doctors in a Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mobile Health is the utilisation of mobile devices like cellphones and tablets for the delivery of health care. It is an up and coming intervention promising to benefit health services. Recent mobile health studies have tended to focus on mHealth for data collection and surveillance rather than on actual patient care ...

  18. The significance of climate change in streams utilised by humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the role of climate change in catchments that are already under pressure of human activities one needs to study past, current and future conditions. Therefore, the catchment of the river Vecht (The Netherlands), representative for many human utilised, medium-sized lowland river

  19. Impacts of high utilisation pressure on biodiversity components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the effects of heavy land utilisation, mainly grazing, on plant species richness and diversity, species abundance, vegetation structure and soil characteristics in a communal area in Colophospermum mopane dominated savanna in southern Africa. The treatment was benchmarked ...

  20. Resource Utilisation and Curriculum Implementation in Community Colleges in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigwilu, Peter Changilwa; Akala, Winston Jumba

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated how Catholic-sponsored community colleges in Nairobi utilise the existing physical facilities and teaching and learning resources for effective implementation of Artisan and Craft curricula. The study adopted a mixed methods research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to sample 172 students and 18…

  1. Glucose utilisation in the lungs of septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, L.; Jeppsson, B.; Ohlsson, T.; Sandell, A.; Valind, S.; Luts, A.; Wollmer, P.

    1999-01-01

    Sequestration and degranulation of leucocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation is considered to be a key event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with sepsis. Glucose serves as the main source of energy in activated leucocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether glucose utilisation in the lungs can be used as an indicator of pulmonary leucocyte accumulation in an experimental model of sepsis of intra-abdominal origin. Sepsis was induced in rats by abdominal implantation of a gelatine capsule containing bacteria and rat colonic contents. Empty gelatine capsules were implanted in control animals. Animals were studied 6 and 12 h after sepsis induction. Glucose utilisation was measured as the tissue uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) 1 h after intravenous injection of the tracer. Micro-autoradiography was also performed after injection of tritiated deoxyglucose. We found increased uptake of 18 FDG in the lungs of septic animals. The uptake also increased with time after sepsis induction. 18 FDG uptake in circulating leucocytes was increased in septic animals compared with controls, and micro-autoradiography showed intense accumulation of deoxyglucose in leucocytes in the lungs of septic animals. We conclude that glucose utilisation is increased in the lungs of septic rats. Measurements of pulmonary glucose utilisation as an index of leucocyte metabolic activity may open new possibilities for studies of the pathophysiology of sepsis and for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  2. Are They Climbing the Pyramid? Rating Student-Generated Questions in a Game Design Project / Grimpent-ils la pyramide? Évaluation des questions produites par les étudiants dans un projet de conception de jeux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paul Siko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have examined the use of homemade PowerPoint games as an instructional technique to improve learning outcomes. However, test data have shown no significant difference in performance between high school chemistry students who created games and students who did not (Siko, Barbour, & Toker, 2011. One of the justifications for the use of the games is that students will, with practice, write higher-order questions when constructing the games. Two subject matter experts rated over 2,500 questions from games created by students in an environmental chemistry class through thematic analysis using Bloom’s taxonomy as a coding scheme. The students wrote primarily recall questions, and students who created games on two occasions did not write more questions than students who only created games once. This suggests that changes to the question-writing aspect of the game project may be necessary in order to see improvements in achievement when compared to control groups. Les chercheurs ont étudié l’usage de jeux PowerPoint maison en tant que technique pédagogique visant à améliorer les résultats d'apprentissage. Les données des tests n'ont toutefois révélé aucune différence significative quant au niveau de performance des étudiants du secondaire en chimie ayant créé des jeux et celui des étudiants n’en ayant pas conçus (Siko, Barbour, et Toker, 2011. L’utilisation des jeux est notamment justifiée par l’idée que, pratique aidant, les étudiants écrivent des questions plus complexes lorsqu’ils élaborent des jeux. Au moyen d’une analyse thématique utilisant la taxonomie de Bloom comme système de codification, deux experts chimistes ont évalué plus de 2500 questions provenant de jeux conçus par des étudiants d’une classe de chimie environnementale. Les étudiants ont rédigé principalement des questions faisant appel à la mémoire, et les étudiants ayant créé des jeux à deux reprises n’ont pas produit

  3. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Insects and Other Arthropods; Effet des rayonnements ionisants sur les insectes et autres arthropodes; Vozdejstvie ioniziruntsej radiatsii na nasekomykh i drugikh chlenistonogikh; Efectos de las radiaciones ionizantes sobre los insectos y otros artropodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, William E. [United States Department of Agriculture Laboratories, Mexico City, D.F (Mexico)

    1963-09-15

    'eradication des insectes. L'auteur analyse les resultats obtenus dans la campagne d'eradication de la lucilie bouchere Cochliomyia hominivorax Cqrl. aux Etats-Unis, ainsi que dans des etudes visant a produire des souches vigoureuses, marquees genetiquement en vue d'identifier facilement les mouches steriles apres leur lacher. Il etudie aussi les resultats de recherches sur differents sujets: effets des rayonnements sur six autres especes nuisibles aux fruits, aux legumes, aux cultures et aux forets, sur trois especes qui s'attaquent au cheptel et sur trois especes qui sont particulierement nuisibles a l'homme; effets des rayonnements sur le scorpion Centruroides limpidus Karsch et sur la tique Amblyomma americanium L.; possibilite d'utiliser les rayonnements ionisants pour traiter - comme mesure de quarantaine - les fruits et legumes attaques par les mouches des fruits et les mangues attaquees par le charancon de la mangue Sternochetus mangiferae Fabricius. (author) [Spanish] Actualmente se estudia la posibilidad de recurrir a la radioesterilizacion para exterminar a diversos insectos que atacan al hombre, a los animales y a las plantas. Las primeras investigaciones han demostrado que las radiaciones ionizantes producen esterilidad, y que las dosis necesarias varian considerablemente. Tambien hacen pensar que los daflos producidos por las radiaciones pudieran en algunos casos impedir que se aplique el metodo a ciertos insectos. Con frecuencia, el obstaculo principal es la falta de metodos de cria de los insectos en gran escala. En otros casos, el insecto se da con tal abundancia que no es posible aplicar esta tecnica sin antes tratar por otros medios la zona infestada a fin de reducir el numero de insectos. A pesar de todas las dificultades, el metodo de la radioesterilizacion es uno de los mejores, cuando las condiciones son favorables. Tambien se puede utilizar para retrasar el desarrollo de la plaga hasta despues de la cosecha. La memoria informa sobre la influencia de las

  4. Transgressions d’immigrés pour l’accès à d’autres « places » dans la société

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaïha Zeroulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prendre la décision d’émigrer est un acte de transgression qui implique des processus de rupture, de remise en cause des normes traditionnelles. L’émigration déclenche une dynamique de transgressions plurielles qui met en jeu les capacités à agir des immigrés pour s’émanciper du groupe d’origine et réaliser le rêve «d’une vie autre» ailleurs. S’appropriant l’héritage parental des «compétences d’émigration», les enfants s’inscrivent dans la continuité en refusant la «condition immigrée». Fortement diplômés, ils occupent des «places» socialement valorisées. Immigrant transgression allowing access to other « roles » in society Abstract: Deciding to emigrate is an act of transgression that involves breaking away and challenging traditional norms. Emigrating triggers a multiple transgressions dynamic that jeopardizes the immigrants' ability to cut off ties with their group of origin and to realize the dream of “another life” elsewhere. Children appropriate the parental legacy of “emigration skills” which they are perpetuating by refusing the “immigrant condition”. Highly qualified, they occupy socially valued “roles”.

  5. Comparison of Predicted pKa Values for Some Amino-Acids, Dipeptides and Tripeptides, Using COSMO-RS, ChemAxon and ACD/Labs Methods Comparaison des valeurs de pKa de quelques acides aminés, dipeptides et tripeptides, prédites en utilisant les méthodes COSMO-RS, ChemAxon et ACD/Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure O.

    2013-05-01

    as peptides. The final goal of this study is to use the pKa values in a predictive thermodynamics model for products of interest in food industry. For this purpose, the effects of several factors (like conformations set treatment in COSMO-RS calculations, ionic strength effect that can affect the comparison between observed and predicted pKa data are discussed. Les valeurs de constantes d’acidité (pKa jouent un rôle très important, en particulier dans l’industrie alimentaire. Les propriétés chimiques des molécules dépendent significativement de leurs états d’ionisation. La plupart des molécules sont capables de gagner et/ou perdre un proton dans les solutions aqueuses. Ce transfert de proton apparaît la plupart du temps entre l’eau et un atome ionisable de la molécule organique. La réponse de la molécule à la protonation ou à la déprotonation dépend significativement du site concerné par le transfert de proton. La distribution partielle des charges dans la molécule varie également en fonction des sites actifs pour la protonation du couple acide; base. Par conséquent on peut l’utiliser pour déterminer le pKa d’une molécule. Dans un premier temps, nous avons utilisé la méthode COSMO-RS, une combinaison du modèle de solvatation diélectrique (COSMO et d’un traitement de thermodynamique statistique pour des solvants plus réels (RS, pour prédire les constantes de dissociation de 50 molécules environ (des acides aminés, des dipeptides et des tripeptides. Les résultats de pKa obtenus ont été comparés aux valeurs expérimentales, ainsi qu’aux valeurs de pKa prédites par deux autres méthodes. Nous avons utilisé respectivement la méthode ChemAxon, utilisant un programme basé sur le calcul des charges partielles des atomes d’une molécule, et la méthode ACD/Labs qui permet de déterminer des valeurs de pKa pour chaque centre de dissociation en considérant que le reste de la molécule est neutre, en utilisant une base de

  6. Sludge utilisation in agriculture: possibilities and prospects in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadakis, A D; Mamals, D; Gavalaki, E; Kampylafka, S

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the prospects for agricultural utilisation of the sludge produced from wastewater treatment plants in Greece and more specifically focuses on a critical review of the legislatory framework, determination of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the produced sludges, examination of possible sludge treatment methods and evaluation of the possibilities and prospects of sludge utilisation on the basis of the above considerations. Landfilling is practically the only route to sludge disposal in Greece. However, in view of the anticipated future restrictions for landfilling within the European Union, this method is clearly a short-term solution and alternative options, including agricultural reuse, must be implemented. The results of a recent survey are presented and discussed in relation to this need.

  7. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  8. Machine utilisation and operation experience with Jet from 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.; Chuilon, P.; Noble, B.; Saunders, R.; Webberley, D.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of JET commenced in June 1983 and is scheduled until the end of 1992. This seemingly long period is actually quite limited when compared with the time needed to implement and commission the planned machine enhancements, and pursue research and developments which result from the experiments. There is an ever-present urgency to make the best use of the machine. 1983-84 was a learning period and only in 1985 was it felt worthwhile to adopt double-shift day working. Data has been compiled and analysed for utilisation of the machine, delays in terms of time lost and systems involved, and number and frequency of machine pulses. This paper presents an overall picture of machine availability and utilisation. It describes the JET operational arrangements and the experience of system faults. Finally, it draws conclusions and identifies lessons learned which may be relevant to the next stage of fusion power development

  9. Machine utilisation and operation experience with JET from 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.; Chuilon, P.; Noble, B.; Saunders, R.; Webberley, D.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of JET commenced in June 1983 and is scheduled until the end of 1992. This seemingly long period is actually quite limited when compared with the time needed to implement and commission the planned machine enhancements, and pursue research and developments which result from the experiments. There is an ever-present urgency to make the use of the machine. 1983-84 was a learning period and only in 1985 was it felt worthwhile to adopt double-shift day working. Data has been compiled and analysed for utilisation of the machine, delays in terms of time lost and system involved, and number and frequency of machine pulses. This paper presents an overall picture of machine availability and utilisation. It describes the JET operational arrangements and the experience of system faults. Finally, it draws conclusions and identifies lessons learned which may be relevant to the next stage of fusion power development. (author). 9 figs

  10. Utilisation des methodes modernes et reversibles de contraception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude descriptive et transversale de 6 ans, allant du 1er Janvier 1999 au 10 Mai 2005 à la clinique de gynécologie obstétrique de l\\'hôpital Donka du CHU de Conakry, a fait ressortir le niveau d\\'utilisation des méthodes modernes de contraception et a permis d\\'élaboré des recommandations pour l\\'amélioration de la ...

  11. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorová Marína; Pinka Ján; Wittenberger Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from ge...

  12. Determinants of private healthcare utilisation and expenditure patterns in India

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Debasis; Desai, Sonalde

    2014-01-01

    In India, a substantial investment has been made in developing community-based programmes, such as Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), and networks of village-level health workers. In spite of these efforts, growth utilisation of government services has failed to keep pace with the private sector, particularly in the past two decades. The results presented in this paper show that Indian families, even poor families, receive most of their medical care from private practitioners. Mate...

  13. Le temps avec les autres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégori Jean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article follows the mutation suffered by the issue of alterity from Husserl to Heidegger and from Heidegger to Lévinas, envisaging it starting from temporality. We aim at replacing the question “Where is the other?” – that betrays the spatializing presuppositions of description – with “When is the other?” that can be clarified starting from the question “When are we together?”. Rather than deducing from the issue of co-presence, the final postponement of all attempt to conceive intersubjectivity in terms of contemporaneity, we subject it to an analysis that raises again the theme of world-time starting from an attention that testifies to the multiple layers thatconstitute temporality and the plurality of durations that intertwine in it.

  14. The Utilisation of Music by Casino Managers: An Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.

  15. Barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Maria; Woods, Phil; Norman, Ian

    2004-08-01

    This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design to identify barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses. A postal questionnaire was sent to the total population of 88 registered nurses working in a forensic mental health hospital in the UK. Forty-seven responded representing a response rate of 53%. Results showed that the greatest barriers to research utilisation were those related to the characteristics of the setting in which nurses work or the personal characteristics of nurses themselves, which seems to be consistent with previous studies undertaken in the area. However, the nurses reported it especially difficult to trust what research shows because they feel that it is not always possible to apply those findings to their particular work environment. The main implications for policy are a need for an increase in support from management, programmes of advanced education to provide nurses with research skills, an improvement in accessibility and availability of research reports and an increase in time available to read and implement research. The main suggestions for future research are that qualitative studies should be carried out to attain a better understanding of mental health nurses' attitudes towards research utilisation. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  17. L’adoption des produits cosmétiques par les consommateurs camerounais: La forte incidence de la nouveauté perçue, de l’innovativité, de l’implication et des valeurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Djoma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’améliorer la compréhension de l’influence des variables individuelles et perceptuelles, sur le processus de décision d’achat d’un produit nouveau par le consommateur, puisque ces variables n’ont pas le même comportement selon les types de consommateurs. Une enquête confirmatoire menée auprès de 1005 consommateurs de produits cosmétiques au Cameroun, montre que, le type de nouveauté (incrémentale ou radicale, son utilité perçue et certaines variables individuelles (l’innovativité, l’implication, et les valeurs, jouent un rôle déterminant sur l’adoption du nouveau produit cosmétique. Des recommandations sont formulées pour améliorer la communication sur les nouveaux produits cosmétiques

  18. Issues and challenges of the development of petroleum products distribution sector in Algeria; Les enjeux et les defis du developpement du secteur de la distribution des produits petroliers en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akretche, Said

    2010-09-15

    The petroleum products distribution sector in Algeria is experiencing profound changes. The economic growth has brought an increase and a diversification of petroleum products consumption. Reforms on the opening of the sector to competition and regulations have allowed progress, especially in the promotion of clean products. Naftal invested in a transformation and modernization process to adapt to the new context and align itself with the worldwide best practices. This plan expects important investments for the promotion of clean products and the development of a ducting transport network to limit the environmental damage. [French] Le secteur de la distribution des produits petroliers en Algerie connait des mutations profondes. La croissance economique a induit une augmentation et une diversification de la consommation des produits petroliers. Les reformes portant ouverture du secteur a la concurrence et regulation ont permis des avancees notamment dans la promotion des produits propres. Naftal a engage un processus de transformation et modernisation pour s'adapter au nouveau contexte et s'aligner sur les meilleures pratiques mondiales. Ce plan prevoit d'importants investissements pour la promotion des produits propres et la realisation d'un reseau de transport par canalisation pour limiter les atteintes environnementales.

  19. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  20. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  1. L’amitié dans la relation ethnographique. Traitement de l’individu et rapport à l’autre dans les groupes locaux de Hijra (Delhi, Inde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Novello

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’amitié dans la relation ethnographique. Traitement de l’individu et rapport à l’autre dans les groupes locaux de Hijra (Delhi, Inde. « Tu es mon amie. Tu es la seule qui me comprenne. » Ces mots, toujours les mêmes, sont revenus sans cesse lors de l’enquête ethnographique que j’ai menée auprès des Hijra de Delhi. Les Hijra forment une catégorie sociale panindienne. Elles sont nées biologiquement hommes ou hermaphrodites, s’habillent et se parent continuellement comme des femmes et, parfois, sont émasculées. Les ethnologues parlent parfois de leur relation avec leurs informateurs en terme d’amitié sans que cette relation soit exprimée et pensée comme telle par ces derniers. Qu’en est-il lorsque la société étudiée désigne l’ethnologue en tant qu’ami et lorsque cette désignation transforme la nature des rapports qu’elle entretenait auparavant avec lui ? L’étude de l’amitié que les Hijra me proposèrent fournira, en premier lieu, un exemple de la façon dont l’ethnologue peut se trouver engagé dans ce rapport affectif. Il s’agira de qualifier cette relation ethnographique par la description du processus d’évolution de mon rôle d’une part, et par l’examen des comportements et des pratiques qui la sanctionnent et qui y sont engagés d’autre part. Cette réflexion sur les représentations et les valeurs auxquelles mes interlocutrices faisaient référence en me conférant la place d’amie, informera en second lieu sur le traitement de l’individu et de l’altérité prévalant dans la catégorie sociale « Hijra ».Friendship in ethnographical relations. Treatment of the individual and relation to the other in local groups of Hijra (Delhi, India. “You are my friend. You are the only person who understands me.” These words, always the same, were endlessly repeated during my ethnographical survey of the Hijra of Delhi. The Hijra form a pan-Indian social category. Born

  2. Le désir au féminin : d’une « Lucrèce » à une autre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fabre-Serris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose deux hypothèses. La première est celle d’une réception élégiaque du célèbre portrait livien de Lucrèce dans l’élégie 1, 3 de Tibulle. La fin de l’élégie 1, 3 constitue une variation sur un motif des Amores (la séparation des amants due à l’absence de l’homme, retenu au loin que Virgile avait évoqué dans la Bucolique 10. Dans ce passage Tibulle apporte à la question « comment se comporte alors la puella ? » une réponse inspirée par l’image que Tite-Live venait de donner, avec sa Lucrèce, de la vertu des femmes, réponse qui infléchit la scène livienne dans le sens de la passion. La seconde hypothèse est que le texte de Tibulle a été la matrice de plusieurs autres textes centrés sur la séparation, la fidélité et le désir féminin : les poèmes 3, 9 ; 3, 14 et 15 de Sulpicia ; les élégies 1, 3 ; 2, 29 et 4, 3 de Properce et le passage des Fastes consacré à Lucrèce.

  3. Etude nutritive des plats alimentaires et des produits laitiers dans la région de l'extrème-nord Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Ponka, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Au cours de ce stage effectué du 06 Novembre 2012 au 01 février 2013, à l’’Unité Mixte de Recherche Science et Technologie du Lait et de l’oeuf de l’INRA Agrocampus-Ouest de Rennes (France), nous avons déterminé la composition nutritionnelle des plats alimentaires et des produits laitiers de la région de l’Extrême-Nord du Cameroun. Ainsi, les teneurs en protéines, lipides, minéraux, acides aminés, vitamines ont été déterminées par les méthodes de référence. La table de composition des aliment...

  4. Dosage of fission products in irradiated fuel treatment effluents (radio-chemical method); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents du traitement des combustibles irradies (methode radiochimique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The dosage methods presented here are applicable to relatively long-lived fission products present in the effluents resulting from irradiated fuel treatment processes (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). The methods are based on the same principle: - addition of a carrying-over agent - chemical separation over several purification stages, - determination of the chemical yield by calorimetry - counting of an aliquot liquid portion. (author) [French] Les methodes de dosage presentees concernent les produits de fission a vie relativement longue presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). Elles sont toutes basees sur le meme principe: - addition d'entraineur, - separation chimique en plusieurs stades de purification, - determination du rendement chimique par calorimetrie, - comptage d'une aliquote liquide. (auteur)

  5. Intense pulsed sources of ions and electrons produced by lasers; Sources pulsees intenses d'ions et d'electrons produites par laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrabier, G [Centre de Recherche de la C.S.F., Corbeville (France); Consoli, T; Slama, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-01

    We describe a device for the acceleration of the plasma burst produced by focusing a laser beam into a metal target. We extract the electrons and the ions from the plasma. The maximum current is around 2000 amperes during few microseconds. The study of the effect of the kind of the target on the characteristics of the current shows the great importance of the initial conditions that is the ionisation potential of the target and the energy laser. (authors) [French] On decrit un dispositif destine a accelerer la bouffee de plasma produite par focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible solide. On extrait du plasma les electrons et les ions. Le courant maximum atteint pres de 2000 amperes pendant quelques microsecondes. L'etude de l'effet de la nature de la cible sur les caracteristiques du courant collecte, met en evidence l'importance des conditions initiales (potentiel d'ionisation de la cible, energie du laser). (auteurs)

  6. Modélisation hydro-thermique 2D d'un produit fortement déformable lors du séchage convectif

    OpenAIRE

    Hassini , Lamine; Azzouz , Soufiene; Belghith , Ali

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Le but de ce travail est de simuler en 2D l'évolution de la teneur en eau, de la température, de la taille et de la forme géométrique d'un produit fortement déformable lors du séchage convectif. Le modèle écrit dans un repère fixe, consiste en une équation de conservation de la phase solide, une équation de diffusion/convection de l'eau liquide et une équation de conduction/convection de chaleur, couplées par la vitesse de contraction de la phase solide due au retrait....

  7. Reactions of Hot Hydrogen Atoms with Ethylene. The Role of Excited Ethyl Radicals as Intermediate Products; Reactions des Atomes Chauds d'Hydrogene avec l'Ethylene. Le Role des Radicaux Ethyle Excites Comme Produits Intermediaires; Reaktsiya goryachikh atomov vodoroda s ehtilenom. Rol' vozbuzhdennykh ehtil'nykh radikalov kak promezhutochnykh produktov; Reacciones de Atomos Calientes de Hidrogeno con Etileno Papel de los Radicales Etilicos Excitados como Productos Intermedios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzantiev, B. G.; Shvedchikov, A. P. [Institut Himicheskoj Fiziki AN SSSR, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-04-15

    } (n, {alpha})T (E{sub sep} = 2,7 MeV); radiolyse (E Tilde-Operator plusieurs eV); photolyse (E Tilde-Operator 1 a 1,5 eV; le tritium se forme par photolyse a partir de H1 pour {lambda} = 2537A). Pour obtenir des atomes de tritium, on a utilise comme cibles des cristaux et des films de Li{sub 2}Co{sub 3}, Li{sup 6}F, Li{sup 6}OH, Li{sup 6}BO{sub 2} * 8H{sub 2}. On a irradie de l'ethylene en phase gazeuse (sous une pression p de 5 a 10 atm) et des melanges de ce corps avec l'ammoniac, l'helium et des inhibiteurs. L'irradiation a eu lieu a l'interieur d'un reacteur du type IRT-1000 dans un flux de neutrons thermiques de 10{sup 11} a 101{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} * s. Les composes marques au tritium et les produits des reactions radiochimiques ont ete determines par voie de chromatographie gazeuse a l'aide de deux detecteurs montes en serie (un ' catharometre' et un compteur Geiger a balayage continu). Les auteurs montrent que dans l'ethylene irradie, la gamme des produits marques se distingue sensiblement de celle des produits non marques, Les principaux produits non marques sont; C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 4}H{sub 10} et des carbures a plus de quatre atomes d'hydrogene, le rendement en H2 etant faible. Les principaux produits marques sont; HT, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}T et C{sub 4}H{sub 9}T, le rendement en C{sub 2}H{sub 5}T et surtout en C{sub 2}HT etant negligeable. Le rendement en composes marques depend des substances ajoutees a l'ethylene (ammoniac, helium, iode), du compose contenant du lithium et de la structure de la cible. En ramenant la temperature de 50 Degree-Sign C to -78 Degree-Sign C, on ne modifie que faiblement la repartition des produits marques; cependant, lors du passage de l'ethylene a l'etat solide (-196 Degree-Sign C), on observe un effet de phase; la production de HT et C{sub 4}H{sub 9}T diminue, alors que l'activite de l'ethylene C{sub 2}H{sub 3}T augmente. Les auteurs montrent que lors de la radiolyse de C{sub 2}H{sub 4} et des melanges de ce

  8. Radiation Treatment of Meat Products and Animal By-Products; Traitement par Rayonnements des Viandes et Derives et des Sous-Produits Animaux; Radiatsionnaya obrabotka myasnykh produktov i subproduktov zhivotnogo proiskhozhdeniya; Irradiacion de la Carne y sus Derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, P. -I.E. [Danish Meat Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1966-11-15

    Application of radiation in food technology can only be considered as an alternative to existing preservation methods when a higher quality product and/or a cheaper product will result, or in cases where no alternative methods exist. With this view in mind, work performed at the Danish Meat Research Institute on sliced bacon, canned hams, luncheon meat, and animal feeding stuffs, i.e. meat and bone meal and blood meal, is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion drawn from the experimental results is that the formation of off-flavours in irradiated meat products is a very serious problem and the most important obstacle to a successful application of irradiation in meat processing. It is, therefore, essential that future research should concentrate on finding means to reduce the irradiation flavour. A number of approaches to solve this problem are mentioned and the Danish work in this field which has been centred mainly on the use of very high dose-rates and of non-equal dose distribution in cans is reviewed, and the concepts briefly described. (author) [French] L'application des rayonnements dans l'industrie alimentaire ne saurait etre consideree en remplacement des methodes de conservation actuelles que s'il en resulte un produit de qualite superieure ou un produit meilleur marche, ou encore lorsqu'on ne peut utiliser aucune methode de rechange. Dans cet esprit, l'auteur examine et commente les travaux accomplis par l'Institut danois de recherches sur la viande concernant le lard en tranches, le jambon en conserve, les pates de viande en conserve (luncheon meat) et les aliments pour animaux, c'est-a-dire les farines de viande et d'os et la farine de sang. Il conclut des resultats experimentaux que la formation de gouts indesirables dans les viandes irradiees pose un probleme tres serieux et constitue l'obstacle le plus important au succes de l'application des rayonnements a la preparation des viandes. Il importe donc que les futures recherches portent avant tout sur

  9. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  10. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey of radioactive waste disposal technologies used worldwide in terms of their influence upon natural environment. Typical sources of radioactive waste from medicine and industry were presented. In addition, various types of radioactive waste, both liquid and solid, were described. Requirements and conditions of the waste’s storage were characterised. Selected liquid and solid waste processing technologies were shown. It was stipulated that contemporary methods of radioactive waste utilisation enable their successful neutralisation. The implementation of these methods ought to be mandated by ecological factors first and only then economical ones.

