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Sample records for autre produit utilise

  1. Utilisations des produits forestiers autres que le bois (PFAB au Cameroun. Cas du projet forestier du Mont Koupé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiamala-Tshibangu, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Non Wood Forest Products in Cameroon. The Case of the Forest Project of the Koupe Mont. A survey using some elements of the RAA method described by Gueye and Schoonmaker (4 led to the identification of 26 plant species belonging to 15 botanical families in the Koupe Mountain forest project (Cameroon. This study deals with the utilization of non wood forest products. The small number of species reported by the study can be explained by the fact that the survey took into account only the species really used by the local population and not all those present in the forest. Study established that : harvesting and utilization of these resources generate incomes, create jobs and allow local population satisfying their needs of food, fodder, medicine, resins, dyes, fiber, handicrafts, flavorings, building materials... Unfortunately, due to organizational problems and absence of structures, the commercialization of these products does not contribute to the welfare of the local population and to the development of the production area which remained dominated by agriculture. In order to ensure the perennial characteristic of the highly demanded species, measures permitting their conservation and their sustainable utilization such as : regulation of the type and the rate of harvesting, use of non destructive harvesting techniques, their domestication through agroforestry techniques, their introduction in home-gardens... should be taken. The management of these resources requires the involvement and effective participation of the rural community. This can be achieved through mass sensitization, training and use of the media.

  2. Typologie des exploitations viticoles selon leur utilisation de produits phytosanitaires : analyse structurelle et financière basée sur les données RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Magali; Enjolras, Geoffroy; Bonnal, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Dans un contexte de réduction drastique de l'utilisation des produits phytosanitaires en agriculture, les fabricants et les consommateurs doivent adapter leurs pratiques. Grand utilisateur d'intrants, le secteur viticole est l'un des premiers concernés par cette mutation. Pour faciliter ce changement, il est nécessaire de mieux cerner les profils d'utilisation de ces intrants que nous distinguons suivant qu'ils protègent la vigne (pesticides) ou qu'ils accélèrent son développement (engrais). ...

  3. Evaluation ergonomique de produits et services : le cas du web marchand

    OpenAIRE

    Clouet, Ghuilaine

    2005-01-01

    Cette thèse se situe dans le champ de l'évaluation ergonomique de produits et de services. Une bonne évaluation doit répondre à deux types de critères qui ne sont pas nécessairement convergents : d'une part, ceux relatifs à la production de résultats scientifiquement valides et, d'autre part, ceux relatifs à l'utilisation des résultats par les professionnels destinataires. Nous explorons les deux dimensions. Nous produisons des connaissances sur la nature de la production verbale et la produc...

  4. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Première partie : Aspects techniques de l'utilisation sur moteur Using Oxygenated Organics Products As Fuels in Engines. Part One: Technical Aspects of Use in Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude consiste à examiner les principales incidences techniques de l'emploi de produits organiques oxygénés (alcools, ethers. . . comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs à allumage commandé et diesel. On a tenté d'établir une synthèse des études très nombreuses réalisées sur ce sujet surtout depuis les cinq dernières années. On a considéré une large variété de produits (méthanol, éthanol, autres alcools, éthers organiques, systèmes acétono-butyliques. . . utilisés tels quels ou en mélange dans les produits pétroliers classiques. Des techniques particulières comme la carburation catalytique, la fumigation ou la double injection ont également été examinées. This article examines the main technical impacts of using oxygenated organic products (alcohols, ethers, etc. as fuels in spark-ignition and diesel engines. An attempt is made to provide a synthesis of the enormous volume of research that has been done on this subject, especially in the last five years. A wide variety of products is considered (methanol, ethanol, other alcohols, organic ethers, butyl-acetone systems, etc. , used either unblended or blended with conventional petroleum produtcs. Special techniques such as catalytic carburation, fumigation or dual injection are also examined.

  5. Utilisation des huiles végétales et de leurs produits de transestérification comme carburants Diesel Use of Vegetable Oils and Their Transesterification Products As Diesel Fuels

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    Gateau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation d'huiles végétales et de leurs dérivés comme carburants Diesel a fait l'objet, depuis 1981, de plusieurs études financées par l'Agence Française pour la Maîtrise de l'Energie (AFME et réalisées par l'institut Français du Pétrole (lFP en collaboration avec Elf Renault, le Centre d'Etudes et d'Expérimentation du Machinisme Agricole Tropical (CEEMAT et l'institut de Recherches pour les Huiles et Oléagineux (IRHO. Ce document rassemble les résultats obtenus au banc d'essai sur plusieurs types de moteurs représentant un assez large éventail d'applications, depuis le motoculteur utilisé en agriculture africaine jusqu'au moteur classique de tracteur ou de camion. Deux types de produits ont été examinés : les huiles végétales elles-mêmes employées pures ou en mélange au gazole, et les esters méthyliques de ces huiles utilisés tels quels. Lors d'un fonctionnement de courte durée les huiles aussi bien que les esters conduisent globalement à un fonctionnement satisfaisant du moteur; les pertes de performances par rapport au gazole restent modérées voire imperceptibles. Les seuls problèmes dans ce cas concernent la mise en oeuvre, difficile avec les huiles en raison de leur très forte viscosité, beaucoup plus aisée avec les esters. En endurance, l'inconvénient majeur des huiles végétales et de leurs dérivés concerne la formation de dépôts au nez des injecteurs. Sur les moteurs rustiques à préchambre (type Hatz ce phénomène reste limité puisqu'il a été possible de conduire, sans incident, un ensemble d'essais d'endurance de 1100 h avec différents types d'huiles pures (arachide, coton, palme. Sur les moteurs à Injection directe la formation de dépôts constitue une très sérieuse contrainte puisqu'elle conduit pratiquement à proscrire l'utilisation d'huiles même en mélange (25 ou 50 % dans le gazole. Les esters peuvent alors être proposés à condition qu'un certain nombre de pr

  6. Les produits de terroir au Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Luxereau, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Les productions agricoles localisées, bénéficiant de ce fait d’une notoriété particulière, existent depuis longtemps en Afrique. Au Niger, elles sont nombreuses et leur statut est diversifié, entre des produits « patrimoines » et d’autres qui constituent des opportunités économiques récentes. Longtemps ignorés des projets de développement, ils connaissent actuellement des évolutions disparates mais la plupart du temps endogènes, « informelles » et innovantes. Tous commercialisés, ils particip...

  7. Les savoirs des autres

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, Christian

    2007-01-01

    En ethnologie, comme dans bien d'autres domaines scientifiques, le renouvellement des problématiques est souvent venu des confins territoriaux, de points marginaux de rencontre entre disciplines voisines. Chacun de ces rendez-vous marque une étape importante dans l'histoire de la démarche ethnologique ; le dialogue qui s'est noué avec la technologie, la linguistique et la sémiologie, les sciences naturelles, la médecine... a permis non seulement une extension du champ et un affinement des mét...

  8. La canne à sucre et ses co-produits dans l'alimentation animale

    OpenAIRE

    Xande, Xavier; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; Fanchone, Audrey; ALEXANDRE, Gisèle; Boval, Maryline; Coppry, Ode; Arquet, Rémy; Fleury, Jérôme; Régnier, Carole; Renaudeau, David

    2011-01-01

    La canne à sucre plante entière et ses coproduits (amarres, jus de canne, mélasse, bagasse) peuvent être valorisés par les animaux d’élevage. Les ruminants peuvent utiliser tous les produits de la canne à sucre alors que les monogastriques n’utilisent efficacement que les fractions les moins riches en fibres(jus de canne, mélasse). Quels que soient l’espèce animale et les produits, une forte complémentation azotée s’impose. La canne entière et ses différentes fractions sont carencées en proté...

  9. ETUDE D'IONS MULTICHARGES DANS LES PLASMAS PRODUITS PAR LASER

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeglé, P.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.; Wehenkel, C.; Sureau, A.; Guennou, H.

    1980-01-01

    Parmi les plasmas chauds, les plasmas produits par laser ont pour caractéristiques une densité maximum très élevée, présentant un fort gradient spatial, et une variation temporelle rapide de la température et de la densité. L'étude du rayonnement des ions multichargés, nécessaire pour les diagnostics sur ces paramètres, offre à la physique atomique champ de recherche original comprenant notamment l'identification de raies non-observées dans d'autres conditions, d'importantes modifications du ...

  10. Modification of Wax Crystallization in Petroleum Products Modification de la cristallisation des paraffines dans les produits pétroliers

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    Denis J.

    2006-11-01

    type polyacrylate d'alkyle, est illustrée dans la table 2. Pour les gazoles le problème principal concerne le colmatage des filtres du circuit d'alimentation des moteurs Diesel, pour lequel les méthodes actuelles d'essai de laboratoire ne semblent pas satisfaisantes et font l'objet d'études dans plusieurs groupes de recherches. Les additifs préconisés sont soit des copolymères d'éthylène et d'acétate de vinyle, soit des formules complexes de plusieurs types de produits polymères ou non, à longues chaînes agissant sur la nucléation et la croissance des cristaux. Quant aux huiles lubrifiantes, elles nécessitent l'utilisation d'additifs d'une part en raffineries dans l'étape de déparaffinage, ce sont des copolymères acryliques, d'autre part dans les formulations pour abaisser le point d'écoulement de - 9 °C à - 30 °C, ce sont soit des copolymères acryliques de longueurs de chaîne moyennes dont l'efficacité est donnée dans les tables 3 et 4, soit des copolymeres d'acétate de vinyle et de dialkylfumarates, soit des polyalkylstyrènes ; tous ces produits présentent une bonne efficacité.

  11. ProVoc : une ontologie pour décrire des produits sur le Web

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Cédric; Nooralahzadeh, Farhad; Cabrio, Elena; Segond, Frédérique; Gandon, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    De nombreuses recherches ont depuis longtemps motivé l'utilisation d'ontologies pour répondre aux besoins de représentation du e-Commerce. Dans cet article, nous présentons ProVoc (Product Vocabulary), une ontologie ayant pour objectif de décrire des produits sur le Web. Complémentaire à GoodRelations (Hepp, 2008), l'ontologie au format du Web sémantique la plus utilisée dans le monde du e-Commerce, Provoc se concentre sur une représentation fine des produits et de leurs entités relatives (ga...

  12. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Deuxième partie : Les différentes filières d'obtention des carburols. Analyse technico-économique Using Oxygenated Organic Products As Fuels in Engines. Part Two: Different Systems for Producing Alcohol Fuels. Technico-Economic Analysis

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    Chauvel A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les produits à même d'être substitués aux hydrocarbures pour la constitution des carburants, les composés organiques oxygénés occupent une place prépondérante à cause de leurs caractéristiques favorables à la combustion dans les moteurs, qu'ils soient employés purs ou mélangés (seuls ou à plusieurs aux hydrocarbures, constituants des carburants classiques. Dans cet article, ces composés oxygénés sont désignés sous le nom de carburols. Alors que l'objet de la première partie de l'étude a été d'examiner les conséquences techniques de l'emploi de ces produits sur les circuits de distribution et le fonctionnement des véhicules, il s'agit dans la présente partie d'analyser les caractéristiques technico-économiques de leur fabrication. En particulier, on y aborde successivement les points suivants : - disponibilités en matières premières : ressources fossiles et végétales ; - analyse technique des divers modes d'obtention - analyse économique ; - programmes nationaux. Among products that can be substituted for hydrocarbons for producing fuels, oxygenated organic compounds occupy a preponderant position because of their favorable characteristics for combustion in engines whether they are used in a pure form or in mixtures (alone or severally with hydrocarbons which are used to make up conventional fuels. In this article these oxygenated compounds are given the name carburols (alcohol fuels. Whereas the aim of Part 1 was to examine the technical consequences of using such products in distribution circuits and for vehicle operating, Part 2 is an analysis of the technico-economic aspects of manufacturing them. In particular, the following points are taken up successively: (a availabilities of raw materials. fossil and vegetebal resources; (b technical analysis of various production methods; (c economic analysis; (d national programs. Depending on the amounts involved, a distinction is made among alternative

  13. Une autre école en Espagne

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Au cours des deux dernières décennies, le système éducatif espagnol a connu une succession de lois sur l’éducation qui étaient intimement liées aux différents gouvernements au pouvoir et répondaient aux nouvelles attentes de la société. Face à ce train de réformes qui ne parvient pas à changer les pratiques pédagogiques, un ensemble de mouvements réformistes montre qu’une autre école est possible. L’article analyse en premier lieu les principaux axes d’une approche communautaire de la réforme...

  14. Les bons produits d'antan

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Les pratiques d'autoconsommation alimentaire dans les Combrailles d'Auvergne, aux confins de la basse Auvergne, sont de nos jours encore très présentes. Elles suscitent un intérêt d'autant plus important pour ceux qui y ont recours qu'elles associent économie d'argent et consommation de produits jugés supérieurs d'un point de vue qualitatif et gustatif. C'est d'ailleurs avec beaucoup de nostalgie qu'est évoqué le bon goût des produits alimentaires d'autrefois qui étaient presque entièr...

  15. Les innovations de produits dans la chimie du végétal comme substituts aux plastiques

    OpenAIRE

    Manon JUBIEN

    2015-01-01

    La chimie du végétal se définit par l'utilisation de ressources renouvelables au lieu des ressources pétrolières. La chimie du végétal présente une dimension environnementale et est porteuse d'innovations dans les différents domaines de l'industrie chimique. Le polyacide lactique est l'innovation de produit la plus mature et la plus répandue sous diverses applications dans la plasturgie. Cependant, la substituabilité des plastiques pétrosourcés usuels par le polyacide lactique doit être évalu...

  16. Les risques sanitaires des produits dérivés de la chloration des eaux de bassins de natation

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonnelle, Sylviane

    2003-01-01

    Les piscines sont fréquentées par de nombreuses personnes à travers le monde, pour y nager ou pour s’y délasser. Cependant, l’atmosphère chlorée des piscines pourrait être responsable de problèmes de santé. En effet, la majorité des piscines sont désinfectées par des produits à base de chlore –menant à la formation de dérivés potentiellement toxiques- et des études ont récemment attiré l'attention sur les risques pour la santé liés à la fréquentation des piscines. Il a entre autres été suggér...

  17. Impact des successions culturales (y compris intercultures) sur l'utilisation de produits phytosanitaires

    OpenAIRE

    Henriet, F.; Proft, M

    2013-01-01

    Impact of crop sequences (including intercropping) on the use of pesticides. Crop sequences and the introduction of catch crops influence the development of agricultural pests (weeds, pests and diseases). This paper gives an overview of the problems that may arise for farmers in practice. Adaptation of crop interventions is often based on the use of plant protection products in the following crop, and these changes serve to solve problems that have been previously generated. Nevertheless, the...

  18. Impact des successions culturales (y compris intercultures sur l'utilisation de produits phytosanitaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriet, F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of crop sequences (including intercropping on the use of pesticides. Crop sequences and the introduction of catch crops influence the development of agricultural pests (weeds, pests and diseases. This paper gives an overview of the problems that may arise for farmers in practice. Adaptation of crop interventions is often based on the use of plant protection products in the following crop, and these changes serve to solve problems that have been previously generated. Nevertheless, the poorly reasoned introduction of a catch crop can cause unwanted effects in terms of pest management and in relation to the protection of water resources.

  19. Diversification, domestication et qualité des produits aquacoles

    OpenAIRE

    Fauconneau, Benoit

    2004-01-01

    La diversification en aquaculture, qu’elle soit liée au système, à l’espèce ou au produit, nécessite une gestion parallèle de la qualité des produits. Cet article fait le point sur les démarches qui ont été ou sont mises en œuvre pour accompagner la domestication de nouvelles espèces de poisson (carpe, saumon, poisson-chat, bar, poissons plats). Il passe également en revue les informations disponibles sur les principales caractéristiques des produits susceptibles d’être exploitées dans une dé...

  20. Un autre regard sur l’apprenant avancé : sa capacité de paraphraser

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    Tsedryk Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la compétence paraphrastique (CP, soit la capacité de produire des phrases quasi-synonymes, de l’apprenant avancé de français langue seconde. Cet apprenant possède des connaissances grammaticales et lexicales assez développées, mais il éprouve des difficultés à reformuler son discours. Afin d’élaborer des outils didactiques visant à combler cette lacune, il faut disposer d’une méthodologie appropriée pour évaluer la CP. Nous proposons une telle méthodologie en nous basant sur notre étude empirique. Il s’agit du test de paraphrasage administré aux apprenants anglophones de français L2 du niveau avancé (n=40 et aux locuteurs natifs du français (n=40. Le cadre théorique adopté est la Théorie Sens-Texte qui porte une attention particulière à la paraphrase et possède des outils formels de sa description. Les paraphrases produites par les participants de l’étude sont analysées selon la typologie des paraphrases de la TST. Les différences statistiquement significatives entre les deux groupes sont identifiées à la suite de l’analyse statistique de variance à un facteur ANOVA. L’apprenant avancé effectue tous les types d’opérations paraphrastiques, mais dans une proportion différente qu’un locuteur natif. Cet apprenant produit un pourcentage plus élevé de phrases sémantiquement non équivalentes. Il utilise moins d’opérations de paraphrasage lexico-syntaxiques et sémantiques qu’un locuteur natif. Nous concluons que la principale raison de ses difficultés est l’insuffisante maîtrise de relations lexicales.

  1. Lait et produits laitiers en Adamaoua

    OpenAIRE

    Boutrais, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Grande région d’élevage, l’Adamaoua est également supposé être une grande région productrice de lait. En fait, deux systèmes d’élevage y coexistent et ils se différencient par un rôle économique et culturel très inégal du lait. L’opposition entre élevages foulbé et mbororo tient aux gestions techniques et spatiales du bétail, de même qu’à une valorisation de la viande bovine ou du lait. Des exemples d’utilisation du lait par des familles, après la traite, montrent une priorité à l’autoconsomm...

  2. « Le Paradis, c’est les autres »

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    Rachid Amirou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available L’engouement pour des sites ou des lieux est souvent dû à des « Nous » (des communautés éphémères, qui se constituent et qui consacrent ainsi l’espace de visite. La consécration collective est souvent un préalable au succès de certaines destinations (Ibiza, Saint-Tropez, Marrakech, etc.. Le succès des formules de villages de vacances hermétiquement fermés à l’extérieur et indifférents au pays de séjour atteste de l’existence d’un état d’esprit qu’on a classé sous le terme générique de « bulle touristique ». Cependant, la constitution de ces « bulles » – c’est-à-dire la rencontre d’un imaginaire, d’un « nous » et d���un espace touristiques – ne se fait pas uniquement par l’exclusion de l’autre. Elle repose aussi sur un principe interne positif : le rêve d’une sociabilité parfaite, une sorte de paradis relationnel. Le « paradis » touristique, c’est d’abord une rencontre de plain-pied avec les autres (« l’ambiance », souvent d’ailleurs avec les mêmes – rencontre synonyme de relations différentes et moins stressantes, basées sur une connivence réelle ou fantasmée. La généalogie de ce paradis touristique relationnel, qui peut être aussi un enfer pour les autres, reste à décrire et à expliciter, en montrant comment il compose le noyau central de l’imaginaire touristique.

  3. Qualité des produits biologiques d’origine animale

    OpenAIRE

    Kouba, Marilyne

    2002-01-01

    L’appellation biologique pour un produit garantit un mode de production selon la réglementation spécifique à l’agriculture biologique. Il existe en effet un Règlement Européen pour les Productions Animales Biologiques, appelé REPAB, dont l’application dans le droit français (en date du 24 août 2000) a fait l’objet de contraintes supplémentaires : c’est le CC REPAB F. Il existe une forte demande en produits biologiques dans les pays industrialisés. Il est par conséquent important de considérer...

  4. Annexe. Accord régissant les activités des états sur la lune et les autres corps célestes (ouvert à la signature le 18 décembre 1979)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Les Etats parties au présent Accord, Notant les succès obtenus par les Etats dans l’exploration et l’utilisation de la Lune et des autres corps célestes, Reconnaissant que la Lune, satellite naturel de la Terre, joue à ce titre un rôle important dans l’exploration de l’espace, Fermement résolus à favoriser dans des conditions d’égalité le développement continu de la coopération entre Etats aux fins de l’exploration et de l’utilisation de la Lune et des autres corps célestes, Désireux d’éviter...

  5. De l’authenticité des produits alimentaires

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnain-Dulon, Rolande; Brochot, Aline

    2008-01-01

    La demande d’authenticité est au centre de multiples préoccupations actuelles dont celles concernant l’alimentation en particulier ne sont pas les moins importantes. La mention de l’origine et la référence explicite au terroir de production d’un produit alimentaire entraînant quasi automatiquement la garantie de sa qualité, labels, indications de provenance et appellations d’origine contrôlée sont devenus des vecteurs indispensables de la démonstration de la preuve de la qualité, et des argum...

  6. La Palestine comme écran, ou comment passer « de l’autre côté du miroir »

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    Laure Fourest

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’indétermination qui entoure le terme de « Palestine », provoquée notamment par la disparition de son référent géographique depuis la création de l’État d’Israël, a généré une multitude de représentations concurrentes qui ont fait de ce terme un écran. Ce dernier révèle la complexité des enjeux géopolitiques qui s’y cristallisent, mais rend extrêmement difficile la formulation d’un récit et d’une représentation palestiniens propres. Travailler sur la production cinématographique palestinienne revient à s’interroger sur la manière dont les cinéastes composent avec les multiples représentations de leur terre et de son peuple telles qu’elles sont produites par l’Autre, qu’il soit Israélien ou occidental. Cet article s’appuie sur l’un des dispositifs les plus convaincants de cette production : dans Port of Memory [2009], Kamal Aljafari s’empare de séquences de films israélien et hollywoodien réalisés à Jaffa dans les années 1970 et 1980 qui en ont relégué sa présence palestinienne hors-cadre. Interrogeant cette représentation mutilée du lieu, il propose de rectifier ces images par les moyens du cinéma, faisant de la mémoire visuelle de l’Autre le lieu de son expression artistique et politique.

  7. Produits locaux entre nature et culture : de la ferme voisine au terroir. Entretien avec Laurence Bérard

    OpenAIRE

    Virginie Amilien; Isabelle Techoueyres

    2005-01-01

    V.A. : Laurence Bérard, vous représentez la moitié du célèbre duo Bérard et Marchenay, dont articles et ouvrages sur produits de terroir en France sont incontournables, et c’est à ce titre que vous nous accordez un entretien aujourd’hui pour le numéro sur les produits alimentaires locaux du journal Anthropology of Food. Alors je commencerais par la traditionnelle question : si je vous dis produits locaux, à quoi pensez-vous ?  L.B. : Produits locaux… et pas de produits de terroir… I.T. : Non...

  8. Voiture et peinture: de l’utilisation à la pratique

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    Eric Landowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Constituer le monde comme univers de sens, c’est se poser en tant que sujet en interagis- sant avec les éléments du monde qui nous entoure, en faisant usage. Dans ce cadre, il faut distinguer deux formes d’interactions correspondant à deux acceptions du mot «usage»: l’une renvoie à l’idée d’utilisation, l’autre à celle de pratique. Une fois définies, ces deux notions sont ici appliquées à une analyse des usages de la peinture, ce qui amène à distinguer, du côté de l’observateur, la lecture et la saisie, du côté du créateur le procédé et la vision.

  9. Etude des effets singuliers produits par les particules énergétiques chargées de l’environnement radiatif spatial sur les capteurs d’images CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Lalucaa, Valérian

    2013-01-01

    Ce mémoire de thèse traite des effets singuliers produits par les milieux radiatifs sur les capteurs d’images CMOS. Le travail se concentre sur les effets provoqués par les ions lourds sur les capteurs utilisant des pixels 3T à photodiode standard et des pixels 4T et 5T à photodiodes pincées. Dans un premier temps, l’étude se concentre sur l’environnement spatial et l’architecture des capteurs. La comparaison avec la littérature met en évidence les effets les plus critiques sur les capteurs :...

  10. Instruments de mesure de l’utilisation de produits phytosanitaires dans un contexte de développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steurbaut W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments aimed to measure pesticide use in the framework of sustainable development. Indicators are proposed in order to be able to measure progress towards sustainability in crop protection strategies requiring the use of pesticides. According to the fixed objectives, such indicators can be either simple (figure easily obtainable or more complex (set of figures obtained using more or less complex algorithms. The most simple indicators are indicators of use (tonnage which has been used in a well defined geographic area, number of treatments during a cropping season. While interesting for their simplicity and for their readily availability, those indicators present some drawbacks because they do not allow to take into account trends in the impact of pesticides on man (as a pesticide applicator, as an agricultural worker or as a consumer of treated foodstuffs or on the environment (harmful effects on soil, water, air and on the organisms living therein. The present paper describes a set of indicators related to the usage (Tonnage, Frequency of application, to the soil and water pressure (SEPTWA and to the impact (Seq, SyPEP, POCER, that has been used in Belgium in order to measure some progress towards sustainable development. Examples of application are provided in the framework of Integrated Pest Management. They deal with the choice of active Ingredients, commercial preparations, application modes and treatment schemes that, using such indicators, are identified as safer for man and for the environment.

  11. Biocarburants : la Commission propose d’encourager leur utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis longtemps, la Commission, le Parlement et le Conseil encouragent le développement des sources d’énergie renouvelables, et plus particulièrement des biocarburants. Cela s’est traduit, entre autres, par la publication en novembre 2000 d’un livre vert intitulé « Vers une stratégie européenne de sécurité d’approvisionnement énergétique », qui fixe comme objectif, d’ici 2020, le remplacement de 20% des carburants classiques par des carburants de substitution pour le transport routier. Plus récemment, en juin 2001, au sommet de Göteborg, a été souligné le rôle important des biocarburants dans la lutte contre le changement climatique et le développement des énergies propres. Ces encouragements restaient au niveau de la déclaration d’intention faute de moyens administratifs et fiscaux pour bâtir une véritable stratégie. Depuis le 7 novembre 2001, les choses semblent évoluer : en effet, à cette date, le collège des Commissaires a adopté une communication sur les carburants de substitution pour les transports routiers et une série de mesures visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants. De plus - et c’est ce qui est fondamental - cette communication était assortie de deux propositions de directives, l’une visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants dans les transports, l’autre concernant la possibilité d’appliquer un taux d’accises réduit sur certaines huiles minérales qui contiennent des biocarburants et sur les biocarburants.

  12. Produits locaux entre vente directe, circuit-court et action collective. Entretien avec Bertil Sylvander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Amilien

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available V.A. : Bertil Sylvander, vous êtes un des pères de la notion de conventions de qualité en matière de produits de qualité et d’origine, et vous possédez une profonde connaissance des aspects socio-économiques de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation locale, incluant les produits aux origines déterminées et les produits labellisés... et c’est d'ailleurs à ce titre que vous nous accordez un entretien aujourd’hui, pour le numéro sur les produits alimentaires locaux du journal AoFood. Je commencerai ...

  13. Produits locaux entre vente directe, circuit-court et action collective. Entretien avec Bertil Sylvander

    OpenAIRE

    Virginie Amilien

    2005-01-01

    V.A. : Bertil Sylvander, vous êtes un des pères de la notion de conventions de qualité en matière de produits de qualité et d’origine, et vous possédez une profonde connaissance des aspects socio-économiques de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation locale, incluant les produits aux origines déterminées et les produits labellisés... et c’est d'ailleurs à ce titre que vous nous accordez un entretien aujourd’hui, pour le numéro sur les produits alimentaires locaux du journal AoFood. Je commencerai ...

  14. Encadrement des produits et des procédés : réglementation et normalisation du commerce international

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morin Odile

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Produits et procédés sont encadrés à la fois par des réglementations et, à un autre niveau, par des normes du commerce international. Cette présentation traite des textes réglementaires au niveau communautaire et national. On rappellera que l’entrée en vigueur d’un règlement européen est suivie d’une transposition dans le droit de chaque pays membre et que la réglementation nationale s’applique en l’absence de dispositions communautaires. En matière de commerce international, seront évoquées les actions de normalisation du Conseil Oléicole International (COI pour les huiles d’olive et de grignons d’olive et celles du Codex Alimentarius pour les huiles et graisses comestibles. L’ensemble des dispositions réglementaires constitue un cadre englobant les productions de l’amont vers l’aval, à la fois sur un plan vertical (oléagineux, huiles et corps gras, huiles d’olive, margarines, procédés de raffinage et transversalement (composés organiques volatils, OGM, solvants d’extraction, additifs, contaminants…. Le cas de l’huile d’olive est particulier en ce qu’il bénéficie d’un encadrement au niveau international (normes commerciales COI et Codex Alimentarius, européen et national (réglementation. Le Codex Alimentarius, quant à lui, établit des normes à caractère vertical (huiles végétales, graisses animales, huiles d’olive, matières grasses tartinables… et horizontal (additifs, résidus de pesticides…. L’essentiel de cet encadrement est résumé dans les tableaux qui illustrent cette contribution.

  15. D’un discours galant l’autre : que sont nos discours devenus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Viala

    2006-01-01

    Cet exposé présentera, comme un exemple, un travail que j’ai en ce moment en chantier. Il se situe dans la lignée d’un livre que j’ai récemment publié et qui s’intitule Lettre sur l’intérêt littéraire. Dans ce livre, j’analyse comment la littérature produit de l’intérêt, quel que soit le sujet qu’elle aborde, en suscitant de la curiosité et de l’émotion, et comment elle produit par là de l’adhésion. Je m’y suis donné la liberté de prendre pour interlocuteur (il convient de le préciser ici) Je...

  16. Evaluation des méthodes chimiques, spectroscopiques et chromatographiques utilisables pour l'identification des polluants pétroliers en mer Evaluation of Chemical, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Methods Used to Identify Offshore Oil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaigés J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on passe en revue les différentes méthodes utilisables pour l'identification des principaux polluants pétroliers de la mer par l'analyse quantitativé de leurs « marqueurs passifs x (soufre, azote, nickel, vanadium, paraffine et asphaltènes et la détermination d'autres caractéristiques intrinsèques. II s'agit de méthodes chimiques, spectroscop iques (infrarouge, ultraviolette et chromatographiques (chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation de flamme, photométrie de flamme et capture d'électrons. Les mesures ont concerné une grande variété de produits susceptibles de polluer la côte méditerranéenne espagnole - pétrole brut des gisements offshore d'Amposta et de Castellôn; - pétroles bruts importés traités dans les raffineries côtières (Boscan, Es Sider, Kuwait, Arabian light, etc.; - fractions lourdes provenant de ces raffineries (fuel-cils, asphaltes, lubrifiants; - polluants réels; - échantillons altérés artificiellement en laboratoire afin de mettre en évidence l'action progressive des éléments naturels. On a trouvé que les méthodes les plus intéressantes étaient : - le dosage chimique du soufre, du nickel et du vanadium; - la spectroscopie infrarouge; - la chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation et photométrie de flamme. This article reviews the different methods that con be used to identify the leading petroleum pollutants of the sea by quantitative analysis of their a passive markers » (sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, paraffin, asphaltenes and by determining other intrinsic properties. These methods are chemical, spectroscopic (infrared, ultraviolet and chromatographic (high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, flame photometry and electron capture. Measurements were made of a great variety of products capable of polluting the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including

  17. Quels facteurs de pertinence pour la recherche de produits e-commerce ?

    OpenAIRE

    Soulier, Laure; Ben Jabeur, Lamjed; Mousset, Paul; Tamine, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    National audience Un moteur de recherche e-commerce vise à fournir un accès rapide et efficace à des produits qui correspondent aux besoins et aux préférences de l'utilisateur parmi une liste de produits similaires ou étroitement liés. Nous avons participé à la campagne d'évaluation « Living Lab for Information Retrieval » qui proposait une tâche de recherche de produits évaluée par des utilisateurs réels lors de scénarios de recherche réelle sur un site de e-commerce. L'évaluation expérim...

  18. Produits locaux entre nature et culture : de la ferme voisine au terroir. Entretien avec Laurence Bérard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Amilien

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available V.A. : Laurence Bérard, vous représentez la moitié du célèbre duo Bérard et Marchenay, dont articles et ouvrages sur produits de terroir en France sont incontournables, et c’est à ce titre que vous nous accordez un entretien aujourd’hui pour le numéro sur les produits alimentaires locaux du journal Anthropology of Food. Alors je commencerais par la traditionnelle question : si je vous dis produits locaux, à quoi pensez-vous ?  L.B. : Produits locaux… et pas de produits de terroir…I.T. : Non j...

  19. Comprendre la digestion des produits laitiers pour lutter contre les pertes musculaires

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Des chercheurs de l'Inra ont montré que la vitesse de digestion peut être modulée selon la structure d’un produit laitier. Ils ont découvert que plus le produit est liquide, plus la digestion est rapide. Un flux d’acides aminés précoce et intense est alors libéré dans la circulation sanguine permettant une restauration protéique musculaire optimale. Ces résultats offrent des perspectives nouvelles pour la conception d’aliments parfaitement adaptés aux besoins nutritionnels de populations spéc...

  20. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  1. L’acquisition de l’accord sujet-verbe en FL2 : L'influence du type de verbe et de sujet produits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michot Marie-Eve

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans l’acquisition du français L2, la maîtrise progressive de la morphologie verbale et son utilisation pour exprimer le temps, le mode et l’aspect représentent une dimension centrale du processus de « grammaticalisation » de la production d’apprenants (Klein & Perdue 1997 ; Véronique 2009. L’accord en nombre entre le sujet et le verbe est un thème largement étudié en acquisition, comprenant des approches et des corpus très divers. Bartning et Schlyter (2003, 2004 ont ainsi étudié l’accord sujet-verbe en distinguant les verbes non-thématiques (être, avoir, aller, faire des verbes thématiques irréguliers (prendre, sortir, etc.. Cette classification des verbes produits nous semble trop générale et vague et ne semble pas correspondre à l’acquisition des apprenants, voici pourquoi nous proposons de distinguer les différents verbes produits selon leur morphologie à l’oral. L’ouvrage de Pouradier Duteil (1997 permet à ce sens de ne plus seulement tenir compte des suffixes, mais également des thèmes (radicaux verbaux. Nous étudierons également l’influence du type de sujet produit sur l’accord sujet-verbe à la 3ème personne du pluriel. Cet article a pour but d’étudier l’acquisition de l’accord en nombre entre le sujet et le verbe à l’oral par des apprenants de FL2 en milieu institutionnel et tentera de répondre aux questions de recherche suivantes : - La variation au sein du thème influence-t-elle l’acquisition de l’accord sujet-verbe ? - L’accord verbal est-il en effet d’abord marqué pour les verbes non-thématiques ? - Est-il possible d’affiner l’itinéraire acquisitionnel proposé par Bartning et Schlyter (2003, 2004 ? - Les sujets nominaux favorisent-ils plus le marquage verbal de la 3ème personne du pluriel que les sujets pronominaux (Howard 2006 ?

  2. CEPviti : co-conception de systèmes viticoles économes en produits phytosanitaires

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier, Jean Marc; Constant, Nicolas; Davidou, Ludivine; Deliere, Laurent; Guisset, Marc; Jacquet, Olivier; Lafond, David; Panon, Marie-Laure; Sauvage, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Destiné à des conseillers et accompagnateurs d'agriculteurs, le guide pratique CEPviti est composé de trois parties : guide méthodologique expliquant la démarche, fiches supports pour conduire l’entretien, jeu de fiches techniques présentant les solutions techniques alternatives aux produits.

  3. From tourist product to ordinary food? De produit touristique à produit alimentaire ? Le rôle du tourisme rural dans le développement des produits locaux et du patrimoine alimentaire en Norvège.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Vittersø

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Local food products, either new, “traditional”, or based on a specific conception of food heritage, play an important role in the development of the rural tourism sector in Norway. Building on different concrete Norwegian case studies, this article seeks to better understand the role tourism plays in the creation, or revival, of cultural identity based on local food products and food heritage. The paper uses the concept of the “tourist gaze” in order to analyze tourists and local consumers’ perceptions and appropriation of local food. The article highlights the consequences of the emergence of culinary and local food heritage for tourists in Norway, and concludes that tourism increases the awareness of food heritage and strengthens local identity, although these food products are not much used in ordinary food consumption.Les produits locaux, nouveaux, basés sur des recettes « traditionnelles », voire sur une conception particulière du patrimoine alimentaire, jouent un rôle important dans le développement du secteur touristique rural en Norvège. Fondé sur différents cas d’études norvégiens concrets, cet article permet de mieux comprendre le rôle joué par le tourisme dans la création, ou la construction, de l’identité culturelle basée sur le patrimoine alimentaire et le développement récent des produits locaux. Afin d’analyser la perception et l’appropriation des produits localisés par les consommateurs, nous proposons une approche fondée sur la notion de « regard touristique ». Cet article s’achève finalement sur les conséquences de l’émergence du patrimoine alimentaire local dans le tourisme, soulignant à la fois l’influence sur les pratiques alimentaires et sur la mise en valeur d’une identité culturelle locale, bien que ces produits locaux restent peu utilisés dans les habitudes alimentaires quotidiennes.

  4. L’audience des produits de « Hallyu » en Romanie – Un étude de cas

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina MARINESCU

    2011-01-01

    Cet article explore la réception des produits de la culture populaire « Hallyru » en Roumanie, y compris les motivations qui ont conduit à l’orientation d’une partie du public vers la consommation des produits culturels relativement inconnus jusqu’à tout récemment. Les objectifs spécifiques de l’étude sont : 1. Quelles sont les raisons qui expliquent la popularité de ce type de produits pour l’audience de Roumanie? 2. Quelle est l’influence de ce type de séries sur les perceptions et les conc...

  5. Development and Testing of Xanthan Products for Eor-Applications in the North Sea Développement et essais des produits à base de xanthane pour les applications de RAH en mer du Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foss P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A program for development and evaluation of xanthan for use in enhanced oil recovery projects in the North Sea has been performed. Xanthan was produced using different fermentation conditions. Rheological measurements and filterability tests have been done. Xanthan products, which readily dissolve in sea water and give high viscosity and low aggregation have been produced. The fermentation process used for this type of product was scaled up from 10 litres to 20,000 litres production volume without significant changes in polymer solution properties. Un programme de développement et d'évaluation du xanthane pour utilisation dans les projets de récupération assistée des hydrocarbures en mer du Nord a été réalisé. Le xanthane est obtenu par différents procédés de fermentation. On a effectué des mesures rhéologiques et des essais de filtrabilité. Les produits à base de xanthane se dissolvent facilement dans l'eau de mer, ils donnent une forte viscosité et une faible agrégation. Avec le procédé de fermentation utilisé pour ce type de produit, on a pu faire passer la production de 10 litres à 20000 litres sans modification notable des propriétés de la solution de polymère.

  6. Geothermal energy utilisation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepmeier, K. [Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU), Regensburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The following article highlights some of the outcomes derived from a survey which has been conducted by an international consortium under the auspices of the German consultancy Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU) in the frame of a cooperative action entitled 'Promotion of Geothermal Energy Utilisation in Turkey'. The project which has been carried out under the umbrella of the European Union's Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development also featured a European business forum and technical site visit about 'Geothermal Energy Opportunities in Turkey' and a site visit tour to successful European geothermal utilisation schemes aiming to foster exchange of experience and to initiate business contacts between Turkish and European market actors. Special consideration has been given to investigate the potential of geothermal electricity generation with future-oriented binary cycle processes (e.g. based on Kalina technology) specifically suitable to exploit Turkey's low temperature geothermal reservoirs. Following up the activities ZREU has entered into a co-operation scheme with e.terras AG and leading technology providers to develop high efficient European turn-key solutions for promising goethermal markets worldwide. (orig.)

  7. Réduction de l'oxyde d'azote par la suie dans les produits de combustion Reduction of Nitric Oxyde by Soot in Combustion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On a étudié dans un réacteur à lit fixe la réduction du NO par de la suie formée dans des flammes riches de mélanges éthane/oxygène/argon. Le mélange gazeux traversant le réacteur est de l'argon dopé avec du NO; dans certains cas ce mélange est enrichi d'hydrogène ou d'oxyde de carbone. En présence d'hydrogène ou d'oxyde de carbone, ces vitesses sont nettement plus grandes qu'avec la suie seule. La comparaison avec des vitesses réactionnelles obtenues sur des lits fixes composés d'autres matériaux solides, tels que l'alumine, montre que la réduction de l'oxyde d'azote se fait principalement par une réaction hétérogène avec l'hydrogène et l'oxyde de carbone catalysée par la suie. D'autres matériaux solides,tels que des oxydes réfractaires présentent une activité catalylique aussi importante que la suie. Cette observation fournit une nouvelle explication de l'effet connu de certains additifs sur la réduction de NO dans les flammes. Dans la seconde partie de l'étude, on mesure la réduction des oxydes d'azote dans les flammes fuligineuses de prémélange. De l'argon dopé par de l'oxyde d'azote est injecté dans les produits de combustion de ces flammes chargés de suie; l'introduction du NO est faite à différentes distances derrière le brûleur, correspondant à différents niveaux de température des produits de combustion. La réduction fractionnelle des oxydes d'azote est mesurée en fonction de la concentration en suie, en hydrogène et en oxyde de carbone, en faisant varier la composition du mélange inflammable. Les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec la réduction calculée en se basant sur les informations cinétiques obtenues en lit fixe. The kinetics of nitric oxide réduction by soot collected from hydrocarbon flames is studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The gas flow traversing thé reactor is either argon with NO, or argon with hydrogen and NO, or argon with carbon monoxide and NO. In th

  8. Rôle des produits secondaires (tannins et alcaloïdes) des espèces forestières de l'Est de Madagascar face aux populations animales

    OpenAIRE

    Hladik, Claude Marcel; Simmen, Bruno; Ramasiarisoa, P.-L.; Hladik, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Des tests préliminaires de recherche de produits secondaires ont été éffectués sur les feuilles de plus d'une centaine d'espèces de la région d'Andasibe (forêt dense humide de moyenne montagne), en utilisant les réactifs de Mayer et de Draggendorf pour les alcaloïdes et le chlorure de fer et la gélatine salée pour les tannins. Ainsi estimées statistiquement, les richesses relatives se révèlent être semblables entre les espèces forestières et celles des recrûs en ce qui concerne les tannins. E...

  9. Liens à l’origine et qualité spécifique d’un produit de l’artisanat agroalimentaire du Bénin – le kluiklui d’Agonlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videgla Euloge Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Les kluiklui ou kwlikwli sont des bâtonnets frits de pâte d’arachide partiellement déshuilée qui entrent dans la consommation alimentaire régulière des Béninois. Leur production dépend de savoir-faire artisanaux régionalisés. Les plus typiques sont ceux de la région Agonlin. Mieux connaître les préférences des consommateurs africains est une des conditions de la promotion des filières de produits locaux. La fréquence de consommation ainsi que la capacité à différencier les origines et autres attributs de qualité ont été évaluées au moment de l’achat de kwlikwli d’Agonlin auprès de 150 consommateurs issus d’une part des zones urbaines et d’autre part du territoire Agonlin. Quarante pour cent de ces derniers consomment des kwlikwli plusieurs fois par semaine et plus encore pour les populations ayant les plus faibles revenus. Néanmoins, même les acheteurs démunis ont des exigences de qualité. Les acheteurs de kwlikwli d’Agonlin le choisissent délibérément face à une offre plus variée pour son bon goût, et en particulier son assaisonnement, son odeur et sa croustillance et s’assurent de sa qualité en choisissant une source d’approvisionnement leur garantissant un produit d’origine. Les consommateurs urbains sont fréquemment originaires de la région de production et entretiennent une relation fidélisée avec une revendeuse qui est elle-même en relation avec ce territoire. La consommation de kwlikwli renforce ainsi les liens des consommateurs avec leur zone d’origine. Cela constitue actuellement un atout auprès des migrants de première génération. Mais pour le futur, une stratégie plus active de construction d’un lien à l’origine pourrait être nécessaire.

  10. Contribution à l'optimisation en conception préliminaire de produit

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhoud, Issam

    2014-01-01

    L'optimisation en conception de produit constitue une activité à forte valeur ajoutée en entreprise. Ceci est d'autant plus important qu'elle est appliquée dans les premières phases du processus de conception. Les travaux dans cette thèse se placent dans ce contexte et proposent des outils adaptés d'aide à la décision en pré-dimensionnement de produits suivant deux critères: présence ou non de fonctionnelles dans le modèle, prise en compte ou non des incertitudes dans le modèle. Une méthode à...

