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Sample records for autosomal dominant spinocerebellar

  1. Clinical neurogenetics: autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakkottai, Vikram G; Fogel, Brent L

    2013-11-01

    The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias are a diverse and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by degeneration and dysfunction of the cerebellum and its associated pathways. Clinical and diagnostic evaluation can be challenging because of phenotypic overlap among causes, and a stratified and systematic approach is essential. Recent advances include the identification of additional genes causing dominant genetic ataxia, a better understanding of cellular pathogenesis in several disorders, the generation of new disease models that may stimulate development of new therapies, and the use of new DNA sequencing technologies, including whole-exome sequencing, to improve diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Missense mutations in ITPR1 cause autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lijia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia is characterized by early gross motor delay, hypotonia, gait ataxia, mild dysarthria and dysmetria. The clinical presentation remains fairly stable and may be associated with cerebellar atrophy. To date, only a few families with autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia have been reported. Linkage to 3pter was demonstrated in one large Australian family and this locus was designated spinocerebellar ataxia type 29. The objective of this study is to describe an unreported Canadian family with autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia and to identify the underlying genetic causes in this family and the original Australian family. Methods and Results Exome sequencing was performed for the Australian family, resulting in the identification of a heterozygous mutation in the ITPR1 gene. For the Canadian family, genotyping with microsatellite markers and Sanger sequencing of ITPR1 gene were performed; a heterozygous missense mutation in ITPR1 was identified. Conclusions ITPR1 encodes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1, a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deletions of ITPR1 are known to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, a distinct and very slowly progressive form of cerebellar ataxia with onset in adulthood. Our study demonstrates for the first time that, in addition to spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, alteration of ITPR1 function can cause a distinct congenital nonprogressive ataxia; highlighting important clinical heterogeneity associated with the ITPR1 gene and a significant role of the ITPR1-related pathway in the development and maintenance of the normal functions of the cerebellum.

  3. The human dorsal spinocerebellar tract: myelinated fiber spectrum and fiber density in controls, autosomal dominant spinocerebellar atrophy, Huntington's chorea, radiation myelopathy, and diseases with peripheral sensory nerve involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringelstein, E.B.; Schroeder, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The human dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT) was evaluated morphometrically in 14 control cases of different age and sex using semithin sections of epon-embedded cross sections from the C3, T5, and T10 segments of the spinal cord. A bimodal fiber spectrum was revealed with one peak at 2-3 microns, and a second, broader peak at about 6-8 microns. Fiber density at C3 was 11,188 fibers/mm2 and at T5, 11,156 fibers/mm2. Regression analysis relating fiber density to age disclosed a highly significant loss of myelinated fibers at T5 amounting to about 2.5% per decade. A severe reduction of fiber density and a distinct change in the fiber spectrum with predominant loss of large myelinated fibers were noted in a case of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar atrophy with late onset, and, to a lesser degree, in a case of Huntington's chorea. A subtotal loss of fibers with a persistent normal distribution of fiber sizes was observed rostral to a focus of severe radiation myelopathy, indicating Wallerian degeneration of large numbers of fibers, and a reduction of fiber diameters caudal to the lesion, suggesting retrograde fiber change. By contrast, no primary or transneural changes in the DSCT were detected in six cases of long-term alcoholism, carcinomatous sensory neuropathy, and neurofibromatosis in spite of the involvement of numerous nerve roots.

  4. Autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Abeysekera, Gayan S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Tallaksen, Chantal ME; Dissanayake, Vajira HW

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. Prevalence of SCA subtypes differ worldwide. Autosomal dominant ataxias are the commonest types of inherited ataxias seen in Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to determine the genetic etiology of patients with autosomal dominant ataxia in Sri Lanka and to describe the clinical features of each genetic subtype. Methods ...

  5. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  6. Challenges in sleep stage R scoring in patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and oculomotor abnormalities: a whole night polysomnographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Doniparthi Venkata; Sasidharan, Arun; Kumar, Gulshan; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M; Yadav, Ravi

    2018-02-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive cerebellar features with additional neuro-axis involvement. Oculomotor abnormality is one of the most frequent manifestations. This study was done to assess the polysomnographic abnormalities in patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and also to evaluate whether oculomotor abnormalities interfere with sleep stage R scoring. The study was carried out using 36 genetically positive SCA patients. All patients underwent neurological examination with special focus on oculomotor function (optokinetic nystagmus-OKN and extraocular movement restriction-EOM). The sleep quality was measured with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Disease severity was assessed with International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). All the patients underwent over-night video-polysomnography (VPSG). Out of 36 patients studied, the data of 34 patients [SCA1 (n = 12), SCA2 (n = 13), SCA3 (n = 9)] were used for final analysis. Patients from SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 category did not show significant differences in age and diseases severity (ICARS). All patients had vertical OKN impairment. Oculomotor impairment was higher in SCA2 patients. Sleep macro-architecture analysis showed absent stage R sleep, predominantly in SCA2 (69%) followed by SCA3 (44%) and SCA1 (8%). Patients showed a strong negative correlation of stage R sleep percentage with disease severity and oculomotor dysfunction. Voluntary saccadic eye movement velocity and rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep are strongly correlated. The more severe the saccadic velocity impairment, the less likely was it to generate REMs (rapid eye movements) during stage R. Accordingly 69% of SCA2 patients with severe occulomotor impairments showed absent stage R as per the AASM sleep scoring. We presume that the impaired REMs generation in sleep could be due to oculomotor abnormality and has

  7. Autosomal dominant adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, Peter C.G.

    2011-01-01

    this thesis investigates a family with autosomal dominant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, with chapters on clinical neurology, neuropathology, neurogenetics, neurophysiology, auditory and visual aspects.

  8. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Director Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Autosomal ... other than the observation that 50 percent of children born to an affected parent would develop the disease. Diagnosis of well-established ...

  9. Autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis: An incidental finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajathi Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis is a descriptive term that refers to a group of rare, heritable disorders of the skeleton. Osteopetrotic conditions vary greatly in their presentation and severity, from just as an incidental finding on radiographs to causing life-threatening complications such as bone marrow suppression. It is caused by failure of osteoclast development and function. Osteopetrosis can be inherited as autosomal-recessive, autosomal-dominant or as X-linked traits, with the most severe forms being the autosomal-recessive ones. The severity of the disease is mild to moderate in the autosomal-dominant forms, with normal life expectancy. Diagnosis is largely based on clinical and radiographic evaluation. The present paper reports a case of autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis complicated by osteomyelitis with a short review of the condition.

  10. Autosomal dominant inheritance of Weaver syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, A; Smith, C; Rosenbloom, L; Cole, T

    1997-01-01

    Most report of Weaver syndrome have been sporadic cases and the genetic basis of the syndrome is uncertain. This report of an affected father and daughter provides evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant hypocalcemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individuals have features of a kidney disorder called Bartter syndrome in addition to hypocalcemia. These features can include ... sometimes referred to as autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with Bartter syndrome or Bartter syndrome type V. There are two ...

  12. Maculopathy and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebranchu, Pierre; Le Meur, Guylène; Magot, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia is a rare heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by cerebellar symptoms, often associated with other multisystemic signs. Mild optic neuropathy has been associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), but macular dysfunction has been reported...

  13. A novel missense mutation in CCDC88C activates the JNK pathway and causes a dominant form of spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Ho; Yu, Allen C S; Chen, Zhefan S; Ng, Nelson K N; Chan, Anne Y Y; Yuen, Liz Y P; Abrigo, Jill M; Tsang, Suk Ying; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tong, Tony M F; Lo, Ivan F M; Lam, Stephen T S; Mok, Vincent C T; Wong, Lawrence K S; Ngo, Jacky C K; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Chan, Ting-Fung; Chan, H Y Edwin

    2014-09-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse and autosomal-dominant disorders characterised by neurological deficits in the cerebellum. At present, there is no cure for SCAs. Of the different distinct subtypes of autosomal-dominant SCAs identified to date, causative genes for only a fraction of them are currently known. In this study, we investigated the cause of an autosomal-dominant SCA phenotype in a family that exhibits cerebellar ataxia and pontocerebellar atrophy along with a global reduction in brain volume. Whole-exome analysis revealed a missense mutation c.G1391A (p.R464H) in the coding region of the coiled-coil domain containing 88C (CCDC88C) gene in all affected individuals. Functional studies showed that the mutant form of CCDC88C activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, induces caspase 3 cleavage and triggers apoptosis. This study expands our understanding of the cause of autosomal-dominant SCAs, a group of heterogeneous congenital neurological conditions in humans, and unveils a link between the JNK stress pathway and cerebellar atrophy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia with atypical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D R; Fialkov, J A

    2002-03-01

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare genetic disorder of bone modelling characterised by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones, and abnormal modelling of the metaphyses. Clinically, autosomal dominant (AD) CMD is characterised by facial distortion and cranial-nerve compression. The goals of surgical treatment for AD CMD are cosmetic recontouring of the sclerotic craniofacial bones, correction of nasal obstruction and correction or prevention of neurological manifestations. We describe the successful correction of AD CMD craniofacial manifestations in an individual with atypical findings, and outline an approach for correcting the craniofacial deformities associated with this rare disorder. Copyright 2002 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  15. Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-09-01

    The term 'cortical tremor' was first introduced by Ikeda and colleagues to indicate a postural and action-induced shivering movement of the hands which mimics essential tremor, but presents with the electrophysiological findings of cortical reflex myoclonus. The association between autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME) was first recognized in Japanese families and is now increasingly reported worldwide, although it is described using different acronyms (BAFME, FAME, FEME, FCTE and others). The disease usually takes a benign course, although drug-resistant focal seizures or slight intellectual disability occur in some cases. Moreover, a worsening of cortical tremor and myoclonus is common in advanced age. Although not yet recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), this is a well-delineated epilepsy syndrome with remarkable features that clearly distinguishes it from other myoclonus epilepsies. Moreover, genetic studies of these families show heterogeneity and different susceptible chromosomal loci have been identified.

  16. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K.; Nielsen, J.E.; Fallentin, E.

    1997-01-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus...... callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a "corpus-callosum index" expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord...... at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and "corpus-callosum index" than controls. This finding, not reported previously...

  17. Autosomal Dominant Growth Hormone Deficiency (Type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Kular, Dalvir; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-06-01

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the commonest pituitary hormone deficiency resulting from congenital or acquired causes, although for most patients its etiology remains unknown. Among the known factors, heterozygous mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) lead to the autosomal dominant form of GHD, also known as type II GHD. In many cohorts this is the commonest form of congenital isolated GHD and is mainly caused by mutations that affect the correct splicing of GH-1. These mutations cause skipping of the third exon and lead to the production of a 17.5-kDa GH isoform that exerts a dominant negative effect on the secretion of the wild type GH. The identification of these mutations has clinical implications for the management of patients, as there is a well-documented correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the increased expression of the 17.5-kDa isoform. Patients with type II GHD have a variable height deficit and severity of GHD and may develop additional pituitary hormone defiencies over time, including ACTH, TSH and gonadotropin deficiencies. Therefore, their lifelong follow-up is recommended. Detailed studies on the effect of heterozygous GH1 mutations on the trafficking, secretion and action of growth hormone can elucidate their mechanism on a cellular level and may influence future treatment options for GHD type II.

  18. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krabbe, K.; Fallentin, E.; Herning, M.; Nielsen, J.E.; Fenger, K.

    1997-01-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a ''corpus-callosum index'' expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and ''corpus-callosum index'' than controls. This finding, not reported previously, might indicate that the disease process in pure HSP is not confined to the spinal cord. The anteroposterior diameters of the spinal cord at T 3 and T 9 were significantly smaller in patients than in controls. This might correspond to the degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and the dorsal columns described at neuropathological examination. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krabbe, K.; Fallentin, E.; Herning, M. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, Kettegaard alle 30, DK-2650 Hvidovre (Denmark); Nielsen, J.E.; Fenger, K. [Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Section of Neurogenetics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a ``corpus-callosum index`` expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and ``corpus-callosum index`` than controls. This finding, not reported previously, might indicate that the disease process in pure HSP is not confined to the spinal cord. The anteroposterior diameters of the spinal cord at T 3 and T 9 were significantly smaller in patients than in controls. This might correspond to the degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and the dorsal columns described at neuropathological examination. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome mimicking dominant spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Eino J H; Hakonen, Anna H; Korpela, Mari; Paetau, Anders; Suomalainen, Anu

    2012-04-15

    We studied the genetic background of a family with SCA, showing dominant inheritance and anticipation. Muscle histology, POLG1 gene sequence, neuropathology and mitochondrial DNA analyses in a mother and a son showed typical findings for a mitochondrial disorder, and both were shown to be homozygous for a recessive POLG1 mutation, underlying mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome, MIRAS. The healthy father was a heterozygous carrier for the same mutation. Recessively inherited MIRAS mutations should be tested in dominantly inherited SCAs cases of unknown cause, as the high carrier frequency of MIRAS may result in two independent introductions of the mutant allele in the family and thereby mimic dominant inheritance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant leukodystrophy with autonomic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have muscle stiffness (spasticity) or weakness and involuntary rhythmic shaking, called intention tremor because it worsens during ... Hobson G, Brusco A, Brussino A, Padiath QS. Analysis of LMNB1 duplications in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy provides ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... Epilepsy Society Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) GeneReviews (1 link) Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe ...

  4. Autosomal dominant frontometaphyseal dysplasia : Delineation of the clinical phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, Emma M.; Jenkins, Zandra A.; Daniel, Philip B.; Morgan, Tim; Addor, Marie C.; Ades, Lesley C.; Bertola, Debora; Bohring, Axel; Carter, Erin; Cho, Tae-Joon; de Geus, Christa M.; Duba, Hans-Christoph; Fletcher, Elaine; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Kim, Chong A.; Krakow, Deborah; Morava, Eva; Neuhann, Teresa; Sillence, David; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wilson, Louise C.; Markie, David M.; Robertson, Stephen P.

    Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene FLNA in approximately 50% of patients. Recently we characterized an autosomal dominant form of FMD (AD-FMD) caused by mutations in MAP3K7, which accounts for the condition in the majority of patients who

  5. Autosomal dominant frontometaphyseal dysplasia: Delineation of the clinical phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, Emma M.; Jenkins, Zandra A.; Daniel, Philip B.; Morgan, Tim; Addor, Marie C.; Adés, Lesley C.; Bertola, Debora; Bohring, Axel; Carter, Erin; Cho, Tae-Joon; de Geus, Christa M.; Duba, Hans-Christoph; Fletcher, Elaine; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Kim, Chong A.; Krakow, Deborah; Morava, Eva; Neuhann, Teresa; Sillence, David; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wilson, Louise C.; Markie, David M.; Robertson, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene FLNA in approximately 50% of patients. Recently we characterized an autosomal dominant form of FMD (AD-FMD) caused by mutations in MAP3K7, which accounts for the condition in the majority of patients who

  6. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Condition ADLTE ADPEAF Autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy Epilepsy, partial, with auditory features ETL1 Related Information ... W, Nakken KO, Fischer C, Steinlein OK. Familial temporal lobe epilepsy with aphasic seizures and linkage to chromosome 10q22- ...

  7. A further patient with Pai syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance?

    OpenAIRE

    Rudnik-Schöneborn, S; Zerres, K

    1994-01-01

    We report a patient with median cleft of the upper lip, cutaneous facial polyps, and lipoma of the corpus callosum who represents a further case of Pai syndrome. The father of the patient showed coloboma of the right iris and shared some facial dysmorphism with his son, thus raising the question of autosomal dominant inheritance.

  8. Case report: Autosomal dominant non-epidermolytic palmoplantar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a hereditary cutaneous disorder characterized by a marked hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. A variant that was inherited in an autosomal dominant form was highlighted in a 20-month-old girl-child. The proband was brought to the Paediatric Outpatient Department by her mother ...

  9. Gene therapy in animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Brian; Mao, Haoyu

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy for dominantly inherited genetic disease is more difficult than gene-based therapy for recessive disorders, which can be treated with gene supplementation. Treatment of dominant disease may require gene supplementation partnered with suppression of the expression of the mutant gene either at the DNA level, by gene repair, or at the RNA level by RNA interference or transcriptional repression. In this review, we examine some of the gene delivery approaches used to treat animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, focusing on those models associated with mutations in the gene for rhodopsin. We conclude that combinatorial approaches have the greatest promise for success. PMID:23077406

  10. Autosomal dominant arteriopathy with sub cortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, Adriana; Tiezzi, Gerardo; Uriarte, Ana M.; Eguren, Leonor

    2002-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with sub cortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CASADIL) is a systemic hereditary, vascular disease that involves small arteries. Recurrent ischemia, pseudo bulbar paralysis and dementia are characteristic. Other manifestations include migraine and depression. We report an Argentine family with VI generations with evidence of disease in IV. MR examinations were performed on 21 family members (both symptomatic and asymptomatic). The main findings on MR on symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were small lesions with high signal on T2 localised in periventricular white matter, brain stem, basal ganglia and thalamus, and confluent patches on white matter although with high signal on T2 images, usually symmetric. In conclusion we can assess that diffuse myelin loss and small infarcts occurring in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy well demonstrated with MR. In addition, some of the abnormalities in pre symptomatic patients can be identified on MR images. (author)

  11. Mutations in AAGAB underlie autosomal dominant punctate palmoplantar keratoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinani, N; Ali, M; Liu, L; McGrath, J; Mellerio, J

    2017-04-01

    Punctate palmoplantar keratoderma type 1 (PPPK1) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited skin disease, characterized by multiple hyperkeratotic lesions on the palms and soles. The causative gene for PPPK1 has been identified as AAGAB, which encodes α- and γ-adaptin-binding protein p34. We describe the clinical features in three unrelated families with PPPK1, and report three recurrent causative mutations in AAGAB. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Autosomal dominant syndrome resembling Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Maureen A; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2006-06-15

    Coffin-Siris syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome with phenotypic variability [OMIM 135900]. The diagnosis is based solely on clinical findings, as there is currently no molecular, biochemical, or cytogenetic analysis available to confirm a diagnosis. Although typically described as an autosomal recessive disorder, autosomal dominant inheritance has also been infrequently reported. We describe a mother and her two daughters who all have features that resemble Coffin-Siris syndrome. However, this is not a completely convincing diagnosis given that hypertelorism is not a feature of Coffin-Siris syndrome and the family is relatively mildly affected. Yet, this family provides further evidence of an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for a likely variant of Coffin-Siris syndrome (at least in some families). In addition, Sibling 1 had premature thelarche. She is the second reported individual within the spectrum of Coffin-Siris syndrome to have premature thelarche, indicating that it may be a rare clinical feature. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance of ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohena, Luis; Kuehn, Devon; Marchegiani, Shannon; Higginson, Jason D

    2011-04-01

    Ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome (AMS) is characterized by absent or short eyelids, macrostomia, ear anomalies, absent lanugo and hair, redundant skin, abnormal genitalia, and developmental delay in two-thirds of the reported patients. Additional anomalies include dry skin, growth retardation, hearing loss, camptodactyly, hypertelorism, absent zygomatic arches, and umbilical abnormalities. We present the second familial case of ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome in a newborn female and her 22-year-old father making autosomal dominant inheritance more likely than the previously proposed autosomal recessive transmission for this disorder. These cases likely represent the 16th and 17th reported cases of AMS and the first case suspected on prenatal ultrasound. Additionally, the child shows more prominent features of the disorder when compared to her father documenting variable expression and possible anticipation. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Novel autosomal dominant TNNT1 mutation causing nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konersman, Chamindra G; Freyermuth, Fernande; Winder, Thomas L; Lawlor, Michael W; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Patel, Shailendra B

    2017-11-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NEM) is one of the three major forms of congenital myopathy and is characterized by diffuse muscle weakness, hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and the presence of nemaline rod structures on muscle biopsy. Mutations in troponin T1 (TNNT1) is 1 of 10 genes known to cause NEM. To date, only homozygous nonsense mutations or compound heterozygous truncating or internal deletion mutations in TNNT1 gene have been identified in NEM. This extended family is of historical importance as some members were reported in the 1960s as initial evidence that NEM is a hereditary disorder. Proband and extended family underwent Sanger sequencing for TNNT1. We performed RT-PCR and immunoblot on muscle to assess TNNT1 RNA expression and protein levels in proband and father. We report a novel heterozygous missense mutation of TNNT1 c.311A>T (p.E104V) that segregated in an autosomal dominant fashion in a large family residing in the United States. Extensive sequencing of the other known genes for NEM failed to identify any other mutant alleles. Muscle biopsies revealed a characteristic pattern of nemaline rods and severe myofiber hypotrophy that was almost entirely restricted to the type 1 fiber population. This novel mutation alters a residue that is highly conserved among vertebrates. This report highlights not only a family with autosomal dominant inheritance of NEM, but that this novel mutation likely acts via a dominant negative mechanism. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pathogenesis and potential therapy of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Melnyk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a hereditary disease characterized by progressive growth of the cyst and an increase in the total volume of the kidneys which leads to kidney failure. The main causes of ADPKD are mutations in the genes PKD1 and PKD2 which encode the formation of polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 proteins. There is a connection between structural and functional defects in the primary cilia with the ADPKD. The most promising drugs for the treatment of ADPKD today are vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists, m-TOR and c-AMP inhibitors.

  16. Identification of IFRD1 variant in a Han Chinese family with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia associated with peripheral neuropathy and ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pengfei; Zhang, Dong; Xu, Guangrun; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2018-04-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of autosomal dominant, clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. SCA18 is a rare autosomal dominant sensory/motor neuropathy with ataxia (OMIM#607458) associated with a single missense variant c.514 A>G in the interferon related developmental regulator 1 (IFRD1) gene previously reported in a five-generation American family of Irish origin. However, to date, there have been no other reports of the IFRD1 mutation to confirm its role in SCA. Here, we report a Han Chinese family with SCA18; the family members presented with a slowly progressing gait ataxia, pyramidal tract signs, and peripheral neuropathy. We identified a missense variant (c.514 A>G, p.I172V) in IFRD1 gene in the family using targeted next-generation sequencing and Sanger direct sequencing with specific primers. Our results suggest that the IFRD1 gene may be the causative allele for SCA18.

  17. Speech in spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalling, Ellika; Hartelius, Lena

    2013-12-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias clinically characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria and a range of other concomitant neurological symptoms. Only a few studies include detailed characterization of speech symptoms in SCA. Speech symptoms in SCA resemble ataxic dysarthria but symptoms related to phonation may be more prominent. One study to date has shown an association between differences in speech and voice symptoms related to genotype. More studies of speech and voice phenotypes are motivated, to possibly aid in clinical diagnosis. In addition, instrumental speech analysis has been demonstrated to be a reliable measure that may be used to monitor disease progression or therapy outcomes in possible future pharmacological treatments. Intervention by speech and language pathologists should go beyond assessment. Clinical guidelines for management of speech, communication and swallowing need to be developed for individuals with progressive cerebellar ataxia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Autosomal dominant distal myopathy: Linkage to chromosome 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laing, N.G.; Laing, B.A.; Wilton, S.D.; Dorosz, S.; Mastaglia, F.L.; Kakulas, B.A. [Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute, Perth (Australia); Robbins, P.; Meredith, C.; Honeyman, K.; Kozman, H.

    1995-02-01

    We have studied a family segregating a form of autosomal dominant distal myopathy (MIM 160500) and containing nine living affected individuals. The myopathy in this family is closest in clinical phenotype to that first described by Gowers in 1902. A search for linkage was conducted using microsatellite, VNTR, and RFLP markers. In total, 92 markers on all 22 autosomes were run. Positive linkage was obtained with 14 of 15 markers tested on chromosome 14, with little indication of linkage elsewhere in the genome. Maximum two-point LOD scores of 2.60 at recombination fraction .00 were obtained for the markers MYH7 and D14S64 - the family structure precludes a two-point LOD score {ge} 3. Recombinations with D14S72 and D14S49 indicate that this distal myopathy locus, MPD1, should lie between these markers. A multipoint analysis assuming 100% penetrance and using the markers D14S72, D14S50, MYH7, D14S64, D14S54, and D14S49 gave a LOD score of exactly 3 at MYH7. Analysis at a penetrance of 80% gave a LOD score of 2.8 at this marker. This probable localization of a gene for distal myopathy, MPD1, on chromosome 14 should allow other investigators studying distal myopathy families to test this region for linkage in other types of the disease, to confirm linkage or to demonstrate the likely genetic heterogeneity. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Autism in siblings with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tomoko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Saito, Keiko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-02-01

    In 1999, Hirose et al. reported a Japanese family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) associated with a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit mutation (S252L). We followed the siblings of this family, and found that the elder brother had Asperger's disorder without mental retardation (MR) and the younger brother had autistic disorder with profound MR. The clinical epileptic features of the siblings were very similar, and both had deficits in socialization, but their cognitive development differed markedly. It thus seems that epilepsy is the direct phenotype of the S252L mutation, whereas other various factors modulate the cognitive and social development. No patients with ADNFLE have previously been reported to have autism spectrum disorder or profound MR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Autosomal dominant inheritance Caffey-Silverman disease hyperostosis corticalis infantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogoyski, A.; Jakubowska, K.; Tronowska, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    A case of Caffey-Silverman disease is described in an infant aged 4.5 months. The case was erroneously diagnosed in the initial stage of the disease as osteitis. The correct diagnosis was established after radiological examination of the skeleton. The pathological lesions involved the mandible, both clavicles, all ribs, left shoulder blade, both radial bones and left ulna. Follow-up radiological examination after 12 months demonstrated nearly complete disappearance of the previously observed skeletal changes. At the age of 18 months the condition of the child was good and its development was normal. Radiological changes indicating past Caffey-Silverman disease were disclosed in the mother and maternal grandmother of the child. This indicates an autosomal dominant type of inheritance of the disease. (Author)

  1. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type I: A review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujioka Shinsuke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Type I autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA characterized by ataxia with other neurological signs, including oculomotor disturbances, cognitive deficits, pyramidal and extrapyramidal dysfunction, bulbar, spinal and peripheral nervous system involvement. The global prevalence of this disease is not known. The most common type I ADCA is SCA3 followed by SCA2, SCA1, and SCA8, in descending order. Founder effects no doubt contribute to the variable prevalence between populations. Onset is usually in adulthood but cases of presentation in childhood have been reported. Clinical features vary depending on the SCA subtype but by definition include ataxia associated with other neurological manifestations. The clinical spectrum ranges from pure cerebellar signs to constellations including spinal cord and peripheral nerve disease, cognitive impairment, cerebellar or supranuclear ophthalmologic signs, psychiatric problems, and seizures. Cerebellar ataxia can affect virtually any body part causing movement abnormalities. Gait, truncal, and limb ataxia are often the most obvious cerebellar findings though nystagmus, saccadic abnormalities, and dysarthria are usually associated. To date, 21 subtypes have been identified: SCA1-SCA4, SCA8, SCA10, SCA12-SCA14, SCA15/16, SCA17-SCA23, SCA25, SCA27, SCA28 and dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA. Type I ADCA can be further divided based on the proposed pathogenetic mechanism into 3 subclasses: subclass 1 includes type I ADCA caused by CAG repeat expansions such as SCA1-SCA3, SCA17, and DRPLA, subclass 2 includes trinucleotide repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding regions of the disease gene including SCA8, SCA10 and SCA12. Subclass 3 contains disorders caused by specific gene deletions, missense mutation, and nonsense mutation and includes SCA13, SCA14, SCA15/16, SCA27 and SCA28. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, physical

  2. A Japanese Family With Autosomal Dominant Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Ryoko; Yamada, Kisaburo; Nakano, Satoko; Kimoto, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Ken; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Toshiaki

    2017-02-01

    We report the clinical characteristics of a Japanese family with autosomal dominant oculocutaneous albinism and a SLC45A2 gene mutation. A total of 16 members of a Japanese family with general hypopigmentation and foveal hypoplasia underwent detailed clinical examinations. We evaluated the severity of foveal hypoplasia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and graded it according to the criteria of Thomas et al. DNA was extracted from 17 family members and used for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and linkage analysis. Mutational search was performed for the SLC45A2 gene responsible for oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). All 16 patients exhibited hypopigmentation of their hair and/or iris. They showed foveal hypoplasia, including 3 patients with grade 1 foveal hypoplasia, 7 with grade 2, and 6 with grade 3. No patient had grade 4 foveal hypoplasia. Optical coherence tomography showed macular ganglion cell complex thinning in the temporal area, and a slight reduction of visual field sensitivity in the centrotemporal area. A maximum multipoint parametric logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of approximately 2.00 to 3.56 was obtained on chromosome 5, spanning approximately 7.2 Mb between rs13187570 and rs395967 that included the SLC45A2 gene. All affected members showed a novel heterozygous variant, c.208T>C (p.Y70H), in the SLC45A2 gene, which supported a diagnosis of OCA4. The present study reports a very rare family with autosomal dominant OCA4 whose diagnosis was confirmed by a mutational analysis. Most family members exhibited mild general hypopigmentation and low-grade foveal hypoplasia.