  11. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Senkoro, Kesheni P.; Momburi, Romanus

    2016-01-01

    was also found in the provider–client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5–5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used......This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents...

  12. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Atta Kuranchie; Sanjay Kumar Shukla; Daryoush Habibi; Alireza Mohyeddin

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength we...

  13. Utilising employee assistance programmes to reduce absenteeism in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Absenteeism in the organisation is a major problem for many South African organisations and it is a financially crippling factor. It is made worse by the fact that organisations have no proper mechanisms in place to deal with the problem of absenteeism. The goal of the study is to show that the utilisation of an EAP programme will effectively manage and reduce absenteeism for organisations. Use was made of a literature review. Recommendations are made on how to implement and manage EAPs in th...

  14. Donor Blood Procurement and Utilisation at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les dossiers du service de la transfusion sanguine de l\\'hôpital ont été étudiés pour identifier les méthodes d\\'obtention et d\\'utilisation du sang à partir du 1er janvier 2000 jusqu\\'au 31 décembre 2002. Au total, 11,021 unités de sang ont été obtenu dans le service de transfusion sanguine au cours de la période.

  15. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND UTILISATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work carried out by the University of Cape Town has examined the following questions:
    - are industrial engineering techniques being used in industry?
    - what are the reasons for not using the various techniques?
    - what factors that can be addressed by industrial engineers, are inhibiting the improvement of manufacturing productivity?
    - are industrial engineers being utilised in the most effective t"ay? Investigations in South African and overseas companies have indicated some barriers to acceptance that have to be overcome. This paper identifies key elements which, if implemented or adopted, will improve the effectiveness of both industrial engineers, and the intrOduction of industrial engineering techniques.

  16. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Utilisation and Management Changes in South Kyrgyzstan's Mountain Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Using political ecology as its conceptual framework, this paper focuses on the changes in forest utilisation and management of South Kyrgyzstan's walnut-fruit forests over the last century. The aim of this study on human-environment interactions is to investigate the relationship between actors on the one side, their interests and demands, and the forests and forested lands on the other. Forest resource utilisation and management - and even the recognition of different forest products as resources - are connected with political and socio-economic conditions that change with time. The walnut-fruit forests of South Kyrgyzstan are unique, characterised by high biodiversity and a multiplicity of usable products; and they have been utilised for a long time. Centralised and formal management of the forests started with the Russian occupation and was strengthened under Soviet rule, when the region became a part of the USSR. During this era, a state forest administration that was structured from Moscow all the way down to the local level drew up detailed plans and developed procedures for utilising the different forest products. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the socio-political and economic frame conditions have changed significantly, which has brought not only the sweeping changes in the managing institutions, but also the access rights and interests in the forest resources. At present, the region is suffering from a high unemployment rate, which has resulted in the forests' gaining considerable importance in the livelihood strategies of the local population. Political and economic liberalization, increased communication and trans-regional exchange relations have opened the door for international companies and agents interested in the valuable forest products. Today, walnut wood and burls, walnuts, wild apples and mushrooms are all exported to various countries in the world. Scientists and members of various international organisations stress the ecological

  18. Utilising heat from nuclear waste for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A heating unit utilising the decay heat from irradiated material comprises a storage envelope for the material associated with a heat exchange system, means for producing a flow of air over the heat exchange system to extract heat from the material, an exhaust duct capable of discharging the heated air to the atmosphere, and means for selectively diverting at least some of the heated air to effect the required heating. With the flow of air over the heat exchange system taking place by a natural thermosyphon process the arrangement is self regulating and inherently reliable. (author)

  19. Consumer Involvement and Knowledge Influence on Wine Choice Cue Utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruwer, Johan; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lesschaeve, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    of consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada...... an image of desirability, etc., but not nearly as much on the functionality aspects thereof; for example alternative smaller packaging sizes to the standard 750 ml wine bottle. Originality/value The study uses a multi-dimensional approach to measure the impact of enduring involvement on utilisation...

  20. Gas Well Testing Analysis Using Finite-Difference Models and Optimization Techniques Analyse d'essais de puits de gaz par des modèles utilisant la méthode des différences finies et par des techniques d'optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darderes E. A.

    2006-11-01

    paramètres à partir d'essais de puits de gaz. Une des plus performantes est l'analyse du régime pseudo-permanent pour lequel on trouve, sur un graphique semi-logarithmique, une relation linéaire entre la pseudo-pression d'un gaz réel et le temps. Une autre méthode est l'ajustement à des courbes types. Les deux méthodes présentent l'inconvénient de ne pouvoir être rigoureusement appliquées qu'à des cas spécifiques. Cet article expose une méthode générale permettant d'analyser les données des essais de puits par ajustement automatisé des courbes types. Elle est basée sur le meilleur accord d'un modèle numérique avec les données obtenues dans les essais de puits de gaz grâce à des techniques d'optimisation. Le modèle numérique fournit la solution d'une équation différentielle à dérivées partielles du 2e ordre et fortement non linéaire qui régit le flux radial des gaz réels vers un puits de production. L'équation différentielle est résolue par la méthode des différences finies en tenant compte des variations des propriétés des gaz avec la pression. Pour simuler n'importe quel type d'essais de puits de gaz, on impose des conditions initiales et aux limites appropriées. On minimise les différences résiduelles entre les pressions réelles mesurées pendant l'essai et les pressions calculées par la méthode des moindres carrés. On utilise deux techniques d'optimisation pour obtenir la meilleure estimation des paramètres qui minimisent la somme des carrés des résidus : la méthode monovariante de Fibonacci [1] et la méthode polyvariante de Marquardt [1, 2]. On applique ce mode opératoire à des essais de puits menés à un débit constant et à deux débits constants. Les résultats numériques concordent très bien avec les données des essais de puits.

  1. 232 Les Défis de L'utilisation des Tic dans L'enseignement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    communication; et qu'ils n'ont pas à leur disposition l'infrastructure de base requise. ..... L'Analyse des questionnaires des professeurs de français. Tableau 3 ..... équipé et le plus fonctionnel de tous les autres établissements universitaires ...

  2. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Energy Efficiency in Logistics: An Interactive Approach to Capacity Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wehner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics operations are energy-consuming and impact the environment negatively. Improving energy efficiency in logistics is crucial for environmental sustainability and can be achieved by increasing the utilisation of capacity. This paper takes an interactive approach to capacity utilisation, to contribute to sustainable freight transport and logistics, by identifying its causes and mitigations. From literature, a conceptual framework was developed to highlight different system levels in the logistics system, in which the energy efficiency improvement potential can be found and that are summarised in the categories activities, actors, and areas. Through semi-structured interviews with representatives of nine companies, empirical data was collected to validate the framework of the causes of the unutilised capacity and proposed mitigations. The results suggest that activities, such as inflexibilities and limited information sharing as well as actors’ over-delivery of logistics services, incorrect price setting, and sales campaigns can cause unutilised capacity, and that problem areas include i.a. poor integration of reversed logistics and the last mile. The paper contributes by categorising causes of unutilised capacity and linking them to mitigations in a framework, providing a critical view towards fill rates, highlighting the need for a standardised approach to measure environmental impact that enables comparison between companies and underlining that costs are not an appropriate indicator for measuring environmental impact.

  4. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atta Kuranchie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were tested. A controlled mix of concrete was also prepared in similar way using conventional materials and the results were compared with the tailings concrete. It was found that the iron ore tailings may be utilised for complete replacement for conventional aggregates in concrete. The iron ore tailings aggregates concrete exhibited a good mechanical strength and even in the case of compressive strength, there was an improvement of 11.56% over conventional aggregates concrete. The indirect tensile strength did not improve against the control mix due high content of fines in the tailings aggregates but showed 4.8% improvement compared with the previous study where the conventional fine aggregates was partially replaced by 20% with iron ore tailings.

  5. Thermal utilisation and disposal of sewage sludge; Thermische Klaerschlammverwertung -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, H.C. [Emscher Genossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen (Germany). Technischer Vorstand

    2001-07-01

    Sewage sludge combustion - either in an incinerator or for heat or power generation - has always been important and is getting ever more so. From the cost aspect, it makes quite a difference whether sewage sludge is just incinerated or utilised. The author makes it clear that this cost aspect - and what it means to communities and citizens - tends to be neglected by those who favour sewage sludge combustion and utilisation. [German] Die Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm - sei es als Schlammveraschung oder als thermische oder energetische Verwertung - hat schon immer fuer grosse Klaeranlagen einen bedeutenden Stellenwert gehabt. Die Bedeutung der Verbrennung scheint in letzter Zeit sogar zuzunehmen. Unter Kostengesichtspunkten ist es ein grosser Unterschied, ob ein Klaerschlamm nur verascht oder energetisch verwertet wird. Vor dem Hintergrund der allgemeinen Diskussion um die leeren Kassen der Kommunen, um die sogenannte dritte Miete fuer den Buerger und damit die Zumutbarkeit fuer weitere Steigerungen der Abwassergebuehren stoert mich die Bagatellisierung der Kostengesichtspunkte vor allem auf Seiten derer, die die Verbrennung der Klaerschlaemme fordern. (orig.)

  6. Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Cifre, P.; Badr, O.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of renewable methanol, a sustainable carbon source is needed. This carbon can be provided by biomass or CO 2 in the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power stations, cement factories, fermentation processes and water purification plants. Methanol production pathways via biomass gasification and CO 2 recovery from the flue gasses of a fossil fuel-fired power station have been reviewed in this study. The cost of methanol production from biomass was found to lie in the range of 300-400 EUR/tonne of methanol, and the production cost of CO 2 based methanol was between 500 and 600 EUR/tonne. Despite the higher production costs compared with methanol produced by conventional natural gas reforming (i.e. 100-200 EUR/tonne, aided by the low current price of natural gas), these new processes incorporate environmentally beneficial aspects that have to be taken into account. (author)

  7. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  8. Utilisation of heat and pressure through the whole fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddowes, T.; Moricca, S.; Webb, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The existence of the earth around us is a result of heat and pressure combined to form the very crust we stand on. With such a good model, scientists working throughout the nuclear fuel cycle have used these principles to optimise each particular step. From the fabrication of fuel rods and running of reactors to the final storage of the waste generated; heat and pressure have proved to be vital resources. At ANSTO the concepts of using heat and pressure to consolidate the waste produced for the nuclear fuel cycle have been extensively investigated. Working with collaborators, it has been demonstrated that the intermediate to high level waste can be incorporated into a ceramic or glass-ceramic matrix and immobilised therein, using heat and pressure via the means of a Hot Isostatic Press. This paper touches on how following the simple principles of heat and pressure utilised in the operation of this planet every day, the nuclear fuel cycle can be most efficient. The main focus has been the utilisation of Hot Isostatic Pressing for the production of various durable wasteforms at ANSTO for both Australian and international wastes

  9. Germanium junction detectors. Theoretical and practical factors governing their use in radiation spectrometry; Detecteurs a jonction au germanium. Elements theoriques et pratiques pour l'utilisation en spectrometrie de rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hors, M; Philis, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Semi-conductor detectors have recently greatly increased the possibilities available to nuclear spectroscopists for the study of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} radiations. Their use in radio-chemistry has encouraged us to study their principle, their mechanism and also the conditions under which they can be used. The first part, which is theoretical, consists of a summary of what should be known concerning the best use of junction detectors, in particular Ge (Li) detectors. The second part, which is experimental, summarizes the laboratory work carried out over a period of one year on Ge (Li) detectors. Stress is laid on the possibilities presented by the use of these detectors as photo-electric spectrometers, and also on the precautions required. Amongst the numerous results presented, the resolution of 2.52 keV obtained for the {gamma} radiation of 145.5 keV for {sup 141}Ce may be particularly noted. (authors) [French] Les detecteurs a semi-conducteurs ont recemment accru les possibilites offertes aux spectroscopistes nucleaires pour l'etude des radiations {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}. Leurs utilisations en radiochimie nous ont incite a en etudier le principe, le mecanisme et d'autre part les conditions d'emploi. La premiere partie, theorique, rappelle l'essentiel de ce qu'il est utile de connaitre pour une utilisation optimale des detecteurs a jonctions et en particulier des detecteurs Ge (Li). La deuxieme partie, experimentale, resume les travaux realises au laboratoire pendant un an avec des detecteurs Ge (Li). Nous insistons sur les possibilites offertes et les precautions a prendre dans l'utilisation de ces detecteurs comme spectrometres photoelectriques. Parmi les nombreux resultats presentes, citons la resolution de 2,52 keV obtenue pour le rayonnement {gamma} de 145 f5 keV du {sup 141}Ce. (auteurs)

  10. Applied Technologies and Prospects of Conformance Control Treatments in China Technologies et perspectives pour l’amélioration du profil de balayage dans les champs pétroliers matures produits par injection d’eau en Chine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuzhang

    2010-02-01

    . Les techniques permettant l’amélioration du profil de balayage sont passées en revue, ainsi que les leçons qui ont pu en être tirées. Le papier aborde ensuite quelques technologies majeures et spécifiques : l’injection de traceurs et l’identification de la présence de chenaux, l’analyse potentiométrique pour l’identification de l’efficacité superficielle de balayage, la technologie de prise de décision fondée sur l’indice de pression (IP pour le choix d’un puits candidat, une technique de prise de décision complémentaire pour sélectionner des puits candidats et des paramètres de développement, et enfin les principaux produits chimiques utilisés pour la diversion des fluides en profondeur dans le réservoir. De plus, cet article décrit les principes et applications de quelques technologies prometteuses combinant les traitements par méthode chimique avec d’autres procédés EOR/IOR, comme la mise en oeuvre de tensioactifs et le traitement de venues d’eau, le contrôle de profil et l’injection de tensioactifs à petite échelle, le traitement à l’acide et le contrôle du profil. Enfin, ce papier résume les problèmes et défis auxquels doivent faire face les champs pétroliers matures balayés à l’eau en Chine. D’après de récents essais sur puits, des analyses de traceurs et de leurs interprétations, et l’expérience en matière de traitement de la gestion de l’eau, il apparaît que les canaux ou les drains de forte perméabilité soient courants dans les champs pétroliers matures balayés à l’eau. Des axes de recherche et des technologies prometteuses sont suggérés.

  11. Handling and Separation of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Research Reactors; Manipulation et Separation des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode Produits dans des Reacteurs de Recherche; ПОЛУЧЕНИЕ И ОТДЕЛЕНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИХ РЕАКТОРАХ; Manipulacion y Separacion de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto Obtenidos en Reactores de Investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, W. W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1963-03-15

    distillation, selective reduction, etc., also add to the variety of separation possibilities to be explored. The local research reactor, whether it is in a university in the United States, or in a developing country, thus opens a whole new era of tracer possibilities. (author) [French] L'emploi des radioisotopes a souvent ete limite aux radioisotopes dont la periode est superieure a un jour, etant donne l'eloignement du reacteur qui les produit. Ceci explique un certain manque d'interet a l'egard du traitement et de l'utilisation de ces radioisotopes, et par suite une certaine reticence de la part du consommateur a envisager meme les possibilites d'emploi de nombreux radioisotopes a courte periode. Comme il existe maintenant de nombreux reacteurs de recherche dans le monde, les laboratoires ne dependent plus de producteurs de radioisotopes eloignes; en outre, les radioisotopes a courte periode couvrent de nombreux champs d'experimentation nouveaux. Il importe, cependant, a cette fin de considerer la production des radioindicateurs sous un angle nouveau. Depuis pres de cinq annees, le programme execute au moyen du reacteur de recherche de l'Universite du Michigan comporte la manipulation, le traitement et la mesure de radioisotopes a courte periode. Les chercheurs de l'Universite emploient couramment des radioisotopes dont les periodes ne depassent pas plusieurs heures, voire quelques minutes. Les traveaux entrepris jusqu'a present avaient trait principalement a l'analyse par activation, mais le material, les methodes et les techniques utilises.peuvent s'appliquer a de nombreux autres domaines. Pour utiliser les radioisotopes a courte periode, il n'est pas necessaire de prevoir un roulement de trois equipes pour le reacteur; il n'est pas lion plus indispensable de disposer de stocks importants de radioisotopes, ni d'installations de traitement perfectionnees.En fait, de simples pinces, utilisees de la maniere courante, donnent generalement de meilleurs resultats que de

  12. Developments in the utilisation of wind energy in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Glinou, G.L.; Papachristos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of renewable energy sources, and wind energy in particular, can be described in Greece as a story of high expectations, intense initial entrepreneurial interest, delays in the start-up phase of projects and, some times, disappointments during the implementation procedure. Still, the current situation gives reasons for some optimism. This paper provides a review of the present technological background in wind generators, as found in the Greek market, as well as a detailed analysis of the legislative framework. Moreover, it aims to analyse the development of the process of granting investment and production permissions and their implementation since 1999. Thus, it is possible to identify the main reasons for the problems that occurred since the liberalisation of the electricity market and to account for the interest in wind energy. Finally, comments and proposals are formulated concerning the hidden barriers, the pertinent problems and the promising perspectives of the use of wind energy in Greece. (author)

  13. Hospital Resource Utilisation by Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, S

    2017-09-01

    Little data is available on the resource utilisation of patients admitted with Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Ireland. A retrospective review of 50 randomly-selected patients admitted to Beaumont Hospital with CAP was undertaken. The mean length of stay of patients with CAP was 12 days (+\\/- 16 days). All patients were emergency admissions, all had a chest x-ray, a C-reactive protein blood test, and occupied a public bed at some point during admission. Common antimicrobial therapies were intravenous (IV) amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid and oral clarithromycin; 60% received physiotherapy. The estimated mean cost of CAP per patient was €14,802.17. Costs arising from admission to hospital with CAP are substantial, but efforts can be undertaken to ensure that resources are used efficiently to improve patient care such as discharge planning and fewer in-hospital ward transfers

  14. Current and potential utilisation of biomass energy in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.

    1990-01-01

    Energy from biomass accounts for an average of 43% of the primary energy used in developing countries, with some countries totally dependent on biomass for all their energy needs. The most common use for biomass for energy is the provision of heat for cooking and heating; other uses include steam and electricity generation and crop and food drying. Fiji, a developing country, uses energy from wood and coconut wastes for cooking and copra drying. Bagasse from sugar mills is used to generate process steam as well as some 15 MW of electricity, for mill consumption and for sale to the national grid. Other, relatively small scale uses for biomass include the generation of steam and electricity for industry. This paper attempts to quantify the amount of biomass, in its various forms, available in Fiji and assesses the current potential utilisation of biomass for energy in Fiji. (author)

  15. Obstetrics service utilisation by the community in Lebowa, northern Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyirwoth, G P; Itsweng, M D; Mpai, S; Nchabeleng, E; Nkoane, H

    1996-02-01

    A cross sectional cluster survey was done in all health wards of Lebowa in May 1992. The study was based on a recall of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal experience during the last pregnancy of 2940 mothers. Only mothers who delivered within 12 months before the date of interview were included. Antenatal coverage was high at 93.5%, the proportion of health facility deliveries was 74.6% while 26.3% of all births occurred at home. Inaccessibility of maternity services, lack of money, negative staff attitudes and lack of privacy were the common reasons given for preference of home delivery. Mothers who delivered at home were more likely to be of higher parity and unbooked than their counterparts who delivered in a health facility. Postnatal coverage was 50.7% with a 25.4% rate of utilisation of a method of childspacing. The proportion of births attended to by trained personnel needs to be increased.

  16. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  17. Montelukast use-a 19-year nationwide drug utilisation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Laursen, Christian B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used in asthma and rhinitis treatment. Despite being marketed nearly two decades ago, little is known about its utilisation pattern. METHODS: Using the Danish National Prescription Registry, we identified subjects filling a montelukast...... montelukast initiators, 60% filled at least one prescription of short-acting beta-2-agonists (SABA) up to a year prior to montelukast initiation, and 49% filled a prescription of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Only 0.8% (n = 1148) of all individuals initiated montelukast without a redeemed prescription...... of short- or long-term inhalation therapy, systemic antihistamines, or nasal topical anti-allergic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The usage of montelukast has increased over threefold since its market entry in 1998, mainly driven by an increased number of prevalent users. The majority of individuals who initiated...

  18. Sewage sludge treatment, utilisation and disposal; Schlammbehandlung, -verwertung und -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In view of recent events and the resulting emotional and political decisions, the issue of sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. must be seen in a new light. First, a new concept for sewage sludge management must be developed as recent legislation interferes with the 'classic' strategy of utilisation in agriculture, dumping and combustion. Scientists and sewage plant owners must find new ways to implement the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management. This ATV-DVWK training course discusses subjects that may be helpful on the new path. Starting from current legislation, problems, decision criteria and cost of sewage sludge treatment are gone into. Dimensioning fundamentals for sewage treatment plants re presented, and new and established treatment methods, operational problems and pollution problems are discussed. Further subjects are recycling of useful materials from sewage sludge, co-treatment of organic materials in fermenters, and disposal concepts for small and medium-sized communities. (orig.)

  19. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  20. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  1. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorová Marína

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas, agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from geothermal sources are supported. Recently company Slovgeoterm has initiated heating of greenhouses in Podhajska and heating of hospital and 1231 flats in town Galanta. Nowadays, research for the biggest geothermal project in the Middle Europe – construction in Košice basin has started.

  2. High efficiency pool filtering systems utilising variable frequency drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameiri, Z.; Sproul, A.B. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Spooner, T. [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Over 1 year, private swimming pools in Australia will typically consume 1680 GWh of electricity, producing 2130 kt of CO{sub 2}. Redesigning a pool's filtration system and using it more efficiently can reduce the energy use, and hence the CO{sub 2} production, by a significant amount. This paper describes experimental measurements carried out on a new design of pool pump system. Initial experiments using a variable frequency drive (VFD) with a standard, single phase pump/motor system have achieved energy savings of 40%. Utilising a VFD and a three phase pump/motor energy savings of 61% have been achieved, without degrading the system performance. (author)

  3. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  4. Trends in metformin utilisation and dose appropriateness in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J; Kumar, S S; Graham, G G; Baysari, M T; Williams, K M; Chen, W; Viardot, A; Greenfield, J R; Day, R O

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to (1) determine the trends in the utilisation of metformin in Australia, (2) determine the appropriateness of metformin dosing in an Australian teaching hospital and (3) gather the opinions of prescribers on the relationship between metformin dose and renal function. National prescription data between 1990 and 2012 were accessed. A retrospective audit (2008-2012) of metformin doses and patient renal function (20 % random sample of all in-patients prescribed metformin) was conducted at St Vincent's Hospital (SVH), Sydney. Prescribers of metformin were interviewed (semi-structured; consultants at SVH) or surveyed (Australian endocrinologists) to gather their understanding of metformin dosing in relation to renal function. Metformin utilisation increased fivefold nationally between 1995 and 2012. Metformin tended to be under-dosed in SVH patients with normal renal function (83.5 %) and over-dosed in patients with impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) metformin doses needed to be reduced in renal impairment. Most endocrinologists (61 %) were comfortable prescribing metformin down to eGFRs around 30 mL/min. The use of metformin increased greatly over the period of the study. Metformin is prescribed frequently for patients with eGFR values below the minimal level approved in the product label (60 mL/min). While prescribers expressed their understanding of the need to reduce metformin doses in patients with renal impairment, we found that metformin doses were higher than appropriate in patients with impaired renal function. Metformin may be used safely when renal function is poor provided dosage is appropriately reduced.

  5. Relationship between the utilisation profile of individual joints and their susceptibility to primary osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two subjects were studied for 1 to 3 weeks during the course of their normal domestic activities. Utilisation profiles were derived for ten joints, using a systematic time-series sampling technique adapted from behavioural biology. At each joint the proportion of the available range utilised was noted. The results were compared with the known regional prevalence of primary osteoarthritis. There was a correlation between the degree to which a joint was incompletely utilised, and its susceptibility to osteoarthritis. The hypothesis is advanced that primary osteoarthritis may be due to incomplete joint utilisation. (orig.)

  6. The Social Acceptance of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: A Review and Research Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Olfe-Kräutlein, Barbara; Naims, Henriette; Armstrong, Katy

    2017-01-01

    CO 2 utilisation technologies—also called carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU)—convert CO 2 via physical, chemical, or biological processes into carbon-based products. CO 2 utilisation technologies are viewed as a means of helping to address climate change and broadening the raw material base for commodities that can be sold to generate economic revenue. However, while technical research and development into the feasibility of CO 2 utilisation options are accelerating rapidly; at present, there has been limited research into the social acceptance of the technology and CO 2 -derived products. This review article outlines and explores three key dimensions of social acceptance (i.e., socio-political, market, and community acceptance) pertaining to innovation within CO 2 utilisation. The article highlights the importance of considering issues of social acceptance as an aspect of the research, development, demonstration, and deployment process for CO 2 utilisation and explores how key stakeholders operating on each dimension might affect the innovation pathways, investment, and siting decisions relating to CO 2 utilisation facilities and CO 2 -derived products. Beyond providing a state-of-the-art review of current research into the social acceptance of CO 2 utilisation, this article also outlines an agenda for future research in the field.

  7. The Social Acceptance of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: A Review and Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher R., E-mail: c.r.jones@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDUUK), University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Environment and Behaviour Research Group (EBRG), Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Olfe-Kräutlein, Barbara; Naims, Henriette [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam (Germany); Armstrong, Katy [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDUUK), University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-09

    CO{sub 2} utilisation technologies—also called carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU)—convert CO{sub 2}via physical, chemical, or biological processes into carbon-based products. CO{sub 2} utilisation technologies are viewed as a means of helping to address climate change and broadening the raw material base for commodities that can be sold to generate economic revenue. However, while technical research and development into the feasibility of CO{sub 2} utilisation options are accelerating rapidly; at present, there has been limited research into the social acceptance of the technology and CO{sub 2}-derived products. This review article outlines and explores three key dimensions of social acceptance (i.e., socio-political, market, and community acceptance) pertaining to innovation within CO{sub 2} utilisation. The article highlights the importance of considering issues of social acceptance as an aspect of the research, development, demonstration, and deployment process for CO{sub 2} utilisation and explores how key stakeholders operating on each dimension might affect the innovation pathways, investment, and siting decisions relating to CO{sub 2} utilisation facilities and CO{sub 2}-derived products. Beyond providing a state-of-the-art review of current research into the social acceptance of CO{sub 2} utilisation, this article also outlines an agenda for future research in the field.