  11. Des atomes d'antihydrogene produits en quantites substantielles au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Sevestre, G

    2002-01-01

    "Des quantites relativement substantielles d'atomes d'antihydrogene a basse temperature ont ete produites cet ete au Laboratoire europeen de physique des particules, le CERN a Geneve, ouvrant la voie a une etude approfondie de cette antimatiere qui pourrait remettre en cause les theories actuelles, a annonce mercredi sur le site Internet de la revue Nature une equipe internationale de chercheurs" (1 page).

  12. Thermochemical Conversion of Lignin for Fuels and Chemicals: A Review Conversion thermochimique de la lignine en carburants et produits chimiques : une revue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffres B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is one of the biomass components potentially usable as renewable resource to produce fuels or chemicals. After separation from the lignocellulosic matrix, this macromolecule is nowadays essentially valorized by combustion in paper mills. If second generation ethanol is produced in the future from lignocellulosic biomass, some increasing reserves of lignin will be available in addition to the ones coming from the paper industry. The main thermochemical ways such as pyrolysis, solvolysis, hydrothermal conversion and hydroconversion considered for the valorization of the lignin are reviewed in this article. La lignine est une des composantes de la biomasse lignocellulosique potentiellement valorisable comme ressource renouvelable pour la production de carburants ou de produits chimiques. Après séparation de la matrice lignocellulosique, cette macromolécule est de nos jours essentiellement utilisée comme combustible dans l’industrie papetière. Outre cette filière papetière, la production d’éthanol de seconde génération à partir de la cellulose aura comme conséquence la mise à disponibilité d’encore plus grandes quantités de lignine. De nouvelles applications pourront donc être proposées pour l’utilisation de cette bio-ressource. Les différentes voies thermochimiques : pyrolyse, solvolyse, conversion hydrothermale et hydroconversion envisagées pour la valorisation de la lignine sont décrites dans cet article.

  13. Colloquium C.L.I. operators and others... the becoming of radioactive products after use; Les CLI, les exploitants et les autres... Le devenir des produits radioactifs apres utilisaiton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancelin, G.; Artus, J.C.; Atteia, M.; Audebert, P.; Ballat, J.; Balle, St.; Bardols, M.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Baylet, J.M.; Bazot, G.; Beaufils, B.; Benech, R.; Bongiovanni, J.; Bontoux, J.; Boueilh, M.; Brunet, F.; Calafat, A.; Cartier, M.; Cavereau, S.; Cavereau, G.; Chambon, B.; Chouchan, M.; Criton, P.; Coudre-Genetti, S.; Bretesche, O. de la; Delcourt, R.; Delibes, J.L.; Diaham, A.; Dupouis, N.; Dutil, V.; Eimer, M.; Fauvre, D.; Figueredo, G.; Fongaro, G.; Gaillard, P.; Gazal, S.; Graschaire, G.; Grenier, St.; Ibert, J.; Jacob, E.; Kozlowski, E.; Laroche, D.; Le Bars, Y.; Linfort, J.M.; Sabatier, M.A.; Sasseigne, Ph.; Saut, C.; Sornein, J.F.; Terrenne, J.P.; Donzac, M. de; Thiese, I.; Tfibel, V.; Vidal, J.; Vieillard-Baron, B.; Vincent, D

    2006-07-01

    Colloquium to Golfech on September 17. and 18., 2003. The 3. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I. took place to Golfech, to Alexis Calafat invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Golfech. The reserved subject was ' the C.L.I., the developers and the others: than can bring the various bodies of the nuclear power to the C.L.I.? ' A half-day was dedicated in particular to the future of the radioactive products after use, where the question of the transport of radioactive products was approached. 80 persons participated. The titles of the approached subjects were: dimensions of the expertise and the construction of the information; the C.L.I and its various interlocutors; C.L.I.N., the developer, the others and the transparency of the information; waste and radioactive waste in a hospital environment; safety of the transport of radioactive material; the relations of the Golfech C.N.P.E. with the C.L.I.; the new institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety; the national agency for the management of the radioactive waste, what projects; Implementation of municipal protection plans on the C.L.I. initiative; Socio-economic effects from the installation of Paluel and Penly C.N.P.E.; The case of the Garonne: the iodine 131 contamination; Analysis of the environment in contact with the secondary school of Bar-sur-Aube; C.L.I., the developer and the others: what relations. (N.C.)

  14. Proposition of resolution aiming at the creation of an inquiry commission relative to the safety of the french nuclear installations and the protection of inhabitants face to the risks of radioactive contaminations coming to uranium leakages or any other product used in the nuclear power plants and the radioactive waste storage facilities; Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative a la securite des installations electro-nucleaires francaises et la protection des habitants face aux risques de contaminations radioactives dues aux fuites d'uranium ou de tout autre produit utilise dans les centrales nucleaires et les installations de stockage de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This commission will have for mission to establish the facts relative to the Tricastin accident and the previous pollutions around this site; to appreciate the delay, the transparency and the public information modalities, both by the company and by the authorities; to establish a systematic and precise statement of the radioactive contaminations on the sites and around the french nuclear facilities ( included the waste storage sites); to measure the ecological damages on the ecosystems and the sanitary risks for the populations; to evaluate the prevention programmes management and the safety of these facilities; to identify the dysfunctions of the french nuclear sector and give propositions to improve the safety of these facilities. (N.C.)

  15. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  16. Étude de structures combinatoires issues de la physique statistique et d'autres domaines

    OpenAIRE

    Mahjoub, Ali Ridha

    1985-01-01

    Étude de certains problèmes d'optimisation combinatoire. Le premier concerne un problème de régulation de trafic pour lequel on donne une formulation mathématique et on propose une méthode permettant de le résoudre. Le deuxième problème traité est un des problèmes de la physique statistique qui relève de la combinatoire et de l'optimisation, celui du fondamental d'un verre de spins (modèle d'Ising). Enfin on étudie, deux autres problèmes d'optimisation combinatoire: l'absorbant et le Ki-recou...

  17. Tarde 2004 : d’une criminologie à l’autre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Renneville

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Statue de Gabriel Tarde à SarlatHaut-lieu du tourisme en Périgord, cité d’histoire et d’architecture, Sarlat peut s’enorgueillir d’être la ville natale d’Étienne de la Boétie. Une statue honore sa mémoire, à l’ombre de la place de la Grande Rigaudie mais si l’on avance de quelques dizaines de mètres vers le Palais de justice, on découvre un second monument dédié à la mémoire d’un autre natif de Sarlat. Il s’agit de Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904. Pour l’inauguration de ce marbre sculpté, le 12 sep...

  18. L'expérience de l'autre dans l'éthique de Husserl et de Scheler

    OpenAIRE

    Chu García, Mariana Verónica

    2010-01-01

    L’objectif du texte est de déceler les corrélations essentielles entre l’expérience de l’autre et la vie éthique à partir de l’éthique représentée par Husserl et par Scheler. Nous soutenons que le phénomène de l’expérience de l’autre trouve toute sa place dans la théorie des valeurs que ces auteurs abordent en corrélation avec une phénoménologie de la vie émotionnelle. En soutenant que l’éthique phénoménologique prend en compte ce qui constitue l’altérité de l’autre, parce que son individuali...

  19. Diagnostic, eévaluation et gestion d'un portefeuille de produits

    OpenAIRE

    Choffray, Jean-Marie

    1982-01-01

    Cet article revoit les principales méthodes utilisées pour équilibrer un portefeuille de produits. Il propose un système d'aide à la décision qui repose sur une décomposition factorielle de la rentabilité et fournit une mesure du risque associé aux décisions touchant à l'équilibrage du portefeuille (investissement, désinvestissement, allocation des ressources disponibles). Peer reviewed

  20. Evaluation quantitative des produits formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique Quantitative Evaluation of Products Formed During the Geochemical Evolution of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évaluation quantitative des produits mobiles formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique est nécessaire parce qu'on ne peut jamais retrouver ces produits en place dans. la roche où ils ont pris naissance. Ils ont, en effet, pu migrer durant l'histoire géologique, et de toute manière une fraction, importante et non connue, se perd lors de la prise des échantillons puis de leur conservation avant analyse. La connaissance de l'analyse d'un état E et d'un état plus évolué E' ne suffit pas pour reconstituer les quantités de produits formés. La pyrolyse type Rock-Eval sur kérogènes, avec détermination du carbone résiduel, permet par contre, à partir d'une hypothèse raisonnable, de calculer les hydrocarbures produits. L'analyse élémentaire permet d'y ajouter CO2, H2O, H2S et N2 (considérés comme seuls produits à côté des hydrocarbures. Une analyse chromatographique sommaire supplémentaire permet d'estimer la composition globale des hydrocarbures. Dans le cas des roches, on propose des techniques de correction de l'effet de matrice pratiquement utilisables et qui permettent de retrouver les résultats précédents, au prix d'une incertitude accrue. The mobile products formed during the geochemical evolution of organic matter must be quantitatively evaluated because these products can never be found in place in the rock where they were formed. Indeed, they may have migrated during geological history, and in any case a large and unknown fraction gets lost when samples are taken and then stored before being analysed. Knowing the elemental analysis of a state E and of a more evolved state E' does not suffice for recreating the amounts of products formed. On the other hand Rock-Eval type pyrolysis of kerogens, including the determination of the residual carbon, can be used to compute the hydrocarbons produced, on the basis of a reasonable hypothesis. Elemental analysis then enables the evaluation of CO2, H2O

  1. Utilisation du fumier produit dans les parcs de stabulation pour améliorer le rendement des exploitations agricoles au Nord Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Amidou, Moutaharou; André Djenontin, Jonas; Wennink, Bertus

    2003-01-01

    International audience La contrainte majeure évoquée par les exploitants agricoles du nord du Bénin est la baisse progressive de la fertilité des terres. Cette situation résulte d'une gestion inadéquate des terres cultivées et de leur fertilité. Les solutions préconisées sont les amendements organiques et les apports d'engrais minéraux, ainsi que des systèmes de rotation des cultures. L'apport de matière organique sous forme de compost ou de fumier est une technologie qui a été introduite ...

  2. Psychologie ergonomique du travail collectif assisté par ordinateur : l'utilisation du collecticiel dans les projets de conception de produits

    OpenAIRE

    Gronier, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The technological and organizational changes which occur in production structures can be more often attributed to the constantly developing high competitive socio-economical context. The effect of these changes is not only the reorganization of design methods but above all, the close collaboration of the different professions (engineers, designers, ergonomists, etc.) involved in the same project as well. In such a context, the Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (Travail Coopératif Assisté ...

  3. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total of 400 questionnaires were analyzed. Based on the results, the undergraduates’ utilisation level of smartphones for communication and collaboration tool was at a high level. Meanwhile, utilisation for operations and concepts tool and research and information fluency tool were at moderate level. Finally, smartphones utilisation as digital citizenship tool and critical thinking, problem solving and creativity tool were both at a low level. Hence, more training and workshops should be given to the students in order to encourage them to fully utilise smartphones in enhancing the higher order thinking skills.

  4. Le laser comme moyen de dégagement de produits de corrosion sur un objet archéologique : le cas de la dorure sur alliage cuivreux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Brodard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Le dégagement des produits de corrosion présents sur les objets archéologiques en alliage cuivreux dorés comporte d’importants risques d’altération. Lors d’un dégagement mécanique se pose le problème de la rayure de la surface dorée. Lors d’un traitement chimique, une accélération des processus de corrosion des alliages en présence risque de se produire.Dans ce travail, nous avons testé l’utilisation du laser comme méthode alternative de dégagement des produits de corrosion sur ce type d’objets. Trois lasers Nd:YAG ont été utilisés lors de cette étude : un laser Short free running, un laser long Q-switch et un laser Q-switch. Les tests ont été effectués sur des coupons en cuivre dorés fabriqués d’après deux masques précolombiens. Nos résultats montrent que ces lasers ne permettent pas un dégagement des produits de corrosion sans altérer la surface dorée. Par contre, il existe la possibilité de tester des lasers offrant une vitesse d’impulsion plus rapide comme le laser femtoseconde.The removal of corrosion products from archaeological gilded copper alloys lead to high risks of damage. A mechanical cleaning may induce abrasions of the gilding when a chemical cleaning might increase the corrosion processes.In this thesis, we have tested the use of laser as an alternative for the removal of corrosion products on gilded copper alloy. Three lasers Nd:YAG  were used during our tests : a laser Short free running, a laser Long Q-switch and a laser Q-switch. The tests have been done on gilded copper samples prepared after two pre-Columbian masks. The results prove that lasers don’t permit the removal of corrosion products without damage on the gilded surface. However a laser with a faster pulse like a femtosecond laser may allow the cleaning of gilded copper without any damage

  5. The use of slightly alloyed uranium as fuel: its influence on the dissolution and other stages of treatment; Emploi de l'uranium faiblement allie comme combustible: son incidence sur la dissolution et les autres phases du retraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P.; Leroy, P.; Lheureux, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    This report deals chiefly with the treatment of binary alloys (UAI, UMo, UZr, UCr, USi) with a low concentration of the additional element ({<=}2 per cent). The investigation was pursued with a view to the continued utilisation, with a minimum of modification, of the existing plants for treatment of non-alloyed irradiated uranium. In the first part, the usual process for the treatment of irradiated uranium by solvent extraction is briefly recalled. The second part is devoted to a study of the selective dissolution of the canning around certain of these alloys. The third part gives the behaviour of these different alloys at various phases of the usual treatment: a) dissolution; b) extractions; c) final treatment of fission products; d) final purification of plutonium. To conclude, possible alloys are classed as a function of their repercussions on the normal treatment. (author) [French] Il s'agit surtout du traitement d'alliages binaires (UAI, UMo, UZr, UCr, USi) a faible teneur en element etranger ({<=}2 pour cent). L'etude a ete conduite en vue d'utiliser un minimum de modifications les usines de traitement d'uranium irradie non allie. Dans une premiere partie, nous rappelons brievement le procede habituel de traitement de l'uranium irradie par extraction au solvant. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude de la dissolution selective de la gaine entourant certains de ces alliages. La troisieme partie donne le comportement de ces differents alliages au cours des phases du traitement habituel: a) dissolution; b) extractions; c) traitement final des produits de fission; d) purification finale du plutonium. Enfin, en conclusion, nous etablirons un classement des alliages possibles en fonction des repercussions sur le traitement normal. (auteur)

  6. Gender and Health Care Utilisation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Mubashir Ali

    2000-01-01

    This study is undertaken to test whether or not there exists gender bias in health care utilisation of sick children in Pakistan. Overall, the results are encouraging, as medical consultation has been sought for by a very high proportion (79 percent) of sick children. Moreover, there do not appear to be significant differences by gender in health care utilisation, be it curative or preventive. This is so in spite of the fact that many studies on various gender-related issues in Pakistan have ...

  7. The Finnish database on drug utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Klaukka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTThis article describes main sources of data used to study drug utilisation in Finland. National healthinterview studies have been used for this since 1964. Sales statistics are based on information fromwholesalers, and the Nordic ATC/DDD methodology is availed in order to make the numbers comparablewith the other countries. The most important database is a national prescription register, which exists since1994 and includes all reimbursed medication purchases. The data were originally collected for administrativepurposes, but they provide useful material also for pharmaco-epidemiological and -economic research.Key words  : Drug utilisation, prescription register, health interview surveys, sales statistics

  8. La notion de compétences relationnelles. : Une conception psychotique de la relation à l'autre ?

    OpenAIRE

    Camus, Odile

    2011-01-01

    Le modèle des compétences, maintes fois décrit comme produit idéologique de l'individualisme libéral, tend à se réorganiser autour de la notion de compétences relationnelles. Par delà la confusion apparente qu'apporte cette notion polysémique, une analyse de corpus conçu en tant que formation discursive révèle sa consistance paradoxale : autonomie supposant l'identification à l'entreprise, empathie instrumentalisante, relégation du collectif dans l'interpersonnel... Ces compétences apparaisse...

  9. Potential for straw utilisation in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, G.J.; Burke, J.I.; Martindale, L.P.

    1986-05-01

    Very little statistical information is available on the production and utilisation of straw in Ireland. However, using average cereal production figures, the total straw yield is estimated to be over 1.7 million tonnes annually. Energy markets and the large potential market for direct combustion of biomass fuels, such as cereal straw are discussed.

  10. CO2 capture, transport, storage and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions requires an integrated CO2 management approach. The dependency between the different industry sectors is higher than commonly acknowledged and covers all areas; capture, transport, storage and utilisation. TNO is one of Europe’s largest independent research organisations and p

  11. Intensité concurrentielle entre lignes de produits rivales:un éclairage par la théorie de la concurrence multimarchés

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmajid Amine; Faouzi Bensebaa

    2005-01-01

    (VF)Cet article propose une lecture nouvelle et globale des stratégies de marketing produit des entreprises en mobilisant la théorie de la concurrence multimarchés. Il tend à montrer la pertinence de transposer cette théorie au niveau de la rivalité entre lignes de produits et à analyser le lien entre la domination d’une firme dans une ligne de produits et la modification du niveau de concurrence du secteur. À travers une analyse de cas, l’article montre que l’intensité des contacts multimarc...

  12. La consommation des produits animaux en France : tendances et perspectives d’évolution

    OpenAIRE

    Combris, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    A partir des séries statistiques issues de la Comptabilité Nationale, ce texte analyse les grandes tendances de la consommation des produits animaux en France depuis le début des années cinquante. Le taux de croissance de la consommation des viandes diminue régulièrement tout au long de la période, et une tendance à la saturation se manifeste de plus en plus clairement au cours des années quatre-vingt. Les données des enquêtes de consommation mettent en évidence la forte hétérogénéité des com...

  13. Le big bang n'est pas une théorie comme les autres

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc; Leglu, Dominique; Reinisch, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Le big bang n'est pas une théorie comme les autres. Ce n'est d'ailleurs pas une théorie physique au sens propre du terme, mais un scénario cosmologique issu des équations de la relativité générale. Il est le modèle qui s'ajuste le mieux aux observations actuelles, mais à quel prix ? Il nous livre un Univers composé à 96 % de matière et d'énergie noires inconnues. C'est donc un euphémisme que de dire que le big bang semble poser autant - sinon plus - de questions qu'il n'en résout. En ce sens, le big bang apparaît davantage comme une paramétrisation de notre ignorance plutôt que comme une modélisation d'un phénomène. Pourtant, le succès du big bang et l'adhésion qu'il suscite, tant dans la sphère scientifique que dans la sphère médiatique, ne se démentent pas. Surmédiatisé, son statut dépasse celui de modèle théorique, et la simple évocation de son nom suffit pour justifier des opérations de marketing scientifique ou rejeter des cosmologies alternatives. Pour éclaircir les pr...

  14. Utilisation des mousses et des pâtes syntactiques pour combler les lacunes des poteries archéologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bechoux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Filling potteries missing parts with plaster raises now complex problems during the de-restoration treatments. Ceramics restorers have recurrently questions on the use of plaster in the field of archaeological ceramics restoration. Some researches point to the choice of other filling materials. At the present time other methods can be devised by proposing plaster replacement by a lightened composite material: syntactic foams and pastes.Le comblement des lacunes des poteries à partir du plâtre pose actuellement des problèmes complexes lors des traitements de dérestauration. Les restaurateurs de céramiques s'interrogent de manière récurrente sur l'utilisation du plâtre dans le domaine de la restauration des céramiques archéologiques. Des recherches s'orientent vers le choix d'autres matériaux d'obturation. Actuellement, d'autres méthodes peuvent être mises en place en proposant le remplacement du plâtre par un matériau composite allégé, les mousses et les pâtes syntactiques.

  15. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, ten, H.M.Th.D.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Bestman, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  16. Enhancing Graduate Attributes Utilising Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Eric; Hinch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to ascertain the usefulness of utilising social media to enhance graduate attributes. This study was conducted during one semester and concentrated on one aspect of graduate attributes which were interview skills. Two videos were scripted, shot and edited that focused on interviews from the perspective of both the interviewer and the interviewee. These videos were incorporated into workshops with first year and second year level 8 undergraduate students. Pre...

  17. La notion de compétences relationnelles : une conception utilitariste de la relation à l’autre

    OpenAIRE

    Camus, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Le modèle des compétences, maintes fois décrit comme produit idéologique de l’individualisme libéral, tend à se réorganiser autour de la notion de compétences relationnelles. Par delà la confusion apparente qu’apporte cette notion polysémique, une analyse de corpus conçu en tant que formation discursive révèle sa consistance paradoxale : autonomie supposant l’identification à l’entreprise, empathie instrumentalisante, relégation du collectif dans l’interpersonnel... Ces compétences apparaisse...

  18. Quelques exemples de la diversité des laits et des produits laitiers dans le monde

    OpenAIRE

    Gaucheron, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Quelle que soit leur origine géographique, les laits des différentes espèces animales sont uniques de par leur composition. Ils contiennent à la fois de l’eau, des protéines, des lipides, des glucides, des minéraux et des vitamines. Cependant, cette composition est très variable quantitativement et qualita- tivement d’une espèce à l’autre. Par exemple, le lait de vache issu d’une ferme laitière européenne et les laits de chèvre et de chamelle contiennent 30 à 35 g/l de protéines, 35 à 45 g/l ...

  19. Utilisation of magnets to enhance gastrointestinalendoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Methods to assess, access and treat pathology withinthe gastrointestinal tract continue to evolve with videoendoscopy replacing radiology as the gold standard.Whilst endoscope technology develops further with theadvent of newer higher resolution chips, an array ofadjuncts has been developed to enhance endoscopy inother ways; most notable is the use of magnets. Magnetsare utilised in many areas, ranging from endoscopictraining, lesion resection, aiding manoeuvrability ofcapsule endoscopes, to assisting in easy placement oftubes for nutritional feeding. Some of these are still at anexperimental stage, whilst others are being increasinglyincorporated in our everyday practice.

  20. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des

  1. Application des ultrasons aux procédés de transformation des produits agroalimentaires

    OpenAIRE

    Pingret de Sousa, Daniella,

    2012-01-01

    L’utilisation des ultrasons dans l’industrie agro-alimentaire présente de nombreux avantages, tels que l’augmentation de la productivité et la diminution des coûts et des impacts environnementaux. Dans la première partie de ce travail, une brève introduction sur la théorie des ultrasons et ses applications en agro-alimentaire et l’utilisation de ces derniers pour l’extraction des polyphénols de marc de pomme en solution aqueuse seront présentés. Cette étude a été optimisée et présente d’excel...

  2. Les produits de fermentation et leurs usages industriels Fermentation Products and Their Industrial Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Quelques intermédiaires chimiques peuvent être obtenus soit par culture anaérobie, soit par voie pétrochimique. En se limitant à l'acide lactique, l'acétone-butanol et l'acide acétique, on indique pour chacun d'eux les tonnages actuels. En comparant sur les plans technique et économique, fermentation et synthèse pétrochimique, on situe ces deux modes de production d'un même produit en fonction soit du prix du brut, soit du prix de la biomasse. On montre ainsi que l'acide lactique atteint déjà la compétitivité économique. Pour l'acétone-butanol, dans l'état actuel de la technique, il faut que le brut atteigne 45 $/b pour que la voie biomasse l'emporte sur la voie pétrochimique dans le cas du n-butanol ; dans le cas de l'acétone, la voie biomasse est déjà compétitive. Varions building-block chemicals from industrial synthesis can be obtained either by anaerobic culture or by petrochemical methods. By limiting ourselves to the leading compounds considered in this symposium, we will give for each of them the tonnages now produced and the synthesis method(s used. Fermentation and petrochemical synthesis will be compared from the technical and economic point of view. Whenever economic data so allow, we will attempt to situate these two production methods for the same product as a function of the possible evolution of crude-oil prices as well as that of the initial vegetal matter which price also depends on crude-oil price. For biosyntheses which have not yet reached their level of competitivity, the aim consists in forecasting the possibility of reaching it in the future.

  3. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  4. Fuel gas from biomass - utilisation concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Vierrath, H. [Lurgi Envirotherm GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste of coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi's CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for our advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The subject paper will focus on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for co-firing into existing boiler plants. (orig.)

  5. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... of allservices in primary care, while in secondary care only fewareas showed an increased long-term morbidity. Conclusion: International adoptees use medical servicesin primary care at a higher rate than non-adoptees someyears after adoption. Excess use of services in secondarycare is also present, but only......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...

  6. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  7. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. PMID:19362462

  8. Produits principaux de l’ORSI EPEES Axe de rattachement : 3 Durée : 5 ans, 2009-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Jullien, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    Les connaissances et Produits principaux de l’ORSI EPEES Axe de rattachement : 3 Durée : 5 ans (2009-2013) ont été présentés. Des indicateurs et des outils d’évaluation éco-comparateurs ont été développés pour les infrastructures de transport, et une méthodologie d’évaluation d’itinéraires est proposée. L’évaluation de politique de conception, construction/entretien du patrimoine en phase projets ou appels d’offres ou travaux (éco-comparateur ECORCE qual...

  9. Quelle communication possible sur le cholestérol pour des produits alimentaires : points sur les évolutions réglementaires en Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonneau Camille

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L’étiquetage et les allégations possibles pour les produits alimentaires ont fait l’objet de nombreuses évolutions en Europe depuis moins d’une dizaine d’années. Concernant la question du cholestérol, on peut noter tout d’abord que les attentes consommateurs ont naturellement évolué, en lien avec les différents messages de santé publique et les modifications du discours ambiant. Le contexte réglementaire s’est également considérablement contraint, en ouvrant cependant la possibilité à de nouveaux produits pour communiquer sur le cholestérol, sous réserve de respecter les conditions d’emploi de ces mentions et de composition des produits.

  10. D'une pratique à une autre : la médiation de la théorie

    OpenAIRE

    Ar Rouz, David

    2005-01-01

    International audience «En «D'une pratique à une autre : la médiation de la théorie», David ar Rouz ens invita a seguir l'evolució que el va emmenar d'una anàlisi de l'autotraducció a una reflexió sobre el paper del traductor i d'altres participants en l'acte de traduir. David ar Rouz comença per posar en qüestió el mite de l'original i la infal·libilitat de l'autotraductor: «S'adone que l'autotraductor és un traductor com els altres, o més ben dit: que el traductor hauria de ser un autor ...

  11. Comparaison entre un capteur à aérogel de silice et d'autres capteurs plans

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Yelles, Fayza; Benabadji, Batoul; Benyoucef, Boumediene; Ziani, Zakariya

    2007-01-01

    International audience Dans notre travail, le matériau que nous avons utilisé est l'aérogel de silice : matériaux poreux de faible conductivité thermique. Pour cela une nouvelle conception de capteurs, où le matériau isolant est placé au dessus de l'absorbeur a été mise au point dans le but de limiter ou minimiser les différentes pertes thermiques. Enfin nous avons fait une comparaison entre un capteur à aérogel de Silice et d'autres capteurs plans sans ce matériau, simple ou double vitrag...

  12. Valparaíso en 02h01. Promenade d'un port à l'autre

    OpenAIRE

    Fellay, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Valparaiso est le premier port et la deuxième ville du Chili. La ville est divisée en deux parties distinctes. D'une part El Plan, situé sur la partie plate de la ville, qui abrite le port ainsi qu'une grande majorité des commerces de la ville. D'autre part Los Cerros, amphithéâtre naturel où vit la majorité de la population. Les funiculaires partant à l'assaut des collines ainsi que les maisons de tôle aux couleurs si variées donnent à la ville son allure unique. Vivant entre le passé et le ...

  13. Bases moléculaires de la voie de biosynthèse de la patuline, mycotoxine produite par Byssochlamys nivea et Penicillium griseofulvum

    OpenAIRE

    Puel, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    La patuline constitue un contaminant chimique toxique fréquemment rencontré dans les produits issus de la transformation des fruits, notamment des pommes. Cette toxine essentiellement produite par Penicillium expansum et Byssochlamys nivea fait l'objet d'une réglementation européenne récente (N°1425/2003). Contrairement à certaines mycotoxines règlementées telles que les aflatoxines, les trichothécènes ou les fumonisines, la génétique de la voie de biosynthèse de la patuline est fort mal conn...

  14. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs

  15. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  16. Co-utilisation of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michal Kubacki; Andrew B. Ross; Jenny M. Jones; Alan Williams [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process

    2007-07-01

    Co-utilisation of coal and biomass for energy production results in pollutant reduction. Most notable is the impact on NOx, SOx, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the synergy in toxic organic emission reduction from co-firing or co-gasifying coal and biomass. A new technique was developed to study co-pyrolysis, heated wire mesh pyrolysis coupled to a GC-mass-spectrometer via a probe, which can sample at varying heights from the pyrolysing fuel. The results from this technique were compared to more conventional pyrolysis-GC-MS as well as thermogravimetric (TGA) and batch reactor studies. Co-combustion was studied by TGA and by burning briquettes supported on a needle in a methane air flame. A range of coals of varying rank, different biomass, as well as model compounds were used. Results show that non-additive combustion behaviour is not easily explained by studying devolatilisation because of the difficulty in replicating the conditions of temperature profile and residence time experienced by the volatiles. Thus, conflicting behaviour is exhibited depending upon pyrolysis technique. However, the atmosphere during experiments appears to be more important. Non-additive combustion for both powdered and pelletised fuels was seen by TGA and studies in a methane-air burner. The coal ignites and burns at a lower temperature because of the interaction with the biomass volatile combustion region. Thus it is proposed that the reduction in emissions from co-combustion arises from enhanced reaction of the coal volatiles by mixing with biomass volatiles in a hot oxidising atmosphere. 14 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effective Utilisation of Waste Glass in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Shaikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass is a widely used product throughout the world; it is versatile, durable and reliable. The uses of glass ranges drastically, therefore waste glass is discarded, stockpiled or land filled. About million tons of waste glass is generated and around large percent of this glass is disposed of in landfills. This pattern has influenced environmental organizations to pressure the professional community to lower the amount of glass being discarded as well as find use to the non-recycled glass in new applications. In relation, the recycling of waste glass as a component in concrete gives waste glass a sustainable alternative to land filling and therefore makes it economically viable.The proposed study of utilising waste glass powder(GLP in concrete as partial replacement of cement as well as the use of crushed glass particles(CGP retained on 1.18mm & 2.36mm IS sieve as a partial replacement to sand, which offers important benefits related to strength of concrete as well as it is eco-friendly. Recycling of mixed-colour waste glass possesses major problems for municipalities, and this problem can be greatly eliminated by re-using waste glass as sand/cement replacement in concrete. Moreover, re-using waste materials in construction can reduce the demand on the sources of primary materials.In this project the attempts have been made to partially replace the cement as well as sand by waste glass powder and crushed glass particles with equal combination by 5% interval up to 20% replacement and observe its effect on the strength of concrete after 7 days and 28 days of curing.

  18. Utilisation de la clairance plasmatique de l'iolthalamate pour la détermination du débit de filtration glomérulaire chez le chien : comparaison avec les autres méthodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mourou, M.

    2002-01-01

    Le diagnostic de l'insuffisance rénale chronique (IRC) est souvent tardif et de pronostic mauvais. Les manifestations cliniques apparaissent lorsque 75% des reins sont lésés. Une exploration fonctionnelle rénale précoce est donc primordiale. Le débit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) est la variable physiologie d'intérêt pour évaluer la fonction rénale. Après une étude des principales caractéristiques histologiques et physiologiques de la fonction rénale (et plus précisément de la filtration g...

  19. Le Plan Maroc Vert et l’autosuffisance alimentaire en produits de base à l’horizon 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Nouréini Sayouti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude a pour objectif d’analyser les effets probables de la nouvelle stratégie agricole marocaine (le Plan Maroc Vert sur la situation alimentaire (dépendance ou autosuffisance alimentaire du Maroc à l’horizon 2020. Elle a concerné sept produits de base indispensables à la diète marocaine à savoir : le lait, le sucre, l’huile de table, la viande rouge, la viande blanche, le blé tendre et le blé dur. L’approche méthodologique utilisée consiste à prévoir la demande alimentaire du pays, pour l’horizon 2020, en ces denrées. La méthode utilisée pour la prévision de la demande prend en compte la taille de la population, l’élasticité-revenu et l’évolution du niveau de revenu par habitant. La demande projetée est comparée aux niveaux de production prévus par le Plan Maroc Vert pour le même horizon. Ces prévisions ont révélé que malgré les efforts d’augmentation des niveaux de production prévus dans le cadre du Plan Maroc Vert, le Maroc ne pourrait pas atteindre une autosuffisance alimentaire pour le blé tendre, le blé dur, le sucre et les huiles de table à l’horizon 2020. Par contre, cette autosuffisance serait possible pour le lait, les viandes rouges et les viandes blanches. Ces résultats montrent que les décideurs politiques devraient mieux orienter l’intervention de l’Etat pour améliorer l’offre du pays pour le premier groupe des produits. En revanche, les possibilités d’exportation devraient être encouragées pour le deuxième groupe de produits notamment vers les marchés émergents tels que ceux de l’Afrique Subsaharienne.

  20. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transport – capacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...

  1. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    operation. The market is expected to move forward but the available public information is very limited, especially concerning the technologies used and volumes produced. Woody feedstocks will be the main raw material source. The utilisation rate of forest industry residues and by-products is relatively high in the EU and wood supply in Central Europe remains more or less stable, hence the price of the raw material is at a fairly high level. The utilities' capability to pay for the product depends mainly on the national feed-in tariffs of green electricity. The energy price for the user is at least twice as high as that of coal. (orig.)

  2. Le reportage en bande dessinée dans la presse actuelle : un autre regard sur le monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Bourdieu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La bande dessinée sort de sa bulle et s’aventure du côté du réel, du documentaire et du factuel. À partir d’un corpus de reportages en bande dessinée parus dans des périodiques francophones au cours de la dernière décennie, nous nous interrogerons sur les enjeux de cette rencontre entre presse et littérature et sur la légitimité de ce genre en cours de constitution. On montrera ensuite que ce médium mixte, parce qu’il allie ressources graphiques et littéraires, est particulièrement approprié pour restituer à la fois la « chose vue » et l’expérience vécue par le reporter sur le terrain, offrant ainsi au lecteur un autre regard sur le monde.

  3. Écodesign, du contexte au produit : Contribution méthodologique à l'intégration de l'environnement dans les métiers du design industriel

    OpenAIRE

    Guilloux, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    Le design industriel prend en compte l'usage et l'expérience de l'utilisateur (Contexte) pour proposer un concept de produit (fonctionnalités, forme, esthétique, usage, etc.), sur la base d'un problème " mal défini " ou " mal structuré ". L'éco‐conception identifie des variantes, pour maîtriser les impacts environnementaux, sur de nouveaux produits ou propose des pistes d'amélioration de produits existants. Les démarches d'éco‐conception répondent à des enjeux propres à l'entreprise (image, f...

  4. Medicare and Private and Public Medical Practice: Utilisation and Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Duhs, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Commonwealth Government is currently undertaking a review of various issues in the health sector. A recently published study by John Deeble has analysed expenditures, utilisation, workforce issues etc. under Australia’s current health insurance arrangements (Medicare) for the provision of medical services remunerated on a fee-for-service basis. This study has highlighted increased utilisation of services as a major “management issue”. It is demonstrated here that the data on which these c...

  5. SETIS Magazine - Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage issue

    OpenAIRE

    TZIMAS Evangelos; PEREZ FORTES MARIA DEL MAR

    2016-01-01

    The SETIS magazine aims at delivering timely information and analysis on the state of play of energy technologies, related research and innovation efforts in support of the implementation of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan). The current issue is dedicated to Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage. The editorial for the Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage issue is provided by A.SPIRE Executive Director Loredana Ghinea. The issue also includes contributions by:...

  6. Quel traitement lexicographique de l’onomastique commerciale ? Pour une distinction Nom de marque/Nom de produit

    OpenAIRE

    Fèvre-Pernet, Christine; Roché, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Le traitement lexicographique de ce que l’on appelle noms déposés, marques déposées ou « noms de marques » pose problème. Au sein de l’onomastique commerciale, les noms de marques et les noms de produits constituent, linguistiquement, deux classes distinctes : c’est ce que nous montrons dans cet article en nous appuyant sur différents critères. Ils se comportent différemment sur le plan pragmatique (identification de l’origine ou du contenu, réponse à un besoin de nomination), référentiel (na...

  7. Configuration de processus industriels dans un contexte de produits customisés et multi-variés

    OpenAIRE

    DAABOUL, Joanna; Bosch-Mauchand, Magali; Da Cunha, Catherine,; Bernard, Alain

    2013-01-01

    La customisation de masse (MC) est aujourd'hui une réalité. Des entreprises comme Adidas, BMW, Gucci, Nike, DELL ont déjà proposé des produits customisés à leurs clients. Néanmoins les méthodes et outils existants pour gérer les processus industriels doivent s'adapter aux contraintes de la customisation de masse. Dans cet article, nous proposons une modélisation et une simulation combinée à une analyse de la valeur axée sur la qualité perçue par le client afin de déterminer la meilleure confi...

  8. Alimentation animale et valeur nutritionnelle induite sur les produits dérivés consommés par l’homme : Les lipides sont-ils principalement concernés ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans quelle mesure la nourriture reçue par les animaux induit-elle une modification (amélioration ou au contraire dégradation de la valeur nutritionnelle des aliments qui en sont issus pour la nourriture de l’homme ? La réponse à cette question varie selon la nature des nutriments (vitamines, minéraux, acides gras poly-insaturés indispensables des graisses, acides aminés indispensables des protéines, et aussi de l’espèce considérée. Le problème est de rechercher l’impact réel des formulations des rations utilisées dans les élevages sur la valeur nutritionnelle des produits (viandes, lait et laitages, fromages et œufs, etc., et donc leur influence sur la santé du consommateur, évidemment dans un sens favorable. Les acides gras poly-insaturés oméga-3 (ω3 bénéficient de deux grands axes de valorisation. Le premier réside dans leur importance quantitative et leurs rôles dans le cadre de la mise en place et du maintien de divers organes, le cerveau au premier chef. Le second se trouve dans la prévention de diverses pathologies, les maladies cardio-vasculaires occupant une place prépondérante \\; avec, depuis peu, les maladies neuro-psychiatriques, stress, dépression et démence. Compte tenu des implications en termes de maladies, cardio-cérébro-vasculaires entre autres, le contrôle de la nature des acides gras constitutifs des graisses représente donc un enjeu considérable en ce qui concerne les viandes issues d’animaux terrestres, maritimes et aériens, du lait, des laitages, fromages et des œufs. Car la qualité des graisses données en nourriture animale détermine fondamentalement la valeur nutritionnelle des aliments qui en sont dérivés, pour la consommation humaine. Bien évidemment, il est relativement difficile de modifier la composition en acides gras des phospholipides constitutifs des membranes biologiques intégrées dans la multitude de types cellulaires, dont la spécificité est largement

  9. Marguerite Andersen et le moi en l’absence de l’autre : De mémoire de femme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Tennier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la fin du XXe siècle, les recherches menées sur l’autobiographie et l’autofiction soulignent les effets du discours postmoderne sur la notion d’identité. Chez Marguerite Andersen, romancière franco-ontarienne d’origine allemande, qui se représente dans quatre livres – le roman « semi-autobiographique » De mémoire de femme, le récit autobiographique Parallèles, la prose poétique Bleu sur blanc et le roman autobiographique Le figuier sur le toit – de même que dans certaines nouvelles des Crus de l’Esplanade, cette construction s’avère être un processus dynamique et créatif de mise au monde de soi. Nous nous pencherons sur De mémoire de femme pour explorer comment l’éloignement de différentes figures d’altérité à un moment particulier dans la vie de la protagoniste incite chez elle le désir de se raconter et d’ajuster en quelque sorte son tir en ce qui concerne son identité. À l’aide des théories énoncées par Éric Landowski, Charles Taylor et Julia Kristeva, nous verrons comment l’exercice narratif est mis en branle par le déséquilibre provoqué par l’absence de l’autre que l’écrivaine cherche à combler dans le but de s’épanouir.

  10. A norm utilisation for scarce hospital resources: Evidence from operating rooms in a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdenhoven, van Mark; Hans, Erwin W.; Klein, Jan; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, Geert

    2007-01-01

    Background: Utilisation of operating rooms is high on the agenda of hospital managers and researchers. Many efforts in the area of maximising the utilisation have been focussed on finding the holy grail of 100% utilisation. The utilisation that can be realised, however, depends on the patient mix an

  11. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  12. Effect of ethnic background on Danish hospital utilisation patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Sorensen, Tine Moller;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine possible ethnic differences in the utilisation patterns of hospitalised immigrants versus patients born in Denmark. Data were obtained from the Register of Prevention at Statistics Denmark. This register includes both clinical and socio-demographic data. All pat...... on duration of hospital stay and consequently the utilisation patterns of inpatient care seem to reflect equal care for equal needs....... patients discharged as inpatients during 1997 at Bispebjerg Hospital (a major hospital in Copenhagen) were identified through the Register of Prevention and linked to data concerning diagnosis, place of birth, age and gender. To compare immigrants with patients born in Denmark, a study group...... contacts characterised by the same diagnostic categories among a random sample of 10,000 patients born in Denmark. The measure of utilisation employed was length of inpatient stay determined by the total number of days that each admission lasted. Data were analysed by a multiple regression analysis...

  13. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babadagli T.

    2012-05-01

    compositions of bioDiesel in steam at 1.8 MPa pressure and 205°C are at least one order of magnitude higher than the requested bioDiesel dosages. Further tests are planned by reducing bioDiesel dosages to about 0.5 to 1.0 g-bioDiesel/kilogram-steam and by monitoring the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen. L’utilisation d’additifs pour améliorer l’efficacité des procédés de récupération thermique d’huile lourde et de bitume a été étudiée de manière approfondie pendant des décennies. Deux types courants d’additifs utilisés dans des applications thermiques, principalement en récupération assistée par injection de vapeur, consistent en des solvants et des agents tensioactifs. L’utilisation de solvants présente des inconvénients du fait de leur coût élevé et de la difficulté à les récupérer. Le coût et la stabilité des agents tensioactifs aux température et pression de réservoir limitent leur usage. Nous proposons l’utilisation d’un biogazole tel qu’un ester méthylique d’acides gras en tant qu’additif tensioactif pour réduire la tension interfaciale huile lourde/bitume-eau dans les procédés de récupération assistée par injection de vapeur. Les avantages de l’utilisation d’un biogazole en tant qu’additif tensioactif consistent en ce que le biogazole est chimiquement stable aux pression et température d’exploitation du réservoir, qu’il ne dégrade pas la qualité des hydrocarbures produits ni la composition chimique des eaux de production et que son utilisation est économiquement viable. Nous avons mené une série d’expériences de récupération assistée de bitume par injection de vapeur afin de clarifier le potentiel de récupération additionnelle et la capacité d’amélioration d’efficacité du biogazole. De la vapeur à 1,8 MPa et 205 °C a été utilisée au cours de ces essais, à un débit de 900 g/h. Le milieu poreux utilisé consistait en un sable pétrolifère à teneur normale en bitume

  14. The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Tauchenová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This master´s thesis is called The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing. It presents Youtubers as idols of today´s young people and introduces options of utilization of their power for marketing purposes. The first chapter introduces the reader to the general matters of online marketing and offers basic knowledge about this area. The second chapter is dedicated to social networks and their utilisation in marketing field. The third chapter introduces the topic YouTube. It...

  15. Consommation des produits écologiques et inégalités sociales. Le cas tunisien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Abdmouleh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Le public tunisien méconnaît l’existence des produits écologiques sur le marché local, mais exprime en même temps son intention d’en consommer. Cette disposition résulte de la prise de conscience des enjeux écologiques et du sentiment d’implication vis-à-vis de l’environnement et de la collectivité. Le capital financier et culturel n’est pas non plus étranger à ce désir. Les produits écologiques demeurent-ils perçus comme une sorte de luxe et un privilège réservés aux classes sociales aisées ? Finalement, en dépit de sa bonne cause, la problématique environnementaliste n’échappe pas au découpage de classes et à la reproduction des inégalités sociales, d’où la nécessité de reconsidérer les conceptions et les relations traditionnelles entre les sphères économiques et sociales et la sphère environnementale. The study demonstrates the Tunisian public’s ignorancethat ecological products exist on the local market as well as the public’s willingness to consume them. Thispreference results from a growing awareness of ecological issues as well as a perceived need to get involved vis-à-vis the environment and the community. It is also depending on the individual’s financial and cultural capitals. The question is whether ecological products remain a luxury and a privilege restricted to the affluent social class. Despite its noble cause, the environmentalist issue can escape neither from class categorization nor from the reproduction of social injustices. As a result, traditional conceptions and relations between the economic and social spaces and the environmental space need to be reconsidered.