  3. Monozygotic twins with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowell HA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hannah A Rowell,1,2 Alexander G Bassuk,3,4 Vinit B Mahajan1,21Omics Laboratory, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 3Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in a set of monozygotic twins with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV over a 23-year period.Methods: A pair of female twins were examined between 26 and 49 years of age. The concordance and discordance of their clinical features were determined. The CAPN5 gene was sequenced using genomic DNA.Results: Both twins of an affected father demonstrated Stage I ADNIV with mild vitreous cells and a negative b-wave on electroretinography. Genetic analysis confirmed a guanine to thymine nucleotide (c.728G>T, pArg243Leu mutation in the CAPN5 gene. Over the course of 23 years, each twin progressed to stage III disease, showing posterior uveitis, cystoid macular edema, intraocular fibrosis, early retinal neovascularization, retinal degeneration, and cataract. Disease progression varied moderately between each twin and was asymmetrical between eyes. Twin A had 20/70 and 20/125 in the right and left eye, respectively, and underwent vitrectomy surgery and intravitreal injections with bevacizumab for recurrent cystoid macular edema. Twin B maintained 20/20 and 20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively without intervention.Conclusion: There was asymmetry between the eyes and some discordance in the rate of disease progression in these monozygotic twins with ADNIV. The overall high disease concordance suggests genetic factors play a major role in clinical manifestations in CAPN5 vitreoretinopathy.Keywords: autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy, ADNIV, CAPN5, calpain-5, monozygotic twins

  4. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake

  5. Genes and Mutations Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiger, Stephen P.; Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has a prevalence of approximately one in 4000; 25%–30% of these cases are autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Like other forms of inherited retinal disease, adRP is exceptionally heterogeneous. Mutations in more than 25 genes are known to cause adRP, more than 1000 mutations have been reported in these genes, clinical findings are highly variable, and there is considerable overlap with other types of inherited disease. Currently, it is possible to detect disease-causing mutations in 50%–75% of adRP families in select populations. Genetic diagnosis of adRP has advantages over other forms of RP because segregation of disease in families is a useful tool for identifying and confirming potentially pathogenic variants, but there are disadvantages too. In addition to identifying the cause of disease in the remaining 25% of adRP families, a central challenge is reconciling clinical diagnosis, family history, and molecular findings in patients and families. PMID:25304133

  6. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P. [Disciplina de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  7. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Counseling in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin L; Droher, Madeline L; DiMaio, Miriam S; Dahl, Neera K

    2018-03-30

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common hereditary forms of chronic kidney disease. Mutations within PKD1 or PKD2 lead to innumerable fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys and in some instances, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Affected individuals have a 50% chance of passing the mutation to each of their offspring. Assisted reproductive technology using preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows these individuals to reduce this risk to 1% to 2%. We assess the disease burden of 8 individuals with ADPKD who have undergone genetic testing in preparation for PGD. Clinical features that predict high risk for progression to ESRD in patients with ADPKD include genotype, early onset of hypertension, a urologic event before age 35 years, and a large height-adjusted total kidney volume. Patients may have a family history of intracranial aneurysms or complications involving hepatic cysts, which may further influence the decision to pursue PGD. We also explore the cost, risks, and benefits of using PGD. All patients with ADPKD of childbearing potential, regardless of risk for progression to ESRD or risk for a significant disease burden, will likely benefit from genetic counseling. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autosomal dominant familial erythrocytosis due to autonomous erythropoietin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distelhorst, C.W.; Wagner, D.S.; Goldwasser, E.; Adamson, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A family is described in which four members spanning three consecutive generations have erythrocytosis associated with a normal hemoglobin oxygen affinity. When bone marrow from one affected family member was cultured in vitro, erythroid colonies formed only when erythropoietin was added to the culture. Serum erythropoietin, measured by radioimmunoassay, was significantly elevated above normal in each of the affected family members. Bioassayable erythropoietin was detected in the urine of two of the three affected family members. In two of the affected family members, erythropoietin was measured in serum by radioimmunoassay and in urine by bioassay before and for 4 days following an isovolemic phlebotomy, which reduced the red cell mass by 20%. Neither serum nor urinary erythropoietin levels changed following phlebotomy. The erythrocytosis in this family appears to be secondary to inappropriately increased erythropoietin production unassociated with a decrease in the blood oxygen-carrying capacity. This is the first instance in which autonomous erythropoietin production appears to be inherited on an autosomal dominant basis

  9. Is Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Becoming a Pediatric Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie De Rechter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD affects 1 in 400 to 1,000 live births, making it the most common monogenic cause of renal failure. Although no definite cure is available yet, it is important to affect disease progression by influencing modifiable factors such as hypertension and proteinuria. Besides this symptomatic management, the only drug currently recommended in Europe for selected adult patients with rapid disease progression, is the vasopressin receptor antagonist tolvaptan. However, the question remains whether these preventive interventions should be initiated before extensive renal damage has occurred. As renal cyst formation and expansion begins early in life, frequently in utero, ADPKD should no longer be considered an adult-onset disease. Moreover, the presence of hypertension and proteinuria in affected children has been reported to correlate well with disease severity. Until now, it is controversial whether children at-risk for ADPKD should be tested for the presence of the disease, and if so, how this should be done. Herein, we review the spectrum of pediatric ADPKD and discuss the pro and contra of testing at-risk children and the challenges and unmet needs in pediatric ADPKD care.

  10. Monozygotic twins with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Hannah A; Bassuk, Alexander G; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in a set of monozygotic twins with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV) over a 23-year period. A pair of female twins were examined between 26 and 49 years of age. The concordance and discordance of their clinical features were determined. The CAPN5 gene was sequenced using genomic DNA. Both twins of an affected father demonstrated Stage I ADNIV with mild vitreous cells and a negative b-wave on electroretinography. Genetic analysis confirmed a guanine to thymine nucleotide (c.728G>T, pArg243Leu) mutation in the CAPN5 gene. Over the course of 23 years, each twin progressed to stage III disease, showing posterior uveitis, cystoid macular edema, intraocular fibrosis, early retinal neovascularization, retinal degeneration, and cataract. Disease progression varied moderately between each twin and was asymmetrical between eyes. Twin A had 20/70 and 20/125 in the right and left eye, respectively, and underwent vitrectomy surgery and intravitreal injections with bevacizumab for recurrent cystoid macular edema. Twin B maintained 20/20 and 20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively without intervention. There was asymmetry between the eyes and some discordance in the rate of disease progression in these monozygotic twins with ADNIV. The overall high disease concordance suggests genetic factors play a major role in clinical manifestations in CAPN5 vitreoretinopathy.

  11. Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis: Genetics, phenotype, and natural history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.

  12. Subjective memory complaints in preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Daniel J; Amariglio, Rebecca; Protas, Hillary; Chen, Kewei; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Pulsifer, Brendan; Castrillon, Gabriel; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Tariot, Pierre; Langbaum, Jessica B; Reiman, Eric M; Lopera, Francisco; Sperling, Reisa A; Quiroz, Yakeel T

    2017-10-03

    To cross-sectionally study subjective memory complaints (SMC) in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). We examined self-reported and study partner-based SMC in 52 young, cognitively unimpaired individuals from a Colombian kindred with early-onset ADAD. Twenty-six carried the PSEN-1 E280A mutation, averaging 7 years of age younger than the kindred's expected clinical onset. Twenty-six were age-matched noncarriers. Participants also underwent structural MRI and cognitive testing. Self-reported SMC were greater in carriers than noncarriers ( p = 0.02). Study partner-based SMC did not differ between groups ( p = 0.21), but in carriers increased with age ( r = 0.66, p < 0.001) and decreased with hippocampal volume ( r = -0.35, p = 0.08). Cognitively unimpaired PSEN-1 carriers have elevated SMC. Self-reported SMC may be a relatively early indicator of preclinical AD, while partner- reported SMC increases later in preclinical AD, closer to clinical onset. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation.

  14. Chorioretinal dysplasia-microcephaly-mental retardation syndrome : Another family with autosomal dominant inheritance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, R; VandeLogt, F; Houtman, WA; VanEssen, AJ

    1996-01-01

    We describe a boy and his father with the chorioretinal dysplasia-microcephaly-mental retardation syndrome (CDMMS). Our report extends the phenotypic spectrum of autosomal dominant CDMMS by describing microphthalmia for the first time in an autosomal dominant family. The boy was also severely

  15. Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Bastos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is one of the most common human life-threatening monogenic disorders. The disease is characterized by bilateral, progressive renal cystogenesis and cyst and kidney enlargement, often leading to end-stage renal disease, and may include extrarenal manifestations. ADPKD is caused by mutation in one of two genes, PKD1 and PKD2, which encode polycystin-1 (PC1 and polycystin-2 (PC2, respectively. PC2 is a non-selective cation channel permeable to Ca2+, while PC1 is thought to function as a membrane receptor. The cyst cell phenotype includes increased proliferation and apoptosis, dedifferentiation, defective planar polarity, and a secretory pattern associated with extracellular matrix remodeling. The two-hit model for cyst formation has been recently extended by the demonstration that early gene inactivation leads to rapid and diffuse development of renal cysts, while inactivation in adult life is followed by focal and late cyst formation. Renal ischemia/reperfusion, however, can function as a third hit, triggering rapid cyst development in kidneys with Pkd1 inactivation induced in adult life. The PC1-PC2 complex behaves as a sensor in the primary cilium, mediating signal transduction via Ca2+ signaling. The intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is impaired in ADPKD, being apparently responsible for the cAMP accumulation and abnormal cell proliferative response to cAMP. Activated mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR and cell cycle dysregulation are also significant features of PKD. Based on the identification of pathways altered in PKD, a large number of preclinical studies have been performed and are underway, providing a basis for clinical trials in ADPKD and helping the design of future trials.

  16. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) : widespread brain damage in an adult-onset patient with progressive visual impairments in comparison with an adult-onset patient without visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueb, U.; Brunt, E. R.; Seidel, K.; Gierga, K.; Mooy, C. M.; Kettner, M.; Van Broeckhoven, C.; Bechmann, I.; La Spada, A. R.; Schoels, L.; den Dunnen, W.; de Vos, R. A. I.; Deller, T.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) represents a rare and severe autosomal dominantly inherited ataxic disorder and is among the known CAG-repeat, or polyglutamine, diseases. In contrast to other currently known autosomal dominantly inherited ataxic disorders, SCA7 may manifest itself with

  17. Oculopharyngeal Weakness, Hypophrenia, Deafness, and Impaired Vision: A Novel Autosomal Dominant Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We reported a novel autosomal dominant myopathy with rimmed vacuoles characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, external ophthalmoplegia, limb weakness, hypophrenia, deafness, and impaired vision, but the causative gene has not been found and needs further study.

  18. A newly recognized autosomal dominant limb girdle muscular dystrophy with cardiac involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, A. J.; Ledderhof, T. M.; de Voogt, W. G.; Res, C. J.; Bouwsma, G.; Troost, D.; Busch, H. F.; Becker, A. E.; de Visser, M.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-five members of three families with limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) underwent neurological, cardiological, and ancillary investigations. Thirty-five individuals were diagnosed as having slowly progressive autosomal dominant LGMD. Symmetrical weakness started in the proximal lower limb

  19. Imaging of the Macula Indicates Early Completion of Structural Deficit in Autosomal-Dominant Optic Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Milea, Dan; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables 3-dimensional imaging of the retina, including the layer of ganglion cells that supplies the optic nerve with its axons. We tested OCT as means of diagnosing and phenotyping autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (ADOA)....

  20. An 11-Year-Old Child with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Who Presented with Nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Firinci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease become symptomatic and are diagnosed usually at adulthood. The rate of nephrolithiasis in these patients is 5–10 times the rate in the general population, and both anatomic and metabolic abnormalities play role in the formation of renal stones. However, nephrolithiasis is rare in childhood age group. In this paper, an 11-year-old child with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with nephrolithiasis is discussed.

  1. Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia with peripheral neuropathy maps to chr12q23-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, R; Bonin, M; Dürr, A; Forlani, S; Sperfeld, A D; Klimpe, S; Mueller, J C; Seibel, A; van de Warrenburg, B P; Bauer, P; Schöls, L

    2009-06-02

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are genetically exceedingly heterogeneous. To date, 37 genetic loci for HSP have been described (SPG1-41), among them 16 loci for autosomal dominant disease. Notwithstanding, further genetic heterogeneity is to be expected in HSP, as various HSP families do not link to any of the known HSP loci. In this study, we aimed to map the disease locus in a German family segregating autosomal dominant complicated HSP. A genome-wide linkage analysis was performed using the GeneChip Mapping 10Kv2.0 Xba Array containing 10,204 SNP markers. Suggestive loci were further analyzed by mapping of microsatellite markers. One locus on chromosome 12q23-24, termed SPG36, was confirmed by high density microsatellite fine mapping with a significant LOD score of 3.2. SPG36 is flanked by markers D12S318 and D12S79. Linkage to SPG36 was excluded in >20 additional autosomal dominant HSP families. Candidate genes were selected and sequenced. No disease-causing mutations were identified in the coding regions of ATXN2, HSPB8, IFT81, Myo1H, UBE3B, and VPS29. SPG36 is complicated by a sensory and motor neuropathy; it is therefore the eighth autosomal dominant subtype of complicated HSP. We report mapping of a new locus for autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) (SPG36) on chromosome 12q23-24 in a German family with autosomal dominant HSP complicated by peripheral neuropathy.

  2. Cellular Energy Pathways as Novel Targets for the Therapy of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0419 TITLE: Cellular Energy Pathways as Novel Targets for the Therapy of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease...COVERED 1 Sep 2016 - 31 Aug 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cellular Energy Pathways as Novel Targets for the Therapy of Autosomal...inappropriate cell growth, fluid secretion, and dysregulation of cellular energy metabolism. The enzyme AMPK regulates a number of cellular pathways, including

  3. Clinical and Radiological Findings of Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Type II: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited genetic disease characterized by sclerosis of the skeleton caused by the absence or malfunction of osteoclasts. Three distinct forms of the disease have been recognized, autosomal dominant osteopetrosis being the most common. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis exhibits a heterogeneous trait with milder symptoms, often at later childhood or adulthood. The aim of this case report is to present the clinical and radiographic features of a 35-year-old female patient with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II who exhibited features of chronic generalised periodontitis, and the radiographs revealed generalised osteosclerosis and hallmark radiographic features of ADO type II, that is, “bone-within-bone appearance” and “Erlenmeyer-flask deformity.”

  4. Management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and anatomy of renal innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellman, Matthew W; Bahler, Clinton D; Shumate, Ashley M; Bacallao, Robert L; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2015-05-01

    Chronic pain is a prominent feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease that is difficult to treat and manage, often resulting in a decrease in quality of life. Understanding the underlying anatomy of renal innervation and the various etiologies of pain that occur in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can help guide proper treatments to manage pain. Reviewing previously studied treatments for pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can help characterize treatment in a stepwise fashion. We performed a literature search of the etiology and management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and the anatomy of renal innervation using PubMed® and Embase® from January 1985 to April 2014 with limitations to human studies and English language. Pain occurs in the majority of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease due to renal, hepatic and mechanical origins. Patients may experience different types of pain which can make it difficult to clinically confirm its etiology. An anatomical and histological evaluation of the complex renal innervation helps in understanding the mechanisms that can lead to renal pain. Understanding the complex nature of renal innervation is essential for surgeons to perform renal denervation. The management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease should be approached in a stepwise fashion. Acute causes of renal pain must first be ruled out due to the high incidence in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. For chronic pain, nonopioid analgesics and conservative interventions can be used first, before opioid analgesics are considered. If pain continues there are surgical interventions such as renal cyst decortication, renal denervation and nephrectomy that can target pain produced by renal or hepatic cysts. Chronic pain in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is often refractory to conservative, medical and other noninvasive treatments

  5. Genotype-phenotype correlation in FMF patients: A "non classic" recessive autosomal or "atypical" dominant autosomal inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, V; Manti, S; Bianco, G; Conti, G; Romeo, A; Maimone, F; Arrigo, T; Cutrupi, M C; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2018-01-30

    Uncertainty remains on the pathogenetic mechanisms, model of inheritance as well as genotype-phenotype correlation of FMF disease. To investigate the impact of genetic factors on the FMF phenotype and the disease inheritance model. A total of 107 FMF patients were enrolled. Patients were diagnosed clinically. All patients underwent genetic analysis of the FMF locus on 16p13.3. 9 distinct mutations were detected. Specifically, the 85.98% of patients showed a heterozygous genotype. The most common genotypes were p.Met680Ile/wt and p.Met694Val/wt. The most frequent clinical findings were fever, abdominal pain, joint pain, thoracic pain, and erysipelas-like erythema. Analysis of clinical data did not detect any significant difference in clinical phenotype among heterozygous, homozygous as well as compound homozygous subjects, further supporting the evidence that, contrary to the recessive autosomal inheritance, heterozygous patients fulfilled the criteria of clinical FMF. Moreover, subjects with p.Met694Val/wt and p.Met680Ile/wt genotype reported the most severe clinical phenotype. p.Ala744Ser/wt, p.Glu148Gln/Met680Ile, p.Met680Ile/Met680Ile, p.Met680Ile/Met694Val, p.Pro369Ser/wt, p.Met694Ile/wt, p.Glu148Gln/Glu148Gln, p.Lys695Arg/wt resulted in 100% pathogenicity. The existence of a "non classic" autosomal recessive inheritance as well as of an "atypical" dominant autosomal inheritance with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity cannot be excluded in FMF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomic deletions in OPA1 in Danish patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Gitte J; Grønskov, Karen; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA, Kjer disease, MIM #165500) is the most common form of hereditary optic neuropathy. Mutations in OPA1 located at chromosome 3q28 are the predominant cause for ADOA explaining between 32 and 89% of cases. Although deletions of OPA1 were recently reported...

  7. Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia with peripheral neuropathy maps to chr12q23-24.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schule, R.; Bonin, M.; Durr, A.; Forlani, S.; Sperfeld, A.D.; Klimpe, S.; Mueller, J.C.; Seibel, A.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Bauer, P.; Schols, L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are genetically exceedingly heterogeneous. To date, 37 genetic loci for HSP have been described (SPG1-41), among them 16 loci for autosomal dominant disease. Notwithstanding, further genetic heterogeneity is to be expected in HSP, as various HSP

  8. A novel mutation in the ELOVL4 gene causes autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maugeri, A.; Meire, F.; Hoyng, C.B.; Vink, C.W.; Regemorter, N. van; Karan, G.; Yang, Z.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zhang, K.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct clinical and genetic studies in a European family with autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (adSTGD-like MD) and to investigate the functional consequences of a novel ELOVL4 mutation. METHODS: Ophthalmic examination and mutation screening by direct sequencing of

  9. Cellular Energy Pathways as Novel Targets for the Therapy of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent genetic disease, affecting at least 600,000 Americans . It is characterized...Pennathur, Michigan Metabolomics and Obesity Center (MMOC) at U. Michigan and statistical consultation from Dr. K. Abebe at U. Pittsburgh. Cell

  10. Current novel-gene-finding strategy for autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolaemia needs refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Defesche, Joep C.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolaemia (ADH) is a heterogeneous common disorder, and uncovering the molecular determinants that underlie ADH is a major focus of cardiovascular research. However, despite rapid technical advances, efforts to identify novel ADH genes have yet not been very successful

  11. Plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in patients with homozygous autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjouke, Barbara; Yahya, Reyhana; Tanck, Michael W. T.; Defesche, Joep C.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Mulder, Monique T.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), caused by mutations in either low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) are characterized by high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and in some

  12. Plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in patients with homozygous autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjouke, B.; Yahya, R.; Tanck, M.W.T.; Defesche, J.C.; Graaf, J. de; Wiegman, A.; Kastelein, J.J.; Mulder, M.T.; Hovingh, G.K.; Roeters van Lennep, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), caused by mutations in either low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) are characterized by high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and

  13. A new mutation causing autosomal dominant periodic fever syndrome in a Danish family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weyhreter, Heike; Schwartz, Marianne; Kristensen, Tim D

    2003-01-01

    We describe four members in a family of 8 individuals over 3 generations with the autosomal dominant inherited periodic fever syndrome tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). The patients had recurrent episodes of fever, abdominal pain, arthritis, and rash. We examined...

  14. EDAR mutation in autosomal dominant hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in two Swedish families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt-Egenolf Marcus

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is a genetic disorder characterized by defective development of teeth, hair, nails and eccrine sweat glands. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of HED have previously been linked to mutations in the ectodysplasin 1 anhidrotic receptor (EDAR protein that plays an important role during embryogenesis. Methods The coding DNA sequence of the EDAR gene was analyzed in two large Swedish three-generational families with autosomal dominant HED. Results A non-sense C to T mutation in exon 12 was identified in both families. This disease-specific mutation changes an arginine amino acid in position 358 of the EDAR protein into a stop codon (p.Arg358X, thereby truncating the protein. In addition to the causative mutation two polymorphisms, not associated with the HED disorder, were also found in the EDAR gene. Conclusion The finding of the p.Arg358X mutation in the Swedish families is the first corroboration of a previously described observation in an American family. Thus, our study strengthens the role of this particular mutation in the aetiology of autosomal dominant HED and confirms the importance of EDAR for the development of HED.

  15. A curious fact: Photic sneeze reflex. Autosomical dominant compelling helio-ophthalmic outburst syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, C; Parafita-Fernández, A; Rodriguez-Lopez, V; Sampil, M; Moraña, N; Viso, E; Cores, F J

    2016-07-01

    To assess ocular involvement in the pathophysiology of autosomal dominant compelling helio-ophthalmic outburst syndrome (ACHOOs). An interview was conducted with a Caucasian family that showed clinical features of ACHOOs. Twelve of them had photic reflex and were recruited. A complete eye evaluation was made. A dominant autosomal inheritance with mild penetrance was demonstrated, with 67% of the studied subjects showing some degree of prominent corneal nerves. No other eye changes were found. Prominent corneal nerves may be associated with ACHOOs. The other eye structures studied do not seem to play a role in ACHOOs. Further studies are needed to understand the physiology of the ACHOOs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Clinical and molecular study in a family with autosomal dominant hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callea, Michele; Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco; Willoughby, Colin E; Giglio, Sabrina R; Sani, Ilaria; Bargiacchi, Sara; Traficante, Giovanna; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Tadini, Gianluca; Yavuz, Izzet; Galeotti, Angela; Clarich, Gabriella

    2017-02-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare disease characterized by deficiency in development of structure derived from the ectoderm and is caused by mutations in the genes EDA, EDAR, or EDARADD. Phenotypes caused by mutations in these three may exhibit similar clinical features, explained by a common signaling pathway. Mutations in EDA gene cause X linked HED, which is the most common form. Mutations in EDAR and EDARADD genes cause autosomal dominant and recessive form of HED. The most striking clinical findings in HED are hypodontia, hypotrichosis and hypohidrosis that can lead to episodes of hyperthermia. We report on clinical findings in a child with HED with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with a heterozygous mutation c.1072C>T (p.Arg358X) in the EDAR gene. A review of the literature with regard to other cases presenting the same mutation has been carried out and discussed. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  17. Cellular Energy Pathways as Novel Targets for the Therapy of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    pathways that are involved in cyst development and expansion. These experiments will make use of cultured ADPKD cells and a mouse model of ADPKD to...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0420 TITLE: Cellular Energy Pathways as Novel Targets for the Therapy of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease...PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kenneth R. Hallows, MD, PhD, FASN CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-0701

  18. Molecular Diagnostics in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Utility and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Paterson, Andrew D.; Zahirieh, Alireza; He, Ning; Wang, Kairong; Pei, York

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Gene-based mutation screening is now available and has the potential to provide diagnostic confirmation or exclusion of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. This study illustrates its utility and limitations in the clinical setting. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Using a molecular diagnostic service, genomic DNA of one affected individual from each study family was screened for pathologic PKD1 and PKD2 mutations. Bidirectional sequencing was performed to identify sequence variants in all exons and splice junctions of both genes and to confirm the specific mutations in other family members. In two multiplex families, microsatellite markers were genotyped at both PDK1 and PKD2 loci, and pair-wise and multipoint linkage analysis was performed. Results: Three of five probands studied were referred for assessment of renal cystic disease without a family history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and two others were younger at-risk members of families with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease being evaluated as living-related kidney donors. Gene-based mutation screening identified pathogenic mutations that provided confirmation or exclusion of disease in three probands, but in the other two, only unclassified variants were identified. In one proband in which mutation screening was indeterminate, DNA linkage studies provided strong evidence for disease exclusion. Conclusions: Gene-based mutation screening or DNA linkage analysis should be considered in individuals in whom the diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is uncertain because of a lack of family history or equivocal imaging results and in younger at-risk individuals who are being evaluated as living-related kidney donors. PMID:18077784

  19. Acute abdomen and ascites as presenting features of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Qian, Qi

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with sudden onset of abdominal pain and ascites, leading to the diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Her presentation was consistent with acute liver cyst rupture as the cause of her acute illness. A review of literature on polycystic liver disease in patients with ADPKD and current management strategies are presented. This case alerts physicians that ADPKD could occasionally present as an acute abdomen; cyst rupture related to ADPKD may be ...

  20. A new variant of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance.

    OpenAIRE

    García-Castro, J M; Isales-Forsythe, C M; Díaz de Garau, P

    1982-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic evaluation of an infant boy and his father revealed findings suggesting a new variant of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with an apparently autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The main clinical findings included short stature and marked ligamentous laxity in the infant. X-ray findings included severe and peculiar multiple metaphyseal involvement and striking vertebral undermineralisation in the infant, and platyspondyly in the father. However, all the epiphyses wer...

  1. Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME: Probable first family from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mohan Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME is an extremely rare syndrome characterized by familial occurrence of postural and action-induced tremors of the hands but showing electrophysiologic findings of cortical reflex myoclonus. Patients also have cognitive decline and tonic-clonic seizures, often precipitated by sleep deprivation or photic stimulation. We describe probably the first family from India of this ill-defined syndrome.

  2. Further evidence for P59L mutation in GJA3 associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital cataracts are one of the common eye disorders leading to visual impairment or blindness in children worldwide. We found a Chinese family with autosomal dominant pulverulent cataract. Aims: To identify the pathogenic gene mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant inherited pulverulent cataract. Subjects and Methods: After obtained informed consent, detailed ophthalmic examinations were carried out; genomic DNAs were obtained from seven family members in a three-generation Chinese family with three affected. All exons of candidate genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and were sequenced performed by bidirectional sequencing. Results: By sequencing the encoding regions of the candidate genes, a missense mutation (c. 176C>T was detected in gap junction protein alpha 3 genes (GJA3, which resulted in the substitution of highly conserved proline by leucine at codon 59 (p.P59L. The mutation co-segregated with all patients and was absent in 100 normal Chinese controls. Conclusions: The study identified a missense mutation (c. 176C>T in GJA3 gene associated with autosomal dominant congenital pulverulent cataract in a Chinese family. It gave further evidence of phenotype heterogeneity for P59L mutation in GJA3 associated with congenital cataract.