  8. Biofuels and climate neutrality - system analysis of production and utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Eriksson, Erik; Olsson, Olle; Olsson, Mats; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate to what extent biofuels can be said to be climate neutral. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the production and utilisation chains of a number of solid biofuels were made based on data available in the literature. The data has been used for making radiative forcing calculations. The study also includes a comparison between imported and domestic solid biofuels. We conclude that none of the investigated biofuel chains are 'climate neutral', since all of them result in net emissions of greenhouse gases. However, all of the chains result in lower emissions than corresponding emissions from the use of fossil fuels. The emission estimates for the fuel chains varies depending on fuels and on how system boundaries have been set in the different studies. The following factors can contribute significantly to the total emissions of greenhouse gases of the production and utilisation chain of a biofuel: impact of production system on soil carbon storage, land use methods (especially use of drained peatlands), the use of fertilisers (both direct and indirect), combustion technology, refining of the fuel (i.e. pelletisation) and storage (especially of comminuted fuels). Other sources that also contribute to the emissions during a production and utilisation chain are; harvesting machines, transportation and waste handling. The climate impacts of the greenhouse gas emissions from one of the biofuels, i.e. forest residues, were compared to the impacts of fossil fuels by the concept of radiative forcing. In the radiative forcing calculations the CO 2 emissions from combustion of biofuels and the CO 2 emissions that would have occurred if the residues had been left in the forest to decompose were included, and their different dynamics taken into consideration. The decomposition results in CO 2 emissions during a long time period and in an amount equalling those that are emitted during combustion. Only a minor part is due to

  9. Fission product determination in irradiated fuel processing waste (electrophoresis); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (electrophorese)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J M; Tret, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Marcoule, 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule. Services d' Extraction du Plutonium

    1966-07-01

    This dosage method concerns fission products present in the waste produced from the processing of cooled irradiated fuels. - Sr, Cs, Ce, Y, Ru by quantitative analysis; - Zr, Nb by qualitative analysis. It includes electrophoresis on paper strips one meter long which is then analysed between two window-less Geiger counters. For an activity of 10{sup -2} {mu}Ci of any cation in a 10 {mu}l spot, the standard error {sigma} if 3 to 4 per cent. complete analysis lasts about 5 hours. (authors) [French] Cette methode de dosage concerne les produits de fission presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies refroidis: - Sr, Cs, Ce, Y, Ru en analyse quantitative; - Zr, Nb en analyse qualitative. Elle comporte une electrophorese sur bande de papier de un metre de longueur suivie d'un depouillement entre deux compteurs Geiger sans fenetre. Pour une activite de 10{sup -2} {mu}Ci d'un cation quelconque dans une tache de 10 {mu}l l'erreur standard {sigma} est de 3 a 4 pour cent. L'analyse complete demande environ 5 heures. (auteurs)

  10. Comprendre l'accès aux outils numériques et leur utilisation dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'accès à Internet est devenu une priorité pour les pays en développement. Selon une étude de la Banque mondiale publiée en 2009, un accroissement de 10 % de la pénétration de la large bande engendre une augmentation de 1,4 % du produit intérieur brut dans les pays à faible revenu. De récentes études révèlent ...

  11. Fission-Product Separation as a Final Solution to the Problem of Storing Highly Radioactive Waste; La Separation des Produits de Fission Comme Solution Definitive du Stockage des Dechets Fortement Radioactifs; 0412 042b 0414 ; La Separacion de los Productos de Fision Como Solucion Definitiva del Problema del Almacenamiento de los Desechos de Elevada Radiactividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, A.; Lefevre, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)

    1963-02-15

    'isolement du cesium-137 et du strontium-90 avec un facteur de decontamination d'au moins 10{sup 4}, ce qui permettrait d'envisager le rejet, apres un traitement d'effluents classique, au bout d'une periode de 10 a 20 ans. Le but du memoire est de faire le point de cette question en l'annee 1962. Les progres realises dans les methodes de separation du cesium et du strontium permettent d'envisager l'obtention de ce facteur 10{sup 4} dans des conditions exploitables industriellement. Des methodes pleines de promesses sont: a) Pour le cesium-137, la precipitation par l'acide phosphotungstique, l'echange sur un sel d'ammonium d'un heteropolyacide, la fixation par un phosphate de zirconium. b) Pour le strontium-90, la precipitation d'oxalate, l'extraction par l'acide di-2-ethyl-hexylphosphorique, l'echange sur des sels varies, sulfate de strontium, etc. Ces progres chimiques sont renforces par les progres realises dans le traitement industriel des effluents et permettent de considerer comme techniquement possible la solution preconisee par Glueckauf. Parallelement, le developpement de l'utilisation de grandes quantites de produits de fission, particulierement dans les programmes SNAP, justifie des investissements qui seront au moins pairtiellement recuperes par la vente des produits fabriques. Il est certain que des sources refractaires, a resistance tres elevee a tous les agents d'agression exterieurs, constituent le mode de stockage le plus satisfaisant pour des produits aussi dangereux et d'aussi longue periode. L'auteur considere done, techniquement et psychologiquement, Inverted-Exclamation-Mark /utilisation de sources concentrees a gainage riche comme le moyen de stockage presentant le plus de garanties. Une discussion comparative de cette methode avec la methode d'incorporation dans les verres meriterait un examen complet et approfondi. (author) [Spanish] En la Conferencia de Ginebra de 1955, Glueckauf formplo la hipotesis de que los problemas planteados por las soluciones de

  12. Utilisation des analyses multivariées dans la caractérisation de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2013 ... sélectivité des filets de pêche dépend de la nature du filet, de la maille, de la hauteur de chute, du rapport d'armement, de la saison et de la longueur totale du poisson et que d'autre part les FMDS à grandes mailles. (56 à 60mm) sont les plus sélectifs de tous les engins utilisés pour la capture du mulet ...

  13. La précarité au Québec : un concept parmi d’autres pour parler des jeunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Gauthier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte met en contexte l’usage du concept de précarité au Québec. Celui-ci a surtout été utilisé parmi beaucoup d’autres pour décrire la situation des jeunes au moment de la crise de l’emploi des décennies 1970 et 1980. Il a parfois contribué, par son attribution à l’ensemble des jeunes, à laisser les plus vulnérables dans l’ombre et à amplifier l’effet du travail atypique sur l’avenir de toute une génération. Un usage plus modéré du concept s’est imposé progressivement en présence de faits plus justement vérifiés. Sa force de persuasion a pu susciter des stratégies tant individuelles que collectives en faveur des jeunes. Ce retour dans le temps a permis de montrer que les jeunes sont sensibles à la conjoncture mais n’en restent pas pour autant les victimes. Est-ce à cause du type d’État (de Gøsta Esping-Anderson, évoqué par Mircea Vultur que le concept n’a eu qu’une importance relative au Québec ? La question se pose-t-elle dans une approche pragmatique du changement ?"Precariousness" in Québec: one of several concepts applied to young peopleThis paper examines the concept of "precariousness" in a Québec context. This concept was one of several used to describe the situation of young people during the employment crisis of the 1970s and 1980s. It was applied to young people as a whole and thus sometimes favoured a tendency to gloss over the highly vulnerable situations and to amplify the effect of non-standard employment on the future of an entire generation. More moderate use of the concept gradually prevailed with more accurate data. It was a persuasive concept that did bring about individual and collective strategies to help young people. This look backward in time shows that young people are sensitive to the economy and its performance. They are nonetheless not permanently victims of economic downturn. Is the type of welfare state (Esping-Anderson as argued by Vultur the reason why

  14. Convention internationale sur l’utilisation pacifique du cyberespace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Roche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Les armes cybernétiques sont à présent une extension du pouvoir de l’Etat. Dans l’espoir de gagner un avantage stratégique, un certain nombre de pays, dont les Etats-Unis, la Russie et la Chine sont en train de développer des cyber-capacités offensives afin de perturber les institutions politiques, économiques, et sociales de nations concurrentes. Ces activités ont conduit à une course aux armes cybernétiques qui se développe de manière incontrôlable. L’imminence de cette menace globale incite la communauté internationale à la pro-activité. L’objectif de cet article est de proposer une convention internationale afin de mettre un terme au développement, à la prolifération, et à l’utilisation d’armes cybernétiques avant qu’elles ne causent un Armageddon électronique. Nous commencerons d’abord par l’examen de trois efforts successifs de contrôle des armements, puis en utiliserons les leçons retenues pour rédiger une convention pouvant servir de point de départ à des négociations multilatérales.

  15. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  16. Wastewaters from the bioconversion of biomass. Utilisation and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frings, R.M. (Forest Research Inst. (New Zealand)); Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Developed technology for the bioconversion of biomass into energy forms falls into two categories: biogasification and bioliquefaction. Biogasification is the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter by a mixed culture of organisms to produce a gaseous mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Bioliquefaction is the use of a pure culture of organisms (mainly yeasts) to anaerobically ferment sugars into a range of liquid products with acetone, butanol, and ethanol being the most commonly produced. Biological processes have the advantage of occurring at ambient, or relatively low (35-60[sup o]C) temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in dilute substrate, in an aqueous environment. Conversion of raw material to gas or liquid fuel is generally incomplete, leaving the non-convertible residues (organic or inorganic) in solution. Hence, biological processes potentially generate large volumes of wastewater containing significant levels of pollutants. This review briefly describes the two bioconversion process routes and then considers each process separately in relation to the characteristics, utilisation and treatment of the specific wastewaters produced by the process. (author)

  17. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziarz Aneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.

  18. Research utilisation in sonographic practice: Attitudes and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Vicki; Wilson, Stephanie E.; Svensson, Jon; Brennan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Statutory agents have stipulated that research activity is a fundamental component of the healthcare professional's activity. Whilst the College of Radiographers have emphasised the importance of imaging personnel embracing this research ethos, there is little available data on the level of research activity within sonographic practice or on the factors that influence a sonographer's involvement in research activities. This work attempts to address these deficiencies. A questionnaire was sent to 300 UK-based sonographers of whom 218 responded (72%). The questionnaire was specifically designed to establish the level of involvement in research, the utilisation of research findings, attitudes towards research and perceived barriers to active research involvement. Responses were analysed investigating any correlations with the population demographics. The data collected showed the majority of sonographers (89%) were enthusiastic about research but with only 33% and 60% currently or previously performing research, respectively, and 73% using research findings to modify their clinical practice. Certain barriers to an active research involvement were shown, with 63%, 55% and 40% citing lack of time, education and collegial support, respectively. A range of statistical findings were linked to particular sonographer groups. The importance of good organisational structures and effective support from fellow health professionals was highlighted. The results confirm sonographers' appreciation of the benefits of research and it is suggested that if this enthusiasm is translated into effective research strategies, research output from ultrasound and other clinical departments should be enhanced.

  19. Overall concepts for utilisation of slow pyrolysis products - Hidaspyro II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L.; Kuoppala, E.; Ranta, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: leena.fagernas@vtt.fi; Setaelae, H.; Hagner, M. (University of Helsinki, Lahti (Finland), Dept. of Ecological and Environmental Sciences), e-mail: heikki.setala@helsinki.fi; Tiilikkala, K.; Palojaervi, A.; Lindqvist, B. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail: kari.tiilikkala@mtt.fi

    2011-11-15

    The project aims at developing new distributed biorefineries and comprehensive concepts based on slow pyrolysis for SMEs. The research carried out in the project 'Hidaspyro' will be continued in the new project. The goal is an optimised slow pyrolysis process for new applications of the products. The objective is to determine the effects of biochar and distillates on growth of plants, soil improvement, carbon sequestration and emissions of cultivation, to define the quality criteria of biochar, to determine the potential of distillates in odour prevention and to assess the environmental impacts of the products. Optimal process parameters to produce distillates and biochar of high quality will be determined by well-controlled laboratory-scale slow pyrolysis testing facility to be constructed. The main feedstock material will be birchwood, but comparisons with other biomass feedstocks will also be carried out. The efficacy tests will show the effect of biochars and distillates on growth of plants, use of water and nutrients, and biological activity of soil. Demonstrations of soil improvement and odour prevention will be done in co-operation with the partner enterprises. The environmental effects of different biochars will be compared by following the changes in the activity of microbes and the composition of nematode community. The amount and quality of distillate and biochar safe to the environment will be defined. All the results will be utilised in the techno-economic assessment of different concepts. (orig.)

  20. Novel Wine Yeast for Improved Utilisation of Proline during Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Long

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proline is the predominant amino acid in grape juice, but it is poorly assimilated by wine yeast under the anaerobic conditions typical of most fermentations. Exploiting the abundance of this naturally occurring nitrogen source to overcome the need for nitrogen supplementation and/or the risk of stuck or sluggish fermentations would be most beneficial. This study describes the isolation and evaluation of a novel wine yeast isolate, Q7, obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenesis. The utilisation of proline by the EMS isolate was markedly higher than by the QA23 wild type strain, with approximately 700 and 300 mg/L more consumed under aerobic and self-anaerobic fermentation conditions, respectively, in the presence of preferred nitrogen sources. Higher intracellular proline contents in the wild type strain implied a lesser rate of proline catabolism or incorporation by this strain, but with higher cell viability after freezing treatment. The expression of key genes (PUT1, PUT2, PUT3, PUT4, GAP1 and URE2 involved in proline degradation, transport and repression were compared between the parent strain and the isolate, revealing key differences. The application of these strains for efficient conduct for nitrogen-limited fermentations is a possibility.

  1. Resource Utilisation and Curriculum Implementation in Community Colleges in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Changilwa Kigwilu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated how Catholic-sponsored community colleges in Nairobi utilise the existing physical facilities and teaching and learning resources for effective implementation of Artisan and Craft curricula. The study adopted a mixed methods research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to sample 172 students and 18 teachers while four directors of community colleges were purposively selected. Questionnaires were administered to students and teachers, while directors were interviewed. Teaching and learning resources, such as workshops, equipment, lecture rooms, laboratories, raw materials for practical training and reference books, were found to be adequate, although underutilised. However, sports grounds, libraries and course texts were inadequate. Resource inadequacies were often mitigated by signing equipment co-sharing agreements with peer institutions and local firms. Teachers rated highly the influence of physical facilities on curriculum implementation. Both students and teachers rated highly the influence of teaching and learning resources on curriculum implementation. The study concludes that, while some physical facilities and teaching and learning resources are adequate, their underutilisation and the inadequacy of other core facilities and resources, such as libraries and course textbooks, hinder effective teaching and learning in these community colleges.

  2. Characteristics of membranes which are suitable for isotopic separation by gaseous diffusion; Caracteristiques des barrieres utilisables pour la separation isotopique par diffusion gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massignon, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    In this article we shall briefly describe how results obtained from the experimental analysis of the structure of membranes can be used on the one hand for determining this structure and on the other hand as a result for example of the detection of too many large pores or micro fissures and the existence of leaks at the joints, for eliminating membranes which can not be used industrially. Here we shall only consider the utilisation of information given by measurement of the specific permeability G{sub 0}, the pore radius for the molecular (diffusion) regime r{sub mol.}, the pore radius for the viscous diffusion regime the pore radius for the intermediate stage of diffusion, r{sub wicke}, the pore radius r{sub sep.} which is used for determining the actual separation, the distribution of the pore radius defined by mercury symmetry, the B.E.T. and central X ray diffusion. First of all we shall give the definition which is adopted in practice for these empirical values, which can be adapted for a rapid analysis of the quality of membranes by comparing them with the same measurements carried out on standard porous samples. In a second section we show in a few cases which have occurred in routine measurement how by comparison it is possible to eliminate membranes which do not have a suitable structure. (author) [French] Dans cet expose, nous allons montrer sommairement comment les resultats donnes par les methodes experimentales de controle de la structure des barrieres peuvent, d'une part, conduire a une certaine representation de cette structure et, d'autre part, permettre d'eliminer les barrieres non utilisables industriellement en detectant par exemple les trop nombreux gros pores ou microfissures et l'existence de fuites aux joints. Nous nous limiterons ici a l'exploitation des renseignements donnes par la permeabilite specifique G{sub 0}, le rayon de pore r{sub mol.} effectif en regime moleculaire, le rayon de pore r{sub visq.} effectif en regime visqueux, le

  3. Wholesomeness and Public Health Research in the United States Atomic Energy Commission Food Irradiation Programme; Recherches sur la Comestibilite et la Sante Publique au Titre du Programme d'Irradiation des Produits Alimentaires de la Commission de l'Energie Atomique des Etats-Unis; Issledovaniya bezvrednosti obluchennykh pishchevykh produktov i svyazannykh s nimi problem zdravookhraneniya po programme komissii po atomnoj ehnergii ssha v oblasti oblucheniya pishchevykh produktov; Programa de Irradiacion de Alimentos de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos: Investigaciones Sobre Comestibilidad u Sanidad Publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehair, L. A. [Division of Biology and Medicine, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-11-15

    'objet d'etudes de toxicite a long terme. Les donnees fournies jusqu'a ce jour par les etudes de toxicite chronique sur une variete de palourdes et par les etudes de toxicite subaiguee sur les fraises, les pommes, les poires, les cerises, les abricots, les prunes et les oignons font l'objet d'un examen critique. Les etudes microbiologiques ont porte principalement sur les organismes potentiellement pathogenes. L'auteur a poursuivi des etudes pour proceder a une evaluation minutieuse des conditions qui regissent la resistance aux rayonnements et a la chaleur, la sporulation, le developpement et la production de toxines de Clostridium botulinum E. L'auteur fait actuellement des recherches sur l'incidence naturelle d'organismes du type E dans certains produits marins et dans le milieu marin. Les constatations faites au cours des etudes microbiologiques font l'objet d'un examen critique. Les etudes effectuees jusqu'a present ont indique que les perspectives d'ensemble concernant la comestibilite des produits alimentaires irradies sont favorables. On entreprend actuellement des evaluations de toxicite sur les bananes, les mangues et les papayes. Les recherches se poursuivront sur Clostridium botulinum E et F, Salmonellae et autres organismes pathogenes. (author) [Spanish] Desde 1961 la Division de Biologia y Medicina de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos viene patrocinando estudios con objeto de evaluar la seguridad biologica de los productos alimenticios de interes para el programa de irradiacion de alimentos que esta llevando a cabo. Se han emprendido investigaciones sobre comestibilidad y estudios microbiologicos y bioquimicos para complementar los datos proporcionados por las investigaciones experimentales, economicas y tecnologicas patrocinadas por la Division de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos de la misma Comision. Cuando se considera que esas cuestiones ofrecen perspectivas favorables en el caso de alimentos especificos sometidos a bajas dosis de

  4. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  5. Utilisation of prompt fission neutron technology in Greenfields uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutz, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally, gamma detection technology has been used in uranium exploration programs for the initial detection of uranium as well as for a determination of uranium concentration. Geophysical logging companies use wireline gamma probes to measure uranium within boreholes, and field technicians utilise hand held gamma meters to detect uranium in rock samples, drill cuttings and cores. Borehole geophysical logging equipment typically records the uranium concentration as %eU 3 O8, where e represents an equivalent determination of uranium concentration as opposed to a laboratory assay. This method of uranium determination is an indirect method, as it measures gamma radiation from uranium-238 (U-238) isotope decay chain progeny; principally the bismuth-214 (Bi-214) isotope. Consequently, the uranium determination can be inaccurate due to natural disequilibrium between the U-238 parent and the decay chain progeny. This is especially true in sedimentary hosted uranium deposits, where the uranium and daughter progeny may have been geochemically separated. The gamma detection method for uranium can also be rendered inaccurate by detecting the gamma signature from potassium in clays as well as from thorium; both of which can provide a false (enhanced) eU 3 O8 determination. Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) technology is a geophysical wireline logging technology used in the same manner as conventional gamma logging. The difference is that PFN provides a direct determination of uranium within a borehole, irrespective of natural disequilibrium or the presence of other radioactive elements. This paper provides a brief description of natural uranium and radioactivity as a basis for explaining the conventional use of gamma radiation detectors for the detection and determination of uranium concentration in exploration boreholes, including the potential pitfalls of this technology. A detailed description of prompt fission neutron technology is also presented, along with a discussion

  6. Structural insight into the Clostridium difficile ethanolamine utilisation microcompartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C Pitts

    Full Text Available Bacterial microcompartments form a protective proteinaceous barrier around metabolic enzymes that process unstable or toxic chemical intermediates. The genome of the virulent, multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile 630 strain contains an operon, eut, encoding a bacterial microcompartment with genes for the breakdown of ethanolamine and its utilisation as a source of reduced nitrogen and carbon. The C. difficile eut operon displays regulatory genetic elements and protein encoding regions in common with homologous loci found in the genomes of other bacteria, including the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis. The crystal structures of two microcompartment shell proteins, CD1908 and CD1918, and an uncharacterised protein with potential enzymatic activity, CD1925, were determined by X-ray crystallography. CD1908 and CD1918 display the same protein fold, though the order of secondary structure elements is permuted in CD1908 and this protein displays an N-terminal β-strand extension. These proteins form hexamers with molecules related by crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry. The structure of CD1925 has a cupin β-barrel fold and a putative active site that is distinct from the metal-ion dependent catalytic cupins. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy of Escherichia coli over-expressing eut proteins indicates that CD1918 is capable of self-association into arrays, suggesting an organisational role for CD1918 in the formation of this microcompartment. The work presented provides the basis for further study of the architecture and function of the C. difficile eut microcompartment, its role in metabolism and the wider consequences of intestinal colonisation and virulence in this pathogen.

  7. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Stones, Clare; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia; Finlay, Graeme J; Shelling, Andrew N; Phillips, Wayne A; Shepherd, Peter R; Baguley, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation

  8. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-03-22

    While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we managed and analysed the data, using QSR NVivo 10 software and the directed content analysis method. We interviewed participants at Japan Clubs and their offices. 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, and 8 medical services providers. We identified health beliefs, medical symptoms and health insurance as the 3 most important themes, respectively, representing the 3 dimensions within the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model. Additionally, language barriers, voluntary health repatriation to Japan and psychological support were unique themes that influence healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees. The healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be partially explained by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, together with some factors that were unique findings to this study. Healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be improved by alleviating negative health beliefs through awareness programmes for Japanese retirees about the healthcare systems and cultural aspects of medical care in Malaysia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Determinants of Antenatal Healthcare Utilisation by Pregnant Women in Third Trimester in Peri-Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Asafo Akowuah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to quality healthcare still remains a major challenge in the efforts at reversing maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of established maternal health interventions, the health of the expectant mother and the unborn child remains poor due to low utilisation of interventions. The study examined the socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation in peri-urban Ghana using pregnant women who are in their third trimester. Two-stage sampling technique was used to sample 200 pregnant women who were in their third trimester from the District Health Information Management System software. Well-structured questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data from respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including binary logit regression model were used to analyse the data with the help of SPSS and STATA software. The results showed varying utilisation levels of ANC. From the regression result, age, household size, and occupational status were identified as the important socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation among the respondents. The important system factors which influence antenatal care utilisation by the respondents are distance to ANC, quality of service, and service satisfaction. The study concludes that socioeconomic and health system factors are important determinants of antenatal care utilisation. Stepping up of interventions aimed at improving the socioeconomic status and addressing health system and proximity challenges could be helpful in improving antenatal care utilisation by pregnant women in Ghana.

  10. Outpatient echocardiography in the evaluation of innocent murmurs in children: utilisation benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Patricio A; Oster, Matthew; Daley, Patricia A; Boris, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-01

    We sought to benchmark the utilisation of echocardiography in the outpatient evaluation of heart murmurs by evaluating two large paediatric cardiology centres. Although criteria exist for appropriate use of echocardiography, there are no benchmarking data demonstrating its utilisation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of outpatients aged between 0 and 18 years at the Sibley Heart Center Cardiology and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology, given a sole diagnosis of "innocent murmur" from 1 July, 2007 to 31 October, 2010. Using internal claims data, we compared the utilisation of echocardiography according to centre, patient age, and physician years of service. Of 23,114 eligible patients (Sibley Heart Center Cardiology: 12,815, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology: 10,299), 43.1% (Sibley Heart Center Cardiology: 45.2%, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology: 40.4%; p1-5 years had the lowest utilisation (32.7%). In two large paediatric cardiology practices, the overall utilisation of echocardiography by physicians with a sole diagnosis of innocent murmur was similar. There was significant and similar variability in utilisation by provider at both centres. Although these data serve as initial benchmarking, the variability in utilisation highlights the importance of appropriate use criteria.

  11. Chemical products toxicological tests performed on lake and river fish; Essai toxicologiques de produits chimiques sur des poissons d'eau douce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teulon, F.; Simeon, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The volume and toxical values of industrial and urban effluents are growing higher and therefore acute or chronic pollution hazard is proportionally increased. Hence it is necessary to determine the effluent components minimum lethal dose for fish (one hour or six hours according to applicable standards). The following tests are described in this report: toxicity of some chemical products, tested individually (sodium, sulphate, sodium chloride, sodium fluoride, etc...); toxicity of some metal ions (Al{sup 3+}, Fe{sup ++}, Fe{sup 3+}, Pb{sup ++}, etc...); toxicity of certain mixed compounds for various fish species (sun perch, tench, gold fish, roach, gudgeon, bleak). The test results obtained represent local values and may be used for reference and as a general basis for other investigation and calculation of the effluents data when released. (author) [French] Le volume et la toxicite des effluents industriels et urbains deviennent de plus en plus importants, les risques de pollution aigue ou chronique croissent en proportion. Il est donc necessaire de determiner les doses minima mortelles pour le poisson (1 h ou 6 h, d'apres les conventions) des composants eventuels des effluents consideres. Les essais qui font l'objet de ce rapport sont les suivants: toxicite de quelques produits chimiques, pris separement (sulfate, chlorure, fluorure de sodium, etc...); toxicite de quelques ions metalliques: Al{sup 3+}, Fe{sup ++} et Fe{sup 3+}, Pb{sup ++}, etc...); toxicite de quelques melanges sur des especes differentes de poissons ( perche-soleil, tanche, carassin, gardon, goujon, ablette). Les chiffres obtenus representent des valeurs locales et peuvent servir de references et de base de travail pour le calcul des caracteristiques des effluents a leur rejet. (auteur)

  12. Policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nhemachena, C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study crafts a policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa. The district, being predominantly agricultural and rural, faces contention in terms of land allocation...

  13. Hydrocarbon-utilising micro-organisms from Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Twenty-three hydrocarbon-utilising bacteria and one yeast were isolated, using enrichment techniques, from water and sediment samples. Vibrio and Pseudomonas were the predominant genera. Of the different organisms screened, Bacillus, Candida...