  16. BIODIVERSITE MICROBIENNE ET PARAMETRES PHYSICOCHIMIQUES DE QUELQUES VINS DE RONIER (BORASSUS AKEASSII PRODUITS TRADITIONNELLEMENT AU BURKINA FASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. BARRO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude traite de la biodiversité microbienne et des paramètres physico-chimiques de quelques vins de rônier produits traditionnellement au Burkina Faso. Elle a consisté à la détermination des paramètres physico-chimiques et microbiologiques du vin de rônier issu de la fermentation spontanée de la sève de rônier.L’étude de la composition physico-chimique et des aspects microbiologiques a été réalisée à l’aide des méthodes standards de microbiologie et de physico-chimie. Douze échantillons de sève de rônier fermentée naturellement ont été collectés dans la région de Bobo Dioulasso où ce vin est abondamment produit.Le pH, l’acidité totale, la teneur en sucres totaux et en alcool variaient entre 3,6 et 4,5 ; 0,1 et 1,28 % (m/v ; 0,58 et 8,72 % (m/v ; 4,08 et 7,25 % (v/v respectivement. La flore mésophile totale était entre 1,4.108 et 2,5.108UFC et la flore de levures entre 3,4 106 et 2,85 107UFC par millilitre de vin.Les coliformes totaux étaient présents dans 25 % des échantillons (BFH1, BFH5 et BFH10 à un nombre de l’ordre de 1,28.106 à 4,6.106UFC/ml témoignant une qualité hygiénique pauvre. Lactobacillus, Bacillus, et Acetobacter thermo-tolérants et alcoolo-tolérants impliqués dans le processus de fermentation spontanée de la sève de rônier ont été également isolés et identifiés dans les échantillons BFH1, BFH9 et BFH12.La connaissance des paramètres physico-chimiques et microbiologiques de la sève fermentée du rônier est nécessaire non seulement pour la valorisation de cette boisson locale et traditionnelle mais aussi pour l’exploitation de la biodiversité microbienne.

  17. Etude des Environnements Circumstellaires D'etoiles Ae/be de Herbig et D'autres Etoiles Jeunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Roger

    Cet ouvrage présente une étude des environnements circumstellaires d'étoiles pré-séquence principale de masse intermédiaire dites Ae/Be de Herbig ainsi que d'objets stellaires jeunes de différents types, des T Tauris, des FU Ori et d'autres de types encore indéterminés. Nous avons recouru pour cela à deux techniques d'observation: la photométrie et la cartographie dans le continu millimétrique et la cartographie en polarisation linéaire. Nous avons comparé, pour la première fois, des cartes de polarisation obtenues différentes longueurs d'onde, allant du visible à l'infrarouge dans le but d'observer et d'exploiter une prédiction faite par Bastien & Ménard (BM) voulant que la dimension du disque polarimétrique, représenté par un profil de vecteurs de polarisation alignés et délimités par deux points nuls, varie en fonction de la longueur d'onde. Les points nuls indiqueraient la zone de transition entre le milieu optiquement épais et celui optiquement mince. L'observation de cet effet à été constatée pour tous les objets de notre échantillon, indépendamment de leur âge ou de leur type. Le seul critère d'appartenance à l'échantillon étant un angle d'inclinaison du disque de ~ 90°. Nous avons également obtenu le profil de densité dans le disque et, pour un objet, HL Tau, les densités effectives du disque. La masse trouvée à partir de ces calculs, MD ~ 0.1 Msolar, concorde avec les estimations obtenues par d'autres méthodes. Le profil de densité en loi de puissance obtenu, r(r)=r0 (r0/r)g où γ = 1.4-1.9, est comparable à ceux utilisés pour la nébuleuse protosolaire ainsi que pour les modèles de disques d'accrétion autour des étoiles jeunes. L'étude des cartes de polarisation nous a permis également le développement d'une méthode de détermination de la source d'illumination de la nébuleuse. Elle se base sur le calcul des coordonnées de tous les points d'intersection des perpendiculaires aux vecteurs de

  18. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  19. Glucose utilisation in the lungs of septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequestration and degranulation of leucocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation is considered to be a key event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with sepsis. Glucose serves as the main source of energy in activated leucocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether glucose utilisation in the lungs can be used as an indicator of pulmonary leucocyte accumulation in an experimental model of sepsis of intra-abdominal origin. Sepsis was induced in rats by abdominal implantation of a gelatine capsule containing bacteria and rat colonic contents. Empty gelatine capsules were implanted in control animals. Animals were studied 6 and 12 h after sepsis induction. Glucose utilisation was measured as the tissue uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) 1 h after intravenous injection of the tracer. Micro-autoradiography was also performed after injection of tritiated deoxyglucose. We found increased uptake of 18FDG in the lungs of septic animals. The uptake also increased with time after sepsis induction. 18FDG uptake in circulating leucocytes was increased in septic animals compared with controls, and micro-autoradiography showed intense accumulation of deoxyglucose in leucocytes in the lungs of septic animals. We conclude that glucose utilisation is increased in the lungs of septic rats. Measurements of pulmonary glucose utilisation as an index of leucocyte metabolic activity may open new possibilities for studies of the pathophysiology of sepsis and for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  20. CERN un physicien dénonce des utilisations militaires

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    André Gsponer, ancien chercheur au CERN, a écrit un rapport qui dénone les utilisations militaires développées par certains Etat, dont l'Irak, sur la base des technologies mises au point au CERN (1 page).

  1. Utilisation of prescription and over-the-counter triptans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Ljunggren, Gunnar;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Triptans are widely used in acute migraine, and in some countries, they are also available over-the-counter (OTC). In Sweden, sales have increased for both prescription and OTC triptans. This study aimed to describe current prescribing and utilisation patterns of prescription and OTC tri...

  2. Utilisation of medical technology assessment in health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, WJA; Wieringh, R; van den Heuvel, LPM

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of medical technology assessment (MTA) to health policy decision making, the question has to be answered whether MTA is actually being used in decision-making processes and what factors are related to its utilisation. Design: We investigated recent Dutch policy

  3. Utilisation du transport en commun chez les immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Heisz, Andrew; Schellenberg, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Dans cet article, on examine, a l'aide des donnees tirees des recensements de la population de 1996 et de 2001, la probabilite que les immigrants et les personnes nees au Canada utilisent le transport en commun. On discute egalement des repercussions sur les services de transport en commun.

  4. Une caractérisation des services environnementaux à dimension paysagère produits dans les espaces ruraux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Aznar

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article restitue les premiers résultats d’une recherche sur l’analyse économique des services environnementaux à dimension paysagère, plus particulièrement ceux produits dans les espaces ruraux. S’appuyant sur une grille d'analyse issue de l'économie des services, l’auteur propose une définition générale du service environnemental à dimension paysagère puis la décline à travers une typologie centrée sur les modalités de production du service. La dernière partie présente une illustration empirique à l’échelle d’une vingtaine de communes du Puy de Dôme situées dans le Parc Naturel Régional des Volcans d’Auvergne.This paper presents the first results of a research on the economic analysis of environmental services with landscape dimension, more particularly those produced in rural areas. Thanks to the economics of services, the author proposes a definition of the environmental service. Then, he outlines a typology based on the production of the environmental service. The last part presents an empirical illustration in some communes of the Puy de Dôme (France, located in the French Regional Nature Park of the Volcanoes of Auvergne.

  5. Rapport de fin de projet "Agridrone" : utilisation de capteurs embarqués sur système léger pour caractériser l'état hydrique et nutritionnel des cultures. Application à la canne à sucre sur le site pilote de l'île de La Réunion

    OpenAIRE

    Bégué, A.; Lebourgeois, V.; Houlés, M.; Degenne, P.; Labbé, S; Dupuy, S.; Roux, B

    2008-01-01

    / Le contexte du projet, les enjeux économiques et environnementaux de l'agriculture raisonnée sont aujourd'hui largement reconnus. Le suivi spatio-temporel de l'état nutritionnel, hydrique ou sanitaire des couverts végétaux est un élément clé dans la prise de décision sur les interventions culturales. Cependant, l'utilisation de la télédétection peine à se développer en agriculture en raison 1. de limitations techniques dues à l'adéquation spatiale, temporelle et thématique des produits déve...

  6. Using High Throughput Experimentation Approach for the Evaluation of Dehydrogenation Catalysts: Potential Interests and Drawbacks Utilisation d’une approche d’expérimentation à haut débit pour l’évaluation de catalyseurs de déshydrogénation : intérêt et limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchy C.

    2013-04-01

    carbone sont des intermédiaires pour la fabrication de produits détergents biodégradables. Industriellement ces oléfines peuvent être obtenues par déshydrogénation de paraffines longues sur des catalyseurs spécifiques de déshydrogénation dans des conditions opératoires appropriées. La phase active de ces catalyseurs est typiquement multimétallique, à base de platine modifié par un ou plusieurs promoteurs. L’utilisation d’une approche par expérimentation à haut débit peut être d’un intérêt certain pour optimiser des formulations multimétalliques en raison, d’une part, du nombre croissant de formulations possibles avec la quantité d’éléments considérés et, d’autre part, de l’existence potentielle d’interactions non linéaires entre les éléments. Cet article est ainsi consacré à la description des outils d’expérimentation à haut débit utilisés pour la préparation et l’évaluation catalytique en déshydrogénation du n-décane de catalyseurs modèle “Pt-Sn-X” supportés sur alumine ainsi qu’à la stratégie employée pour l’optimisation de formulation et les résultats expérimentaux obtenus au sein d’un espace d’étude prédéfini. Une approche basée sur l’utilisation de plans d’expériences pour construire un modèle mathématique de prédiction a été mise en oeuvre pour tenter d’optimiser la formulation de catalyseurs trimétalliques “Pt-Sn-X” au sein d’un espace d’étude défini. Cette approche n’a pas pu être menée à son terme car la variation des propriétés catalytiques en fonction des formulations catalytiques du plan d’expériences n’est pas assez importante par rapport à la variance expérimentale. Les résultats obtenus ont cependant permis de vérifier un concept clé pour la maximisation de la sélectivité d’un catalyseur de déshydrogénation des paraffines longues. A iso-acidité résiduelle et dans l’hypothèse où la formation des coproduits met

  7. Facteurs socio-économiques affectant l'utilisation des sous-produits agro-industriels pour l'embouche bovine à contre-saison dans l'Adamaoua, Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deffo V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic factors affecting the use of agro-industrial by-products for cattle fattening in the dry season in Adamawa, Cameroon. Cattle production is the major economic activity in the Adamawa. Feed deficiency that causes about 129 to 187 g weight loss per day is an important constraint during the dry season. A possible alternative to overcome this constraint is the use of agro-industrial by-products. However, the adoption and effective use of these potentials are still to be encouraged. This study, which objective was to find out the socio-economic factors that may affect the usage of these resources, permitted to show, through interviews and surveys, that more than 8,200 t of agro-industrial by-products (maize and wheat bran, soybean seed and maize seed cake useable for cattle feeding were produced annually in Adamawa and that only 16 % of this production were used by livestock farmers. Among the factors affecting the effective use of these by-products, prices were the most determinant. The herds size and the number of sedentary animals had also shown a significant positive effect. On the other hand, livestock farming experience and the farmer’s age had instead shown a strong negative correlation with the use of by-products; same was the level of farmer’s education which showed positive correlation only with respect to cotton seed cake use. The distance from the livestock farming sites to the by-products production/distribution centre and/or difficult access to the sites had strong positive correlations with the by-products’ prices. The problem of supplies as a result of long distance or of difficult access to cattle production sites, the high and unstable prices of agro-industrial by-products and poor awareness of the different types of by-products produced in the Adamawa, were noted as major constraints for their use as cattle feed. Based on the above results, an effective extension system and well organized farmers groupings could improve the level of utilization of agro-industrial by-products for cattle feeding.

  8. Study of the A{sub 1}, A{sub 2} and of other mesonic states in {pi}{sup -}p interactions at 11 GeV/c; Etude des tripions A{sub 1}, A{sub 2} et d'autres complexes mesoniques produits dans les interactions {pi}{sup -}p a 11 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochowski, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    Study of the {pi}{sup -} p interactions with at least four bodies in the final states at 11 GeV/c, carried out in the 1.50 m british and in the 2 m CERN liquid hydrogen bubble chambers at the CERN proton synchrotron. One observes a production of the A{sub 1}{sup -} in the {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} decay mode, of the A{sub 2}{sup -} in the {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} and {eta} {pi}{sup -} modes, and of the A{sub 3}{sup -} in the dominant f{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} mode. For the {pi}{sup -} p {yields} p {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} reaction, we have checked the validity of the one pion exchange model, which allows the estimation of the background under the A enhancements produced in this reaction. A tentative determination of the J{sup P} quantum numbers for the A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} has been made. (author) [French] Etude des interactions {pi}{sup -} p a au moins quatre corps dans l'etat final, a 11 GeV/c, effectuee a l'aide des chambres a bulles britanniques de 1.50 m et de 2 m du CERN, exposees aupres du synchrotron a protons au CERN. On observe une production de A{sub 1}{sup -} dans le mode {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}, du A{sub 2} dans les modes {rho}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} et {eta} {pi}{sup -}, et du A{sub 3}{sup -} dans le mode dominant f{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}. Le modele d'echange d'un pion dont on a mis a l'epreuve la validite pour la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {yields} p {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -}, permet de rendre compte du fond present sous ces complexes formes dans la reaction a quatre corps. Une tentative de determination des nombres J{sup P} du A{sub 1} et du A{sub 2} a egalement ete faite. (auteur)

  9. Sur deux mémoires de d'Alembert l'un concernant le calcul des probabilités, l'autre l'inoculation

    CERN Document Server

    Diderot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""M. d'Alembert vient de publier ses Opuscules mathématiques. Il y a dans ce recueil deux mémoires qu'il n'est pas impossible de réduire à la langue ordinaire de la raison. L'un a pour objet le calcul des probabilités ; calcul dont l'application a tant d'importance et d'étendu. C'est proprement la science physico-mathématique de la vie. L'autre traite des avantages ou désavantages de l'inoculation.""

  10. Fuel peat utilisation in Finland: resource use and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO{sub 2} emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO{sub 2} for 8 % of the N{sub 2}O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs.

  11. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  12. Synthesis, characterisation and microbial utilisation of amorphous polysugars from lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daines, Alison M; Smart, Zlatka; Sims, Ian M; Tannock, Gerald W; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2015-03-01

    The melt polymerisations of glucose, galactose, xylose and fucose with citric acid, and mixtures of sugars therein are reported. Characterisation of the citric-acid catalysed reaction products indicated similar degrees of branched polymerisation but differences in the overall molecular weight of the polymers produced. The dairy by-product lactose could not be polymerised in a similar fashion but was shown to be readily hydrolysed using microwave radiation and a polymer generated from the melt condensation of the resultant glucose and galactose monosaccharides. A preliminary assessment of the bifido-bacterial utilisation of the lactose-derived polymerised products demonstrated a significantly different growth profile compared to commercially utilised galactooligosaccharides (GOS). PMID:25498629

  13. Etude de l'exploitation et du marché des produits forestiers non ligneux à Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biloso, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of Non Woody Forest Products Exploitation and Market in Kinshasa. In spite of the considerable number of ethnobotanic studies carried out in many regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo, almost no information is available on the exploitation and commerce of the wild products (non woody forest products, "produits forestiers non ligneux" – PFNL of the Congolese provinces in general and the urban province of Kinshasa in particular. Nevertheless, these products are largely used and marketed. Therefore, direct observations in situ, and socio-economic and ethnoecologic investigations (including interviews were organized in the urban province of Kinshasa to analyse various aspects of consumption of these wild products. The purpose of these investigations was to collect information regarding the use and the marketing of PFNL products by the populations living in the zones surrounding the urban area. The analysis of the various types of exploitation and use of the PFNL has shown twelve categories of PFNL use: energy, food, construction of music instruments, saw mill applications, drink, drugs, dye, packing, construction of baskets, textile fabrication, construction and ornamentation. The majority of these PFNL originate not only from the secondary forests and from forest galleries, but from shrubby savannas and the marshes as well. The exploitations and uses of the PFNL vary rather largely with the level of income, the purchasing power, the attachment with food practices and with local traditions. The various levels of semi-monthly income by owner of the PFNL are estimated for the following plants which were used as vegetables: Gnetum africanum Welw., (275.0 $; Pteridium aquilinium Hieron. (166.7 $; Dracaena camerooniana Baker. (75.5 $; Dioscorea praehensilis (Benth. (71.0 $; Psophocarpus scandens (Endl. Verdc. (58.7 $. The average income resulting from the firewood sale was estimated at 80 $ per month and per person, for a group of 25 owners

  14. Self-rated health, chronic diseases and health service utilisation in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fang; 徐方

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-rated health (SRH) is a widely used indicator of health service utilisation and reflects self-perceived objective health condition. Poorer non-comparative SRH was shown to be related to higher inpatient and outpatient utilisation in Western and elderly populations. Little is known about how healthcare utilisation relates to SRH in non-Western settings, such as Hong Kong and in adult populations. The association of age- and time- comparative SRH with healthcare utilisation is...

  15. Primary care utilisation and workers’ opportunity costs. Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Giuliana; Ponzo, Michela

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of employment condition and work hours on the utilisation of primary care services in Italy. Although the Italian NHS provides free and equitable access to primary care, type of occupation and labour contracts may still deter workers to attend medical appointments. The hypothesis is that the higher the workers’ opportunity cost in terms of earning forgone, the less the demand for General Practitioner (GP) visits. Using survey data provided by the Italian Nation...

  16. Latent class models for utilisation of health care

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Bago d’Uva

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores different approaches to econometric modelling of count measures of health care utilisation, with an emphasis on latent class models. A new model is proposed that combines the features of the two most common approaches- the hurdle model and the finite mixture Negative Binomial. Additionally, the panel structure of the data is taken into account. The proposed model is shown to perform better than the existing models for a particular application with data from the RAND Health...

  17. Utilisation by homeless people of acute hospital services in London.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, M E; Scheuer, M A; Victor, C.; Benzeval, M; Gill, M; Judge, K.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To estimate the numbers and distribution of homeless people in London; to quantify the utilisation of acute inpatient services by homeless people in two health authorities; and to predict the total numbers of admissions in homeless people in district health authorities across London. DESIGN--Data were collected from various sources on the distribution of homeless people across London boroughs. All unplanned acute inpatient admissions during November 1990 to relevant hospitals were...

  18. Utilisation of payment instruments at a retail chain in Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan M. Bester; Seugnet Bronkhorst

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of race and income on the preferred payment instrument at pay points in a retail store in Pretoria Gauteng.Problem investigated: The method of payment, as well as the way these payment methods have been utilised, has evolved throughout history. Cash has stayed at the top of the payment instrument deck as a payment choice for the past 10 decades. With the expansion of technology payment instruments evolved to facilitate excha...

  19. La patrimonialisation des produits dits de terroir Heritage-making and the enhancement of so-called ‘terroir’ products: when rural meets urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Delfosse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aujourd’hui, le phénomène de patrimonialisation des produits agro-alimentaires concerne des campagnes rêvées à forte identité, mais aussi des espaces apparemment « sans qualité », des espaces « en creux ». La patrimonialisation des produits de terroir passe par différents processus : par le biais de fêtes, de la mise en art, de la gastronomie, ainsi que par des modes de vente comme le marché… Ces processus à l’œuvre montrent que la relation au monde rural est complexe. En effet, la patrimonialisation des produits de terroir peut aussi bien être le fait d’acteurs ruraux que d’acteurs urbains, de politiques de territoire urbaines que rurales. Les produits de terroir apparaissent comme un dénominateur commun réunissant, au moins occasionnellement, anciens, nouveaux habitants, voire habitants temporaires de territoires qui se dessinent. Ce phénomène est analysé à partir de trois exemples pris dans la région Rhône-Alpes: la fête de la fourme et des Côtes du Forez et la stratégie d’affirmation d’une petite ville, Montbrison, comme capitale d’un pays, le Forez ; Bourg-en-Bresse et sa volaille, ou comment des produits de terroir peuvent contribuer à affirmer une urbanité ; enfin, l’analyse de la création d’une marque territoriale pour affirmer l’existence d’un espace « sans nom », situé à l’ombre de métropoles et la nécessité de protéger sa ruralité face au phénomène de résidentialisation.Today, the enhancement of food heritage concerns not only rural areas with cultural identities but also areas which seem « without quality » or « hollowed out». The enhancement of local products (produits de terroir entails various processes such as festivals, art events, local gastronomy and sales outlets provided by local markets. These processes reveal just how complex the links with local places are. In fact, local product enhancement can result as much from rural activities (local

  20. Customer-related knowledge utilisation in the collaborative relationships of professional service organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Nätti, S. (Satu)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to describe customer-related knowledge utilisation in the collaborative relationships of professional service organisations. Within this specific context, knowledge transfer capabilities are emphasised as an important prerequisite in the utilisation process. Effective organisation-level knowledge utilisation is crucial in collaborative relationships of professional service organisations. In order to formulate a coherent service offering across diff...

  1. Comparison of Predicted pKa Values for Some Amino-Acids, Dipeptides and Tripeptides, Using COSMO-RS, ChemAxon and ACD/Labs Methods Comparaison des valeurs de pKa de quelques acides aminés, dipeptides et tripeptides, prédites en utilisant les méthodes COSMO-RS, ChemAxon et ACD/Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure O.

    2013-05-01

    as peptides. The final goal of this study is to use the pKa values in a predictive thermodynamics model for products of interest in food industry. For this purpose, the effects of several factors (like conformations set treatment in COSMO-RS calculations, ionic strength effect that can affect the comparison between observed and predicted pKa data are discussed. Les valeurs de constantes d’acidité (pKa jouent un rôle très important, en particulier dans l’industrie alimentaire. Les propriétés chimiques des molécules dépendent significativement de leurs états d’ionisation. La plupart des molécules sont capables de gagner et/ou perdre un proton dans les solutions aqueuses. Ce transfert de proton apparaît la plupart du temps entre l’eau et un atome ionisable de la molécule organique. La réponse de la molécule à la protonation ou à la déprotonation dépend significativement du site concerné par le transfert de proton. La distribution partielle des charges dans la molécule varie également en fonction des sites actifs pour la protonation du couple acide; base. Par conséquent on peut l’utiliser pour déterminer le pKa d’une molécule. Dans un premier temps, nous avons utilisé la méthode COSMO-RS, une combinaison du modèle de solvatation diélectrique (COSMO et d’un traitement de thermodynamique statistique pour des solvants plus réels (RS, pour prédire les constantes de dissociation de 50 molécules environ (des acides aminés, des dipeptides et des tripeptides. Les résultats de pKa obtenus ont été comparés aux valeurs expérimentales, ainsi qu’aux valeurs de pKa prédites par deux autres méthodes. Nous avons utilisé respectivement la méthode ChemAxon, utilisant un programme basé sur le calcul des charges partielles des atomes d’une molécule, et la méthode ACD/Labs qui permet de déterminer des valeurs de pKa pour chaque centre de dissociation en considérant que le reste de la molécule est neutre, en utilisant une base de

  2. Les représentations mentales du mode de production des produits alimentaires (France Mental representations related to food production modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Salvador-Perignon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche se propose d’aborder le mode de production du produit alimentaire sous l’angle des représentations mentales en France. Dans le langage commun on entend souvent les termes « industriel » ou « artisanal » pour caractériser les produits alimentaires, sans que l’on sache vraiment ce que ces termes désignent. Le contexte actuel d’incertitude et de méconnaissance des systèmes de production chez les consommateurs nous permet d’émettre l’hypothèse de l’existence d’une représentation mentale du mode de production. Nous tentons de vérifier cette hypothèse par une étude qualitative à l’issue de laquelle les premières caractéristiques du produit alimentaire industriel ou artisanal sont précisées.This research approaches the food product through the mental representations concerning manufacturing processes. In the common language we often find such terms as “industrial” or “traditional” to qualify production methods and characterize food products, but do we know what these terms really mean? Uncertainties and misunderstandings regarding food production enable us to highlight the existence of consumers’ mental representations regarding manufacturing processes. Such representations have been studied by means of a qualitative study which enabled us to define the primary characteristics of industrial or traditional food products.

  3. Chaînes logistiques et modèles d'affaires du commerce électroniqueLe cas de la vente en ligne de produits informatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Detchessahar; Benoit Journe; Emmanuel Kessous

    2003-01-01

    Le commerce en ligne de produits informatiques apparaît comme une activité en cours de structuration dans laquelle il est difficile de dégager des modèles d'affaires stables et d'en évaluer la performance. Les pratiques des sites de commerce électronique sont variées et plusieurs logiques d'agencement des supply chain existent: certaines font de l'industrialisation des process le principal moteur de la performance et standardisent au maximum les mécanismes de coordination à l'intérieur de la ...

  4. Les implications du dilemme exploitation/exploration sur le contrôle de gestion: le cas d'une entreprise de produits de grande consommation

    OpenAIRE

    Soulerot, Marion; Farjaudon, Anne-Laure

    2007-01-01

    International audience Dans cet article nous proposons un modèle de forme d'organisation ambidextre issu de la littérature. La confrontation de ce modèle au cas d'une entreprise de produits de grande consommation permet de valider la pertinence du modèle. Toutefois nous proposons de d'inscrire le rôle du contrôleur de gestion au cœur de la problématique d'ambidextérité pour qu'il en soit le « chef d'orchestre ».

  5. LES IMPLICATIONS DU DILEMME EXPLOITATION/EXPLORATION SUR LE CONTROLE DE GESTION : LE CAS D'UNE ENTREPRISE DE PRODUITS DE GRANDE CONSOMMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Farjaudon, Anne-Laure; Soulerot, Marion

    2007-01-01

    International audience Dans cet article nous proposons un modèle de forme d'organisation ambidextre issu de la littérature. La confrontation de ce modèle au cas d'une entreprise de produits de grande consommation permet de valider la pertinence du modèle. Toutefois nous proposons d'inscrire le rôle du contrôleur de gestion au coeur de la problématique d'ambidextérité pour qu'il en soit le « chef d'orchestre ».

  6. Etude exploratoire : caractérisation des émissions de fournitures scolaires et de produits d'entretien utilisés dans une école et analyse des données de composition

    OpenAIRE

    Derbez, Mickael; Solal, Cécilia; Nicolas, Mélanie; Cannier, Céline; Loisel, Gwendal; Lengo, Cyrielle; Fernandez, Marianne; Maupetit, François; Pignon, Cécile; Cochet, Valérie; Theyrat, Dominique; Cettier, Joane; Dassonville, Claire; Mandin, Corinne; Nisse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    74 p.; Dans le cadre de son programme de travail "Lieux de vie fréquentés par les enfants", l'Observatoire de la qualité de l'air intérieur (OQAI) a réalisé une étude exploratoire visant à caractériser les émissions de composés organiques volatils (COV) et d'aldéhydes issues de produits liés aux activités scolaires et des produits d'entretien utilisés dans les salles de classe. Vingt-trois produits ont été retenus afin d'être évalués en chambre d'essai d'émission. Les résultats des essais d'é...

  7. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  8. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity

  9. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  10. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND UTILISATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work carried out by the University of Cape Town has examined the following questions:
    - are industrial engineering techniques being used in industry?
    - what are the reasons for not using the various techniques?
    - what factors that can be addressed by industrial engineers, are inhibiting the improvement of manufacturing productivity?
    - are industrial engineers being utilised in the most effective t"ay? Investigations in South African and overseas companies have indicated some barriers to acceptance that have to be overcome. This paper identifies key elements which, if implemented or adopted, will improve the effectiveness of both industrial engineers, and the intrOduction of industrial engineering techniques.

  11. Utilisation and Management Changes in South Kyrgyzstan's Mountain Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Using political ecology as its conceptual framework, this paper focuses on the changes in forest utilisation and management of South Kyrgyzstan's walnut-fruit forests over the last century. The aim of this study on human-environment interactions is to investigate the relationship between actors on the one side, their interests and demands, and the forests and forested lands on the other. Forest resource utilisation and management - and even the recognition of different forest products as resources - are connected with political and socio-economic conditions that change with time. The walnut-fruit forests of South Kyrgyzstan are unique, characterised by high biodiversity and a multiplicity of usable products; and they have been utilised for a long time. Centralised and formal management of the forests started with the Russian occupation and was strengthened under Soviet rule, when the region became a part of the USSR. During this era, a state forest administration that was structured from Moscow all the way down to the local level drew up detailed plans and developed procedures for utilising the different forest products. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the socio-political and economic frame conditions have changed significantly, which has brought not only the sweeping changes in the managing institutions, but also the access rights and interests in the forest resources. At present, the region is suffering from a high unemployment rate, which has resulted in the forests' gaining considerable importance in the livelihood strategies of the local population. Political and economic liberalization, increased communication and trans-regional exchange relations have opened the door for international companies and agents interested in the valuable forest products. Today, walnut wood and burls, walnuts, wild apples and mushrooms are all exported to various countries in the world. Scientists and members of various international organisations stress the ecological

  12. Zirconia/Titania Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shafei, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Reaction and conversion of CO2 to chemicals is a challenging area of research. The objective of this work is to study and investigate the use of mixed metal oxide Zr/Ti oxide and related catalysts for the conversion and utilisation of CO2. The first reaction studied was propane dehydrogenation using CO2 to produce propene. Then, the study extended to investigate the direct reaction of CO2 as whole molecule with methane, ethane, acetylene, ethylene and propane to synthesis carboxylic acids. ...

  13. Health care utilisation in Europe: new evidence from the ECHP

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Bago d’Uva; Jones, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    The ECHP is used to analyse the utilisation of health care in Europe. We estimate a new latent class hurdle model for panel data and compare it with the latent class NegBin model and the standard hurdle model. Latent class specifications outperform the standard hurdle model but the latent class hurdle model reveals income e¤ects on the probability of visiting a doctor that are masked in the NegBin model. For visits to specialist, low users are more income elastic than high users and the proba...

  14. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey of radioactive waste disposal technologies used worldwide in terms of their influence upon natural environment. Typical sources of radioactive waste from medicine and industry were presented. In addition, various types of radioactive waste, both liquid and solid, were described. Requirements and conditions of the waste’s storage were characterised. Selected liquid and solid waste processing technologies were shown. It was stipulated that contemporary methods of radioactive waste utilisation enable their successful neutralisation. The implementation of these methods ought to be mandated by ecological factors first and only then economical ones.

  15. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Atta Kuranchie; Sanjay Kumar Shukla; Daryoush Habibi; Alireza Mohyeddin

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength we...

  16. Quelle place tient l'expérience des autres dans la formation d'un professionnel ? Apport et limite du récit professionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Beaujouan, Joffrey; Coutarel, Fabien; Daniellou, François

    2013-01-01

    Cet article s'intéresse à la construction de l'expérience d'un individu sous l'angle de la mise en évidence de la place que tient l'expérience des autres dans la formation d'un professionnel : comment et en quoi le récit professionnel d'autrui permettrait de produire sur ses destinataires des effets d'apprentissage et de développement. Le récit, circonscrit dans nos propos par sept principes constitutifs fondamentaux, est une façon de configurer et transmettre l'expérience immédiate des humai...

  17. « Ecoute, lecteur... » : la représentation de la lecture dans L’Autre monde de Cyrano de Bergerac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Nédélec

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available L'Autre monde, ou les Etats et Empires de la lune de Cyrano de Bergerac s'ouvre sur une conversation : les amis du narrateur s'amusent à proposer des définitions burlesques de la lune ; tout à coup, celui-ci s'écrie :Et moy, [...] je croys sans m'amuser aux imaginations pointuës dont vous chatouillez le temps pour le faire marcher plus viste, que la Lune est un monde comme celuy-ci à qui le nostre sert de Lune.On se moque de lui ; mais il ne renonce pas à son hypothèse :Cette pensée dont la h...

  18. Intéractions et autres processus physico-chimiques entre le chlore et les matrices cimentaires : rapport de recherche post-doctoral

    OpenAIRE

    BARBERON, Fabien; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2004-01-01

    La durabilité des ouvrages a toujours été un souci majeur du génie civil. En particulier, les ouvrages situés dans des zones climatiques agressives (côtes maritimes, montage etc.) subissent des agressions permanentes ou périodiques. Parmi les différents types d'agressions, la dégradation par le chlore, qui nous intéresse ici, suit un autre processus particulier. L'ion chlorure, présent naturellement dans l'eau ou les sols, pénètre dans le matériau par l'intermédiaire des pores. Au court du te...

  19. SITUATIONS ET TENDANCES Les agricultures familiales africaines face à la mondialisation : le défi d‘une autre transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosc Pierre-Marie

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available L’agriculture africaine fait face à une situation inédite liée au processus de mondialisation, mais aussi à la forte croissance relative de sa population agricole durant le dernier quart du xxe siècle, contrairement à d’autres continents (ou pays continents. Paradoxalement, alors que l’Afrique se trouve marginalisée dans les échanges commerciaux, sur lesquels se focalise le débat international en matière agricole, l’agriculture africaine et le développement rural restent des domaines stratégiques pour les politiques publiques qui doivent prendre en compte la configuration démographique et économique spécifique du continent. La question du type d’agriculture qui accompagnera la nécessaire transition économique et agricole africaine est en débat. Alors que certains opérateurs et décideurs soutiennent le développement d’une agriculture d’entreprise, les organisations paysannes font massivement le choix de défendre l’agriculture familiale comme axe privilégié de développement, car elle fournit emplois et revenus pour le plus grand nombre. Cependant, les organisations doivent faire face à un rapport de force inégal avec les autres acteurs privés issus du processus de libération. Renforcer leurs capacités de proposition et de négociation apparaît dès lors comme une condition permettant d’envisager une refondation des politiques publiques sur la base d’une réelle contribution des ruraux.

  20. Thermal utilisation and disposal of sewage sludge; Thermische Klaerschlammverwertung -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, H.C. [Emscher Genossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen (Germany). Technischer Vorstand

    2001-07-01

    Sewage sludge combustion - either in an incinerator or for heat or power generation - has always been important and is getting ever more so. From the cost aspect, it makes quite a difference whether sewage sludge is just incinerated or utilised. The author makes it clear that this cost aspect - and what it means to communities and citizens - tends to be neglected by those who favour sewage sludge combustion and utilisation. [German] Die Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm - sei es als Schlammveraschung oder als thermische oder energetische Verwertung - hat schon immer fuer grosse Klaeranlagen einen bedeutenden Stellenwert gehabt. Die Bedeutung der Verbrennung scheint in letzter Zeit sogar zuzunehmen. Unter Kostengesichtspunkten ist es ein grosser Unterschied, ob ein Klaerschlamm nur verascht oder energetisch verwertet wird. Vor dem Hintergrund der allgemeinen Diskussion um die leeren Kassen der Kommunen, um die sogenannte dritte Miete fuer den Buerger und damit die Zumutbarkeit fuer weitere Steigerungen der Abwassergebuehren stoert mich die Bagatellisierung der Kostengesichtspunkte vor allem auf Seiten derer, die die Verbrennung der Klaerschlaemme fordern. (orig.)

  1. QEMSCAN for characterisation of coal and utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David French; Colin Ward; Alan Butcher [University of New South Wales (Australia). CSIRO Energy Technology

    2008-05-15

    QEMSCAN is an automated electron beam image analysis technique, originally developed by CSIRO, Division of Minerals and now by a CSIRO spin-off company Intellection Pty. Ltd., which has been widely applied in the minerals industry. The objective of this project was to develop new QEMSCAN analytical techniques for coal and coal by-product characterisation that will provide unique phase-specific information that can be used by the coal industry to address technical and marketing issues, to optimise existing utilisation technologies and assist in the development of new technologies. Case studies illustrating how QEMSCAN analysis could be employed were carried out in four areas of coal production and utilisation namely - Coal preparation PF combustion; Boiler deposits; Fly and bottom ash fluidized bed combustion; and Gasification. These case studies have demonstrated that QEMSCAN analysis can provide unique information not readily obtainable by other means. In particular, data can be obtained on particle size and shape, phase identification and abundance, mode of occurrence and association of the identified phases. QEMSCAN analysis can supply information on variations in chemistry of the amorphous phase which is relevant to issues such as ash deposition in pf boilers and ash behaviour in fluidised bed systems. However, it is not an analytical panacea and should always be used in conjunction with other techniques.

  2. The utilisation of reed (Phragmites australis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Köbbing

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reed (Phragmites is a wetland plant genus that has been utilised by man since ancient times. It is a tall, thin, highly productive grass (Poaceae with an above-ground biomass of up to 30 t ha-1 y-1. Due to its world-wide dominance, it is often cheap and readily available as a raw material. Reed has been used for centuries as a fodder plant in summer, and the stems have traditionally been harvested in winter as a raw material for crafts and for construction materials including roofing. It became popular for pulp and paper production in the middle of the twentieth century and, in recent years, has been used in sewage water treatment and as a source of renewable energy that is unlikely to compete with food production. This article explores the global extent of reedbeds and potential yields; and catalogues historical uses of reed, forgotten applications and new opportunities for its utilisation. Quality requirements, products and related stand management (such as harvesting time are also reviewed.

  3. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atta Kuranchie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were tested. A controlled mix of concrete was also prepared in similar way using conventional materials and the results were compared with the tailings concrete. It was found that the iron ore tailings may be utilised for complete replacement for conventional aggregates in concrete. The iron ore tailings aggregates concrete exhibited a good mechanical strength and even in the case of compressive strength, there was an improvement of 11.56% over conventional aggregates concrete. The indirect tensile strength did not improve against the control mix due high content of fines in the tailings aggregates but showed 4.8% improvement compared with the previous study where the conventional fine aggregates was partially replaced by 20% with iron ore tailings.

  4. Issues and challenges of the development of petroleum products distribution sector in Algeria; Les enjeux et les defis du developpement du secteur de la distribution des produits petroliers en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akretche, Said

    2010-09-15

    The petroleum products distribution sector in Algeria is experiencing profound changes. The economic growth has brought an increase and a diversification of petroleum products consumption. Reforms on the opening of the sector to competition and regulations have allowed progress, especially in the promotion of clean products. Naftal invested in a transformation and modernization process to adapt to the new context and align itself with the worldwide best practices. This plan expects important investments for the promotion of clean products and the development of a ducting transport network to limit the environmental damage. [French] Le secteur de la distribution des produits petroliers en Algerie connait des mutations profondes. La croissance economique a induit une augmentation et une diversification de la consommation des produits petroliers. Les reformes portant ouverture du secteur a la concurrence et regulation ont permis des avancees notamment dans la promotion des produits propres. Naftal a engage un processus de transformation et modernisation pour s'adapter au nouveau contexte et s'aligner sur les meilleures pratiques mondiales. Ce plan prevoit d'importants investissements pour la promotion des produits propres et la realisation d'un reseau de transport par canalisation pour limiter les atteintes environnementales.

  5. Gas Well Testing Analysis Using Finite-Difference Models and Optimization Techniques Analyse d'essais de puits de gaz par des modèles utilisant la méthode des différences finies et par des techniques d'optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darderes E. A.

    2006-11-01

    paramètres à partir d'essais de puits de gaz. Une des plus performantes est l'analyse du régime pseudo-permanent pour lequel on trouve, sur un graphique semi-logarithmique, une relation linéaire entre la pseudo-pression d'un gaz réel et le temps. Une autre méthode est l'ajustement à des courbes types. Les deux méthodes présentent l'inconvénient de ne pouvoir être rigoureusement appliquées qu'à des cas spécifiques. Cet article expose une méthode générale permettant d'analyser les données des essais de puits par ajustement automatisé des courbes types. Elle est basée sur le meilleur accord d'un modèle numérique avec les données obtenues dans les essais de puits de gaz grâce à des techniques d'optimisation. Le modèle numérique fournit la solution d'une équation différentielle à dérivées partielles du 2e ordre et fortement non linéaire qui régit le flux radial des gaz réels vers un puits de production. L'équation différentielle est résolue par la méthode des différences finies en tenant compte des variations des propriétés des gaz avec la pression. Pour simuler n'importe quel type d'essais de puits de gaz, on impose des conditions initiales et aux limites appropriées. On minimise les différences résiduelles entre les pressions réelles mesurées pendant l'essai et les pressions calculées par la méthode des moindres carrés. On utilise deux techniques d'optimisation pour obtenir la meilleure estimation des paramètres qui minimisent la somme des carrés des résidus : la méthode monovariante de Fibonacci [1] et la méthode polyvariante de Marquardt [1, 2]. On applique ce mode opératoire à des essais de puits menés à un débit constant et à deux débits constants. Les résultats numériques concordent très bien avec les données des essais de puits.

  6. Germanium junction detectors. Theoretical and practical factors governing their use in radiation spectrometry; Detecteurs a jonction au germanium. Elements theoriques et pratiques pour l'utilisation en spectrometrie de rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hors, M.; Philis, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Semi-conductor detectors have recently greatly increased the possibilities available to nuclear spectroscopists for the study of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} radiations. Their use in radio-chemistry has encouraged us to study their principle, their mechanism and also the conditions under which they can be used. The first part, which is theoretical, consists of a summary of what should be known concerning the best use of junction detectors, in particular Ge (Li) detectors. The second part, which is experimental, summarizes the laboratory work carried out over a period of one year on Ge (Li) detectors. Stress is laid on the possibilities presented by the use of these detectors as photo-electric spectrometers, and also on the precautions required. Amongst the numerous results presented, the resolution of 2.52 keV obtained for the {gamma} radiation of 145.5 keV for {sup 141}Ce may be particularly noted. (authors) [French] Les detecteurs a semi-conducteurs ont recemment accru les possibilites offertes aux spectroscopistes nucleaires pour l'etude des radiations {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}. Leurs utilisations en radiochimie nous ont incite a en etudier le principe, le mecanisme et d'autre part les conditions d'emploi. La premiere partie, theorique, rappelle l'essentiel de ce qu'il est utile de connaitre pour une utilisation optimale des detecteurs a jonctions et en particulier des detecteurs Ge (Li). La deuxieme partie, experimentale, resume les travaux realises au laboratoire pendant un an avec des detecteurs Ge (Li). Nous insistons sur les possibilites offertes et les precautions a prendre dans l'utilisation de ces detecteurs comme spectrometres photoelectriques. Parmi les nombreux resultats presentes, citons la resolution de 2,52 keV obtenue pour le rayonnement {gamma} de 145 f5 keV du {sup 141}Ce. (auteurs)

  7. Gender and the utilisation of health services in the Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    OpenAIRE

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The survey seeks to structure a model for gender-based health services utilisation for the Ashanti Region of Ghana, and in addition, recommend intervention measures to ensure gender equity in the utilisation of health services. A sample size of 650 covered over 3108 houses, and the main research instruments were the questionnaire and formal interview. A multiple regression model is used for the analysis of the relationship between the complex independent variables and utilisation by gender. R...

  8. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  9. Six Key Topics for Automated Assessment Utilisation and Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten REINERS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Automated assessment technologies have been used in education for decades (e.g., computerised multiple choice tests. In contrast, Automated Essay Grading (AEG technologies: have existed for decades; are `good in theory' (e.g., as accurate as humans, temporally and financially efficient, and can enhance formative feedback, and yet; are ostensibly used comparatively infrequently in Australian universities. To empirically examine these experiential observations we conducted a national survey to explore the use of automated assessment in Australian universities and examine why adoption of AEG is limited. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in an online survey from a sample of 265 staff and students from 5 Australian universities. The type of assessment used by the greatest proportion of respondents was essays/reports (82.6%, however very few respondents had used AEG (3.8%. Recommendations are made regarding methods to promote technology utilisation, including the use of innovative dissemination channels such as 3D Virtual Worlds.