  3. Research progress of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-wei ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 is a kind of autosomal dominant genetic neurodegenerative disorder. To date, the pathogenesis of SCA1 remains unclear. Studies in numerous SCA1 experimental models, including transgenic mice, transgenic drosophila and induced pluripotent stem cells, have shown that phosphorylation of S776 in mutant ataxin-1, molecular chaperones, ubiquitin-proteasome system and down-regulation of several components of RAS-MAPK-MSK1 pathway may involve in the pathogenesis of SCA1. In this review, the clinical and pathological features of SCA1, and the latest advances of pathogenesis, model systems and therapeutic exploration will be briefly summarized. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.017

  4. The role of noise and positive feedback in the onset of autosomal dominant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosl William J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autosomal dominant (AD diseases result when a single mutant or non-functioning gene is present on an autosomal chromosome. These diseases often do not emerge at birth. There are presently two prevailing theories explaining the expression of AD diseases. One explanation originates from the Knudson two-hit theory of hereditary cancers, where loss of heterozygosity or occurrence of somatic mutations impairs the function of the wild-type copy. While these somatic second hits may be sufficient for stable disease states, it is often difficult to determine if their occurrence necessarily marks the initiation of disease progression. A more direct consequence of a heterozygous genetic background is haploinsufficiency, referring to a lack of sufficient gene function due to reduced wild-type gene copy number; however, haploinsufficiency can involve a variety of additional mechanisms, such as noise in gene expression or protein levels, injury and second hit mutations in other genes. In this study, we explore the possible contribution to the onset of autosomal dominant diseases from intrinsic factors, such as those determined by the structure of the molecular networks governing normal cellular physiology. Results First, simple models of single gene insufficiency using the positive feedback loops that may be derived from a three-component network were studied by computer simulation using Bionet software. The network structure is shown to affect the dynamics considerably; some networks are relatively stable even when large stochastic variations in are present, while others exhibit switch-like dynamics. In the latter cases, once the network switches over to the disease state it remains in that state permanently. Model pathways for two autosomal dominant diseases, AD polycystic kidney disease and mature onset diabetes of youth (MODY were simulated and the results are compared to known disease characteristics. Conclusions By identifying the

  5. DVL1 frameshift mutations clustering in the penultimate exon cause autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Janson; Mazzeu, Juliana F; Hoischen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Robinow syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features and for which both autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant inheritance patterns have been described. Causative variants in the non-canonical ...

  6. Spinocerebellar ataxia-10 with paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Trikamji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spino-cerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10 is an autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by cerebellar ataxia, seizures and nystagmus with a fragmented pursuit. Schizophrenia has been reported with SCAs 1 and 2 yet in SCA 10, psychiatric manifestations are uncommon. We report a Hispanic family involving a father and his four children with SCA10 genetic mutation. Two of his children, a 20-year-old female and a 23-year-old male, presented with gradually progressive spino-cerebellar ataxia and paranoid schizophrenia. Neurological examination revealed ocular dysmetria, dysdiadokinesia, impaired finger-to-nose exam, gait ataxia and hyperreflexia in both the cases. Additionally, they had a history of psychosis with destructive behavior, depression and paranoid delusions with auditory hallucinations. Serology and CSF studies were unremarkable and MRI brain revealed cerebellar volume loss. Ultimately, a test for ATAXIN-10 mutation was positive thus confirming the diagnosis of SCA10 in father and his four children. We now endeavor to investigate the association between schizophrenia and SCA10.

  7. C-terminal truncations in human 3 '-5 ' DNA exonuclease TREX1 cause autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Anna; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Jen, Joanna C.; Kavanagh, David; Bertram, Paula; Spitzer, Dirk; Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Barilla-LaBarca, Maria-Louise; Terwindt, Gisela M.; Kasai, Yumi; McLellan, Mike; Grand, Mark Gilbert; Vanmolkot, Kaate R. J.; de Vries, Boukje; Wan, Jijun; Kane, Michael J.; Mamsa, Hafsa; Schaefer, Ruth; Stam, Anine H.; Haan, Joost; Paulus, T. V. M. de Jong; Storimans, Caroline W.; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Oosterhuis, Jendo A.; Gschwendter, Andreas; Dichgans, Martin; Kotschet, Katya E.; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Hardy, Todd A.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Hajj-Ali, Rula A.; Kothari, Parul H.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Frants, Rune R.; Baloh, Robert W.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Atkinson, John P.

    Autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy is a microvascular endotheliopathy with middle- age onset. In nine families, we identified heterozygous C- terminal frameshift mutations in TREX1, which encodes a 3'-5' exonuclease. These truncated proteins retain exonuclease

  8. Vasopressin, Copeptin, and Renal Concentrating Capacity in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease without Renal Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; Boertien, Wendy E.; van Beek, Andre P.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Meijer, Esther; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background and objectives Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent hereditary renal disease, characterized by cyst formation in the kidneys leading to end stage kidney failure. It is clinically acknowledged that ADPKD patients have impaired urine concentrating

  9. Kidney Function and Plasma Copeptin Levels in Healthy Kidney Donors and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background and objectives Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for

  10. Diverging longitudinal changes in astrocytosis and amyloid PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Carter, Stephen F; Almkvist, Ove; Farid, Karim; Schöll, Michael; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Graff, Caroline; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer's disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition ((11)C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants underwent clinical and imaging follow-up examinations after 2.8 ± 0.6 years. By using linear

  11. Mutations in DNMT1 cause autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkelmann, Juliane; Lin, Ling; Schormair, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    to HDAC2. It is also highly expressed in immune cells and required for the differentiation of CD4+ into T regulatory cells. Mutations in exon 20 of this gene were recently reported to cause hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSAN1). Our mutations are all located in exon 21......Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) is characterized by late onset (30-40 years old) cerebellar ataxia, sensory neuronal deafness, narcolepsy-cataplexy and dementia. We performed exome sequencing in five individuals from three ADCA-DN kindreds and identified DNMT...

  12. Acute abdomen and ascites as presenting features of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Qian, Qi

    2012-12-27

    We describe a patient with sudden onset of abdominal pain and ascites, leading to the diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Her presentation was consistent with acute liver cyst rupture as the cause of her acute illness. A review of literature on polycystic liver disease in patients with ADPKD and current management strategies are presented. This case alerts physicians that ADPKD could occasionally present as an acute abdomen; cyst rupture related to ADPKD may be considered in the differential diagnoses of acute abdomen.

  13. A rare cardiac manifestation in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriam Hajji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a systemic disorder associated with various extrarenal complications. There is little information regarding the occurrence and distribution of cardiovascular abnormalities during the course of ADPKD. The major cardiovascular complications of ADPKD include valvulopathies and vascular ectasia. Aneurysm of the atrial septum (ASA is a very rare manifestation in ADPKD. A 37-year-old woman who was diagnosed with ADPKD was admitted to our hospital for advanced renal failure. Pelvic computed tomography revealed multiple variable-sized cysts in both kidneys. Trans-thoracic echocardiography showed ASA while the patient was completely asymptomatic.

  14. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess...... stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. CONCLUSIONS: Later stages...

  15. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: recent advances in clinical management [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Mao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The first clinical descriptions of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD go back at least 500 years to the late 16th century. Advances in understanding disease presentation and pathophysiology have mirrored the progress of clinical medicine in anatomy, pathology, physiology, cell biology, and genetics. The identification of PKD1 and PKD2, the major genes mutated in ADPKD, has stimulated major advances, which in turn have led to the first approved drug for this disorder and a fresh reassessment of patient management in the 21st century. In this commentary, we consider how clinical management is likely to change in the coming decade.

  16. New autosomal dominant syndrome reminiscent of Coffin-Siris syndrome and Brachymorphism-Onychodysplasia-Dysphalangism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, A M; Teebi, A S

    2000-01-01

    We report a man and his two daughters (one stillborn) with an apparently unique constellation of anomalies including fifth finger/toe terminal phalanx and nail hypoplasia. The craniofacial manifestations include large boxy head, round face, hypertelorism with downslanting palpebral fissures and wide mouth. Other manifestations include brachydactyly, fifth finger clinodactyly and ventricular septal defect. Intelligence is normal. The resemblance to Coffin-Siris, Brachymorphism-Onychodysplasia-Dysphalangism and DOOR syndromes is discussed and we concluded that this family probably represents a new autosomal dominant syndrome.

  17. A nonsense mutation in CRYGC associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ke; Jin, Chongfei; Zhu, Ning; Wang, Wei; Wu, Renyi; Jiang, Jin; Shentu, Xingchao

    2008-07-09

    To identify the genetic defect associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family. Family history and phenotypic data were recorded, and the phenotypes were documented by slit lamp photography. The genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. All the exons and flanking intronic sequences of CRYGC and CRYGD were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for mutation by direct DNA sequencing. Structural models of the wild type and mutant gammaC-crystallin were generated and analyzed by SWISS-MODEL. Sequencing of the coding regions of CRYGC and CRYGD showed the presence of a heterozygous C>A transversion at c.327 of the coding sequence in exon 3 of CRYGC (c.327C>A), which results in the substitution of a wild type cysteine to a nonsense codon (C109X). One and a half Greek key motifs at the COOH-terminus were found to be absent in the structural model of the mutant truncated gammaC-crystallin. A novel nonsense mutation in CRYGC was detected in a Chinese family with consistent autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract, providing clear evidence of a relationship between the genotype and the corresponding cataract phenotype.

  18. A novel mutation in CRYAB associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Ma, Junjie; Yan, Ming; Mothobi, Maneo Emily; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Fang

    2009-07-10

    To identify the genetic defects associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family. Clinical data were collected, and the phenotypes of the affected members in this family were recorded by slit-lamp photography. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. Mutations were screened in cataract-associated candidate genes through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and sequencing. Structural models of the wild-type and mutant alphaB-crystallin were generated and analyzed by SWISS-MODEL. Mutation screening identified only one heterozygous G-->A transition at nucleotide 32 in the first exon of alphaB-crystallin (CRYAB), resulting in an amino acid change from arginine to histidine at codon 11 (R11H). This mutation segregated in all available affected family members but was not observed in any of the unaffected persons of the family. The putative mutation disrupted a restriction site for the enzyme, Fnu4HI, in the affected family members. The disruption, however, was not found in any of the randomly selected ophthalmologically normal individuals or in 40 unrelated senile cataract patients. Computer-assisted prediction suggested that this mutation affected the biochemical properties as well as the structure of alphaB-crystallin. These results supported the idea that the novel R11H mutation was responsible for the autosomal dominant nuclear congenital cataract in this pedigree.

  19. Three novel GJB2 (connexin 26) variants associated with autosomal dominant syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMille, Desiree; Carlston, Colleen M; Tam, Oliver H; Palumbos, Janice C; Stalker, Heather J; Mao, Rong; Zori, Roberto T; Viskochil, David H; Park, Albert H; Carey, John C

    2018-04-01

    Connexin 26 (Cx26), encoded by the GJB2 gene, is a key protein involved in the formation of gap junctions in epithelial organs including the inner ear and palmoplantar epidermis. Pathogenic variants in GJB2 are responsible for approximately 50% of inherited sensorineural deafness. The majority of these variants are associated with autosomal recessive inheritance; however, rare reports of dominantly co-segregating variants have been published. Since we began offering GJB2 testing in 2003, only about 2% of detected GJB2 variants from our laboratory have been classified as dominant. Here we report three novel dominant GJB2 variants (p.Thr55Ala, p.Gln57_Pro58delinsHisSer, and p.Trp44Gly); two associated with syndromic sensorineural hearing loss and one with nonsyndromic hearing loss. In the kindred with the p.Thr55Ala variant, the proband and his father present with only leukonychia as a cutaneous finding of their syndromic hearing loss. This phenotype has been previously documented in conjunction with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, but isolated leukonychia is a novel finding likely associated with the unique threonine to alanine change at codon 55 (other variants at this codon have been reported in cases of nonsyndromic hearing loss). This report contributes to the short list of GJB2 variants associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss, highlights the variability of skin and nail findings associated with such cases, and illustrates the occurrence of both syndromic and nonsyndromic presentations with changes in the same gene. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Identification and molecular modelling of a mutation in the motor head domain of myosin VIIA in a family with autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, M.W.J.; Wijk, E. van; Bischoff, A.M.L.C.; Krieger, E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Brunner, H.G.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Kremer, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VIIA is an unconventional myosin that has been implicated in Usher syndrome type 1B, atypical Usher syndrome, non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing impairment (DFNB2) and autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA11). Here, we present a family with non-syndromic autosomal dominant

  1. Identification and molecular modelling of a mutation in the motor head domain of myosin VIIA in a family with autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA11).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, M.W.J.; Wijk, E. van; Bischoff, A.M.L.C.; Krieger, E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Brunner, H.G.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Kremer, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VIIA is an unconventional myosin that has been implicated in Usher syndrome type 1B, atypical Usher syndrome, non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing impairment (DFNB2) and autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA11). Here, we present a family with non-syndromic autosomal dominant

  2. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Su

    Full Text Available Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN, an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted.

  3. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  4. Mutation in CPT1C Associated With Pure Autosomal Dominant Spastic Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Carlo; Schmidt, Thomas; Situ, Alan J; Johnson, Janel O; Lee, Philip R; Chen, Ke-Lian; Bott, Laura C; Fadó, Rut; Harmison, George H; Parodi, Sara; Grunseich, Christopher; Renvoisé, Benoît; Biesecker, Leslie G; De Michele, Giuseppe; Santorelli, Filippo M; Filla, Alessandro; Stevanin, Giovanni; Dürr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Casals, Núria; Traynor, Bryan J; Blackstone, Craig; Ulmer, Tobias S; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2015-05-01

    The family of genes implicated in hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) is quickly expanding, mostly owing to the widespread availability of next-generation DNA sequencing methods. Nevertheless, a genetic diagnosis remains unavailable for many patients. To identify the genetic cause for a novel form of pure autosomal dominant HSP. We examined and followed up with a family presenting to a tertiary referral center for evaluation of HSP for a decade until August 2014. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 4 patients from the same family and was integrated with linkage analysis. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the presence of the candidate variant in the remaining affected and unaffected members of the family and screen the additional patients with HSP. Five affected and 6 unaffected participants from a 3-generation family with pure adult-onset autosomal dominant HSP of unknown genetic origin were included. Additionally, 163 unrelated participants with pure HSP of unknown genetic cause were screened. Mutation in the neuronal isoform of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase (CPT1C) gene. We identified the nucleotide substitution c.109C>T in exon 3 of CPT1C, which determined the base substitution of an evolutionarily conserved Cys residue for an Arg in the gene product. This variant strictly cosegregated with the disease phenotype and was absent in online single-nucleotide polymorphism databases and in 712 additional exomes of control participants. We showed that CPT1C, which localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, is expressed in motor neurons and interacts with atlastin-1, an endoplasmic reticulum protein encoded by the ATL1 gene known to be mutated in pure HSPs. The mutation, as indicated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, alters the protein conformation and reduces the mean (SD) number (213.0 [46.99] vs 81.9 [14.2]; P lipid droplets on overexpression in cells. We also observed a reduction of mean (SD) lipid droplets in primary cortical neurons

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Kidney Disease Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchol, Michel; Gitomer, Berenice; Isakova, Tamara; Cai, Xuan; Salusky, Isidro; Pereira, Renata; Abebe, Kaleab; Torres, Vicente; Steinman, Theodor I; Grantham, Jared J; Chapman, Arlene B; Schrier, Robert W; Wolf, Myles

    2017-09-07

    Increases in fibroblast growth factor 23 precede kidney function decline in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; however, the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease has not been well characterized. We measured intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in baseline serum samples from 1002 participants in the HALT-PKD Study A ( n =540; mean eGFR =91±17 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ) and B ( n =462; mean eGFR =48±12 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ). We used linear mixed and Cox proportional hazards models to test associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 and eGFR decline, percentage change in height-adjusted total kidney volume, and composite of time to 50% reduction in eGFR, onset of ESRD, or death. Median (interquartile range) intact fibroblast growth factor 23 was 44 (33-56) pg/ml in HALT-PKD Study A and 69 (50-93) pg/ml in Study B. In adjusted models, annualized eGFR decline was significantly faster in the upper fibroblast growth factor 23 quartile (Study A: quartile 4, -3.62; 95% confidence interval, -4.12 to -3.12 versus quartile 1, -2.51; 95% confidence interval, -2.71 to -2.30 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ; P for trend kidney volume in adjusted models (quartile 4, 6.76; 95% confidence interval, 5.57 to 7.96 versus quartile 1, 6.04; 95% confidence interval, 5.55 to 6.54; P for trend =0.03). In Study B, compared with the lowest quartile, the highest fibroblast growth factor 23 quartile was associated with elevated risk for the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 3.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 5.25). Addition of fibroblast growth factor 23 to a model of annualized decline in eGFR≥3.0 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 did not improve risk prediction. Higher serum fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration was associated with kidney function decline, height-adjusted total kidney volume percentage increase, and death in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. However, fibroblast growth factor 23 did not substantially

  6. Novel Presenting Phenotype in a Child With Autosomal Dominant Best's Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Yasmine F; De Salvo, Gabriella; Elsahn, Ahmad; Self, James E

    2017-07-01

    Best's macular dystrophy (BMD) usually manifests with visual failure in the first or second decade of life; however, there is a large variability in expressivity of the disease, and some patients have no manifestation other than a pathological electro-oculogram (EOG). Autosomal dominant Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy (AD-BVMD) has a very specific phenotype that varies with the stage of the disease. In recent years, the authors have seen description of another clinical entity known as autosomal recessive BMD. Herein, the authors describe a 5-year-old girl referred from a peripheral hospital for investigation with a positive family history of BMD. Clinical findings included best-corrected visual acuity of 0.325 and 0.300 in the right and left eyes, respectively, by Sonksen logMar test, full color vision, normal orthoptic examination, and a small degree of hyperopia consistent with age. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed intraretinal fluid cysts and EOG showed reduced Arden ratio. Genetic testing was done for the proband and her father, who were found to be heterozygous for c.37C>T p. (Arg13Cys). The proband's younger sister will be reviewed and followed up once of age. The authors identified a new phenotype of AD-BVMD; although this is a single patient, more young children with BMD can now be scanned with the availability of hand-held OCT with better knowledge of the phenotype. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:580-585.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. [Cardiac tamponade as first manifestation in Mediterranean fever with autosomal dominant form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Ferrer, F; Martinez Villar, M; Fernández Bernal, A; Martín de Lara, I; Paya Elorza, I

    2015-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary disease characterized by brief, recurring and self-limited episodes of fever and pain with inflammation, of one or several serous (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium, synovial or vaginal tunic of the testicle). Amyloidosis is its more important complication and the principal reason of death in the cases in which it appears. Diagnosis is based on the clinic and is confirmed by genetic tests. The treatment with Colchicine (0,02-0,03 mg/kg/day) prevents the recurrence of FMF attacks and the development of secondary (AA) amyloidosis. We report a case of a 13-year-old child in which FMF was diagnosed after several coincidental episodes with fever, pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. The genetic confirmation showed an autosomal dominant inheritance that is less frecuent than the recesive form, in this disease. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Recurrent acute pancreatitis and cholangitis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Yazdanpanah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is an inherited disorder associated with multiple cyst formation in the different organs. Development of pancreatic cyst in ADPKD is often asymptomatic and is associated with no complication. A 38-year-old man with ADPKD was presented with six episodes of acute pancreatitis and two episodes of cholangitis in a period of 12 months. Various imaging studies revealed multiple renal, hepatic and pancreatic cysts, mild ectasia of pancreatic duct, dilation of biliary system and absence of biliary stone. He was managed with conservative treatment for each attack. ADPKD should be considered as a potential risk factor for recurrent acute and/or chronic pancreatitis and cholangitis.

  9. Autosomal dominant type of endosteal hyperostosis with unusual manifestations of sclerosis of the jaw bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Naoyuki; Nonaka, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Motomasa

    1987-01-01

    We report three cases of autosomal dominant type endosteal hyperostosis which occurred in one Japanese family. A new pattern of sclerotic changes in the jaw bones is evident. In all members of the family there was a symmetrical thickening of the diaphyseal cortices of the long bones. The affected bones were only minimally widened and the epiphyses and metaphyses were spared. Endosteal sclerosis of the neurocranium was present with loss of the diploe. The sclerotic changes included enlargement and mottled sclerosis of both the maxilla and mandible, with multiple embedded teeth and odontomas. The ramus of the mandible was spared. Severe sclerosis of the jaw bones was present only in a 28-year-old women. The 2-year-son showed only focal sclerosis in the mandible, and his grandmother had minimal changes in the skeleton.

  10. Novel LMNA Mutation in a Taiwanese Family with Autosomal Dominant Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Liang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD is characterized by early-onset contractures, slowly progressive weakness, and muscle wasting in humeroperoneal muscles, and adult-onset cardiomyopathy with conduction block. We analyzed blood samples from an EDMD family, including a mother and two daughters, and found a novel mutation in codon 520 in exon 9 of the lamin A/C (LMNA gene, resulting in a substitution of tryptophan (W by glycine (G in all three patients. The mother died after a stroke-like episode at the age of 43. The elder sister received pacemaker implantation, which improved symptoms of exercise intolerance and dizziness. These cases illustrate the necessity of correct diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up of cardiac problems due to the wide clinical spectrum and high prevalence of cardiac conduction block in patients with autosomal dominant EDMD. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2 Suppl:S27-S31

  11. Autosomal-dominant non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism presenting with neuromuscular symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgadi, Aziz; Arvidsson, C-G; Janson, Annika; Marcus, Claude; Costagliola, Sabine; Norgren, Svante

    2005-08-01

    Neuromuscular presentations are common in thyroid disease, although the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the pathogenesis in a boy with autosomal-dominant hyperthyroidism presenting with neuromuscular symptoms. The TSHr gene was investigated by direct sequencing. Functional properties of the mutant TSHr were investigated during transient expression in COS-7 cells. Family members were investigated by clinical and biochemical examinations. Sequence analysis revealed a previously reported heterozygous missense mutation Glycine 431 for Serine in the first transmembrane segment, leading to an increased specific constitutive activity. Three additional affected family members carried the same mutation. There was no indication of autoimmune disorder. All symptoms disappeared upon treatment with thacapzol and L-thyroxine and subsequent subtotal thyroidectomy. The data imply that neuromuscular symptoms can be caused by excessive thyroid hormone levels rather than by autoimmunity.

  12. Rare co-occurrence of osteogenesis imperfecta type I and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefele, Julia; Mayer, Karin; Marschall, Christoph; Alberer, Martin; Klein, Hanns-Georg; Kirschstein, Martin

    2016-11-01

    There are several clinical reports about the co-occurrence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and connective tissue disorders. A simultaneous occurrence of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I and ADPKD has not been observed so far. This report presents the first patient with OI type I and ADPKD. Mutational analysis of PKD1 and COL1A1 in the index patient revealed a heterozygous mutation in each of the two genes. Mutational analysis of the parents indicated the mother as a carrier of the PKD1 mutation and the father as a carrier of the COL1A1 mutation. The simultaneous occurrence of both disorders has an estimated frequency of 3.5:100 000 000. In singular cases, ADPKD can occur in combination with other rare disorders, e.g. connective tissue disorders.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4) using direct mutation detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen E; Koefoed, Pernille; Kjaergaard, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a report on prenatal diagnosis using direct SPG4 gene analysis in a family with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP). METHODS: Genetic linkage and haplotype analysis were previously carried out with chromosome 2p markers. DNA was obtained from affected...... individuals, the affected father, the mother, and fetal DNA from an ongoing pregnancy by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the first trimester. The spastin gene (SPG4) was completely sequenced. RESULTS: A novel 832insGdelAA frameshift mutation, predicted to cause loss of functional protein, was identified...... in the affected father and in the fetal DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on direct prenatal diagnosis of chromosome 2p-linked AD-HSP (SPG4). In addition, we report a novel SPG4-combined small insertion/deletion mutation in exon 5, which may be the first SPG4 mutational hot spot....

  14. A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleijn, Niek F; Visser, Folkert W; Drenth, Joost P H; Gevers, Tom J G; Groen, Gerbrand J; Hogan, Marie C; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-09-01

    Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4-6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. Late onset autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia a family description and linkage analysis with the hla system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter O. Arruda

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available A family suffering an autosomal dominant form of late onset hereditary cerebellar ataxia is described. Eight affected family members were personally studied, and data from another four were obtained through anamnesis. The mean age of onset was 37.1±5.4 years (27-47 years. The clinical picture consisted basically of a pure ataxic cerebellar syndrome. CT-scan disclosed diffuse cerebellar atrophy with relative sparing of the brainstem (and no involvement of supratentorial structures. Neurophysiological studies (nerve conduction, VEP and BAEP were normal. Twenty-six individuals were typed for HLA histocompatibility antigens. Lod scores were calculated with the computer program LINKMAP. Close linkage of the ataxia gene with the HLA system in this family could be excluded - 0==0,02, z=(-2,17 - and the overall analysis of the lod scores suggest another chromossomal location than chromosome 6.

  16. [A family with autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy accompanied by motor and sensory neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Furuya, Hirokazu; Ikezoe, Koji; Murai, Hiroyuki; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Yoshiura, Takashi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Tobimatsu, Syozo; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2004-01-01

    We report a 20-year-old man with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) accompanied by hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). He had experienced complex partial seizures (CPS), which started with a nausea-like feeling, followed by loss of consciousness and automatism, since he was 6 years old. The frequency of attacks was at first decreased by phenytoin. However, attacks increased again when he was 18 years old. On admission, neurological examination showed mild weakness of the toes, pes cavus, hammer toe and mildly impaired vibratory sensation in his legs. Ten people in four generations of his family showed a history of epilepsy in the autosomal dominant inheritance form. His younger sister and mother had a history of epilepsy accompanied with pes cavus, hammer toe, weakness of toe and finger extension and mildly impaired vibratory sensation as well. Direct sequencing of the glioma-inactivated leucine-rich gene (LGI1), in which several mutations were reported in patients with familial lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, showed no specific mutation in this family. On consecutive video-EEG monitoring, paroxysmal rhythmic activity was confirmed in his left fronto-temporal region when he showed automatism, and then a generalized slow burst activity was detected when he lost consciousness. For his seizures, TLE with secondary generalization was diagnosed. In the nerve conduction study, delayed nerve conduction, distal motor latency and decreased amplitudes of the compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of bilateral peroneal nerves were observed, indicating the existence of mild axonal degeneration. Based on these data, we consider that this family to be a new phenotype of autosomal dominant TLE accompanied by motor and sensory neuropathy.