  14. Utilisation of factorial experiments for the UV/H O process in a batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-10-04

    Oct 4, 2001 ... The predictions given by the factorial experiments model were confirmed by the ... studies have given the effect of initial H2O2 concentration, initial concentration of the ... This mathematical model may be utilised to explain.

  15. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy......This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity...

  16. L'implication des langues dans l'élaboration et la publication des recherches scientifiques l'exemple du français parmi d'autres langues

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Pour certains, les langues sont des outils neutres sans liens (qu'ils soient nécessaires ou accidentels et historiques) avec des univers culturels, sans liens avec des façons de penser. Pour ceux-là, en tout cas, elles peuvent n'être que des outils quand on tient des discours scientifiques, ce qui implique une conception de la science comme étant neutre, objective, détachée du monde social. Dans cette vision, on peut sans encombre, y compris en sciences humaines, choisir n'importe quelle(s) langue(s) pour le faire. L'objectif de ce volume est de proposer une autre vision des rapports profonds

  17. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Asiah

    2004-07-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l{sup -1} was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l{sup -1}) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l{sup -1}. The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l{sup -1}. The N level of 400 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high

  18. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l -1 was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l -1 ) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l -1 . The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l -1 . The N level of 400 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high unused N nutrient

  19. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé, au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouédraogo, M; Ouédraogo, D; Thiombiano, T

    2013-01-01

    Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la dépendance économique des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé aux produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL) et d’identifier les déterminants de cette dépendance. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès de 583 ménages de 14 villages riverains de c...

  20. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

    2012-02-01

    Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  1. État des connaissances sur le traitement thermique des produits lourds State of the Art of the Thermal Treatment of Heavy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blouri B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après rappel du traitement thermique des hydrocarbures comme un moyen de viscoréduction des charges lourdes, craquage en oléfines gazeuses, ou pyrolyse totale en gaz de synthèse, le mécanisme réactionnel de vapocraquage des produits lourds constitue la première partie de l'article. Le craquage des huiles lourdes s'effectue selon un mécanisme radicalaire, tandis que les dépôts de carbone sont formés par des réactions de cycloadditions et polycondensations à des températures moyennes et par l'intermédiaire des radicaux à haute température. L'étude expérimentale du craquage thermique du n-tétracosane, du méthyl-6 eicosane et du dodécylbenzène constitue la deuxième partie de l'article et elle met en évidence, grâce à un mécanisme réactionnel du type moléculaire, la possibilité de craquage contrôlé d'une isoparaffine ou d'un hydrocarbure aromatique lourd en hydrocarbure liquide plus léger. After reviewing the thermal treatment of hydrocarbons as a way of visbreaking heavy feedstock, cracking them into gaseous olefins, or totally pyrolyzing them into synthetic gas, the first part of this article describes the reac-tion mechanism of the steam cracking of heavy products. Heavy oils are cracked by a radical mechanism, while carbon deposits are formed by cycloaddition and polycondensation reactions at mean temperatures and by the intermediary of radicals at high temperature. An experimental investigation of the thermal cracking of n-tetracosane, 6-methyleicosane and dodecylbenzene makes up the second part of the article. A reaction mechanism of the molecular type is used to describe the possibility of the controlled cracking of an isoparaffin or of a heavy aromatic hydrocarbon into a lighter liquid hydrocarbon.

  2. Contextual and individual factors associated with dental services utilisation by Brazilian adults: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkrath, Fernando José; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2018-01-01

    Inequalities in the utilisation of dental services in Brazil are remarkable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of contextual and individual factors with the utilisation of dental services by Brazilian adults using the Andersen's behavioural model. Individual-level data from 27,017 adults residents in the State capitals who were interviewed in the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey were pooled with contextual city-level data. The outcomes were non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. Individual predisposing variables were age, sex, race/skin colour, schooling and social network. Individual enabling variables included income, health insurance and registration in primary health care. Individual need variables were self-perceived dental health and self-reported missing teeth. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of the association of contextual and individual predisposing, enabling and need-related variables with dental services outcomes. Predisposing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and enabling (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.85-0.96) contextual factors were associated with non-utilisation of dental services. Individual predisposing (sex, race/skin colour, schooling), enabling (income, health insurance) and need (self-perceived oral health, missing teeth) were associated with non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. The latter was also associated with other individual predisposing (age, social network) and need (eating difficulties due to oral problems) characteristics. Individual and contextual determinants influenced dental services utilisation in Brazilian adults. These factors should be on the policy agenda and considered in the organisation of health services aiming to reduce oral health inequalities related to access and utilisation of dental services.

  3. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mielck Andreas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Methods Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. Results People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusions We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases.

  4. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2011-10-31

    The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany) compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases. © 2011 Stirbu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Emballage naturel de produits biologiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.

    2011-01-01

    Les emballages en plastique, renouvelables et biodégradables, sont-ils vraiment écologiques? Pour les entreprises d’emballage, il est difficile d’y trouver la réponse et donc de faire des choix réfléchis. Dans l’analyse ‘Emballage naturel’ le maximum de données a été collectionné et résumé.

  6. Pulse-amplitude multipliers using logarithmic amplitude-to-time conversion; Amplificateurs d'impulsions utilisant une conversion logarithmique temps-amplitude; Ob umnozhitelyakh amplitudy impul'sov s ispol'zovaniem logarifmicheskogo preobrazovaniya amplitudy vo vremya; Multiplicadores de amplitud de impulso usando una conversion logaritmica de amplitud en tiempo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, M [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1962-04-15

    The accuracy and limitations of multipliers based on logarithmic amplitude-to-time conversion using RC pulse stretchers are discussed with respect to their application for determining whether the amplitude product of two coincident pulses has a given value. Some possible circuits are given. (author) [French] L'auteur etudie la precision et les limitations des amplificateurs fondes sur la conversion logarithmique temps-amplitude et utilisant des allongeurs d'impulsions RC, afin d'etablir si ces appareils peuvent servir a determiner la valeur du produit des amplitudes de deux impulsions coincidentes. Il decrit en outre plusieurs circuits possibles. (author) [Spanish] La memoria discute la precision y limitaciones de los multiplicadores basados en la conversion logaritmica de amplitud en tiempo empleando circuitos alargadores de resistencia-capacidad en relacion con su aplicacion para determinar si el producto de las amplitudes de dos impulsos coincidentes tiene un valor determinado. Indica algunos circuitos posibles. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdayutsya predel pogreshnosti i ogranicheniya umnozhitelej, osnovannykh na logarifmicheskom preobrazovanii amplitudy vo vremya, s ispol'zovaniem rasshiritelej impul'sov RC; ehto delaetsya v svyazi s ikh primeneniem dlya vyyasneniya voprosa o tom, imeet li opredelennuyu velichinu proizvedenie amplitud dvukh sovpadayushchikh impul'sov. Privodyatsya nekotorye vozmozhnye blok-skhemy. (author)

  7. Utilization, at hot temperature, of an ion exchange resin column. Application to the separation of {sup 91}Y - {sup 147}Pm; Utilisation, a chaud, dune colonne de resine echangeuse d'ions. Application a la separation {sup 91} Y - {sup 147} Pm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, G; Cohen, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The fission products with long period can be separate by fractional elution, to ambient temperature, on column of an ion exchange resin. The separation of the couple {sup 91}Y + {sup 147}Pm being particularly long, we tried to improve it while using a heated column. For this study, we specified the effect of the temperature on the factor of separation: {alpha}, ratio between the Kd partition coefficients of {sup 147}Pm and {sup 91}Y: {alpha}= Kd ({sup 147}Pm) / Kd ({sup 91}Y). (M.B.) [French] Les produits de fission a periode longue peuvent etre separes par elution fractionnee, a temperature ambiante, sur colonne de resine echangeuse d'ions. La separation du couple {sup 91}Y + {sup 147}Pm etant particulerement longue, nous avons cherche a l'ameliorer en utilisant une colonne chauffee. A l'occasion de cette etude, nous avons ete amenes a preciser l'effet de la temperature sur le facteur de separation: {alpha}, rapport entre les coefficients de partage Kd de {sup 147}Pm et {sup 91}Y: {alpha} = Kd({sup 147}Pm) / Kd({sup 91}Y). (M.B.)

  8. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased

  9. Region-Specific Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kudoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.

  10. Determinants of utilisation differences for cancer medicines in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Little comparative evidence is available on utilisation of cancer medicines in different countries and its determinants. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model to test the correlation between utilisation and possible determinants in selected European countries. A sample of 31 medicines for cancer treatment that obtained EU-wide marketing authorisation between 2000 and 2012 was selected. Annual data on medicines' utilisation covering the in- and out-patient public sectors were obtained from national authorities between 2008 and 2013. Possible determinants of utilisation were extracted from HTA reports and complemented by contacts with key informants. A longitudinal mixed effect model was fitted to test possible determinants of medicines utilisation in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden. In the all-country model, the number of indications reimbursed positively correlated with increased consumption of medicines [one indication 2.6, 95% CI (1.8-3.6); two indications 2.4, 95% CI (1.4-4.3); three indications 4.9, 95% CI (2.2-10.9); all P marketing authorisation [1.2, 95% CI (1.02-1.4); p marketing authorisation. Prices had a negative effect on consumption in Belgium and Sweden. The positive impact of financial MEAs in Scotland suggests that the latter may remove the regressive effect of list prices on consumption.

  11. Son Excellence Monsieur Pierre-Louis Lorenz Ambassadeur extraordinaire et plénipotentiaire Représentant permanent du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales à Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Signature de Son Excellence Monsieur Pierre-Louis Lorenz Ambassadeur extraordinaire et plénipotentiaire Représentant permanent du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales à Genève

  12. Son Excellence Madame Elisabeth Laurin Ambassadeur Représentant permanent de la France auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales en Suisse République française Son Excellence Monsieur Roberto Balzaretti Ambassadeur Directeur

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2016-01-01

    Son Excellence Madame Elisabeth Laurin Ambassadeur Représentant permanent de la France auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales en Suisse République française Son Excellence Monsieur Roberto Balzaretti Ambassadeur Directeur,

  13. Oil Shale and Its Relation to Petroleum and Other Fuels (Summary Les schistes à l'huile et leurs relation avec le pétrole et les autres combustibles (résumé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billo S. M.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available World oil reserves in oil shales (1. 2 to 2 trillion barrels are at least 4 times as large as proven crude oil petroleum reserves (310 billion barrels. Petroleum is produced from oil shale by pyrolysis (destructive distillation by hecit. Coal can also be converted ta synthetic petroleum products by direct hydrogenation and by the modified Fischer-Tropsch process. Rising cost of oil exploration and production and increasing efficiency of synthetizing processes indicate that synthetic fuels may increase the supply of natural liquid fuels in the foreseeable future. The term kerogen is often used to comprise all the organic matter contained in sediments and may be of two kinds: 1 coalylike kerogen, and 2 sapropellic kerogen - oil shale type. It is believed that both kerogen and petroleum were formed from hypothetical ancestor - protopetroleum. They are found together in sedimenfs and their C13C12 ratios are similar. The largest producer of oil shale ore China, the USSR and Sweden. The USA is technologically prepared to begin production of synthetized fuels through varying economic condition. Richness and size of deposits, cost of mining, cost of retorting, character of products, and location of deposit in relation to plant and market, determine the economic value of a given deposit. Les réserves mondiales de schistes à huile (1,2 à 2 x 10. 12 barils sont au moins quatre fois supérieures aux réserves prouvées de pétrole brut (310 x 10. 9 barils. On extrait le pétrole des schistes par pyrolyse (distillation destructive thermique. Le charbon peut aussi être transformé en hydrocarbures par hydrogénation et par le procédé Fischer-Tropsch modifié. L'augmentation des coûts de l'exploration et de la production du pétrole et amélioration de l'efficacité des procédés synthétiques montrent que les produits synthétiques vont jouer un rôle croissant dans l'approvisionnement en combustibles liquides au cours des années à venir. Le terme k

  14. Association between subjective memory complaints and health care utilisation: a three-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    their general practitioner and reporting subjective memory complaints (SMC). METHODS: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort survey in general practice with three-year follow-up. Selected health care utilisation or costs relative to SMC adjusted for potential confounders were analyzed in a two......BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among elderly patients and little is know about the association between SMC and health care utilisation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate health care utilisation during a three-year follow-up among elderly patients consulting......-part model where the incidence of use of a selected health care service were analyzed separately from the quantity of use for those that use the service. The former analyzed in a Poisson regression approach, the latter in a generalized linear regression model. RESULTS: A total 758 non-nursing home residents...

  15. The effect of non-response on estimates of health care utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundgaard, Jens; Ekholm, Orla; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-response in health surveys may lead to bias in estimates of health care utilisation. The magnitude, direction and composition of the bias are usually not well known. When data from health surveys are merged with data from registers at the individual level, analyses can reveal non......-response bias. Our aim was to estimate the composition, direction and magnitude of non-response bias in the estimation of health care costs in two types of health interview surveys. METHODS: The surveys were (1) a national personal interview survey of 22 484 Danes (2) a telephone interview survey of 5000 Danes...... living in Funen County. Data were linked with register information on health care utilisation in hospitals and primary care. Health care utilisation was estimated for respondents and non-respondents, and the difference was explained by a decomposition method of bias components. RESULTS: The surveys...

  16. Sewage sludge utilisation and disposal alternatives and their comparison; Puhdistamolietteiden hyoedyntaemis- ja loppusijoitusvaihtoehdot sekae niiden vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, P.

    2001-07-01

    Sludge production will presumably not decrease in future. At present agricultural use of sludge is unstable and landfilling will most probably be restricted in the following years. The objective of this thesis is to gather information on options for sludge treatment and utilisation and to compare these options in order to find the best possible solution for future alternatives of sludge utilisation. Finnish and international literature as well as Finnish and EU legislation have been reviewed. Furthermore the mentoring group of this thesis as well as other experts in Finland have been used as a source of information. Sludge contains not only plant nutrients and organic matter but also varying quantities of a number of more or less hazardous substances. The quality and quantity of sewage sludge are described and possible health and environmental risks caused by sewage sludge are pointed out. The legislation linked to sludge utilisation and its demands are also presented. The sludge processing methods reviewed are: thickening, lime stabilisation, aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting and mechanical and thermal drying. In addition, the positive and negative sides of the stabilisation processes are looked at in greater detail. Agricultural use, landscaping, forestry, landfill, incineration, sludge derived products and newer processing technologies are reviewed as sludge utilisation options. Their environmental impacts, positive and negative sides and practical feasibility are evaluated. Various treatment utilisation combinations are also compared. Furthermore a rough cost assessment is presented. The optimal utilisation alternative has to be chosen case by case. The best use of plant nutrients and valuable organic matter is obtained in agricultural use or in landscaping. In the present situation it is difficult to enhance the portion of agricultural use, and landscaping is restricted by a low demand on the market. Incineration is an expensive option and can

  17. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  18. Adolescents' utilisation of psychiatric care, neighbourhoods and neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Ivert

    Full Text Available Mental health problems among adolescents have become a major public health issue, and it is therefore important to increase knowledge on the contextual determinants of adolescent mental health. One such determinant is the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood. The present study has two central objectives, (i to examine if neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated to individual variations in utilisation of psychiatric care in a Swedish context, and (ii to investigate if neighbourhood boundaries are a valid construct for identifying contexts that influence individual variations in psychiatric care utilization. Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Scania (LOMAS database. The study population consists of all boys and girls aged 13-18 years (N=18,417, who were living in the city of Malmö, Sweden, in 2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the probability of psychiatric care utilisation. The results from the study indicate that the neighbourhood of residence had little influence on psychiatric care utilisation. Although we initially found a variation between neighbourhoods, this general contextual effect was very small (i.e. 1.6%. The initial conclusive association between the neighbourhood level of disadvantage and psychiatric care utilisation (specific contextual effect disappeared following adjustment for individual and family level variables. Our results suggest the neighbourhoods in Malmö (at least measured in terms of SAMS-areas, do not provide accurate information for discriminating adolescents utilisation of psychiatric care. The SAMS-areas appears to be an inappropriate construct of the social environment that influences adolescent utilisation of psychiatric care. Therefore, public health interventions should be directed to the whole city rather than to specific neighbourhoods. However, since geographical, social or cultural contexts may be important for our

  19. Energy productivity of some plantation crops in Malaysia and the status of bioenergy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, K.O.; Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin; Ghulam Abdul Quadir; Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah

    2000-01-01

    The paper assesses the energy productivity of the major plantation crops in Malaysia as well as the status of bioenergy utilisation in that country. Of the crops studied and under present local cultivation practices, oil palms and cocoa trees stand out as good trappers of solar energy while paddy plants are the least efficient. Presently, Malaysia consumes roughly 340 million boe of energy per year. Of this amount 14% are contributed by biomass. However of the total amount of biowastes generated in the country roughly 24.5% are already utilised for energy purposes and roughly 75.5% are still unutilised and therefore wasted. (Author)

  20. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  1. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  2. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  3. Zinc uptake and utilisation in wetland rice as influenced by zinc sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Rajan, A.

    1994-01-01

    Soil application of Zn is by far the most common and generally successful method of application to rice. Comparison of the effectiveness of soil applications of Zn necessarily involves simultaneous comparison of different sources. Applying Zn in combination with macronutrient fertilizers is convenient and allows more uniform distribution. Studies have indicated marked differences in Zn availability, uptake and utilisation resulting from the macronutrient fertilizer with which it is applied. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a few sources of Zn on the yield, Zn uptake and utilisation in rice in two major rice grown soil series of Tamil Nadu. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  5. Mind control: The secret weapon utilised by religious cults to control their followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Pretorius

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to create awareness of the dangers of religious cults. The process utilised by these cults to recruit members and to control their lives is so subtle that members are led to believe that they joined out of their own free will. A brief discussion of what religious cults are as well as how they function is followed by an explanation of mind control and how it is utilised by cults. This article maintains that mind control is the secret weapon with which leaders of cults lure their followers under false pretences to mislead, control and make them dependent on the cult.

  6. Comment calculer le contenu énergétique des produits d'origine pétrolière et de leurs substituts d'origine charbonnière ou végétale How to Calculate the Energy Content of Products of Petroleum Origin and of Their Substitutes from Coal Or Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leprince P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le contenu énergétique des produits pétroliers issus du raffinage, des produits de vapocraquage de naphta et de quelques produits de la pétrochimie, a été calculé en prenant en considération, la dépense énergétique entre coproduits ou sous-produits d'une même transformation, les variantes de procédés et l'effet des divers modes de fourniture d'énergie nécessaire à la transformation considérée. The energy content of petroleum products coming from refining, of naphta steam-cracking products and of various petrochemical products is calculated by taking into consideration the energy expenditure between the coproducts or by products from the same transformation, the different processes and the effect of different ways in which to supply the energy required for the transformation being considered.

  7. Les autres Irakiens : émigrés et exilés d’avant 2003 en Jordanie et leurs récits d’appartenance (Une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Fattah

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à une importante minorité de la communauté irakienne exilée à Amman (Jordanie, à savoir la génération des années 1950. Après une brève présentation de l’histoire de l’émigration irakienne en Jordanie, l’auteur évoque les quelques travaux sociologiques sur les Irakiens à Amman et dans les autres villes jordaniennes. La seconde section de l’article est consacrée à l’analyse de la manière dont cette génération formule l’identité ou les identités irakiennes, la question communautaire, celle des droits des femmes et la notion de gouvernance. Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une étude à ses débuts, l’exploration par l’auteur de cette histoire orale introduit des nuances passionnantes à notre connaissance de l’histoire irakienne, qu’elle s’efforce de relier (de façon encore impressionniste au récit plus large de la mémoire irakienne.

  8. Sous-produits de la désinfection dans l'eau potable des petits réseaux municipaux: variabilité spatio-temporelle, modélisation et stratégies de suivi

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Les trihalométhanes (THM) et les acides haloacétiques (AHA) constituent les seules familles réglementées de sous-produits de la désinfection (SPD). Les SPD sont des composés issus de la réaction de la matière organique naturelle présente dans l’eau et du désinfectant lors du traitement de l’eau potable. La plupart de ces composés ne sont pas réglementés, même si plusieurs études ont montré que certains SPD peuvent présenter un risque toxicologique plus important que les THM et les AHA. De nos...

  9. Faux produits et marchandises contrefaites dans la Chine et le Japon prémodernes. Réglementations, corps de métiers et contraintes éthiques1

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Guillaume; Lamouroux, Christian

    2013-01-01

    L’article est consacré au problème des faux produits et des copies, abordé à partir de deux exemples, les soies et soieries dans la Chine des Song et les faux remèdes pharmaceutiques dans le Japon d’Edo, deux sociétés marquées par la croissance du secteur commercial entraînant de rapides changements sociaux. Notre approche s’est concentrée sur trois points : 1) le rôle des marchands et des intermédiaires dans la stabilité et la légalité des échanges ; 2) les négociations permanentes entre les...

  10. Commerce des produits d’élevage et territorialisation : une mise en débat à partir de trois travaux de géographes en Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Gautier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le projet de recherche Icare, financé par le Cirad, a pour ambition d’analyser les liens entre la dynamique des marchés mondiaux et régionaux des produits animaux et le développement dans les territoires d’élevage. Les deux terrains d’application de ce projet sont l’Afrique de l’Ouest, en particulier le Sénégal et le Mali, et la Corne de l’Afrique.Pendant longtemps, l’élevage de ces régions a eu la réputation d’être un élevage de prestige, voire un élevage contemplatif, pratiqué par des peupl...

  11. Evolution du pH et de la température au cours de la transformation artisanale du cymbium (voluté). Essai sur les perspectives de valorisation du produit transformé

    OpenAIRE

    Diouf, A.

    2008-01-01

    L’étude porte sur l’évolution du pH et de la température au cours de la transformation artisanale du Cymbium, ainsi que sur les perspectives de valorisation du produit transformé. Les expérimentations menées au site de transformation artisanale de Joal ont permis de constater que : Après 12 heures de séjour en bac (1ère nuit), le Cymbium est encore en phase de rigor mortis. Le pH moyen affiché à l’issue de cette première nuit est de 7,6 ; donc proche de celui du mollusque ...

  12. Utilisation du test GeneXpert pour le diagnostic de la tuberculose au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation du test GeneXpert pour le diagnostic de la tuberculose au service des maladies infectieuses du CHNU de Fann. Sylvie Audrey Diop, Aminata Massaly, Daye Ka, Noel Magloire Manga, Louise Fortes-Déguénonvo, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse, Moussa Seydi ...

  13. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  14. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W.; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, Francois; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  15. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  16. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  17. Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le contrôle de Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae), une espèce envahissante dans la réserve communautaire de la forêt d'Analalava-Foulpointe (Madagascar)

  18. Science Teachers' Utilisation of Innovative Strategies for Teaching Senior School Science in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelekan, Oloyede Solomon; Igbokwe, Emoyoke Faith; Olorundare, Adekunle Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria, yet, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects. Many innovative teaching strategies have been developed by educators and found to impact significantly on students' academic performance when utilised. Hence, this study was aimed at examining science…

  19. Explaining low uptake for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands : (and predicting utilisation of other programmes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, NMTH

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, only a quarter of all pregnant women take part in the current Down syndrome screening(DSS) programme. Compared to other Northern European countries, Dutch uptake rates are very low. This thesis concentrates on the test-utilisation of DSS, in particular the factors impeding or

  20. Optimiser l'utilisation d'un volume minimal d'eau | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2010 ... Naser I. Faruqui, Water Management in Islam ... Il y a tout lieu de s'attendre à ce que l'évolution démographique et les tendances du ... Souvent, ils consistent à utiliser de l'eau de moins bonne qualité à des fins particulières ...

  1. Utilisation de la Technique D\\'électrophorèse des Protéines Totales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation de la Technique D\\'électrophorèse des Protéines Totales sur Gel de Polyacrylamide-SDS (SDS-PAGE) pour L\\'étude de la Diversité des Rhizobiums D\\'Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne Subsp. Raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

  2. Investigating the impact of poor utilisation of quality management system in a South African foundry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mpanza, Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available . This research paper focusses on the impact of defects on productivity and monetary losses due to poor utilisation of the quality management system in sand casting. Data was gathered on defects and productivity and the company’s quality control records were used...

  3. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  4. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  5. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1995-12-31

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  6. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  7. Utilising the Mass Media for the Promotion of Religious Activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilising the Mass Media for the Promotion of Religious Activities in Nigeria. ... The media have the ability to communicate religious messages that will enable ... to promote moral attitudes in our people, which will in turn, lead to development in ...

  8. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  9. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-01

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  10. Public Health Knowledge Utilisation by Policy Actors: An Evaluation Study in Midden-Holland, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Joyce; Steenkamer, Betty; Treurniet, Henriëtte; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive report has been prepared on the state of public health and healthcare in the Midden-Holland region of the Netherlands. This study describes the development of the report and the mechanisms behind public health knowledge utilisation by three groups of health policy actors: local authorities, public health professionals and regional…

  11. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Willems, FH

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and

  12. Tailoring Spectator Experiences for Non-Regular Attendants to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  13. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  14. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the. Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (fanns) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  15. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (farms) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  16. Utilising excess minibus-taxi capacity for South African townships tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.H.; Makoriwa, Collins; de Boer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the

  17. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  18. Tirer des connaissances de la recherche locale et les utiliser aux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gs

    La Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) et le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) annoncent le lancement d'une initiative de recherche concertée intitulée Tirer des connaissances de la recherche locale et les utiliser aux fins de la consolidation de la paix et du renforcement de l'État.

  19. Utilising Planning and Financing Strategies in the Management of Community Development Projects in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obetta, Chukwuemeka K.; Oreh, Catherine I.

    2017-01-01

    Utilisation of community management strategies is an approach to governance that is based on community and organisational involvement. Communities with development projects have formed community projects management committees (CPMCs) that are encouraged to adopt the community management strategy in the planning and financing of community…

  20. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E.; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the

  1. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirbu, I.; Kunst, A.E.; Mielck, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia

  2. Quality of care and its effects on utilisation of maternity services at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of care and its effects on utilisation of maternity services at health centre level. ... in general, 97% with working hours, but only 37% were satisfied with privacy. ... long waiting time (OR 1.6, p = 0.02) and lack of privacy (OR l.5, p = 0.01).

  3. D'une industrie... l'autre?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musso, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    À partir d’une contextualisation du texte de Cindy Patton, les auteur-e-s invitent à penser l’actualité des questions évoquées à l’aune d’enjeux contemporains relatifs à la production d’identités et de communautés que donnent à voir l’établissement des « cibles » de la prévention et du traitement du

  4. Le futsal: un autre monde du football?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gaubert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although far behind association football, futsal is the second most played variant of football in the world. Both sports have comparable global expansion strategies; but with different roots and outcomes. Futsal, which originated in South America, has experienced a more limited geographic expansion. Its recent integration into the FIFA is progressively changing its geographic presence. Consequently, futsal has become an increasingly global sport.