  10. A safety system for a laser-beam utilising facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety system for a laser-beam utilising facility incorporates a safety enclosure and an infra-red monitoring system for detecting the development of hot spots at internal surfaces of the enclosure walls and ceiling which may occur as a result of stray laser radiation impinging on such surfaces. The development of a hot spot leads to shutting off the laser source or interruption of the beams by means of a shutter. The facility may be a welding or cutting apparatus and may be used with nuclear fuel elements. The monitoring system may be a scanning system. Two such scanning systems may be provided, scanning at different speeds, to detect respectively hot spots and the presence of a human body within the safety enclosure. (author)

  11. Solar energy utilisation and energy conservation in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper involves testing and improving the performance of solar water heaters under all possible local solar and weather conditions. A new design of stratified energy storage tanks have been experimentally and theoretically studied by which an improvement of about 15% in system efficiency has been observed over well-mixed tanks. Solar space heating and cooling using absorption systems has also been investigated where both performance and economical return are assessed for local lebanese conditions. Several projects are ongoing related to solar energy utilisation including the use of heat pipes, experimental studies for new means for energy conversion. The paper presents the design and testing of solar water heaters; modeling and simulation of solar-powered air-conditioning absorption system performance in Beirut and energy conservation in Lebanese residential and office buildings and the code-of-practice

  12. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  13. Diffusion et utilisation des TIC en France et en Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Berret, Pierre; Chantepie, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    L’exploitation par le DEPS des enquêtes communautaires sur l’utilisation des TIC par les ménages et les particuliers, coordonnées, harmonisées et publiées par Eurostat, permet de dresser un portrait comparatif et en tendances de l’équipement en TIC, des modes d’accès à l’internet des ménages dans l’UE- 27 selon leurs caractéristiques socio-démographiques. Elle met en lumière l’intensification des usages numériques des particuliers, élucide les facteurs de développement des TIC que sont les us...

  14. Current and potential utilisation of biomass energy in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from biomass accounts for an average of 43% of the primary energy used in developing countries, with some countries totally dependent on biomass for all their energy needs. The most common use for biomass for energy is the provision of heat for cooking and heating; other uses include steam and electricity generation and crop and food drying. Fiji, a developing country, uses energy from wood and coconut wastes for cooking and copra drying. Bagasse from sugar mills is used to generate process steam as well as some 15 MW of electricity, for mill consumption and for sale to the national grid. Other, relatively small scale uses for biomass include the generation of steam and electricity for industry. This paper attempts to quantify the amount of biomass, in its various forms, available in Fiji and assesses the current potential utilisation of biomass for energy in Fiji. (author)

  15. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    -PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania......Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non...

  16. La cannibalisation des produits à prix aléatoires : L’Euromillions a-t-il tué le loto français?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Roger; Sylvie Chabi

    2009-01-01

    Le succès ou l’échec d’un produit de loterie est essentiellement lié au design qu’il propose, résumé dans la structure des prix attribués aux gagnants, et à l’univers concurrentiel dans lequel il s’insère, à savoir l’univers des jeux de hasard. Dans cet article, nous analysons les raisons de la « mort du loto » tel qu’il fut proposé aux français pendant 32 années, de 1976 à 2008. Par l’analyse de plus de 700 tirages du loto, nous montrons que l’arrivée de l’Euromillions sur le marché en Octob...

  17. Mémento de spécification géométrique des produits les normes ISO-GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Charpentier, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Repensée globalement à travers un nouveau contexte normatif, la spécification géométrique des produits constitue une activité stratégique pour toute industrie mécanique. En compulsant les derniers développements des normes ISO-GPS dans un document synthétique et facile d’usage, ce mémento s’adresse aux enseignants et étudiants des filières industrielles et mécaniques : il permet de décoder et/ou de mettre en place une spécification géométrique sans ambigüités ; il fait référence aux derniers textes normatifs ; il établit un lien avec la métrologie.

  18. La qualité : du consommateur final au producteur : La construction sociale de la qualité : des produits aux façons de produire

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvander, Bertil

    1994-01-01

    Pour aborder la question difficile de la relation entre qualité et développement agricole et rural, il est utile de rappeler le contexte général de l'industrialisation du secteur agro-alimentaire. Celui-ci se traduit simultanément : par la pénétration d'une qualification industrielle, fondée sur la normalisation à tous les niveaux des produits et des manières de produire ; par une incertitude accrue pour les opérateurs, due à une gestion complexe de ce processus ; par des phénomènes de résist...

  19. Biofuels and climate neutrality - system analysis of production and utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate to what extent biofuels can be said to be climate neutral. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the production and utilisation chains of a number of solid biofuels were made based on data available in the literature. The data has been used for making radiative forcing calculations. The study also includes a comparison between imported and domestic solid biofuels. We conclude that none of the investigated biofuel chains are 'climate neutral', since all of them result in net emissions of greenhouse gases. However, all of the chains result in lower emissions than corresponding emissions from the use of fossil fuels. The emission estimates for the fuel chains varies depending on fuels and on how system boundaries have been set in the different studies. The following factors can contribute significantly to the total emissions of greenhouse gases of the production and utilisation chain of a biofuel: impact of production system on soil carbon storage, land use methods (especially use of drained peatlands), the use of fertilisers (both direct and indirect), combustion technology, refining of the fuel (i.e. pelletisation) and storage (especially of comminuted fuels). Other sources that also contribute to the emissions during a production and utilisation chain are; harvesting machines, transportation and waste handling. The climate impacts of the greenhouse gas emissions from one of the biofuels, i.e. forest residues, were compared to the impacts of fossil fuels by the concept of radiative forcing. In the radiative forcing calculations the CO2 emissions from combustion of biofuels and the CO2 emissions that would have occurred if the residues had been left in the forest to decompose were included, and their different dynamics taken into consideration. The decomposition results in CO2 emissions during a long time period and in an amount equalling those that are emitted during combustion. Only a minor part is due to

  20. Gender and the utilisation of health services in the Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The survey seeks to structure a model for gender-based health services utilisation for the Ashanti Region of Ghana, and in addition, recommend intervention measures to ensure gender equity in the utilisation of health services. A sample size of 650 covered over 3108 houses, and the main research ins

  1. Drug utilisation by children and adolescents with mental retardation : a population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, H; Scheers, T; Netjes, KA; Mulder, EJ; de Bildt, A; Minderaa, RB

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the utilisation of drugs by mentally retarded children; population studies are even more sparse. In this study the chronic drug utilisation in children aged 4-18 years with mental retardation in a large population in the Netherlands was investigated. Methods: Through

  2. Drug utilisation by children and adolescents with mental retardation: a population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, H; Scheers, T.; Netjes, K.A.; Mulder, E.J.; De Bildt, A.; Minderaa, R.B

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the utilisation of drugs by mentally retarded children; population studies are even more sparse. In this study the chronic drug utilisation in children aged 4-18 years with mental retardation in a large population in the Netherlands was investigated. Methods: Through

  3. Contribution à l'histoire d'un lieu commun : l'attribution à Chateaubriand de la phrase " les forêts précèdent les peuples, les déserts les suivent " : Un exemple d'utilisation du logiciel Google Books Ngram Viewer

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bot, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    " Les forêts précèdent les peuples, les déserts les suivent ". Cette phrase fait aujourd'hui partie, avec quelques autres, des lieux communs de la doxa écologiste, ce que confirme une recherche utilisant Google Books Ngram Viewer. Elle est le plus souvent présentée comme une citation de François-René de Chateaubriand. Or, non seulement il nous a été impossible de la localiser dans l'œuvre de cet écrivain, mais de plus, dans la langue de Chateaubriand, " forêt " et " désert " fonctionnent très...

  4. Il faut et on peut construire des systèmes de commerce électronique à interface en langue naturelle restreints (et multilingues) en utilisant des méthodes orientées vers les sous-langages et le contenu

    OpenAIRE

    Daoud, Daoud

    2006-01-01

    Aucun système de commerce électronique opérationnel n'est capable de traiter en ligne des requêtes d'utilisateurs exprimées en langue naturelle spontanée. Certains systèmes évitent le problème difficile du développement et du support d'une interface en langue naturelle en simplifiant le type d'interaction de l'utilisateur, par l'utilisation de formulaires à remplir ou d'un langage naturel contrôlé. D'autres systèmes ont cherché mais échoué à offrir une interface en langue naturelle spontanée,...

  5. Flotation tailings in West Germany: Treatment and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D. (Steinkohlenbergbauverein, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Dezernat fuer Aufbereitung); Wilczynski, P. (Bergbau A.G. Lippe, Herne (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Aufbereitung); Koehling, R. (Ruhrkohle A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)); Erdmann, W.; Schieder, T. (Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1979-05-01

    Each year, about 2,5 million tonnes of flotation tailings are produced in Federal Germany and this will rise in the future. With the methods which have predominated until now for eliminating these tailings, notably dumping in ponds, total operation costs including the water losses amount to 9.26 DM/t (wf) when the tailings are thickened beforehand, and 18.67 DM/t (wf) without this thickening. Dewatering flotation tailings in filter frame presses is now an accepted technique. Residual moisture is lower than in all other methods but the costs are very high, 17.91 DM/t (wf). Solid-bowl centrifuges have also proved extremely useful for dewatering flotation tailings. In this case, costs amount to 10.19 DM/t (wf). The high retained moisture, however, can cause difficulties in transport and bunkering. The first attempts at dewatering flotation tailings in screen-belt presses have been promising. The press cale is easy to transport and handles well; costs here work out at 12.49 DM/t (wf). A new method of treating and utilising flotation tailings is fluidised bed combustion. Though costs here reach 34.09 DM/t (wf), the residual energy can be utilized, to give proceeds of as much as 36.74 DM/t (wf) and thus make an overall profit of 2.65 DM/t (wf). Moreover, the combustion waste has been used in the building materials industry.

  6. Research utilisation in sonographic practice: Attitudes and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Vicki [Radiography, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: vicki.elliott@anglia.ac.uk; Wilson, Stephanie E. [University of London External System, University of London, Stewart House, 32, Russell Square, London WC1B 5DN (United Kingdom); Svensson, Jon [Radiography, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom); Brennan, Patrick [UCD School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Health Science Building, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2009-08-15

    Statutory agents have stipulated that research activity is a fundamental component of the healthcare professional's activity. Whilst the College of Radiographers have emphasised the importance of imaging personnel embracing this research ethos, there is little available data on the level of research activity within sonographic practice or on the factors that influence a sonographer's involvement in research activities. This work attempts to address these deficiencies. A questionnaire was sent to 300 UK-based sonographers of whom 218 responded (72%). The questionnaire was specifically designed to establish the level of involvement in research, the utilisation of research findings, attitudes towards research and perceived barriers to active research involvement. Responses were analysed investigating any correlations with the population demographics. The data collected showed the majority of sonographers (89%) were enthusiastic about research but with only 33% and 60% currently or previously performing research, respectively, and 73% using research findings to modify their clinical practice. Certain barriers to an active research involvement were shown, with 63%, 55% and 40% citing lack of time, education and collegial support, respectively. A range of statistical findings were linked to particular sonographer groups. The importance of good organisational structures and effective support from fellow health professionals was highlighted. The results confirm sonographers' appreciation of the benefits of research and it is suggested that if this enthusiasm is translated into effective research strategies, research output from ultrasound and other clinical departments should be enhanced.

  7. Convention internationale sur l’utilisation pacifique du cyberespace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Roche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Les armes cybernétiques sont à présent une extension du pouvoir de l’Etat. Dans l’espoir de gagner un avantage stratégique, un certain nombre de pays, dont les Etats-Unis, la Russie et la Chine sont en train de développer des cyber-capacités offensives afin de perturber les institutions politiques, économiques, et sociales de nations concurrentes. Ces activités ont conduit à une course aux armes cybernétiques qui se développe de manière incontrôlable. L’imminence de cette menace globale incite la communauté internationale à la pro-activité. L’objectif de cet article est de proposer une convention internationale afin de mettre un terme au développement, à la prolifération, et à l’utilisation d’armes cybernétiques avant qu’elles ne causent un Armageddon électronique. Nous commencerons d’abord par l’examen de trois efforts successifs de contrôle des armements, puis en utiliserons les leçons retenues pour rédiger une convention pouvant servir de point de départ à des négociations multilatérales.

  8. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  9. Biological carbon dioxide utilisation in food waste anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Y Bajón; Green, K; Schuler, K; Soares, A; Vale, P; Alibardi, L; Cartmell, E

    2015-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment of anaerobic digesters (AD) was previously identified as a potential on-site carbon revalorisation strategy. This study addresses the lack of studies investigating this concept in up-scaled units and the need to understand the mechanisms of exogenous CO2 utilisation. Two pilot-scale ADs treating food waste were monitored for 225 days, with the test unit being periodically injected with CO2 using a bubble column. The test AD maintained a CH4 production rate of 0.56 ± 0.13 m(3) CH4·(kg VS(fed) d)(-1) and a CH4 concentration in biogas of 68% even when dissolved CO2 levels were increased by a 3 fold over the control unit. An additional uptake of 0.55 kg of exogenous CO2 was achieved in the test AD during the trial period. A 2.5 fold increase in hydrogen (H2) concentration was observed and attributed to CO2 dissolution and to an alteration of the acidogenesis and acetogenesis pathways. A hypothesis for conversion of exogenous CO2 has been proposed, which requires validation by microbial community analysis. PMID:26143589

  10. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziarz Aneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.

  11. Why utilisation of medicines is a public health interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Folino-Gallo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of medicines exerts important effects on public health and health systems in different ways, including their pharmacological properties, their economic impact on health systems and their impact on the environment. Medicines cause intended therapeutic effects. Medicines are able to treat diseases, slow their progression or prevent their appearance as well as relieve symptoms. This is the reason why physicians prescribe, patients use and governments pay for medicines. Some therapeutic classes of drugs represent important progress in medicine and have dramatically improved the therapeutic approach to several diseases.As an example antiulcer agents have changed a severe disease (with fatal complications, requiring gastric surgical resection, into a disease requiring only the consumption of few pills each day for a short period of time, with a substantial improvement in prognosis and quality of life for patients. Avoiding the surgical intervention of gastric resection, and all of its complications, has resulted in substantial gains for individual patients and public health as well as a substantial reduction in the costs of hospitalisation. For other therapeutic classes the benefits are more limited, while the advantages of their use in everyday practice are less evident.

  12. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  13. Applied Technologies and Prospects of Conformance Control Treatments in China Technologies et perspectives pour l’amélioration du profil de balayage dans les champs pétroliers matures produits par injection d’eau en Chine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuzhang

    2010-02-01

    . Les techniques permettant l’amélioration du profil de balayage sont passées en revue, ainsi que les leçons qui ont pu en être tirées. Le papier aborde ensuite quelques technologies majeures et spécifiques : l’injection de traceurs et l’identification de la présence de chenaux, l’analyse potentiométrique pour l’identification de l’efficacité superficielle de balayage, la technologie de prise de décision fondée sur l’indice de pression (IP pour le choix d’un puits candidat, une technique de prise de décision complémentaire pour sélectionner des puits candidats et des paramètres de développement, et enfin les principaux produits chimiques utilisés pour la diversion des fluides en profondeur dans le réservoir. De plus, cet article décrit les principes et applications de quelques technologies prometteuses combinant les traitements par méthode chimique avec d’autres procédés EOR/IOR, comme la mise en oeuvre de tensioactifs et le traitement de venues d’eau, le contrôle de profil et l’injection de tensioactifs à petite échelle, le traitement à l’acide et le contrôle du profil. Enfin, ce papier résume les problèmes et défis auxquels doivent faire face les champs pétroliers matures balayés à l’eau en Chine. D’après de récents essais sur puits, des analyses de traceurs et de leurs interprétations, et l’expérience en matière de traitement de la gestion de l’eau, il apparaît que les canaux ou les drains de forte perméabilité soient courants dans les champs pétroliers matures balayés à l’eau. Des axes de recherche et des technologies prometteuses sont suggérés.

  14. Le temps avec les autres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégori Jean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article follows the mutation suffered by the issue of alterity from Husserl to Heidegger and from Heidegger to Lévinas, envisaging it starting from temporality. We aim at replacing the question “Where is the other?” – that betrays the spatializing presuppositions of description – with “When is the other?” that can be clarified starting from the question “When are we together?”. Rather than deducing from the issue of co-presence, the final postponement of all attempt to conceive intersubjectivity in terms of contemporaneity, we subject it to an analysis that raises again the theme of world-time starting from an attention that testifies to the multiple layers thatconstitute temporality and the plurality of durations that intertwine in it.

  15. L’amitié dans la relation ethnographique. Traitement de l’individu et rapport à l’autre dans les groupes locaux de Hijra (Delhi, Inde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Novello

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’amitié dans la relation ethnographique. Traitement de l’individu et rapport à l’autre dans les groupes locaux de Hijra (Delhi, Inde. « Tu es mon amie. Tu es la seule qui me comprenne. » Ces mots, toujours les mêmes, sont revenus sans cesse lors de l’enquête ethnographique que j’ai menée auprès des Hijra de Delhi. Les Hijra forment une catégorie sociale panindienne. Elles sont nées biologiquement hommes ou hermaphrodites, s’habillent et se parent continuellement comme des femmes et, parfois, sont émasculées. Les ethnologues parlent parfois de leur relation avec leurs informateurs en terme d’amitié sans que cette relation soit exprimée et pensée comme telle par ces derniers. Qu’en est-il lorsque la société étudiée désigne l’ethnologue en tant qu’ami et lorsque cette désignation transforme la nature des rapports qu’elle entretenait auparavant avec lui ? L’étude de l’amitié que les Hijra me proposèrent fournira, en premier lieu, un exemple de la façon dont l’ethnologue peut se trouver engagé dans ce rapport affectif. Il s’agira de qualifier cette relation ethnographique par la description du processus d’évolution de mon rôle d’une part, et par l’examen des comportements et des pratiques qui la sanctionnent et qui y sont engagés d’autre part. Cette réflexion sur les représentations et les valeurs auxquelles mes interlocutrices faisaient référence en me conférant la place d’amie, informera en second lieu sur le traitement de l’individu et de l’altérité prévalant dans la catégorie sociale « Hijra ».Friendship in ethnographical relations. Treatment of the individual and relation to the other in local groups of Hijra (Delhi, India. “You are my friend. You are the only person who understands me.” These words, always the same, were endlessly repeated during my ethnographical survey of the Hijra of Delhi. The Hijra form a pan-Indian social category. Born

  16. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation

  17. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l-1 was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l-1 in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l-1) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l-1. The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l-1. The N level of 400 mg l-1 in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high unused N nutrient accumulated as NO

  18. Utilização de índices na definição da região metropolitana de Londrina Utilisation d’indices dans la définition de la région métropolitaine de Londrina Use of indicators in the definition of Londrina’s metropolitan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Neto Fernandes Barros

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo utilizar-se de alguns índices de caráter sócio-econômicos (Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal, Índice FIRJAN de Desenvolvimento Municipal, Índice de Carência Habitacional, Produto Interno Bruto, PIB per capita, Índice de Exclusão Social na avaliação e definição de uma Região Metropolitana. Com a utilização de técnicas de cartografia temática e as interpretações geográficas inerentes à mesma foi possível criticar a configuração real proposta para a Região Metropolitana de Londrina e sugerir critérios mais objetivos para a definição da mesma.Cette étude vise à intégrer l’utilisation de certains indices de développement socio-économique (indice de développement humain, indice développement municipal FIRJAN, indice de carences en matière de logement, produit intérieur brut (PIB, PIB par habitant, indice d’exclusion sociale dans l’évaluation et la définition d’une région métropolitaine. Avec l’utilisation de techniques de cartographie thématique et par l’interprétation géographique des cartes ainsi produites, il devient possible de critiquer la configuration actuelle de la région métropolitaine de Londrina et de suggérer des critères plus objectifs pour la définir.This study aims to make use of some socio-economic indices (Human Development Index, FIRJAN Municipal Development, Housing Need Index, Gross Domestic Product, GDP per capita, Social Exclusion Index in the evaluation and definition of a metropolitan area. With the use of techniques for thematic mapping and geographical interpretation it was possible to criticize the actual configuration proposed for the metropolitan area of Londrina and suggest more objective criteria for defining it.

  19. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  20. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease. PMID:25194821

  1. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease.

  2. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  3. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search. For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a

  4. Structural insight into the Clostridium difficile ethanolamine utilisation microcompartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C Pitts

    Full Text Available Bacterial microcompartments form a protective proteinaceous barrier around metabolic enzymes that process unstable or toxic chemical intermediates. The genome of the virulent, multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile 630 strain contains an operon, eut, encoding a bacterial microcompartment with genes for the breakdown of ethanolamine and its utilisation as a source of reduced nitrogen and carbon. The C. difficile eut operon displays regulatory genetic elements and protein encoding regions in common with homologous loci found in the genomes of other bacteria, including the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis. The crystal structures of two microcompartment shell proteins, CD1908 and CD1918, and an uncharacterised protein with potential enzymatic activity, CD1925, were determined by X-ray crystallography. CD1908 and CD1918 display the same protein fold, though the order of secondary structure elements is permuted in CD1908 and this protein displays an N-terminal β-strand extension. These proteins form hexamers with molecules related by crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry. The structure of CD1925 has a cupin β-barrel fold and a putative active site that is distinct from the metal-ion dependent catalytic cupins. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy of Escherichia coli over-expressing eut proteins indicates that CD1918 is capable of self-association into arrays, suggesting an organisational role for CD1918 in the formation of this microcompartment. The work presented provides the basis for further study of the architecture and function of the C. difficile eut microcompartment, its role in metabolism and the wider consequences of intestinal colonisation and virulence in this pathogen.

  5. Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Louis Philippe

    Suite a l'extraordinaire explosion de l'informatique de la derniere decennie, la science et la technologie des materiaux ont pris un essor extraordinaire. Par exemple, il est devenu crucial de concevoir des materiaux a haut degre de purete. Ce besoin a fortement motive le developpement de methodes d'analyse de solides. Traditionnellement, la methode adoptee est l'analyse par torche ICP, mais pour de nombreuses raisons, dont la lenteur de cette methode, la communaute scientifique oeuvrant en chimie analytique recherche des techniques d'analyse de solides directes, rapides et plus sensibles. Parmi les voies possibles, on trouve les methodes basees sur la pulverisation par plasma. Dans ce contexte, nous avons etudie la possibilite et la pertinence d'utiliser un magnetoplasma entretenu par une onde de surface pour pulveriser des solides dans le but de les analyser. Nos travaux portent principalement sur l'etude du comportement du plasma lors de la pulverisation. Nous avons montre que la pulverisation affecte la decharge de diverses facons. En premier lieu, la concentration d'especes provenant du materiau pulverise dans le plasma augmente avec la tension de polarisation. De plus, la concentration d'especes pulverisees diminue lorsque la pression croit, possiblement a cause du redepot. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible de pulveriser des solides isolants en exploitant le phenomene d'autopolarisation du a l'application d'une tension RF. Nous avons aussi etudie l'effet de la pulverisation sur la temperature et la densite electronique. Ainsi, lors de la pulverisation de metaux tels que le cuivre, la temperature electronique diminue lorsque la tension de polarisation augmente. Ceci est attribuable a l'augmentation de la densite d'especes metalliques neutres facilement ionisables par impact electronique. Nous avons aussi note que la densite electronique augmente avec la concentration d'especes metalliques dans le plasma, ce qui resulte d'un meilleur bilan de

  6. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy...

  7. Mdea Based Solvents Used At the Lacq Processing Plant Utilisation de solvants à base de MDEA à l'usine de Lacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgue J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of MDEA-based solvents has allowed the processing scheme of the sour natural gases treated at the Lacq plant to be modified, leading to substantial savings in operating costs. Compared to the well known SNPA-DEA process, the new MDEA-based solvents meet the same performance requirements as regards H2S and CO2 removal, but are far more economic in terms of energy consumption. MDEA is used to selectively remove H2S from the gas, while activated MDEA is used when total acid gas removal is necessary. The adequate activator has been selected from among a series of products, according to the actual plant specificity. Optimization of the process has included the selection of the proper contacting device : for this mass transfer enhanced by chemical first order reaction, structured packings have proven to be more efficient than trays. L'utilisation de solvants à base de MDEA a permis de modifier le schéma de désulfuration du gaz de Lacq et de réaliser ainsi de substantielles économies de traitement. Les procédés à base des nouveaux solvants permettent d'atteindre les mêmes performances d'élimination de H2S et du CO2, avec une consommation d'énergie très inférieure à celle du désormais classique procédé SNPA-DEA. La MDEA est utilisée pour l'enlèvement sélectif de l'H2S, alors que la MDEA activée permet l'élimination complète des composés acides. L'activateur le mieux adapté aux conditions de fonctionnement spécifiques des unités de Lacq a été sélectionné parmi une série de produits. Dans le cadre de l'optimisation des unités, les internes du contacteur gaz/liquide ont été changés : les garnissages structurés ont confirmé leur efficacité supérieure à celle des plateaux à clapets pour ce transfert de matière avec réaction chimique.

  8. Modélisation de dommages consécutifs aux séismes. Extension à d'autres risques naturels

    OpenAIRE

    CHIROIU, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    Les sujets que nous présentons abordent la question de la modélisation de dommages consécutifs aux séismes, avant et après l'événement. Cette approche a un caractère pluridisciplinaire, se situant entre les techniques propres au génie civil, à travers le calcul des structures, à la géographie, à travers l'analyse spatiale et à la télédétection, à travers l'utilisation de l'imagerie satellitaire. Le premier chapitre présente d'une part les objectifs, le fonctionnement et les principaux paramèt...

  9. Utilisation of acute hospitals by age and sex in Australia, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, C D; Moore, G

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the utilisation rates of acute care (short-stay) hospitals, by age and sex, for the Australian population. Separation and bed-day rates per 1000 persons for public, Repatriation and private hospitals in 1985 have been estimated by age group, for each sex, in each State and Territory in Australia. The Australian Base Grant, negotiated between the Commonwealth, States and Territories in the new Medicare Agreements, distributes funds for the care and treatment of Medicare patients in public hospitals. The national bed-day utilisation rates reported in this article, have been used as the basis for population weights to allocate these funds. This paper presents the data and methods used to derive these weights, and examines the differences between them and the actual State and Territory utilisation patterns in 1985. The impact of population ageing on the overall utilisation rates for acute hospitals in Australia is examined.

  10. Expenditure and resource utilisation for cervical screening in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Jie-Bin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that women aged 18–69 years are screened with conventional cytology every 2 years. Publicly funded HPV vaccination was introduced in 2007, and partly as a consequence, a renewal of the screening program that includes a review of screening recommendations has recently been announced. This study aimed to provide a baseline for such a review by quantifying screening program resource utilisation and costs in 2010. Methods A detailed model of current cervical screening practice in Australia was constructed and we used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry to model age-specific compliance with screening and follow-up. We applied model-derived rate estimates to the 2010 Australian female population to calculate costs and numbers of colposcopies, biopsies, treatments for precancer and cervical cancers in that year, assuming that the numbers of these procedures were not yet substantially impacted by vaccination. Results The total cost of the screening program in 2010 (excluding administrative program overheads was estimated to be A$194.8M. We estimated that a total of 1.7 million primary screening smears costing $96.7M were conducted, a further 188,900 smears costing $10.9M were conducted to follow-up low grade abnormalities, 70,900 colposcopy and 34,100 histological evaluations together costing $21.2M were conducted, and about 18,900 treatments for precancerous lesions were performed (including retreatments, associated with a cost of $45.5M for treatment and post-treatment follow-up. We also estimated that $20.5M was spent on work-up and treatment for approximately 761 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. Overall, an estimated $23 was spent in 2010 for each adult woman in Australia on cervical screening program-related activities. Conclusions Approximately half of the total cost of the screening program is spent on delivery of primary

  11. Herbage utilisation efficiency of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass subjected to nitrogen fertilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira; Adenilson José Paiva; Vitor Del’Álamo Guarda; Priscila de Mesquita Pereira; Fábio Olegário Caminha; Sila Carneiro da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen fertiliser accelerates plant growth and increases herbage utilisation efficiency in continuously stocked temperate grass swards, indicating greater herbage production and harvest efficiency. There is no similar evidence, however, for tropical pastures. In this study we evaluated the morphogenetic responses, the patterns of defoliation and the efficiency of herbage utilisation of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf. cv. Marandu...

  12. Policy drivers behind forest utilisation in Lithuania in 1986-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Brukas, Vilis; Linkevicius, Edgaras; Cinga, Gintautas

    2009-01-01

    After regaining the independence, Lithuania was in the process of making transition to the market economy, yet radical societal shifts only moderately affected Lithuanian forestry. This study evaluates the main drivers that stimulated or decreased forest utilisation. Review of numerous sources reveals that the major drivers towards increased utilisation were the economic transition and changes in the resource base. These have been counterbalanced primarily by deeply-rooted normativism, increa...

  13. Investment Utilisation, Adjustment Costs, and Technical Efficiency in Danish Pig Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Vesterlund Olsen; Arne Henningsen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model for adjustment costs and investment utilisation that illustrates their causes and types and shows in which phases of an investment they occur. Furthermore, we develop an empirical framework for analysing the size and the timing of adjustment costs and investment utilisation. We apply this methodology to a large panel data set of Danish pig producers with 9,281 observations between 1996 and 2008. The paper further contributes with a thorough discus...

  14. Dr. Who? An Assessment of G.P. Utilisation Rates across Galway City & County

    OpenAIRE

    Karyn Morrissey; Stephen Hynes; Graham Clarke; Cathal O’Donoghue

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect accessibility has on General Practitioner (GP) utilisation rates at the sub-national level for Ireland. Specifically, the aim of this paper is to estimate whether there is an urban/rural differential in GP utilisation rates. We do this by simulating micro-level health care data. Using this synthetic data, simple logit models are employed to estimate the likelihood that individuals in different jurisdictions will attend a GP surgery. These individual logit estima...

  15. The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Martin J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies.

  16. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Objective While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. Design We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we mana...

  17. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  18. Greenhouse impact due to different peat fuel utilisation chains in Finland. A life-cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkinen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Minkkinen, K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Penttilae, T. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa Research Unit, Vantaa (FI)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Greenhouse impacts of different peat fuel utilisation chains were studied. A life cycle approach was used in order to cover all important emissions and sinks due to activities linked to the peat fuel production and utilisation. Radiative forcing was used to describe the greenhouse impact, and the results are given per one petajoule of energy produced. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions and sinks were considered. Investigated peat production reserves were pristine peatland (fen), forestry-drained peatland, and cultivated (cropland) peatland. The considered phases of the peat utilisation chain included peat fuel production, storage, transport, combustion and the after-treatment of the cut-away peatland. After-treatment alternatives were afforestation and restoration. The greenhouse impact of a considered peat fuel chain was calculated by subtracting the emissions/sinks of a production reserve in a state of non-utilisation from the emissions/sinks of peat utilisation chain. According to the results, the most climate-friendly peat production chain is cultivated peatland-afforestation. Cultivated peatland has large greenhouse gas emissions and these emissions from the land area are ceased by the removal of the peat layer, when the area is utilised for peat fuel production. If forestry-drained peatland or pristine fen is used for peat fuel production, the greenhouse impacts of these chains are of the order of the greenhouse impact of the utilisation chain for coal. Improvement of peat production and combustion methods can be applied to decrease to some extent the greenhouse effect of peat energy. (orig.)

  19. Les mathématiques de l'Égypte ancienne. Numération, métrologie, arithmétique, géométrie et autres problèmes.

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Que nous ont légué les textes des scribes mathématiciens et quelles sont les spécificités de « leurs » mathématiques ? Les nombreux problèmes et extraits analysés relèvent du corpus mathématique de base datant du Moyen Empire mais également de documents administratifs et de documents plus récents tels les papyri démotiques. Ce que ces textes nous enseignent dépasse parfois le cadre purement mathématique en donnant des indications sur les valeurs marchandes de produits ou services, les mon...

  20. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased

  1. When homogeneity meets heterogeneity: the geographically weighted regression with spatial lag approach to prenatal care utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Shoff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using geographically weighted regression (GWR, a recent study by Shoff and colleagues (2012 investigated the place-specific risk factors for prenatal care utilisation in the United States of America (USA and found that most of the relationships between late or no prenatal care and its determinants are spatially heterogeneous. However, the GWR approach may be subject to the confounding effect of spatial homogeneity. The goal of this study was to address this concern by including both spatial homogeneity and heterogeneity into the analysis. Specifically, we employed an analytic framework where a spatially lagged (SL effect of the dependent variable is incorporated into the GWR model, which is called GWR-SL. Using this framework, we found evidence to argue that spatial homogeneity is neglected in the study by Shoff et al. (2012 and that the results change after considering the SL effect of prenatal care utilisation. The GWR-SL approach allowed us to gain a placespecific understanding of prenatal care utilisation in USA counties. In addition, we compared the GWR-SL results with the results of conventional approaches (i.e., ordinary least squares and spatial lag models and found that GWR-SL is the preferred modelling approach. The new findings help us to better estimate how the predictors are associated with prenatal care utilisation across space, and determine whether and how the level of prenatal care utilisation in neighbouring counties matters.

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in health care utilisation in Norway: the population-based HUNT3 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikum Eirik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we investigated the distribution of self-reported health care utilisation by education and household income in a county population in Norway, in a universal public health care system based on ideals of equal access for all according to need, and not according to wealth. Methods The study included 24,147 women and 20,608 men aged 20 years and above in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3 of 2006–2008. Income-related horizontal inequity was estimated through concentration indexes, and inequity by both education and income was estimated as risk ratios through conventional regression. Results We found no overall pro-rich or pro-educated socioeconomic gradient in needs-adjusted utilisation of general practitioner or inpatient care. However, we found overall pro-rich and pro-educated inequity in utilisation of both private medical specialists and hospital outpatient care. For these services there were large differences in levels of inequity between younger and older men and women. Conclusion In contrast with recent studies from Norway, we found pro-rich and pro-educated social inequalities in utilisation of hospital outpatient services and not only private medical specialists. Utilisation of general practitioner and inpatient services, which have low access threshold or are free of charge, we found to be equitable.

  3. Gender analysis of technology utilisation among small scale oil palm fruits processors in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koledoye Gbenga F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the types of improved technologies utilised, tracked gender involvement at the various stages of oil palm fruits processing activities with a view to highlighting differences in the utilisation of these technologies among male and female processors. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 240 (120 males and 120 females oil palm fruits processors using structured interview schedule. Focus Group Discussion (FGD and Gender Mapping (GM were used to elicit qualitative data. Data collected were summarised with the aid of descriptive statistics while t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results showed that sterilizer, digester and hydraulic hand press were utilised by both male and female processors. Results of t-test revealed that at P ≤ 0.01, significant differences were found between male and female processors level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies with male having a higher mean score than the female. The study concluded that gender differences exited in the level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies among male and female processors in Ondo State, Nigeria.

  4. Region-Specific Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kudoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.

  5. Association between subjective memory complaints and health care utilisation: a three-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among elderly patients and little is know about the association between SMC and health care utilisation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate health care utilisation during a three-year follow-up among elderly patients consulting...... their general practitioner and reporting subjective memory complaints (SMC). METHODS: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort survey in general practice with three-year follow-up. Selected health care utilisation or costs relative to SMC adjusted for potential confounders were analyzed in a two......-part model where the incidence of use of a selected health care service were analyzed separately from the quantity of use for those that use the service. The former analyzed in a Poisson regression approach, the latter in a generalized linear regression model. RESULTS: A total 758 non-nursing home residents...

  6. Health care utilisation and characteristics of long-term breast cancer survivors: nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, V; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate long-term female breast cancer survivors' (BCS') health care utilisation, health, and employment. METHODS: An age-stratified random sample of 2000 female breast cancer survivors (BCS) 5-15 years after primary surgery without recurrence was drawn from the Danish Breast Cancer...... Cooperative Group register. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemography, health care utilisation, employment, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Associations with breast cancer treatment were investigated. RESULTS: Response rate was 79%. Significantly more BCS than the general women...... population reported health care utilisation (61% versus. 56%; age-standardised risk ratio (SRR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.15), but significantly fewer BCS were disability pensioners (15% versus 19%; SRR: 0.77; 95% CI 0.64-0.93). 'Daily activities limited due to sequelae' were reported by 20...

  7. Children with mild intellectual disability and their families – needs for support, service utilisation and experiences of support

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on service utilisation among children with mild ID and their families, their needs for support and their experiences of support. Aims The overall aim of the thesis was to explore and describe service utilisation patterns among families of children with mild ID from a systems perspective. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative quantitative design was used to describe the extent of service utilisation among 84 children with mild ID and their families (paper I...

  8. Chaînes logistiques et modèles d'affaires du commerce électronique
    Le cas de la vente en ligne de produits informatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Detchessahar, Mathieu; Journe, Benoit; Kessous, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    Le commerce en ligne de produits informatiques apparaît comme une activité en cours de structuration dans laquelle il est difficile de dégager des modèles d'affaires stables et d'en évaluer la performance. Les pratiques des sites de commerce électronique sont variées et plusieurs logiques d'agencement des supply chain existent: certaines font de l'industrialisation des process le principal moteur de la performance et standardisent au maximum les mécanismes de coordination à l'intérieur de la ...

  9. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  10. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  11. Mind control: The secret weapon utilised by religious cults to control their followers

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Pretorius

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to create awareness of the dangers of religious cults. The process utilised by these cults to recruit members and to control their lives is so subtle that members are led to believe that they joined out of their own free will. A brief discussion of what religious cults are as well as how they function is followed by an explanation of mind control and how it is utilised by cults. This article maintains that mind control is the secret weapon with which leaders of cult...

  12. Mind control: The secret weapon utilised by religious cults to control their followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Pretorius

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to create awareness of the dangers of religious cults. The process utilised by these cults to recruit members and to control their lives is so subtle that members are led to believe that they joined out of their own free will. A brief discussion of what religious cults are as well as how they function is followed by an explanation of mind control and how it is utilised by cults. This article maintains that mind control is the secret weapon with which leaders of cults lure their followers under false pretences to mislead, control and make them dependent on the cult.

  13. Utilisation of coal and natural gas for the production of synfuels and chemicals in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.H.; Marriott, J.N.; Stones, J.D.A. (Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs, Lynwood Ridge (South Africa). Energy Branch)

    1992-01-01

    Initially, the paper discusses coal, natural gas, condensate and crude-oil resources in South Africa. Aspects of the utilisation of coal for synfuels and chemicals manufacture discussed include: background; strategic and economic considerations; and technological developments. Aspects of the utilisation of natural gas and condensate for synfuels manufacture discussed include: continuation of synfuels programme in the eighties; financing principles and economic viability. Other aspects of synfuels manufacture in general covered are: macro-economics of the synfuels programme; chemicals production from coal; environmental considerations and future prospects. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Intracavity frequency doubling of CW Ti:Sapphire laser utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter;

    Utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal frequency doubling a Ti:Sapphire CW laser gave 100 mW at 405 nm and 53 mW at 392 nm. Stability proved excellent without servo control. Broad tunability was shown around 392 nm.......Utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal frequency doubling a Ti:Sapphire CW laser gave 100 mW at 405 nm and 53 mW at 392 nm. Stability proved excellent without servo control. Broad tunability was shown around 392 nm....

  15. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  16. Utilisation de la post-décharge d'un plasma micro-ondes d'air ou d'azote pour valoriser le méthane

    OpenAIRE

    Oumghar, A.; Legrand, J.; Diamy, A.; Turillon, N.; Ben-Aïm, R.

    1994-01-01

    La valorisation du méthane est réalisée dans la post-décharge d'un plasma microondes (2 450 MHz) d'air ou d'azote. Lorsque la décharge est produite dans l'azote, les principaux produits dosés sont l'acétylène, l'éthylène, l'éthane et l'hydrogène. Lorsque la décharge est produite dans l'air, on dose en outre le monoxyde de carbone. Le taux de conversion du méthane ainsi que la sélectivité des produits ont été déterminés en fonction des paramètres expérimentaux suivants : proportion méthane/gaz...

  17. La phonétique dans l'enseignement de l'anglais aux spécialistes d’autres disciplines : enjeux et priorités Teaching English phonetics to ESP students: issues and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Diana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La phonétique est rarement enseignée à des spécialistes d’autres disciplines, car son utilité n'est pas toujours reconnue. Nous passerons en revue les arguments en faveur d'un tel enseignement, et nous discuterons de la nécessité ou non d'adopter un modèle anglophone. Puis nous chercherons quelles sont les priorités à établir dans un tel cadre, au niveau suprasegmental (intonation, accent, rythme comme au niveau segmental (voyelles et consonnes. L'idée d'un amalgame de diverses prononciations sera approfondie pour tenter de déboucher sur l'ébauche d'un programme spécifique s'adressant aux spécialistes d’autres disciplines.Phonetics is hardly ever taught to ESP students, because it is rarely considered as a priority. We shall first focus on the arguments in favour of such an approach, and the need to adopt a native English model will be discussed. We shall then consider the priorities that need to be addressed in such a framework, whether at segmental (vowels and consonants or suprasegmental level (intonation, stress and rhythm. The idea of creating an amalgam of various pronunciations is considered and will lead to a tentative syllabus aimed at ESP students.

  18. LES RÔLES DE L'ORGANISATION PAYSANNE ET DE L'ACTION COLLECTIVE POUR LE RENFORCEMENT DES FILIÈRES DE COMMERCIALISATION DES PRODUITS DE «SPÉCIALITÉ LOCALE» LE CAS DU LONGANE «LONG» DE LA PROVINCE DE HUNGYEN AU VIETNAME

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tien Dinh; Dao, Duc Huan; Vu, Trong Binh; Le Duc, Thinh

    2010-01-01

    Le Vietnam est actuellement engagé dans un processus d'intégration économique internationale issue notamment de son adhésion récente à l'OMC. Ce processus inclut une ouverture croissante du secteur agro-alimentaire domestique à la concurrence des produits importés. Les exploitations agricoles familiales sont particulièrement fragilisées par ce nouveau contexte, en raison de le petite taille et du morcellement des superficies cultivables. Les moyens de renforcer la compétitivité des produits i...

  19. The use of high induction air dispersion tubing for fresh air supply in high-ceiling factories or buildings; Utilisation des tubes de dispersion d'air a haute induction en situation d'apport d'air neuf ou autre dans les usines ou batiments en hauteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufresne, A. [Nad Klima, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This article described a new air distribution system that was installed at the Transcontinental printing plant in Boucherville, Quebec to replace an inefficient system that required 8 coolers, 11 ventilators, 10 pumps and 4 air cooled condensers. The new NAD tube system operates on the principle of air injection, whereby a jet of air emerging from a nozzle creates a zone of depression to move large masses of air in any desired direction via small airflow jets. The objective of the retrofit was to reduce maintenance and HVAC energy costs and to resolve the problems of negative pressure in the building. With the new NAD tube system, all the equipment is grouped into one room. Exothermic cycles are used to heat or cool the air in the building for free using absorption coolers. The high induction air dispersing tube has several nozzles calibrated by software to move air at a very high speed. This creates turbulence to facilitate air exchange. The system has operated successfully, even on very cold days of -28 degrees C, without any condensation in the tube. The NAD tube system provides increased comfort for employees and does not require the use of fans. The payback period is 3.2 years without funding or 2.4 years with funding. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. Etude du Voice Onset Time (V.O.T dans des séquences VCV produites par des patients francophones souffrants de paralysies récurrentielles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauth Camille

    2014-07-01

    Notre étude se veut longitudinale puisque la voix des patients est enregistrée lors de différentes phases post-opératoires (post-opératoire 2, 3 et 4, ce qui devrait nous permettre de mettre au jour, non seulement les perturbations provoquées par l’immobilité laryngée, mais également les réajustements que les patients pourraient mettre en place au cours du temps et de leur rééducation orthophonique. Seul l’intervalle du VOT pour les occlusives sonores a été modifié. Pour les occlusives voisées, la transition CV implique uniquement un changement d’un état obstrué de conduit vocal à un état suffisamment dégagé de celui-ci pour permettre l’apparition d’une structure formantique claire et stable. En revanche, pour les occlusives non voisées, cette transition CV exige, outre le changement d’état du conduit vocal, une modification de la configuration de la glotte d’une position ouverte pour la consonne non voisée à une position fermée pour la voyelle subséquente. En conséquence, en raison de difficultés de maintien de vibrations laryngées, le VOT, qui est un indice de voisement, est alors généralement plus long pour les occlusives voisées que celles produites par les locuteurs contrôles. La durée du VOT de Klatt (1975 des occlusives voisées des patients reste toutefois quantitativement distincte des occlusives non voisées. En conséquence, la durée de la tenue consonantique des patients se voit également allongée dans les phases d’enregistrement précoces.