  17. Longitudinal Assessment of Left Ventricular Mass in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimur Dad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is related to development of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Blood pressure reduction has been shown to reduce left ventricular mass in ADPKD; however, moderators and predictors of response to lower blood pressure are unknown. Methods: This was a post hoc cohort analysis of HALT PKD study A, a randomized placebo controlled trial examining the effect of low blood pressure and single versus dual renin−angiotensin blockade in early ADPKD. Participants were hypertensive ADPKD patients 15 to 49 years of age with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR > 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 across 7 centers in the United States. Predictors included age, sex, baseline eGFR, systolic blood pressure, total kidney volume, serum potassium, and urine sodium, potassium, albumin, and aldosterone. Outcome was left ventricular mass index (LVMI measured using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging at months 0, 24, 48, and 60. Results: Reduction in LVMI was associated with higher baseline systolic blood pressure and larger kidney volume regardless of blood pressure control group assignment (P < 0.001 for both. Male sex and baseline eGFR were associated with a positive annual slope in LVMI (P < 0.001 and P = 0.07, respectively. Conclusion: Characteristics associated with higher risk of progression in ADPKD, including higher systolic blood pressure, larger kidney volume, and lower eGFR are associated with improvement in LVMI with intensive blood pressure control, whereas male sex is associated with a smaller slope of reduction in LVMI. Keywords: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular mass index

  18. De Novo GMNN Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Primordial Dwarfism Associated with Meier-Gorlin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Charng, Wu-Lin; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Willer, Jason R; Davis, Erica E; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zhu, Wenmiao; Leduc, Magalie S; Akdemir, Zeynep C; Azamian, Mahshid; Zapata, Gladys; Hernandez, Patricia P; Schoots, Jeroen; de Munnik, Sonja A; Roepman, Ronald; Pearring, Jillian N; Jhangiani, Shalini; Katsanis, Nicholas; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Brunner, Han G; Beaudet, Arthur L; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Xia, Fan; Lalani, Seema R; Lupski, James R; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yang, Yaping

    2015-12-03

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1(st) coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6(∗)) and c.35_38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs(∗)4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5' end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5' to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autosomal dominant distal myopathy due to a novel ACTA1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewluck, Teerin; Sorenson, Eric J; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Milone, Margherita

    2017-08-01

    Mutations in skeletal muscle α-actin 1-encoding gene (ACTA1) cause autosomal dominant or recessive myopathies with marked clinical and pathological heterogeneity. Patients typically develop generalized or limb-girdle pattern of weakness, but recently a family with scapuloperoneal myopathy was reported. We describe a father and 2 children with childhood-to-juvenile onset distal myopathy, carrying a novel dominant ACTA1 variant, c.757G>C (p.Gly253Arg). Father had delayed motor development and developed significant proximal weakness later in life; he was initially misdiagnosed as having spinal muscular atrophy based on electromyographic findings. His children had predominant anterior distal leg and finger extensor involvement. Nemaline rods were abundant on the daughter's biopsy, absent on the father's initial biopsy, and extremely rare on the father's subsequent biopsy a decade later. The father's second biopsy also showed myofibrillar pathology and rare fibers with actin filament aggregates. The present family expands the spectrum of actinopathy to include a distal myopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Genetics of Hybrid Male Sterility Between the Allopatric Species Pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana: Dominant Sterility Alleles in Collinear Autosomal Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Audrey S.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2007-01-01

    F1 hybrid male sterility is thought to result from interactions between loci on the X chromosome and dominant-acting loci on the autosomes. While X-linked loci that contribute to hybrid male sterility have been precisely localized in many animal taxa, their dominant autosomal interactors have been more difficult to localize precisely and/or have been shown to be of relatively smaller effect. Here, we identified and mapped at least four dominant autosomal factors contributing to hybrid male st...

  1. Autosomal dominant cutis laxa with progeroid features due to a novel, de novo mutation in ALDH18A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Priya T; Hartley, Taila; Bareke, Eric; Boycott, Kym M; Nikkel, Sarah M; Dyment, David A

    2017-06-01

    De novo dominant mutations in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family member A1 (ALDH18A1) gene have recently been shown to cause autosomal dominant cutis laxa with progeroid features (MIM 616603). To date, all de novo dominant mutations have been found in a single highly conserved amino acid residue at position p.Arg138. We report an 8-year-old male with a clinical diagnosis of autosomal dominant cutis laxa (ADCL) with progeroid features and a novel de novo missense mutation in ALDH18A1 (NM_002860.3: c.377G>A (p.Arg126His)). This is the first report of an individual with ALDH18A1-ADCL due to a substitution at a residue other than p.Arg138. Knowledge of the complete spectrum of dominant-acting mutations that cause this rare syndrome will have implications for molecular diagnosis and genetic counselling of these families.

  2. Autosomal-dominant Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by a Heterozygous CRX Mutation in a Father and Son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot Sadagopan, Karthikeyan; Battista, Robert; Keep, Rosanne B; Capasso, Jenina E; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is most often an autosomal recessive disorder. We report a father and son with autosomal dominant LCA due to a mutation in the CRX gene. DNA screening using an allele specific assay of 90 of the most common LCA-causing variations in the coding sequences of AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, CRX, GUCY2D, RDH12 and RPE65 was performed on the father. Automated DNA sequencing of his son examining exon 3 of the CRX gene was subsequently performed. Both father and son have a heterozygous single base pair deletion of an adenine at codon 153 in the coding sequence of the CRX gene resulting in a frameshift mutation. Mutations involving the CRX gene may demonstrate an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern for LCA.

  3. A novel syndrome of autosomal-dominant hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia linked to a mutation in the human insulin receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Hansen, Torben; Lajer, Maria

    2004-01-01

    a missense mutation (Arg1174Gln) in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene that cosegregated with the disease phenotype (logarithm of odds [LOD] score 3.21). In conclusion, we report a novel syndrome of autosomal-dominant hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. The findings demonstrate...

  4. A three-generation family with idiopathic facial palsy suggesting an autosomal dominant inheritance with high penetrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Gyldenløve, Mette; Jønch, Aia Elise

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic facial palsy (IFP), also known as Bell's palsy, is a common neurologic disorder, but recurrent and familial forms are rare. This case series presents a three-generation family with idiopathic facial palsy. The mode of inheritance of IFP has previously been suggested as autosomal dominant...

  5. Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) : executive summary from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Arlene B.; Devuyst, Olivier; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Harris, Tess; Horie, Shigeo; Kasiske, Bertram L.; Odland, Dwight; Pei, York; Perrone, Ronald D.; Pirson, Yves; Schrier, Robert W.; Torra, Roser; Torres, Vicente E.; Watnick, Terry; Wheeler, David C.

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects up to 12 million individuals and is the fourth most common cause for renal replacement therapy worldwide. There have been many recent advances in the understanding of its molecular genetics and biology, and in the diagnosis and management

  6. Mutations in POGLUT1, Encoding Protein O-Glucosyltransferase 1, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Dowling-Degos Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basmanav, F Buket; Oprisoreanu, Ana-Maria; Pasternack, Sandra M

    2014-01-01

    Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis characterized by progressive and disfiguring reticulate hyperpigmentation. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in KRT5 but were only able to detect pathogenic mutations in fewer than half of our subjects. To ident...

  7. Rationale and Design of a Clinical Trial Investigating Tolvaptan Safety and Efficacy in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, Vicente E.; Devuyst, Olivier; Chapman, Arlene B.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Perrone, Ronald D.; Ouyang, John; Blais, Jaime D.; Czerwiec, Frank S.; Sergeyeva, Olga

    Background: In TEMPO 3: 4, the vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan slowed kidney growth and function decline in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with relatively preserved kidney function. Methods: Prospective, phase 3b, multi-center, randomized-withdrawal,

  8. Mutation spectrum in the large GTPase dynamin 2, and genotype-phenotype correlation in autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, Johann; Biancalana, Valérie; Dechene, Elizabeth T

    2012-01-01

    Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzym...

  9. A peculiar autosomal dominant macular dystrophy caused by an asparagine deletion at codon 169 in the peripherin/RDS gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith-Verhoeven, Janneke J. C.; van den Helm, Bellinda; Deutman, August F.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Hoyng, Carel B.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical and genetic findings in a family with a peculiar autosomal dominant macular dystrophy with peripheral deposits. Methods: All family members underwent an ophthalmic examination, and their genomic DNA was screened for mutations in the human retinal degeneration slow

  10. Tolvaptan and Kidney Pain in Patients With Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease : Secondary Analysis From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Blais, Jaime D.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Czerwiec, Frank S.; Devuyst, Olivier; Higashihara, Eiji; Leliveld, Anna M.; Ouyang, John; Perrone, Ronald D.; Torres, Vicente E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background: Kidney pain is a common complication in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and data from the TEMPO 3: 4 trial suggested that tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, may have a positive effect on kidney pain in this patient group. Because pain is

  11. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar; Dieperink, Hans; Honkanen, Eero; Melin, Jan; Selvig, Kristian; Lundberg, Johan

    2017-12-01

    A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess HRQoL in ADPKD across all stages of the disease, from patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) to patients with end-stage renal disease. A study involving cross-sectional patient-reported outcomes and retrospective clinical data was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Patients were enrolled into four mutually exclusive stages of the disease: CKD stages 1-3; CKD stages 4-5; transplant recipients; and dialysis patients. Overall HRQoL was generally highest in patients with CKD stages 1-3, followed by transplant recipients, patients with CKD stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. Later stages of ADPKD are associated with reduced physical health. The value of early treatment interventions that can delay progression of the disease should be considered. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  12. A novel GJA8 mutation (p.V44A causing autosomal dominant congenital cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhu

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism by which a novel connexin 50 (Cx50 mutation, Cx50 V44A, in a Chinese family causes suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts.Family history and clinical data were recorded and direct gene sequencing was used to identify the disease-causing mutation. The Cx50 gene was cloned from a human lens cDNA library. Connexin protein distributions were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Hemichannel functions were analyzed by dye uptake assay. Formation of functional channels was assessed by dye transfer experiments.Direct sequencing of the candidate GJA8 gene revealed a novel c.131T>C transition in exon 2, which cosegregated with the disease in the family and resulted in the substitution of a valine residue with alanine at codon 44 (p. V44A in the extracellular loop 1 of the Cx50 protein. Both Cx50 and Cx50V44A formed functional gap junctions, as shown by the neurobiotin transfer assay. However, unlike wild-type Cx50, Cx50V44A was unable to form open hemichannels in dye uptake experiments.This work identified a unique congenital cataract in the Chinese population, caused by the novel mutation Cx50V44A, and it showed that the V44A mutation specifically impairs the gating of the hemichannels but not the gap junction channels. The dysfunctional hemichannels resulted in the development of human congenital cataracts.

  13. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients with Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Sastalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3. This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci. However, these alterations have not been characterized at the species- and strain-level. Since S. aureus infections are influenced by strain-specific expression of virulence factors, information on colonizing strain characteristics may provide insights into host-pathogen interactions and help guide management strategies for treatment and prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the immunodeficiency of AD-HIES selects for unique strains of colonizing S. aureus. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, protein A (spa typing, and PCR-based detection of toxin genes, we performed a detailed analysis of the S. aureus isolates (n = 13 found on the skin of twenty-one patients with AD-HIES. We found a low diversity of sequence types, and an abundance of strains that expressed methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, and staphylococcal enterotoxins K and Q (SEK, SEQ. Our results indicate that patients with AD-HIES may often carry antibiotic-resistant strains that harbor key virulence factors.

  14. Blood Pressure and Intracranial Aneurysms in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Niemczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is correlated with an increased frequency of both intracranial aneurysms (ICANs, and arterial hypertension (AH. The aim of our study was to search for the association between blood pressure (BP and ICANs in ADPKD patients. Methods: Sixty-eight adult, pre-dialysis phase ADPKD patients underwent both screening for ICANs with magnetic resonance angiography of the brain, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. Results: ICANs were diagnosed in 10 patients (ICAN(+ group, while in 58 were not (ICAN(- group. The nighttime maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP, maximum increase in DBP from measurement to measurement (positive delta of DBP at night, and the standard deviation of the daytime mean arterial pressure were significantly higher in ICAN(+ compared to ICAN(- patients. Additionally, in a subgroup of patients after 45 years-of-age, ICAN(+ patients had significantly higher maximum 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressure, maximum 24-hour, daytime, nighttime DBP, maximum daytime and nighttime positive delta of DBP compared to ICAN(- cases. Conclusions: Development of ICANs in hypertensive ADPKD patients is accompanied with higher values of some BP parameters measured by ABPM. Hypertensive ADPKD patients with substantial fluctuations in BP assessed by ABPM, especially those after 45 years-of-age, should become candidates for screening for ICANs.

  15. The value of intrarenal resistive index in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rae; Lee, Kyu Beck; Park, Hae Won

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of the intrarenal resistive index(RI), measured by Doppler sonography, in order to assess intrarenal vascular resistance in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. In 26 patients with ADPKD, RI was measured by Doppler sonography and correlated with the presence of hypertension, renal function (creatinine clearance) and anatomical renal severity index (RSI), thus indicating renal morphologic abnormalities during Bmode sonography. RI was significantly higher in 18 hypertensive ADPKD patients (0.64±0.65) (Mean±1SD;range:0.52-0.74) than in eight normotensive patients (0.59± 0.50) (0.48-0.64) (p<0.05). Statistically significant inverse correlation was found between RI values and creatinine clearance (r=3D-0.45, p<0.05), and statistically significant correlation was found between RI values and RSI, indicating the degree of renal parenchymal involvement. RI correlates with the development of hypertension, renal function and renal morphologic abnormality scoring by RSI during B-mode Doppler sonography, and measured in this way may thus be used to assess renal vascular resistance in ADPKD patients.=20

  16. Mutation spectrum of the rhodopsin gene among patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryja, T.P.; Han, L.B.; Cowley, G.S.; McGee, T.L.; Berson, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors searched for point mutations in every exon of the rhodopsin gene in 150 patients from separate families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Including the 4 mutations the authors reported previously, they found a total of 17 different mutations that correlate with the disease. Each of these mutations is a single-base substitution corresponding to a single amino acid substitution. Based on current models for the structure of rhodopsin, 3 of the 17 mutant amino acids are normally located on the cytoplasmic side of the protein, 6 in transmembrane domains, and 8 on the intradiscal side. Forty-three of the 150 patients (29%) carry 1 of these mutations, and no patient has more than 1 mutation. In every family with a mutation so far analyzed, the mutation cosegregates with the disease. They found one instance of a mutation in an affected patient that was absent in both unaffected parents (i.e., a new germ-line mutation), indicating that some isolate cases of retinitis pigmentosa carry a mutation of the rhodopsin gene

  17. "An evil heritage": interview study of pain and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiwe, Susanne; Bjuke, Monica

    2009-09-01

    Pain is a common problem for patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Knowledge about patients' experience of the pain, pain management, and pain's effect on everyday life is, however, limited. In clinical practice there is a need to improve the care of these patients. To be able to do so, information about how the disease and its pain affect the patients is required. This study explores patients' experience of living with ADPKD and its pain. The findings are based on in-depth semistructured interviews. The participants were 22 patients with ADPKD. The data were transcribed and analyzed by using phenomenology. Findings showed that the patients experienced limitations in their everyday life due to inexplicable and unpredictable pain and fatigue. Also, pain management was experienced as suboptimal and pain was seldom discussed at health care appointments. Emotional distress concerning the hereditary nature of the disease was also present. Health care providers need to increase their focus on pain and pain management to reduce the disease's intrusion in patients' everyday life. Also, patients and people in the patients' immediate surroundings need to be given information and education about the disease and its pain as well as the opportunity to talk about their worries concerning heredity. By implementing the findings of the present study when meeting a patient with ADPKD, improved patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life could be accomplished.

  18. Treatment of Persistent Gross Hematuria with Tranexamic Acid in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this retrospective study we aimed to compare the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA vs etamsylate, two hemostatic agents, on hematuria duration in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 40 patients with ADPKD and macroscopic hematuria. 20 patients receiving TXA and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection were compared with 20 matched patients receiving etamsylate and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection. The primary outcome was hematuria duration and the secondary outcomes were blood transfusion requirements and adverse events. Results: The hematuria duration was shorter in the TXA group compared with the etamsylate group (4[3-5] d vs 7[6-10] d, P<0.001. The volume of blood transfusion tended to be less in the TXA group than in the etamsylate group (300±115 ml vs 486±195 ml, P=0.12, and the number of patients needing a blood transfusion also tended to be lower [20% (4/20 vs 35% (7/20, P=0.29]. TXA and etamsylate were equally well tolerated and no serious adverse events were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Our study indicates that TXA treatment was more effective than etamsylate in stopping bleeding in ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria.

  19. Overview of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the south of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Morales García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common hereditary kidney disease, available data tend to be limited to after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Objective: To ascertain an overview of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease within the health area of Granada in southern Spain. Materials and methods: From January 2007 to December 2016, we collected clinical, family and demographic information about all patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, irrespective of whether or not they were treated with RRT, in the Granada health area. The computer software SPSS 15.0 and GenoPro were used. Results: 50.6% of the 1107 diagnosed patients were men. 99.1% were Caucasian and 4–6 generations/family were studied. The geographical distribution was heterogeneous. There was no family history in 2.43%. The mean age of diagnosis was 34.0 ± 17.80 years and the diagnosis was made after having offspring in 57.7% of cases. The main reason for diagnosis was family history (46.4%. The mean age of initiation of renal replacement therapy was 54.2 ± 11.05 years. 96.3% of the deceased had some degree of renal failure at the time of death. The mean age of death was 60.9 ± 14.10 years, the main cause of death being unknown in 33.5% of cases, followed by cardiovascular (27.8%. Conclusions: Cases and families were concentrated in certain geographical areas and a significant number of individuals were undiagnosed prior to cardiovascular death or diagnosed late after reproduction. Given that there is currently no curative treatment, the primary prevention strategy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis should play a leading role. Resumen: Introducción: La poliquistosis renal autosómica dominante es la enfermedad renal hereditaria más frecuente aunque los datos disponibles generalmente son tras el inicio del tratamiento renal sustitutivo. Objetivo: Conocer la situaci

  20. High frequency of potentially pathogenic SORL1 mutations in autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, C; Hannequin, D; Coutant, S; Rovelet-Lecrux, A; Wallon, D; Rousseau, S; Legallic, S; Paquet, C; Bombois, S; Pariente, J; Thomas-Anterion, C; Michon, A; Croisile, B; Etcharry-Bouyx, F; Berr, C; Dartigues, J-F; Amouyel, P; Dauchel, H; Boutoleau-Bretonnière, C; Thauvin, C; Frebourg, T; Lambert, J-C; Campion, D

    2012-09-01

    Performing exome sequencing in 14 autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (ADEOAD) index cases without mutation on known genes (amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin1 (PSEN1) and presenilin2 (PSEN2)), we found that in five patients, the SORL1 gene harbored unknown nonsense (n=1) or missense (n=4) mutations. These mutations were not retrieved in 1500 controls of same ethnic origin. In a replication sample, including 15 ADEOAD cases, 2 unknown non-synonymous mutations (1 missense, 1 nonsense) were retrieved, thus yielding to a total of 7/29 unknown mutations in the combined sample. Using in silico predictions, we conclude that these seven private mutations are likely to have a pathogenic effect. SORL1 encodes the Sortilin-related receptor LR11/SorLA, a protein involved in the control of amyloid beta peptide production. Our results suggest that besides the involvement of the APP and PSEN genes, further genetic heterogeneity, involving another gene of the same pathway is present in ADEOAD.

  1. Genetic linkage of autosomal dominant progressive supranuclear palsy to 1q31.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Raquel; Gómez Garre, Pilar; Hirano, Michio; Tai, Yen F; Ampuero, Israel; Vidal, Lídice; Rojo, Ana; Fontan, Aurora; Vazquez, Ana; Fanjul, Samira; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Hoenicka, Janet; Jones, Alison; Ahsan, R Laila; Pavese, Nicola; Piccini, Paola; Brooks, David J; Perez-Tur, Jordi; Nyggard, Torbjorn; de Yébenes, Justo G

    2005-05-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Familial clusters of PSP have been reported related to mutations of protein tau. We report the linkage of a large Spanish family with typical autosomal dominant PSP to a new locus in chromosome 1. Four members of this family had typical PSP, confirmed by neuropathology in one case. At least five ancestors had similar disease. Other members of the family have incomplete phenotypes. The power of the linkage analysis was increased by detecting presymptomatic individuals with 18F-fluoro-dopa and 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We screened the human genome with 340 polymorphic markers and we enriched the areas of interest with additional markers. The disease status was defined according to the clinical and positron emission tomography data. We excluded linkage to the tau gene in chromosome 17. PSP was linked, in this family, to one area of 3.4 cM in chromosome 1q31.1, with a maximal multipoint < OD score of +3.53. This area contains at least three genes, whose relevance in PSP is unknown. We expect to further define the gene responsible for PSP, which could help to understand the pathogenesis of this disease and to design effective treatment.

  2. Epidemiologic analysis of families with isolated anorectal malformations suggests high prevalence of autosomal dominant inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworschak, Gabriel C; Zwink, Nadine; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Mortazawi, Kiarasch; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Reinshagen, Konrad; Leonhardt, Johannes; Gómez, Barbara; Volk, Patrick; Rißmann, Anke; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Reutter, Heiko

    2017-12-13

    Anorectal malformations (ARM) are rare abnormalities that occur in approximately 1 in 3000 live births with around 40% of patients presenting with isolated forms. Multiple familial cases reported, suggest underlying genetic factors that remain largely unknown. The recurrence in relatives is considered rare, however transmission rates of ARM by affected parents have never been determined before. The inheritance pattern of ARM was investigated in our database of patients with isolated ARM. Within our cohort of 327 patients with isolated ARM we identified eight adult patients from eight families who had in total 16 children with their healthy spouse. Of these ten had ARM, resulting in a recurrence risk of approximately one in two live births (10 of 16; 62%). From 226 families with 459 siblings we found two affected siblings in five families. Hence, the recurrence risk of ARM among siblings is approximately one in 92 live births (5 of 459; 1.0%). Comparing the observed recurrence risk in our cohort with the prevalence in the general population, we see a 1500-fold increase in recurrence risk for offspring and a 32-fold increase if a sibling is affected. The recurrence risk of approximately 62% indicates an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Reliable figures on recurrence of ARM are becoming increasingly important since improved surgical techniques are able to maintain sexual function resulting in more offspring of patients with ARM. These data allow more precise counseling of families with ARM and support the need for genetic studies.

  3. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease caused by somatic and germline mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A Y; Blumenfeld, J; Michaeel, A; Donahue, S; Bobb, W; Parker, T; Levine, D; Rennert, H

    2015-04-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder caused by loss of function mutations of PKD1 or PKD2 genes. Although PKD1 is highly polymorphic and the new mutation rate is relatively high, the role of mosaicism is incompletely defined. Herein, we describe the molecular analysis of ADPKD in a 19-year-old female proband and her father. The proband had a PKD1 truncation mutation c.10745dupC (p.Val3584ArgfsX43), which was absent in paternal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). However, very low quantities of this mutation were detected in the father's sperm DNA, but not in DNA from his buccal cells or urine sediment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis determined the level of this mutation in the father's PBL, buccal cells and sperm to be ∼3%, 4.5% and 10%, respectively, consistent with somatic and germline mosaicism. The PKD1 mutation in ∼10% of her father's sperm indicates that it probably occurred early in embryogenesis. In ADPKD cases where a de novo mutation is suspected because of negative PKD gene testing of PBL, additional evaluation with more sensitive methods (e.g. NGS) of the proband PBL and paternal sperm can enhance detection of mosaicism and facilitate genetic counseling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease caused by uromodulin mutations: seek and you will find.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffler, Gabriele; Zitt, Emanuel; Sprenger-Mähr, Hannelore; Nagel, Mato; Lhotta, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Uromodulin (UMOD)-associated kidney disease belongs to the group of autosomal dominant interstitial kidney diseases and is caused by mutations in the UMOD gene. Affected patients present with hyperuricemia, gout, and progressive renal failure. The disease is thought to be very rare but is probably underdiagnosed. Two index patients from two families with tubulointerstitial nephropathy and hyperuricemia were examined, including blood and urine chemistry, ultrasound, and mutation analysis of the UMOD gene. In addition, other available family members were studied. In a 46-year-old female patient with a fractional excretion of uric acid of 3 %, analysis of the UMOD gene revealed a p.W202S missense mutation. The same mutation was found in her 72-year-old father, who suffers from gout and end-stage renal disease. The second index patient was a 47-year-old female with chronic kidney disease and gout for more than 10 years. Her fractional uric acid excretion was 3.5 %. Genetic analysis identified a novel p.H250Q UMOD mutation that was also present in her 12-year-old son, who had normal renal function and uric acid levels. In patients suffering from chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, hyperuricemia, and a low fractional excretion of uric acid mutation, analysis of the UMOD gene should be performed to diagnose UMOD-associated kidney disease.

  5. Isolated autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency: an evolving pituitary deficit? A multicenter follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Primus E; Robinson, Iain C A F; Salemi, Souzan; Eblé, Andrée; Besson, Amélie; Vuissoz, Jean-Marc; Deladoey, Johnny; Simon, Dominique; Czernichow, Paul; Binder, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    Four distinct familial types of isolated GH deficiency have been described so far, of which type II is the autosomal dominant inherited form. It is mainly caused by mutations within the first 6 bp of intervening sequence 3. However, other splice site and missense mutations have been reported. Based on in vitro experiments and transgenic animal data, there is strong evidence that there is a wide variability in phenotype in terms of the severity of GH deficiency. Therefore, we studied a total of 57 subjects belonging to 19 families suffering from different splice site as well as missense mutations within the GH-1 gene. The subjects presenting with a splice site mutation within the first 2 bp of intervening sequence 3 (5'IVS +1/+2 bp) leading to a skipping of exon 3 were found to be more likely to present in the follow-up with other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In addition, although the patients with missense mutations have previously been reported to be less affected, a number of patients presenting with the P89L missense GH form, showed some pituitary hormone impairment. The development of multiple hormonal deficiencies is not age dependent, and there is a clear variability in onset, severity, and progression, even within the same families. The message of clinical importance from these studies is that the pituitary endocrine status of all such patients should continue to be monitored closely over the years because further hormonal deficiencies may evolve with time.

  6. A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Shi, Wei; Song, Liming; Zhang, Xiao; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Min, Qingjie; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4 bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy.

  7. Autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism caused by germline mutation in GNA11: phenotypic and molecular characterization.

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    Li, Dong; Opas, Evan E; Tuluc, Florin; Metzger, Daniel L; Hou, Cuiping; Hakonarson, Hakon; Levine, Michael A

    2014-09-01

    Most cases of autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism (ADH) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in CASR or dominant inhibitor mutations in GCM2 or PTH. Our objectives were to identify the genetic basis for ADH in a multigenerational family and define the underlying disease mechanism. Here we evaluated a multigenerational family with ADH in which affected subjects had normal sequences in these genes and were shorter than unaffected family members. We collected clinical and biochemical data from 6 of 11 affected subjects and performed whole-exome sequence analysis on DNA from two affected sisters and their affected father. Functional studies were performed after expression of wild-type and mutant Gα11 proteins in human embryonic kidney-293-CaR cells that stably express calcium-sensing receptors. Whole-exome-sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.179G>T; p.R60L, in GNA11, which encodes the α-subunit of G11, the principal heterotrimeric G protein that couples calcium-sensing receptors to signal activation in parathyroid cells. Functional studies of Gα11 R60L showed increased accumulation of intracellular concentration of free calcium in response to extracellular concentration of free calcium with a significantly decreased EC50 compared with wild-type Gα11. By contrast, R60L was significantly less effective than the oncogenic Q209L form of Gα11 as an activator of the MAPK pathway. Compared to subjects with CASR mutations, patients with GNA11 mutations lacked hypercalciuria and had normal serum magnesium levels. Our findings indicate that the germline gain-of-function mutation of GNA11 is a cause of ADH and implicate a novel role for GNA11 in skeletal growth.

  8. Autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 with a novel splice site mutation in MR gene

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    Kaito Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1 is a rare inherited condition that is characterized by renal resistance to aldosterone as well as salt wasting, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Renal PHA1 is caused by mutations of the human mineralcorticoid receptor gene (MR, but it is a matter of debate whether MR mutations cause mineralcorticoid resistance via haploinsufficiency or dominant negative mechanism. It was previously reported that in a case with nonsense mutation the mutant mRNA was absent in lymphocytes because of nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD and therefore postulated that haploinsufficiency alone can give rise to the PHA1 phenotype in patients with truncated mutations. Methods and Results We conducted genomic DNA analysis and mRNA analysis for familial PHA1 patients extracted from lymphocytes and urinary sediments and could detect one novel splice site mutation which leads to exon skipping and frame shift result in premature termination at the transcript level. The mRNA analysis showed evidence of wild type and exon-skipped RT-PCR products. Conclusion mRNA analysis have been rarely conducted for PHA1 because kidney tissues are unavailable for this disease. However, we conducted RT-PCR analysis using mRNA extracted from urinary sediments. We could demonstrate that NMD does not fully function in kidney cells and that haploinsufficiency due to NMD with premature termination is not sufficient to give rise to the PHA1 phenotype at least in this mutation of our patient. Additional studies including mRNA analysis will be needed to identify the exact mechanism of the phenotype of PHA.