  5. Portuaires et autres poèmes

    OpenAIRE

    Sévry, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Pour Paul Bensimon, affectueusement P O R T U A I R E S Longs dédales lents cheminementsRéseaux patiemment tissésDans l’écheveau de tes doigtsIl fait bon se réfugier Algues de l’accueil cordialité du corailRécifs enchanteurs eaux limpidesCorps libres nudités muscles pleinsNappes glauques où se perdent mes palmesPoisson voilà que je tresse mes écaillesEt mes nageoires effleurent tes pétales Départs sans idée d’escalesAncres légères chaînes détachéesBonheur du port auberges mitonnéesEmbarquemen...

  6. Some Techniques for Isolating and Using Short-Lived Radioisotopes; Quelques Methodes d'Isolement et d'Utilisation des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode; НЕКОТОРЫЕ МЕТОДЫ ПОЛУЧЕНИЯ И ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ; Algunas Tecnicas de Aislamiento y Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, F.; Kraus, K. A. [Chemstry Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1963-03-15

    diffusion path used, die measurements may be completed in substantially less time by this method than by conventional techniques, for example diaphragm cell or capillary tube methods. (author) [French] Un grand nombre de radioisotopes sont largement utilises au Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge pour des recherches physico-chimiques, notamment sur les echanges d'ions et la solubilite. L'emploi de radioisotopes a courte periode pour ces travaux a necessite la mise au point non seulement de methodes de preparation et de purificationaccelerees, mais aussi de techniques speciales permettant d'obtenir des informations valables dans un temps relativement court, souvent de l'ordre de quelques minutes. Les auteurs decrivent certaines methodes nouvelles de preparation et de purification d'isotopes Inverted-Question-Mark courte penoue, notamment d'isotopes qui proviennent de matieres irradiees par les neutrons, et en particulier d'elements fissiles. Ces derniers permettent evidemment d'obtenir facilement plusieurs radioisotopes Inverted-Question-Mark courte periode tres utiles, par exemple {sup 99}Mo et {sup 132}Te. Le memoire expose les methodes qui permettent d'isoler ces corps, ainsi que d'autres produits de fission par echange d'ions, sans entraineur; il decrit aussi la separation des produits de filiation a courte periode de leurs ascendants a longue periode par des procedes de ' mulsion ' qui consistent Inverted-Question-Mark adsorber fortement l'ascendant sur des echangeurs d'ions organiques ou mineraux; des exemples typiques sont examines: mulsion de {sup 113}Sn pour en extraire {sup 113}In (1,7 h) et de {sup 137}Cs pour en extraire {sup 137}Ba (2,6 min). Les auteurs decrivent deux applications comportant l'emploi d'indicateurs courte periode pour des recherches chimiques. La premiere permet de mesurer rapidement les solubilites de sels moderement solubles qui ont ete marquees a l'aide d'un indicateur (methode de la ' couche compacte ' ; les auteurs indiquent les resultats

  7. Study of fission product {gamma} spectra in the band 2-500 keV; Etude du spectre {gamma} des produits de fission dans la bande 0-500 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In the study of the {gamma} spectrum of uranium fission products, particular attention has been given in this note to the part of the spectrum ranging between 0 and 500 keV after a given pile operating programme and the evolution of this spectrum with time after a pile shutdown has been followed. The study be related to the fission products which appear in the pile as a whole or on those produced in a uranium sample assumed to have been placed in the pile. The latter case has been envisaged here. The spectrum determination is based partly on theory and partly on experiment. The pile operating conditions are different in the two cases, which widens the range of validity of the spectra traced here. (author) [French] Dans l'etude du spectre {gamma} des produits de fission de l'uranium, on s'est plus particulierement interesse dans la presente note a determiner la partie du spectre qui s'etend entre 0 et 500 keV, au bout d'un fonctionnement donne de pile, et a suivre l'evolution de ce spectre dans le temps apres un arret de pile. L'etude peut porter sur les produits de fission apparus dans toute la pile ou sur ceux apparus dans un echantillon d'uranium suppose place en pile. C'est ce dernier cas que nous avons envisage. La determination du spectre s'appuie sur une partie theorique et sur une partie experimentale. Les fonctionnements de pile choisis sont differents dans les deux cas, ce qui permet d'etendre la gamme de validite des spectres traces ici. (auteur)

  8. Study of fission product {gamma} spectra in the band 2-500 keV; Etude du spectre {gamma} des produits de fission dans la bande 0-500 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In the study of the {gamma} spectrum of uranium fission products, particular attention has been given in this note to the part of the spectrum ranging between 0 and 500 keV after a given pile operating programme and the evolution of this spectrum with time after a pile shutdown has been followed. The study be related to the fission products which appear in the pile as a whole or on those produced in a uranium sample assumed to have been placed in the pile. The latter case has been envisaged here. The spectrum determination is based partly on theory and partly on experiment. The pile operating conditions are different in the two cases, which widens the range of validity of the spectra traced here. (author) [French] Dans l'etude du spectre {gamma} des produits de fission de l'uranium, on s'est plus particulierement interesse dans la presente note a determiner la partie du spectre qui s'etend entre 0 et 500 keV, au bout d'un fonctionnement donne de pile, et a suivre l'evolution de ce spectre dans le temps apres un arret de pile. L'etude peut porter sur les produits de fission apparus dans toute la pile ou sur ceux apparus dans un echantillon d'uranium suppose place en pile. C'est ce dernier cas que nous avons envisage. La determination du spectre s'appuie sur une partie theorique et sur une partie experimentale. Les fonctionnements de pile choisis sont differents dans les deux cas, ce qui permet d'etendre la gamme de validite des spectres traces ici. (auteur)

  9. L'utilisation d'un mélange de sels fondus pour le stockage de chaleur

    OpenAIRE

    Roche , M.

    1980-01-01

    L'exploitation rationnelle de l'énergie solaire nécessite le stockage d'une partie de la chaleur produite aux heures d'ensoleillement pour pouvoir la restituer aux heures de consommation, ou tout au moins pour assurer la continuité du fonctionnement pendant les passages nuageux. Les sels fondus et en particulier le H.T.S. (Heat Transfer Salt) apparaissent comme les meilleurs fluides de stockage thermique. En effet, ils permettent un stockage d'une grande densité pour un faible coût et bénéfic...

  10. Mesure de la Polarisation des Lambda Produits dans les Collisions Positron-Electron AU Lep a L'aide du Detecteur Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Denis

    Le Modele Standard est le cadre theorique general qui, jusqu'a present, a permis l'interpretation de tous les resultats experimentaux en physique des hautes energies. Cette theorie decrit, entre autres, la production d'une paire de particules elementaires, formee d'un quark et d'un antiquark, a partir de la desintegration de l'un des bosons mediateurs de l'interaction faible, le Z^0. Cependant, dans ce cas precis, la transformation subsequente des quarks primaires en particules reelles, un processus appele hadronisation, n'est decrite qu'a l'aide de modeles phenomenologiques. Afin de sonder les mecanismes de l'hadronisation, cette these presente la mesure du transfert du spin d'un quark etrange primaire a une particule appelee Lambda lors des desintegrations hadroniques du Z^0. L'etude a ete realisee dans le cadre de la collaboration OPAL, une des quatre experiences menees au collisionneur LEP, la ou des electrons et des positrons sont acceleres jusqu'a une energie commune, sqrt{s} = {rm E_ {cm}}, voisine de l'energie de production du rm Z^0, M_{Z ^0} egale a 91.3 GeV. La theorie electrofaible precise la direction du spin, c'est-a-dire la polarisation, d'un quark etrange primaire provenant de la desintegration d'un Z ^0. Quant a lui, le modele des quarks etablit que l'orientation du spin d'un Lambda est directement reliee a la polarisation du quark etrange dont il provient. La question est de determiner dans quelle mesure la polarisation du quark primaire est transmise au Lambda a la suite du processus de l'hadronisation, decrit dans le cadre de la ChromoDynamique Quantique. Une estimation, qui tient compte de tous ces differents aspects theoriques, evalue a 30% la polarisation des Lambda dont l'impulsion est superieure a 15 GeV/c. La mesure experimentale de la polarisation repose sur l'identification des Lambda a partir de la reconstitution de la desintegration Lambdato ppi^-. Ce processus, qui se deroule par le biais de l'interaction faible, viole la parite car

  11. De nouveaux procédés d’extraction des huiles pour des produits finis de haute qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Michel

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available New concerns have appeared recently from the European and American consumers about quality, safety and environmental impact of the food products. In the particular case of European countries, the coming back of traditional products with a high sentimental value should be noticed. To fit the forthcoming demand of the consumer, the Oils and Fats industry have to develop a new approach based on alternative technologies that may emerge from the research with very specific objectives: no solvents, mild technologies, less energy consumption and final wastes. The purpose of this article is to discuss about the new biological tools capable to generate alternative ways for the oil elaboration: use of enzymes for destructuration of the vegetal or animal tissues and the subsequent utilisation of membrane techniques for the separation and purification steps. These new technologies involving less heat and mechanical stress to the oil, lead to a better “native” quality of the final products. However, fundamental research is needed on the separation mechanisms of those complex mixtures to optimise the process and prepare the transfer to the industrial conditions. The present article reports a contribution on the aqueous extraction of rapeseed oil as an example

  12. Élaboration, fiabilité et utilisation d’un outil de mesure de l’environnement alimentaire dans les supermarchés de quatre quartiers de Montréal (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Jalbert-Arsenault

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : L’environnement alimentaire constitue un domaine propice si l'on veut influencer les habitudes alimentaires de la population. Cette étude visait à élaborer un outil de mesure de l’environnement alimentaire dans les commerces et à caractériser l’environnement alimentaire dans un secteur de Montréal (Canada possédant un niveau de revenu de faible à moyen. Méthodologie : Nous avons développé un outil, la Mesure de l’environnement alimentaire du consommateur dans les supermarchés (MEAC-S et nous l’avons mis à l’essai pour en confirmer la fiabilité. Nous avons utilisé la MEAC-S pour évaluer l’environnement alimentaire de consommation de 17 supermarchés dans quatre quartiers de Montréal. Nous avons mesuré la longueur d’étalage, la diversité, le prix, le nombre de présentoirs et la position en magasin des fruits et légumes (FL et des produits alimentaires ultra-transformés (PAUT. Nous avons également évalué la qualité des FL frais. La taille du magasin a été estimée en utilisant la longueur totale d’étalage mesurée pour toutes les catégories d’aliments. Nous avons effectué des corrélations de Spearman entre ces indicateurs de l’environnement alimentaire. Résultats : Les analyses de fiabilité ont donné des résultats satisfaisants pour la plupart des indicateurs. La caractérisation de l’environnement alimentaire a révélé une grande variabilité de la longueur d’étalage, de la diversité et du prix des FL entre les supermarchés ainsi qu’une mise en valeur disproportionnée des PAUT. Le nombre de présentoirs de PAUT hors de leur emplacement principal de vente variait de 7 à 26 et ces produits occupaient de 8 à 33 positions stratégiques en magasin, alors que le nombre de présentoirs hors de l’emplacement principal de vente de FL frais était supérieur à 1 dans seulement 2 des 17 magasins évalués et qu’ils occupaient un maximum de 2 emplacements strat

  13. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; van Stenus, C.M.V.; Wiegers, T.A.; Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Spelten, E.R.; Deville, W.L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  14. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  15. Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Bramsen, I.; Devillé, W.; Willigen, L.H.M. van; Hovens, J.E.; Ploeg, H.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of

  16. L'utilisation avisée de l'eau au service des villes en pleine croissance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... durables axées sur l'utilisation des eaux pluviales et le recyclage des eaux usées urbaines. ... L'utilisation avisée de l'eau au service des villes en pleine croissance ... Traitement des eaux usées à Mexico – équilibre entre les bienfaits et les ...

  17. Examen de l'utilisation et de la qualité du système de production de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toshiba

    de RFPd sur les plans du processus, de la production des rapports et de leur utilisation. ...... difficulté à utiliser l'outil servant à la préparation du RFPd. .... De plus, c'est l'un des rares instruments utilisés dans le secteur de la philanthropie dont.

  18. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation : evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana,

  19. Problems to be Expected in Disposing of Fission Products from a Possible Nuclear Power Programme; Problemes Eventuels d'Elimination des Produits de Fission dans les Futures Centrales Nucleaires; 0412 0415 0420 041e 042f 0414 ; Problemas que Puede Plantear la Evacuacion de Productos de Fision Resultantes de la Ejecucion de un Programa de Produccion de Energia de Origen Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, G. K. [Cenral Technical Services, Engineering and Development Group, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1960-07-01

    typical British nuclear power programme covering the next few decades is examined. The types of reactor to be erected and the types of fuel to be initially used in them are well appreciated but of course the author's conclusions will necessarily become less certain with the passage of time. The chemical processes which must be applied to irradiated fuels will depend on the type of fuel, its burn-up etc., and so will change during the period under review. Consideration is therefore given to the quantities of fission products and heavy isotopes which may be produced, the forms in which they may leave the chemical processing streams and the methods available for handling them safely, either by storage or by disposal. (author) [French] L'auteur examine un programme d'energie nucleaire caracteristique pour la Grande-Bretagne et s'etendant sur les prochaines decennies. Il donne une evaluation fort judicieuse des types de reacteurs dont la construction est envisagee et des genres de combustibles qu'il est question d'y utiliser pendant la periode initiale; toutefois, ses conclusions auront avec le temps de moins en moins de valeur. En effet, le traitement chimique auquel on devra soumettre le combustible irradie depend du genre de ce dernier, de son taux de combustion, etc.; il subira inevitablement des modifications au cours de la periode consideree. L'auteur tient donc compte des quantites de produits fissiles et d'isotopes lourds qu'il sera possible de produire, des formes sous lesquelles ils pourront se presenter a la fin du traitement chimique et des methodes existantes permettant d'assurer leur manipulation sans danger en vue de leur stockage ou de leur elimination. (author) [Spanish] Esta memoria estudia un programa britanico caracteristico de produccion de energia nuclear que cubre las proximas decadas. Se sabe con bastante certeza que tipos de reactores se construiran y el tipo de combustible que se empleara en ellos en un principio, pero estos conocimientos son

  20. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  1. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices

  2. Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulashevich, Yu P; Voskobojnikov, G M; Muzyukin, L V

    1962-01-15

    diffuse provenant de la source. Lorsque le rayonnement emanant de la source est suffisamment dur et le detecteur peu sensible, l'intensite du rayonnement diffuse depend uniquement de la densite des strates et de la distance entre la source et le detecteur. C'est le cas pour le S.G.G., ou les veines de charbon sont delimitees d'apres les valeurs maxima du rayonnement diffuse. Le S.G.G.S. consiste surtout a enregistrer la partie molle du spectre des rayonnements diffuses, dont l'intensite tombe brusquement avec l'augmentation du nombre atomique moyen des elements du milieu etudie. Cette methode, dont la sensibilite est de l'ordre de 0,01 %, permet de determiner l'existence de minerais qui renferment des elements lourds (plomb, tungstene, mercure, etc), et l'on peut l'utiliser aussi pour les gisements de minerais de fer (siderite). Le bore ayant une section efficace de capture des neutrons thermiques exceptionnellement grande, on peut determiner dans le trou de sonde la presence de zones boriferes par les methodes du S.G.N. et du S.N.N. L'interference de l'eau peut etre eliminee par des sondages inverses. Ces methodes neutroniques, de meme que le sondage par activation neutronique, ont ainsi trouve une application dans les gisements de cuivre, de maganese, d'aluminium et de certains autres minerais. La methode du sondage par activation continue est utilisable lorsque la periode du radioisotope forme s'y prete. On peut alors determiner en theorie les conditions optima du sondage (taux d'activation, duree du sondage, etc.). L'enregistrement neutronique effectue lors du sondage photo-neutronique permet de determiner les zones riches en beryllium et d'evaluer la teneur en beryllium a partir de 0,001%. L'experience confirme l'efficacite technique et economique des methodes de geophysique nucleaire pour la prospection des gisements de charbon et d'autres mineraux. (author) [Spanish] La exploracion de perfiles por sondeo constituye la principal aplicacion de la geofisica nuclear en

  3. Comparison of the Economic Aspects of the Treatment and Storage of Fission Products from Installations Processing Irradiated Natural Uranium; Aspects Economiques Compares du Traitement et du Stockage des Produits de Fission Issus des Usines de Traitement de l'Uranium Naturel Irradie; Sravnitel'nye ehkonomicheskie aspekty obrabotki i khraneniya produktov deleniya, poluchaemykh na zavodakh po pererabotke obluchennogo prirodnogo urana; Aspectos Economicos Comparados del Tratamiento y del Almacenamiento de los Productos de Fision que Salen de las Plantas de Tratamiento de Uranio Natural Irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Lesur, P.; Giraud, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France); Wanlin, J. [Societe Saint-Gobain Techniques Nouvelles, Paris (France)

    1966-02-15

    reservoirs pouvant etre construits, et on determine la taille et la cadence optimales de leur mise en service, compte tenu des caracteristiques des produits de fission a stocker et pour diverses capacites de l'usine de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie. Ils montrent que, si le cout de stockage depend des hypotheses faites sur la duree de vie des installations, le taux d'interet, les frais d'exploitation, le choix de la politique optimale par contre (tailles et cadences de mise en service) est independant de ces hypotheses et n'est lie qu'a la loi de variation du cout des reservoirs selon leur taille. On obtient ainsi le cout optimise de stockage indefini de ces effluents. Dans une troisieme partie, les auteurs comparent a cette solution du stockage indefini d'autres politiques possibles de gestion des produits de fission: vitrification et separation du Cs et du Sr. Ils situent economiquement ces diverses alternatives et esquissent des solutions possibles a long terme. (author) [Spanish] Despues de recordar las principales practicas administrativas que suelen aplicarse a los productos de fision, los autores exponen sucintamente las caracteristicas tecnicas esenciales de las instalaciones de almacenamiento en acero inoxidable (en medio acido) utilizadas en Francia y analizan la estructura de sus costos. Muestran hasta que punto esos costos dependen de la radiactividad de las soluciones almacenadas y del calor que desprenden. En la segunda parte de la memoria se examina el costo del almacenamiento segun las dimensiones de los depositos que pueden construirse, se determinan las dimensiones optimas de estos depositos y se indica el ritmo mas conveniente para su puesta en servicio teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas de los productos de fision que es preciso almacenar y las diversas capacidades de las plantas de tratamiento de uranio natural irradiado. Se demuestra que si bien el costo del almacenamiento depende de algunas hipotesis (duracion de la vida util de las

  4. Measurement of the thermal utilisation factor of the reactor G1; Mesure du facteur d'utilisation thermique du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The thermal utilisation factor of the lattice of the reactor G1 has been measured by applying the autoradiographic technique to thin detectors irradiated in the cell. The experimental apparatus is described, and the results compared with those obtained by calculation based on various formulae. The results of the study of the thermal flux distribution in a cell containing a thorium rod of the same diameter as the uranium rods in the lattice are also given. The precision of the measurements is discussed. Value found: f diameter 26 = 0.8949 {+-} 0,005. (author) [French] Le facteur d'utilisation thermique du reseau du reacteur G1 a ete mesure en appliquant la technique de l'autoradiographie a des detecteurs minces irradies dans la cellule. Les dispositifs experimentaux sont decrits et les resultats sont compares a ceux obtenus par le calcul a partir de diverses formules. Les resultats de l'etude de la distribution du flux thermique dans une cellule contenant une barre de thorium de meme diametre que les barres d'uranium du reseau sont egalement indiques. La precision des mesures est discutee. Valeur trouvee: f diametre 26 = 0,8949 {+-} 0,005. (author)

  5. Caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation: cross-sectional analysis from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Stanley, James; Cormack, Donna

    2018-03-23

    Children's exposure to racism via caregiver experience (vicarious racism) is associated with poorer health and development. However, the relationship with child healthcare utilisation is unknown. We aimed to investigate (1) the prevalence of vicarious racism by child ethnicity; (2) the association between caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation; and (3) the contribution of caregiver socioeconomic position and psychological distress to this association. Cross-sectional analysis of two instances of the New Zealand Health Survey (2006/2007: n=4535 child-primary caregiver dyads; 2011/2012: n=4420 dyads). Children's unmet need for healthcare, reporting no usual medical centre and caregiver-reported dissatisfaction with their child's medical centre. The prevalence of reporting 'any' experience of racism was higher among caregivers of indigenous Māori and Asian children (30.0% for both groups in 2006/2007) compared with European/Other children (14.4% in 2006/2007). Vicarious racism was independently associated with unmet need for child's healthcare (OR=2.30, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.20) and dissatisfaction with their child's medical centre (OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.16). Importantly, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of reported experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation (eg, unmet need: 1 report of racism, OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.67; 2+ reports of racism, OR=3.06, 95% CI 1.27 to 7.37). Adjustment for caregiver psychological distress attenuated the association between caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation. Vicarious racism is a serious health problem in New Zealand disproportionately affecting Māori and Asian children and significantly impacting children's healthcare utilisation. Tackling racism may be an important means of improving inequities in child healthcare utilisation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  6. Utilising Fine and Coarse Recycled Aggregates from the Gulf Region in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Rod; Halliday, Judith E.; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Zheng, Li; Strompinis, N.

    This paper explores the feasibility in utilising materials generated from C&DW to produce a `green' concrete. The two materials that are considered here are, (i) up-sizing silt-size material generated from recycled aggregates to produce a synthetic silt-sand and (ii) processed recycled coarse aggregates (RA) sourced from a Gulf Region landfill site. The work has demonstrated that there is potential for utilising silt wastes into foamed concrete, which can then be crushed to a sand-sized material suitable for use in concrete, however the porous nature of the material has highlighted that the water demand of this RA is high. RAs were characterised to BS EN 12620 and found suitable for use in concrete. The effect of RA on concrete properties is minimal when used up to 35% replacement levels, provided that they are pre-soaked.

  7. Sustainability indicator system and policy processes in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezri, A A

    2004-12-01

    Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.

  8. Investment utilisation, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Henningsen, Arne

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model for adjustment costs and investment utilisation that illustrates their causes and types and shows in which phases of an investment they occur. Furthermore, we develop an empirical framework for analysing the size and the timing of adjustment costs...... that investments have a negative effect on farm efficiency in the year of the investment and the year after accruing from adjustment costs. There is a large positive effect on efficiency two and three years after the investment. The farmer’s age and the farm size significantly influence technical efficiency......, as well as the effect of investments on adjustment costs and investment utilisation. These results are robust to different ways of measuring capital....

  9. Digestibility in selected rainbow trout families and relation to growth and feed utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out aimed at clarifying variations in the digestibility of dietary nutrients in rainbow trout families and studying how differences in digestibility may be related to growth and feed utilisation at various growth rates. The digestibility of protein, lipid...... the digestibility of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extracts and dry matter was measured. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that selective breeding still offers a large potential for improved growth and feed utilisation in rainbow trout strains. In the first study, family Dc showed a higher specific growth rate......, carbohydrates (nitrogen-free extracts, NFE) and dry matter was analysed in two experiments involving eight rainbow trout families [Ab, Ba, Cd, Dc (first study); V, X, Y, Z (second study)]. In the first experiment rainbow trout were reared for 128 days at 13.0A degrees C, and in the second experiment, they were...

  10. Is sustainable resource utilisation a relevant concept in Avanersuaq? The walrus case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Heide-Jorgensen, Mads Peter; Flora, Janne

    2018-01-01

    analyse how walruses acquire multiple values as they circulate in different networks. Sustainable resource utilisation, we conclude, is a concept that is relevant in Avanersuaq and beyond, because it works as a biological standard, and hence organises laws, norms, and practices of formal management......This article addresses the role of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in present-day Avanersuaq from anthropological and biological perspectives, and asks whether or not sustainable resource utilisation is a useful concept in northwest Greenland. We describe the relations that unfold...... around walrus and walrus hunting, in the communities living adjacent to the North Water polynya on the eastern side of Smith Sound. We examine the interplay of walrus population abundance, hunting practices, uses, and formal (governmental) and informal (traditional) ways of regulating the hunt, and we...

  11. CO2 abatement potential of wood utilisation. Wood as an energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, G.; Fruehwald, A.

    1994-01-01

    Forests as ecosystems not only supply the raw material wood but also exert an influence on soils, water resources and many other ecological factors; provide animals with a habitat; and offer as humans a place for recreation. Recently, forests and wood have become of interest to human civilisation from yet another aspect: they constitute a carbon storage. This means that forestry and the forest industries can help moderate the increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, which is essentially the result of energetic utilisation of fossil fuels and considered the decisive factor underlying the greenhouse effect. Besides constituting a carbon storage, forests hold an additional CO 2 abatement potential which can be realised by continuous utilisation of wood. (orig./EF) [de

  12. The federations' agreement II on network utilisation; Die Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkner, P. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany)

    2001-06-18

    Against the background of the experience of the regional supplier Lech Elektrizitaetswerke AG (LEW AG) and in the view of the operator of a regional distribution network the author deals with three complexes of themes: 1. Federations' Agreement II on network utilisation - Flexible instrument for competition or unsuited attempt? 2. What progress and obstacles are identifiable on route towards the implementation of the Federations' Agreement II on network utilisation? 3. What adjustment of existing sets of rules towards the requirements of competition is necessary? (orig.) [German] Vor dem Erfahrungshintergrund des Erfahrungsbereiches des Regionalversorgers Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG (LEW AG) und aus der Sicht des Betreibers eines regionalen Verteilungsnetzes behandelt der Verfasser die drei Themenkomplexe: 1. Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung - Flexibles Instrument fuer den Wettbewerb oder ungeeigneter Versuch? 2. Welche Fortschritte und Hindernisse sind auf dem Wege der Umsetzung der Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung erkennbar? 3. Welche Anpassung vorhandener Regelwerke an die Erfordernisse des Wettbewerbs sind notwendig? (orig.)

  13. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    of the implementation programmes has been on development of technologies for joint biogas plants, where more than one farm supplies the animal slurry. The joint biogas plants are dependent on industrial organic wastes to obtain high biogas yields for making the biogas plant economical. The industrial organic waste will......The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus......, however, be the scarce factor in a further development of the joint biogas plants in Denmark. The purpose of the present study is related to the discussion on the role of transportation in the biogas fuel chain. Transportation plays a central role in the assessment of environmental advantages of utilising...

  14. Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, Naief; Burney, Nadeem A.