  1. Association between antidepressant drug use during pregnancy and child healthcare utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ververs, T. F.; van Wensen, K.; Freund, M. W.; van der Heide, M.; Visser, G. H. A.; Schobben, A. F. A. M.; de Jong-van den Berg, L. T. W.; Egberts, A. C. G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate healthcare utilisation by children who were exposed to antidepressant drug use during pregnancy and those whose mothers stopped using antidepressants before pregnancy compared with a control group. Design Cohort study. Setting Health insurance records in the Netherlands. Popula

  2. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  3. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  4. Explaining low uptake for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands : (and predicting utilisation of other programmes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, NMTH

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, only a quarter of all pregnant women take part in the current Down syndrome screening(DSS) programme. Compared to other Northern European countries, Dutch uptake rates are very low. This thesis concentrates on the test-utilisation of DSS, in particular the factors impeding or ena

  5. Utilising excess minibus-taxi capacity for South African townships tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Sebastiaan; Makoriwa, Collins; Boer, de Sirp

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the prop

  6. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham;

    2014-01-01

    cages. Feed intake, gain and feed utilisation were not significantly affected. Plasma urea (P nitrogen (P = 0.01) decreased linearly by lowering CP. The weight of the carcass tended to increase linearly by reducing CP, but neither nitrogen retention nor carcass meat percentage...

  7. Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, B I; Wu, Z; Hemminki, E

    2011-01-01

    Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to 2003, after a prenatal care intervention in Anhui County, China, with a response rate of 97%. Prenatal care utilisation was categorised using the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index. Logistic regression was used to study the association between prenatal care utilisation and infant care practices. Mothers' uptake of breastfeeding, introduction of milk formula, cereal/porridge, meat and uptake of any immunisation were found to be in accordance with national recommendations. Intermediate prenatal care uptake was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of cereal/porridge. Inadequate care was positively associated with never breastfeeding, early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge, and early start of work after delivery. Initiation to prenatal care after the third month was positively associated with early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge. Having no prenatal care was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of milk formula. Mothers' uptake of infant care practices in this population was largely in accordance with national recommendations. Women with less than adequate utilisation of prenatal care and those who had initiated prenatal care late were less likely to follow recommendations on infant care.

  8. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  9. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Willems, F.H.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environme

  10. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the po

  11. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W.; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, Francois; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the po

  12. Investment utilisation, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Henningsen, Arne

    and investment utilisation. We apply this methodology to a large panel data set of Danish pig producers with 9,281 observations between 1996 and 2008. The paper further contributes with a thorough discussion of the calculation and deflation of capital input from microeconomic data. We estimate an output distance...

  13. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Stirbu; A.E. Kunst; A. Mielck; J.P. Mackenbach

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia an

  14. Long-term care and hospital utilisation by older people: an analysis of substitution rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Julien

    2009-11-01

    Older people are intensive users of hospital and long-term care services. This paper explores the extent to which these services are substitutes. A small area analysis was used with both care home and (tariff cost-weighted) hospital utilisation for older people aggregated to electoral wards in England.Health and social-care structural equations were specified using a theoretical model. The estimation accounted for the skewed and censored nature of the data. For health utilisation, both a fixed effects instrumental variables GMM model and a generalised estimating equations (GEE) model were fitted, the later on a log dependent variable with predicted values of social care utilisation used to account for endogeneity (bootstrapping was used to derive standard errors). In addition to a GMM model, the social-care estimation used both two-part and tobit models (also with predicted health utilisation and bootstrapping).The results indicate that for each additional pound1 spent on care homes, hospital expenditure falls by pound0.35. Also, pound1 additional hospital spend corresponds to just over pound0.35 reduction on care home spend. With these cost substitution effects offsetting, a transfer of resources to care homes is efficient if the resultant outcome gain is greater than the outcome loss from reduced hospital use. PMID:19206085

  15. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. PMID:26330401

  16. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  17. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  18. Association between subjective memory complaints and health care utilisation: a three-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siersma Volkert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC are common among elderly patients and little is know about the association between SMC and health care utilisation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate health care utilisation during a three-year follow-up among elderly patients consulting their general practitioner and reporting subjective memory complaints (SMC. Methods This study was conducted as a prospective cohort survey in general practice with three-year follow-up. Selected health care utilisation or costs relative to SMC adjusted for potential confounders were analyzed in a two-part model where the incidence of use of a selected health care service were analyzed separately from the quantity of use for those that use the service. The former analyzed in a Poisson regression approach, the latter in a generalized linear regression model. Results A total 758 non-nursing home residents aged 65 years and older consulted their GP in October and November 2002 and participated in the present study. The adjusted probability of nursing home placement was significantly increased in subjects with SMC relative to subjects without SMC (RR = 2.3. More generally, SMC was associated with an increase in the cost of selected health care utilisation of 60% over three years (p = 0.003. Conclusion The data of this study indicated that in an elderly primary care population the presence of SMC increased the cost of health care utilisation by 60% over three years. Thus, inquiry into SMC may contribute to a risk profile assessment of elderly patients and may identify patients with an increased use of health care services.

  19. Selective habitat utilisation and impact on vegetation by African elephant within a heterogeneous landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Steyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, a total of 33 elephants have been reintroduced to a 31 000 ha game-fenced section of the Songimvelo Game Reserve in the Barberton Mountainland, South Africa. The impact from elephant was assessed on the attainment of the primary management objectives which are the conservation of plant community and plant species diversity. A total of 160 semi-quantitative plots were systematically sampled along foraging paths. Vegetation was assessed in terms of dominant species composition and species utilised. Elephant activity is mostly confined to a rugged 1 200 ha portion of the reserve. Forest, thickets and woodlands are positively selected, whereas shrublands and grasslands are little utilised. A total of 73 woody species were recorded within the sample plots. Thirtynine of these species were utilised in the woodlands, 31 in the forest and thickets, and only 18 in the shrublands. Acacia ataxacantha, Dalbergia armata and Acacia caffra are ranked highest in dominance and in utilisation values. In contrast, Cussonia spicata and Pterocarpus angolensis are less common but are much selected. Continued utilisation at present levels could significantly threaten their persistence. These preliminary results indicate that the present low overall density of elephants relative to many other conservation areas already has a marked effect on certain plant species. Absolute elephant density figures are relatively meaningless within a heterogeneous landscape. The specific community and species make-up of the landscape needs to be taken into account for the determination of bounds to elephant numbers in order to ensure the maintenance of present plant species diversity levels.

  20. Utilisation du raisonnement géométrique pour la planification en robotique d'assemblage :

    OpenAIRE

    Théveneau, Pascal

    1988-01-01

    Utilisation du raisonnement géométrique pour la planification de mouvements en robotique. Utilisation de l'intelligence artificielle et de la modélisation géométrique pour la programmation automatique des robots. Cas des mouvements fins correspondants a un assemblage

  1. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  2. Elimination des métaux lourds par complexationadsorption en utilisant un ligand organique

    OpenAIRE

    Benghenima, ABDELLATIF

    2015-01-01

    L'eau constitue un élément fondamental en matière de pollution, puisque dans le cas des métaux, comme pour d'autres composés, elle favorise de nombreuses réactions chimiques. L'eau transporte les métaux lourds, et les insère dans les chaînes alimentaires (algues, poisson, etc.). Même si les métaux lourds sont le plus souvent présents à l'état de trace, ils n'en restent pas moins très dangereux, puisque leur toxicité se développe et leur nature est non dégradable. Devant cette situation de ...

  3. Emballage naturel de produits biologiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.

    2011-01-01

    Hoe milieuvriendelijk zijn hernieuwbare en biologisch afbreekbare kunststofverpakkingen eigenlijk? Voor het verpakkend bedrijfsleven is het lastig om daarachter te komen en dus weloverwogen keuzes te maken. In het onderzoek ‘Natuurlijk verpakt’ – uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Res

  4. Produits appropries et developpement egalitaire.

    OpenAIRE

    Baron C; Van Ginneken W

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub. Article reviewing the findings of case studies of consumer behaviour with a view to testing the validity of certain assumptions regarding consumer efficiency, effects of choice of technology and choice of product and the availability of labour intensive techniques in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Ghana and Kenya - discusses the theoretical aspects, and suggests provision of basic needs products at low prices, small scale industry promotion, research and development redirection, consumer educ...

  5. Valorisation des produits forestiers non ligneux des Plateaux de Batéké en périphérie de Kinshasa (RDCongo)

    OpenAIRE

    Biloso Moyene, Apollinaire

    2008-01-01

    La présente étude s’inscrit dans le cadre de la recherche d’une meilleure compréhension de l’analyse de la valorisation des PFNL des plateaux Batéké en périphérie de Kinshasa en vue d’envisager un mode d’exploitation qui garantisse la conservation et l’utilisation durable et d’apporter les éléments indispensables à la gestion des PFNL. Les enquêtes par sondages sur une base de 280 ménages ont été renforcées par 22 entretiens par focus group. Des observations directes sur le terrain, des enquê...

  6. Caractéristiques et spécificités du karst de la Montagne de Reims ; comparaison avec les autres karsts de contact lithostratigraphique de l’est du Bassin parisien

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, Olivier; Devos, Alain

    2013-01-01

    La Montagne de Reims est affectée par un karst de contact lithostratigraphique à l’image des autres karsts de l’est du Bassin parisien. Comme eux, il est également étagé et sous couverture forestière. Cependant, il présente certaines spécificités : c’est un karst de front de côte qui s’inscrit en milieu crayeux et se trouve perché au-dessus de la nappe de la craie. Il est également accompagné par des mouvements de terrain de type rotationnel qui conditionnent son évolution. The “Montagne d...

  7. Ferdinand, Charles, Emile, Petar, Paul… et les autres* Pertinence, Cohérence et Permanence d’une grande idée De la Stylistique à L’Enonciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Cortès

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bally m’apparaît comme l’un des pionniers d’une approche intelligible et même lumineuse des « faits de langage1 ». Le titre de cet article et les citations en exergue visent simplement à montrer que la « famille intellectuelle » à laquelle il appartient, très vaste et diversifiée, reste toujours vivante et prolifique, même si - pour des raisons stylistiques d’humour qu’il aurait peut-être appréciées – je me suis limité à quelques prénoms dont les patronymes sont bien connus. Cet article n’a d’autre ambition que de remettre Charles Bally à la place historique indiscutable qui doit être la sienne dans l’évolution de la recherche en sciences du langage et de la communication.

  8. L'implication des langues dans l'élaboration et la publication des recherches scientifiques l'exemple du français parmi d'autres langues

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Pour certains, les langues sont des outils neutres sans liens (qu'ils soient nécessaires ou accidentels et historiques) avec des univers culturels, sans liens avec des façons de penser. Pour ceux-là, en tout cas, elles peuvent n'être que des outils quand on tient des discours scientifiques, ce qui implique une conception de la science comme étant neutre, objective, détachée du monde social. Dans cette vision, on peut sans encombre, y compris en sciences humaines, choisir n'importe quelle(s) langue(s) pour le faire. L'objectif de ce volume est de proposer une autre vision des rapports profonds

  9. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl;

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink...... (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph...

  10. Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the pattern of scale effect is labour saving, but capital and material using. The evidence also supports the presence of an induced exogenous technical change, which is non-neutral (labour and capital using, and material saving). The elasticity of substitution between capital and labour is positive, implying that the two inputs are substitute. The results also indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the production of crude oil, but no economies or diseconomies of utilisation

  11. A proteomics approach to the identification of biomarkers for psoriasis utilising keratome biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, James C; Scheipers, Peter; Schwämmle, Veit;

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of plasma biomarkers for psoriasis vulgaris may aid clinicians in disease grading and monitoring of treatment response. We have therefore developed a proteomics/mass spectrometry based workflow which enables biomarker discovery from psoriasis patient samples. We have utilised keratome...... a quantitative proteomics screen of four patients with psoriasis using stable isotope dimethyl labelling and identified over 50 proteins consistently altered in abundance in psoriasis lesional versus non-lesional skin. This includes several canonical psoriasis related proteins (e.g. S100A7 [Psoriasin] and FABP5...... [Epidermal Fatty Acid Binding Protein]) and more than 30 novel alterations. From this disease localised dataset we further assessed several proteins as potential biomarkers in the plasma of patients with psoriasis versus healthy controls utilising selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS/MS)....

  12. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus of the implementa......The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus...... biogas for energy. Two different Danish joint biogas plants are evaluated with the aim of determining the role of transportation and co-fermentation on the energy and the balance of greenhouse gases from the biogas fuel cycle....

  13. Pella vilya: Near earth objects—Planetary defence through the regulation of resource utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2010-07-01

    Reactions to near earth objects (NEOs) in the past decade have run the gamut from expectations of Armageddon-type scenarios to Eureka moments of revolutionary scientific ideas. Concerns over the potentially devastating effects of an unmitigated collision jostle with forecasts of untold economic returns from the utilisation of NEO resources. Drawing from recent analogies and examples from the field of international environmental law, this paper proposes the development of a legal framework for the regulation of NEO resource utilisation. The proposed legal framework also includes a mechanism to ensure the political will and economic investment necessary for technological advances in planetary defence. By twinning the threats and opportunities presented by NEOs, this paper also analyses the position of theme-specific space law development in the overall legal framework of space exploration and traffic management.

  14. Context-Aware Service Utilisation in the Clouds and Energy Conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Kiani, Saad Liaquat; Antonopoulos, Nick; Knappmeyer, Michael; Baker, Nigel; McClatchey, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing environments are characterised by smart, interconnected artefacts embedded in our physical world that are projected to provide useful services to human inhabitants unobtrusively. Mobile devices are becoming the primary tools of human interaction with these embedded artefacts and utilisation of services available in smart computing environments such as clouds. Advancements in capabilities of mobile devices allow a number of user and environment related context consumers to be hosted on these devices. Without a coordinating component, these context consumers and providers are a potential burden on device resources; specifically the effect of uncoordinated computation and communication with cloud-enabled services can negatively impact the battery life. Therefore energy conservation is a major concern in realising the collaboration and utilisation of mobile device based context-aware applications and cloud based services. This paper presents the concept of a context-brokering component to aid...

  15. Utilisation of CryoSat-2 SAR altimeter in operational ice charting

    OpenAIRE

    E. Rinne; Similä, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present methods to utilise CryoSat-2 (CS-2) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode data in operational ice charting. We compare CS-2 data qualitatively to SAR mosaics over the Barents and Kara seas. Furthermore, we compare the CS-2 to archived operational ice charts. We present distributions of four CS-2 waveform parameters for different ice types as presented in the ice charts. We go on to present an automatic classification method for CS-2 data which, after training wit...

  16. Accounting for the Utilisation of Energy Resources within the Genuine Progress Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, David

    2014-01-01

    This Master’s thesis critically examines the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), evaluating its robustness as an alternative measure of sustainable economic welfare. It is recognised that the GPI was initiated to mainly reflect strong rather than weak sustainability principles and embrace a Fisherian conception of income and capital. In the light of these two core understandings, this thesis reviews the GPI’s accounting methodology for the costs of non-renewable energy resource utilisation. It ...

  17. A record production from an integrated farming system utilising sewage enriched water

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, S.P.; A. K. Roy; Datta, A K; Das, C R; Ghosh, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experiments conducted on a pond dyke (655m²) in the Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, during 1992-93 for maximising production through optimum utilisation of resources are communicated. Round the year intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus and A. viridus), water-bind weed (Ipomea aquatica), Indian spinach (Basella rubra), radish (Raphanus sativum), amaranth (Amaranthus vi...

  18. The Moderating Effect of Ownership Structure on the Relationship between Free Cash Flow and Asset Utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Takiah Mohd Iskandar; Rina Br Bukit; Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi

    2012-01-01

    Based on agency theory, ownership structure plays a role in monitoring managerial opportunistic behaviour. This study examines how different forms of ownership structures including foreign ownership, government ownership, and managerial ownership moderate the relationship between free cash flow and asset utilisation. This cross-sectional study involves companies listed on Bursa Malaysia. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis show a negative relationship between free cash ...

  19. Quality assessment of oenological tannins utilising global selectivity chemical sensors array ("Electronic tongue")

    OpenAIRE

    Puech, Jean-Louis; Prida, A.; Isz, S.

    2007-01-01

    Oenological tannin is a common name for food additives containing tannins utilised in winemaking practices. The main taste feature of oenological tannin is the taste sensation of astringency and bitterness. In the present paper, samples of various oenological tannins (oak, chestnut, gall, tara, querbacho, grape seed and grape skin tannins) were analysed by means of a tasting panel, measuring the flavour attributes bitterness, astringency, body, duration of flavour and similarity with wine tan...

  20. Utilisation of health care system by chronic pain patients who applied for disability pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højsted, J; Alban, A; Hagild, K; Eriksen, J

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how economic compensation for disability (disability pensions) to chronic pain patients affected their utilisation of health care services. The study was carried out as a register investigation. Inclusion of 144 study patients was based on records from 1989 and 1990 of the Rehabilitation and Pension Board in the Municipality of Copenhagen. Only patients of Danish origin with chronic non-malignant pain were included. The study period was divided into three: Subperiod 1: The year preceding the submission of the application for a disability pension. Subperiod 2: The period from the submission of the application to the decision was made. Subperiod 3: The year following the final decision of the health authorities. The patients were divided into 4 Subgroups according to whether disability pensions was awarded or rejected, or whether the patients accepted or appealed the decision. Based on number and charges of visits to the GPs the total costs of care in the primary sector were calculated. By means of number of bed days, visits to outpatients clinics, operations, blood samples, and various investigations, the total costs of hospital care were calculated. We found that application for a disability pension in chronic pain patients significantly influenced the health care utilisation. Chronic pain patients had a significantly lower health care utilisation after receiving a disability pension than before the pension was awarded. Chronic pain patients who did not get a disability pension and those who were not satisfied with the level of the pension awarded, maintained their health care utilisation after the decision. The mean health care use by the patients who appealed the level of the pension was three times higher than the mean health care use by the patients who accepted the level of the pension awarded. The study may indicate that lack of or insufficient economic compensation from the social system in chronic pain patients

  1. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  2. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Methods Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Au...

  3. Access and utilisation of maternity care for disabled women who experience domestic abuse: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Breckenridge, Jenna P.; Devaney, John; Kroll, Thilo; Lazenbatt, Anne; Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods: Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data ...

  4. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems: Inventions for a sustainable development of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, J. ten; Bianchi, F.; Bestman, Monique

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  5. Herbage utilisation efficiency of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass subjected to nitrogen fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertiliser accelerates plant growth and increases herbage utilisation efficiency in continuously stocked temperate grass swards, indicating greater herbage production and harvest efficiency. There is no similar evidence, however, for tropical pastures. In this study we evaluated the morphogenetic responses, the patterns of defoliation and the efficiency of herbage utilisation of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf. cv. Marandu maintained at 30 cm by cattle and fertilised with nitrogen. Treatments corresponded to four measures of nitrogen application (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg ha–1, and were assigned to experimental units (1,200 m2 paddocks according to a randomised complete block design, with four replications. There was a seasonal pattern of variation in the morphogenetic responses and in herbage utilisation efficiency (HUE characterised by higher herbage growth rates and HUE during late spring and summer. Nitrogen fertilisation increased both leaf appearance and elongation rates (around 60 % between non-fertilised and swards fertilised with 450 kg ha–1, p < 0.05, requiring higher stocking rates (average of 1.6, 2.6, 2.9 and 3.1 Animal Unit (adult animal weighing 450 kg ha–1 for 0, 150, 300 and 450 kg ha–1, respectively to maintain the management target. Although the frequency of leaf defoliation increased (with no change in defoliation severity - 56.1 ± 1.88 %, the leaf lifespan decreased, resulting in a similar number of defoliations during the leaf lifespan (average of 0.91 ± 0.069. This resulted in increased HUE only for the 150 kg ha–1 treatment relative to non-fertilisation (37.5, 48.1, 44.0 and 44.5 ± 2.25 % for 0, 150, 300 and 450 kg ha–1 N, respectively, indicating that with nitrogen fertilisation rates above 150 kg ha–1, there are compensatory mechanisms related to morphogenetic responses that buffer changes in utilisation efficiency.

  6. Increased utilisation of existing biogas plants; Oekat utnyttjande av befintliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how existing biogas plants in Sweden could be utilised more efficiently, by increase the organic loading rate, and to calculate the cost efficiency of such measures. Biogas plants treating sewage sludge are currently operated with low organic loading rates and it is likely that there could be a considerable potential of increased utilisation of existing capacity. However, disposal costs of digested sewage sludge have a great impact on the economic result. Thus, the cost must be low, below 200 - 850 SEK/tonne DS, for co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic household waste to be economic competitive, compared to building of a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, using manure and organic waste as feedstock, it is not possible to say whether it is more economic to increase the utilisation of existing capacity or to increase the reactor volume. Therefore, more specific studies are required for individual plants and cases. Regarding the need for a more sophisticated monitoring and control of the biogas process, it can be established that the utilisation of sewage sludge digestion plants could be increased considerably without exceptionally high organic loading rates, thus probably without any additional monitoring and control. However, indicated prices for such applications are probably acceptable compared to establishing a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, the scope for investments is smaller and more dependent on the alternative cost for new reactors. Also, any process disturbances, which may appear even at low organic loading rates, could be very costly and result in costs in the same range as for monitoring and control equipment. Finally, the reader should observe that the analyses conducted here assume that funding and physical space for additional reactors is available at the existing site. If not, there could be situations where it is economic interesting to increase the organic loading rate although cost estimates

  7. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Traut, A.; Kaminer, D; Boshoff, D; Seedat, S; S. Hawkridge; Stein, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with...

  8. Opportunities for early Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: China CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage) policy, strategy and development status; International developments in CCUS; High-purity CO2 sources and potential EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) locations in China; Capture routes: (a) Separation technologies/processes, (b) CO2 purity specifications, compression and after treatment, (c) CO2 transportation options, (d) Associated Cost; Potential cost-effective full-chain CCUS projects in Shaanxi; Barriers to CCUS development in Shaanxi; and Conclusions.

  9. Monitoring expenditure and utilisation of medicines in the European Union. A public health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Folino-Gallo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background Thousands of medicinal products are licensed in the European Union Member States.This large quantity of medicines has an important impact on individual and public health but the information available on the licensed medicines, their clinical properties, prices, utilisation and expenditure is difficult to retrieve. Thus there is a need for monitoring the price, expenditure and utilisation of medicines and their impact on the population’s health. For these reasons the European Commission funded a project to define a set of indicators and to build a European database of medicines.

    Methods A collaboration of academics and government agencies was formed to undertake the project which aims to fill the information gap on medicines in Europe by identifying the available data sources, defining a set of EU pharmaceutical indicators, and building a European database of medicines available on the internet.

    Results The project has formed a Library of European Union Pharmaceutical Indicators. This includes recommendations for national registers (to produce valid and comparable data, and a set of indicators (price, expenditure, utilisation for monitoring pharmaceutical policies. Moreover, the project has built a (beta version database of licensed medicines in Europe, which can be freely accessed on the internet.The database provides, in a simple manner, useful information difficult to retrieve by other sources.

    Conclusions The EURO-MED-STAT project has defined a set of indicators to monitor the utilisation and expenditure of medicines from a public health perspective. It has also proven that a European database of medicines is feasible and can provide useful information to stakeholders.

  10. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT) in rural Indian medical institute

    OpenAIRE

    ROSHAN BHAISARE; BHAVNA KAMBLE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue. To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods: Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B. For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before le...

  11. Blood utilisation in elective general surgery cases: requirements, ordering and transfusion practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhute M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: For elective surgeries, over ordering of blood is a common practice. This can be decreased by simple means of changing the blood cross matching and ordering schedule depending upon the type of surgery performed. The principle aim of the study was to improve the efficacy of ordering system for maximum utilisation of blood and formulation of maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS for procedures where a complete cross-match appears mandatory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated blood ordering and transfusion practices in 500 elective general surgical procedures at our institute. With the help of different indices such as cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio, transfusion probability (% T and transfusion index (TI, blood ordering pattern was changed in the next 150 patients. RESULTS: Out of 1145 units of blood crossmatched for the first 500 patients only 265 were transfused with non-utilisation of 76.86% of ordered blood. With the help of the indices the wastage was reduced in next 150 patients, i.e. from 76.86% to 25.26% and improved the utilisation of blood, i.e. from 23.14% to 74.74%. CONCLUSIONS: Change of blood ordering patterns with use of MSBOS can avoid the over ordering of blood.

  12. HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services. PMID:23237725

  13. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Methods Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. Results During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%, and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Conclusion Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  14. Adolescent mothers’ non-utilisation of antenatal care services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Chaibva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent pregnancies are high risk obstetric occurrences. Antenatal care (ANC provides opportunities to recognise and treat obstetric complications, enhancing the pregnancy outcomes for mothers and babies. The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing adolescents' non-utilisation of ANC services in Bulawayo. The Health Belief Model (HBM was used to contextualise the study. A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive research design was adopted, using structured interviews to collect data. Purposive, non-probability sampling was used to conduct structured interviews with 80 adolescent mothers from the postnatal wards who had delivered their babies without attending ANC. Factors influencing these adolescent mothers’ non-utilisation of ANC services included socio-economic issues, individuals' perceptions about ANC, limited knowledge about ANC, policies and structural barriers. However, these adolescents knew that delivering their babies with skilled attendance could enhance the outcomes for the mothers and babies, would help secure documents to facilitate the acquisition of their children's birth certificates, and that obstetric complications required the services of skilled midwives/doctors. Policy-related issues, such as requiring national identity cards from pregnant adolescents (or from their spouses prohibited some of them from utilising ANC services. There is a need to improve adolescents’ reproductive health outreach (including ANC programmes and to offer free ANC services in Zimbabwe. Restrictive policies, such as the required identity cards of the pregnant adolescents (or their husbands, impacted negatively on the accessibility of ANC services and should be addressed as a matter of urgency in Bulawayo.

  15. Energetic utilisation of biomass. In concord with Eastern Europe. Proceedings. Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse. Im Konsens mit Osteuropa. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The event focussed on energetic, economic, ecological, and logistical aspects and solutions to problems of biomass utilisation in practice. The growing attractivity of biomass utilisation both nationally and internationally is highlighted by the proliferation of applications in the heat production market and in cogeneration plants. With this international conference the Forum for Future Energy Resources gave a balanced and unbiased presentation and problem-oriented discussion on the continued market introduction of techniques of energetic biomass utilisation. Sixteen papers were abstracted individually. (orig./EF)

  16. Le Traitement de l'information dans le processus de prise de décision du consommateur: le cas de la traçabilité des produits alimentaires

    OpenAIRE

    Halawany-Darson, Rafia

    2010-01-01

    De nos jours, la traçabilité des produits alimentaires s'est imposée comme un facteur de compétitivité dans le secteur agroalimentaire, tout en étant obligatoire depuis janvier 2005. Face aux multiples crises alimentaires et aux productions de masse, le consommateur, situé au terme de la chaîne d'approvisionnement, ressent un besoin de transparence. La traçabilité est donc devenue un élément essentiel pour assurer la qualité et la sécurité de la production et la fiabilité de l'étiquetage et d...

  17. Etude du vent ionique produit par décharge couronne à pression atmosphérique pour le contrôle d'écoulement aérodynamique

    OpenAIRE

    Bérard, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    L'étude a porté sur le vent ionique produit par une décharge couronne créée par deux électrodes reliées aux bornes d'une alimentation haute tension, en vue de comprendre les phénomènes à la base du vent ionique et les paramètres quicontrôlent sa vitesse dans l'air à pression atmosphérique. Une étude paramétrique est réalisée sur la distance inter-électrodes, lediamètre et le matériau des électrodes, la tension, sa polarité, le courant et le gaz. En parallèle, un modèle numérique bidimensionne...

  18. Modélisation et ordonnancement d'une chaîne logistique multi-sites multi-produits Cas d'une industrie laitière

    OpenAIRE

    Touil, Achraf; Echchtabi, Abdelwahed; Charkaoui, Abdelkabir

    2015-01-01

    International audience En raison de l'augmentation de la diversité des demandes de la demande, les environnements de fabrication actuels ont été décalés d'une chaîne logistique traditionnelle avec un seul site et un marché vers des chaînes plus flexible couvrant plusieurs sites pour servir plusieurs marchés. Dans cet article, le problème d'ordonnancement de la production et la planification de la distribution pour les usines laitières multi produits est considéré. Un modèle basé sur la pro...

  19. Exploitation de la demande prévisionnelle pour le pilotage des flux amont d'une chaîne logistique dédiée à la production de masse de produits fortement diversifiés

    OpenAIRE

    Sali, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Dans cette thèse, nous nous sommes intéressés au mode d’exploitation de la demande prévisionnelle pour le pilotage des flux amont dans un contexte de production de masse de produits fortement diversifiés et de dispersion géographique des unités de production. Lorsque l’information prévisionnelle est mal exploitée, des phénomènes, similaires à l’effet coup de fouet connu en chaîne logistique aval, apparaissent en chaîne logistique amont altérant durablement sa performance. Dans le but de contr...

  20. Utilisation aspects of ashes and green liquor dregs from an integrated semichemical pulp and board mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manskinen, K.

    2013-09-01

    This thesis investigated the properties of bottom and fly ashes originating from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (120 MW) using two different fuel mixtures (i.e. Fuel mixture A: coal, wood and peat; and B: wood and peat) and of the green liquor dregs originating from the associated semichemical pulp and board mill in relation to the potential utilisation of these residues from various aspects. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the bottom ashes were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for these elements in forest fertilisers. The total Ca concentrations in bottom ashes A (2.4%; d.w.) and B (3.4%; d.w.) were lower than the legal requirement of 6.0% (d.w.) for ash used as a forest fertiliser. The total Ca concentrations in fly ashes A (6.4%; d.w.) and B (11.0%; d.w.) were higher than the minimum limit value of 6.0% (d.w.), but the concentration of As in fly ashes A (46.9 mg/kg d.w.) and B (41.3 mg/kg; d.w.) exceeded the maximum limit value of 40 mg/kg (d.w.). Only bottom ash B could be used as a forest fertiliser, provided some additional Ca is used. The bottom ashes both fulfilled the Finnish regulations on waste recovery in earth construction. Due to the elevated total concentration of PAH (23 mg/kg; d.w.) and extractable concentrations of Mo (3.9 mg/kg; d.w.) and Se (0.2 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash A, this residue cannot be used in covered structures. Due to the elevated concentration of PAH (90 mg/kg; d.w.) in fly ash B, this residue cannot be used in covered and paved structures. However, the utilisation of these residues as an earth construction agent is still possible, but an environmental permit would be required. According to the sequential extraction studies, extractable concentrations of most of the elements in the fly ash A were higher than those in the bottom ash A. The extractability of various elements, both in the bottom and fly ashes A, varied widely. Most of the elements did not occur as readily soluble and

  1. Physical and thermal waste utilisation in the nonferrous metal industry; Stoffliche und thermische Abfallverwertung in der Nichteisenmetallindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In its amended form the German Household Waste Technical Code favours physical and thermal utilisation of wastes against dumping. Industrial processes offer various ways of utilising wastes with a high calorific value, e.g. in nonferrous metal production. Besides portraying this branch of industry in Germany the present paper investigates to what extent this topic has already found coverage and what potential it holds for the utilisation of wastes. By way of example it describes a successful demonstration of the physical utilisation of sewage sludge in lead production. [Deutsch] Die Neugestaltung der TA Siedlungsabfall favorisiert die thermische und stoffliche Verwertung von Abfallstoffen gegenueber der Deponierung. Moeglichkeiten fuer die Verwertung heizwertreicher Abfaelle bieten auch industrielle Produktionsprozesse, z.B. auch in der Nichteisenmetallerzeugung. Neben einer Charakterisierung der Branche wird untersucht, inwieweit dieses Thema bereits aufgegriffen worden ist und welches Verwertungspotential zur Verfuegung steht. An einem Beispiel wird die erfolgreiche Demonstration der stofflichen Verwertung von Klaerschlamm in der Bleierzeugung dargestellt. (orig.)

  2. Utilisation of public eye care services by the rural community residents in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mologadi D. Ntsoane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual impairment and blindness are major health problems worldwide, especially in the rural and remote areas of developing countries. Utilisation of eye care services is essential to reduce the burden of visual impairment and blindness, and it is therefore important that it is monitored.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of utilisation of public eye care services and factors that might have influenced their usage in rural communities, Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Method: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. Participants were residents in selected rural villages located within approximately 5 km of six Government hospitals. Following ethical approval and receipt of informed consent, a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used to collect information on the utilisation of eye care services and factors that might influence utilisation. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chisquare test were used to analyse and compare the data.Results: Many (62.7% of the respondents had used the government eye care services in the past. Over fifty-nine per cent (59.3% of them were satisfied with the services. Factors reported to influence utilisation (such as monthly income, knowledge of available services and the need for regular eye tests were positively associated with utilisation of eye care services in this study (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Utilisation of eye care services was relatively good, but varied significantly between sites. An awareness campaign by government and non-governmental organisations about eye care services may increase utilisation amongst rural communities.

  3. Resource utilisation and costs associated with the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Prospective data from the Eurodiale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompers, L.; Huijberts, M.; Schaper, N.;

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of the present study was to investigate resource utilisation and associated costs in patients with diabetic foot ulcers and to analyse differences in resource utilisation between individuals with or without peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and/or infection. Methods Data....... In view of the magnitude of the costs associated with in-hospital stay, reducing the number and duration of hospital admissions seems an attractive option to decrease costs in diabetic foot disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  4. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Born Rita; Zwahlen Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM) and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM) in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were liv...

  5. The effects of non-adherence on health care utilisation:panel data evidence on uncontrolled diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Joan; Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Zucchelli, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Despite size and relevance of non-adherence to health treatments, robust evidence on its effects on health care utilisation is very limited. We focus on non-adherence to diabetes treatments, a widespread problem, and employ longitudinal administrative data from Spain (2004-2010) to identify and quantify the effects of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on health care utilisation. We use a biomarker (glycated haemoglobin, HbA1c) to detect the presence of uncontrolled diabetes and explore its effects...

  6. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. METHODS: Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. RESULTS: Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. DISCUSSION: The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period

  7. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

  8. Needs-oriented discharge planning and monitoring for high utilisers of psychiatric services (NODPAM): Design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Steinert Tilman; Klein Helmfried E; Freyberger Harald; Gaebel Wolfgang; Steffen Sabine; Puschner Bernd; Muche Rainer; Becker Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Attempts to reduce high utilisation of psychiatric inpatient care by targeting the critical time of hospital discharge have been rare. Methods This paper presents design and methods of the study "Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Needs-Oriented Discharge Planning and Monitoring for High Utilisers of Psychiatric Services" (NODPAM), a multicentre RCT conducted in five psychiatric hospitals in Germany. Inclusion criteria are receipt of inpatient psychiatric care, adult ...

  9. Formal home care utilisation by older adults in Ireland: Evidence from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Catriona; B. Whelan; Normand, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a population based estimate of the utilisation of publicly financed formal home care by older adults in Ireland and to identify the principal characteristics of those utilising formal home care. Data were collected through computer-aided personal interviews from a representative sample of community living older adults in Ireland. The interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 as part of the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). ...

  10. Adaptation de Staphylococcus xylosus à la matrice carnée, impact des composés nitrosés et utilisation des sources de fer

    OpenAIRE

    Vermassen, Aurore

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus est couramment utilisé comme ferment dans les produits carnés pour son rôle dans le développement de la flaveur et de la couleur. Beaucoup de propriétés technologiques ont été caractérisées in vitro. Cependant, les mécanismes moléculaires mis en place par cette bactérie pour s’adapter à une matrice carnée et aux composés nitrosés, fréquemment ajoutés dans ces produits, étaient méconnus. Pour identifier ces mécanismes, des approches de transcriptomique globale ont été mi...

  11. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treanor Charlene

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are

  12. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  13. Capturing stakeholders´ views on oil palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is the world′s second largest producer of palm oil and generates surplus palm biomass waste that can be used for bioenergy development. Malaysia aims to diversify its energy portfolio by investing into renewable energy mostly to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels. This paper captures synergetic and conflicting interests of key stakeholders, who play an important role in shaping the regulatory and business environment in Malaysia′s renewable energy sector. Particularly, this research analyses the perceptions of three stakeholder groups (government agencies, industry players, and non-governmental organisations) regarding palm-based biofuel and biomass utilisation in Malaysia by combining Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework. Overall, results show a greater sense of optimism among the three stakeholder groups for the development of palm-based biomass utilisation in Malaysia, compared to the development of first generation palm-oil based biodiesel. We discuss the findings in light of on-going debates and policy processes, highlighting some key issues that need to be addressed in order to meet oil-palm related targets set in Malaysia’s ambitious renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • Optimism of stakeholders is greater for palm biomass utilisation than palm biodiesel. • The negative overall outlook for palm biodiesel is perhaps a symptom of hindsight. • Palm biodiesel: strengths (18%), weaknesses (34%), opportunities (23%), and threats (25%). • Palm biomass: strengths (42%), weaknesses (23%), opportunities (15%), and threats (21%). • Views of stakeholder groups are relevant to meeting Malaysia´s renewables target

  14. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure

  15. Spatial modelling of healthcare utilisation for treatment of fever in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegana Victor A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care utilization is affected by several factors including geographic accessibility. Empirical data on utilization of health facilities is important to understanding geographic accessibility and defining health facility catchments at a national level. Accurately defining catchment population improves the analysis of gaps in access, commodity needs and interpretation of disease incidence. Here, empirical household survey data on treatment seeking for fever were used to model the utilisation of public health facilities and define their catchment areas and populations in northern Namibia. Method This study uses data from the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS of 2009 on treatment seeking for fever among children under the age of five years to characterize facility utilisation. Probability of attendance of public health facilities for fever treatment was modelled against a theoretical surface of travel times using a three parameter logistic model. The fitted model was then applied to a population surface to predict the number of children likely to use a public health facility during an episode of fever in northern Namibia. Results Overall, from the MIS survey, the prevalence of fever among children was 17.6% CI [16.0-19.1] (401 of 2,283 children while public health facility attendance for fever was 51.1%, [95%CI: 46.2-56.0]. The coefficients of the logistic model of travel time against fever treatment at public health facilities were all significant (p Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of routine household surveys to empirically model health care utilisation for the treatment of childhood fever and define catchment populations enhancing the possibilities of accurate commodity needs assessment and calculation of disease incidence. These methods could be extended to other African countries where detailed mapping of health facilities exists.

  16. Comprehensive determinants of health service utilisation for mental health reasons in a canadian catchment area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury Marie-Josée

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study sought to identify factors associated with health service utilisation by individuals with mental disorders in a Canadian catchment area. Methods To be included in the study, participants had to be aged between 15 and 65 and reside in the study location. Data was collected randomly from June to December 2009 by specially trained interviewers. A comprehensive set of variables (including geospatial factors was studied using the Andersen's behavioural health service model. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out. Results Among 406 individuals diagnosed with mental disorders, 212 reported using a mental health service at least once in the 12 months preceding the interviews. Emotional problems and a history of violence victimisation were most strongly associated with such utilisation. Participants who were middle-aged or deemed their mental health to be poor were also more likely to seek mental healthcare. Individuals living in neighbourhoods where rental accommodations were the norm used significantly fewer health services than individuals residing in neighbourhoods where homeownership was preponderant; males were also less likely to use services than females. Conclusions Our study broke new ground by uncovering the impact of longstanding violence victimisation, and the proportion of homeownership on mental health service utilisation among this population. It also confirmed the prominence of some variables (gender, age, emotional problems and self-perceived mental health as key enabling variables of health-seeking. There should be better promotion of strategies designed to change the attitudes of males and youths and to deal with violence victimisation. There is also a need for initiatives that are targeted to neighbourhoods where there is more rental housing.

  17. Counting the costs: Comparing depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone oenanthate utilisation patterns in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Andrew

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, where health care resources are limited, it is important to ensure that drugs provision and use is rational. The Essential Drug List includes depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-EN as injectable progestagen-only contraceptives (IPCs, and both products are extensively used. Objectives and Methods Utilisation patterns of the injectable contraceptive products DMPA and NET-EN are compared in the context of current knowledge of the safety and efficacy of these agents. Utilisation patterns were analysed by means of a Pareto (ABC analysis of IPCs issued from 4 South African provincial pharmaceutical depots over 3 financial years. A case study from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is used to examine utilisation patterns and self-reported side effects experienced by 187 women using IPCs. Results IPCs accounted for a substantial share of total state expenditure on drugs. While more DMPA than NET-EN was issued, NET-EN distribution from 2 depots increased over the 3-year period. Since DMPA was cheaper, if all NET-EN clients in the 1999/2000 financial year (annualised had used DMPA, the 4 depots could have saved 4.95 million South African Rands on product acquisition costs alone. The KZN case study showed slightly more NET-EN (54% than DMPA (46% use; no significant differences in self-reported side effects; and that younger women were more likely to use NET-EN than DMPA (p = 0.0001. Conclusions Providing IPCs on the basis of age is not appropriate or cost effective. Rational use of these products should include consideration of the cost of prescribing one over another.

  18. WHAT DRIVES TECHNOLOGY UTILISATION, LEARNING AND TRANSFER IN AGRICULTURE? LESSONS FROM NIGERIAN WOMEN FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke ADEYEYE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that drive technology utilisation, learning and transfer among women farmers in Nigeria. It assesses both modern and indigenous technologies used in farming activities. Three states were purposively selected from the six that comprise the South West geopolitical zone of the country. Structured questionnaire was administered to 180 women smallholder farmers who were randomly selected in equal proportion across the three states. Some 128 copies of questionnaire were retrieved representing a response rate of about 71%. The study reveals that majority of the women (about 67% use indigenous technologies while only a few (17% and 16% use modern technologies and a combination of both respectively. Family and friends are the main source of learning indigenous technologies while extension agents are the major source of modern. The study uses spearman correlation to determine the drivers of the dependent variables. Age, level of education, years of experience and learning intensity are significantly correlated with technology utilisation at 1% level of confidence while primary occupation and learning have significant correlation with technology learning at 5% and 1% confidence level respectively. The study also reveals that farmers’ age, experience and availability of learning system are have significant correlation with technology transfer. The study advocates the introduction of need and gender-specific new technologies. There is the need for integration of indigenous technologies into research so that it can be attractive to the older women. Also, farmers should be integrated into the technology development process. This will help in sustaining the rising interest of younger women in adapting modern and indigenous technologies in agriculture. The study also advocates the need for deeper and broader interactions among key actors, such as, R&D institutions, extension agents, NGOs, CBOs and farmers on the effectiveness

  19. Introduction and utilisation of high priced HCV medicines across Europe; implications for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie de Bruijn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs boceprevir (BCV and telaprevir (TVR in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN. Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilisation measured in defined daily doses (DDDs/ 1000 patients/ quarter (DIQs and expenditure in Euros/ DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorised using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement. Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilisation of the new PIs versus ribavirin indicates differences in dual versus triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilisation of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1 with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices negotiations across countries, with their impact

  20. Technical Training: Annonce de nouveau cours: Utilisation des fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 6.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! Un nouveau cours pratique sur Adobe Acrobat version 6.0 est proposé à l'ensemble du personnel par le service de l'Enseignement Technique, pour répondre aux besoins de formation des utilisateurs des documents PDF. La première session aura lieu le 1er mars 2005. Objectifs : Maîtriser les différentes fonctions d'Adobe Acrobat 6.0. Programme : Présentation d'Adobe Acrobat 6.0. Création de fichiers PDF depuis Microsoft Office et d'autres applications. Création de fichiers Postscript. Modification de fichiers PDF, enregistrement et exportation. Protection par mot de passe et par signature numérique. Navigation dans les documents : interactivité, vignettes et pages, signets, liens, articles, affichage et ouverture des PDF, recherche. Travail en commun: Ajout de commentaires, révision par messagerie électronique Dur&e...

  1. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T. J.

    1993-03-01

    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  2. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Leahy, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day...

  3. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  4. Morbidity and health care utilisation among elderly people in Mmankgodi village, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, F.; SANDBERG, E.; Ingstad, B.; Hjortdahl, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the health status among the elderly in a village in Botswana and their pattern of health care utilisation.
DESIGN—A descriptive study where all persons 60 years and older were invited to participate, including a medical examination, laboratory testing and a questionnaire aiming at gathering sociodemographic data.
SETTING—Mmankgodi village of Botswana.
SUBJECTS—419 persons were identified as elderly in the village, out of which 337 were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The...