  9. Cerebral amyloidosis associated with cognitive decline in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

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    Wang, Fen; Gordon, Brian A; Ryman, Davis C; Ma, Shengmei; Xiong, Chengjie; Hassenstab, Jason; Goate, Alison; Fagan, Anne M; Cairns, Nigel J; Marcus, Daniel S; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Farlow, Martin R; Sperling, Reisa; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Rossor, Martin N; Jucker, Mathias; Danek, Adrian; Förster, Stefan; Lane, Christopher A S; Morris, John C; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the associations of cerebral amyloidosis with concurrent cognitive performance and with longitudinal cognitive decline in asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). Two hundred sixty-three participants enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study underwent neuropsychological evaluation as well as PET scans with Pittsburgh compound B. One hundred twenty-one participants completed at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological evaluation. Four composite cognitive measures representing global cognition, episodic memory, language, and working memory were generated using z scores from a battery of 13 standard neuropsychological tests. General linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the relationship between baseline cerebral amyloidosis and baseline cognitive performance and whether baseline cerebral amyloidosis predicts cognitive change over time (mean follow-up 2.32 years ± 0.92, range 0.89-4.19) after controlling for estimated years from expected symptom onset, APOE ε4 allelic status, and education. In asymptomatic mutation carriers, amyloid burden was not associated with baseline cognitive functioning but was significantly predictive of longitudinal decline in episodic memory. In symptomatic mutation carriers, cerebral amyloidosis was correlated with worse baseline performance in multiple cognitive composites and predicted greater decline over time in global cognition, working memory, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Cerebral amyloidosis predicts longitudinal episodic memory decline in presymptomatic ADAD and multidomain cognitive decline in symptomatic ADAD. These findings imply that amyloidosis in the brain is an indicator of early cognitive decline and provides a useful outcome measure for early assessment and prevention treatment trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. A novel OPA1 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

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    Zhang, Juanjuan; Yuan, Yimin; Lin, Bing; Feng, Hao; Li, Yan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui [Attardi Institute of Mitochondrial Biomedicine and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Xujie [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Xiao-Ling, E-mail: lxl@mail.eye.ac.cn [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Guan, Min-Xin, E-mail: min-xin.guan@cchmc.org [Attardi Institute of Mitochondrial Biomedicine and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Genetics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012 (China); Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229 (United States)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the characterization of a four-generation large Chinese family with ADOA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find a new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G in OPA1 gene which may be a novel pathogenic mutation in this pedigree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We do not find any mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with optic atrophy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree. -- Abstract: A large four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) was investigated in the present study. Eight of the family members were affected in this pedigree. The affected family members exhibited early-onset and progressive visual impairment, resulting in mild to profound loss of visual acuity. The average age-at-onset was 15.9 years. A new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G was identified by sequence analysis of the 12th exon of the OPA1 gene. This mutation resulted in a proline to alanine substitution at codon 400, which was located in an evolutionarily conserved region. This missense mutation in the GTPase domain was supposed to result in a loss of function for the encoded protein and act through a dominant negative effect. No other mutations associated with optic atrophy were found in our present study. The c.C1198G heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene may be a novel key pathogenic mutation in this pedigree with ADOA. Furthermore, additional nuclear modifier genes, environmental factors, and psychological factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree.

  11. A novel OPA1 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

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    Zhang, Juanjuan; Yuan, Yimin; Lin, Bing; Feng, Hao; Li, Yan; Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui; Dong, Xujie; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Guan, Min-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report the characterization of a four-generation large Chinese family with ADOA. ► We find a new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G in OPA1 gene which may be a novel pathogenic mutation in this pedigree. ► We do not find any mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with optic atrophy. ► Other factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree. -- Abstract: A large four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) was investigated in the present study. Eight of the family members were affected in this pedigree. The affected family members exhibited early-onset and progressive visual impairment, resulting in mild to profound loss of visual acuity. The average age-at-onset was 15.9 years. A new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G was identified by sequence analysis of the 12th exon of the OPA1 gene. This mutation resulted in a proline to alanine substitution at codon 400, which was located in an evolutionarily conserved region. This missense mutation in the GTPase domain was supposed to result in a loss of function for the encoded protein and act through a dominant negative effect. No other mutations associated with optic atrophy were found in our present study. The c.C1198G heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene may be a novel key pathogenic mutation in this pedigree with ADOA. Furthermore, additional nuclear modifier genes, environmental factors, and psychological factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree.

  12. Progression of autosomal dominant kidney disease: measurement of the stage transitions of chronic kidney disease

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    Christopher M Blanchette

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a progressive genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous kidney cysts that result in kidney failure. Little is known regarding the key patient characteristics and utilization of healthcare resources for ADPKD patients along the continuum of disease progression. This observational study was designed to describe the characteristics of ADPKD patients and compare them with those of patients with other chronic kidney diseases. Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved patients with a claim for ADPKD or PKD unspecified from 1/1/2000–2/28/2013 and ≥6 months of previous continuous enrollment (baseline within a large database of administrative claims in the USA. A random sample of chronic kidney disease (CKD patients served as comparators. For a subset of ADPKD patients who had only a diagnosis code of unspecified PKD, abstraction of medical records was undertaken to estimate the proportion of patients who had medical chart-confirmed ADPKD. In patients with linked electronic laboratory data, the estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated via serum creatinine values to determine CKD stage at baseline and during follow-up. Proportions of patients transitioning to another stage and the mean age at transition were calculated. Results: ADPKD patients were, in general, younger and had fewer physician visits, but had more specific comorbidities at observation start compared with CKD patients. ADPKD patients had a longer time in the milder stages and longer duration before recorded transition to a more severe stage compared with CKD patients. Patients with ADPKD at risk of rapid progression had a shorter time-to-end-stage renal disease than patients with CKD and ADPKD patients not at risk, but stage duration was similar between ADPKD patients at risk and those not at risk. Conclusions: These results suggest that distribution of patients by age at transition

  13. Branched-chain amino acids enhance cyst development in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

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    Yamamoto, Junya; Nishio, Saori; Hattanda, Fumihiko; Nakazawa, Daigo; Kimura, Toru; Sata, Michio; Makita, Minoru; Ishikawa, Yasunobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the progressive development of kidney and liver cysts. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade is one of the important pathways regulating cyst growth in ADPKD. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine, play a crucial role to activate mTOR pathway. Therefore, we administered BCAA dissolved in the drinking water to Pkd1 flox/flox :Mx1-Cre (cystic) mice from four to 22 weeks of age after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced conditional Pkd1 knockout at two weeks of age. The BCAA group showed significantly greater kidney/body weight ratio and higher cystic index in both the kidney and liver compared to the placebo-treated mice. We found that the L-type amino acid transporter 1 that facilitates BCAA entry into cells is strongly expressed in cells lining the cysts. We also found increased cyst-lining cell proliferation and upregulation of mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways in the BCAA group. In vitro, we cultured renal epithelial cell lines from Pkd1 null mice with or without leucine. Leucine was found to stimulate cell proliferation, as well as activate mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in these cells. Thus, BCAA accelerated disease progression by mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. Hence, BCAA may be harmful to patients with ADPKD. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

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    Andrea eBecchetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs. This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel, DEPD5 (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5, and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex.

  15. Screening for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Survey of 420 Nephrologists.

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    Adrien Flahault

    Full Text Available Despite a high prevalence of intracranial aneurysm (ICA in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, rupture events are rare. The current recommendations for ICA screening are based on expert opinions and studies with low levels of evidence.The aim of our study was to describe the attitudes of practicing nephrologists in Europe towards screening for ICA using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA.We conducted a web-based survey among 1315 European French-speaking nephrologists and nephrology residents. An anonymous, electronic questionnaire including 24 independent questions related to ICA screening modalities, indications and participant profiles was sent by email between September and December 2014. Four hundred and twenty nephrologists (mostly from France participated, including 31 nephrology residents; the response rate was 32%.Systematic screening for ICA was advocated by 28% of the nephrologists. A family history of ICA rupture, sudden death, stroke and migraine were consensual indications for screening (> 90% of the panel. In other clinical situations largely not covered by the recommendations (pregnancy, nephrectomy, kidney transplantation, cardiac or hepatic surgery, uncontrolled hypertension, lack of familial ADPKD history, at-risk activity, tobacco use, the attitudes towards screening were highly divergent. ICA screening was influenced by nephrologists experience with ADPKD and by their practice setting. The majority of participants (57% would not repeat a normal ICA screening. Only a few participants (22% knew that non-contrast MRA was the reference diagnostic tool for ICA screening, whereas most participants thought that contrast enhancement was necessary to screen for ICA. The results from the nephrology residents were analyzed separately and yielded similar results.This practice survey revealed that most nephrologists follow the current recommendations for the initial screening of ICAs. However, more than a quarter of the

  16. Prevalence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the European Union.

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    Willey, Cynthia J; Blais, Jaime D; Hall, Anthony K; Krasa, Holly B; Makin, Andrew J; Czerwiec, Frank S

    2017-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease, but estimates of its prevalence vary by >10-fold. The objective of this study was to examine the public health impact of ADPKD in the European Union (EU) by estimating minimum prevalence (point prevalence of known cases) and screening prevalence (minimum prevalence plus cases expected after population-based screening). A review of the epidemiology literature from January 1980 to February 2015 identified population-based studies that met criteria for methodological quality. These examined large German and British populations, providing direct estimates of minimum prevalence and screening prevalence. In a second approach, patients from the 2012 European Renal Association‒European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry and literature-based inflation factors that adjust for disease severity and screening yield were used to estimate prevalence across 19 EU countries (N = 407 million). Population-based studies yielded minimum prevalences of 2.41 and 3.89/10 000, respectively, and corresponding estimates of screening prevalences of 3.3 and 4.6/10 000. A close correspondence existed between estimates in countries where both direct and registry-derived methods were compared, which supports the validity of the registry-based approach. Using the registry-derived method, the minimum prevalence was 3.29/10 000 (95% confidence interval 3.27-3.30), and if ADPKD screening was implemented in all countries, the expected prevalence was 3.96/10 000 (3.94-3.98). ERA-EDTA-based prevalence estimates and application of a uniform definition of prevalence to population-based studies consistently indicate that the ADPKD point prevalence is <5/10 000, the threshold for rare disease in the EU. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  17. Identification of novel mutations in Chinese Hans with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

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    Yu Chaowen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most common inherited renal disease with an incidence of 1 in 400 to 1000. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, with two genes identified: PKD1 (16p13.3 and PKD2 (4q21. Molecular diagnosis of the disease in at-risk individuals is complicated due to the structural complexity of PKD1 gene and the high diversity of the mutations. This study is the first systematic ADPKD mutation analysis of both PKD1 and PKD2 genes in Chinese patients using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC. Methods Both PKD1 and PKD2 genes were mutation screened in each proband from 65 families using DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing. Novel variations found in the probands were checked in their family members available and 100 unrelated normal controls. Then the pathogenic potential of the variations of unknown significance was examined by evolutionary comparison, effects of amino acid substitutions on protein structure, and effects of splice site alterations using online mutation prediction resources. Results A total of 92 variations were identified, including 27 reported previously. Definitely pathogenic mutations (ten frameshift, ten nonsense, two splicing defects and one duplication were identified in 28 families, and probably pathogenic mutations were found in an additional six families, giving a total detection level of 52.3% (34/65. About 69% (20/29 of the mutations are first reported with a recurrent mutation rate of 31%. Conclusions Mutation study of PKD1 and PKD2 genes in Chinese Hans with ADPKD may contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity between different ethnic groups and enrich the mutation database. Besides, evaluating the pathogenic potential of novel variations should also facilitate the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling of the disease.

  18. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients from seven families with autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy.

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    Coppola, Antonietta; Caccavale, Carmela; Santulli, Lia; Balestrini, Simona; Cagnetti, Claudia; Licchetta, Laura; Esposito, Marcello; Bisulli, Francesca; Tinuper, Paolo; Provinciali, Leandro; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale; Striano, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this report was to assess the psychiatric comorbidity in a group of patients affected by autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME). Reliable and validated psychodiagnostic scales including the BDI (Beck Depression Inventory), STAI-Y1 and 2 (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Y; 1 and 2), MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2), and QoLIE-31 (Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory - 31) were administered to 20 patients with ADCME, 20 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and 20 healthy controls. There was a higher prevalence of mood disorders in patients with ADCME compared to patients with JME and healthy controls, particularly depression (p=0.035 and p=0.017, respectively) and state anxiety (p=0.024 and p=0.019, respectively). Trait anxiety was not different from JME (p=0.102) but higher than healthy controls (p=0.017). The myoclonus score positively correlated with both state (rho: 0.58, p=0.042) and trait anxiety (rho: 0.65, p=0.011). These psychiatric features were also often associated with pathological traits of personality: paranoid (OR: 25.7, p=0.003), psychasthenia (OR: 7.0, p=0.023), schizophrenia (OR: 8.5, p=0.011), and hypomania (OR: 5.5, p=0.022). Finally, in patients with ADCME, decreased quality of life correlated with these psychiatric symptoms. Patients with ADCME show a significant psychiatric burden that impairs their quality of life. A comprehensive psychiatric evaluation should be offered at the time of diagnosis to detect these comorbidities and to treat them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired growth and intracranial calcifications in autosomal dominant hypocalcemia caused by a GNA11 mutation.

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    Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo; Reyes, Monica; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Jüppner, Harald; Mäkitie, Outi

    2016-09-01

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is characterized by hypocalcemia and inappropriately low PTH concentrations. ADH type 1 is caused by activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), a G-protein-coupled receptor signaling through α11 (Gα11) and αq (Gαq) subunits. Heterozygous activating mutations in GNA11, the gene encoding Gα11, underlie ADH type 2. This study describes disease characteristics in a family with ADH caused by a gain-of-function mutation in GNA11. A three-generation family with seven members (3 adults, 4 children) presenting with ADH. Biochemical parameters of calcium metabolism, clinical, genetic and brain imaging findings were analyzed. Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous GNA11 missense mutation (c.1018G>A, p.V340M) in all seven hypocalcemic subjects, but not in the healthy family members (n=4). The adult patients showed clinical symptoms of hypocalcemia, while the children were asymptomatic. Plasma ionized calcium ranged from 0.95 to 1.14mmol/L, yet plasma PTH was inappropriately low for the degree of hypocalcemia. Serum 25OHD was normal. Despite hypocalcemia 1,25(OH)2D and urinary calcium excretion were inappropriately in the reference range. None of the patients had nephrocalcinosis. Two adults and one child (of the two MRI scanned children) had distinct intracranial calcifications. All affected subjects had short stature (height s.d. scores ranging from -3.4 to -2.3 vs -0.5 in the unaffected children). The identified GNA11 mutation results in biochemical abnormalities typical for ADH. Additional features, including short stature and early intracranial calcifications, cosegregated with the mutation. These findings may indicate a wider role for Gα11 signaling besides calcium regulation. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Phenotypic diversity in autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy elucidated by adaptive optics retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongxin; Rossi, Ethan A; Stone, Edwin; Latchney, Lisa; Williams, David; Dubra, Alfredo; Chung, Mina

    2018-01-01

    Several genes causing autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy (AD-CRD) have been identified. However, the mechanisms by which genetic mutations lead to cellular loss in human disease remain poorly understood. Here we combine genotyping with high-resolution adaptive optics retinal imaging to elucidate the retinal phenotype at a cellular level in patients with AD-CRD harbouring a defect in the GUCA1A gene. Nine affected members of a four-generation AD-CRD pedigree and three unaffected first-degree relatives underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, fundus examination, Goldmann perimetry, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and electroretinography. Genome-wide scan followed by bidirectional sequencing was performed on all affected participants. High-resolution imaging using a custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was performed for selected participants. Clinical evaluations showed a range of disease severity from normal fundus appearance in teenaged patients to pronounced macular atrophy in older patients. Molecular genetic testing showed a mutation in in GUCA1A segregating with disease. AOSLO imaging revealed that of the two teenage patients with mild disease, one had severe disruption of the photoreceptor mosaic while the other had a normal cone mosaic. AOSLO imaging demonstrated variability in the pattern of cone and rod cell loss between two teenage cousins with early AD-CRD, who had similar clinical features and had the identical disease-causing mutation in GUCA1A . This finding suggests that a mutation in GUCA1A does not lead to the same degree of AD-CRD in all patients. Modifying factors may mitigate or augment disease severity, leading to different retinal cellular phenotypes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Effec Of Low Protein Diet On Chronic Renal Failure Due To Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

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    Terukuni Ideura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports about therapeutic effects of low protein diet on the progression of chronic renal failure due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, although the disease is common.The annual incidence rate for end-stage renal disease caused by ADPKD is around 6 per million.In this retrospective study in one center, ten chronic renal failure patients due to ADPKD with creatinine clearnce of 17.0±3.3 mL/min /1.73 m2 and serum creatinine (Cr level of 4.4±0.7 mg/dL were studied for 40 months after the introduction of severe low protein diet (SLPD (0.48±0.03 g/kgBW/day without supplementation of essential amino acids or keto-analogues. Dietary protein intake was estimated by urea appearance rate from 24hr urine sample according to Mitch-Maroni's formula. The results clearly showed that ▵1/Cr/month(×10−3 was significantly suppressed from 5.8±0.9 to 2.0±0.6 following the introduction of SLPD (p<0.02. Furthermore, BUN/Cr ratio decreased from 10.4±0.02 to 7.3±0.02 (p<0.01. Mean blood pressure (mmHg remained unchanged; 92±3 vs 89±3 (ns, and urinary protein excretion (g/day did not change; 0.6±0.2 vs 0.6±0.1 (ns. There were no significant differences between body mass index, serum albumin, transferrin and hemoglobin levels as the indices of nutritional state before and after the introduction of SLPD.In conclusion, SLPD was effective in suppressing the progression of further decline in renal function due to ADPKD under nutritionally safety condition in this cohort.

  2. Lysine methyltransferase SMYD2 promotes cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Xiaoyan; Fan, Lucy X; Zhou, Julie Xia; Grantham, Jared J; Calvet, James P; Sage, Julien; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-06-30

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is driven by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Recent work suggests that epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein function may play a role in ADPKD pathogenesis. In this study, we identified SMYD2, a SET and MYND domain protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a regulator of renal cyst growth. SMYD2 was upregulated in renal epithelial cells and tissues from Pkd1-knockout mice as well as in ADPKD patients. SMYD2 deficiency delayed renal cyst growth in postnatal kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Pkd1 and Smyd2 double-knockout mice lived longer than Pkd1-knockout mice. Targeting SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, delayed cyst growth in both early- and later-stage Pkd1 conditional knockout mouse models. SMYD2 carried out its function via methylation and activation of STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, leading to increased cystic renal epithelial cell proliferation and survival. We further identified two positive feedback loops that integrate epigenetic regulation and renal inflammation in cyst development: SMYD2/IL-6/STAT3/SMYD2 and SMYD2/TNF-α/NF-κB/SMYD2. These pathways provide mechanisms by which SMYD2 might be induced by cyst fluid IL-6 and TNF-α in ADPKD kidneys. The SMYD2 transcriptional target gene Ptpn13 also linked SMYD2 to other PKD-associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling, via PTPN13-mediated phosphorylation.

  3. Radiologic and clinical bronchiectasis associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Moua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polycystin 1 and 2, the protein abnormalities associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, are also found in airway cilia and smooth muscle cells. There is evidence of increased radiologic bronchiectasis associated with ADPKD, though the clinical and functional implications of this association are unknown. We hypothesized an increased prevalence of both radiologic and clinical bronchiectasis is associated with APDKD as compared to non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed at our institution involving consecutive ADPKD and non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD patients seen over a 13 year period with both chest CT and PFT. CTs were independently reviewed by two blinded thoracic radiologists. Manually collected clinical data included symptoms, smoker status, transplant history, and PFT findings. RESULTS: Ninety-two ADPKD and 95 non-ADPKD CKD control patients were compared. Increased prevalence of radiologic bronchiectasis, predominantly mild lower lobe disease, was found in ADPKD patients compared to CKD control (19 vs. 9%, P = 0.032, OR 2.49 (CI 1.1-5.8. After adjustment for covariates, ADPKD was associated with increased risk of radiologic bronchiectasis (OR 2.78 (CI 1.16-7.12. Symptomatic bronchiectasis occurred in approximately a third of ADPKD patients with radiologic disease. Smoking was associated with increased radiologic bronchiectasis in ADPKD patients (OR 3.59, CI 1.23-12.1. CONCLUSIONS: Radiological bronchiectasis is increased in patients with ADPKD particularly those with smoking history as compared to non-ADPKD CKD controls. A third of such patients have symptomatic disease. Bronchiectasis should be considered in the differential in ADPKD patients with respiratory symptoms and smoking history.

  4. Attitudes in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Toward Prenatal Diagnosis and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Oscar; Vilar, Enric; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Gale, Daniel P

    2016-12-01

    No recommendations currently exist regarding implementation of both prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). This study evaluated attitudes in ADPKD patients with either chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages I-IV or end-stage renal failure (ESRF) toward prenatal diagnosis and PGD. Ninety-six ADPKD patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic, wards, and dialysis units. Thirty-eight patients had ESRF and 58 had CKD stages I-IV. Participants were given an information sheet on prenatal diagnosis and PGD and subsequently completed a questionnaire. The median age of participants was 51.5 years. Seventeen percent of ADPKD patients with CKD and 18% of ADPKD patients with ESRF would consider prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy for ADPKD. Fifty percent with CKD would have opted for PGD (or might consider it in the future) were it available and funded by the UK National Health Service, compared to 63% in the ESRF group (p = 0.33). Sixty-nine percent in the CKD group and 68% in the ESRF group believed that PGD should be offered to other patients. There was a spectrum of attitudes among this cohort. A proportion of patients believe that PGD should be made available to prospective parents with this disease. The discrepancy between the low proportion (17% CKD, 18% ESRF) who would consider prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy and the higher number who hypothetically express an intention or wish to access PGD (50% CKD and 63% ESRF) indicates far greater acceptability for diagnostic methods that occur before embryo implantation. It is not known how the development of methods to identify patients whose renal function is likely to decline rapidly and treatments altering the natural history of ADPKD will affect these attitudes.

  5. Nephrotic Syndrome and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy Associated with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Martínez-Ara, Jorge; Peces, Carlos; Picazo, Mariluz; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Vega, Cristina; Azorín, Sebastián; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old male with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and concomitant nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy (MN). A 3-month course of prednisone 60 mg daily and losartan 100 mg daily resulted in resistance. Treatment with chlorambucil 0.2 mg/kg daily, low-dose prednisone, plus an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for 6 weeks resulted in partial remission of his nephrotic syndrome for a duration of 10 months. After relapse of the nephrotic syndrome, a 13-month course of mycophenolate mofetil (MFM) 2 g daily and low-dose prednisone produced complete remission for 44 months. After a new relapse, a second 24-month course of MFM and low-dose prednisone produced partial to complete remission of proteinuria with preservation of renal function. Thirty-six months after MFM withdrawal, complete remission of nephrotic-range proteinuria was maintained and renal function was preserved. This case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed for ADPKD patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria in order to exclude coexisting glomerular disease and for appropriate treatment/prevention of renal function deterioration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to MN in a patient with ADPKD treated with MFM, with remission of proteinuria and preservation of renal function after more than 10 years. Findings in this patient also suggest that MFM might reduce cystic cell proliferation and fibrosis, preventing progressive renal scarring with preservation of renal function. PMID:21552769

  6. Nephrotic Syndrome and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy Associated with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Peces

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 38-year-old male with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD and concomitant nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy (MN. A 3-month course of prednisone 60 mg daily and losartan 100 mg daily resulted in resistance. Treatment with chlorambucil 0.2 mg/kg daily, low-dose prednisone, plus an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB for 6 weeks resulted in partial remission of his nephrotic syndrome for a duration of 10 months. After relapse of the nephrotic syndrome, a 13-month course of mycophenolate mofetil (MFM 2 g daily and low-dose prednisone produced complete remission for 44 months. After a new relapse, a second 24-month course of MFM and low-dose prednisone produced partial to complete remission of proteinuria with preservation of renal function. Thirty-six months after MFM withdrawal, complete remission of nephrotic-range proteinuria was maintained and renal function was preserved. This case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed for ADPKD patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria in order to exclude coexisting glomerular disease and for appropriate treatment/prevention of renal function deterioration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to MN in a patient with ADPKD treated with MFM, with remission of proteinuria and preservation of renal function after more than 10 years. Findings in this patient also suggest that MFM might reduce cystic cell proliferation and fibrosis, preventing progressive renal scarring with preservation of renal function.

  7. Affected parent sex and severity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a retrospective cohort study
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Chonchol, Michel; You, Zhiying; Gupta, Malika; Gitomer, Berenice

    2018-03-01

    Parental inheritance may differentially affect autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (-ADPKD) severity via genetic imprinting or in utero epigenetic modifications; however, evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to assess the association between sex of the affected parent and time to hypertension diagnosis, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and death in patients with the PKD1 genotype. 814 individuals who participated in research at the University of Colorado were studied. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The predictor was parental sex, and outcomes were diagnosis of hypertension, progression to ESRD, and death. We also examined associations in four strata according to affected parent and participant sex, as previous studies have reported earlier onset of ESRD in males compared to females. The median follow-up for each outcome was as follows: hypertension, 30 (interquartile range (IQR): 18, 37); ESRD, 43 (IQR: 31, 52), death 39 (IQR: 25, 52) years of age. Among affected offspring in the entire cohort, there was no difference in hypertension diagnosis (p = 0.97) or progression to ESRD (p = 0.79) according to affected parent sex; however, participants with an affected mother were more likely to die than participants with an affected father (p father (p < 0.01) but not when the affected parent was the mother (p ≥ 0.11). Our results are largely in contrast to the hypothesis that severity of ADPKD is worse with maternal inheritance of disease.
.

  8. Iron Supplementation Associated With Loss of Phenotype in Autosomal Dominant Hypophosphatemic Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelari, Klaus; Köhle, Julia; Kotzot, Dieter; Högler, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is the only hereditary disorder of renal phosphate wasting in which patients may regain the ability to conserve phosphate. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. This study reports of a girl with ADHR, iron deficiency, and a paternal history of hypophosphatemic rickets that resolved without treatment. The girl's biochemical phenotype resolved with iron supplementation. A 26-month-old girl presented with typical features of hypophosphatemic rickets, short stature (79 cm; -2.82 SDS), and iron deficiency. Treatment with elemental phosphorus and calcitriol improved her biochemical profile and resolved the rickets. The girl's father had presented with rickets at age 11 months but never received medication. His final height was reduced (154.3 cm; -3.51 SDS), he had undergone corrective leg surgery and had an adult normal phosphate, fibroblast growth factor 23, and iron status. Father and daughter were found to have a heterozygous mutation in exon 3 of the FGF23 gene (c.536G>A, p.Arg179Gln), confirming ADHR. Withdrawal of rickets medication was attempted off and on iron supplementation. Withdrawal of rickets medication in the girl was unsuccessful in the presence of low-normal serum iron levels at age 5.6 years but was later successful in the presence of high-normal serum iron levels following high-dose iron supplementation. We report an association between iron supplementation and a complete loss of biochemical ADHR phenotype, allowing withdrawal of rickets medication. Experience from this case suggests that reduction and withdrawal of rickets medication should be attempted only after iron status has been optimized.