    2002-01-01

    The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the pattern of scale effect is labour saving, but capital and material using. The evidence also supports the presence of an induced exogenous technical change, which is non-neutral (labour and capital using, and material saving). The elasticity of substitution between capital and labour is positive, implying that the two inputs are substitute. The results also indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the production of crude oil, but no economies or diseconomies of utilisation

  15. Combined centralised and distributed mechanism for utilisation of node association in broadband wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvan, A.; Ulvan, M.; Pranoto, H.

    2018-02-01

    Mobile broadband wireless access system has the stations that might be fixed, nomadic or mobile. Regarding the mobility, the node association procedure is critical for network entry as well as network re-entry during handover. The flexibility and utilisation of MAC protocols scheduling have an important role. The standard provides the Partition Scheme as the scheduling mechanism which separates the allocation of minislots for scheduling. However, minislots cannot be flexibly reserved for centralised and distributed scheduling. In this paper we analysed the scheduling mechanism to improve the utilisation of minislots allocation during the exchange of MAC massages. The centralised and distributed scheduling is implemented in some topology scenarios. The result shows the proposed mechanism has better performance for node association than partition scheme.

  16. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  18. Some aspects of nuclear fuel utilisation at Ukrainian's NPPs during last two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieremenko, M.; Bilodid, Y.; Ovdiienko, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the report the brief characteristic of the realized fuel cycles on Ukraine's NPPs, types of loaded fuel is described. Experience of new fuel type implementation are present (FA Second Generation for WWER-440. Westinghouse FA for WWER-1000). Next issue of report is the some of problem with fuel utilisation (leakage FA, problem with C b calculation and other). And the last issue of report is presentation of future new fuel implementation (WWER-440/1000). (authors)

  19. Utilisation of Business Advice in Small Innovative Firms: the Role of Trust and Tacit Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łobacz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of the influence of trust relationship, as well as tacit knowledge on the process of business advice utilisation in small innovative firms. Research Design & Methods: The  analysis  is  based  on  empirical  research  conducted with the use of the explorative approach. The multiple case study methodology was used. Findings: Trust relationships as well as tacit knowledge were identified as factors essential to the process of utilisation of business advice in small innovative firms. It was recognised that the significance of both factors is related not only to the process of advice, but also as a purpose of activities happening prior to advice. They are referred to as the initial phase. Implications & Recommendations: The  findings  provide  implications  for  further  research of the structure of the process of business advice utilisation. It is related to the inclusion of the “initial phase”, as well as to the  necessity to include both factors in further research. The paper also provides implicationsrelated to the measurement of business advice output, and recommendations on the construction of public policy instruments. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in using the process perspective and qualitative methodology in the field of the utilisation of business advice. It extends our understanding of the processes of business advice with regard to trust, as well as the use of tacit knowledge. The original contribution is to add the “initial phase” to the description of the business advice process.

  20. Facteurs sociaux de l'utilisation des services de soins obstétricaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rechercher les facteurs sociaux de l'utilisation des services de soins obstétricaux parmi les adolescentes camerounaises. Les données utilisées sont celles de l'Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDS) réalisée au Cameroun en 2004. Nos analyses ont porté sur les dernières naissances ...

  1. Accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en enseignement supérieur en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les politiques dans le domaine de l'enseignement supérieur en matière de technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) présument qu'un accès accru aux TIC encourage leur utilisation. Une première collecte de données effectuée en 2004 et 2007 fournit une base des plus nécessaires sur laquelle fonder la ...

  2. Perceptions et facteurs déterminant l'utilisation des asticots dans l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 févr. 2016 ... Poultry farmers in Group 1 differ from those of Groups 2 and 3 by their herd size and ..... Cette matrice a été soumise à une classification ... utilisant la fonction kmeans du package cluster. ... l'ensemble des caractéristiques des enquêtés a montré .... classes d'occurrence ont montré que les aviculteurs.

  3. A proposed maintenance strategy for generator sets utilised in biogas applications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M. Ing. The overall purpose of this research project was to develop a proposed maintenance strategy for generator sets utilised in biogas applications. One specific biogas application, involving the use of landfill gas (LFG) to generate electrical energy, was the focal point of the research project. This is due to the fact that the author’s organisation is extensively involved with landfills and power generation through the use of LFG.

  4. Approches de l'utilisation des eaux usées urbaines dans l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 févr. 2011 ... Ils proposent une classification des différents types d'eaux usées (directes, indirectes, traitées, non traitées, dirigées et non dirigées), soulignent combien il est nécessaire d'utiliser une approche fondée sur les moyens de subsistance et ciblée sur les agriculteurs, insistent sur des directives pragmatiques ...

  5. Mental Health Status, Health Care Utilisation, and Service Satisfaction among Immigrants in Montreal: An Epidemiological Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Liu, Aihua; Caron, Jean

    2017-08-01

    To examine variations between immigrants and nonimmigrants in 1) prevalence of common mental disorders and other mental health variables; 2) health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions, and 3) health service satisfaction. This article is based on a longitudinal cohort study conducted from May 2007 to the present: the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study of Montreal South-West (ZEPSOM). Participants were followed up at 4 time points (T1, n = 2433; T4, n = 1095). Core exposure variables include immigrant status (immigrant vs. nonimmigrant), duration of residence, and region of origin. Key outcome variables included mental health status, health service utilisation, and health service satisfaction. Data were analysed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Immigrants had been in Canada for 20 years on average. Immigrants had significantly lower rates of high psychological distress (32.6% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.016), alcohol dependence (1.4% vs. 3.9%, P =0.010), depression (5.2% vs. 9.2%, P = 0.008), and various other mental disorders. They had significantly higher scores of mental well-being (48.9 vs. 47.1 score, P = 0.014) and satisfaction with social (34.0 vs. 33.4 score, P = 0.021) and personal relationships (16.7 vs. 15.6 score, P Immigrants had significantly lower rates of health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions and significantly higher rates of health service satisfaction at all time points. Asian and African immigrants had particularly low rates of utilisation and high rates of satisfaction. Immigrants had better overall mental health than nonimmigrants.

  6. Increased utilisation of existing biogas plants; Oekat utnyttjande av befintliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how existing biogas plants in Sweden could be utilised more efficiently, by increase the organic loading rate, and to calculate the cost efficiency of such measures. Biogas plants treating sewage sludge are currently operated with low organic loading rates and it is likely that there could be a considerable potential of increased utilisation of existing capacity. However, disposal costs of digested sewage sludge have a great impact on the economic result. Thus, the cost must be low, below 200 - 850 SEK/tonne DS, for co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic household waste to be economic competitive, compared to building of a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, using manure and organic waste as feedstock, it is not possible to say whether it is more economic to increase the utilisation of existing capacity or to increase the reactor volume. Therefore, more specific studies are required for individual plants and cases. Regarding the need for a more sophisticated monitoring and control of the biogas process, it can be established that the utilisation of sewage sludge digestion plants could be increased considerably without exceptionally high organic loading rates, thus probably without any additional monitoring and control. However, indicated prices for such applications are probably acceptable compared to establishing a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, the scope for investments is smaller and more dependent on the alternative cost for new reactors. Also, any process disturbances, which may appear even at low organic loading rates, could be very costly and result in costs in the same range as for monitoring and control equipment. Finally, the reader should observe that the analyses conducted here assume that funding and physical space for additional reactors is available at the existing site. If not, there could be situations where it is economic interesting to increase the organic loading rate although cost estimates

  7. Digestibility and nutrient utilisation of soybean bran-based diets in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiku, S.O.E.; Alao, I.A.; Tiamiyu, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    The digestibility and utilisation of two soybean bran-based diets and two fishmeal-based diets serving as control, at optimal (30%) and suboptimal (20%) protein levels were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus. These were Diet I (Control)-fishmeal based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet II (Control) - fishmeal based diet at 20% crude protein, Diet III - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet IV - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 20%. Dry matter digestibility differed i...

  8. Impacts de l'utilisation des Engrais chimiques sur les cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse des résultats a montrée que Solanum macrocarpum et amarantus hybridus sont les légumes les plus cultivés respectivement 69% et 21% à cause de leurs préférences dans l'alimentation des consommateurs.Les proportions des maraîchers utilisant les engrais chimiques ou non ou encore les deux couplés sont ...

  9. Recent trends in utilising ionising radiations for nondestructive evaluation of materials (Preprint No. SP-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Venkatraman, B.

    1988-02-01

    The various NDT techniques based on the use of ionising radiations can be broadly classified into radiography, radiation gaging techniques and analytical techniques. This paper highlights the state of art of these techniques along with their applications. While an effort has been made to cover the major techniques based on ionising radiations, many techniques utilising ionising radiations as xeroradiography, laminography, ionography etc, have not been dealt with due to their restricted applications. (author). 23 refs., 4 figs

  10. Opportunities for early Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: China CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage) policy, strategy and development status; International developments in CCUS; High-purity CO2 sources and potential EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) locations in China; Capture routes: (a) Separation technologies/processes, (b) CO2 purity specifications, compression and after treatment, (c) CO2 transportation options, (d) Associated Cost; Potential cost-effective full-chain CCUS projects in Shaanxi; Barriers to CCUS development in Shaanxi; and Conclusions.

  11. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2014-01-01

    cages. Feed intake, gain and feed utilisation were not significantly affected. Plasma urea (P carcass tended to increase linearly by reducing CP, but neither nitrogen retention nor carcass meat percentage...... and back fat depth differed among treatments. In conclusion, the study indicated that CP could be decreased to 136 g/kg as-fed for growing pigs in the weight range 50–100 kg without negative impact on growth performance and carcass traits. Moreover, leanness was not affected by excess CP....

  12. Determinants analysis of outpatient service utilisation in Georgia: can the approach help inform benefit package design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsadze, George; Tang, Wenze; Shengelia, Natia; Zoidze, Akaki

    2017-05-02

    The healthcare financing reforms initiated by the Government of Georgia in 2007 have positively affected inpatient service utilisation and enhanced financial protection, especially for the poor, but they have failed to facilitate outpatient service use among chronic patients. Non-communicable diseases significantly affect Georgia's ageing population. Consequently, in this paper, we look at the evidence emerging from determinants analysis of outpatient service utilisation and if the finding can help identify possible policy choices in Georgia, especially regarding benefit package design for individuals with chronic conditions. We used Andersen's behavioural model of health service utilisation to identify the critical determinants that affect outpatient service use. A multinomial logistic regression was carried out with complex survey design using the data from two nationally representative cross-sectional population-based health utilisation and expenditure surveys conducted in Georgia in 2007 and 2010, which allowed us to assess the relationship between the determinants and outpatient service use. The study revealed the determinants that significantly impede outpatient service use. Low income, 45- to 64-year-old Georgian males with low educational attainment and suffering from a chronic health problem have the lowest odds for service use compared to the rest of the population. Using Andersen's behavioural model and assessing the determinants of outpatient service use has the potential to inform possible policy responses, especially those driving services use among chronic patients. The possible policy responses include reducing financial access barriers with the help of public subsidies for sub-groups of the population with the lowest access to care; focusing/expanding state-funded benefits for the most prevalent chronic conditions, which are responsible for the greatest disease burden; or supporting chronic disease management programs for the most prevalent chronic

  13. Changements dans l'utilisation des terres et la santé humaine dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans l'est de l'Himalaya, l'utilisation des terres change en raison de la croissance ... Au Népal, les chercheurs enquêteront sur les causes de la malnutrition qui ... de l'établissement sur l'environnement (y compris la pollution) et invitera les ... Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate Change in the ...

  14. The impact of reducing financial barriers on utilisation of a primary health care facility in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Ranu S.; Bonds, Matthew H.; Fraden, Max; Ndahiro, Donald; Ruxin, Josh

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of subsidising community-based health insurance (mutuelle) enrolment, removing point-of-service co-payments, and improving service delivery on health facility utilisation rates in Mayange, a sector of rural Rwanda of approximately 25,000 people divided among five ‘imidugudu’ or small villages. While comprehensive service upgrades were introduced in the Mayange Health Centre between April 2006 and February 2007, utilisation rates remained similar to comparison sites. Between February 2007 and April 2007, subsidies for mutuelle enrolment established virtually 100% coverage. Immediately after co-payments were eliminated in February 2007, patient visits levelled at a rate triple the previous value. Regression analyses using data from Mayange and two comparison sites indicate that removing financial barriers resulted in about 0.6 additional annual visits for curative care per capita. Although based on a single local pilot, these findings suggest that in order to achieve improved health outcomes, key short-term objectives include improved service delivery and reduced financial barriers. Based on this pilot, higher utilisation rates may be affected if broader swaths of the population are enrolled in mutuelle and co-payments are eliminated. Health leaders in Rwanda should consider further studies to determine if the impact of eliminating co-payments and increasing subsidies for mutuelle enrolment as seen in Mayange holds at greater levels of scale. Broader studies to better elucidate the impact of enrolment subsidies and co-payment subsidies on utilisation, health outcomes, and costs would also provide policy insights. PMID:21732708

  15. The Utilisation of Facebook for Knowledge Sharing in Selected Local Government Councils in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzoma Heman Ononye; Anthony Igwe

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Facebook has made it possible for organisation to embrace social and network centric knowledge processes by creating opportunities to connect, interact, and collaborate with stakeholders. We have witnessed a significant increase in the popularity and use of this tool in many organisations, especially in the private sector. But the utilisation of Facebook in public organisations is at its infancy, with many also believing that the use of Facebook is not a common practice in many p...

  16. The IAEA activities towards enhanced utilisation, sustainability and applications of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Mank, G.; Adelfang, P.; Alldred, K.; Bradley, E.E.; Goldman, I.N.; Khvan, A.; Peld, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will give a brief introduction to the programmatic structure of the Research Reactor (RR) related activities of the IAEA sub-programme 'Research Reactors', under which the project on 'Enhancement of utilization and applications of RRs' will be presented in more detail. Both recent achievements and future planed actions will be reported with the major emphasis on RR utilisation related issues, specific applications of RRs, networks and coalitions, and assistance to the Member States (MS) planning their 1st RR. (author)

  17. HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services.

  18. The effect of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in COPD patients in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Rusch, Ea; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for Chronic Conditions project (SIKS) implemented rehabilitation programmes for people with four chronic conditions in the local area within the Municipality of Copenhagen. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ...... of Copenhagen with an assessment of the effect of a real-life intervention. It shows that the pulmonary rehabilitation programme introduced had the anticipated effects on health-care utilisation. The study also suggests that the methods used for evaluation were appropriate....... of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients as a subgroup of SIKS. METHODS: For the analyses, data from Danish National Registers' were obtained. The following outcomes were analysed: (i) COPD hospital admissions, (ii) COPD bed days, (iii) COPD outpatient...... rehabilitation and were matched with the intervention group according to propensity score calculated on the basis of patient socio-demographic characteristics and health-care utilisation pattern in 2 years prior to the rehabilitation programme. The effect was assessed by applying the principle of difference...

  19. Health seeking behaviour and challenges in utilising health facilities in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoke, David; Boynton, Petra; Butler, Ceri; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2014-12-01

    The health seeking behaviour of a community determines how they use health services. Utilisation of health facilities can be influenced by the cost of services, distance to health facilities, cultural beliefs, level of education and health facility inadequacies such as stock-out of drugs. To assess the health seeking practices and challenges in utilising health facilities in a rural community in Wakiso district, Uganda. The study was a cross sectional survey that used a structured questionnaire to collect quantitative data among 234 participants. The sample size was obtained using the formula by Leslie Kish. While 89% of the participants were aware that mobile clinics existed in their community, only 28% had received such services in the past month. The majority of participants (84%) did not know whether community health workers existed in their community. The participants' health seeking behaviour the last time they were sick was associated with age (p = 0.028) and occupation (p = 0.009). The most significant challenges in utilising health services were regular stock-out of drugs, high cost of services and long distance to health facilities. There is potential to increase access to health care in rural areas by increasing the frequency of mobile clinic services and strengthening the community health worker strategy.

  20. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Methods Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. Results During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%, and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Conclusion Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  1. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B

    2009-10-30

    In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%), and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  2. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  3. How to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, T D; Clauson, K A; Misra, S; Lewis, T L; Husain, I

    2014-02-01

    There are thousands of medical applications for mobile devices targeting use by healthcare professionals. However, several factors related to the structure of the existing market for medical applications create significant barriers preventing practitioners from effectively identifying mobile medical applications for individual professional use. To define existing market factors relevant to selection of medical applications and describe a framework to empower clinicians to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in their own practice. Resources available on the Internet regarding mobile medical applications, guidelines and published research on mobile medical applications. Mobile application stores (e.g. iTunes, Google Play) are not effective means of identifying mobile medical applications. Users of mobile devices that desire to implement mobile medical applications into practice need to carefully assess individual applications prior to utilisation. Searching and identifying mobile medical applications requires clinicians to utilise multiple references to determine what application is best for their individual practice methods. This can be done with a cursory exploration of mobile application stores and then moving onto other available resources published in the literature or through Internet resources (e.g. blogs, medical websites, social media). Clinicians must also take steps to ensure that an identified mobile application can be integrated into practice after carefully reviewing it themselves. Clinicians seeking to identify mobile medical application for use in their individual practice should use a combination of app stores, published literature, web-based resources, and personal review to ensure safe and appropriate use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Utilisation of Products of the Thermal Reclamation of Post Reclamation Dusts in the Production Technology of Ceramic Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem related to the management of post reclamation dusts generated in the reclamation process of waste moulding sands with organic binders is presented in the hereby paper. Waste materials generated in this process are products hazardous for the environment and should be utilised. The prototype stand for the utilisation of this dangerous material in its co-burning with coal was developed and patented in AGH in Krakow. The stand was installed in one of the domestic casting houses. As the utilisation result the transformed waste product is obtained and its management in the production of ceramic materials constitutes the subject of the presented publication.

  5. Setting-Up of a Neutron Dosimeter Using Ionographic Tracks in an Insulating Solid; Realisation d'un Dosimetre a Neutrons Utilisant les Traces Ionographiques dans un Solide Isolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfi, N.; Dugnani Lonati, R.; Mangialajo, M. [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze, Segrate, Milan (Italy)

    1971-06-15

    The use of dielectrics such as mica, glasses and plastic materials for charged particle track recording has been developed in the past years; track recording of fission fragments produced in fissile materials under neutron irradiation is particularly interesting. The method has not as yet been applied to neutron dosimetry owing to the difficulties of track observation and counting using optical microscopes. A method has recently been proposed which results in markedly reduced counting times, electronic counting of the electric discharges between two electrodes through the dielectric which was perforated by the fission fragments. The reasons for adopting this new technique to set-up a neutron dosimeter are: (a) economic advantages, since a rather simple electronic instrumentation will give a reading of the dosimeter, preparation of which can be carried out immediately and at a modest cost; (b) fast reading, since the response can be obtained in less than two hours from irradiation; (c) dosimetric advantages owing to the lack of fading and insensitivity to {beta} or {gamma} radiations. The present work describes the method adopted and the equipment used to set up the dosimeter. Results are reported and briefly discussed. (author) [French] Au cours des dernieres annees on a assiste a un developpement remarquable de l' utilisation d' isolants tels que le mica, les verres et les materiaux plastiques pour l' enregistrement des traces de particules chargees; l' enregistrement des traces de fragments de fission produits dans les materiaux fissiles sous irradiation neutronique est particulierement interessant. Cette methode n'a pas, jusqu a present, ete appliquee a la dosimetrie des neutrons a cause des difficultes que presentent l' observation et le comptage des traces au microscope optique. On a propose recemment une methode qui permet de reduire considerablement la duree de l' operation en comptant electroniquement les decharges electriques qui se produisent entre deux

  6. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouédraogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso Résumé Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la dépendance économique des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé aux produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL et d’identifier les déterminants de cette dépendance. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès de 583 ménages de 14 villages riverains de ces forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres des PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les principaux déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la taille du ménage, la superficie forestière et la densité de population du département qui affectent positivement la dépendance aux PFNL. Dans le cadre d’une politique de réduction de la pauvreté en milieu rural, il faut prendre des mesures qui favorisent l’accès durable des ménages les plus pauvres aux ressources forestières. Mots clés : Produits forestiers non ligneux, dépendance économique, modélisation économétrique, Burkina Faso.   Economic dependence on non-timber forest products: case of households living near the Forests of Boulon and Koflande, in the south-western of Burkina Faso Abstract This study aims at assessing the household economic dependence on non-timber forest products (NTFPs in Boulon and Koflande Forest area and the main determinants of that dependence. The data have been collected with a sample of 583

  7. Utilisation aspects of ashes and green liquor dregs from an integrated semichemical pulp and board mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manskinen, K.

    2013-09-01

    This thesis investigated the properties of bottom and fly ashes originating from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (120 MW) using two different fuel mixtures (i.e. Fuel mixture A: coal, wood and peat; and B: wood and peat) and of the green liquor dregs originating from the associated semichemical pulp and board mill in relation to the potential utilisation of these residues from various aspects. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the bottom ashes were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for these elements in forest fertilisers. The total Ca concentrations in bottom ashes A (2.4%; d.w.) and B (3.4%; d.w.) were lower than the legal requirement of 6.0% (d.w.) for ash used as a forest fertiliser. The total Ca concentrations in fly ashes A (6.4%; d.w.) and B (11.0%; d.w.) were higher than the minimum limit value of 6.0% (d.w.), but the concentration of As in fly ashes A (46.9 mg/kg d.w.) and B (41.3 mg/kg; d.w.) exceeded the maximum limit value of 40 mg/kg (d.w.). Only bottom ash B could be used as a forest fertiliser, provided some additional Ca is used. The bottom ashes both fulfilled the Finnish regulations on waste recovery in earth construction. Due to the elevated total concentration of PAH (23 mg/kg; d.w.) and extractable concentrations of Mo (3.9 mg/kg; d.w.) and Se (0.2 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash A, this residue cannot be used in covered structures. Due to the elevated concentration of PAH (90 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash B, this residue cannot be used in covered and paved structures. However, the utilisation of these residues as an earth construction agent is still possible, but an environmental permit would be required. According to the sequential extraction studies, extractable concentrations of most of the elements in the fly ash A were higher than those in the bottom ash A. The extractability of various elements, both in the bottom and fly ashes A, varied widely. Most of the elements did not occur as readily soluble and

  8. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourva, L.C.A.; Croft, S.

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP TM , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents a new evaluation technique for the estimation of gate utilisation factors. It uses the die-away profile of a neutron coincidence chamber generated either by MCNP TM , or by other means, to simulate the neutron detection arrival time pattern originating from independent spontaneous fission events. A shift register simulation algorithm, embedded in the MCF code, then calculates the coincidence counts scored within the electronics gate. The gate utilisation factor is then deduced by dividing the coincidence counts obtained with that obtained in the same Monte Carlo run, but for an ideal detection system with a coincidence gate utilisation factor equal to unity. The MCF code has been benchmarked against analytical results calculated for both single and double exponential die-away profiles. These results are presented along with the development of the closed form algebraic expressions for the two cases. Results of this validity check showed very good agreement. On this

  9. Radiochemical determination of Beryllium-7 in a fission-product mixture containing many inorganic salts; Determination radiochimique du beryllium-7 dans un melange de produits de fission riche en sels mineraux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigent, Y; Van Kote, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A radiochemical method is described for analysing beryllium-7 in a mixture of fission products containing many inorganic salts. By studying the influence of various parameters it has been possible to speed up the decontamination on an anionic resin using an HCl isopropanol mixture, as proposed by KORKISCH- and al. Be(OH){sub 2} is first precipitated in the presence of E.D.T.A.; the main contaminants are then fixed on Dowex 1 x 10 in 12 M HCl and on Dowex 1 x 8 in a 3 M HCl (20 per cent)-isopropanol (80 per cent) (vol/vol) mixture. The Be, which is not fixed, is precipitated by NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} in the presence of E.D.T.A., ignited as Be{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, filtered, weighed, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The method makes it possible to dose 4 samples in 16 hours with a chemical yield of 80 per cent, using a 4 day-old fission product solution. The overall decontamination factor, exceeds 10{sup 8}. (authors) [French] On decrit un procede d'analyse radiochimique du beryllium-7 a partir d'un melange de produits de fission riche en sels mineraux. L'etude de l'influence de differents parametres a permis d'accelerer la decontamination sur resine anionique en milieu HCl-isopropanol proposee par KORKISCH et COLL. On precipite d'abord Be(OH){sub 2} en presence d'E.D.T.A., puis fixe les principaux contaminants sur Dowex 1 x 10 en milieu HCl 12 M et sur Dowex 1 x 8 en milieu HCl 3 M (20 pour cent)-isopropanol (80 pour cent) (v/v). Be, non fixe, est precipite par NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} en presence d'E.D.T.A., calcine en Be{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, filtre, pese et analyse par spectrometrie gamma. La methode permet de traiter quatre echantillons en 16 h, avec un rendement de 80 pour cent, a partir d'une solution de produits de fission vieille de quatre jours. Le facteur de decontamination global depasse 10{sup 8}. (auteurs)

  10. Experiments on the incorporation of concentrated solutions of fission products in glasses and micas; Essais d'incorporation de solutions concentrees de produits de fission dans des verres et des micas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonniaud, R; Cohen, P; Sombret, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1) The plants designed for extracting the plutonium of the G1, G2, G3 reactors fuel rods will produce extremely concentrated tions of fission products. 2) Let us consider a synthetic solution of the 'G2' type: (2N NO{sub 3}H - 2,25 meq/cm{sup 3} AI{sup +++} - 5.10{sup -3} {sup 134}Cs - {sup 137}Cs tracer). We made various glasses and micas by adding and mixing the necessary adjuvants and baking (900 to 1400 deg. C) in a graphite crucible. 3) The products obtained had either the shape of a cylindrical pellet or were reduced into a fine powder. They were mixed with 300 cm{sup 3} of synthetic sea water during variable periods of time in order to study leaching of the activity. 4) Experiments were first carried on caesium because of its solubility. 5) Fabrication of micas on a large scale sets many technological problems more difficult to solve (1400 deg. C) than in the case of glasses (1000 deg. C). A comparative study on both micas and glasses showed that leaching of activity was more important in the micas. (author)Fren. [French] 1) La mise en service de l'Usine d'Extraction du Plutonium destinee en particulier au traitement des barres de combustibles de G1, G2, G3 fournira des solutions residuaires concentrees de produits de fission. 2) Partant d'une solution synthetique 'G2': (2N NO{sub 3}H - 2,25meq/cm{sup 3} AI{sup +++} - 5.10{sup -3} {sup 134}Cs - {sup 137}Cs traceur) nous avens realise differents verres et micas apres adduction et melange des adjuvants necessaires suivis de cuisson (900 a 1400 deg. C) dans un creuset de graphite. 3) Les produits obtenus ont ete, soit sous forme d'eprouvette cylindrique, soit sous forme de poudre finement broyee, mis en contact et agites avec 300 cm{sup 3} d'eau de mer synthetique, durant des temps varies pour etudier la retention de l'activite. 4) Le cesium a ete choisi pour ces essais a cause de sa solubilite. 5) La fabrication de micas a grande echelle pose des problemes technologiques plus difficiles (1400 deg. C) a

  11. Technical Training: Annonce de nouveau cours: Utilisation des fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 6.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! Un nouveau cours pratique sur Adobe Acrobat version 6.0 est proposé à l'ensemble du personnel par le service de l'Enseignement Technique, pour répondre aux besoins de formation des utilisateurs des documents PDF. La première session aura lieu le 1er mars 2005. Objectifs : Maîtriser les différentes fonctions d'Adobe Acrobat 6.0. Programme : Présentation d'Adobe Acrobat 6.0. Création de fichiers PDF depuis Microsoft Office et d'autres applications. Création de fichiers Postscript. Modification de fichiers PDF, enregistrement et exportation. Protection par mot de passe et par signature numérique. Navigation dans les documents : interactivité, vignettes et pages, signets, liens, articles, affichage et ouverture des PDF, recherche. Travail en commun: Ajout de commentaires, révision par messagerie électronique Dur&e...