  5. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for procesing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agricultural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises all three reports. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  6. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  7. Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlund, Bertil

    2003-04-01

    The increased use of biomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been to analyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the energy system, by rationally utilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of current commercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden are surveyed and systematically presented. A consistent and transparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisons is given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction is calculated. The governmental subsidies of the CHP plants investment, expressed as cost of specific CO{sub 2} reduction, appears to be low. The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production in relation to fossil-based production with carbon capture is analysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide a competitive option, in terms of cost of electricity and efficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential of at least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with a biomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enable its utilisation in national and international markets. Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even further refining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power, could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuel refining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, from fuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified. Substituting fuel pellets for coal appears to be the most cost effective alternative and shows the largest CO{sub 2} reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuels appear more costly and give about half the CO{sub 2} reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuel pellets is highly feasible from CO{sub 2} emissions point of view and does not constitute a hindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can be transported over long distances efficiently with

  8. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT) in rural Indian medical institute

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaisare, Roshan; Kamble, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue.  To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B.  For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other ba...

  9. Primary central nervous system lymphomas in 72 immunocompetent patients: pathologic findings and clinical correlations. Groupe Ouest Est d'étude des Leucénies et Autres Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri-Broët, S; Martin, A; Moreau, A; Angonin, R; Hénin, D; Gontier, M F; Rousselet, M C; Caulet-Maugendre, S; Cuillière, P; Lefrancq, T; Mokhtari, K; Morcos, M; Broët, P; Kujas, M; Hauw, J J; Desablens, B; Raphaël, M

    1998-11-01

    We reviewed 72 primary central nervous system lymphomas occurring in immunocompetent patients. The cases were reviewed for clinical data, histology, immunophenotype, bcl-2 and p53 expression, and Epstein-Barr virus association. Follow-up was available for 40 patients included in the Groupe Ouest Est d'étude des Leucénies et Autres Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) lymphomes cérébraux primitifs (LCP 88) trial. Each diagnosis, requiring a consensus among at least 3 pathologists, was performed according to the recent Revised European-American Lymphoma classification and equivalents in the updated Kiel classification. Tumors were predominantly classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. There were 3 T-cell lymphomas and 1 Hodgkin lymphoma. The proteins bcl-2 and p53 were expressed in 35% and 16% of the tested cases, respectively. Epstein-Barr virus was not found by in situ hybridization except in the case classfied as a cerebral localization of Hodgkin disease. No significant association was found between subtypes, bcl-2 or p53 expression, and patient survival. From the standpoint of their biologic characteristics, primary central nervous system lymphomas are very similar to systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. In contrast to AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphomas, primary central nervous system lymphomas are rarely associated with Epstein-Barr virus and in immunocompetent patients they express bcl-2 at a relatively low rate.

  10. Les autres Irakiens : émigrés et exilés d’avant 2003 en Jordanie et leurs récits d’appartenance (Une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Fattah

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à une importante minorité de la communauté irakienne exilée à Amman (Jordanie, à savoir la génération des années 1950. Après une brève présentation de l’histoire de l’émigration irakienne en Jordanie, l’auteur évoque les quelques travaux sociologiques sur les Irakiens à Amman et dans les autres villes jordaniennes. La seconde section de l’article est consacrée à l’analyse de la manière dont cette génération formule l’identité ou les identités irakiennes, la question communautaire, celle des droits des femmes et la notion de gouvernance. Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une étude à ses débuts, l’exploration par l’auteur de cette histoire orale introduit des nuances passionnantes à notre connaissance de l’histoire irakienne, qu’elle s’efforce de relier (de façon encore impressionniste au récit plus large de la mémoire irakienne.

  11. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications.

  12. Utiliser la narration pour saisir les représentations sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Caillaud

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article interroge l’analyse des narrations subjectives comme outil méthodologique pour étudier les représentations sociales. Dans un premier temps, nous présentons l’approche des représentations sociales et le savoir narratif comme une forme de savoir quotidien. Les narrations sont alors envisagées comme lieu possible d’étude des représentations sociales à la fois en tant que produit et processus. Nous illustrons ensuite nos propos par des exemples issus de l’analyse de narrations recueillies lors d’entretiens menés avec des Français et des Allemands sur les représentations sociales des problèmes écologiques. Enfin, les résultats servent la discussion sur la valeur accordée aux narrations et sur l’utilité que nous pouvons en avoir. Nous soulignons que leur analyse permet non seulement de saisir des processus cognitifs et sociaux, mais également des processus émotionnels.In diesem Artikel soll die Benutzung subjektiver Erzählungen als methodologischer Zugang zu sozialen Repräsentationen in Frage gestellt werden. Zunächst erklären wir die Theorie sozialer Repräsentationen und den Zusammenhang zwischen narrativem Wissen und Alltagswissen. Erzählungen werden dann als möglicher Zugang zu sozialen Repräsentationen als Produkt und als Prozess dargestellt. Hierbei werden verschiedene Beispiele aus der Analyse von Erzählungen aus Interviews herangezogen, die mit Deutschen und Franzosen über soziale Repräsentationen von Umweltproblemen geführt wurden. Die Ergebnisse unterstützen unsere Diskussion: wie kann man die Erzählungen bewerten? Wie können sie benutzt werden? Schließlich werden die Erzählungen als methodologischer Zugang zu kognitiven und sozialen aber auch emotionalen Prozessen in der Konstruktion sozialer Repräsentationen dargestellt.

  13. Drug utilisation study in a tertiary care center: Recommendations for improving hospital drug dispensing policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly.

  14. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  15. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides. PMID:24249153

  16. Drug utilisation study in a tertiary care center: recommendations for improving hospital drug dispensing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R; Singh, I; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S

    2014-07-01

    Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

  17. The utilisation of two detectors for the determination of water in honey using headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-15

    A headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method was developed for the determination of water content in honey. This method was shown to work with five different honey varieties which had a range of water from 14-16%. It also utilised two different detectors, the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and the barrier discharge ionisation detector (BID). This method needs no heating pretreatment step as in the current leading method, (i.e. the measurement of refractive index). The solvent-free procedure negates the possibility of solvent-compound interactions as well as solubility limitations, as is common with Karl Fischer titrations. It was also apparent that the classic loss on drying method consistently and substantially produced results that were lower than the correct values. This approach is shown to be rapid, with an analysis time of 4 min when using the TCD detector and under 3 min when utilising the BID detector. HSGC is feasible for the determination of water due to the new PEG-linked geminal dicationic ionic-liquid-coated GC capillary column. In addition it provides accurate and precise determinations of the water content in honey. When using the sensitive BID detector, other trace volatile compounds are observed as well. PMID:27006209

  18. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides.

  19. Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide, South Australia. Methods The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of 4,060 people randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. The interview included questions regarding healthcare service utilisation in the past year. Data were also collected on education, income and major medical conditions. Results Overall, 9.5% of the total sample and 17.7% of those who reported foot pain had attended a podiatrist in the past year. Participants who had accessed podiatry treatment were more likely to be female, be aged over 45 years, be obese, and have major chronic medical conditions (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure. Those who reported foot pain but had not accessed a podiatrist were more likely to be male and be aged 20 to 34 years. Conclusion Only a small proportion of people who report foot pain have accessed podiatry services in the past year. There is a need to further promote podiatry services to the general community, particularly to men and younger people.

  20. Extension of wind power utilisation in Hessia; Ausbau der Windenergie in Hessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labonte, U. [Hessisches Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Energie, Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Renewable energy sources must play a leading role in the field of energy supply in the next century. There is still a great need for technical development in this field. One major target will be the cost reduction for utilising solar energy, wind power, water and biomass. Hence the Land Hessia mainly subsidised those technologies which have been technologically perfected to a large extent and are available at present and which can be utilised economically in many areas. Subsidies especially focused on wind power. The following contribution describes wind power plants whose construction has been or is subsidised by the Land Hessia. Further wind power plants are operated in Hessia, especially in the lower power range. However, detailed information on these plants are currently not available. (AKF) [Deutsch] Im naechsten Jahrhundert werden die erneuerbaren Energiequellen eine fuehrende Rolle bei der Energieversorgung uebernehmen muessen. Auf diesem Gebiet gibt es noch einen grossen technischen Entwicklungsbedarf, vor allem wird es darum gehen, die Nutzung von Sonne, Wind, Wasser und Biomasse kostenguengstiger zu machen. Das Land Hessen hat deshalb in den letzten Jahren vorrangig solche Technologien gefoerdert, die weitgehend technisch ausgereift und verfuegbar sind, die ausserdem langfristig wirtschaftlich und breitenwirksam einsetzbar sind. Dies trifft insbesondere fuer den Foerderschwerpunkt Windenergie zu. Der Beitrag bezieht sich auf Windkraftanlagen (WKA), deren Errichtung mit hessischen Landesmitteln gefoerdert wurde bzw. wird. ueber diese Anlagen hinaus werden - insbesondere im kleinen Leistungsbereich von einigen Kilowatt - weitere WKA in Hessen betrieben; naehere Angaben hierzu liegen in der Regel nicht vor. (orig.)

  1. Waste Metal For Improving Concrete Performance And Utilisation As An Alternative Of Reinforcement Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste material disposal is considered as a difficult issue to adopt in current world. Waste metal, which has been recognised as a major problem in the environment and resource deficiency, could have important implications in the concrete construction industries. Waste metal utilisation in construction of reinforced cement concrete (RCC works is immerging in recent time. Construction industries are looking for cost effective structural materials and utilisation of renewable materials. Metal waste such as chips of tin, still and other metal fragments which is abandoned and spread in the environment could be utilize as a replacement of traditional steel reinforcement bar in the RCC. In this experiment, three different types of waste metal have been compared with commercial 40, 60 and 72 graded steel reinforcement bar. Compressive strength class of C25 concrete was used in the experiment and mechanical properties of concrete incorporating different waste metal were investigated in the first stage. Finally, three-point bend test on short beam was performed to compare their performances. Smaller metal fragments has shown better performance through micro crack bridging in concrete during loading stage and hence better than ordinary reinforcement concrete structure in some extent.

  2. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NOx) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%. (Author)

  3. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NOX) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NOX and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  4. Les stratégies de droits dérivés: entre logiques publique et commerciale. Le cas des produits dérivés pour enfants et des programmes télévisés français

    OpenAIRE

    Bahuaud, Myriam

    2003-01-01

    Depuis les années 1970-1980, les journalistes ont régulièrement relevé des phénomènes qu'ils ont qualifié parfois de Star Wars-mania, de Tortues Ninjas-mania, de Batman-mania, de Babaromania, d'Harry Pottermania ou parfois, d'opérations Pokémon ou Digimon. L'objet de cet article consiste à mener une réflexion, non pas sur un personnage précis , mais sur les produits dérivés et sur les stratégies dites de droits dérivés dont ils sont issus. Ces produits, souvent dérivés de personnages provenan...

  5. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouédraogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso Résumé Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la dépendance économique des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé aux produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL et d’identifier les déterminants de cette dépendance. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès de 583 ménages de 14 villages riverains de ces forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres des PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les principaux déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la taille du ménage, la superficie forestière et la densité de population du département qui affectent positivement la dépendance aux PFNL. Dans le cadre d’une politique de réduction de la pauvreté en milieu rural, il faut prendre des mesures qui favorisent l’accès durable des ménages les plus pauvres aux ressources forestières. Mots clés : Produits forestiers non ligneux, dépendance économique, modélisation économétrique, Burkina Faso.   Economic dependence on non-timber forest products: case of households living near the Forests of Boulon and Koflande, in the south-western of Burkina Faso Abstract This study aims at assessing the household economic dependence on non-timber forest products (NTFPs in Boulon and Koflande Forest area and the main determinants of that dependence. The data have been collected with a sample of 583

  6. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  7. Les Arabes de l'autre rive

    OpenAIRE

    Montigny, Anie

    2005-01-01

    Au Qatar, l'identification de la société globale repose sur son origine arabe, mais la population établit une discrimination selon les lieux d'origine : l'Arabie ou l'Iran. Ce clivage schématique fait référence aux hommes de statut libre par opposition à ceux qui, dans la société traditionnelle, ne l'étaient pas : les esclaves.

  8. D'une industrie... l'autre?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Musso; V.K. Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    À partir d’une contextualisation du texte de Cindy Patton, les auteur-e-s invitent à penser l’actualité des questions évoquées à l’aune d’enjeux contemporains relatifs à la production d’identités et de communautés que donnent à voir l’établissement des « cibles » de la prévention et du traitement du

  9. Le futsal: un autre monde du football?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gaubert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although far behind association football, futsal is the second most played variant of football in the world. Both sports have comparable global expansion strategies; but with different roots and outcomes. Futsal, which originated in South America, has experienced a more limited geographic expansion. Its recent integration into the FIFA is progressively changing its geographic presence. Consequently, futsal has become an increasingly global sport.

  10. Study for a simplified LCA methodology adapted to bio-products. Final report; Etude d'une methodologie simplifiee pour la realisation des ACV des bio-produits. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural resources form a renewable stock of raw materials that can be used for various purposes: food supply, production of energy (including biofuels), bio-products and bio-based construction materials. The use of agricultural resources to produce bio-products is expanding in France and throughout the world, partly due to the presumed advantages of these products towards the environment. In this context, ADEME (the French Environment and Energy Management Agency) commissioned a study for the development of a methodological framework to evaluate the environmental impacts of bio-products. This study was also in charge of the identification of areas of improvement for the 'Bilan Produit', an environmental assessment tool developed by ADEME, in order to allow a future integration of bio-products. The first step of this study consisted of a comparative review of the existing bio-products' LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). This review underlined a deep heterogeneity among the methodologies used, as well as a lack of transparency in the results displayed. In a second step of the project, all the methodological issues in the evaluation of bio-products were studied, and recommendations for the resolution of each one of them have been proposed. These critical analyses are presented in individual fact-sheets, which detail the specific issues of each question, facts from the bibliographic review, the results of the tests conducted on three bio-products, and finally the methodological recommendations to answer the question. This project showed that some methodological recommendations had to be specified depending on the objective of the LCA: eco-design, environmental labeling or comparative LCA. The work conducted also identified some necessary improvements to the Bilan Produit tool, which come under four categories: addition of the missing inventories, integration of metadata regarding the inventories, consideration for the specific end-of-life scenarios of bio

  11. Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs. Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs. Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by

  12. Blood transfusion is associated with increased resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bharathi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the impact of blood transfusion on resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery at a major university hospital. The resources we examined are time to extubation, intensive care unit length of stay (ICULOS and postoperative length of stay (PLOS. We further examined the impact of number of units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs transfused during PLOS. This is a retrospective observational study and includes 1746 consecutive male and female patients undergoing primary CABG (on- and off-pump at our institution. Of these, 1067 patients received blood transfusions, while 677 did not. The data regarding the demography, blood transfusion, resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality were collected from the records of patients undergoing CABG over a period of three years. The mean time to extubation following surgery was 8.0 h for the transfused group and 4.3 h for the nontransfused group ( P ≤ 0.001. The mean ICULOS for the transfused group was 1.6 d and 1.2 d for the nontransfused group ( P < 0.001. The PLOS was 7.2 d for the transfused group and 4.3 d for no-transfused cohorts ( P ≤ 0.001. In all patients and in patients with no preoperative morbidity, partial correlation coefficients were used to examine the effects of transfusion on mortality, time to extubation, ICULOS and PLOS. Linear regression model was used to assess the effect of number of PRBC units transfused on PLOS. We noted that PLOS increased with the number of PRBCs units transfused. Transfusion is significantly correlated with the increased time to extubation, ICULOS, PLOS and mortality. The transfused patients had significantly more postoperative complications than their nontransfused counterparts ( P ≤ 0.001. The 30-day hospital mortality was 3.1% for the transfused group with no deaths in the nontransfused group ( P ≤ 0.001. We conclude that the CABG

  13. De nouvelles voies de valorisation pour redynamiser la filière ricin au Brésil

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Michel; Liv S. Severino; Beltrao, Napoleao E.M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Le présent article propose différentes voies potentielles pour valoriser la culture du ricin au Brésil et les produits qui en sont issus. Cette valorisation pourrait s’envisager au niveau d’une part de l’utilisation du tourteau, actuellement très handicapée par la présence d’allergènes, en proposant de concevoir un nouveau procédé d’huilerie et, d’autre part, au niveau de la production de biomolécules à haute valeur ajoutée, notamment celle des acides linoléiques conjugués (CLA) à partir de l...

  14. Utilising Medicare annual wellness visits to implement interprofessional education in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Brian; Evans, Lance; Bogschutz, Renee; Panasci, Kathryn; Sun, Grace

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important component of healthcare professional curriculum in order to optimally prepare students for their roles as part of the healthcare team. Integrating IPE activities into direct patient care in the primary care clinic setting can help improve perceptions and student understanding of other healthcare professionals' responsibilities in this ever-evolving practice setting. This report describes the implementation of an interprofessional clinic including a variety of healthcare professionals and students in the context of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visits (AWV). Design of the clinic and general roles of the professionals in optimising preventive care are described. Student perceptions of IPE and their knowledge of other healthcare professionals were also surveyed. Student knowledge of other professionals mildly improved. Student perception of actual cooperation and interprofessional interaction statistically improved, while perception of interprofessional learning slightly worsened. Utilising Medicare AWVs can be a way for various professionals to improve IPE in the primary care setting. PMID:27219719

  15. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP sup T sup M , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents...

  16. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    studies. To evaluate the regulation of aquatic community production, we measured the photosynthetic production of thallus parts and entire communities of Fucus serratus (L.) of different density and spatial structure exposed to varying photon flux density and dissolved CO2 concentration. Photosynthetic...... production in relation to photon flux density differed considerably between entire communities and individual thallus parts. No light saturation occurred in the communities, and all photosynthetic variables such as light compensation point, efficiency of light utilisation at low light and maximum production......Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...

  17. The effect of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in COPD patients in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Rusch, Ea; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for Chronic Conditions project (SIKS) implemented rehabilitation programmes for people with four chronic conditions in the local area within the Municipality of Copenhagen. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact...... of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients as a subgroup of SIKS. METHODS: For the analyses, data from Danish National Registers' were obtained. The following outcomes were analysed: (i) COPD hospital admissions, (ii) COPD bed days, (iii) COPD outpatient...... visits, (iv) COPD emergency room visits, (v) general practitioner visits, (vi) specialist visits, and (vii) COPD specific medication. The rehabilitation group consisted of 118 patients who completed the programme. The control group consisted of 236 COPD patients in Copenhagen who did not undergo...

  18. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Ibukun A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps (16 and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56 in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a

  19. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  20. Le grès ferrugineux de Puisaye : provenance et utilisation architecturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Subtil

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette étude était de définir le faciès du grès ferrugineux de Puisaye ainsi que ses zones d’exploitation, puis de déterminer l’utilisation architecturale de cette roche dans les édifices monumentaux (XIe au XVIe siècle et d’en définir les aires de diffusion.Cette roche est issue d’intercalations gréseuses et locales à l’intérieur de l’importante formation détritique de l’Albien (Crétacé inférieur. Cet ensemble forme une écharpe, d’orientation sud-ouest - nord-est entre l’Yonne...

  1. Les Interfaces Cerveau-Ordinateur : Utilisation en Robotique et Avancées Récentes

    OpenAIRE

    Lotte, Fabien; Lécuyer, Anatole; Arnaldi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    National audience Cet article décrit les Interfaces Cerveau- Ordinateur (ICO) utilisant l'électroencéphalographie. De telles interfaces permettent à un utilisateur d'envoyer des commandes en faisant varier son activité cérébrale, cette dernière étant mesurée et traitée par le système. L'article propose également un état-de-l'art des applications des ICO à la robotique. Enfin, il présente le projet national Open-ViBE, qui est dédié aux ICO ainsi que quelques uns de ses résultats concernant ...

  2. Utilisation d'Esterel dans un contexte asynchrone : une application robotique

    OpenAIRE

    Coste-Maniere, Eve

    1989-01-01

    La complexité croissante des applications robotiques nécessite l'utilisation d'outils logiciels et matériels puissants autorisant l'exécution d'actions variées selon un ordonnancement précis. Nous utilisons les caractéristiques offertes par le langage Esterel pour gérer le séquencement d'un scénario d'assemblage. Esterel est un langage de programmation de haut niveau, synchrone et parallèle, de style impératif. Nous développons plusieurs programmes illustrant les différents avantages qu'offre...

  3. Les Interfaces Cerveau-Ordinateur : Utilisation en Robotique et Avancées Récentes

    OpenAIRE

    Lotte, Fabien; Lécuyer, Anatole; Arnaldi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Cet article décrit les Interfaces Cerveau- Ordinateur (ICO) utilisant l'électroencéphalographie. De telles interfaces permettent à un utilisateur d'envoyer des commandes en faisant varier son activité cérébrale, cette dernière étant mesurée et traitée par le système. L'article propose également un état-de-l'art des applications des ICO à la robotique. Enfin, il présente le projet national Open-ViBE, qui est dédié aux ICO ainsi que quelques uns de ses résultats concernant l'identification de s...

  4. OCNELE MARI-OCNIŢA, VÂLCEA COUNTY RESOURCES, EXPLOITATION, RISKS, UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. GÂŞTESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocnele Mari-Ocniţa. Resources, exploitation, risks, valorization. In Ocnele Mari Town and its constituent locality - Ocniţa, Vâlcea County, following the extraction of a large volume of salt through its underground dissolution, the soil and the breccias covering the salt have become unstable, producing landfalls and landslides that affected the exploitation installations, the transport infrastructure and several homes, during the last decennia, especially in the area of Ocniţa locality. In order to avoid major imbalances in this geographic area, following the mining activities, and also in order to reduce the consequences of the pollution triggered by saltwater, the main affected areas-locations have been identified and analyzed. This paper presents the resources existing in the exploitation area, the modifications occurred following the salt mining activities and their effects on: economic efficiency, local population, environmental balance, tourist potential and utilisation.

  5. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P.;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate...... that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day......-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual...

  6. Tailoring Spectator Experiences for Non-Regular Attendants to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...... separate occasions for each of the subject clubs. Four segments were identified to be of particular interest, two from each of the subject clubs. The two segments defined for Malmö FF were termed Entertainment Seeking Families and the Price Conscious Group of Friends. The two segments defined for FCK were...... termed Price Sensitive Experience Hunters and Family Focused Fans. It was found that for clubs to increase their total per-game revenue through increasing the attendance frequency for casual fans, they must provide experiences specifically designed towards the segments these belong to. In doing so...

  7. Coupled oscillators utilised as gait rhythm generators of a two-legged walking machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, T

    1996-03-01

    The gait of current two-legged walking machines differs from that of humans, although the kinematic structures of these machines' legs frequently imitate human limbs. This paper presents a method of generating the trajectories of hip and knee joint angles resulting in a gait pattern similar to that of a human. For this purpose the solutions of coupled van der Pol oscillator equations are utilised. There is much evidence that these equations can be treated as a good model of the central pattern generator generating functional (also locomotional) rhythms in living creatures. The oscillator equations are solved by numerical integration. The method of changing the type of gait by changing appropriate parameter values in the oscillator equations is presented (change of velocity and trajectory of leg-ends). The results obtained enable enhanced control of two-legged walking systems by including gait pattern generators which will assume a similar role to that of biological generators.

  8. The effect of non-response on estimates of health care utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundgaard, Jens; Ekholm, Orla; Hansen, Ebba Holme;

    2008-01-01

    produced the same pattern of non-response, but with slight differences in non-response bias. Response rates for the interview and telephone surveys were 75 and 69%, respectively. Refusal was the most frequent reason for non-response (22 and 20% of those sampled, respectively), whereas illness, non......-contact, and other reasons were less frequent. Respondents used 3-6% less health care than non-respondents at the aggregate level, but the opposite was true for some specific types of health care. Non-response due to illness was the main contributor to non-response bias. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of non-response......BACKGROUND: Non-response in health surveys may lead to bias in estimates of health care utilisation. The magnitude, direction and composition of the bias are usually not well known. When data from health surveys are merged with data from registers at the individual level, analyses can reveal non-response...

  9. A Remote Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications Lab Utilising the Emona DATEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmas Mwikirize

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote labs have become popular learning aids due to their versatility and considerable ease of utilisation as compared to their physical counterparts. At Makerere University, the remote labs are based on the standard Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT iLabs Shared Architecture (ISA - a scalable and generic platform. Presented in this paper is such a lab, addressing the key practical aspects of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS communication. The lab is built on the National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS with the Emona Digital and Analog Telecommunications Experimenter (DATEx add-on board. It also incorporates switching hardware. The lab facilitates real-time control of the equipment, with users able to set, manipulate and observe signal parameters in both the frequency and the time domains. Simulation and data Acquisition modes of the experiment are supported to provide a richer learning experience.

  10. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  11. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA and the online resource UpToDate. Methods This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Results Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8% responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3% owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7% used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Conclusion Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice.

  12. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS in 2006 showed that more than half (56% of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8% reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25% of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%, private clinics (50%, hospital (27% and health centres (13%. Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

  13. Prospects for utilisation of solar driven ejector-absorption cooling system in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar assisted refrigeration appears to be a promising alternative to the conventional electrical driven units. The main advantages of solar assisted refrigeration systems concern the reduction of peak loads for electricity utilities, the use of zero ozone depletion impact refrigerants, the decreased primary energy consumption and decreased global warming impact. The main focus of this study is to investigate usage possibility of ejector-absorption cooling system (EACS) in Turkey. This study determines whether or not required heat for generator of EACS can be obtained from solar energy in Turkey. There are two important reasons for the utilisation of EACSs in Turkey. One of them is that the production and use of the CFCs and HCFCs will be phased out in a few years according to Montreal Protocol, adopted in 1987. The other is that Turkey has high solar energy potential because of its location in the northern hemisphere with latitudes 36-42 deg. N and longitudes 26-45 deg. E and the yearly average solar radiation is 3.6 kW h/m2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. For analysis, 17 cities were selected in different regions of Turkey in which the radiation data and sunshine duration information have been collected since 2000. By using the meteorological data, it was aimed that required optimum collector surface area for maximum coefficient of performance (COPmax) conditions of EACSs operated with aqua-ammonia was defined. In addition, required minimum energy for auxiliary heater was calculated so that the system can be used throughout the year. It was found that the heat gain factor (HGF) varies in the range from 0.5 to 2.68 for the all the seasons in the selected cities. The maximum HGF of about 2.68 was obtained for Van in July. This study shows that there is a great potential for utilisation of solar cooling system for domestic heating/cooling applications in Turkey

  14. Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duong Cong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

  15. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé, au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouédraogo, M; Ouédraogo, D; Thiombiano, T;

    2013-01-01

    forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des...... ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres aux PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les autres déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la...

  16. Impediments to Effective Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology Tools in Selected Universities in the North-Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impediments to effective use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in Nigerian universities. Series of research conducted on the factors militating against computerisation indicated that, there were impediments to effective utilisation of ICT tools in most developing countries. In the light of this, the…

  17. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  18. The impact of changing dietary Na/K ratio's in growth and nutrient utilisation in juvenile African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Sheng Wu, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dietary Na/K ratios on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilisation, plasma and body mineral concentration in juvenile African catfish were investigated. Four Na/K ratios, 0.2, 0.7, 1.5, 2.5 (mmol/mmol), were tested in a randomised experimental design with three replications in each trea

  19. Experiences in the Dissemination and Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Research Findings from Three Southern African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaino, Luckson M.; Mtetwa, David; Kasanda, Choshi

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination and utilisation of research knowledge produced at universities has been debated in recent times. Recent changes and developments at universities suggest an entrepreneurial model of academic research production in which universities have the responsibility not only to carry out research and teaching but also to disseminate…

  20. Prescriptive contraceptive use among isotretinoin users in the Netherlands in comparison with non-users : a drug utilisation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crijns, H.J.; van Rein, N.; Gispen-de Wied, C.C.; Straus, S.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the compliance with the isotretinoin Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP) by evaluating the use of prescribed contraceptives among isotretinoin users. The PPP contains a requirement for the use of contraceptive methods for women of childbearing potential. Methods A drug utilisation

  1. Effect of gas composition and gas utilisation on the dynamic response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weydahl, Helge; Møller-Holst, Steffen; Børresen, Børre

    The transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was measured for various cathode gas compositions and gas utilisations (fraction of supplied reactant gas which is consumed in the fuel cell reaction). For a PEMFC operated on pure hydrogen and oxygen, the cell voltage response to current steps was fast, with response times in the range 0.01-1 s, depending on the applied current. For a PEMFC supplied with air as cathode gas, an additional relaxation process related to oxygen transport caused a slower response (approximately 0.1-2 s depending on the applied current). Response curves up to approximately 0.01 s were apparently unaffected by gas composition and utilisation and were most likely dominated by capacitive discharge of the double layer and reaction with surplus oxygen residing in the cathode. The utilisation of hydrogen had only a minor effect on the response curves, while the utilisation of air severely influenced the PEMFC dynamics. Results suggested that air flow rates should be high to obtain rapid PEMFC response.

  2. De quelques stéréotypes catégorisateurs du même et de l’autre dans les discours de Dakar, ou l’Afrique fantasmée de deux présidents français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Détrie Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Notre but est non seulement de pointer la complexité des systèmes représentationnels de l’autre, mais aussi de faire émerger les prémices de systèmes organisés et complexes. En effet, chemin faisant, au-delà de la description des stéréotypes de l’Afrique dans deux discours présidentiels français, s’esquisse la problématique des idéologies et du déjà-dit qui gouverne la production des discours, dans un contexte bien précis qui impose ses contraintes : les relations franco-africaines. Dans un tel contexte, marqué par les thématiques, entre autres, de l’interculturalité, de la gestion délicate d’un passé commun, de relations de dominance, la catégorisation de l’autre est un acte de pouvoir, lourd de conséquences tant il participe à la construction ou à la reconduction de l’ordre social. La stéréotypie apparaît donc comme un lieu privilégié où s’élabore l’ipséité : nommer l’autre, c’est aussi mettre en scène le soi-même. Deux constats principaux se dégagent de cette analyse : d’une part, la permanence de schémas antinomiques issus de l’idéologie coloniale dans le discours de Nicolas Sarkozy, suggérant que l’idéologie du développement et l’idéologie coloniale entretiennent entre elles non seulement des relations de rupture, mais aussi de continuité, d’autre part, le fait que l’impératif économique du développement constitue le dénominateur commun à l’ensemble des stéréotypes, qui, en retour, servent d’arguments pour cette conclusion.

  3. Formal home-care utilisation by older adults in Ireland: evidence from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Catriona M; Whelan, Brendan J; Normand, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a population-based estimate of the utilisation of publicly financed formal home care by older adults in Ireland and to identify the principal characteristics of those utilising formal home care. Data were collected through computer-aided personal interviews from a representative sample of community living older adults in Ireland. The interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 as part of the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). The study is cross-sectional in design and limited to participants aged 65 years and older (n = 3507). Results reveal that 8.2% (95% CI 7.1%-9.3%) of participants utilised publicly financed formal home care in the form of home help and/or personal care. Key determinants of formal home-care utilisation were Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) difficulty (Adj OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.3), older age (Adj OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-4.8) and living alone (Adj OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.8). Almost half of those utilising formal care did not self-report an Activity of Daily Living (ADL) difficulty or an IADL difficulty. Government policy aims to reduce the need for long-term residential care by providing formal home care for older adults with low to moderate levels of dependency. This requires an increasing emphasis on personal care provision in the home. No evidence was found in this study to suggest that a shift in emphasis from formal domestic to personal care is taking place in Ireland. The absence of standardised assessment and eligibility criteria are deemed to be barriers to reorientation of the system. From a health services perspective, the current situation is not sustainable into the future and requires a focused policy response. PMID:25442330

  4. Extensive utilisation of VR-1 reactor for nuclear education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents utilisation of the VR-1 reactor for nuclear education and training at national and international level. VR-1 reactor has been operating by the Czech Technical University since December 1990. The reactor is a pool-type light water reactor based on enriched uranium (19.7% 235U) with maximum thermal power 1kW and for short time period up to 5kW. The moderator of neutrons is light water, which is also used as a reflector, a biological shielding and a coolant. Heat is removed from the core by natural convection. The pool disposition of the reactor facilitates access to the core, setting and removing of various experimental samples and detectors, easy and safe handling of fuel assemblies. The reactor core can contain from 17 to 21 fuel assemblies IRT-4M, depending on the geometric arrangement and kind of experiments to be performed in the reactor. The reactor is equipped with several experimental devices; e.g. horizontal, radial and tangential channels used to take out a neutron beam, reactivity oscillator for dynamics study and bubble boiling simulator. The reactor has been used very efficiently especially for education and training of university students and NPP's specialists for more than 18 years. The VR-1 reactor is utilised within various national and international activities such as Czech Nuclear Education Network (CENEN), European Nuclear Education Network and also Eastern European Research Reactor Initiative (EERRI). The reactor is well equipped for education and training not only by the experimental facility itself but also by incessant development of training methods and improvement of education experiments. The education experiments can be combined into training courses attended by students according to their study specialization and knowledge level. The training programme is aimed to the reactor and neutron physics, dosimetry, nuclear safety, and control of nuclear installations. Every year, approximately 250 university students undergo

  5. Comparisons of pastoralists perceptions about rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abule, E; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2005-04-01

    Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu-Fantale and the Afar ethnic group living in Awash-Fantale) on the usage of the existing rangeland resources, and their views on constraints and possible solutions. Data were collected from 90 Oromo and 55 Afar households. Despite the difference in ethnicity both of these groups share common problems. They derive their main income from the sale of animals and animal products, but with the difference that milk products rank first in the case of the Afar and last in the case of the Oromo. Both pastoral groups depend heavily on native grasses for animal feed and to a lesser extent on woody plants as a source of browse. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that the condition of the rangelands is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, droughts and increases in the human population. Availability of water is also regarded as a problem, mainly by the Oromo. Migration is the first measure taken to solve shortages of livestock feed, but many of the pastoralists replied that migration is an undesirable practise which is mostly done out of necessity. Because of the limited resources most respondents of both groups still prefer communal land tenure where resources are shared. It is concluded that the problems facing the pastoralists in the Middle Awash Valley have been created over many years and the solutions will also require time. With the current approach of the communal grazing systems, sustainable utilisation of the rangeland ecosystem is not possible. Solutions to the poor condition of the existing rangelands will require a definite commitment and full participation not only of the pastoralists, but also of

  6. Generation and utilisation of quality indicators for satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, Kenneth

    The extraction of Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) from cloud and moisture features from successive geostationary satellite images is an established and important part of the global observing system. One of the main problems in the utilisation of this data is the variable quality of the derived displacement vectors. Furthermore the AMVs are still currently used as single point measurements, even though they are generally based on targets that represent large areas and the height that is assigned to the vectors often represents a layer mean. In the early AMV derivation schemes the derived vector fields were quality controlled by experienced meteorologists and poor vectors were removed. Furthermore any suspect vector showing any kind of deviations in time and space was rejected and hence only about 17% of all possible vectors were disseminated. Today the high production frequency and the increased resolution make manual quality control unfeasible. Furthermore the new assimilation schemes utilised in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) require qualitative information on the errors of the individual AMVs. This Thesis describes an Automatic Quality Control (AQC) scheme that is based on the statistical properties of the derived AMVs. The properties of the AMVs, i.e. their consistency in time and space, are interpreted with a number of tests. The outcome of each test is normalised such that they can be combined to a Quality Indicator (QI) that gives an estimation of the expected quality of every individual vector as is shown by statistics against radiosondes and verified by the positive impact in data assimilation schemes. The QIs are currently derived and disseminated together with the derived AMVs by several operational AMV derivation centres. Only a small number of vectors are now removed before dissemination. The QIs are used operationally for data selection at various NWT centres and have alleviated some of the problems related to the assimilation of this data in NWT

  7. An immunoenzymatic assay for the diagnosis of hepatitis A utilising immunoglobulin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos da Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV antibody levels by diagnostic kits in the convalescent period of disease generally use immunoglobulin G (IgG, which is expensive. An alternative to IgG is immunoglobulin Y (IgY, an immunoglobulin antibody encountered in birds and reptiles. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive immunoenzymatic assay to measure total anti-HAV antibody levels using anti-HAV IgY as the capture and conjugated immunoglobulins. For this purpose, anti-HAV IgY was conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP and the optimal dilution of HRP-conjugated antibodies was evaluated to establish the competitive immuneenzymatic assay. The results obtained from our "in-house" assay were plotted on a receiver operator curve, which showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98.8%, demonstrating that a competitive anti-HAV IgY immunoenzymatic assay developed "in house" could be used as an alternative to commercial assays that utilise IgG.

  8. Sustained land utilisation. A contribution to land management; Nachhaltige Flaechennutzung. Ein Beitrag zum Flaechenmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapperich, H.; Otparlik, R. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Institut fuer Geotechnik; Kompetenzzentrum fuer interdisziplinaeres Flaechenrecycling (CiF e.V.), Freiberg (Germany); Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Institut fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau

    2007-10-18

    In Germany there are about 260,000 suspected contaminated sites, about 140,000 of which are derelict sites. Although 48,000 ha of these derelict sites could be developed immediately, an average area of 114 ha (2005) for housing estates and roads is currently being newly sealed every day. Derelict sites are often the legacy of commercial, industrial and mining activities with extensive changes in the natural conditions as well as derelict housing. Many problems thus have to be solved for the recultivation of these areas. There is often a risk of contamination and demolition and unsealing measures are required, issues concerning the preservation of monuments as well as nature conservation aspects must be noted. Hence precisely against this background the 'land economy' theory is logical and necessary. To utilise land for new or other purposes, however, it is necessary to note the diverse aspects, which must be interlinked in order to achieve the aim. However, the sustainability aspect is not always in the forefront. (orig.)

  9. Glucose utilisation during status epilepticus in an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Arida, Ricardo Mario; Priel, Margareth Rose; Calderazzo, Lineu; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2002-06-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency and it is associated to brain damage. 2-deoxy-[14C] glucose (2-DG) procedure has been used to measure the alterations in the functional activity of the brain induced by various pharmacological and toxicological agents. The aim of this study was to determine which changes occur in the seizure anatomic substrates during the SE induced by pilocarpine (PILO) using [14C]-2 deoxyglucose functional mapping technique. Wistar male adult rats were submitted to SE PILO-induced for 6h and received [14C] 2-deoxyglucose injection via jugular vein 45 min before the 6th hour of SE. The control animals were submitted to all procedures but received saline and not pilocarpine. Brain sections were prepared and exposed X-ray film about seven days. The optical density of each region was obtained using a solid state digital analyser. The analysis revealed that 14C-2DG utilisation was pronounced in the SE rats on the areas corresponding to the hippocampal formation (+50.6%), caudate-putamen (+30.6%), frontoparietal cortex (+32.2%), amygdala (+31.7%), entorrinal cortex (+28.2%), thalamic nucleus (+93.5%), pre-tectal area (+50.1%) and substantia nigra (+50.3%) when compared to control. Our results suggest that the different activation levels of the distinct structures may be particularly important for understanding triggering and spreading mechanisms underlying epileptic activity during status epilepticus.

  10. Influence of phenolic substrates utilised by yeast Trichosporon cutaneum on the degradation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerginova, Maria; Zlateva, Plamena; Peneva, Nadejda; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2014-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of different phenolic substrates utilised by Trichosporon cutaneum R57 was studied. The following compounds were used as substrates: phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, 3-nitrophenol, 2,6-dinitrophenol, 3-chloro phenol and p-cresol. The specific degradation rates (Qs) were described by a Haldane kinetic model. The unknown model parameters were estimated using the mathematical optimisation procedure for direct search. The results obtained demonstrated that Qs varied greatly in the experiments carried out. The level of biodegradability depended on the different structure and toxicity of compounds used as carbon substrates. The highest Qs values were observed for less toxic hydroxylated phenols (0.77–0.85 h−1), while the most toxic chlorinated phenols were characterised with the lowest Qs values (0.224 h−1). The results obtained with different concentrations of resorcinol (from 0.2 to 0.8 g L−1) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (from 0.2 to 0.7 g L−1) demonstrated a growing inhibitory effect directly correlating with the extended time necessary for complete degradation of both compounds. PMID:26692781

  11. Glucose utilisation during status epilepticus in an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorza Fulvio Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency and it is associated to brain damage. 2-deoxy-[14C] glucose (2-DG procedure has been used to measure the alterations in the functional activity of the brain induced by various pharmacological and toxicological agents. The aim of this study was to determine which changes occur in the seizure anatomic substrates during the SE induced by pilocarpine (PILO using [14C]-2 deoxyglucose functional mapping technique. Wistar male adult rats were submitted to SE PILO-induced for 6h and received [14C] 2-deoxyglucose injection via jugular vein 45 min before the 6th hour of SE. The control animals were submitted to all procedures but received saline and not pilocarpine. Brain sections were prepared and exposed X-ray film about seven days. The optical density of each region was obtained using a solid state digital analyser. The analysis revealed that 14C-2DG utilisation was pronounced in the SE rats on the areas corresponding to the hippocampal formation (+50.6%, caudate-putamen (+30.6%, frontoparietal cortex (+32.2%, amygdala (+31.7%, entorrinal cortex (+28.2%, thalamic nucleus (+93.5%, pre-tectal area (+50.1% and substantia nigra (+50.3% when compared to control. Our results suggest that the different activation levels of the distinct structures may be particularly important for understanding triggering and spreading mechanisms underlying epileptic activity during status epilepticus.

  12. Towards a utilisation of transient processing in the technology of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of transient processing in the technology of high efficient silicon solar cells is investigated. An ultraviolet laser (an ArF pulsed excimer laser working at 193 nm) is applied. Laser processing induces only a short superficial melting of the material and does not modify the transport properties in the base of the material. This mode of processing associated to ion implantation to form the junction as well as an oxide layer in an atmosphere of oxygen. The volume was left entirely cold in this process. The results of the investigation show: that an entirely cold process of solar cell fabrication needs a thermal treatment at a temperature around 600 C; that the oxides obtained are not satisfying as passivating layers; and that the Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) induced recombination centers are not directly related to the quenching step but a consequence of the presence of metal impurities. The utilisation of transient processing in the adiabatic regime (laser) and in the rapid isothermal regime (RTP) are possible as two complementary techniques for the realization of high efficiency solar cells

  13. High-throughput genotyping of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) utilising diversity arrays technology (DArT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E L; Whittock, S P; Jakše, J; Carling, J; Matthews, P D; Probasco, G; Henning, J A; Darby, P; Cerenak, A; Javornik, B; Kilian, A; Koutoulis, A

    2011-05-01

    Implementation of molecular methods in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) breeding is dependent on the availability of sizeable numbers of polymorphic markers and a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation. However, use of molecular marker technology is limited due to expense, time inefficiency, laborious methodology and dependence on DNA sequence information. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) is a high-throughput cost-effective method for the discovery of large numbers of quality polymorphic markers without reliance on DNA sequence information. This study is the first to utilise DArT for hop genotyping, identifying 730 polymorphic markers from 92 hop accessions. The marker quality was high and similar to the quality of DArT markers previously generated for other species; although percentage polymorphism and polymorphism information content (PIC) were lower than in previous studies deploying other marker systems in hop. Genetic relationships in hop illustrated by DArT in this study coincide with knowledge generated using alternate methods. Several statistical analyses separated the hop accessions into genetically differentiated North American and European groupings, with hybrids between the two groups clearly distinguishable. Levels of genetic diversity were similar in the North American and European groups, but higher in the hybrid group. The markers produced from this time and cost-efficient genotyping tool will be a valuable resource for numerous applications in hop breeding and genetics studies, such as mapping, marker-assisted selection, genetic identity testing, guidance in the maintenance of genetic diversity and the directed breeding of superior cultivars. PMID:21243330

  14. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron. PMID:26951343

  15. Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, S; Kawamoto, K; Farrell, M L; Labrash, S; Tamura, K; Lozanoff, S

    2011-08-01

    Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images. PMID:21866531

  16. Assessment of phosphogypsum utilisation in underground hard coal mines in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialecka, B. [Central Mining Institute, Katewice (Poland)

    2003-12-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product obtained during the production of phosphoric acid. Over 100 million tons of phosphogypsum are produced annually world-wide, most of which is dumped. In countries of the European Union, dumping of waste products is a last resort and not the recommended means of disposal. For years, ecologically and economically sound means have been sought for the use of bulk amounts of phosphogypsum, including in farming, the construction industry and in the production of building materials. This study analysis of the potential for use of phosphogypsum in hard coal mining for: (I) precipitation of radioactive components from underground mine waters; (ii) suppression of coal dust explosions; and (iii) filling of underground mine workings. It presents an overview of the following areas: (I) a review of methods of phosphogypsum utilisation; (ii) an analysis of Polish laws regulating the application of phosphogypsum in underground mines; and (iii) an analysis of hard coal mining from the point of view of the potential use of phosphogypsum.