  9. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in a family with mosaicism and hypomorphic allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterová, Jana; Štekrová, Jitka; Merta, Miroslav; Kotlas, Jaroslav; Elišáková, Veronika; Lněnička, Petr; Korabečná, Marie; Kohoutová, Milada; Tesař, Vladimír

    2013-03-15

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common form of inherited kidney disease that results in renal failure. ADPKD is a systemic disorder with cysts and connective tissue abnormalities involving many organs. ADPKD caused by mutations in PKD1 gene is significantly more severe than the cases caused by PKD2 gene mutations. The large intra-familial variability of ADPKD highlights a role for genetic background. Here we report a case of ADPKD family initially appearing unlinked to the PKD1 or PKD2 loci and the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele on the variability of the clinical course of the disease. A grandmother with the PKD1 gene mutation in mosaicism (p.Val1105ArgfsX4) and with mild clinical course of ADPKD (end stage renal failure at the age of 77) seemed to have ADPKD because of PKD2 gene mutation. On the other hand, her grandson had a severe clinical course (end stage renal disease at the age of 45) in spite of the early treatment of mild hypertension. There was found by mutational analysis of PKD genes that the severe clinical course was caused by PKD1 gene frameshifting mutation inherited from his father and mildly affected grandmother in combination with inherited hypomorphic PKD1 allele with described missense mutation (p.Thr2250Met) from his clinically healthy mother. The sister with two cysts and with PKD1 hypomorphic allele became the kidney donor to her severely affected brother. We present the first case of ADPKD with the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele of the PKD1 gene on clinical course of ADPKD in one family. Moreover, this report illustrates the role of molecular genetic testing in assessing young related kidney donors for patients with ADPKD.

  10. Relationship between intracranial aneurysms and the severity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroki; Higashihara, Eiji; Maruyama, Keisuke; Nutahara, Kikuo; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Isao; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2017-12-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary kidney disease characterized by the progressive enlargement of innumerable renal cysts. Although the association of intracranial aneurysms (ICANs) with ADPKD is well known, the relationship between the ICAN and the disease severity including total kidney volume (TKV) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is poorly understood. We screened 265 patients with ADPKD (mean age, 48.8 years; range, 14.9-88.3 years) with MR angiography. The patients with a past history related to ICANs were excluded from the study. The incidence and characteristics of ICAN in patients with ADPKD were evaluated. TKV was measured by volumetric analyses of MR imaging. We detected 65 ICANs in 49 patients (37 women and 12 men, mean age, 52.7 years; range, 20.4-86 years). The incidence of ICANs was 18.5% and female patients had was higher incidence (23.1%) than male patients (11.4%) (p = 0.02). An age of those with ICANs was significantly higher than those without (p = 0.006), and the cumulative risk of diagnosis of ICANs increased with age. TKV was significantly larger in those with ICANs than those without (p = 0.001), but eGFR was not different between two groups (p = 0.07). By multivariate analyses, only TKV was significantly related to the development of ICANs (p = 0.02). The incidence of ICANs increased with age, was higher in females, and correlated with kidney enlargement in patients with ADPKD. Necessity of screening ICANs would be particularly high in elderly women with large kidneys.

  11. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Study of clinical characteristics in an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Vikrant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most common hereditary form of kidney disease. Clinical data on this multisystem disorder are scarce from developing countries. We conducted a prospective observational study of the clinical profile of ADPKD patients at a single center over a period of six years. A total of 208 patients were studied. Majority were male (60.6% and the mean age was 45.8 ± 14.5 years. About 61.5% had early stage (Stages 1-3 of chronic kidney disease (CKD and 38.5% had advanced CKD (Stages 4 and 5. Clinical features observed included pain abdomen (46.2%, nocturia (65.9%, hematuria (21.6%, nephrolithiasis (38.9%, urinary tract infection (UTI (38.9%, hypertension (69.5%, and raised serum creatinine (54.3%. The prevalence of nocturia, hypertension, and renal dysfunction showed a significant increase with age (P = 0.001. Extrarenal manifestations were polycystic liver disease in 77 patients (37%, cysts in pancreas in two (1%, and stroke in three (1.5% (hemorrhage in 2 and infarct in 1. There was significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.027 and nephrolithiasis (P = 0.044 in males compared to females. Ninety-two patients (44.2% had a positive family history for ADPKD. Fifteen (7.2% had kidney failure at the diagnosis of ADPKD, were hospitalized, and underwent emergency dialysis. A total of 20 patients (9.6% developed end-stage kidney disease during the study period. The age at diagnosis was higher, and there was a high prevalence of hypertension, nocturia, abdominal pain, nephrolithiasis, UTI, and renal dysfunction in Indian ADPKD patients.

  12. [Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 associated to pigmentary retinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Caballero, Pedro Enrique; Serviá, Mónica

    2010-07-01

    Ocular disorders are useful in the characterisation of the different types of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA); pigmentary retinitis is an alteration that is specifically associated to SCA type 7 and is characterised by night blindness, sensitivity to glare and progressive narrowing of the visual field. A 34-year-old woman with clinical symptoms of progressive ataxia and visual impairment secondary to pigmentary retinitis. The patient had a personal history with an autosomal dominant pattern of a similar disorder in her father and paternal grandmother. In the genetic study she presented a triplet expansion in the SCA type 2 gene. CONCLUSIONS; Although pigmentary retinitis belongs to the SCA type 7 phenotype, our patient presented this retinal disorder, as in other cases of SCA type 2. A genetic study for SCA type 2 must therefore be conducted in patients with a degenerative ataxic clinical picture and who present evidence of pigmentary retinitis.

  13. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7: Report of an Indian family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusidheshwar M Wali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7 is a form of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia which is associated with pigmentary retinal degeneration. It is known for its world-wide rarity except in the Scandinavian countries. It is very rarely reported from India and the neighbouring Asian countries . The present report describes the neurogenetic findings of a family of SCA7, from the northern part of Karnataka in South India. It documents the wide intrafamilial phenotypic variability, which could be correlated with the CAG repeat counts and phenomenon of anticipation. Genotype phenotype correlation highlighted certain disparities in comparison with the previous studies. The report highlights the need for multiethnic population studies and the role of genetic counseling and prenatal testing in SCA7 patients.

  14. Autosomal-dominant GTPCH1-deficient DRD: clinical characteristics and long-term outcome of 34 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Trender-Gerhard , Iris; Sweeney , Mary G; Schwingenschuh , Petra; Mir , Pablo; Edwards , Mark J; Gerhard , Alexander; Polke , James M; Hanna , Mike G; Davis , Mary B; Wood , Nick W; Bhatia , Kailash P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract An autosomal dominantly inherited defect in the GCH1 gene that encodes guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) is the most common cause of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). A classic phenotype of young-onset lower limb dystonia, diurnal fluctuations, and excellent response to levodopa has been well recognized in association with GCH1 mutations, and rare atypical presentations have been reported. However, a number of clinical issues remain unresolved including phenot...

  15. Autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia with axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy maps to chromosome 21q 22.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Hanna, Philip A; Igo, Robert P; Luo, Yuqun A; Won, Sungho; Hirano, Michio; Grewal, Raji P

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. At present, 19 autosomal dominant loci for HSP have been mapped. We ascertained an American family of European descent segregating an autosomal dominant HSP associated with peripheral neuropathy. A genome wide scan was performed with 410 microsatellite repeat marker (Weber lab screening set 16) and following linkage and haplotype analysis, fine mapping was performed. Established genes or loci for HSP were excluded by direct sequencing or haplotype analysis. All established loci for HSP were excluded. Fine mapping suggested a locus on chromosome 21q22.3 flanked by markers D21S1411 and D21S1446 with a maximum logarithm of odds score of 2.05 and was supported by haplotype analysis. A number of candidate genes in this region were analyzed and no disease-producing mutations were detected. We present the clinical and genetic analysis of an American family with autosomal dominant HSP with axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy mapping to a novel locus on chromosome 21q22.3 designated SPG56.

  16. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy resulting in stroke in an 11-year-old male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granild-Jensen, Jakob Bie; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Schwartz, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is caused by mutations in the Notch3 gene on chromosome 19. The condition manifests itself clinically typically in the third to fifth decade with migraine and recurrent episodes of stroke or trans......Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is caused by mutations in the Notch3 gene on chromosome 19. The condition manifests itself clinically typically in the third to fifth decade with migraine and recurrent episodes of stroke...... or transient ischaemic attacks. We report the case of an 11-year-old male with CADASIL resulting in stroke with right hemiparesis and dysphasia. Acute magnetic resonance imaging suggested infarction in the left hemisphere; magnetic resonance angiography revealed calibre variation of the intracerebral arteries...... of CADASIL, with an autosomal dominant pattern. The diagnosis of CADASIL was confirmed by the finding of the known mutation of the Notch3 gene running in the family. With treatment in a neurorehabilitation centre the patient recovered most of his functions with only discrete fine-motor and cognitive sequelae...

  17. A novel IMPDH1 mutation (Arg231Pro) in a family with a severe form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Fishman, Gerald A; Stone, Edwin M

    2004-10-01

    To define ophthalmic findings in a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and a novel IMPDH1 gene mutation. Genetic and observational family study. Sixteen affected members of a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Ophthalmic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (VA), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, Goldmann kinetic perimetry, and electroretinography were performed. Deoxyribonucleic acid single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was done. Abnormal polymerase chain reaction products identified by SSCP analysis were sequenced bidirectionally. All affected patients had the onset of night blindness within the first decade of life. Ocular findings were characterized by diffuse retinal pigmentary degenerative changes, marked restriction of peripheral visual fields, severe loss of VA, nondetectable electroretinography amplitudes, and a high frequency of posterior subcapsular lens opacities. Affected members were observed to harbor a novel IMPDH1 gene mutation. A novel IMPDH1 gene mutation (Arg231Pro) was associated with a severe form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Families affected with a severe form of this genetic subtype should be investigated for a mutation in the IMPDH1 gene.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of posterior pituitary for evaluation of the neurohypophyseal function in idiopathic and autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozata, M.; Tayfun, C.; Kurtaran, K.; Yetkin, I.; Beyhan, Z.; Corakci, A.; Caglayan, S.; Alemdaroglu, A.; Guendogan, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the role of MR imaging for evaluation of the functional status of the neurohypophyseal system in both idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (DI) and familial autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal DI. The patients and family with DI were analyzed retrospectively for the presence or absence of posterior pituitary gland hyperintense signal on MR images. A total of 19 adult patients with idiopathic central DI, 7 members of a family with autosomal dominant DI and 20 control subjects were included in the study. Diagnosis of idiopathic DI was based on the presence of central DI in the absence of any alteration that is known to be responsible for DI. The patients were studied retrospectively and the morphology and intensity of the posterior lobe by MR imaging was assessed by blinded reading. In all patients with idiopathic central DI and the affected members of the family, the posterior bright signal was absent while the stalk was normal on MR images. In contrast, normal posterior pituitary bright signal and stalk were found in unaffected members of the family and all control subjects. We conclude that MR imaging of the posterior pituitary lobe can be used to evaluate the functional status of the neurohypophyseal system in idiopathic central DI and familial autosomal dominant DI. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Iron Modifies Plasma FGF23 Differently in Autosomal Dominant Hypophosphatemic Rickets and Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Munro; Gray, Amie K.; Padgett, Leah R.; Hui, Siu L.; Econs, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: In autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) resists cleavage, causing increased plasma FGF23 levels. The clinical phenotype includes variable onset during childhood or adulthood and waxing/waning of hypophosphatemia. Delayed onset after puberty in females suggests iron status may be important. Objective: Studies were performed to test the hypothesis that plasma C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations are related to serum iron concentrations in ADHR. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of ADHR and a cross-sectional study in healthy subjects were conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Participants included 37 subjects with ADHR mutations from four kindreds and 158 healthy adult controls. Main Outcome Measure: The relationships of serum iron concentrations with plasma C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations were evaluated. Results: Serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D correlated negatively with C-terminal FGF23 and intact FGF23 in ADHR but not in controls. Serum iron was negatively correlated to both C-terminal FGF23 (r = −0.386; P < 0.05) and intact FGF23 (r = −0.602; P < 0.0001) in ADHR. However, control subjects also demonstrated a negative relationship of serum iron with C-terminal FGF23 (r = −0.276; P < 0.001) but no relationship with intact FGF23. Longitudinally in ADHR subjects, C-terminal FGF23 and intact FGF23 concentrations changed negatively with iron concentrations (P < 0.001 and P = 0.055, respectively), serum phosphate changed negatively with C-terminal FGF23 and intact FGF23 (P < 0.001), and there was a positive relationship between serum iron and phosphate (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Low serum iron is associated with elevated FGF23 in ADHR. However, in controls, low serum iron was also associated with elevated C-terminal FGF23, but not intact FGF23, suggesting cleavage maintains homeostasis despite increased FGF23 expression. PMID:21880793

  20. Berberine slows cell growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonon, Anna; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Senno, Laura del; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Berberine at appropriate doses slows cell proliferation in ADPKD cystic cells. •Reduction of cell growth by berberine occurs by inhibition of ERK and p70-S6 kinase. •Higher doses of berberine cause an overall cytotoxic effect. •Berberine overdose induces apoptotic bodies formation and DNA fragmentation. •Antiproliferative properties of this drug make it a new candidate for ADPKD therapy. -- Abstract: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary monogenic disorder characterized by development and enlargement of kidney cysts that lead to loss of renal function. It is caused by mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) encoding for polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 proteins which regulate different signals including cAMP, mTOR and EGFR pathways. Abnormal activation of these signals following PC1 or PC2 loss of function causes an increased cell proliferation which is a typical hallmark of this disease. Despite the promising findings obtained in animal models with targeted inhibitors able to reduce cystic cell growth, currently, no specific approved therapy for ADPKD is available. Therefore, the research of new more effective molecules could be crucial for the treatment of this severe pathology. In this regard, we have studied the effect of berberine, an isoquinoline quaternary alkaloid, on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human and mouse ADPKD cystic cell lines. Berberine treatment slows cell proliferation of ADPKD cystic cells in a dose-dependent manner and at high doses (100 μg/mL) it induces cell death in cystic cells as well as in normal kidney tubule cells. However, at 10 μg/mL, berberine reduces cell growth in ADPKD cystic cells only enhancing G 0 /G 1 phase of cell cycle and inhibiting ERK and p70-S6 kinases. Our results indicate that berberine shows a selected antiproliferative activity in cellular models for ADPKD, suggesting that this molecule and similar natural compounds could open new opportunities

  1. FDG-PET/CT in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients with suspected cyst infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, Jordy Pieter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Slart, Riemer H J A; Kwee, Thomas Christian

    2018-04-13

    Purpose: To determine the value of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing renal or hepatic cyst infection in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods: This retrospective single-center study included all patients with ADPKD who underwent FDG-PET/CT because of suspected cyst infection between 2010 and 2017. Results: Thirty FDG-PET/CT scans of thirty individual patients were included, of which 19 were positive for cyst infection. According to a previously established clinical and biochemical reference standard, FDG-PET/CT achieved sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 75.0%, positive predictive value of 84.2%, and negative predictive value of 81.8% for the diagnosis of cyst infection. In 5 cases, FDG-PET/CT suggested a different pathologic process that explained the symptoms, including pneumonia ( n = 1), generalized peritonitis ( n = 1), pancreatitis ( n = 1), colitis ( n = 1), and cholangitis ( n = 1). Total duration of hospital stay and duration between FDG-PET/CT scan and hospital discharge of patients with an FDG-PET/CT scan positive for cyst infection were significantly longer than those with a negative scan ( P = 0.005 and P = 0.009, respectively). Creatinine levels were significantly higher in patients with an FDG-PET/CT scan positive for cyst infection than in patients with a negative scan ( P = 0.015). Other comparisons of clinical parameters (age, gender, presence of fever (>38.5°C) for more than 3 days, abdominal pain, history of solid organ transplantation and nephrectomy, immune status), laboratory values (C-reactive protein level (CRP), leukocyte count, estimated glomerular filtration rate), and microbiologic results (blood and urine cultures) were not significantly different ( P = 0.13-1.00) between FDG-PET/CT-positive and -negative patients. Conclusion: FDG-PET/CT is a useful and recommendable (upfront) imaging modality for the evaluation of

  2. Two novel mutations of CLCN7 gene in Chinese families with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Shao, Chong; Zheng, Yan; He, Jin-Wei; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO-II) is a heritable bone disorder characterized by osteosclerosis, predominantly involving the spine (vertebral end-plate thickening, or rugger-jersey spine), the pelvis ("bone-within-bone" structures) and the skull base. Chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) has been reported to be the causative gene. In this study, we aimed to identify the pathogenic mutation in four Chinese families with ADO-II. All 25 exons of the CLCN7 gene, including the exon-intron boundaries, were amplified and sequenced directly in four probands from the Chinese families with ADO-II. The mutation site was then identified in other family members and 250 healthy controls. In family 1, a known missense mutation c.296A>G in exon 4 of CLCN7 was identified in the proband, resulting in a tyrosine (UAU) to cysteine (UGU) substitution at p.99 (Y99C); the mutation was also identified in his affected father. In family 2, a novel missense mutation c.865G>C in exon 10 was identified in the proband, resulting in a valine (GUC) to leucine (CUC) substitution at p.289 (V289L); the mutation was also identified in her healthy mother and sister. In family 3, a novel missense mutation c.1625C>T in exon 17 of CLCN7 was identified in the proband, resulting in an alanine (GCG) to valine (GUG) substitution at p.542 (A542V); the mutation was also identified in her father. In family 4, a hot spot, R767W (c.2299C>T, CGG>TGG), in exon 24 was found in the proband which once again proved the susceptibility of the site or the similar genetic background in different races. Moreover, two novel mutations, V289L and A542V, occurred at a highly conserved position, found by a comparison of the protein sequences from eight vertebrates, and were predicted to have a pathogenic effect by PolyPhen-2 software, which showed "probably damaging" with a score of approximately 1. These mutation sites were not identified in 250 healthy controls. Our present findings suggest that the novel missense

  3. Berberine slows cell growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonon, Anna; Mangolini, Alessandra [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Pinton, Paolo [Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, Section of General Pathology, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Senno, Laura del [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Aguiari, Gianluca, E-mail: dsn@unife.it [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •Berberine at appropriate doses slows cell proliferation in ADPKD cystic cells. •Reduction of cell growth by berberine occurs by inhibition of ERK and p70-S6 kinase. •Higher doses of berberine cause an overall cytotoxic effect. •Berberine overdose induces apoptotic bodies formation and DNA fragmentation. •Antiproliferative properties of this drug make it a new candidate for ADPKD therapy. -- Abstract: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary monogenic disorder characterized by development and enlargement of kidney cysts that lead to loss of renal function. It is caused by mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) encoding for polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 proteins which regulate different signals including cAMP, mTOR and EGFR pathways. Abnormal activation of these signals following PC1 or PC2 loss of function causes an increased cell proliferation which is a typical hallmark of this disease. Despite the promising findings obtained in animal models with targeted inhibitors able to reduce cystic cell growth, currently, no specific approved therapy for ADPKD is available. Therefore, the research of new more effective molecules could be crucial for the treatment of this severe pathology. In this regard, we have studied the effect of berberine, an isoquinoline quaternary alkaloid, on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human and mouse ADPKD cystic cell lines. Berberine treatment slows cell proliferation of ADPKD cystic cells in a dose-dependent manner and at high doses (100 μg/mL) it induces cell death in cystic cells as well as in normal kidney tubule cells. However, at 10 μg/mL, berberine reduces cell growth in ADPKD cystic cells only enhancing G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of cell cycle and inhibiting ERK and p70-S6 kinases. Our results indicate that berberine shows a selected antiproliferative activity in cellular models for ADPKD, suggesting that this molecule and similar natural compounds could open new

  4. A novel missense mutation in the CLCN7 gene linked to benign autosomal dominant osteopetrosis: a case series

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    Rashid Ban Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited genetic disease characterized by sclerosis of the skeleton. The absence or malfunction of osteoclasts is found to be strongly associated with the disease evolution. Currently, four clinically distinct forms of the disease have been recognized: the infantile autosomal recessive osteopetrosis, the malignant and the intermediate forms, and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type I and type II forms. The autosomal recessive types are the most severe forms with symptoms in very early childhood, whereas the autosomal dominant classes exhibit a heterogeneous trait with milder symptoms, often at later childhood or adulthood. Case presentation Case 1 is the 12-year-old daughter (index patient of an Iraqi-Kurdish family who, at the age of eight years, was diagnosed clinically to have mild autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. Presently, at 12-years old, she has severe complications due to the disease progression. In addition, the same family previously experienced the death of a female child in her late childhood. The deceased child had been misdiagnosed, at that time, with thalassemia major. In this report, we extended our investigation to identify the type of the inheritance patterns of osteopetrosis using molecular techniques, because consanguineous marriages exist within the family history. We have detected one heterozygous mutation in exon 15 of the Chloride Channel 7 gene in the index patient (Case 1, whereas other mutations were not detected in the associated genes TCIRG1, OSTM1, RANK, and RANKL. The missense mutation (CGG>TGG located in exon 15 (c.1225C>T of the Chloride Channel 7 gene changed the amino acid position 409 from arginine to tryptophan (p.R409W, c.1225C>T. Case 2 is the 16-year-old son (brother of the index patient of the same family who was diagnosed clinically with mild autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. We have identified the same heterozygous mutation in exon 15 of the Chloride

  5. A novel missense mutation in the CLCN7 gene linked to benign autosomal dominant osteopetrosis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Ban Mousa; Rashid, Nawshirwan Gafoor; Schulz, Ansgar; Lahr, Georgia; Nore, Beston Faiek

    2013-01-09

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited genetic disease characterized by sclerosis of the skeleton. The absence or malfunction of osteoclasts is found to be strongly associated with the disease evolution. Currently, four clinically distinct forms of the disease have been recognized: the infantile autosomal recessive osteopetrosis, the malignant and the intermediate forms, and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type I and type II forms. The autosomal recessive types are the most severe forms with symptoms in very early childhood, whereas the autosomal dominant classes exhibit a heterogeneous trait with milder symptoms, often at later childhood or adulthood. Case 1 is the 12-year-old daughter (index patient) of an Iraqi-Kurdish family who, at the age of eight years, was diagnosed clinically to have mild autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. Presently, at 12-years old, she has severe complications due to the disease progression. In addition, the same family previously experienced the death of a female child in her late childhood. The deceased child had been misdiagnosed, at that time, with thalassemia major. In this report, we extended our investigation to identify the type of the inheritance patterns of osteopetrosis using molecular techniques, because consanguineous marriages exist within the family history. We have detected one heterozygous mutation in exon 15 of the Chloride Channel 7 gene in the index patient (Case 1), whereas other mutations were not detected in the associated genes TCIRG1, OSTM1, RANK, and RANKL. The missense mutation (CGG>TGG) located in exon 15 (c.1225C>T) of the Chloride Channel 7 gene changed the amino acid position 409 from arginine to tryptophan (p.R409W, c.1225C>T).Case 2 is the 16-year-old son (brother of the index patient) of the same family who was diagnosed clinically with mild autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. We have identified the same heterozygous mutation in exon 15 of the Chloride channel 7 gene in this patient (Case 2). The missense

  6. Autosomal dominant epidermodysplasia verruciformis lacking a known EVER1 or EVER2 mutation

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, David H.; Gammon, Bryan; Snijders, Peter J.; Mbata, Ihunanya; Phifer, Beth; Hartley, A. Howland; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Murphy, Philip M.; Hwang, Sam T.

    2009-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to infection with specific human papillomavirus (HPV) serotypes. EV is a genetically heterogeneous disease, and autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance patterns have been reported. Nonsense mutations in the genes EVER1 and EVER2 have been identified in over 75% of cases. We present EV in a father and son with typical histologic and clinical findings that occur in the absence of mutation...

  7. An autopsy case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia under hemodialysis due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Shiori; Furuichi, Kengo; Sagara, Akihiro; Shinozaki, Yasuyuki; Kitajima, Shinji; Toyama, Tadashi; Hara, Akinori; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Norihiko; Shimizu, Miho; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Toyama, Tatsuhiko; Wada, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old male with end-stage kidney disease due to autosomal polycystic kidney disease began maintenance hemodialysis in 2005. A brain CT scan showed dilatation of left vertebral artery, basilar artery, bilateral post cerebral artery, and middle cerebral artery. At the time, he was diagnosed as vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. He was once admitted to our hospital for ischemic stroke. After discharge, he was treated with anticoagulant agent from 2010 to 2012 without any new stroke events. ...

  8. Left frontal hub connectivity delays cognitive impairment in autosomal-dominant and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Düzel, Emrah; Jessen, Frank; Buerger, Katharina; Levin, Johannes; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Haass, Christian; Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Fagan, Anne M; Paumier, Katrina; Benzinger, Tammie; Masters, Colin L; Morris, John C; Perneczky, Robert; Janowitz, Daniel; Catak, Cihan; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Wagner, Michael; Teipel, Stefan; Kilimann, Ingo; Ramirez, Alfredo; Rossor, Martin; Jucker, Mathias; Chhatwal, Jasmeer; Spottke, Annika; Boecker, Henning; Brosseron, Frederic; Falkai, Peter; Fliessbach, Klaus; Heneka, Michael T; Laske, Christoph; Nestor, Peter; Peters, Oliver; Fuentes, Manuel; Menne, Felix; Priller, Josef; Spruth, Eike J; Franke, Christiana; Schneider, Anja; Kofler, Barbara; Westerteicher, Christine; Speck, Oliver; Wiltfang, Jens; Bartels, Claudia; Araque Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Metzger, Coraline; Bittner, Daniel; Weiner, Michael; Lee, Jae-Hong; Salloway, Stephen; Danek, Adrian; Goate, Alison; Schofield, Peter R; Bateman, Randall J; Ewers, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Patients with Alzheimer’s disease vary in their ability to sustain cognitive abilities in the presence of brain pathology. A major open question is which brain mechanisms may support higher reserve capacity, i.e. relatively high cognitive performance at a given level of Alzheimer’s pathology. Higher functional MRI-assessed functional connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex is a core candidate brain mechanism underlying reserve as it is associated with education (i.e. a protective factor often associated with higher reserve) and attenuated cognitive impairment in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. However, no study has yet assessed whether such hub connectivity of the left frontal cortex supports reserve throughout the evolution of pathological brain changes in Alzheimer’s disease, including the presymptomatic stage when cognitive decline is subtle. To address this research gap, we obtained cross-sectional resting state functional MRI in 74 participants with autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease, 55 controls from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network and 75 amyloid-positive elderly participants, as well as 41 amyloid-negative cognitively normal elderly subjects from the German Center of Neurodegenerative Diseases multicentre study on biomarkers in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. For each participant, global left frontal cortex connectivity was computed as the average resting state functional connectivity between the left frontal cortex (seed) and each voxel in the grey matter. As a marker of disease stage, we applied estimated years from symptom onset in autosomal dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease and cerebrospinal fluid tau levels in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease cases. In both autosomal dominant and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease patients, higher levels of left frontal cortex connectivity were correlated with greater education. For autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease, a significant left frontal cortex connectivity

  9. Characterization of Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia Caused by PCSK9 Gain of Function Mutations and Its Specific Treatment With Alirocumab, a PCSK9 Monoclonal Antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, Paul N.; Defesche, Joep; Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Bruckert, Eric; Luc, Gérald; Cariou, Bertrand; Sjouke, Barbara; Leren, Trond P.; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Rabès, Jean-Pierre; Carrié, Alain; van Heyningen, Charles; Carreau, Valérie; Farnier, Michel; Teoh, Yee P.; Bourbon, Mafalda; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Nohara, Atsushi; Soran, Handrean; Marais, A. David; Tada, Hayato; Abifadel, Marianne; Boileau, Catherine; Chanu, Bernard; Katsuda, Shoji; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Lambert, Gilles; Makino, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Pichelin, Matthieu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Zair, Yassine; Mellis, Scott; Yancopoulos, George D.; Stahl, Neil; Mendoza, Johanna; Du, Yunling; Hamon, Sara; Krempf, Michel; Swergold, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with PCSK9 gene gain of function (GOF) mutations have a rare form of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia. However, data examining their clinical characteristics and geographic distribution are lacking. Furthermore, no randomized treatment study in this population has been

  10. Rationale and design of the RESOLVE trial: lanreotide as a volume reducing treatment for polycystic livers in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, T.J.G.; Chrispijn, M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) suffers from polycystic liver disease. Symptoms arise when liver volume increases. The somatostatin analogue lanreotide has proven to reduce liver volume in patients with polycystic liver disease.