  12. Physical and thermal waste utilisation in the nonferrous metal industry; Stoffliche und thermische Abfallverwertung in der Nichteisenmetallindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In its amended form the German Household Waste Technical Code favours physical and thermal utilisation of wastes against dumping. Industrial processes offer various ways of utilising wastes with a high calorific value, e.g. in nonferrous metal production. Besides portraying this branch of industry in Germany the present paper investigates to what extent this topic has already found coverage and what potential it holds for the utilisation of wastes. By way of example it describes a successful demonstration of the physical utilisation of sewage sludge in lead production. [Deutsch] Die Neugestaltung der TA Siedlungsabfall favorisiert die thermische und stoffliche Verwertung von Abfallstoffen gegenueber der Deponierung. Moeglichkeiten fuer die Verwertung heizwertreicher Abfaelle bieten auch industrielle Produktionsprozesse, z.B. auch in der Nichteisenmetallerzeugung. Neben einer Charakterisierung der Branche wird untersucht, inwieweit dieses Thema bereits aufgegriffen worden ist und welches Verwertungspotential zur Verfuegung steht. An einem Beispiel wird die erfolgreiche Demonstration der stofflichen Verwertung von Klaerschlamm in der Bleierzeugung dargestellt. (orig.)

  13. Impacts of HIV/AIDS mortality on food security and natural resource utilisation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIDS mortality, its linkages as a determinant and consequence of food security and its impact on natural resource utilisation by mainly rural populations, has not been well researched, especially their effects on rural livelihoods. Determining...

  14. Patients' subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation: the study protocol of a quality comparative study between Norway and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Wolfram; Haarmann, Alexander; Flick, Uwe; Bærheim, Anders; Lichte, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background In Germany, utilisation of ambulatory healthcare services is high compared with other countries: While a study based on the process data of German statutory health insurances showed an average of 17.1 physician-patient-contacts per year, the comparable figure for Norway is about five. The usual models of healthcare utilisation, such as Rosenstock's Health Belief Model and Andersen's Behavioural Model, cannot explain these differences adequately. Organisational factors of th...

  15. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  16. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó hAiseadha, Coilín

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources.

  17. Resource utilisation and costs associated with the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Prospective data from the Eurodiale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompers, L.; Huijberts, M.; Schaper, N.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of the present study was to investigate resource utilisation and associated costs in patients with diabetic foot ulcers and to analyse differences in resource utilisation between individuals with or without peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and/or infection. Methods Data....... In view of the magnitude of the costs associated with in-hospital stay, reducing the number and duration of hospital admissions seems an attractive option to decrease costs in diabetic foot disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  18. MODELISATION ET OPTIMISATION DU PROCESSUS DE FORMULATION D’UN CHOCOLAT ET DE GRUYERE UTILISANT UN PROGRAMME FACTORIEL DE TYPE 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D MIRON

    2005-06-01

    on a utilisé un programme factoriel de type 33 pour l’élaboration des modèles mathématiques et pour l’optimisation de la qualité du produit. Conséquemment, se peut établir les valeurs optimales des paramètres pour l’obtention des caractéristiques organoleptiques satisfaisantes

  19. Short-Lived Antimony and Arsenic Isotopes Formed in Fission; Radioantimoine et Radioarsenic a Courte Periode Produits par la Fission; 041a 041e 0420 041e 0422 041a 041e 0416 0418 0412 0423 0429 0418 0415 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 042b 0421 0423 0420 042c 041c 042b 0418 041c 042b 0428 042c 042f 041a 0410 , 041e 0411 0420 0410 0417 041e 0412 0410 0412 0428 0418 0415 0421 042f 041f 0420 0418 0414 0415 - 041b 0415 041d 0418 0418 ; Isotopos de Periodo Corto del Antimonio y del Arsenico Formados por Fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, L. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1965-07-15

    The application of a new technique for the rapid separation of short-lived antimony and arsenic isotopes from fission products is described. The gamma spectra of Sb{sup 128}, Sb{sup 129} and Sb{sup 150} have been measured and previous observations con-firmed. A new delayed-neutron activity of 2-s half-life has been detected. The experimental data indicate that this activity is due to two isotopes, one of antimony and the other of arsenic. These are tentatively as-signed to Sb{sup 135} and one of the isotopes As{sup 85-87}. (author) [French] L'auteur expose Inapplication d'une methode nouvelle visant a separer rapidement le radioantimoine et le radioarsenic a courte periode des autres produits de fission. II a mesure les spectres gamma de {sup 128}Sb, {sup 129}Sb et {sup 130}Sb et obtenu confirmation d'observations precedentes. L'auteur a decele une nouvelle activite emettant des neutrons retardes et ayant une periode de 2 s. Selon des donnees ex peri mentales, cette activite est due a deux radioisotopes: un radioantimoine et un radioarsenic que l'auteur identifie provisoirement comme etant {sup 135}Sb et l'un des radioisotopes {sup 85-87}As. (author) [Spanish] El autor describe la aplicacion de una nueva tecnica para separar rapidamente los isotopos de periodo coito del antimonio y del arsenico de los productos de fision. Se han medido el espectro gamma del {sup 128}Sb, {sup 129}Sb y {sup 130}Sb y se han confirmado las observaciones anteriores. Se ha detectado una nueva actividad neurronica retardada cuyo periodo es de 2 s. Los resultados experimentales indican que esta actividad se debe a dos isotopos, uno del antimonio y otro del arsenico, que se suponen son el {sup 135}Sb, y uno de los isotopos {sup 85-87}As, respectivamente. (author) [Russian] Opisyvaetsja primenenie novogo metoda bystrogo otdelenija korotkozhivushih izotopov sur my i mysh'jaka ot produktov delenija. Provedeno izmerenie gamma-spektrov sur'my-128, 129 i 130, podtverzhdajutsja rezul

  20. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, François; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in primary midwifery care. We collected patient-reported data on potential determinants of prenatal care utilisation derived from the Andersen model. Prenatal health care utilisation was measured by a revised version of the Kotelchuck Index, which measures a combination of care entry and number of visits. Low-risk pregnant women (not referred during pregnancy) were more likely to use prenatal care inadequately if they intended to deliver at a hospital, if they did not use folic acid adequately periconceptionally, or if they were exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. Among those who were referred to secondary care, women reporting a chronic illnesses or disabilities, and women who did not use folic acid periconceptionally were more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Inadequate prenatal health care use in primary midwifery care is more likely in specific groups, and the risk groups differ when women are referred to secondary care. The findings suggest routes that can target interventions to women who are at risk of not adequately using prenatal prevention and care services. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  2. Radiotherapy access in Belgium: How far are we from evidence-based utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Y; De Schutter, H; Stellamans, K; Rosskamp, M; Van Eycken, L

    2017-10-01

    Underutilisation of radiotherapy has been observed worldwide. To evaluate the current situation in Belgium, optimal utilisation proportions (OUPs) adopted from the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology - Health Economics in Radiation Oncology (ESTRO-HERO) project were compared to actual utilisation proportions (AUPs) and with radiotherapy advised during the multidisciplinary cancer team (MDT) meetings. In addition, the impact of independent variables was analysed. AUPs and advised radiotherapy were calculated overall and by cancer type for 110,810 unique cancer diagnoses in 2009-2010. Radiotherapy utilisation was derived from reimbursement data and distinguished between palliative and curative intent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy (BT). Sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of the follow-up period, the survival length and patient's age were performed. Advised radiotherapy was calculated based on broad treatment categories as reported at MDT meetings. The overall AUP of 37% (39% including BT) was lower than the OUP of 53%, but in line with advised radiotherapy (35%). Large variations by tumour type were observed: in some tumours (e.g. lung and prostate cancer) AUP was considerably lower than OUP, whereas in others there was reasonable concordance (e.g. breast and rectal cancer). Overall, 84% of treatments started within 9 months following diagnosis. Survival time influenced AUP in a cancer type-dependent way. Elderly patients received less radiotherapy. Although the actually delivered radiotherapy in Belgium aligns well to MDT advices, it is lower than the evidence-based optimum. Further analysis of potential barriers is needed for radiotherapy forecasting and planning, and in order to promote adequate access to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogas as a renewable energy fuel – A review of biogas upgrading, utilisation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah Khan, Imran; Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Mohd; Hashim, Haslenda; Matsuura, Takeshi; Ismail, A.F.; Rezaei-DashtArzhandi, M.; Wan Azelee, I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • It is attempted to provide critical considerations on various biogas upgrading techniques. • Membrane is an environmentally and economically sound technique for purification. • Purified biogas in compressed form is a substitute of compressed natural gas for vehicles. • Charged mass and compressor input work are the most important factors for storage. - Abstract: Biogas upgrading is a widely studied and discussed topic and its utilisation as a natural gas substitute has gained a significant attention in recent years. The production of biomethane provides a versatile application in both heat and power generation and as a vehicular fuel. This paper systematically reviews the state of the art of biogas upgrading technologies with upgrading efficiency, methane (CH 4 ) loss, environmental effect, development and commercialisation, and challenges in terms of energy consumption and economic assessment. The market situation for biogas upgrading has changed rapidly in recent years, making the membrane separation gets significant market share with traditional biogas upgrading technologies. In addition, the potential utilisation of biogas, efficient conversion into bio-compressed natural gas (bio-CNG), and storage systems are investigated in depth. Two storing systems for bio-CNG at filling stations, namely buffer and cascade storage systems are used. The best storage system should be selected on the basis of the advantages of both systems. Also, the fuel economy and mass emissions for bio-CNG and CNG filled vehicles are studied. There is the same fuel economy and less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission for bio-CNG. Based on the results of comparisons between the technical features of upgrading technologies, various specific requirements for biogas utilisation and the relevant investment, and operating and maintenance costs, future recommendations are made for biogas upgrading.

  4. Multiply disadvantaged: Health and service utilisation factors faced by homeless injecting drug consumers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Elizabeth; Swift, Wendy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Dietze, Paul; Cogger, Shelley; Bruno, Raimondo; Sindicich, Natasha; Burns, Lucy

    2015-07-01

    Homelessness status is strongly correlated with higher rates of substance use. Few studies, however, examine the complex relationship between housing status and substance use in people who inject drugs (PWID). This study extends previous research by comparing the physical and mental health status and service utilisation rates between stably housed and homeless PWID. A cross-sectional sample of 923 PWID were recruited for the 2012 Illicit Drug Reporting System. Multivariate models were generated addressing associations between homelessness and the domains of demographics; substance use; and health status, service utilisation and criminal justice system contact, with significant correlates entered into a final multivariate model. Two-thirds of the PWID sample were male. The median age was 39 years and 16% identified as Indigenous. Almost one-quarter (23%) reported that they were homeless. Homeless PWID were significantly more likely to be unemployed [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26, 6.34], inject in public (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.38, 3.18), have poorer mental health (AOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 1.00), report schizophrenia (AOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.16, 4.60) and have a prison history (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05, 2.21) than stably housed PWID. Findings highlight the challenge of mental health problems for homeless PWID. Our results demonstrate that further research that evaluates outcomes of housing programs accommodating PWID, particularly those with comorbid mental health disorders, is warranted. Results also emphasise the need to better utilise integrated models of outreach care that co-manage housing and mental health needs. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treanor Charlene

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are

  6. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  7. Utilisation of general practitioner services by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Oldenburg, Brian F; Harris, Elizabeth; Jolley, Damien

    2004-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic status (SES) and GP utilisation across Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) that differed in their geographic remoteness, and to assess whether Indigenous status and GP availability modified the association. Retrospective analysis of Medicare data for all unreferred GP consultations (1996/97) for 952 SLAs comprising the six Australian States. Geographic remoteness was ascertained using the Area Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), and SES was measured by grouping SLAs into tertiles based on their Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage score. Age/sex standardised rates of GP utilisation for each SLA. In SLAs classified as 'highly accessible', rates of GP use were 10.8% higher (95% CI 5.7-16.0) in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile after adjustment for Indigenous status and GP availability. A very different pattern of GP utilsation was found in 'remote/very remote' SLAs. After adjustment, rates of GP use in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile were 25.3% lower (95% CI 5.9-40.7) than in the most advantaged tertile. People in socio-economically disadvantaged metropolitan SLAs have higher rates of GP utilisation, as would be expected due to their poorer health. This is not true for people living in disadvantaged remote/very remote SLAs: in these areas, those most in need of GP services are least likely to receive them. Australia may lay claim to having a primary health care system that provides universal coverage, but we are still some way from having a system that is economically and geographically accessible to all.

  8. Capturing stakeholders´ views on oil palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshini, Dina; Dwivedi, Puneet; Glenk, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is the world′s second largest producer of palm oil and generates surplus palm biomass waste that can be used for bioenergy development. Malaysia aims to diversify its energy portfolio by investing into renewable energy mostly to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels. This paper captures synergetic and conflicting interests of key stakeholders, who play an important role in shaping the regulatory and business environment in Malaysia′s renewable energy sector. Particularly, this research analyses the perceptions of three stakeholder groups (government agencies, industry players, and non-governmental organisations) regarding palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia by combining Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework. Overall, results show a greater sense of optimism among the three stakeholder groups for the development of palm-based biomass utilisation in Malaysia, compared to the development of first generation palm-oil based biodiesel. We discuss the findings in light of on-going debates and policy processes, highlighting some key issues that need to be addressed in order to meet oil-palm related targets set in Malaysia’s ambitious renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • Optimism of stakeholders is greater for palm biomass utilisation than palm biodiesel. • The negative overall outlook for palm biodiesel is perhaps a symptom of hindsight. • Palm biodiesel: strengths (18%), weaknesses (34%), opportunities (23%), and threats (25%). • Palm biomass: strengths (42%), weaknesses (23%), opportunities (15%), and threats (21%). • Views of stakeholder groups are relevant to meeting Malaysia´s renewables target

  9. Introduction and utilisation of high priced HCV medicines across Europe; implications for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie de Bruijn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs boceprevir (BCV and telaprevir (TVR in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN. Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilisation measured in defined daily doses (DDDs/ 1000 patients/ quarter (DIQs and expenditure in Euros/ DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorised using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement. Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilisation of the new PIs versus ribavirin indicates differences in dual versus triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilisation of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1 with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices negotiations across countries, with their impact

  10. Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlund, Bertil

    2003-04-01

    The increased use of biomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been to analyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the energy system, by rationally utilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of current commercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden are surveyed and systematically presented. A consistent and transparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisons is given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction is calculated. The governmental subsidies of the CHP plants investment, expressed as cost of specific CO{sub 2} reduction, appears to be low. The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production in relation to fossil-based production with carbon capture is analysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide a competitive option, in terms of cost of electricity and efficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential of at least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with a biomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enable its utilisation in national and international markets. Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even further refining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power, could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuel refining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, from fuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified. Substituting fuel pellets for coal appears to be the most cost effective alternative and shows the largest CO{sub 2} reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuels appear more costly and give about half the CO{sub 2} reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuel pellets is highly feasible from CO{sub 2} emissions point of view and does not constitute a hindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can be transported over long distances efficiently with

  11. Utilisation of ART in single women and lesbian couples since the 2010 change in Victorian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Emily; Weston, Gareth

    2014-10-01

    Enactment of the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act (Vic) 2008 in January 2010 allowed single persons and same sex couples in Victoria to access reproductive treatments. A retrospective cohort analysis of Monash IVF patients was conducted to identify trends in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) use amongst single women and lesbian couples after January 2010. A 102.8% increase in the utilisation of ART was observed amongst the single women group and a 248.8% increase in the lesbian couple population. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. A strategic framework to utilise venture capital funding to develop manufacturing SMES in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyman, Hendrik Andries

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SMEs contribute considerably to the national GDP and to private sector employment, but they struggle to gain access to the funding needed to support business sustainability and growth. Venture capital provides the necessary funding, but SMEs lack understanding of the business value curve utilised by financiers to gauge the risk-reward characteristics of an investment. Strategies need to convey how the business model will evolve in order to deliver on the strategic intent. A framework is proposed through which SMEs can develop a strategy aligned with investor requirements. As a case study, the framework is applied to the local tooling sector.

  13. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for procesing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agricultural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises all three reports. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  14. Health care utilisation and characteristics of long-term breast cancer survivors: nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, V; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative Group register. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemography, health care utilisation, employment, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Associations with breast cancer treatment were investigated. RESULTS: Response rate was 79%. Significantly more BCS than the general women......%, and 'stopped working/changed job due to sequelae' by 11% of BCS. In multiple logistic regression analysis, radiotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 2.54; 95% CI 1.34-4.80) and endocrine therapy (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.13-5.45, postmenopausal women only) were significantly related to 'stopped working/changed job due...

  15. Towards zero solid waste: utilising tannery waste as a protein source for poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Hiralal; Antunes, A Paula M; Covington, Anthony D; Evans, Paul; Phillips, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Zero waste is now a strongly emerging issue for sustainable industrial development where minimisation and utilisation of waste are a priority in the leather industry. In a tannery hides and skins converted in to leather through various processes. Approximately 20% (w/w) of the chrome containing tannery solid waste (TSW) is generated from one tonne of raw hides and skins. However, tannery solid waste may also be a resource if it is managed expertly as we move towards zero waste.\\ud This resear...

  16. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  17. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  18. Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation in a multiple health insurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares G M; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    : Reducing fragmentation is necessary to provide opportunities for redistribution and to promote equity in utilisation of health services. Improvement in the delivery of services is crucial for achievement of improved access and financial protection and for increased enrolment into the CHF, which...... characteristics on the probability of seeking care and choice of provider. RESULTS: Generally, health insurance is found to increase the probability of seeking care and reduce delays. However, the probability, timing of seeking care and choice of provider varies across the CHF and NHIF members. CONCLUSIONS...

  19. Une poétique du vœu : inspiration poétique et mystique impériale dans le poème XIX (et quelques autres d’Optatianus Porfyrius

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    Marie-Odile Bruhat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La majorité des poèmes d’Optatianus Porfyrius qui nous sont parvenus est dédiée à l’empereur Constantin et consacrée à son éloge. Mais dans cette poésie visuelle d’un nouveau genre, la célébration de l’art poétique tient une place aussi importante que la célébration impériale. Comment considérer le discours proprement poétique d’Optatianus ? Est-il simplement juxtaposé au discours politique ? Relève-t-il d’une pure convention ornementale ? Ces questions sont d’autant plus pertinentes que, loin de présenter le procédé visuel dont il est l’inventeur comme un art technicien, Optatianus revendique le double titre de poiètès et de uates et convoque les divinités de l’inspiration, Phébus et les Muses, alors même que ses poèmes se font l’écho de la nouvelle théologie chrétienne du pouvoir. La réponse apparaît double. D’une part, la poésie d’Optatianus peut être définie comme votive. Ses poèmes s’inscrivent dans la liturgie du pouvoir, c’est-à-dire dans le cadre d’une théologie impériale qui repose sur l’affirmation de l’éternité de la victoire et sur le renouvellement du charisme victorieux à travers le rituel des voeux. Par son discours sur Phébus et les Muses, Optatianus met en place une véritable poétique du voeu, qui consiste à couler la mystique de l’inspiration dans le moule de la mystique impériale. D’autre part, ce projet poétique répond à bien des égards à l’attente impériale. Il rencontre la volonté de Constantin de développer une politique culturelle, et se plie à quelques traits caractéristiques de sa religiosité : conviction de la nécessité du secours divin dans les actions humaines, d’une inspiration divine dont Constantin a fait lui-même l’expérience, attention aux signes et aux visions, attachement à un charisme solaire qui coexiste sous une forme « neutralisée » avec sa foi chrétienne. Le poème XIX, composé à l

  20. Factors associated with postnatal care utilisation in Rwanda: A secondary analysis of 2010 Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwabufigiri, Bernard N; Mukamurigo, Judith; Thomson, Dana R; Hedt-Gautier, Bethany L; Semasaka, Jean Paul S

    2016-05-31

    Postnatal care (PNC) in the first seven days is important for preventing morbidity and mortality in mothers and new-borns. Sub-Saharan African countries, which account for 62 % of maternal deaths globally, have made major efforts to increase PNC utilisation, but utilisation rates remains low even in countries like Rwanda where PNC services are universally available for free. This study identifies key socio-economic and demographic factors associated with PNC utilisation in Rwanda to inform improved PNC policies and programs. This is a secondary analysis of the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, a national multi-stage, cross-sectional survey. In bivariate analysis, we used chi-square tests to identify demographic and socio-economic factors associated with PNC utilisation at α = 0.1. Pearson's R statistic (r > 0.5) was used to identify collinear covariates, and to choose which covariate was more strongly associated with PNC utilisation. Manual backward stepwise logistic regression was performed on the remaining covariates to identify key factors associated with PNC utilisation at α = 0.05. All analyses were performed in Stata 13 adjusting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. Of the 2,748 women with a live birth in the last two years who answered question about PNC utilisation, 353 (12.8 %) returned for PNC services within seven days after birth. Three factors were positively associated with PNC use: delivering at a health facility (OR: 2.97; 95 % CI: 2.28-3.87), being married but not involved with one's own health care decision-making (OR: 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.17, 2.44) compared to being married and involved; and being in the second (OR: 1.46; 95 % CI: 1.01-2.09) or richest wealth quintile (OR: 2.04; 95 % CI: 1.27-3.29) compared to the poorest. Mother's older age at delivery was negatively associated with PNC use (20-29 - OR: 0.51, 95 % CI: 0.29-0.87; 30-39 - OR: 0.47, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.83; 40-49 - OR: 0.32, 95 % CI: 0.16-0.64). Low PNC

  1. Une autre ville pour une autre vie. Henri Lefebvre et les situationnistes

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    Philippe Simay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits distinctifs du mouvement situationniste est de s’être constamment préoccupé de la question urbaine. Conçue comme l’espace de production de la société du spectacle mais aussi comme un terrain de lutte et d’expérimentation, la ville a représenté pour ce mouvement estudiantin, proche d’Henri Lefebvre, le lieu d’une réinvention radicale de la vie quotidienne. Cet article revient sur la critique situationniste de l’urbanisme de l’après-guerre ainsi que sur les pratiques auxquelles elle a donné lieu (détournement, dérive, cartes psychogéographiques, construction de situations éphémères. Celles-ci peuvent être regardées comme la première expression d’un « droit à la ville », tel que l’entendait Lefebvre. Reste à savoir si le groupe de Guy Debord souhaitait véritablement « changer la ville pour changer la vie » ou si la ville n’était que le théâtre d’une révolution à venir.One of the distinctive traits of the situationist movement is its constant preoccupation with the urban issue. For this student movement close to Henri Lefebvre, the city has been thought of as a choice generic location for the production of the Society of the Spectacle, but also as a test ground for struggle and experimentation – the place where a radical reinvention of daily life can occur. This paper goes back to the situationist critique of post-war urbanism, as well as the behaviors and practices it has given birth to (misappropriation, drifts in meaning, psychogeographic maps, the construct of short-lived situations. These can be seen as the first expression of a « right to the city », in the sense Lefebvre originally meant it have. However, it is still unknown whether Guy Debord's group really wished to « change city-life to change life itself », or if to them the city was merely a theater for the enactment of a revolution to come.

  2. The effects of China's urban basic medical insurance schemes on the equity of health service utilisation: evidence from Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Zhu, Liang; Zhou, Zhiying; Li, Zhengya; Gao, Jianmin; Chen, Gang

    2014-03-09

    In order to alleviate the problem of "Kan Bing Nan, Kan Bing Gui" (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive) and improve the equity of health service utilisation for urban residents in China, the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme (UEBMI) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme (URBMI) were established in 1999 and 2007, respectively. This study aims to analyse the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on the equity of outpatient and inpatient utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China. Using the data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Shaanxi Province, the method of Propensity Score Matching was employed to generate comparable samples between the insured and uninsured residents, through a one-to-one match algorithm. Next, based on the matched data, the method of decomposition of the concentration index was employed to compare the horizontal inequity indexes of health service utilisation between the UEBMI/URBMI insured and the matched uninsured residents. For the UEBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are 0.1256 and -0.0511 respectively, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1222 and 0.2746 respectively. Meanwhile, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are -0.1593 and 0.0967 for the URBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1931 and 0.3199 respectively. The implementation of UEBMI increased the pro-rich inequity of outpatient utilisation (rich people utilise outpatient facilities more than the poor people) and the implementation of URBMI increased the pro-poor inequity of outpatient utilisation. Both of these two health insurance schemes reduced the pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilisation.

  3. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by

  4. 8 novembre 2016 - Ambassadeur extraordinaire et plénipotentiaire V. Zellweger, Représentant permanent de la Confédération suisse auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales à Genève signe le livre d'or en présence de J. Wenninger, C. Warakaulle, F. Gianotti et M. Steinacher.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    Son Excellence Monsieur Valentin Zellweger Ambassadeur extraordinaire et plénipotentiaire Représentant permanent de la Confédération Suisse auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales à Genève Mardi 8 novembre 2016

  5. The utilisation of two detectors for the determination of water in honey using headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-15

    A headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method was developed for the determination of water content in honey. This method was shown to work with five different honey varieties which had a range of water from 14-16%. It also utilised two different detectors, the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and the barrier discharge ionisation detector (BID). This method needs no heating pretreatment step as in the current leading method, (i.e. the measurement of refractive index). The solvent-free procedure negates the possibility of solvent-compound interactions as well as solubility limitations, as is common with Karl Fischer titrations. It was also apparent that the classic loss on drying method consistently and substantially produced results that were lower than the correct values. This approach is shown to be rapid, with an analysis time of 4 min when using the TCD detector and under 3 min when utilising the BID detector. HSGC is feasible for the determination of water due to the new PEG-linked geminal dicationic ionic-liquid-coated GC capillary column. In addition it provides accurate and precise determinations of the water content in honey. When using the sensitive BID detector, other trace volatile compounds are observed as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An exploratory study on the utilisation of resilience by middle adolescents in reconstituted families following divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzette Ebersohn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year thousands of core families disintegrate through divorce, and in the ensuing restructuring of the family system the child has to cope with various development challenges, such as divided membership of two micro family systems and complexities that result at the mesosystemic level. Achieving positive development outcomes in the presence of challenging living circumstances entails complex interactive processes. The aim of the study was to understand the concomitant, reciprocal and/or responsive dynamics of middle adolescents' use of their inherent resilience potential in their movement back and forth between their two reconstituted family systems after the parents' divorce. The study was grounded in the qualitative interpretivist paradigm, and used a multiple case study as research design and a narrative format for description. A purposive sample of four white Afrikaans-speaking middle adolescents participated in the research. Findings revealed that middle adolescents of divorced parents utilise their resilience potential in a systemic manner, which requires a solid base provided by the meso system. Hence the utilisation of resilience relies at the very minimum on a functional relationship of cooperation between the biological parents.