  17. Equitable utilisation and effective protection of sharing transboundary water resources:international rivers of western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Western China includes 12 provincial divisions (the 7 provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou,Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and; 5 autonomous regions of Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi; and one city of Chongqing), which comprise 71.4% of the national land area,28.5% of the national population and produce 17.5% of the national GDP in China. There are 17countries that have riparian relationships with western China, most of which are water-short countries. All are listed by UN ESCAP as countries with potential water crisis. The co-operative development and coordinated management of international rivers in western China is an important step toward the implementation of the national Great Western Development program. Taking into account of the national strategy and object hierarchy, as well as the development demand of the western region, it is necessary to pursue the multi-disciplinary study of the equitable allocation,utilisation, and eco-environment protection of transboundary water resources in the region. Such efforts will undoubtedly provide scientific evidence and support for the decision-making of the environmental protection and ecological construction and management in the western regions, the enforcement of the sub-regional economic co-operation, mitigation of trans-boundary conflicts, and enhancing bio-diversity conservation.

  18. Utilisation of CryoSat-2 SAR altimeter in operational ice charting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rinne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present methods to utilise Cryosat-2 (CS-2 Synthetic Aperture (SAR mode data in operational ice charting. We compare CS-2 data qualitatively to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR mosaics over Barents and Kara seas. Furthermore, we compare the CS-2 to archived operational ice charts. We present distributions of four CS-2 waveform parameters for different ice types as presented in the ice charts. We go on to present an automatic classification method for CS-2 data which, after training with operational ice charts, is capable of determining open water from ice with a hit rate of > 90 %. The training data is dynamically updated every five days using the most recent 15 days CS-2 data and operative ice charts. This helps the adaption of the classifier to the evolving ice/snow conditions throughout winter. The classifier is also capable of detecting three different ice classes (thin and thick first year ice as well as old ice with success rates good enough for the output to be usable to support operational ice charting. Finally, we present a near real time CS-2 product just plotting the waveform characteristics and conclude that even such a simple product is usable for some of the needs of ice charting.

  19. The legal framework governing waste utilisation in mining; Der rechtliche Rahmen der Abfallverwertung im Bergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg- und Umweltrecht

    2001-07-01

    Seen from the legal aspect, waste utilisation in mining is generally a very difficult issue, particularly as regards waste management law. Here it poses various problems which concern the fundamental principles of waste management law. These issues are increasingly coming under the influence of European law, which in its present state already imposes a very differentiated, absolutely binding regime on member states. Moreover, its demarcation between reutilisation and removal is decisive for the legal consequences that follow. Some Laender impose obligations to offer for sale or surrender as well as more stringent monitoring and proof requirements for hazardous wastes. EU member states also have more powerful rights of objection when it comes to the transboundary movement of waste destined for disposal. [German] Die Abfallverwertung im Bergbau ist insgesamt ein rechtlich sehr schwieriges Thema. Das gilt einmal in abfallrechtlicher Hinsicht. Hier werden verschiedene Probleme relevant, welche die Grundlagen des Abfallrechts betreffen. Das ist insbesondere die in diesem Bereich schwierige Abgrenzungsfrage zwischen Verwertung und Beseitigung. Mehr und mehr wird diese Problematik vom Europarecht gepraegt, welches bereits ein sehr differenziertes und fuer die Mitgliedstaaten verbindliches Abfallregime statuiert. Die Abgrenzung von Verwertung und Beseitigung entscheidet zudem ueber den Eintritt unterschiedlichster Rechtsfolgen. Fuer gefaehrliche Abfaelle bestehen in manchen Bundeslaendern Andienungs- und Ueberlassungspflichten und strengere Nachweis- und Ueberwachungsanforderungen. Im Rahmen der grenzueberschreitenden Verbringung von Abfaellen stehen den Mitgliedstaaten staerkere Einwendungsmoeglichkeiten zu, wenn es sich um Abfaelle zur Beseitigung handelt. (orig.)

  20. Learning preferences of first year nursing and midwifery students: utilising VARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Santhamma; D'Amore, Angelo; Thomas, Theda

    2011-05-01

    The diversity of first year students is increasing with new schemes promoting access to higher education courses. It is important to assess the learning styles of students in order to cater for their differing learning needs. The aim of this study was to profile first year nursing/midwifery students at two campuses of Australian Catholic University, to investigate their learning preferences and the effect demographic background has on these preferences. We designed a survey to collect demographic data and incorporated the VARK (visual, aural, read-write and kinaesthetic) questionnaire to investigate the students' preferred learning modes. The kinaesthetic score of our students was the highest (7.34 ± 2.67), significantly differing from the other three modes (ppreference was quadmodal utilising all four learning styles. The distribution of students preferring to learn by unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal styles varied between demographic groupings. The rural students had significantly higher visual and kinaesthetic scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Students attending the rural campus had higher visual and read-write scores. Visual and aural scores were significantly lower for students from non-English speaking backgrounds. These findings have significant teaching and research implications. PMID:20826044

  1. Myocardial glucose utilisation in type II diabetes mellitus patients treated with sulphonylurea drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Ikuo [International University of Health and Welfare, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sanno Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); University of Tokyo, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Yusuke [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Moritan, Toshiyuki [Suzuka University of Medical Science, Department of Clinical Engineering, Faculty of Medical Engineering, Suzuka (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Ryozo [University of Tokyo, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Chronic sulphonylurea treatment maintains improved glycaemic control through mechanisms other than enhancement of insulin secretion and may act on various organs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chronic use of sulphonylurea drugs influences PET measurement of myocardial glucose utilisation (MGU) in type II diabetes mellitus. Forty-two patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 17 control subjects underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET to measure MGU during hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamping. Twenty-one patients had been taking sulphonylurea drugs for more than 1 year (SU group), and the other 21 patients were drug naive (non-SU group). The haemoglobin A1c levels in the two patient groups were similar. Glucose disposal rate (GDR) was also determined as a marker of whole-body insulin resistance. GDR in the SU group (9.01{+-}2.53 mg min{sup -1} kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher than that in the non-SU group (4.10{+-}2.47, p<0.01) and was similar to that in the controls (9.76{+-}2.97). MGU in the SU group (7.66{+-}3.02 mg min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}) was significantly higher than that in the non-SU group (5.53{+-}2.05, p<0.01) and was similar to that in the controls (7.49{+-}2.74). (orig.)

  2. Differential utilisation of health facilities and services for childbirth in Peninsula Malaysia--the ethnic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhsat, H; Tan Boon Ann; Tey Nai Peng

    1985-12-01

    The ethnic factor in the differential utilization of the health facilities in Peninsular Malaysia is examined. Data from the Malaysian Population and Family Survey 1984/85 show that about 45% of the births were delivered in the government hospitals, 15% in the private hospitals/clinics and the remaining 40% were delivered at home. Utilisation of these facilities varies greatly by ethnicity. The Malays have the greatest tendency to choose home delivery (60%), as opposed to institutional delivery (40%). Although urbanization and better socioeconomic conditions have led to an increase in institutional delivery, social customs continue to exert an influence on their behavior in favor of home delivery. Almost all Chinese babies are delivered in hospitals or clinics, with those from the higher social class showing a tendency to resort to the use of private hospitals/clinics for delivery. Indians were the most frequent users of government hospital across nearly all the social strata. While institutional deliveries were all attended by trained personnel, about 71% of the home deliveries were attended by government midwives and 24% by village midwives or other untrained persons, and only 5% were delivered by a doctor or a nurse.

  3. A mathematical model of microbial folate biosynthesis and utilisation: implications for antifolate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sora, J Enrique; Mc Auley, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    The metabolic biochemistry of folate biosynthesis and utilisation has evolved into a complex network of reactions. Although this complexity represents challenges to the field of folate research it has also provided a renewed source for antimetabolite targets. A range of improved folate chemotherapy continues to be developed and applied particularly to cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, new or better antifolates against infectious diseases remain much more elusive. In this paper we describe the assembly of a generic deterministic mathematical model of microbial folate metabolism. Our aim is to explore how a mathematical model could be used to explore the dynamics of this inherently complex set of biochemical reactions. Using the model it was found that: (1) a particular small set of folate intermediates are overrepresented, (2) inhibitory profiles can be quantified by the level of key folate products, (3) using the model to scan for the most effective combinatorial inhibitions of folate enzymes we identified specific targets which could complement current antifolates, and (4) the model substantiates the case for a substrate cycle in the folinic acid biosynthesis reaction. Our model is coded in the systems biology markup language and has been deposited in the BioModels Database (MODEL1511020000), this makes it accessible to the community as a whole. PMID:26794619

  4. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  5. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system.

  6. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  7. Simultaneous Inversion of Production Data and Seismic Attributes: Application to a Synthetic SAGD Produced Field Case Inversion simultanée des données de production et des attributs sismiques : application à un champ synthétique produit par injection de vapeur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillier E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The joint use of production data and time-lapse seismic attributes can help to understand fluid flows within geological formations and to build reliable numerical models for representing these formations. This concern recently motivated the development of dedicated inversion or matching techniques for identifying models consistent with all collected data. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to map petrophysical properties such as facies, porosity and permeability into reservoirs from production data and seismic attributes. It is successfully applied to a synthetic case describing a heavy oil field produced from steam assisted gravity drainage. This case study generated from a real case shows how to design the inversion methodology to match the entire set of available data. A few key points are highlighted since they drive the success of the proposed matching methodology. First, parameterization is essential. It must allow for locally varying petrophysical properties from a reduced number of parameters. Second, this study stresses the need for alternative formulations for quantifying the mismatch between reference seismic attributes and simulated seismic attributes. Last, two methods are compared for integrating reference seismic attributes either in time or in depth (after a time-to-depth conversion. In the case studied, it is shown that the two approaches are equivalent since time-to depth-conversion error is quite small. L’utilisation conjointe des données de production et des attributs de sismique répétée facilite la compréhension des mouvements de fluide dans les formations géologiques et aide à la construction de modèles numériques fiables représentant ces formations. Ceci a récemment motivé le développement de techniques d’inversion ou de calage dédiées à l’identification de modèles cohérents avec l’ensemble des données disponibles. La méthodologie décrite dans ce papier permet de d

  8. Recovery of Waterflood Residual Oil Using Alkali, Surfactant and Polymer Slugs in Radial Cores Récupération d'huile résiduelle par injection d'eau améliorée de produits alcalins, de tensio-actifs et de polymères dans des carottes radiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-El-Din H. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been conducted to examine mobilization and recovery of waterflood residual oil in radial cores. Alkali, surfactant, and polymer slugs of various compositions, sizes and sequences were tested. Core flood experiments were conducted with unfired radial Berea sandstone disks at a flow rate of 8 cm3/h. David Lloydminster crude oil (total acid number of 0. 45 mg KOH/g oil was used. The results of the present work showed that the composition and sequence of the injected chemical slug play an important role in mobilization and recovery of residual oil. For slugs lacking either mobility control, or low interfacial tension, no oil bank was formed and tertiary oil recovery was less than 20% Sor. A significant oil bank and tertiary oil recovery up to 70 % Sor were obtained with slugs having mobility control and low interfacial tension. However, maximum oil cut, incre-mental oil recovery and surfactant propagation were found to be functions of the alkali content in the slug. The incremental oil recovery, oil cut and slug injectivity greatly improved as the alkali concentration (sodium carbonate in the combined slug was increased. A slight delay in surfactant breakthrough and a significantly slower rate of surfactant propagation were observed at higher sodium carbonate concentrations. Une étude expérimentale ayant pour but d'examiner la mobilisation et la récupération assistée d'huile résiduelle, à la suite d'un déplacement par l'eau en milieu poreux, a été conduite. Des bouchons de produit alcalin, de surfactant et de polymère, ayant des compositions, grosseurs et séquences d'injection variées, furent essayés. Les déplacements en milieu poreux furent conduits en utilisant des carottes de grès berea (non traités à haute température et un débit de 8,0 cm3/h. Pour ce faire, on utilisa de l'huile de David Lloydminster (ayant un nombre acide de 0,45 mg KOH/g d'huile. Les résultats de ce travail ont démontré que la

  9. La fonction logistique, un outil performant d'analyse et de prévision à moyen terme. Application à la production de pétrole et de gaz aux Etats-Unis, en URSS et dans d'autres pays The Logistic Function, an Efficient Medium-Range Analysis and Forecasting Method

    OpenAIRE

    Seguret J.

    2006-01-01

    A partir de la similitude observée entre l'évolution de la production pétrolière d'un pays et celle de la pénétration d'un produit dans un marché (fonction logistique), l'auteur expose le principe d'une méthode originale qui permet, sous certaines conditions, de prévoir quelle sera la production annuelle probable d'un pays producteur à un horizon de 10 à 15 ans. La validité de cette méthode est d'abord démontrée sur l'exemple de la production pétrolière aux Etats-Unis. Elle est ensuite illust...

  10. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity. PMID:10518916

  11. Investigation of Matlab® as Platform in Navigation and Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Utilising an Omnivision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kotze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed.

  12. Investigation of Matlab® as platform in navigation and control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle utilising an omnivision sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-08-25

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed.

  13. Inégalités sociales dans le renoncement aux soins de santé et dans leur utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Cette recherche se focalise sur l’analyse des inégalités sociales associées à l’accès et à l’utilisation des services de soins médicaux et hospitaliers au Luxembourg. Les données utilisées proviennent des enquêtes PSELL3/EU-SILC réalisées chaque année sur un échantillon représentatif de la population luxembourgeoise vivant en ménage privé. Des indicateurs d’accès aux soins (ou de renoncement aux soins) et d’utilisation des services de santé sont définis et les principales mesures d’inégalité ...

  14. CHANGES IN THE LEVEL AND STRUCTURE OF UTILISATION OF SERVICES IN POLISH AND GERMAN AGRICULTURE IN 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kołodziejczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the differences in the level and structure of utilisation of services in Polish and German agriculture. An attempt to define the factors influencing these values was also done. The research covered the share of agricultural services, veterinary expenses and financial intermediation services in intermediate consumption, the value of the studied services per 1 hectare of agricultural land, 1 AWU or 1 DJP, as well as services absorptivity of agricultural production. It was proved that although a significant difference between the role of these services in Poland and Germany still exists, in many cases in 2012 it was not so considerable as in 1998. It can be also assumed that further absorption of funds from the European Union will stimulate investment processes in Polish agriculture, and progressive improvement in utilisation of services by Polish agriculture.

  15. The xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase/xylulokinase ratio affects product formation in recombinant xylose-utilising Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasson, Anna; Hofmeyr, J.H.S.; Pedler, S.;

    2001-01-01

    Data simulations based on a kinetic model implied that under simplified simulation conditions a 1:greater than or equal to 10:greater than or equal to4 relation of the xylose reductase (XR)/xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH)/xylulokinase (XK) ratio was optimal in minimising xylitol formation during xylose...... utilisation in yeast. The steady-state level of the intermediary xylitol depended also, to a great extent, on the NADH and NAD(+) concentrations. Anaerobic xylose utilisation was investigated for three different recombinant. XR-, XDH- and XK-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, TMB 3002, TMB 3003 and...... TMB 3004, to verify the model predictions. Overexpression of XK was found to be necessary for ethanol formation from xylose. Furthermore, the xylitol formation decreased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, while the ethanol formation increased. Of the three strains, TMB 3004, which was the strain with a XR...

  16. Une poétique du vœu : inspiration poétique et mystique impériale dans le poème XIX (et quelques autres d’Optatianus Porfyrius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Odile Bruhat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La majorité des poèmes d’Optatianus Porfyrius qui nous sont parvenus est dédiée à l’empereur Constantin et consacrée à son éloge. Mais dans cette poésie visuelle d’un nouveau genre, la célébration de l’art poétique tient une place aussi importante que la célébration impériale. Comment considérer le discours proprement poétique d’Optatianus ? Est-il simplement juxtaposé au discours politique ? Relève-t-il d’une pure convention ornementale ? Ces questions sont d’autant plus pertinentes que, loin de présenter le procédé visuel dont il est l’inventeur comme un art technicien, Optatianus revendique le double titre de poiètès et de uates et convoque les divinités de l’inspiration, Phébus et les Muses, alors même que ses poèmes se font l’écho de la nouvelle théologie chrétienne du pouvoir. La réponse apparaît double. D’une part, la poésie d’Optatianus peut être définie comme votive. Ses poèmes s’inscrivent dans la liturgie du pouvoir, c’est-à-dire dans le cadre d’une théologie impériale qui repose sur l’affirmation de l’éternité de la victoire et sur le renouvellement du charisme victorieux à travers le rituel des voeux. Par son discours sur Phébus et les Muses, Optatianus met en place une véritable poétique du voeu, qui consiste à couler la mystique de l’inspiration dans le moule de la mystique impériale. D’autre part, ce projet poétique répond à bien des égards à l’attente impériale. Il rencontre la volonté de Constantin de développer une politique culturelle, et se plie à quelques traits caractéristiques de sa religiosité : conviction de la nécessité du secours divin dans les actions humaines, d’une inspiration divine dont Constantin a fait lui-même l’expérience, attention aux signes et aux visions, attachement à un charisme solaire qui coexiste sous une forme « neutralisée » avec sa foi chrétienne. Le poème XIX, composé à l

  17. The nuclear energy utilisation discontinuation concept lacks a plutonium disposal scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quick discontinuation of nuclear energy utilisation envisaged by the new Federal German Government leaves the problem of how to dispose of the plutonium produced so far in the course of reconditioning. More than 22 tons are here involved, envisaged for recycling as new fuel elements and at present stored in France and Great Britain. There are no very great safeguard differences between reactor plutonium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. This means that a form of repository must be found for reactor plutonium which is self-protecting against unauthorised access, as is the case for exhausted fuel elements on account of their high radioactivity. The demand for self-protection and thereafter disposal can be fulfilled by sealing the plutonium in glass in the same manner as practised so far with the highly active waste from reconditioning (glass canisters). This form of repository is self-protecting for plutonium only when highly radioactive waste from reconditioning is mixed with the glass melt. To dispose of the present existing amount of German plutonium in this manner, 3200 cubic metres of highly radioactive waste (activity inventory 3,7x1019 Becquerel) would be required. In addition thereto a vitrification plant with corresponding performance would be needed, because such a processing project would produce about 6000 glass canisters. For example, the vitrification plant 'PAMELA' which has been operated in Mol in Belgium, would have to run non-stop for 17 years. According to the arguments presented by the three authors, the difficulties of such a disposal method are so immense that one should refrain therefrom. Instead, the authors recommend return of the plutonium as MOX-fuel in light water reactors, as envisaged so far by the concept for utilising the plutonium. The demand for self-protection can be fulfilled therewith. At the same time this method for disposal would be sensible on considerations of energy economy, because as much energy can be produced from

  18. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

  19. Unlimited access to health care - impact of psychosomatic co-morbidity on utilisation in German general practices

    OpenAIRE

    Henningsen Peter; Schumann Isabelle; Wartner Eva; Hörlein Elisabeth; Schneider Antonius; Linde Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of psychosomatic co-morbidity on resource use for systems with unlimited access remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on practice visits, referrals and periods of disability in German general practices and to identify predictors of health care utilisation. Methods Cross sectional observational study in 13 practices in Upper Bavaria. Patients were included consecutively and filled in the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Numbers of ...

  20. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  1. Utilisation of traditional and indigenous foods in the North West Province of South Africa / Sarah Tshepho Pona Matenge

    OpenAIRE

    Matenge, Sarah Tshepho Pona

    2011-01-01

    AIM AND OBJECTIVES The main aim of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of promoting the cultivation, utilisation and consumption of indigenous and traditional plant foods (ITPF) among urban and rural communities in the North West Province of South Africa that could possibly lead to increased IK and dietary diversity. The objectives were the following: Assess consumption of TLV in the rural and urban communities. Compare nutritional status of consumers and non-consumers of ...

  2. Prescriptive contraceptive use among isotretinoin users in the Netherlands in comparison with non-users: a drug utilisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Crijns, H. J.; van Rein, N.; Gispen-de Wied, C.C.; Straus, S.M.; de Jong-Van Den Berg, L T

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the compliance with the isotretinoin Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP) by evaluating the use of prescribed contraceptives among isotretinoin users. The PPP contains a requirement for the use of contraceptive methods for women of childbearing potential. Methods A drug utilisation study was performed using data from a drug prescription database (containing Dutch community pharmacy data) covering a population of 500?000 patients. Contraceptive use in female isotretinoin user...

  3. Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000–2012): a time-series and benchmarking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited data exist on the status of access to diabetes medicines in LMICs. We assessed the utilisation and affordability of diabetes medicines in Iran as a middle-income country. Design We used a retrospective time-series design (2000–2012) and assessed national diabetes medicines’ utilisation using pharmaceuticals wholesale data. Methods We calculated defined daily dose consumptions per population days (DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day; DIDs) indicator. Findings were benchmarked with data from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We also employed Drug Utilization-90% (DU-90) method to compare DU-90s with the Essential Medicines List published by the WHO. We measured affordability using number of minimum daily wage required to purchase a treatment course for 1 month. Results Diabetes medicines’ consumption increased from 4.47 to 33.54 DIDs. The benchmarking showed that medicines’ utilisation in Iran in 2011 was only 54% of the median DIDs of 22 OECD countries. Oral hypoglycaemic agents consisted over 80% of use throughout the study period. Regular and isophane insulin (NPH), glibenclamide, metformin and gliclazide were the DU-90 drugs in 2012. Metformin, glibenclamide and regular/NPH insulin combination therapy were affordable throughout the study period (∼0.4, ∼0.1, ∼0.3 of minimum daily wage, respectively). While the affordability of novel insulin preparations improved over time, they were still unaffordable in 2012. Conclusions The utilisation of diabetes medicines was relatively low, perhaps due to underdiagnosis and inadequate management of patients with diabetes. This had occurred despite affordability of essential diabetes medicines in Iran. Appropriate policies are required to address the underutilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran. PMID:25324322

  4. More Health Care Utilisation With More Insurance Coverage? Evidence from a Latent Class Model with German Data

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We analyse the impact of optional deductibles, private supplementary health insurance and income on the demand for health care utilisation, measured as the number of physician visits with data from the German Socioeconomic Panel. With a set of newly available variables for the years 2002, 2004, and 2006 that measure individual health more accurately and including risk-attitudes towards health we find that possible endogeneity of the insurance choice is ...

  5. A qualitative study on barriers to utilisation of institutional delivery services in Moroto and Napak districts, Uganda: implications for programming

    OpenAIRE

    Wilunda, Calistus; Quaglio, Gianluca; Putoto, Giovanni; Lochoro, Peter; Dall’Oglio, Giovanni; Manenti, Fabio; Atzori, Andrea; Lochiam, Rose Miligan; Takahashi, Risa; Mukundwa, Aline; Oyerinde, Koyejo

    2014-01-01

    Background Skilled attendance at delivery is critical in prevention of maternal deaths. However, many women in low- and middle-income countries still deliver without skilled assistance. This study was carried out to identify perceived barriers to utilisation of institutional delivery in two districts in Karamoja, Uganda. Methods Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) with 887 participants (459 women and 428 men) in 20 villages in Moroto and Napak districts. Data were ...

  6. L'utilisation de l'homéopathie par les infirmières dans les lieux de vie

    OpenAIRE

    Brot, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Ce travail part du constat que certaines infirmières utilisent l'homéopathie dans leur pratique quotidienne sans avoir de formation sur le sujet. Cette recherche a pour but de découvrir ces pratiques et d'en comprendre les motivations. Le jury a relevé une construction solide du mémoire ainsi qu'un cadre théorique et une analyse de qualité.

  7. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  8. Reference-based pricing schemes: effect on pharmaceutical expenditure, resource utilisation and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides-Demos, Lisa L; Ibrahim, Joseph E; McNeil, John J

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising more rapidly than the general inflation rate in most advanced countries. One strategy that has been introduced to control pharmaceutical costs is reference-based pricing (RBP). Its potential is restricted to those specific segments of the drug market where several drugs (and/or their generic forms) exist without substantial evidence that any particular agent is superior. Three broad approaches have been adopted. These involve the aggregation of drugs into generic groups, related drug groups (e.g. ACE inhibitors) or drugs grouped by therapeutic indication (e.g. antihypertensives). For each drug group, a single reimbursement level or reference price is set. Drugs above the reference price require part or total payment by the patient. The experience with RBP ranges from over 10 years in Germany (involving all levels of RBP) to the more recent implementation of RBP for related drug groups in Australia. This review summarises the current state of knowledge on RBP from the published experiences in the countries where RBP has been adopted. The published systematic reviews of RBP from the countries that have implemented it suggest that RBP has been successful at temporarily capping drug prices for the RBP drug groups and achieving short term cost savings. However, other factors influencing total pharmaceutical expenditure have often occurred simultaneously and make it difficult to isolate specific effects of RBP. Further investigation is required before any valid conclusions can be drawn about the net effect of RBP on healthcare costs. RBP has withstood the initial legal challenges of pharmaceutical companies and the criticisms of some clinicians. Where the reference price is based on the lowest priced drug(s) in the group, RBP appears to be one of the few strategies likely to be effective at encouraging doctors to use the least expensive agents as first-line therapy and utilise more expensive agents in those who experience side effects

  9. Utilising reinforcement learning to develop strategies for driving auditory neural implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geoffrey W.; Zambetta, Fabio; Li, Xiaodong; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In this paper we propose a novel application of reinforcement learning to the area of auditory neural stimulation. We aim to develop a simulation environment which is based off real neurological responses to auditory and electrical stimulation in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) of an animal model. Using this simulator we implement closed loop reinforcement learning algorithms to determine which methods are most effective at learning effective acoustic neural stimulation strategies. Approach. By recording a comprehensive set of acoustic frequency presentations and neural responses from a set of animals we created a large database of neural responses to acoustic stimulation. Extensive electrical stimulation in the CN and the recording of neural responses in the IC provides a mapping of how the auditory system responds to electrical stimuli. The combined dataset is used as the foundation for the simulator, which is used to implement and test learning algorithms. Main results. Reinforcement learning, utilising a modified n-Armed Bandit solution, is implemented to demonstrate the model’s function. We show the ability to effectively learn stimulation patterns which mimic the cochlea’s ability to covert acoustic frequencies to neural activity. Time taken to learn effective replication using neural stimulation takes less than 20 min under continuous testing. Significance. These results show the utility of reinforcement learning in the field of neural stimulation. These results can be coupled with existing sound processing technologies to develop new auditory prosthetics that are adaptable to the recipients current auditory pathway. The same process can theoretically be abstracted to other sensory and motor systems to develop similar electrical replication of neural signals.

  10. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan X Ow

    Full Text Available Under future ocean acidification (OA, increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2, and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2 s(-1 for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3- use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0. We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax and efficiency (α more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase than for those in high light (4% increase. However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA.

  11. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that labour availability

  12. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  13. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  14. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA.

  15. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT in rural Indian medical institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSHAN BHAISARE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue. To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods: Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B. For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter. At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results: For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture. It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion: Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts.

  16. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traut

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with PTSD; demographic, diagnostic and treatment variables, including trauma type, family history, and delays in treatment seeking, were documented. Setting. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Subjects. Children and adolescents (2 to 18 years presenting to an inpatient unit (n=737. Results. 10.3% (n=76 met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Gender differences were clearly evident: PTSD was six times more prevalent in girls (65 with PTSD were female and 11 were male; girls were most likely to have experienced rape or sexual abuse while boys were most likely to have witnessed a killing. Psychotherapy was the most common intervention for PTSD, followed by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. 97.4% of children and adolescents who were treated demonstrated significant improvement. Delays in seeking treatment and problems with the primary support group were highly prevalent. Conclusion. PTSD is a common disorder that is responsive to treatment with psychotherapy and/or tricyclic antidepressants in child and adolescent inpatients. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of childhood PTSD in mental health settings, in particular tertiary service institutions.

  17. Increased utilisation of PEPFAR-supported laboratory services by non-HIV patients in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Mcnairy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is unknown to what extent the non-HIV population utilises laboratories supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR.Objectives: We aimed to describe the number and proportion of laboratory tests performed in 2009 and 2011 for patients referred from HIV and non-HIV services (NHSs in a convenience sample collected from 127 laboratories supported by PEPFAR in Tanzania. We then compared changes in the proportions of tests performed for patients referred from NHSs in 2009 vs 2011.Methods: Haematology, chemistry, tuberculosis and syphilis test data were collected from available laboratory registers. Referral sources, including HIV services, NHSs, or lack of a documented referral source, were recorded. A generalised linear mixed model reported the odds that a test was from a NHS.Results: A total of 94 132 tests from 94 laboratories in 2009 and 157 343 tests from 101 laboratories in 2011 were recorded. Half of all tests lacked a documented referral source. Tests from NHSs constituted 42% (66 084 of all tests in 2011, compared with 31% (29 181 in 2009. A test in 2011 was twice as likely to have been referred from a NHS as in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio: 2.0 [95% confidence interval: 2.0–2.1].Conclusion: Between 2009 and 2011, the number and proportion of tests from NHSs increased across all types of test. This finding may reflect increased documentation of NHS referrals or that the laboratory scale-up originally intended to service the HIV-positive population in Tanzania may be associated with a ‘spillover effect’ amongst the general population.

  18. Healthcare Resource Utilisation Associated with Herpes Zoster in a Prospective Cohort of Older Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Surendra; Newall, Anthony T.; MacIntyre, C. Raina; Heywood, Anita E.; McIntyre, Peter; Banks, Emily; Liu, Bette

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common condition that increases in incidence with older age but vaccines are available to prevent the disease. However, there are limited data estimating the health system burden attributable to herpes zoster by age. Methods In this study, we quantified excess healthcare resource usage associated with HZ during the acute/sub-acute period of disease (21days before to 90 days after onset) in 5952 cases and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and prior healthcare resource usage. Estimates were adjusted for potential confounders in multivariable regression models. Using population-based estimates of HZ incidence, we calculated the age-specific excess number of health service usage events attributable to HZ in the population. Results Per HZ case, there was an average of 0.06 (95% CI 0.04–0.08) excess hospitalisations, 1.61 (95% CI 1.51–1.69) excess general practitioner visits, 1.96 (95% CI 1.86–2.15) excess prescriptions filled and 0.11 (95% CI 0.09–0.13) excess emergency department visits. The average number of healthcare resource use events, and the estimated excess per 100,000 population increased with increasing age but were similar for men and women, except for higher rates of hospitalisation in men. The excess annual HZ associated burden of hospitalisations was highest in adults ≥80 years (N = 2244, 95%CI 1719–2767); GP visits was highest in those 60–69 years (N = 50567, 95%CI 39958–61105), prescriptions and ED visits were highest in 70–79 years (N = 50524, 95%CI 40634–60471 and N = 2891, 95%CI 2319–3449 respectively). Conclusions This study provides important data to establish the healthcare utilisation associated with HZ against which detailed cost-effectiveness analyses of HZ immunisation in older adults can be conducted. PMID:27483007

  19. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT) in rural Indian medical institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    BHAISARE, ROSHAN; KAMBLE, BHAVNA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue.  To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B.  For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter.  At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture.  It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts, PMID:27382583

  20. The effect of urban basic medical insurance on health service utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: a comparison of two schemes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. RESULTS: Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p0.10. It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. CONCLUSION: Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services.

  1. Intervention of One Rupee Rice in PDS: Utilisation and Impact in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha States in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahendran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To find out the utilisation and impact of the scheme of pricing one kg rice at one rupee among the poor people and other beneficiaries at PDS outlets in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha states of India. For the purpose of this study, multi-stage random sampling method was used. Quantitative data was collected from the public using structured questionnaire. Data collection was done between 2nd December 2013 and 11th February 2014. The results show that more than 94.8% of poor families are utilising PDS grains in Odisha and 92.5% of BPL families are utilising PDS grains in Andhra Pradesh. In both the state’s 30% of the population is Above Poverty Line (APL families, and they do not buy most of the commodities and more particularly in rice. As part of PDS reform, both these states have improved transparency with computerised ration shops and biometric ration cards and pin numbers. PDS outlets are more useful to poor people than for the Above Poverty Line families. This study suggests that allotments of rice for APL families must be cut to control corruption and leakages, this study also suggest that millets must be introduced in the PDS to increase nutrition security.

  2. Effect of Frailty on Functional Gain, Resource Utilisation, and Discharge Destination: An Observational Prospective Study in a GEM Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Kawryshanker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A geriatric evaluation and management unit (GEM manages elderly inpatients with functional impairments. There is a paucity of literature on frailty and whether this impacts on rehabilitation outcomes. Objectives. To examine frailty score (FS as a predictor of functional gain, resource utilisation, and destinations for GEM patients. Methods. A single centre prospective case study design. Participants (n=136 were ≥65 years old and admitted to a tertiary hospital GEM. Five patients were excluded by the preset exclusion criteria, that is, medically unstable, severe dementia or communication difficulties after stroke. Core data included demographics, frailty score (FS, and functional independence. Results. The mean functional improvement (FIM from admission to discharge was 11.26 (95% CI 8.87, 13.66; P<0.001. Discharge FIM was positively correlated with admission FIM (β=0.748; P<0.001 and negatively correlated with frailty score (β=−1.151; P=0.014. The majority of the patients were in the “frail” group. “Frail” and “severely frail” subgroups improved more on mean FIM scores at discharge, relative to that experienced by the “pre-frail” group. Conclusion. All patients experienced functional improvement. Frailer patients improved more on their FIM and improved relatively more than their prefrail counterparts. Higher frailty correlated with reduced independence and greater resource utilisation. This study demonstrates that FS could be a prognostic indicator of physical independence and resource utilisation.

  3. GP utilisation by education level among adults with COPD or asthma: a cross-sectional register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetlevik, Øystein; Melbye, Hasse; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2016-01-01

    There is a marked socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, but a large proportion of patients remain undiagnosed. It is a challenge for general practitioners (GPs) to both identify patients and contribute to equity and high quality in services delivered. The aim of this study was to identify patients with COPD and asthma diagnoses recorded by GPs and explore their utilisation of GP services by education level. This was a cross-sectional, national, register-based study from Norwegian general practice in the period 2009-2011. Based on claims from GPs, the number of patients aged ⩾40 years with a diagnosis of COPD or asthma and their GP services utilisation were estimated and linked to the national education database. Multivariate Poisson and logistic regression models were used to explore the variations in GP utilisation. In the population aged ⩾40 years, 2.8% had COPD and 3.8% had asthma according to GPs' diagnoses. COPD was four times more prevalent in patients with basic education than higher education; this increase was ⩽80% for asthma. Consultation rates were 12% higher (Pspirometry test in general practice in 2011, with no significant education differences in adjusted models. The higher consultation rate in lower-education groups indicates that GPs contribute to fair distribution of healthcare. PMID:27279354

  4. Une autre ville pour une autre vie. Henri Lefebvre et les situationnistes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Simay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits distinctifs du mouvement situationniste est de s’être constamment préoccupé de la question urbaine. Conçue comme l’espace de production de la société du spectacle mais aussi comme un terrain de lutte et d’expérimentation, la ville a représenté pour ce mouvement estudiantin, proche d’Henri Lefebvre, le lieu d’une réinvention radicale de la vie quotidienne. Cet article revient sur la critique situationniste de l’urbanisme de l’après-guerre ainsi que sur les pratiques auxquelles elle a donné lieu (détournement, dérive, cartes psychogéographiques, construction de situations éphémères. Celles-ci peuvent être regardées comme la première expression d’un « droit à la ville », tel que l’entendait Lefebvre. Reste à savoir si le groupe de Guy Debord souhaitait véritablement « changer la ville pour changer la vie » ou si la ville n’était que le théâtre d’une révolution à venir.One of the distinctive traits of the situationist movement is its constant preoccupation with the urban issue. For this student movement close to Henri Lefebvre, the city has been thought of as a choice generic location for the production of the Society of the Spectacle, but also as a test ground for struggle and experimentation – the place where a radical reinvention of daily life can occur. This paper goes back to the situationist critique of post-war urbanism, as well as the behaviors and practices it has given birth to (misappropriation, drifts in meaning, psychogeographic maps, the construct of short-lived situations. These can be seen as the first expression of a « right to the city », in the sense Lefebvre originally meant it have. However, it is still unknown whether Guy Debord's group really wished to « change city-life to change life itself », or if to them the city was merely a theater for the enactment of a revolution to come.

  5. Vers une autre science économique (et donc une autre institution de cette science)

    OpenAIRE

    Yefimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Permanent readers of this journal have certainly noticed that the title of this article has a great similarity with the title of the issue No. 30 of the Revue du MAUSS. At first glance, the title of this issue “Toward another economic science (and thus toward another world)” may seem odd. Indeed, if the word "economic" is replaced in this title by the words "physical" ("chemical" or "biological"), we get a very strange statement: another type of physics (chemistry or biology) gives us another...

  6. Raffinose family oligosaccharide utilisation by probiotic bacteria: insight into substrate recognition, molecular architecture and diversity of GH36 alpha-galactosidases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou Hachem, Maher; Fredslund, Folmer; Andersen, Joakim Mark;

    2012-01-01

    The organisation of genes conferring utilisation of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) has been analysed in several probiotic bacteria from the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera. Glycoside hydrolase family 36 (GH36) alpha-galatosidase encoding genes occur together with sugar transpor...

  7. Research data supporting "Altered Oxygen Utilisation in Rat Left Ventricle and Soleus after 14 Days, but not 2 Days, of Environmental Hypoxia"

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Horscroft; Burgess, Sarah L.; Hu, Yaqi; Murray, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Full dataset from paper "Altered Oxygen Utilisation in Rat Left Ventricle and Soleus after 14 Days, but not 2 Days, of Environmental Hypoxia", including respirometry, gene and protein expression data and enzyme activity assays.

  8. Utilisation and off-label prescriptions of respiratory drugs in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schmiedl

    Full Text Available Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ≤18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374-575 per 10,000 children and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378-527 per 10,000 children. Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (-97%. Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3% and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%. The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n = 67,084; 42.0% and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n = 18,897; 20.7%. Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections

  9. Utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine content for broilers and layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Rao, S V; Reddy, V

    2001-07-01

    1. The relative utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine (F) content was studied in commercial broilers (5 to 40 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). The phosphorus (P) sources tested were bonemeal (BM), low fluorine (LFRP) and high fluorine (HFRP) rock phosphates and a commercial mineral mixture (CMM). The P sources were incorporated in broiler and layer diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) on a P basis. 2. The F contents of diets based on BM, LFRP, CMM and HFRP were 53, 365, 622 and 1383 mg/kg in the broiler experiment and 34, 242, 437 and 967 mg/kg in the layer experiment, respectively. F was not detected in DCP based diets. 3. In broilers, body weight gain, food intake, gain: food, P retention and serum inorganic P content on P sources (BM and LFRP) containing F up to 365 mg/kg diet were similar to those on DCP. Body weight gain, food intake, serum calcium and inorganic P contents and retention of P were depressed in groups fed on CMM and HFRP, which may have been due to the toxic effects of F (622 and 1383 mg/kg) present in diets based on these P sources. 4. Bone ash and its P content were not affected by feeding diets containing F up to 1383 mg/kg from various P sources. The amount of F deposited in tibia increased significantly with increases in dietary F concentration. 5. In layers, egg production and food intake were not affected by F up to 437 mg/kg in diets containing BM, LFRP or CMM as the sole source of supplemental P. Egg production and food intake were depressed significantly in layers given the diet containing 967 mg F/kg from HFRP. 6. Egg mass: food, egg weight, shell quality (shell thickness and shell weight) and serum calcium and inorganic P levels were not affected by F up to 967 mg/kg in diets containing different P sources. 7. It may be concluded that the performance of broilers and layers was not affected by feeding various P supplements with dietary levels of F up to 365 and 437 mg

  10. Indian advanced heavy water reactor for thorium utilisation and nuclear data requirements and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARC is embarking on thorium utilisation program in a concerted and consistent manner to achieve all round capabilities in the entire Thorium cycle under the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) development program. Upgrading our nuclear data capability for thorium cycle is one of the main tasks of this program. This paper gives a brief overview of the physics design features of the AHWR. The basic starting point of the analysis has been the lattice simulation of the fuel cluster employing the WIMS-D4 code package with 1986 version of 69 group library. For the analysis of thorium cycle, the present multi group version contains the three major isotopes viz., 232Th, 233U and 233Pa. To correctly evaluate the fuel cycle we require many more isotopes of the Th burnup chain. With the help of NDS, IAEA, many other isotopes of interest in AHWR, actinides in the thorium burnup chain, burnable absorbers, etc., were generated. Some of them were added to the WIMS-D4 library and the results are discussed. The WIMS-D4 library is also being updated as part of the IAEA coordinated research project on Final Stage of WLUP with international cooperation. India is also taking part in CRP. The evaluation of AHWR lattice with this new library is presented. Some comments regarding the fission product data being used in WIMS libraries are given, which are tuned to U-Pu cycles. The measurements for 233U are rather old. Measurements in high energies are also very sparse. More attention by nuclear data community is required in this regard as well. India has also begun a modest program to assess the ADS concepts, with the aim of employing thermal reactor systems, such as AHWR. A one way coupled booster reactor concept is being analysed with available code systems and nuclear data. A brief summary of this concept is also being discussed in this paper. A general survey on the quality of the evaluated nuclear data of the major and minor isotopes of thorium cycle is also given. A major

  11. Silages containing buckwheat and chicory: quality, digestibility and nitrogen utilisation by lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2012-02-01

    The suitability of silages containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) for the nutrition of dairy cows was determined. Buckwheat and chicory were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multilorum), and a pure ryegrass culture served as a control forage. Swards were harvested 55 d after sowing and were ensiled after wilting, without additives in small round bales. Finally, buckwheat and chicory made up the dietary dry matter (DM) proportions of 0.46 and 0.34, respectively. Concentrates were restricted to 2 kg/d. Diets were fed to 3 x 6 late-lactating cows for 15 d at ad libitum access. During the collection period (days 10-15) amounts of feed intake and faeces, urine and milk were recorded and samples were taken. Ensilability was good for buckwheat and ryegrass swards, but was so less for the chicory sward, which was rich in total ash. The buckwheat silage was rich in acid detergent fibre (445 g/kg DM) and lignin (75.7 g/kg DM) and contained less crude protein (135 g/kg DM) and ether extract (15.8 g/kg DM) than the other silages. Consistent with that, the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and fibre were lowest when feeding this silage. The potassium concentrations in the chicory and ryegrass silages were high (61 g/ kg) and lower in buckwheat (47 g/kg). No significant treatment effects on intake, body weight, milk yield or milk composition as well as plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids occurred. Being lowest in nitrogen (N) content, the buckwheat silage resulted in the lowest urine N losses and the most efficient N utilisation for milk protein synthesis, but this at cost of body N retention. The results show that silages containing buckwheat and chicory may be used as components of the forage part of dairy cows' diets even though they were found to have a lower feeding value than ryegrass silage.

  12. The utilisation of a career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bezuidenhout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This  study  constituted  and  reported  on  the  outcomes  of  a  structured  career conversation  framework  based  on  Schein’s  eight  career  anchors  in  an  open  distance  and e-learning (ODeL university in South Africa.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to report on the utilisation of a structured career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model.Motivation for the study: The rationale for the study was the paucity of studies investigating career anchors in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 4200 employees at a university in South Africa. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA as well as a Scheffe post hoc test.Main  findings: The  findings  of  this  study  suggest  that  career  conversation  has  a  dynamic nature (i.e. it changes over a period of time. Consequently, career development interventions in the workplace need to approach the workforce holistically.Practical/managerial implications: The findings and results will assist managers, practitioners and  career  development  specialists  in  the  practical  implementation  of  the  career  anchor concept.Contribution/value-add: The career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors has expanded the existing theory to find the right balance between career conversations and career anchors to keep people motivated to perform optimally in an organisation.