  11. External Ocular Manifestations in Autosomal Dominant Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Mahdavi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To present a case of autosomal dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with symblepharon formation due to eye rubbing. CASE REPORT: A 10-year-old girl suffering from blistering and ulcerative lesions of the trunk and palms and dystrophic nails since childhood was referred to our clinic with a symblepharon connecting the medial portion of the right upper lid to the superonasal quadrant of the cornea. The central cornea in both eyes exhibited mild subepithelial opacification. She had history of eye rubbing due to foreign body sensation in the right eye, resulting in red eye and blister-like conjunctival lesions since three years ago. She had previously undergone surgical symblepharon removal leading to more severe recurrence of the condition. CONCLUSION: Dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa may be accompanied by external ocular manifestations. Protection of the eye from minor trauma such as rubbing may help prevent ocular complications.

  1. Clinical and molecular analysis of the enamelin gene ENAM in Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the phenotype, clinical characteristics and presence of mutations in the enamelin gene ENAM in five Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI. 22 individuals (15 affected and seven unaffected belonging to five Colombian families with ADAI and eight individuals (three affected and five unaffected belonging to three Colombian families with autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI that served as controls for molecular alterations and inheritance patterns were studied. Clinical, radiographic and genetic evaluations were done in all individuals. Eight exons and three intron-exon boundaries were sequenced for mutation analysis. Two of the five families with ADAI had the hypoplasic phenotype, two had the hypocalcified phenotype and one had the hypomaturative phenotype. Anterior open bite and mandibular retrognathism were the most frequent skeletal abnormalities in the families with ADAI. No mutations were found. These findings suggest that ADAI in these Colombian families was unrelated to previously described mutations in the ENAM gene. These results also indicate that other regions not included in this investigation, such as the promoter region, introns and other genes should be considered as potential ADAI candidates.

  2. A paradoxical presentation of rickets and secondary osteomyelitis of the jaw in Type II autosomal dominant osteopetrosis: Rare case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, S; Kumar, M Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic bone disorder arising due to a defect in the differentiation or function of osteoclast which results in a generalized increase in bone mass. Osteomyelitis is one of the most common complications because of decreased bone marrow function and compromised blood supply. Radiologist plays a vital role in diagnosing osteopetrosis. Here, we present two cases of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis Type II (ADO II) with secondary osteomyelitis changes which were reported to our department. One of these two cases presented with secondary osteomyelitis in both maxilla and mandible and features of rickets, which is very rarely seen in ADO II. To the best of our knowledge, the presentation of rickets with ADO is the first of its kind to be reported. In this paper, we describe the clinical and radiological features leading to the diagnosis of ADO in these two patients. Further, a review of the literature regarding ADO is discussed.

  3. Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa in Pregnancy: A Case Report of the Autosomal Dominant Subtype and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Colgrove

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a group of inherited blistering skin diseases that vary widely in their pathogenesis and severity. There are three main categories of EB: simplex, junctional, and dystrophic. This classification is based on the level of tissue separation within the basement membrane zone and this is attributed to abnormalities of individual or several anchoring proteins that form the interlocking network spanning from the epidermis to the dermis underneath. Dystrophic EB results from mutations in COL7A1 gene coding for type VII collagen leading to blister formation within the dermis. Diagnosis ultimately depends on the patient’s specific genetic mutation, but initial diagnosis can be made from careful examination and history taking. We present a pregnant patient known to have autosomal dominant dystrophic EB and discuss the obstetrical and neonatal outcome. The paper also reviews the current English literature on this rare skin disorder.

  4. The French series of autosomal dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease cases: mutation spectrum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, David; Rousseau, Stéphane; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Quillard-Muraine, Muriel; Guyant-Maréchal, Lucie; Martinaud, Olivier; Pariente, Jérémie; Puel, Michèle; Rollin-Sillaire, Adeline; Pasquier, Florence; Le Ber, Isabelle; Sarazin, Marie; Croisile, Bernard; Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Paquet, Claire; Moreaud, Olivier; Gabelle, Audrey; Sellal, François; Sauvée, Mathilde; Laquerrière, Annie; Duyckaerts, Charles; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Lannes, Béatrice; Frebourg, Thierry; Hannequin, Didier; Campion, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    We describe 56 novel autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (ADEOAD) families with PSEN1, PSEN2, and AβPP mutations or duplications, raising the total of families with mutations on known genes to 111 (74 PSEN1, 8 PSEN2, 16 AβPP, and 13 AβPP duplications) in the French series. In 33 additional families (23% of the series), the genetic determinism remained uncharacterized after this screening. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker levels were obtained for patients of 58 families (42 with known mutations and 16 without genetic characterization). CSF biomarkers profile was consistent with an AD diagnosis in 90% of families carrying mutations on known genes. In families without mutation, CSF biomarkers were consistent with AD diagnosis in 14/16 cases. Overall, these results support further genetic heterogeneity in the determinism of ADEOAD and suggest that other major genes remain to be characterized.

  5. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome in a father and a female fetus: early prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis and autosomal dominant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, G; Gekas, J; Naepels, P; Gondry, J; Devauchelle, B; Testelin, S; Sevestre, H; Thépôt, F; Mathieu, M

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasonography in a female fetus revealed cystic cervical hygroma, severe micrognathia, and vertebral and upper limb anomalies suggestive of cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) which was diagnosed ultrasonographically at 16 weeks' gestation. The father is affected and presents with a Pierre Robin sequence, short stature and typical costovertebral anomalies. CCMS is a rare and severe disorder. The high frequency of sporadic cases, vertical transmission, and the excess of sibs affected via horizontal transmission suggest dominant autosomal mutation with possible germinal mosaicism. The vertical familial case detailed in the present report is a reminder of the high risk when one parent or one sibling is affected and the extreme variability of phenotype and costal ossification. Early prenatal ultrasound diagnosis is possible in a severely affected fetus. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Autosomal dominant mesomandibular fibro-osseous dysplasia: a self-resolving inherited fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eKoutlas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A hereditary congenital condition characterized by a fibro-osseous lesion sharing some features with fibrous dysplasia and affecting the middle aspect of the mandible is presented. The condition was initially described as congenital monostotic fibrous dysplasia in two siblings, a male and a female. However, there is sufficient evidence that the disorder is autosomal dominant since it has been encountered in two of four children, both males, of the female propositus and one child, a boy, of the male propositus. All patients presented at birth or right after birth with enlargement of the middle part of the mandible. Radiographs from affected individuals have shown mesomandibular enlargement with irregular trabeculation akin of ground-glass appearance. Histologically, samples from all patients revealed woven bone proliferation in a cellular fibroblastic stroma. Interestingly, the originally described siblings, now in their 30s, have no evidence of jaw lesions either radiographically or clinically, thus indicating that the condition is self-limiting or self-resolving. An autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with apparent male predilection is favored. The molecular basis of this condition is currently unknown. However, the location of the lesions in the middle aspect of the mandible suggests dysregulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling since BMPs regulate mandibular morphogenesis in utero, particularly in the medial region as well as postnatal bone remodeling. Immunohistochemical evaluation for a BMP-binding protein Twisted Gastrulation revealed mosaic pattern of staining, with some cells, including osteoclasts, strongly stained and others exhibiting faint or no staining, thus supporting active regulation of BMP signaling within the lesion. Future investigations will determine if dysregulation of BMP signaling plays a causative role or rather reflects secondary activation of repair mechanisms and/or bone remodeling.

  7. Characterization of macular structure and function in two Swedish families with genetically identified autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulridha-Aboud, Wissam; Kjellström, Ulrika; Andréasson, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the phenotype in two families with genetically identified autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) focusing on macular structure and function. Methods Clinical data were collected at the Department of Ophthalmology, Lund University, Sweden, for affected and unaffected family members from two pedigrees with adRP. Examinations included optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field electroretinography (ffERG), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Molecular genetic screening was performed for known mutations associated with adRP. Results The mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant in both families. The members of the family with a mutation in the PRPF31 (p.IVS6+1G>T) gene had clinical features characteristic of RP, with severely reduced retinal rod and cone function. The degree of deterioration correlated well with increasing age. The mfERG showed only centrally preserved macular function that correlated well with retinal thinning on OCT. The family with a mutation in the RHO (p.R135W) gene had an extreme intrafamilial variability of the phenotype, with more severe disease in the younger generations. OCT showed pathology, but the degree of morphological changes was not correlated with age or with the mfERG results. The mother, with a de novo mutation in the RHO (p.R135W) gene, had a normal ffERG, and her retinal degeneration was detected merely with the reduced mfERG. Conclusions These two families demonstrate the extreme inter- and intrafamilial variability in the clinical phenotype of adRP. This is the first Swedish report of the clinical phenotype associated with a mutation in the PRPF31 (p.IVS6+1G>T) gene. Our results indicate that methods for assessment of the central retinal structure and function may improve the detection and characterization of the RP phenotype. PMID:27212874

  8. Mutation in the novel nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein CHCHD10 in a family with autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fecto, Faisal; Ajroud, Kaouther; Lalani, Irfan; Calvo, Sarah E; Mootha, Vamsi K; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah; Tahmoush, Albert J; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies belong to a larger group of systemic diseases caused by morphological or biochemical abnormalities of mitochondria. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genome. Only 5% of all mitochondrial disorders are autosomal dominant. We analyzed DNA from members of the previously reported Puerto Rican kindred with an autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy (Heimann-Patterson et al. 1997). Linkage analysis suggested a putative locus on the pericentric region of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11). Using the tools of integrative genomics, we established chromosome 22 open reading frame 16 (C22orf16) (later designated as CHCHD10) as the only high-scoring mitochondrial candidate gene in our minimal candidate region. Sequence analysis revealed a double-missense mutation (R15S and G58R) in cis in CHCHD10 which encodes a coiled coil-helix-coiled coil-helix protein of unknown function. These two mutations completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype and were absent in 1,481 Caucasian and 80 Hispanic (including 32 Puerto Rican) controls. Expression profiling showed that CHCHD10 is enriched in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial localization of the CHCHD10 protein was confirmed using immunofluorescence in cells expressing either wild-type or mutant CHCHD10. We found that the expression of the G58R, but not the R15S, mutation induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Our findings identify a novel gene causing mitochondrial myopathy, thereby expanding the spectrum of mitochondrial myopathies caused by nuclear genes. Our findings also suggest a role for CHCHD10 in the morphologic remodeling of the mitochondria.

  9. Clinical results from low-level laser therapy in patients with autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koev, K.; Avramov, L.; Borissova, E.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine long-term effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy (CRDs). A He-Ne Laser with continuous emission at 633 nm (01 mW/cm2) was used on five patients with autosomal dominant pedigree of Romani origin with non-syndromic CRDs. The laser radiation was applied transpupillary to the macula six times for three minutes every other day. The experiment was conducted for a period of three years. The clinical evaluation included best corrected visual acuity determination, funduscopy, Humphrey perimetry, Farnsworth Hue-28 color testing, fluorescein angiography, and full-field electroretinogram (ERG). All affected individuals presented reduced visual acuity (0.01 – 0.4) and photophobia. The funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography revealed advanced changes including bone spicule-like pigment deposits in the midperiphery and the macular area, along with retinal atrophy, narrowing of the vessels, and waxy optic discs. The visual fields demonstrated central scotoma. The electrophysiologic examination of the patients detected an abnormal cone-rod ERG (20 – 30 μV) with photopic amplitudes more markedly reduced than the scotopic. Flicker responses were missing and Farnsworth Hue-28 test found protanopia. There was a statistically significant increase in the visual acuity (p<0.001, end of study versus baseline) for CRDs patients for the period of three years after the treatment with LLLT. Following the LLLT, the central absolute scotoma in CRDs was reduced, as was the prevalence of metamorphopsia in CRDs. This study shows that LLLT may prove be a novel long-lasting therapeutic option for both forms of CRDs. It is a highly effective treatment resulting in a long-term improvement of the visual acuity.

  10. Bethlem myopathy: An autosomal dominant myopathy with flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroja, Aralikatte Onkarappa; Naik, Karkal Ravishankar; Nalini, Atcharayam; Gayathri, Narayanappa

    2013-10-01

    Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy form a spectrum of collagenopathies caused by genetic mutations encoding for any of the three subunits of collagen VI. Bethlem phenotype is relatively benign and is characterized by proximal dominant myopathy, keloids, contractures, distal hyperextensibility, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Three patients from a single family were diagnosed to have Bethlem myopathy based on European Neuromuscular Centre Bethlem Consortium criteria. Affected father and his both sons had slowly progressive proximal dominant weakness and recurrent falls from the first decade. Both children aged 18 and 20 years were ambulant at presentation. All had flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis without muscle hypertrophy. Creatinine kinase was mildly elevated and electromyography revealed myopathic features. Muscle imaging revealed severe involvement of glutei and vasti with "central shadow" in rectus femoris. Muscle biopsy in the father showed dystrophic changes with normal immmunostaining for collagen VI, sarcoglycans, and dysferlin.

  11. Epiphyseal osteochondromas with autosomal dominant inheritance and multiple parosteal bone proliferations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, Mohamed A.L.; Pandey, Tarun

    2008-01-01

    The familial cases of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), or Trevor's disease, are thought to represent dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis (DCO). Only three families affected by DCO have been reported so far in the literature. We report a fourth family: a 10-year-old girl, her father, and his cousin. Unlike the other reported cases of DCO this family had no carpal or upper limb epiphyseal osteochondromas and many of the other reported associations. The only consistent associated finding in our cases was the presence of multiple parosteal osteochondromatous proliferations. The findings of our cases are, therefore, unique in many ways. These cases may represent a variant of dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis or may represent a new entity. (orig.)

  12. Bethlem myopathy: An autosomal dominant myopathy with flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aralikatte Onkarappa Saroja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy form a spectrum of collagenopathies caused by genetic mutations encoding for any of the three subunits of collagen VI. Bethlem phenotype is relatively benign and is characterized by proximal dominant myopathy, keloids, contractures, distal hyperextensibility, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Three patients from a single family were diagnosed to have Bethlem myopathy based on European Neuromuscular Centre Bethlem Consortium criteria. Affected father and his both sons had slowly progressive proximal dominant weakness and recurrent falls from the first decade. Both children aged 18 and 20 years were ambulant at presentation. All had flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis without muscle hypertrophy. Creatinine kinase was mildly elevated and electromyography revealed myopathic features. Muscle imaging revealed severe involvement of glutei and vasti with "central shadow" in rectus femoris. Muscle biopsy in the father showed dystrophic changes with normal immmunostaining for collagen VI, sarcoglycans, and dysferlin.

  13. Epiphyseal osteochondromas with autosomal dominant inheritance and multiple parosteal bone proliferations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Mohamed A.L. [Razi Orthopedic Hospital, Consultant Orthopedic Surgeon, P.O. Box 4235, Safat (Kuwait); Pandey, Tarun [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The familial cases of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), or Trevor's disease, are thought to represent dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis (DCO). Only three families affected by DCO have been reported so far in the literature. We report a fourth family: a 10-year-old girl, her father, and his cousin. Unlike the other reported cases of DCO this family had no carpal or upper limb epiphyseal osteochondromas and many of the other reported associations. The only consistent associated finding in our cases was the presence of multiple parosteal osteochondromatous proliferations. The findings of our cases are, therefore, unique in many ways. These cases may represent a variant of dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis or may represent a new entity. (orig.)

  14. Somatic and germline mosaicism for a mutation of the PHEX gene can lead to genetic transmission of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets that mimics an autosomal dominant trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goji, Katsumi; Ozaki, Kayo; Sadewa, Ahmad H; Nishio, Hisahide; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2006-02-01

    Familial hypophosphatemic rickets is usually transmitted as an X-linked dominant disorder (XLH), although autosomal dominant forms have also been observed. Genetic studies of these disorders have identified mutations in PHEX and FGF23 as the causes of X-linked dominant disorder and autosomal dominant forms, respectively. The objective of the study was to describe the molecular genetic findings in a family affected by hypophosphatemic rickets with presumed autosomal dominant inheritance. We studied a family in which the father and the elder of his two daughters, but not the second daughter, were affected by hypophosphatemic rickets. The pedigree interpretation of the family suggested that genetic transmission of the disorder occurred as an autosomal dominant trait. Direct nucleotide sequencing of FGF23 and PHEX revealed that the elder daughter was heterozygous for an R567X mutation in PHEX, rather than FGF23, suggesting that the genetic transmission occurred as an X-linked dominant trait. Unexpectedly, the father was heterozygous for this mutation. Single-nucleotide primer extension and denaturing HPLC analysis of the father using DNA from single hair roots revealed that he was a somatic mosaic for the mutation. Haplotype analysis confirmed that the father transmitted the genotypes for 18 markers on the X chromosome equally to his two daughters. The fact that the father transmitted the mutation to only one of his two daughters indicated that he was a germline mosaic for the mutation. Somatic and germline mosaicism for an X-linked dominant mutation in PHEX may mimic autosomal dominant inheritance.

  15. Mutational analysis in patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD): Identification of five mutations in the PKD1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahed, Mayssa; Hilbert, Pascale; Ahmed, Asma; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Bouomrani, Salem; Dey, Mouna; Hachicha, Jamil; Kamoun, Hassen; Keskes-Ammar, Leila; Belguith, Neïla

    2018-05-31

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), the most frequent genetic disorder of the kidneys, is characterized by a typical presenting symptoms include cysts development in different organs and a non-cysts manifestations. ADPKD is caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 genes. In this study, we aimed to search for molecular causative defects among PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Eighteen patients were diagnosed based on renal ultrasonography and renal/extra-renal manifestations. Then, Sanger sequencing was performed for PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification method (MLPA) methods was performed for both PKD genes. Mutational analysis of the PKD2 gene revealed the absence of variants and no deletions or duplications of both PKD genes were detected. But three novels mutations i.e. p.S463C exon 7; c. c.11156+2T>C IVS38 and c.8161-1G>A IVS22 and two previously reported c.1522T>C exon 7 and c.412C>T exon 4 mutations in the PKD1 gene were detected. Bioinformatics tools predicted that the novel variants have a pathogenic effects on splicing machinery, pre-mRNA secondary structure and stability and protein stability. Our results highlighted molecular features of Tunisian patients with ADPKD and revealed novel variations that can be utilized in clinical diagnosis and in the evaluation of living kidney donor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Autosomal Polycystic Kidney Disease in Tunisia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Autosomal dominant inheritance of Williams-Beuren syndrome in a father and son with haploinsufficiency for FKBP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kay; Simeonov, Emil; Beckett, William; Donnai, Dian; Tassabehji, May

    2005-04-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental microdeletion disorder that usually occurs sporadically due to its location within a highly repetitive genomic region that is unstable and prone to unequal cross-over during meiosis. The consequential loss of chromosomal material includes approximately 1.5 Mb of DNA at 7q11.23. Whilst cases of dominant inheritance have been described in the literature, there have been few reports of molecular confirmation and none have carried out detailed genotyping. We describe a Bulgarian father and son with WBS detected by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (with an elastin gene probe) and loss of heterozygosity mapping using microsatellite markers located in the critical region. These individuals appear to have a common WBS heterozygous deletion, confirming the expected dominant transmission and adding to the few familial cases reported. The deletion includes the gene FKBP6 which has recently been shown to play a role in homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis and male fertility in mouse models. Homozygous Fkbp6 -/- male mice are infertile and our data suggests that haploinsufficiency for FKBP6 does not appear to preclude male fertility in WBS, although male infertility involving this gene has the potential to follow the mouse model as a human autosomal recessive condition.

  17. Impaired Cleavage of Preproinsulin Signal Peptide Linked to Autosomal-Dominant Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Lara-Lemus, Roberto; Shan, Shu-ou; Wright, Jordan; Haataja, Leena; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Guo, Huan; Larkin, Dennis; Arvan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recently, missense mutations upstream of preproinsulin’s signal peptide (SP) cleavage site were reported to cause mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY). Our objective was to understand the molecular pathogenesis using metabolic labeling and assays of proinsulin export and insulin and C-peptide production to examine the earliest events of insulin biosynthesis, highlighting molecular mechanisms underlying β-cell failure plus a novel strategy that might ameliorate the MIDY syndrome. We find that whereas preproinsulin-A(SP23)S is efficiently cleaved, producing authentic proinsulin and insulin, preproinsulin-A(SP24)D is inefficiently cleaved at an improper site, producing two subpopulations of molecules. Both show impaired oxidative folding and are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Preproinsulin-A(SP24)D also blocks ER exit of coexpressed wild-type proinsulin, accounting for its dominant-negative behavior. Upon increased expression of ER–oxidoreductin-1, preproinsulin-A(SP24)D remains blocked but oxidative folding of wild-type proinsulin improves, accelerating its ER export and increasing wild-type insulin production. We conclude that the efficiency of SP cleavage is linked to the oxidation of (pre)proinsulin. In turn, impaired (pre)proinsulin oxidation affects ER export of the mutant as well as that of coexpressed wild-type proinsulin. Improving oxidative folding of wild-type proinsulin may provide a feasible way to rescue insulin production in patients with MIDY. PMID:22357960

  18. Spectrum of sonographic changes in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with autosomal dominant and X-linked inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Naumova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the recent years interest towards nerve sonography has largely increased, specifically in terms of differentiating types of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN. The diagnostic possibilities of high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS compared to standard neurophysiological tools in the peripheral nerve disorders is still a matter of debate.Objectives. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative ultrasound changes of limb nerves in patients with HMSN type 1 and its comparison with anthropometric and nerve conduction study data.Materials and methods. 44 HMSN patients were analyzed: 16 men, mean age 35,9 ± 6,8 years; 16 (37 % with autosomal dominant type 1А, 11 (25 % – with 1В type and 17 (38 % with Х-linked inheritance. Control group included 44 subjects, 16 male; mean age 35,9 ± 6,8 years. HRUS parameters were analyzed bilaterally on the selected levels: cross-sectional area (CSA, visual cross sectional and longitudinal patterns of the median and ulnar nerves, C5, C6, C7 spinal nerves, tibial, peroneal and sciatic nerves. HRUS parameters were compared to standard anthropometric data, nerve conduction velocity and CMAP amplitude.Results. In all HMSN cases CSA was enlarged compared to healthy controls. Greater changes were found in patients with autosomal dominant inheritance. CSA enlargement in С5, С6, С7 spinal nerves was found in patients with HMSN 1A, С6, С7 – in HMSN 1В, С6 – in HMSN 1X, confirming the necessity to include those nerves in the sonographic protocol in patients with HMSN. Three qualitative cross sectional and longitudinal patterns of the investigated arm nerves were identified, distinct for each of the HMSN type. Absence of significant differences in CSA of the upper limb nerves among analyzed types of HMSN makes it unreliable as the differential parameter, opposite to the defined sonographic patterns. Methodological issues and absence of significant quantitative and qualitative data

  19. Autosomal dominant hypercalciuria in a mouse model due to a mutation of the epithelial calcium channel, TRPV5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellie Y Loh

    Full Text Available Hypercalciuria is a major cause of nephrolithiasis, and is a common and complex disorder involving genetic and environmental factors. Identification of genetic factors for monogenic forms of hypercalciuria is hampered by the limited availability of large families, and to facilitate such studies, we screened for hypercalciuria in mice from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis programme. We identified a mouse with autosomal dominant hypercalciuria (HCALC1. Linkage studies mapped the Hcalc1 locus to a 11.94 Mb region on chromosome 6 containing the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, members 5 (Trpv5 and 6 (Trpv6 genes. DNA sequence analysis of coding regions, intron-exon boundaries and promoters of Trpv5 and Trpv6 identified a novel T to C transition in codon 682 of TRPV5, mutating a conserved serine to a proline (S682P. Compared to wild-type littermates, heterozygous (Trpv5(682P/+ and homozygous (Trpv5(682P/682P mutant mice had hypercalciuria, polyuria, hyperphosphaturia and a more acidic urine, and ∼10% of males developed tubulointerstitial nephritis. Trpv5(682P/682P mice also had normal plasma parathyroid hormone but increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 concentrations without increased bone resorption, consistent with a renal defect for the hypercalciuria. Expression of the S682P mutation in human embryonic kidney cells revealed that TRPV5-S682P-expressing cells had a lower baseline intracellular calcium concentration than wild-type TRPV5-expressing cells, suggesting an altered calcium permeability. Immunohistological studies revealed a selective decrease in TRPV5-expression from the renal distal convoluted tubules of Trpv5(682P/+ and Trpv5(682P/682P mice consistent with a trafficking defect. In addition, Trpv5(682P/682P mice had a reduction in renal expression of the intracellular calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D(28K, consistent with a specific defect in TRPV5-mediated renal calcium reabsorption. Thus, our findings

  20. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithoven, E. M.; Meijer, E.; Borns, C.; Boertien, W. E.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, M. J. W.; van der Jagt, E.; Vart, P.; de Jong, P. E.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values.

  1. C-terminal truncations in human 3'-5' DNA exonuclease TREX1 cause autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Anna; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Jen, Joanna C.; Kavanagh, David; Bertram, Paula; Spitzer, Dirk; Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Barilla-LaBarca, Maria-Louise; Terwindt, Gisela M.; Kasai, Yumi; McLellan, Mike; Grand, Mark Gilbert; Vanmolkot, Kaate R. J.; de Vries, Boukje; Wan, Jijun; Kane, Michael J.; Mamsa, Hafsa; Schäfer, Ruth; Stam, Anine H.; Haan, Joost; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Storimans, Caroline W.; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Oosterhuis, Jendo A.; Gschwendter, Andreas; Dichgans, Martin; Kotschet, Katya E.; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Hardy, Todd A.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Hajj-Ali, Rula A.; Kothari, Parul H.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Frants, Rune R.; Baloh, Robert W.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Atkinson, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy is a microvascular endotheliopathy with middle-age onset. In nine families, we identified heterozygous C-terminal frameshift mutations in TREX1, which encodes a 3'-5' exonuclease. These truncated proteins retain exonuclease

  2. Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a variant in the AVP gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toustrup, Lise Bols; Zhou, Yan; Kvistgaard, Helene

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI) is caused by variants in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a 42-year-old man carrying an adFNDI causing variant in exon 1 of the AVP gene using...