  7. Access and utilisation of maternity care for disabled women who experience domestic abuse: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data were analysed to identify: the factors that facilitate or compromise access to care; the consequences of inadequate care for pregnant women’s health and wellbeing; and the effectiveness of existing strategies for improvement. Results Findings indicate that a mental health diagnosis, poor relationships with health professionals and environmental barriers can compromise women’s utilisation of maternity services. Domestic abuse can both compromise, and catalyse, access to services and social support is a positive factor when accessing care. Delayed and inadequate care has adverse effects on women’s physical and psychological health, however further research is required to fully explore the nature and extent of these consequences. Only one study identified strategies currently being used to improve access to services for disabled women experiencing abuse. Conclusions Based upon the barriers and facilitators identified within the review, we suggest that future strategies for improvement should focus on: understanding women’s reasons for accessing care; fostering positive relationships; being women-centred; promoting environmental accessibility; and improving the strength of the evidence base. PMID:25029907

  8. Health service utilisation of rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China: does employment status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolei; Zou, Guanyang; Chen, Wen; Han, Siqi; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li

    2017-01-01

    To describe the self-reported health status and service utilisation of employed, retired and unemployed migrants in Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China. A cross-sectional study adapted from the National Health Service Survey was conducted between September and December in 2014. Based on the distribution of occupation of migrants, multistage sampling was used to recruit individuals. Logistic regression was applied to explore the factors influencing their service utilisation. Of 2906 respondents, 76.6% were employed, 9.2% retired and 14.2% unemployed. Only 8.1% reported having an illness in the previous 2 weeks, and 6.5% reported having been hospitalised in the previous year. Employed migrants had the lowest recent physician consultation rate (3.4%) and the lowest annual hospitalisation rate (4.5%) (P rates (6.8% and 14.5% respectively, P employed (1.5%) and unemployed migrants (3.4%) (P gender, employment status remained significant in explaining the recent two-week treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants (P Employed migrants make the least use of health services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Utilisation of Library Information Resources among Generation Z Students: Facts and Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenere Gabriel Salubi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Generation Z was the foremost generation to have prevalent access to the Internet from an early age. Technology has strongly influenced this generation in terms of communication, education and consequently their academic information behaviour. With the next generation of scholars already being trained, in a decade, most of the researchers will be mainly digital natives. This study sought to establish the library information resources use pattern in relation to users’ preferred information media in order to render better academic information services to library users. A total of 390 respondents were surveyed at the Nelson Mandela University and the University of Fort Hare using quantitative and qualitative methods. Most of the respondents, 82.3%, were aged between 18 and 23 years; while the average library use time was two hours daily. The most utilised library resource is the Wi-Fi with e-books and e-journals found to be lowly utilised. Records from the E-librarians revealed that undergraduate students account for no more than 6% of total users of electronic databases with 62.3% of the respondents preferring print information resources. Better understanding of library users’ demographics and information media preference is essential in proving the right kind of information services to Generation Z library users.

  10. Utilisation of information technology to support information and knowledge management by lawyers in Polokwane City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Bopape

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A revolution in information and communication technology is taking place in the world. With this technological revolution, information and knowledge are also considered as crucial assets for every organization. Law firms are regarded as one of the industries which are information and knowledge-intensive. The utilization of information technology can play an essential role in supporting information and knowledge management in law firms. An investigation into the extent to which lawyers or law firms in Polokwane city utilize information technology to support information and knowledge management was conducted through a survey questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model. The findings of this research showed that lawyers utilise information technology systems or applications that are common, such as word processing, e-mail, client billing and online databases for searching legal information. Other information and knowledge management tools, such as Intranets, extranets and web portals, were the least and non-utilised applications by these lawyers. The main reason for non-utilization of such systems may be linked to non- exposure to information technology and unfamiliarity with information and knowledge management tools. It is, therefore, recommended that legal schools should include, in their curriculum, modules on the application and role of information technology in the legal practice. Recommendations for future research related to this subject are also provided.

  11. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  12. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernando Neto da; Prata, Antonio Salgado; Teixeira, Jorge Rocha

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO x ) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO x and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%. (Author)

  13. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto da Silva, Fernando; Salgado Prata, Antonio; Rocha Teixeira, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO X ) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO X and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  14. Phytosociology and plant community utilisation by vervet monkeys of the Blydeberg Conservancy, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Barret

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant communities of the Blydeberg Conservancy were investigated as part of a research project on the foraging ecology of vervet monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus (senso lato in mixed lowveld bushveld and sour lowveld bushveld areas. To date there are no formal management plans for vervet monkeys. This is attributed to the limited knowledge of vervets and their utilisation of and impacts on ecosystems. From a TWINSPAN classification refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, ten plant communities that can be placed into four major groups were identified. A classification and description of these communities, including a vegetation map are presented. Diagnostic species as well as prominent and less conspicuous species of tree, shrub, herb and grass strata are outlined. Of the ten available plant communities, the vervets utilised only six during the study period. There was an abundant supply of various food sources throughout the year, with movement patterns mostly coinciding with the fruiting times of several tree and other plant species.

  15. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  16. Heating Has No Effect on the Net Protein Utilisation from Egg Whites in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Matsuoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg whites (EW are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36, 198±1 g were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU rate. The soybean protein group had a significantly lower level of food intake and was thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The NPU value was similar among the unheated, soft-boiled, and boiled EW groups (97.5±0.4, 96.5±0.1, and 96.5±0.7, resp.. The EW group values were significantly higher than the whey group values (90.5±1.0. These results show that EW serve as a good source of protein, irrespective of heating.

  17. An environmental analysis of options for utilising wasted food and food residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    The potential environmental impact of wasted food minimisation versus its utilisation in a circular bioeconomy is investigated based on a case study of Ireland. The amount of wasted food and food residue (WFFR) produced in 2010 was used for business-as-usual, (a) and four management options were assessed, (b) minimisation, (c) composting, (d) anaerobic digestion and (e) incineration. The environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) were considered. A carbon return on investment (CRoI) was calculated for the three processing technologies (c-e). The results showed that a minimisation strategy for wasted food would result in the greatest reduction of all three impacts, -4.5 Mt CO 2 -e (GWP), -11.4 kt PO 4 3 -e (EP) and -43.9 kt SO 2 -e (AP) compared to business as usual. For WFFR utilisation in the circular bioeconomy, anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest environmental impact and best CRoI of -0.84 kg CO 2 -e per Euro. From an economic perspective, for minimisation to be beneficial, 0.15 kg of wasted food would need to be reduced per Euro spent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Hill, Catherine L

    2008-08-19

    Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide, South Australia. The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of 4,060 people randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. The interview included questions regarding healthcare service utilisation in the past year. Data were also collected on education, income and major medical conditions. Overall, 9.5% of the total sample and 17.7% of those who reported foot pain had attended a podiatrist in the past year. Participants who had accessed podiatry treatment were more likely to be female, be aged over 45 years, be obese, and have major chronic medical conditions (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure). Those who reported foot pain but had not accessed a podiatrist were more likely to be male and be aged 20 to 34 years. Only a small proportion of people who report foot pain have accessed podiatry services in the past year. There is a need to further promote podiatry services to the general community, particularly to men and younger people.

  19. Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide, South Australia. Methods The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of 4,060 people randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. The interview included questions regarding healthcare service utilisation in the past year. Data were also collected on education, income and major medical conditions. Results Overall, 9.5% of the total sample and 17.7% of those who reported foot pain had attended a podiatrist in the past year. Participants who had accessed podiatry treatment were more likely to be female, be aged over 45 years, be obese, and have major chronic medical conditions (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure. Those who reported foot pain but had not accessed a podiatrist were more likely to be male and be aged 20 to 34 years. Conclusion Only a small proportion of people who report foot pain have accessed podiatry services in the past year. There is a need to further promote podiatry services to the general community, particularly to men and younger people.

  20. Women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation: empirical evidence from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-10-01

    Women's autonomy is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, whereas there is no consistent empirical evidence to support this claim. This paper examines whether or not and how women's autonomy within the household affects the use of reproductive health care, using a household survey data from Tajikistan. Estimation is performed by the bivariate probit model whereby woman's use of health services and the level of women's autonomy are recursively and simultaneously determined. The data is from a sample of women aged 15-49 from the Tajikistan Living Standard Measurement Survey 2007. Women's autonomy as measured by women's decision-making on household financial matters increase the likelihood that a woman receives antenatal and delivery care, whilst it has a negative effect on the probability of attending to four or more antenatal consultations. The hypothesis that women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation are independently determined is rejected for most of the estimation specifications, indicating the importance of taking into account the endogenous nature of women's autonomy when assessing its effect on health care use. The empirical results reconfirm the assertion that women's status within the household is closely linked to reproductive health care utilisation in developing countries. Policymakers therefore need not only to implement not only direct health interventions but also to focus on broader social policies which address women's empowerment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. National health insurance subscription and maternal healthcare utilisation across mothers' wealth status in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyaw, Edward Kwabena; Kofinti, Raymond Elikplim; Appiah, Francis

    2017-12-01

    This study is against the backdrop that despite the forty-nine percent decline in Maternal Mortality Rate in Ghana, the situation still remains high averaging 319 per 100,000 live births between 2011 and 2015. To examine the relationship between National Health Insurance and maternal healthcare utilisation across three main wealth quintiles (Poor, Middle and Rich). The study employed data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Both descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted. Descriptively, rich women had high antenatal attendance and health facility deliveries represented by 96.5% and 95.6% respectively. However, the binary logistic regression results revealed that poor women owning NHIS are 7% (CI = 1.76-2.87) more likely to make at least four antenatal care visits compared to women in the middle wealth quintile (5%, CI = 2.12-4.76) and rich women (2%, CI = 1.14-4.14). Similarly, poor women who owned the NHIS are 14% (CI = 1.42-2.13) likely to deliver in health facility than women in the middle and rich wealth quintile. The study has vindicated the claim that NHIS Scheme is pro-poor in Ghana. The Ministry of Health should target women in the rural area to be enrolled on the NHIS to improve maternal healthcare utilisation since poverty is principally a rural phenomenon in Ghana.

  2. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  3. The provision and utilisation of casemix and demographic data by nursing managers in seven hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Nicole; Donoghue, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The role of the nursing manager has evolved from clinician and bed manager to one with greater accountability for evidence based practice, benchmarking and more recently, budget liability. Casemix data are widely believed to be a means of providing essential information for effective decision making and financial management but have not been widely utilised by nursing managers (Diers & Bozzo, 1999). This paper will report the results of a survey of nursing managers in seven hospitals within a metropolitan area health service. The hospitals include tertiary referral hospitals, specialist public hospitals and an affiliated public hospital for aged care and rehabilitation services. The survey sought to establish what casemix and related data were provided to nurse managers, who provided these data and how supplied data were utilised by the nurse managers. Results demonstrated that the majority of nursing managers surveyed received minimal (if any) casemix and/or demographic data on a routine basis. Some were provided with data in response to specific requests. The information that was provided varied both within and across hospitals, and no consistent methods of data distribution were available. Few nursing managers believed that the information provided aided their decision-making processes partly due to the minimalist nature of provided data while some nursing managers demonstrated a lack of understanding of the potential benefit of casemix data as a resource to support management decision making.

  4. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordonaba-Bosque Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain. Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®. Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain.

  5. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices. PMID:27847805

  6. Pharmaco-epidcemiology of drugs utilised for cataract surgery in a government medical college and hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Supreeti; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Halder, Sujash; Sarkar, Sougat Sourendra; Maiti, Tamoghna; Lahiri, Saibendu Kumar; Haldar, Swaraj

    2010-12-01

    Prescription audit is a powerful tool for rational prescription. To evaluate pharmaco-epidemiology of drugs utilised for cataract surgery, a retrospective study was conducted in the department of pharmacology, RG Kar Medical College, Kolkata. Data from bed head tickets of one year, available in medical record section, were collected in case report forms and analysed. Utilisation pattern of drugs like dosage form, dose, route and frequency of administration and duration of therapy were audited. Drug prescription versus therapeutic indication was also evaluated. Price of the prescribed drugs was evaluated for rationality towards cost-effective prescription. For 848 cases of cataract surgery, drugs were prescribed pre-, per- and post-operatively. Different fluoroquinolone antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and mydriatic-cycloplegic agents were prescribed. High or low cost drugs were prescribed both in generic (52%) and brand (48%) names. Few Latin abbreviations were used in directions. Different parameters and study results were discussed from various aspects to explore their social impacts. Though prescription pattern was almost rational, some parts need improvement. Healthcare provider should be aware of cost-effectiveness of the prescribed drugs for the benefit of patients to provide a rational prescription.

  7. Techno-Economic Models for Optimised Utilisation of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus under an Out-Grower Farming Scheme in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Osei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Techno-economic models for optimised utilisation of jatropha oil under an out-grower farming scheme were developed based on different considerations for oil and by-product utilisation. Model 1: Out-grower scheme where oil is exported and press cake utilised for compost. Model 2: Out-grower scheme with six scenarios considered for the utilisation of oil and by-products. Linear programming models were developed based on outcomes of the models to optimise the use of the oil through profit maximisation. The findings revealed that Model 1 was financially viable from the processors’ perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg. All scenarios considered under Model 2 were financially viable from the processors perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg; however, at seed price of $0.085/kg, financial viability was achieved for both parties. Optimising the utilisation of the oil resulted in an annual maximum profit of $123,300.

  8. The impact of frailty on healthcare utilisation in Ireland: evidence from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Lorna; Normand, Charles; Wren, Maev-Ann; Browne, John; O'Halloran, Aisling M

    2017-09-05

    To examine the impact of frailty on medical and social care utilisation among the Irish community-dwelling older population to inform strategies of integrated care for older people with complex needs. Participants aged ≥65 years from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) representative of the Irish community-dwelling older population were analysed (n = 3507). The frailty index was used to examine patterns of utilisation across medical and social care services. Multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models were employed to examine the impact of frailty on service utilisation outcomes after controlling for other factors. The prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 24% (95% CI: 23, 26%) and 45% (95% CI: 43, 47%) respectively. Frailty was a significant predictor of utilisation of most social care and medical care services after controlling for the main correlates of frailty and observed individual effects. Frailty predicts utilisation of many different types of healthcare services rendering it a useful risk stratification tool for targeting strategies of integrated care. The pattern of care is predominantly medical as few of the frail older population use social care prompting questions about sub-groups of the frail older population with unmet care needs.

  9. Utilisation of VOC in Diesel Engines. Ignition and combustion of VOC released in crude oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhus, Oeyvin

    2002-01-01

    The emission of VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) is a significant source of hydrocarbon pollution. In Norway, the offshore oil industry represents a major source. This emission represents both an energy loss and an environmental problem. Gas tankers have used boil-off gas from the cargo tanks as fuel for some time. However, for the current VOC project a new fuel injection concept is designed for tankers to take advantage of the energy present in the VOC evaporated from crude oil. The VOC is mixed with inert gas in these tankers, and thus the utilisation of this gas represents new challenges. The VOC project uses the concept of ''Condensate Diesel Process'' with pilot ignition. An experimental study of ignition and combustion of VOC Fuels reported here was initiated by the time it was decided to start a pilot project converting propulsion engines in shuttle tankers to use VOC Fuel. It is an experimental study carried out at the Marine Technology Centre (MTS). The objective was to study ignition and combustion of the chosen process in comparison with an ordinary diesel process. The experimental results have been discussed and compared with theoretical considerations of injection, ignition and combustion. For experiments on combustion, a rapid compression machine ''DyFo'' was redesigned to use VOC Fuel. The DyFo test rig was initially designed to study ignition and early combustion of spark ignited homogeneous gas/air charges. To study the ignition and early combustion of VOC Fuel injected at high pressure and ignited by pilot diesel fuel, a redesign was necessary. An important feature of the DyFo, is the visualisation of the combustion. The advantage of the DyFo test rig over an engine, is its simplicity and controllability. In an engine the visualisation would suffer from combustion deposits disturbing the view through the quartz glasses, making the images more difficult to interpret. The simplicity is on the other side a drawback. Correct thermal conditions inside

  10. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toar, Magzoub; O'Brien, Kirsty K; Fahey, Tom

    2009-06-30

    Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups for use of dentists, medication, hospitalisation or mental health services. Asylum seekers have a higher level of self reported

  11. Utilisation and outcomes following the introduction of an interventional radiology day unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, G.C.; Shaida, N.; Pyneeandee, R.; Shaw, A.; See, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the utilisation of an interventional radiology day unit (RDU), the rates of on-time discharges, the financial performance of the unit, and finally, the patient satisfaction rates. Materials and methods: Data regarding the unit utilisation, discharge times, and complications were retrospectively collected for the first 2 years of operation of the unit (1 April 2013 to 1 January 2015). In addition, monitoring the activity going through the RDU and applying a contribution margin to the freed-up beds measured the financial performance. The data were provided by the finance department of the hospital. Satisfaction survey questionnaires were sent randomly by post to 100 patients who had been previously admitted to the RDU. Results: During the study period, 3019 patients were admitted to the RDU, comprising 1426 during the first year and 1513 during the second. On average, 5.6 patients were discharged from the RDU on every working day during the first year and 7.1 patients during the second (21% increase in the discharge rate). Given the 8-hour working time configuration of the unit, a realistic 80% utilisation rate of the RDU's seven beds could free a total of 1400 inpatient bed days over a full year. The cost of delivering these episodes of care was reduced by approximately 50%. From the financial data, it was estimated that the RDU managed to achieve a total of £393,000 in savings for the Trust for the financial year 2013–2014. The return rate of the patient satisfaction survey was 40%. All patients were satisfied with their overall RDU experience. Conclusion: The RDU has brought significant benefits for patients and the Trust without compromises in safety or quality. - Highlights: • Radiology Day units can improve workflow through improved efficiency. • RDUs can decrease the treatment-related costs mainly by reducing the need for unnecessary overnight hospitalisation. • They appear to be welcome by the patients with excellent feedback so far.

  12. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6-2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices). Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year

  13. Design and utilisation of protocols to characterise dynamic PET uptake of two tracers using basis pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christopher; Puttick, Simon; Rose, Stephen; Smith, Jye; Thomas, Paul; Dowson, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Imaging using more than one biological process using PET could be of great utility, but despite previously proposed approaches to dual-tracer imaging, it is seldom performed. The alternative of performing multiple scans is often infeasible for clinical practice or even in research studies. Dual-tracer PET scanning allows for multiple PET radiotracers to be imaged within the same imaging session. In this paper we describe our approach to utilise the basis pursuit method to aid in the design of dual-tracer PET imaging experiments, and later in separation of the signals. The advantage of this approach is that it does not require a compartment model architecture to be specified or even that both signals are distinguishable in all cases. This means the method for separating dual-tracer signals can be used for many feasible and useful combinations of biology or radiotracer, once an appropriate scanning protocol has been decided upon. Following a demonstration in separating the signals from two consecutively injected radionuclides in a controlled experiment, phantom and list-mode mouse experiments demonstrated the ability to test the feasibility of dual-tracer imaging protocols for multiple injection delays. Increases in variances predicted for kinetic macro-parameters V D and K I in brain and tumoral tissue were obtained when separating the synthetically combined data. These experiments confirmed previous work using other approaches that injections delays of 10-20 min ensured increases in variance were kept minimal for the test tracers used. On this basis, an actual dual-tracer experiment using a 20 min delay was performed using these radio tracers, with the kinetic parameters (V D and K I) extracted for each tracer in agreement with the literature. This study supports previous work that dual-tracer PET imaging can be accomplished provided certain constraints are adhered to. The utilisation of basis pursuit techniques, with its removed need to specify a model

  14. Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visvikis, D.; Ell, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The study of new radiolabelled ligands will impose further demands for rapid dynamic data acquisition and accurate tracer quantification. Current and future developments in PET technology range from the use of new detector materials to different detector geometries and data acquisition modes. The search for alternatives to BGO scintillation materials for PET has led to the development of PET instruments utilising new crystals such as LSO and GSO. The use of these new detectors and the increased sensitivity achieved with 3D data acquisitions represent the most significant current developments in the field. With the increasing demands imposed on the clinical utilisation of PET, issues such as study cost and patient throughput will emerge as significant future factors. As a consequence, low-cost units are being offered by the manufacturers through the utilisation of gamma camera-based SPET systems for PET coincidence imaging. Unfortunately, clinical studies in lymphoma and other cancers have already demonstrated the limitations of this technology, with 20% of lesions <15 mm in size escaping detection. On the other hand, the recent development of combined PET/CT devices attempts to address the lack of anatomical information inherent with PET images, taking advantage of further improvement in patient throughput and hence cost-effectiveness. Preliminary studies using this multimodality imaging approach have already demonstrated the potential of the technique. Although the potential exists, certain technical issues with PET/CT require refinement of the methodology. Such issues include organ movement (such as respiratory motion), which strongly influences the image fusion of a rapidly acquired CT scan with the slower acquisition of a PET dataset, and the derivation of CT-based attenuation coefficients in the presence of contrast agents or metallic implants. The application of the technology for radiotherapy planning also poses a number of associated challenges. Finally

  15. Use of gamma spectroscopy in activation analysis; Utilisation de la spectrographie gamma dans l'analyse par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Brief review of the principles of activation analysis: calculation of activities, decay curves, {beta} absorption curves, examples of application. - Principle and description of the {gamma} spectrograph. - Practical utilisation of the {gamma} spectrograph: analysis by activation, analysis by {beta} - x fluorescence. - Sensitivity limit of the method and precision of the measurements. - Possible improvements to the method: {gamma} spectroscopy with elimination of the Compton effect. (author) [French] Bref rappel des principes de l'analyse par activation: calcul des activites, courbes de decroissance, courbes d'absorption {beta}, exemples d'utilisation. - Principe et description du spectrographe {gamma}. - Utilisation pratique de la spectrographie {gamma}: analyse par activation, analyse par fluorescence {beta} - x. - Limite de sensibilite de la methode et precision des mesures. - Ameliorations possibles de la methode: spectrographe {gamma} avec elimination de l'effet Compton. (auteur)

  16. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-04-21

    Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status. Data from 3300 women participating in a prospective cohort of primary midwifery care clients (i.e. women with no complications or no increased risk for complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium who receive maternity care by autonomous midwives) in the Netherlands (the DELIVER study) was used. Gestational age at entry and the total number of prenatal visits were aggregated into an index. The extent to which potential factors explained non-western women's prenatal care utilisation was assessed by means of blockwise logistic regression analyses and percentage changes in odds ratios. The unadjusted odds of first and second-generation non-western women making inadequate use of prenatal care were 3.26 and 1.96 times greater than for native Dutch women. For the first generation, sociocultural factors explained 43% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation, socioeconomic factors explained 33% and demographic and pregnancy factors explained 29%. For the second generation, sociocultural factors explained 66% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation. Irrespective of generation, strategies to improve utilisation should focus on those with the following sociocultural characteristics (not speaking Dutch at home, no partner or a first-generation non-Dutch partner). For the first generation, strategies should also focus on those with the following demographic, pregnancy and socioeconomic characteristics (aged ≤ 19 or ≥ 36, unplanned pregnancies, poor obstetric histories (extra-uterine pregnancy, molar pregnancy or abortion), a low educational level, below average net household income and no supplementary insurance.

  17. Episodic aphasia associated with tumor active multiple sclerosis: a correlative SPECT study utilising image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roff, G.; Campbell, A.; Lawn, N.; Henderson, A.; McCarthy, M.; Lenzo, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cerebral perfusion imaging is a common technique to assess cerebral perfusion and metabolism. It can complement anatomical imaging in assessing a number of neurological conditions. At times it can better define the clinical manifestations of a disease process than anatomical imaging alone. We present a clinical case whereby cerebral SPECT imaging helped define the physiological reason for intermittent aphasia in a patient with tumor active multiple sclerotic white matter plaques. Cerebral SPECT studies were performed during a period of aphasia and when the patient had recovered. We utilised subtraction analyses and image fusion techniques to better define the changes seen on SPECT. We discuss the neuroanatomical relationship of aphasia and the automatic fusion technique that allows accurate co-registration of the MRI and SPECT data. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Web service discovery among large service pools utilising semantic similarity and clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fuzan; Li, Minqiang; Wu, Harris; Xie, Lingli

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of electronic business, Web services have attracted much attention in recent years. Enterprises can combine individual Web services to provide new value-added services. An emerging challenge is the timely discovery of close matches to service requests among large service pools. In this study, we first define a new semantic similarity measure combining functional similarity and process similarity. We then present a service discovery mechanism that utilises the new semantic similarity measure for service matching. All the published Web services are pre-grouped into functional clusters prior to the matching process. For a user's service request, the discovery mechanism first identifies matching services clusters and then identifies the best matching Web services within these matching clusters. Experimental results show that the proposed semantic discovery mechanism performs better than a conventional lexical similarity-based mechanism.

  19. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  20. Production and use artificial radioelements in France; Production et utilisation des radioelements artificiels en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C; Cassin, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The aim of this report is to give a picture of the French accomplishment in the field of artificial radioelement production, and to review their uses up to march 31, 1958. The Commissariat a l'Energie atomique plays a major role in this work, accounting for practically the whole of the French production, centralising the imports, helping to control the distribution and contributing to research on, and development of, new applications. (author)Fren. [French] Ce rapport a pour but de presenter l'ensemble des realisations francaises dans le domaine de la production des radioelements artificiels et de faire le point, a la date du 31 mars 1958, de leur utilisation. Le Commissariat a l'Energie atomique joue un role preponderant puisqu'il assure la quasi totalite de la production francaise, centralise les importations, participe au controle de la distribution et contribue a l'etude et au developpement de nouvelles applications. (auteur)