  13. Quels sont les effets produits sur le développement professionnel par la conduite d'une activité nouvelle dans le cadre d'une situation ordinaire : le cas des enseignants qui accueillent en milieu scolaire ordinaire un enfant rencontrant des besoins particuliers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemeunier-Lespagnol, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    La scolarisation des élèves en situation de handicap engage les enseignants dans une activité nouvelle. Il s'agit de " la rencontre de rencontres " (au sens de Schwartz, 2004) avec l'enfant mais aussi du développement d'une activité en présence et en collaboration avec d'autres personnes. L'enseignant n'est plus seul dans la classe, il va travailler avec l'auxiliaire de vie scolaire (AVS), des enseignants spécialisés voire d'autres professionnels. Dans le cadre de notre thèse, nous nous intér...

  14. A distributed knowledge-based system for the optimum utilisation of South African wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomusa Dlodlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the concept and development of a knowledge-based advisory system for the optimum utilisation of South African wool for the benefit of present and potential investors and other interested parties. Wool is a natural animal fibre produced in varying quantities around the world. The wool fibre is far from homogenous; its type and quality, such as fineness and length, depending on the breed of sheep and the environmental conditions prevailing during its growth. Wool is used in a variety of end uses, ranging from fi ne worsted suiting, to hand knitting yarn, carpets, blankets and aircraft upholstery, its use depending largely on its fibre fineness and length. The wool industry is one of the oldest agricultural industries in South Africa, playing an important economic role as an earner of foreign exchange, and providing a living to many people. Wool is produced in many parts of South Africa under extensive, semi-extensive or intensive conditions, and is largely an export commodity. It is produced and traded in a sophisticated free market business environment into the international market place, where supply and demand forces determine price levels. More than 90% of locally produced wool is exported in an unprocessed or semi-processed form which detrimentally affects employment, foreign exchange and income-generating opportunities associated with value-addition prior to export. To reduce the amount of wool exported in unprocessed or semi-processed form, wool-processing enterprises need to be established to produce internationally marketable end products. Therefore, South Africa needs to attract investors into the wool sector, who will set up manufacturing mills in an economically sustainable manner. Potential and present investors in the South African (S.A. wool industry need easily accessible and up-to-date information on the production statistics, processing properties and end-use pplications of the wool they need for the

  15. Biogas in Lusaka ? Feasibility study: Possibilities to extract and utilise biogas from municipal solid waste in Lusaka, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Emma; Nelson, Sara

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate possibilities to extract and utilise biogas from municipal solid waste in Lusaka, considering environmental, financial, technological and social aspects. The outcome provided three recommendations: 1 - a new landfill with biocells. The only legal tipping site in Lusaka has been condemned and there are plans for the construction of a new landfill. We recommend that the new site should be a sanitary landfill with full gas and leachate management. Thus, the costs for extracting biogas would be included in the investments for the landfill. It would be advisable to start with a simple end-use application during a running-in period when the technique and organisation is tested. Utilising the gas for internal heating or in a nearby industry will probably be the easiest and cheapest choice. 2 - a pilot project in a high-density area for co-dispersal of latrine and putrescibles. The sanitary conditions in high-density areas, where pit-latrines are the principal sanitary method, are insufficient. It is of great importance to master the situation in order to avoid further epidemics and water pollution. Compared to other solutions we consider a fermentation digester to be the best alternative. The main purpose for this pilot plant would, at least in the initial stage, be to investigate whether this method is a feasible solution for the problems with pit latrines. The aim of the end-use application could then merely be to demonstrate and inform the public about biogas. 3 - further investigations regarding the possibilities to extract and utilise biogas in industries and from manure, The estimated biogas potential from industries and manure and droppings from livestock and chickens is much bigger than from municipal solid waste and should be exploited. The end-use applications would probably be for internal use (heat and/or electricity). This was not investigated any further in our study.

  16. Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Olga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147, with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31. University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06, gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62 and mammography among older (more than 40 years women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98. Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources.

  17. Effect of socioeconomic deprivation and health service utilisation on antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth: population cohort study from rural Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonhee P Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No studies have examined the effect of socioeconomic deprivation on antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths in the poorest women in low income countries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used data from a prospective population based surveillance system involving all women of childbearing age and their babies in rural Ghana. The primary objective was to evaluate associations between household wealth and risk of antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth. The secondary objective was to assess whether any differences in risk were mediated by utilisation of health services during pregnancy. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Random effect models adjusted for clustering of women who delivered more than one infant. There were 80267 babies delivered from 1 July 2003 to 30 September 2008: 77666 live births and 2601 stillbirths. Of the stillbirths 1367 (52.6% were antepartum, 989 (38.0% were intrapartum and 245 (9.4% had no data on the timing of death. 94.8% of the babies born in the study (76129/80267 had complete data on all covariates and outcomes. 36 878 (48.4% of babies were born to women in the two poorest quintiles and 3697 (4.9% had no pregnancy care. There was no association between wealth and antepartum stillbirths. There was a marked 'dose response' of increasing risk of intrapartum stillbirth with increasing levels of socioeconomic deprivation (adjOR 1.09 [1.03-1.16] p value 0.002. Women in the poorest two quintiles had greater risk of intrapartum stillbirth (adjOR 1.19 [1.02-1.38] p value 0.023 compared to the richest women. Adjusting for heath service utilisation and other variables did not alter results. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Poor women had a high risk of intrapartum stillbirth and this risk was not influenced by health service utilisation. Health system strengthening is required to meet the needs of poor women in our study population.

  18. Health Care Utilisation and Transitions between Health Care Settings in the Last 6 Months of Life in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähler, Caroline; Signorell, Andri; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Many efforts are undertaken in Switzerland to enable older and/or chronically ill patients to stay home longer at the end-of-life. One of the consequences might be an increased need for hospitalisations at the end-of-life, which goes along with burdensome transitions for patients and higher health care costs for the society. Aim We aimed to examine the health care utilisation in the last six months of life, including transitions between health care settings, in a Swiss adult population. Methods The study population consisted of 11'310 decedents of 2014 who were insured at the Helsana Group, the leading health insurance in Switzerland. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the health care utilisation by age group, taking into account individual and regional factors. Zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of transitions. Results Mean age was 78.1 in men and 83.8 in women. In the last six months of life, 94.7% of the decedents had at least one consultation; 61.6% were hospitalised at least once, with a mean length of stay of 28.3 days; and nursing home stays were seen in 47.4% of the decedents. Over the same time period, 64.5% were transferred at least once, and 12.9% experienced at least one burdensome transition. Main predictors for transitions were age, sex and chronic conditions. A high density of home care nurses was associated with a decrease, whereas a high density of ambulatory care physicians was associated with an increase in the number of transitions. Conclusions Health care utilisation was high in the last six months of life and a considerable number of decedents were being transferred. Advance care planning might prevent patients from numerous and particularly from burdensome transitions. PMID:27598939

  19. Utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services in the early medical response to major incidents: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Anne Siri; Fattah, Sabina; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review identifies, describes and appraises the literature describing the utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the early medical response to major incidents. Setting Early prehospital phase of a major incident. Design Systematic literature review performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Bibsys Ask, Norart, Svemed and UpToDate were searched using phrases that combined HEMS and ‘major incidents’ to identify when and how HEMS was utilised. The identified studies were subjected to data extraction and appraisal. Results The database search identified 4948 articles. Based on the title and abstract, the full text of 96 articles was obtained; of these, 37 articles were included in the review, and an additional five were identified by searching the reference lists of the 37 articles. HEMS was used to transport medical and rescue personnel to the incident and to transport patients to the hospital, especially when the infrastructure was damaged. Insufficient air traffic control, weather conditions, inadequate landing sites and failing communication were described as challenging in some incidents. Conclusions HEMS was used mainly for patient treatment and to transport patients, personnel and equipment in the early medical management of major incidents, but the optimal utilisation of this specialised resource remains unclear. This review identified operational areas with improvement potential. A lack of systematic indexing, heterogeneous data reporting and weak methodological design, complicated the identification and comparison of incidents, and more systematic reporting is needed. Trial registration number CRD42013004473. PMID:26861938

  20. Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Onah

    Full Text Available Out-of-pocket (OOP payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs, which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel. OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households.

  1. Needs-oriented discharge planning and monitoring for high utilisers of psychiatric services (NODPAM: Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinert Tilman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to reduce high utilisation of psychiatric inpatient care by targeting the critical time of hospital discharge have been rare. Methods This paper presents design and methods of the study "Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Needs-Oriented Discharge Planning and Monitoring for High Utilisers of Psychiatric Services" (NODPAM, a multicentre RCT conducted in five psychiatric hospitals in Germany. Inclusion criteria are receipt of inpatient psychiatric care, adult age, diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective disorder, defined high utilisation of psychiatric care during two years prior to the current admission, and given informed consent. Consecutive recruitment started in April 2006. Since then, during a period of 18 months, comprehensive outcome data of 490 participants is being collected at baseline and during three follow-up measurement points. The manualised intervention applies principles of needs-led care and focuses on the inpatient-outpatient transition. A trained intervention worker provides two intervention sessions: (a Discharge planning: Just before discharge with the patient and responsible clinician at the inpatient service; (b Monitoring: Three months after discharge with the patient and outpatient clinician. A written treatment plan is signed by all participants after each session. Primary endpoints are whether participants in the intervention group will show fewer hospital days and readmissions to hospital. Secondary endpoints are better compliance with aftercare, better clinical outcome and quality of life, as well as cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. Discussion If a needs-oriented discharge planning and monitoring proves to be successful in this RCT, a tool will be at hand to improve patient outcome and reduce costs via harmonising fragmented mental health service provision. Trial Registration ISRCTN59603527

  2. L'UTILISATION DE LA PENSÉE LEAN DANS LE CONTEXTE DE LA RESPONSABILITÉ SOCIALE DE L'ENTREPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BRICIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La responsabilité sociale est un concept toujours plus présent dans l'économie actuelle. Les préoccupations des entreprises dans ce domaine sont dues aux avantages apportés par la mise en pratique de ce concept à moyen et à long terme. Étant donné l'intérêt progressif manifesté envers la responsabilité sociale d'une part, vue comme facteur compétitif pour le succès d'une affaire, et de la pensée lean d'autre part, comme étant la plus importante philosophie de management de notre époque, le but de cet article est de présenter les deux concepts et d'analyser la relation d'entre eux. Les résultats de la recherche ont mis en évidence le fait que la littérature spécialisée offre des arguments forts concernant la relation d'entre la pensée lean et la responsabilité sociale, mais les entreprises qui ont mis en pratique la pensée lean dans leurs activités peuvent être considérées comme des entreprises socialement responsables.

  3. Utilisation of research and training reactors in the study programme of students at the Slovak University of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparing operating staff for the nuclear industry is and also will be one of the most serious education processes, mainly in the Central-European countries where about 40-50% of the electricity is produced in nuclear power plants. In the Central-European region there exists a very extensive and also effective international collaboration in nuclear industry and education. Similarly, the level of education in universities and technical high schools of this area is also good. Slovak University of Technology Bratislava has established contacts with many universities abroad for utilisation of research and training reactors. (author)

  4. Liberation of chromium from ferrochrome waste materials utilising aqueous ozonation and the advanced oxidation process / Yolindi van Staden

    OpenAIRE

    Van Staden, Yolindi

    2014-01-01

    During ferrochrome (FeCr) production, three types of generic chromium (Cr) containing wastes are generated, i.e. slag, bag filter dust (BFD) and venturi sludge. The loss of these Cr units contributes significantly to the loss in revenue for FeCr producers. In this study, the liberation of Cr units was investigated utilising two case study waste materials, i.e. BFD from a semi-closed submerged arc furnace (SAF) operating on acid slag and the ultrafine fraction of slag (UFS) orig...

  5. Étude empirique du contexte d’utilisation des interfaces de vidéocommunication mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Ignacio; Dorta, Tomas; Robert, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Ce document présente une étude empirique sur l'utilisation de la vidéoconférence mobile et le contexte de l'usager afin de proposer des lignes directrices pour la conception des interfaces des dispositifs de communication vidéo mobile. Grâce à un échange riche d'informations, ce type de communication peut amener un sentiment de présence fort, mais les interfaces actuelles manquent de flexibilité pour permettre aux usagers d'être créatifs et pour avoir des échanges plus significatifs dans une ...

  6. L'utilisation des dispositifs d'articulation de la vie familiale et de la vie professionnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Fusulier, Bernard; Giraldo, Sylvia; Legros, Edmond

    2006-01-01

    Partant d’une collecte de données de première main auprès de 48 moyennes et grandes organisations et entreprises privées installées en Wallonie (Belgique), cet article établit une première photographie de l’utilisation ou non par les travailleurs et travailleuses de mesures institutionnelles visant à soutenir l’articulation de la vie professionnelle et de la vie familiale (congé de maternité, congé de paternité, congé parental, etc.). Il identifie et comptabilise également les dispositifs ext...

  7. The role of transportation and co-fermentation in the CO2 balance for utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    at 19 decentralised joint biogas plants involving a varying number of farms (5-100). All of these plants use to some extent co-fermentation with industrial organic waste to increase biogas yield.A fuel chain approach for utilisation of biogas for energy purposes is carried out for determining the role...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...

  8. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A.; Burgert, Clara R.; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew SEK; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. Methods We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Results Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19–0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61–0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45–0.75). Conclusions Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all

  9. Calculation of the thermal utilisation factor in a cell made up of a given number of concentric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of calculating the thermal utilisation factor, described in a previous report, is extended to the case of a cylindrical cell containing a given number of concentric media, certain of which may be empty. A collision by collision method is used in all but the peripheral medium, which may be treated by a theory of controlled diffusion. A programme for the IBM 650 calculator has been based on this method. Some numerical results are presented. An equivalent matrix formulation, due to C. Guionnet, is given as an appendix. (author)

  10. The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

  11. Utilisation of simulation in industrial design and resulting business opportunities (SISU) - MASIT18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, M.; Leppaevuori, J.; Manninen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Valli, A.; Hasari, H.; Koistinen, A.; Leppaenen, S. (Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia, City of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)); Lahti, S. (EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    difficult problem in power plant tests has been the lack of critical measurements; therefore, the current emphasis of the study is two-phase MDR. Real-time application and preliminary semi-dynamic trials have also started. A simulation model for system testing has been made with InTouch and SQL. In this simulator it is possible to develop and test various automatic gross-error elimination and data warehouse strategies. In the case study of Fortum and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland - Flow rates in a peat power plant - the aim is to apply VTT's and Fortum's dynamical process simulation tool Apros to calculate flow rates, temperatures and pressures in peat drying process, which utilises the combustion gas of the power plant itself. This test case has been finalised and reported. The Apros tool was partially successful in answering the questions given by power plant operators. The biggest advantage of using Apros, compared to studying the minute-based process data from the plant itself, is that cause and effects are clearly distinguishable. It is relatively straightforward to calculate correlations and some more advanced measures between analysed process parameters, but it is difficult to reason out causes from all that data. The other important advantage is to study the plant in states which are encountered rarely or never in the typical use of the plant. Sometimes it might even be dangerous to run the plant in certain conditions, which are safely demonstrated by Apros

  12. The utilisation of the right of children to shelter to alleviate poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jansen van Rensburg

    2004-06-01

    their duty or the children are removed from their care. This does not in the least mean that the state has no responsibilities to children living with their parents. The state must still provide the framework in which parents can facilitate the realisation of their children's rights. The state can fulfil this obligation by taking reasonable legislative and other measures within its available resources to realise everyone's right of access to adequate housing progressively. Therefore, it is submitted that the measures taken to realise section 26 also indirectly ensures the realisation of children's right to basic shelter (section 28(1(c.It has been largely accepted by the courts and academics alike that all fundamental human rights are indivisible and interrelated. Clearly then, the state's obligations in terms of section 28(1(c cannot be properly interpreted without referring to the interpretation of those obligations conferred upon it by section 26(2 and the other socio-economic rights in the Constitution. Hence, section 28(1(c must be seen in the context of the Constitution as a whole. Put simply, the state must take reasonable legislative and other measures within its available resources to realise children's right to basic housing/shelter progressively.This article will focus on the utilisation of the right to shelter of the child to alleviate poverty. Essential to this discussion is an effective understanding of the right to basic shelter as entrenched by section 28 of the Constitution in conjunction with the right of access to adequate housing conferred on everyone by virtue of section 26. This will be achieved by studying the general working of such rights including their limitations and enforcement.

  13. Utilisation des extraits du café, du thé et la farine du caroubier pour l’obtention des nanoparticules de divers métaux

    OpenAIRE

    DAHMANI, Sabiha

    2014-01-01

    la nanotechnologie s'intéresse à la création ou la manipulation de particules et de matériaux ayant au moins une dimension nanométrique qui varie de 1à100 nm. on a ytilisé les produits suivants pour obtenir des nano-métaux avec une procédure douce et verte:le café,le thé et la farine du caroubier.et ces derniers contiennent des composés phénoliques qui jouent le roled'un agent réducteur et un composé chimique le nitrate d'argent

  14. Les produits de la mer se diversifient

    OpenAIRE

    Penez, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    L'idée qui prévaut dans l'opinion du public est la surexploitation de la mer. Or, seule une très faible partie de la biomasse marine est prélevée via les pêches et cultures marines. Traditionnellement appréciés pour leurs qualités nutritionnelles, les poissons représentent de surcroît une importante source de molécules dont les activités biologiques intéressent au plus haut point les industries pharmaceutiques et cosmétiques La part de ces molécules marines, comparée aux matières premières d'...

  15. Modélisation de la qualité du biogaz produit par un fermenteur méthanogène et stratégie de régulation en vue de sa valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    La digestion anaérobie implique un écosystème complexe qui dégrade progressivement la matière organique est la transforme en dioxyde de carbone et en (bio)méthane. Ce biogaz est une source d'énergie renouvelable dont l'utilisation s'inscrit dans une optique de développement durable. Le potentiel biogaz reste néanmoins sous-exploité à cause d'un manque d'outils adaptés pour garantir la pérennité des installations et mieux maîtriser la qualité du biogaz. Nous proposons des stratégies pour mieux...

  16. Modélisation de la qualité du biogaz produit par un fermenteur méthanogène et stratégie de régulation en vue de sa valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    La digestion anaérobie implique un écosystème complexe qui dégrade progressivement la matière organique est la transforme en dioxyde de carbone et en (bio)méthane. Ce biogaz est une source d´énergie renouvelable dont l´utilisation s´inscrit dans une optique de développement durable. Le potentiel biogaz reste néanmoins sous-exploité à cause d´un manque d´outils adaptés pour garantir la pérennité des installations et mieux maîtriser la qualité du biogaz. Nous proposons des stratégies pour mieux...

  17. Deux restaurants à New York: l'un franco-maghrébin, l'autre africain. Two restaurants in New York : one is Franco-Maghrebian, the other is African -Recent creations of "well-tempered" exoticisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Hassoun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article repose sur une enquête ethnographique conduite en 2008-2009 à Manhattan auprès de huit entrepreneurs devenus Chef et/ou managers de restaurant après avoir immigré à New York. Aucun d’entre eux n’a été formé dans une institution culinaire et tous proposent des cuisines de régions du monde (Afrique, Afrique du Nord encore absentes, ou peu présentes à New York. A partir de deux études de cas plus détaillées, l’auteur s’interroge sur les stratégies marchandes autour de cette altérité et les limites du cosmopolitisme propre au « globalisme ». La trajectoire du restaurateur se transforme en héritage par le biais d’un ego-récit qui s’utilise comme une ressource commerciale. Les restaurateurs intériorisent les désirs des clients. Plus que la recherche de goûts inconnus ou d’une altérité radicale imaginée comme authentique, ceux-ci veulent avant tout identifier les ingrédients ingérés, avoir une idée de leur provenance, et respecter un ensemble (instable de normes nutritionnelles subsumé aujourd’hui à Manhattan par la catégorie indigène healthy. Les restaurateurs anticipent ces désirs en opérant sur les plats un travail de retrait, de séparation et de substitution des ingrédients. L’exotisme s’est mis au régime.This paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork (november 2008-january 2009 in Manhattan with eight entrepreneurs who became Chef and/or restaurant manager after they immigrated in New York. Not any one has an academic culinary background and they all propose food from regions (Africa, and North Africa which are not yet offered (or not much offered in the city. The author stresses on two cases studies to question informal market strategies, cosmopolitanism and globalism limits. Restaurant owner’s trajectory – a narrative which becomes a heritage - is used as a market resource. Restaurants internalize and anticipate customers’ desires; In fact town people doesn

  18. Advice from the commission of electricity regulation dated from June 21, 2001 about the by-law fixing the conditions of purchase of the electricity produced by facilities that valorize household and assimilated wastes, using dump biogas. By-law from October 3, 2001 fixing the conditions of purchase of the electricity produced by facilities that valorize household and assimilated wastes using dump biogas; Avis de la commission de regulation de l'electricite en date du 21 juin 2001 sur l'arrete fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations qui valorisent des dechets menagers ou assimiles, en utilisant le biogaz de decharge. Arrete du 3 octobre 2001 fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations qui valorisent des dechets menagers ou assimiles en utilisant le biogaz de decharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about the tariffing of the electricity produced by biogas-fueled power plants taking into consideration the production costs and the energy and environmental efficiency of the energy process used. The CRE gives a favourable advice to the project of by-law fixing the conditions of purchase of the electricity produced by biogas-fueled power plants, provided that the energy efficiency incentive is raised to at least 10 euros/MWh and that some proposals of modifications are taken into consideration. The text of the by-law from October 3, 2001 is attached to the CRE's advice. (J.S.)

  19. Improvement of Heavy Oil Recovery in the VAPEX Process using Montmorillonite Nanoclays Amélioration de la récupération d’huile lourde par utilisation de nanoargiles de Montmorillonite dans le procédé VAPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourabdollah K.

    2011-10-01

    hydrocarbures dans les chambres balayees au cours des procedes VAPEX nano-assiste et conventionnel. Les experiences ont ete realisees en utilisant une huile lourde iranienne et du propane : le dispositif experimental consistait en deux cellules garnies de sable, l’une garnie uniquement avec des billes de verre en tant que milieu poreux et l’autre avec des billes de verre et de la montmorillonite modifiee en tant que nanoargile; les deux avaient la meme porosite et la meme permeabilite. La teneur en asphaltene depose dans les zones balayees, le profil de propagation des chambres de vapeur ainsi que les taux de consommation de solvant et de production d’huile ont ete determines. Les resultats ont mis en evidence que la montmorillonite a modifie l’heterogeneite du milieu poreux et a conduit a former des percees accrues, a augmenter la surface interfaciale solvant/bitume et a accelerer la production d’huile. Il s’est avere que non seulement le debit d’injection de solvant a ete diminue, mais que la recuperation d’huile lourde a egalement ete sensiblement accrue de 30 (±4 %.

  20. Quels paysages dans les images produites autour de l’itinéraire touristique Estrada Real (Minas Gerais, Brésil ? Que paisagens nas imagens produzidas ao redor do turista-Estrada Real (Minas Gerais, Brasil ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Beringuier

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Au-delà des clichés convenus et passablement contestables, les paysages du Brésil révèlent, à ceux qui s’en donnent la peine, un voyage diversifié à travers nature et culture d’un pays continent. Pour autant, la valorisation des paysages dans le domaine de l’activité touristique, en-dehors d’une consommation visuelle des hauts lieux, reste encore embryonnaire. L’Estrada Real, itinéraire touristique qui parcourt les états de São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro et du Minas Gerais sur près de 1200 km, a l’ambition de s’imposer comme le produit phare du tourisme rural et culturel brésilien. Initié en 1999, à grand renfort de publicité et de marketing, cet itinéraire procède à une mise en paysage des territoires traversés à travers différents supports dont le média principal est une iconographie luxueuse (beaux livres, revues en papier glacé, coffret de cartes postales. Dans ce contexte, nous nous sommes intéressés à la manière dont est traitée la question du paysage dans cette iconographique. Nous avons donc analysé la production d’une imagerie, sur la base d’un corpus limité aux cartes postales et revues éditées par l’Institut Estrada Real, pour en identifier et distinguer les natures des paysages montrés ainsi que les valeurs et qualités qui leurs sont attachés dans la promotion qui en est faîte. Il est assez étonnant de trouver une homogénéité paysagère exprimée par les différentes images produites et la quasi-absence des paysages ruraux, trame et fondement de ces territoires. Cet imagier sélectif offre une vision parfois simpliste et conformiste, particulièrement axée sur le patrimoine bâti, correspondant aux attentes des différentes cibles visées par ce produit touristique et impose donc une perspective paysagère mêlée d’un rien de nostalgique, d’une fierté patrimoniale et d’une esthétique où le décor sert de cadre à des activités ludo-sportives et au « bem estar

  1. Une approche de la conservation in situ par l’étude d’un système semencier informel : cas du cocotier au Vanuatu (Pacifique Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labouisse Jean-Pierre

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available L’amélioration génétique du cocotier (Cocos nucifera L. a été, jusqu’à présent, centrée sur l’augmentation de la productivité, exprimée en coprah par hectare, et accessoirement sur la recherche de résistance aux maladies. La voie de l’hybridation s’est révélée particulièrement efficace pour améliorer le rendement en coprah ainsi que la précocité de mise à fruit par le croisement d’écotypes Nains et Grands [1]. Cependant, d’autres caractéristiques comme la qualité gustative, l’aptitude à la transformation de la noix et l’utilisation des autres composantes de l’arbre ont été peu étudiées et n’ont pas fait l’objet de programmes d’amélioration élaborés comme pour le rendement en coprah. Or, les villageois des zones tropicales utilisent quotidiennement les différentes parties du cocotier pour, entre autres, la confection d’objets domestiques et artisanaux, de matériaux pour l’habitat ou pour la pharmacopée. Aussi observe-t-on, dans nombre de pays, une préférence marquée des communautés rurales pour les écotypes Grands locaux présentant un haut niveau de variabilité intrapopulation et fournissant une grande variété de produits sur une longue période avec un minimum de travail et d’intrants [2]. La volatilité et le faible niveau actuel des prix du coprah et de l’huile de coco sur le marché mondial renforcent l’idée d’une nécessaire diversification des produits du cocotier, notamment pour nombre de pays insulaires du Pacifique où le coprah constitue encore une part importante des ressources d’exportation et une des principales sources de revenus monétaires des populations rurales. Ces pays souffrent, en outre, d’un manque structurel de compétitivité dû à l’éloignement des grands centres de consommation internationaux, à la dispersion de la production de coprah dans les archipels et au coût relativement élevé du travail [3].

  2. By-law from October 2, 2001 fixing the conditions of purchase of the electricity produced by facilities that valorize household and assimilated wastes, with the exception of biogas-fueled facilities; Arrete du 2 octobre 2001 fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations qui valorisent des dechets menagers ou assimiles, a l'exception des installations utilisant du biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This French by-law from October 2, 2001 fixes the conditions of the contract and the principles of tariffing between the producer and the purchaser in the case of electricity produced by thermal power plants fueled with municipal wastes. (J.S.)

  3. Order fixing the purchase conditions of electric power produced by installations using the wind energy, as presented at the 2-2 section of the decree no.2000-1196 of the 6 december 2000; Arrete fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations utilisant l'energie mecanique du vent, telles que visees a l'article 2-2 du decret no. 2000-1196 du 6 decembre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the legislative text concerning the purchase conditions of electric power produced by wind energy. The concerned wind power plants characteristics are defined and the calculation of the tariffs are explained. (A.L.B.)

  4. Study and conception of the decay ring of a neutrino facility using the {beta} decays of the helium 6 and neon 18 nuclei produced by an intense beam of protons hitting various targets; Etude et conception de l'anneau de desintegration d'une usine a neutrinos utilisant les decroissances {beta} des noyaux helium 6 et neon 18 produits par un faisceau intense de protons frappant diverses cibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, A

    2007-09-15

    The study of the neutrino oscillation between its different flavours needs pure and very intense flux of energetic, well collimated neutrinos with a well determined energy spectrum. So, a dedicated machine seems necessary nowadays. Among the different concepts of neutrino facilities, the one which will be studied here, called Beta-Beams, lies on the neutrino production by beta decay of radioactive ions after their acceleration. More precisely, the thesis is focused on the study and the design of the race-track-shaped storage ring of the high energy ions. Its aim is to store the ions until decaying. After a brief description of the neutrino oscillation mechanism and a review of the different experiments, an introduction to the neutrino facility concept and more precisely to the Beta-Beams will be given. Then, the issues linked to the Beta-Beams will be presented. After a description of the beam transport formalism, a first design and the optical properties of the ring will be then given. The effects of the misalignment and of the field errors in the dipoles have been studied. The dynamic aperture optimization is then realized. Handling of the decay losses or the energy collimation scheme will be developed. The off-momentum injection needed in presence of a circulating beam will be explained. Finally, the specific radiofrequency program needed by the beam merging will be presented. (author)

  5. L’utilisation des strat��gies d’apprentissage d’une langue dans un environnement des TICE L’utilisation des stratégies d’apprentissage d’une langue dans un environnement des TICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Atlan

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude des différences individuelles qui caractérisent les apprenants s'intègre de plus en plus dans les travaux en didactique des langues. L'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage est un type de différences individuelles qui semble être assez sensible à l'environnement pédagogique. Cet article rend compte d'une étude expérimentale entreprise avec des étudiants français en IUT qui avait pour objectif de déterminer si l'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage par un apprenant de langues est influencée par la technologie de l'information et de la communication (TIC utilisée pour la présentation d'une tâche d'apprentissage. Le "Strategy Inventory for Language Learning" d'Oxford a été utilisé comme instrument lors de cette étude. L'étude a montré qu'il y a effectivement interaction entre la TIC utilisée et le choix de stratégies effectué par l'apprenant et les résultats permettent de tirer quelques conclusions quant à l'utilité d'un entraînement spécifique à l'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage en présence des technologies de l’information et de la communication pour l’enseignement (TICE.The study of the individual differences which characterize learners is becoming more and more common in language learning research, and the use of learning strategies is an instance of individual differences which seems to be rather sensitive to the pedagogical environment. This article reports on an experimental study undertaken with students in a French technical college to determine if the use of learning strategies by a foreign language student is influenced by the technology used to present a language learning task. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was the principal instrument used for this study. The study showed that there was indeed some interaction between the technology used and the choice of learning strategies and the results lead to some interesting considerations on the usefulness

  6. I may be a little partial (« Je suis peut-être un peu partiale »). Constructions d’images nationales de soi et des autres dans les Letters Writing During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark de Mary Wollstonecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Le récit de voyage de Mary Wollstonecraft, dont la première publication remonte à 1796, est remarquable à plus d’un titre ; une femme raconte d’une manière inhabituelle pour son époque un voyage extraordinaire. La thématisation explicite et le questionnement auto-réflexif sur les conventions du genre pour la description d’autres pays renforcent cette évaluation. Pourtant, on trouve aussi dans A Short Résidence des images nationales de soi et de l’étranger stéréotypées et typiques de leur époq...

  7. Utilisation et « présentation esthétique » des instruments de musique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sève

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available J’appelle « présentation esthétique » le fait, pour un artiste, de présenter certaines conditions ou certains moyens de son art dans les formes même de son art, de manière sensible (« esthétique » et non pas discursive. Dans certaines œuvres, le musicien présente esthétiquement certains instruments de musique : l’instrument n’est plus seulement au service de la musique, il est mis en avant pour lui-même. La musique devient alors l’instrument de son instrument. J’analyse de ce point de vue les Six Concerts à plusieurs instruments de Jean-Sébastien Bach et la série des seize Sequenze de Luciano Berio. Mais la distinction entre « utiliser » simplement un instrument et le « présenter » n’est pas simple. Il est difficile d’utiliser un instrument sans le présenter au moins tendanciellement, et impossible de le présenter sans l’utiliser. L’attention esthétique de l’auditeur a aussi sa part dans ce processus.I name « aesthetic display » (or « aesthetic presentation » : présentation esthétique the fact that an artist displays perceptibly (hence « aesthetic », but not discursively, some conditions or means specific to his art in the very forms this art takes. In certain musical pieces, some instruments are so displayed by the musician : in that case, the instrument is not put at use for the sake of music only, but also for its own sake. Music thus becomes the instrument of its instrument. I propose here to analyse both the Six concerts à plusieurs instruments by J.-S. Bach and the Sequenze by Luciano Berio with this view in mind. However, the distinction between the simple « use » of an instrument and its « aesthetic display » is not easy to grasp with clarity : it is indeed difficult to use an instrument without displaying it, or at least without tending toward displaying it, and it is impossible to display an instrument without using it. Furthermore, the aesthetic attention

  8. Unlimited access to health care - impact of psychosomatic co-morbidity on utilisation in German general practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henningsen Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of psychosomatic co-morbidity on resource use for systems with unlimited access remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on practice visits, referrals and periods of disability in German general practices and to identify predictors of health care utilisation. Methods Cross sectional observational study in 13 practices in Upper Bavaria. Patients were included consecutively and filled in the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Numbers of practice visits, referrals and periods of disability within the last twelve months and permanent mental and somatic diagnoses were extracted manually by review of the computerised charts. Physicians in Germany are obliged to document repetitive reasons of encounter as permanent diagnoses in terms of ICD-10-codes. These ICD-10-codes are used for legitimisation of reimbursement in German general practices. Results 1005 patients were included (58.6% female. On average, patients had 15.3 (sd 16.3 practice contacts, 3.8 (sd 4.2 referrals and 7.5 (sd 23.1 days of disability per year. The mean number of coded permanent diagnoses was 0.4 (sd 0.7 for mental and 4.0 (sd 4.0 for somatic diagnoses. Patients with mental diagnoses scored higher in depression, anxiety, panic and somatoform disorder scales of PHQ. Frequent practice visits were associated stronger with coded permanent mental diagnoses (OR 20.0; 95%CI 7.5-53.9 than with coded permanent somatic diagnoses (OR 14.4; 95%CI 5.9-35.4. Frequent referrals were associated stronger with somatic diagnoses (OR 4.9; 95%CI 2.0-11.9 than with mental diagnoses (OR 3.6; 95%CI 1.4-9.8. Periods of disability were predicted by mental diagnoses (OR 5.0; 95%CI 1.6-15.8 but not by somatic diagnoses (OR 2.5; 95%CI 0.7-8.1. Conclusions Psychosomatic co-morbidity has a stronger impact on health care utilisation in German general practices with respect to practice visits and periods of disability whereas somatic disorders play a

  9. Dietary Prebiotics and Probiotics Influence the Growth Performance, Feed Utilisation, and Body Indices of Snakehead (Channa striata) Fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Mohammad Bodrul; Hashim, Roshada; Abdul Manaf, Mohammad Suhaimee; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2016-08-01

    This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0.01% Lactobacillus acidophilus [LBA] powder) and a control (unsupplemented) diet; there were three replicates for each treatment. All diets contained 40% crude protein and 12% crude lipid. Fish were fed to satiation three times daily. No mortalities were recorded during Phase 1; however, 14% mortality was documented in the control and prebiotic-amended fish during Phase 2. At the end of Phase 1, growth performance and feed utilisation were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the LBA-treated fish, followed by live yeast treatment, compared with all other diets tested. The performance of fish on the three prebiotic diets were not significantly different from one another but was significantly higher than the control diet. During Phase 2 (the post-feeding phase), fish growth continued until the 6th week for the probiotic-based diets but levelled off after four weeks for the fish fed the prebiotic diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher in all treatments during the post-feeding period. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ significantly among the tested diets. The visceral somatic index (VSI) and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) were highest in the LBA-based diet and the control diet, respectively. The body indices were significantly different (p<0.05) between Phases 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that probiotic-based diets have a more positive influence on the growth, feed utilisation, and

  10. Differences between mono-generic and mixed diatom silicon isotope compositions trace present and past nutrient utilisation off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Kristin; Ehlert, Claudia; Grasse, Patricia; Crosta, Xavier; Fleury, Sophie; Frank, Martin; Schneider, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    In this study we combine for the first time silicon (Si) isotope compositions of small mixed diatom species (δ30SibSiO2) and of large handpicked mono-generic (i.e. genus = Coscinodiscus) diatom samples (δ30SiCoscino) with diatom assemblages extracted from marine sediments in the Peruvian upwelling region in order to constrain present and past silicate utilisation. The extension of a previous core-top data set from the Peruvian shelf demonstrates that δ30SiCoscino values record near-complete Si utilisation, as these are similar to the isotopic composition of the subsurface source waters feeding the upwelling. In contrast, the δ30SibSiO2 of small mixed diatom species increase southward along the shelf as well as towards the shore. We attribute highest δ30SibSiO2 values partly to transient iron limitation but primarily to the gradual increase of Si isotope fractionation within the seasonal diatom succession, which are mainly recorded by small diatom species during intense bloom events. In contrast, lower δ30SibSiO2 values are related to initial Si isotope utilisation during periods of weak upwelling, when low Si(OH)4 concentrations do not permit intense blooms and small diatom species record substantially lower δ30Si signatures. As such, we propose that the intensity of the upwelling can be deduced from the offset between δ30SibSiO2 and δ30SiCoscino (Δ30Sicoscino-bSiO2), which is low for strong upwelling conditions and high for prevailing weak upwelling. We apply the information extracted from surface sediments to generate a record of the present-day main upwelling region covering the past 17,700 years and find that this location has also been characterized by a persistent offset (Δ30Sicoscino-bSiO2). By comparison with the diatom assemblages we show that the coastal upwelling system changed markedly between weak and strong upwelling conditions. In addition, our model calculations to quantify species-specific Si isotope fractionation effects based on the

  11. Next Generation Solar Cells Based on Graded Bandgap Device Structures Utilising Rod-Type Nano-Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current solar cells under research and development utilise mainly one absorber layer limiting the photon harvesting capabilities. In order to develop next generation solar cells, research should move towards effective photon harvesting methods utilising low-cost solar energy materials. This will lead to reduce the $W−1 figure for direct solar energy conversion to electrical energy. In this work, a graded bandgap solar cell has been designed to absorb all photons from the UV, visible and IR regions. In addition, impurity PV effect and impact ionisation have been incorporated to enhance charge carrier creation within the same device. This new design has been experimentally tested using the most researched MOCVD grown GaAs/AlGaAs system, in order to confirm its validity. Devices with high Voc ~ 1175 mV and the highest possible FF ~ (0.85–0.87 have been produced, increasing the conversion efficiency to ~20% within only two growth runs. These devices were also experimentally tested for the existence of impurity PV effect and impact ionisation. The devices are PV active in complete darkness producing over 800 mV, Voc indicating the harvesting of IR radiation from the surroundings through impurity PV effect. The quantum efficiency measurements show over 140% signal confirming the contribution to PV action from impact ionisation. Since the concept is successfully proven, the low-cost and scalable electrodeposited semiconducting layers are used to produce graded bandgap solar cell structures. The utilisation of nano- and micro-rod type materials in graded bandgap devices are also presented and discussed in this paper. Preliminary work on glass/FTO/n-ZnS/n-CdS/n-CdTe/Au graded bandgap devices show 10%–12% efficient devices indicating extremely high Jsc values ~48 mA·cm−2, showing the high potential of these devices in achieving higher efficiencies. The detailed results on these low-cost and novel graded bandgap devices are presented in a separate

  12. Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Leif

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ≥1257 meters from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status. When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56. Conclusion Distance to the

  13. Endossement par les célébrités : Les annonces avec endosseur célèbre sont-elles plus efficaces que les annonces avec modèle inconnu et les annonces avec produit seul ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaoued-Abassi, Leyla; Chandon, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Cet article a pour objectif de comparer les réactions affectives cognitives et conatives aux annonces avec endosseur célèbre, par rapport aux annonces avec modèle inconnu et aux annonces avec produit seul. Les variables dépendantes sont l’attitude envers l’annonce, l’attitude envers la marque, la congruence avec l’image de soi et l’intention d’achat. Une quasi-expérimentation a été menée sur 2134 femmes. Les résultats montrent que les caractéristiques de la célébrité (crédibilité et congruenc...

  14. Support groups for dementia caregivers - Predictors for utilisation and expected quality from a family caregiver's point of view: A questionnaire survey PART I*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luttenberger Katharina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Support groups have proved to be effective in reducing the burden on family caregivers of dementia patients. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors that influence utilisation or quality expectations of family caregivers. These questions are addressed in the following paper. Methods The cross-sectional study was carried out as an anonymous written survey of family caregivers of dementia patients in Germany. Qualitative and quantitative data from 404 caregivers were analysed using content analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results The only significant predictor for utilisation is assessing how helpful support groups are for the individual care situation. Family caregivers all agree that psycho-educative orientation is a priority requirement. Conclusions In order to increase the rate of utilisation, family caregivers must be convinced of the relevant advantages of using support groups. Support groups which offer an exchange of experiences, open discussion, information and advice meet the requirements of family caregivers.

  15. Analysis of the patterns of deterioration of glasses in aqueous medium: joint utilisation of the SIMS and ESCA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows the advantage of the joint utilisation of the techniques of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and of photoelectron spectroscopy for the analysis of superficial layers of glasses subjected to deterioration. During an attack in the water, it is found that aluminium is attached to the surface of a float glass in a manner which seems independent of the concentration. A surface stratification, which suggests a corrosion mechanism, is observed. A second example deals with the deterioration of a phosphate glass in the presence of water. The presence of a surface precipitate of calcium phosphate is found above a layer of hydrated glass. The ESCA method makes it possible to specify that the apatite precipitate contains silicon or sodium

  16. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs...... to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December–February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than...... spawners, the prevalence was 12–29% and an intensity of 2.5–6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal...

  17. Utilisation of CO2, fixation of nitrogen and exhaust gas cleaning in electric discharge with electrode catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method reported here provides a contribution to CO2 utilisation, nitrogen fixation and combustion exhaust cleaning using synergetic effect of electric discharge with heterogeneous catalysis on electrodes. The efficiency of CO2 removal is about 40-65%. The process of CO2 removal is always accompanied by NOx, VOC, SX and other component removal and is connected with O2 formation. The final product of process is powder with fractal microstructure, low specific weight, water insoluble suitable for use as nitrogen containing fertilizer. The main component (95%) of solid product is amorphous condensate of amino acids with about 5% of metal organic compound with catalytic properties. The condensate has character of statistical proteinoid. Its creation seems to play important role during formation of life in pre-biotic Earth

  18. Détection et protection des visages en utilisant la bibliothèque OpenCV.

    OpenAIRE

    KHATER, KHADIDJA

    2015-01-01

    La détection de visages et de composantes faciales (les yeux, la bouche, le nez.....etc) a suscité récemment un intérêt grandissant vu la multitude d’applications qui en découlent en communication homme machine. L’objectif de ce projet est la détection des visages et des yeux dans une image numérique ou dans une scène vidéo capturée par une webcam en utilisant la bibliothèque visuelle OpenCV qui offre gratuitement des outils de programmation pour traiter des données en format image ou des ...

  19. Utilisation of an Air-conditioning System to Control the Levels of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Workplace Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From long-term real-time radon and radon progeny measurements taken in a relatively large retail store, cyclical patterns were evident, which were found to relate to the overriding influence of the timed air-conditioning system. Concentration of radon, radon progeny and the variability of F factor were found to depend significantly on the intermittent operation of this ventilation-air-conditioning system. After pressure equalisation remedial measures proved ineffective, the air-movement system was utilised to reduce the levels of radon and radon progeny to well within established norms applicable during working hours. It is demonstrated that the average levels for radon and radon progeny are reduced in absolute terms. This amounted to less than 12% of the general level, during designated work periods. Where air movement systems are already installed, as well as other circumstances, their regulation provides an economical solution to meeting legal and other standards for radon in the workplace. (author)

  20. Phosphorus Uptake and Utilisation Efficiencies of Different Wheat Cultivars Based on a Sand-Culture Screening System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A sand-based culture system using rock phosphate (P) was developed to simulate the situation in alkalinesoils, with respect to the dominant P form, and five wheat cultivars (Excalibur, Brookton, Krichauff, Westoniaand Sunco) were tested in this screening system to compare their P uptake and utilisation efficiencies. Resultsshowed that these cultivars differed significantly in their ability to acquire P from the sparingly available form(rock phosphate in this case). The accumulation of P by Brookton was three times that by Krichauff. Pconcentrations in plant tissues did not differ significantly, indicating that all cultivars were similar in Putilisation efficiency. A further experiment showed that the greater ability of a cultivar to take up P fromsparingly available form was related to the ability of a cultivar to acidify the rhizosphere. Seed P content wasa confounding factor in this system, and the use of relatively uniform seed with similar P content, preferablylow, was conducive to a successful outcome of the screening process.