  3. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithoven, Edwin M.; Meijer, E.; Borns, C.; Boertien, W. E.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, Marcel J W; van der Jagt, E.; Vart, P.; de Jong, P. E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  4. Chronic Kidney Pain in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease : A Case Report of Successful Treatment by Catheter-Based Renal Denervation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; de Jager, Rosa L.; Neeleman, M. Peer; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Chronic pain is a common concern in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We report what to our knowledge is the first catheter-based renal denervation procedure in a patient with ADPKD resulting in successful management of chronic pain. The patient was a 43-year-old

  5. White matter pathology and disconnection in the frontal lobe in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, Lucinda J L; Yamamoto, Yumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Fenwick, Richard; Burke, Matthew; Oakley, Arthur E; Roeber, Sigrun; Duering, Marco; Kretzschmar, Hans; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging indicates diffuse white matter (WM) changes are associated with cognitive impairment in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). We examined whether the distribution of axonal abnormalities is related to microvascular pathology in the underlying WM. We used post-mortem brains from CADASIL subjects and similar age cognitively normal controls to examine WM axonal changes, microvascular pathology, and glial reaction in up to 16 different regions extending rostro-caudally through the cerebrum. Using unbiased stereological methods, we estimated length densities of affected axons immunostained with neurofilament antibody SMI32. Standard immunohistochemistry was used to assess amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity per WM area. To relate WM changes to microvascular pathology, we also determined the sclerotic index (SI) in WM arterioles. The degree of WM pathology consistently scored higher across all brain regions in CADASIL subjects (Pneurones connecting to targets in the subcortical structures. © 2013 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  6. Germline mutations in ABL1 cause an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Charng, Wu-Lin; Chen, Chun-An; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Al Shamsi, Aisha; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; McGuire, Marianne; Mew, Nicholas Ah; Arnold, Georgianne L; Qu, Chunjing; Ding, Yan; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Xia, Fan; Plon, Sharon E; Lupski, James R; Schaaf, Christian P; Yang, Yaping

    2017-04-01

    ABL1 is a proto-oncogene well known as part of the fusion gene BCR-ABL1 in the Philadelphia chromosome of leukemia cancer cells. Inherited germline ABL1 changes have not been associated with genetic disorders. Here we report ABL1 germline variants cosegregating with an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart disease, skeletal abnormalities, and failure to thrive. The variant c.734A>G (p.Tyr245Cys) was found to occur de novo or cosegregate with disease in five individuals (families 1-3). Additionally, a de novo c.1066G>A (p.Ala356Thr) variant was identified in a sixth individual (family 4). We overexpressed the mutant constructs in HEK 293T cells and observed increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting increased ABL1 kinase activities associated with both the p.Tyr245Cys and p.Ala356Thr substitutions. Our clinical and experimental findings, together with previously reported teratogenic effects of selective BCR-ABL inhibitors in humans and developmental defects in Abl1 knockout mice, suggest that ABL1 has an important role during organismal development.

  7. Germline mutations in ABL1 cause an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Charng, Wu-Lin; Chen, Chun-An; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shamsi, Aisha Al; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; McGuire, Marianne; Mew, Nicholas Ah; Arnold, Georgianne L.; Qu, Chunjing; Ding, Yan; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Eng, Christine M.; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Xia, Fan; Plon, Sharon E.; Lupski, James R.; Schaaf, Christian P.; Yang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    ABL1 is a proto-oncogene well known as part of the fusion gene BCR-ABL in the Philadelphia chromosome of leukemia cancer cells1. Inherited germline ABL1 changes have not been associated with genetic disorders. Here we report ABL1 germline variants co-segregating with an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart disease, skeletal abnormalities, and failure to thrive. The variant c.734A>G (p.Tyr245Cys) was found as de novo or co-segregating with disease in five individuals (families 1-3). Additionally, a de novo c.1066G>A (p.Ala356Thr) variant was identified in the sixth individual (family 4). We overexpressed the mutant constructs in HEK 293T cells and observed increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting increased ABL1 kinase activities associated with both p.Tyr245Cys and p.Ala356Thr substitutions. Our clinical and laboratory findings, together with previously reported teratogenic effects of selective BCR-ABL inhibitors in humans2-5 and developmental defects in Abl1 knock-out mice6,7, suggest ABL1 plays an important role during organismal development. PMID:28288113

  8. High prevalence of mutations affecting the splicing process in a Spanish cohort with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerra-Inchausti, Maitane; Barandika, Olatz; Anasagasti, Ander; Irigoyen, Cristina; López de Munain, Adolfo; Ruiz-Ederra, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is the most frequent group of inherited retinal dystrophies. It is highly heterogeneous, with more than 80 disease-causing genes 27 of which are known to cause autosomal dominant RP (adRP), having been identified. In this study a total of 29 index cases were ascertained based on a family tree compatible with adRP. A custom panel of 31 adRP genes was analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing using the Ion PGM platform in combination with Sanger sequencing. This allowed us to detect putative disease-causing mutations in 14 out of the 29 (48.28%) families analysed. Remarkably, around 38% of all adRP cases analysed showed mutations affecting the splicing process, mainly due to mutations in genes coding for spliceosome factors (SNRNP200 and PRPF8) but also due to splice-site mutations in RHO. Twelve of the 14 mutations found had been reported previously and two were novel mutations found in PRPF8 in two unrelated patients. In conclusion, our results will lead to more accurate genetic counselling and will contribute to a better characterisation of the disease. In addition, they may have a therapeutic impact in the future given the large number of studies currently underway based on targeted RNA splicing for therapeutic purposes. PMID:28045043

  9. Clinical characterization of a novel calcium sensing receptor genetic alteration in a Greek patient with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Gole, Evangelia; Melachroinou, Katerina; Trangas, Theoni; Bountouvi, Evaggelia; Papadimitriou, Anastasios

    2017-04-01

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is a rare familial or sporadic syndrome associated with activating mutations in the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) gene. The aim of this study was to assess the functional significance of a novel CaSR mutation and, moreover, to present the clinical characteristics and the bone mineral density (BMD) progression from early childhood to late puberty in a patient with ADH. Genetic analysis of the CaSR gene was performed in a patient who presented in the neonatal period with hypocalcemic seizures and biochemical features of ADH. The functional impact of the novel mutation identified was assessed in cultured HEK 293T cells, transfected with either the wild type (WT) or mutant CaSR, by evaluating intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) influx after stimulation with extracellular calcium (Ca2+). Several BMD measurements were performed during the patient's follow-up until late puberty. A novel CaSR mutation (p.L123S) was identified, which, as demonstrated by functional analysis, renders CaSR more sensitive to extracellular changes of Ca2+ compared with the WT, although the difference is not statistically significant. BMD measurements, from early childhood to late puberty, revealed high normal to elevated BMD. We present the first Greek patient, to our knowledge, with sporadic ADH due to a novel gain-of-function mutation of the CaSR gene.

  10. Recurrent Skin and Lung Infections in Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome with Transactivation Domain STAT3 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hyper IgE is a rare systemic disease characterized by the clinical triad of high serum levels of IgE (>2000 IU/mL, eczema, and recurrent staphylococcal skin and lung infections. The presentation of hyper IgE syndrome is highly variable, which makes it easy to confuse the diagnosis with that of severe atopy or other rare immunodeficiency disorders. Case Report. A 23-year-old Hispanic presented with history of frequent respiratory and gastrointestinal infections as a child and multiple episodes of skin and lung infections (abscess with Staphylococcus aureus throughout his adult life. He had multiple eczematous lesions and folliculitis over his entire body, oral/esophageal candidiasis, and retention of his primary teeth. The IgE was elevated (>5000 IU/mL. Genetic mutation analysis revealed a mutation affecting the transactivation domain of the STAT3 gene. Conclusion. The hallmark of hyper IgE syndrome is serum IgE of >2000 IU/mL. Hyper IgE syndrome is a genetic disorder that is either autosomal dominant or recessive. A definite diagnosis can be made with genetic mutation analysis, and in this case, it revealed a very rare finding of the transactivation domain STAT3 mutation. Hyper IgE syndrome is a challenge for clinicians in establishing a diagnosis in suspected cases.

  11. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Is it Different from Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Normal Kidney?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Gupta, Dheeraj Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Nephrolithiasis has been reported in 20-28% of patients, of whom 50% are symptomatic for stone disease and 20% require definite urologic intervention. The management of nephrolithiasis includes oral alkali dissolution therapy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and surgical treatment. In such patients, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) as a method of stone treatment has been reported in few cases with limited experience. The aim of this study is to present our experience of PNL in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and assessing the outcome results. From 2002 to 2011, 22 patients (26 renal units) suffering from ADPKD with stone were managed by PNL. Demographic characteristics, operative parameters and postoperative complications were recorded and analysed. The overall success rate of PNL was 82.1% and PNL with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for clinically significant residual fragments was 92.85% respectively. The hematuria required blood transfusion (n = 9), postoperative fever due to cyst infection (n = 4) and paralytic ileus (n = 3) were recorded. The PNL in ADPKD PNL is safe and effective but have more postoperative complications such as bleeding requiring transfusions, fever due to cyst infection and paralytic ileus.

  12. Type II autosomal dominant osteopetrosis: radiological features in two families containing five members with asymptomatic and uncomplicated disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotiadou, Anastasia; Kiriakou, Vera; Tsitouridis, Ioannis [Papageorgiou Hospital, Radiology Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Arvaniti, Maria [Genimatas Hospital, Radiology Department, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-10-15

    In this study we analysed the imaging patterns in two families containing five members with asymptomatic and uncomplicated autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO II), and we report new and uncommon radiological manifestations. These findings might be useful in the context of reducing the incidence of fractures and other orthopaedic complications. Diffuse pelvic sclerosis on radiographs was observed incidentally in two patients. Both cases were asymptomatic, and the patients had never suffered a fracture. The suggestion of ADO II was raised. A detailed medical history, an imaging survey, and a haematological study were obtained so that other rare causes of osteosclerosis could be ruled out. No genetic study was conducted. All their first-degree relatives were also examined. Bony sclerosis was observed in five patients, and the radiological findings were analysed. A not previously reported thickening of the skull base without cranial nerve palsy or optic nerve atrophy was revealed in all patients. Scoliosis was present in three of them. This has been reported previously only once in ADO II. No lower limb deformity was detected. This study provided information on the pattern of radiological features in familial asymptomatic ADO II. These data on new and rare imaging findings will increase the diagnostic awareness of physicians and will guide a thorough investigation of the entire family. This might result in a consequent decrease in the incidence of fractures and other orthopaedic complications. (orig.)

  13. Type II autosomal dominant osteopetrosis: radiological features in two families containing five members with asymptomatic and uncomplicated disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiadou, Anastasia; Kiriakou, Vera; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Arvaniti, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analysed the imaging patterns in two families containing five members with asymptomatic and uncomplicated autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO II), and we report new and uncommon radiological manifestations. These findings might be useful in the context of reducing the incidence of fractures and other orthopaedic complications. Diffuse pelvic sclerosis on radiographs was observed incidentally in two patients. Both cases were asymptomatic, and the patients had never suffered a fracture. The suggestion of ADO II was raised. A detailed medical history, an imaging survey, and a haematological study were obtained so that other rare causes of osteosclerosis could be ruled out. No genetic study was conducted. All their first-degree relatives were also examined. Bony sclerosis was observed in five patients, and the radiological findings were analysed. A not previously reported thickening of the skull base without cranial nerve palsy or optic nerve atrophy was revealed in all patients. Scoliosis was present in three of them. This has been reported previously only once in ADO II. No lower limb deformity was detected. This study provided information on the pattern of radiological features in familial asymptomatic ADO II. These data on new and rare imaging findings will increase the diagnostic awareness of physicians and will guide a thorough investigation of the entire family. This might result in a consequent decrease in the incidence of fractures and other orthopaedic complications. (orig.)

  14. Mutation Spectrum in the Large GTPase Dynamin 2, and Genotype–Phenotype Correlation in Autosomal Dominant Centronuclear Myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Johann; Biancalana, Valérie; DeChene, Elizabeth T.; Bitoun, Marc; Pierson, Christopher R.; Schaefer, Elise; Karasoy, Hatice; Dempsey, Melissa A.; Klein, Fabrice; Dondaine, Nicolas; Kretz, Christine; Haumesser, Nicolas; Poirson, Claire; Toussaint, Anne; Greenleaf, Rebecca S.; Barger, Melissa A.; Mahoney, Lane J.; Kang, Peter B.; Zanoteli, Edmar; Vissing, John; Witting, Nanna; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Dowling, James; Merlini, Luciano; Oldfors, Anders; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Melki, Judith; Krause, Amanda; Jern, Christina; Oliveira, Acary S. B.; Petit, Florence; Jacquette, Aurélia; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mowat, David; Leheup, Bruno; Cristofano, Michele; Aldea, Juan José Poza; Michel, Fabrice; Furby, Alain; Llona, Jose E. Barcena; Van Coster, Rudy; Bertini, Enrico; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Béroud, Christophe; Prudhon, Bernard; Bedford, Melanie; Mathews, Katherine; Erby, Lori A. H.; Smith, Stephen A.; Roggenbuck, Jennifer; Crowe, Carol A.; Spitale, Allison Brennan; Johal, Sheila C.; Amato, Anthony A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Jonas, Jessica; Darras, Basil T.; Bird, Thomas D.; Laurino, Mercy; Welt, Selman I.; Trotter, Cynthia; Guicheney, Pascale; Das, Soma; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Beggs, Alan H.; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzyme regulating cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in cells. To date, 40 families with CNM-related DNM2 mutations have been described, and here we report 60 additional families encompassing a broad genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. In total, 18 different mutations are reported in 100 families and our cohort harbors nine known and four new mutations, including the first splice-site mutation. Genotype–phenotype correlation hypotheses are drawn from the published and new data, and allow an efficient screening strategy for molecular diagnosis. In addition to CNM, dissimilar DNM2 mutations are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy (CMTD1B and CMT2M), suggesting a tissue-specific impact of the mutations. In this study, we discuss the possible clinical overlap of CNM and CMT, and the biological significance of the respective mutations based on the known functions of dynamin 2 and its protein structure. Defects in membrane trafficking due to DNM2 mutations potentially represent a common pathological mechanism in CNM and CMT. PMID:22396310

  15. Effects of Lacunar Infarctions on Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jay Chol; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Ji-Kang

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited microangiopathy caused by mutations in the Notch3 gene. Although previous studies have shown an association between lacunar infarction and cognitive impairment, the relationship between MRI parameters and cognition remains unclear. In this study we investigated the influence of MRI parameters on cognitive impairment in CADASIL. Methods We applied a prospective protocol to 40 patients. MRI analysis included the normalized volume of white-matter hyperintensities (nWMHs), number of lacunes, and number of cerebral microbleeds. Cognition was assessed with the aid of psychometric tests [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition (ADAS-cog), Trail-Making Test, and Stroop interference (Stroop IF)]. Results A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the total number of lacunes influenced the performance in the MMSE, ADAS-cog, and Stroop IF, while nWMHs had a strong univariate association with ADAS-cog and Stroop IF scores. However, this association disappeared in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the number of lacunes is the main predictive factor of cognitive impairment in CADASIL. PMID:22259617

  16. Hydrops fetalis and pulmonary lymphangiectasia due to FOXC2 mutation: an autosomal dominant hereditary lymphedema syndrome with variable expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Gwendolyn; Casaer, Alexandra; Devolder, Katrien; Van Acker, Geert; Logghe, Hilde; Devriendt, Koen; Cornette, Luc

    2012-03-01

    Non-immune hydrops fetalis may find its origin within genetically determined lymphedema syndromes, caused by mutations in FOXC2 and SOX-18. We describe a newborn girl, diagnosed with non-immune hydrops fetalis at a gestational age of 30 weeks. Family history revealed the presence of an autosomal dominant late-onset form of lymphedema of the lower limbs in her father, associated with an aberrant implantation of the eyelashes in some individuals. The newborn, hydropic girl suffered from severe pulmonary lymphangiectasia, resulting in terminal respiratory failure at the age of 3 months. Genetic analysis in both the father and the newborn girl demonstrated a heterozygous FOXC2 mutation, i.e., c.939C>A, p.Tyr313X. Her two older sisters are currently asymptomatic and the parents decided not to test them for the FOXC2 mutation. Patients with a mutation in the FOXC2 transcription factor usually show lower limb lymphedema with onset at or after puberty, together with distichiasis. However, the eye manifestations can be very mild and easily overlooked. The association between FOXC2 mutation and neonatal hydrops resulting in terminal respiratory failure is not reported so far. Therefore, in sporadic patients diagnosed with non-immune hydrops fetalis, lymphangiogenic genes should be systematically screened for mutations. In addition, all cases of fetal edema must prompt a thorough analysis of the familial pedigree, in order to detect familial patterns and to facilitate adequate antenatal counseling.

  17. A de novo mutation in KCNN3 associated with autosomal dominant idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koot, Bart G P; Alders, Marielle; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Cobben, Jan M

    2016-04-01

    Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is characterized by histopathological abnormalities in the liver, mostly affecting small intrahepatic portal veins that cause portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis. It can be secondary to coagulation disorders or toxic agents. However, most cases are idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) and familial cases are rare. We report a family in which a father and three of his four children conceived with three different mothers are affected by INCPH. Whole exome and Sanger sequencing showed the father to have a de novo single nucleotide substitution c.1348G>C in the KCNN3 gene that was transmitted to all three of his affected offspring. The KCNN3 gene encodes small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel 3. SK channels are involved in the regulation of arterial and venous vascular tone by causing smooth muscle relaxation on activation. No data exist on the expression and function of SK channels in portal veins. The autosomal dominant inheritance in this unique pedigree and the single de novo mutation identified, strongly suggests that KCNN3 mutations have a pathogenetic role in INCPH. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Case of New Familiar Genetic Variant of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease-2: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinchuk, Tetiana; Tao, Yunxia; Singh, Ruchi; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by renal cyst formation due to mutations in genes coding for polycystin-1 [PKD1 (85-90% of cases), on ch 16p13.3] and polycystin-2 [PKD2 (10-15% of cases), on ch 4q13-23] and PKD3 gene (gene unmapped). It is also associated with TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome. ADPKD is usually inherited, but new mutations without a family history occur in approximately 10% of the cases. A 17-year-old boy was followed up for bilateral cystic kidney disease, hypertension, and obesity since he was 13 years old. The diagnosis was an accidental finding during abdominal CT at age 13 to rule out appendicitis. A renal ultrasonogram also demonstrated a multiple bilateral cysts. Because of parental history of bilateral renal cysts, PKD1 and PKD2, genetic testing was ordered. Results showed, PKD2 variant 1:3 bp deletion of TGT; nucleotide position: 1602-1604; codon position: 512-513; mRNA reading frame maintained. The same mutation was later identified in his father. A smaller number of patients have a defect in the PKD2 locus on chromosome 4 (resulting in PKD2 disease). There are no known published cases on this familiar genetic variant of ADPKD-2 cystic kidney disease. In this case, the disease is present unusually early in life.

  19. A R54L mutation of CRYAA associated with autosomal dominant nuclear cataracts in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenfei; Su, Dongmei; Li, Qian; Ma, Zicheng; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Siquan; Ma, Xu

    2013-12-01

    To identify the genetic defect in a three-generation Chinese family with congenital cataracts. The phenotype of a three-generation Chinese family with congenital cataract was recruited. Detailed family history and clinical data of the family were recorded. Candidate genes sequencing was performed to screen out the disease-causing mutation. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the function of mutant gene. The phenotype of the family was identified as nuclear cataract. Direct sequencing revealed a c.161 G > T transversion in exon 1 of crystallin alpha-A (CRYAA). This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not found in unaffected family members nor in the 100 unrelated controls. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the 54th amino acid position was highly conserved and the mutation R54L caused an increase of local hydrophobicity around the substitution site. This study identified a novel disease-causing mutation c.161 G > T (p.R54L) in CRYAA in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant nuclear cataracts, this is the first report relating a G > T mutation in CRYAA leading to congenital nuclear cataract.

  20. Clinical and ERG data in a family with autosomal dominant RP and Pro-347-Arg mutation in the rhodopsin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, G; Trüb, P; Schinzel, A; Gal, A

    1992-01-01

    In a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, documented over six generations, a previously undescribed point mutation in the rhodopsin gene could be identified. The mutation found in the six affected members examined but in none of the controls, including healthy members of the family, was a point mutation in codon 347 predicting a substitution of the amino acid arginine for proline, designated Pro-347-Arg. Six affected members from two generations were examined clinically and with ganzfeld rod and cone electroretinography. The cone and, more dramatically, the rod electroretinograms were reduced to residual b-wave amplitudes or were non-detectable as early as ages 18 to 22 years. The Pro-347-Arg mutation resulted in a subjectively and clinically homogeneous phenotype: early onset of night blindness before age 11, relatively preserved usable visual fields until about age 30, blindness at ages 40 to 60, and change from an initial apparently sine pigmento to a hyperpigmented and atrophic fundus picture between 30 and 50 years of age.

  1. Insights into cellular and molecular basis for urinary tract infection in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Ye; Wallace, Darren P; Lopez-Soler, Reynold I; Higgins, Paul J; Zhang, Wenzheng

    2017-11-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a broad term referring to an infection of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and/or urethra. Because of its prevalence, frequent recurrence, and rising resistance to antibiotics, UTI has become a challenge in clinical practice. Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic disorder of the kidney and is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in both kidneys. Progressive cystic enlargement, inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis result in nephron loss with subsequent decline in kidney function. ADPKD patients frequently develop UTI; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the high UTI incidence in ADPKD patients remain virtually unaddressed. Emerging evidence suggests that α-intercalated cells (α-ICs) of the collecting ducts function in the innate immune defense against UTI. α-ICs inhibit bacterial growth by acidifying urine and secreting neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) that chelates siderophore-containing iron. It is necessary to determine, therefore, if ADPKD patients with recurrent UTI have a reduced number and/or impaired function of α-ICs. Identification of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms may lead to the development of novel strategies to reduce UTI in ADPKD. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. The Value of Pre-Screening in the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative (API) Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Romenets, S; Giraldo-Chica, M; López, H; Piedrahita, F; Ramos, C; Acosta-Baena, N; Muñoz, C; Ospina, P; Tobón, C; Cho, W; Ward, M; Langbaum, J B; Tariot, P N; Reiman, E M; Lopera, F

    2018-01-01

    The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative (API) Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease (ADAD) trial evaluates the anti-amyloid-β antibody crenezumab in cognitively unimpaired persons who, based on genetic background and age, are at high imminent risk of clinical progression, and provides a powerful test of the amyloid hypothesis. The Neurosciences Group of Antioquia implemented a pre-screening process with the goals of decreasing screen failures and identifying participants most likely to adhere to trial requirements of the API ADAD trial in cognitively unimpaired members of Presenilin1 E280A mutation kindreds. The pre-screening failure rate was 48.2%: the primary reason was expected inability to comply with the protocol, chiefly due to work requirements. More carriers compared to non-carriers, and more males compared to females, failed pre-screening. Carriers with illiteracy or learning/comprehension difficulties failed pre-screening more than non-carriers. With the Colombian API Registry and our prescreening efforts, we randomized 169 30-60 year-old cognitively unimpaired carriers and 83 non-carriers who agreed to participate in the trial for at least 60 months. Our findings suggest multiple benefits of implementing a pre-screening process for enrolling prevention trials in ADAD.

  3. Type III Bartter-like syndrome in an infant boy with Gitelman syndrome and autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnara, Milena; Gaudino, Rossella; Tedeschi, Silvana; Syrèn, Marie-Louise; Perrotta, Silverio; Maines, Evelina; Zaffanello, Marco

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of an infant boy with polyuria and a familial history of central diabetes insipidus. Laboratory blood tests disclosed hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, and hyperaldosteronism. Plasma magnesium concentration was slightly low. Urine analysis showed hypercalciuria, hyposthenuria, and high excretion of potassium. Such findings oriented toward type III Bartter syndrome (BSIII). Direct sequencing of the CLCNKB gene revealed no disease-causing mutations. The water deprivation test was positive. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lack of posterior pituitary hyperintensity. Finally, direct sequencing of the AVP-NPII gene showed a point mutation (c.1884G>A) in a heterozygous state, confirming an autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI). This condition did not explain the patient's phenotype; thus, we investigated for Gitelman syndrome (GS). A direct sequencing of the SLC12A3 gene showed c.269A>C and c.1205C>A new mutations. In conclusion, the patient had a genetic combination of GS and adFNDI with a BSIII-like phenotype.

  4. High-Resolution En Face Images of Microcystic Macular Edema in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy

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    Kiyoko Gocho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of microcystic macular edema (MME determined from the en face images obtained by an adaptive optics (AO fundus camera in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA and to try to determine the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of the inner retinal cells and RNFL by using the advantage of AO. Six patients from 4 families with ADOA underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations including spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Mutational screening of all coding and flanking intron sequences of the OPA1 gene was performed by DNA sequencing. SD-OCT showed a severe reduction in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in all patients. A new splicing defect and two new frameshift mutations with premature termination of the Opa1 protein were identified in three families. A reported nonsense mutation was identified in one family. SD-OCT of one patient showed MME in the inner nuclear layer (INL of the retina. AO images showed microcysts in the en face images of the INL. Our data indicate that AO is a useful method to identify MME in neurodegenerative diseases and may also help determine the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of the inner retinal cells and RNFL.

  5. The genetics of hybrid male sterility between the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana: dominant sterility alleles in collinear autosomal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2007-05-01

    F(1) hybrid male sterility is thought to result from interactions between loci on the X chromosome and dominant-acting loci on the autosomes. While X-linked loci that contribute to hybrid male sterility have been precisely localized in many animal taxa, their dominant autosomal interactors have been more difficult to localize precisely and/or have been shown to be of relatively smaller effect. Here, we identified and mapped at least four dominant autosomal factors contributing to hybrid male sterility in the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana. Using these results, we tested predictions of reduced recombination models of speciation. Consistent with these models, three of the four QTL associated with hybrid male sterility occur in collinear (uninverted) regions of these genomes. Furthermore, these QTL do not contribute significantly to hybrid male sterility in crosses between the sympatric species D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura pseudoobscura. The autosomal loci identified in this study provide the basis for introgression mapping and, ultimately, for molecular cloning of interacting genes that contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility.

  6. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations

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    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. Objective: The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. Results: 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. Discussion: SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Conclusions: Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  7. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B; Pulai, Debabrata; Guin, Deb Shankar; Ganguly, Goutam; Joardar, Anindita; Roy, Sarnava; Rai, Saurabh; Biswas, Atanu; Pandit, Alok; Roy, Arijit; Senapati, Asit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG) repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  8. Mutations in POGLUT1, Encoding Protein O-Glucosyltransferase 1, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Dowling-Degos Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmanav, F. Buket; Oprisoreanu, Ana-Maria; Pasternack, Sandra M.; Thiele, Holger; Fritz, Günter; Wenzel, Jörg; Größer, Leopold; Wehner, Maria; Wolf, Sabrina; Fagerberg, Christina; Bygum, Anette; Altmüller, Janine; Rütten, Arno; Parmentier, Laurent; El Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Hafner, Christian; Nürnberg, Peter; Kruse, Roland; Schoch, Susanne; Hanneken, Sandra; Betz, Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis characterized by progressive and disfiguring reticulate hyperpigmentation. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in KRT5 but were only able to detect pathogenic mutations in fewer than half of our subjects. To identify additional causes of DDD, we performed exome sequencing in five unrelated affected individuals without mutations in KRT5. Data analysis identified three heterozygous mutations from these individuals, all within the same gene. These mutations, namely c.11G>A (p.Trp4∗), c.652C>T (p.Arg218∗), and c.798-2A>C, are within POGLUT1, which encodes protein O-glucosyltransferase 1. Further screening of unexplained cases for POGLUT1 identified six additional mutations, as well as two of the above described mutations. Immunohistochemistry of skin biopsies of affected individuals with POGLUT1 mutations showed significantly weaker POGLUT1 staining in comparison to healthy controls with strong localization of POGLUT1 in the upper parts of the epidermis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that translation of either wild-type (WT) POGLUT1 or of the protein carrying the p.Arg279Trp substitution led to the expected size of about 50 kDa, whereas the c.652C>T (p.Arg218∗) mutation led to translation of a truncated protein of about 30 kDa. Immunofluorescence analysis identified a colocalization of the WT protein with the endoplasmic reticulum and a notable aggregating pattern for the truncated protein. Recently, mutations in POFUT1, which encodes protein O-fucosyltransferase 1, were also reported to be responsible for DDD. Interestingly, both POGLUT1 and POFUT1 are essential regulators of Notch activity. Our results furthermore emphasize the important role of the Notch pathway in pigmentation and keratinocyte morphology. PMID:24387993

  9. European ADPKD Forum multidisciplinary position statement on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease care: European ADPKD Forum and Multispecialist Roundtable participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tess; Sandford, Richard; de Coninck, Brenda; Devuyst, Olivier; Drenth, Joost P H; Ecder, Tevfik; Kent, Alastair; Gansevoort, Ron T; Górriz, José Luis; Ong, Albert C M; Pirson, Yves; Torres, Vicente E; Budde, Klemens; Clément, Denis; Derchi, Lorenzo E; Eleftheroudi, Marianna; Levtchenko, Elena; Peters, Dorien; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Vanholder, Raymond

    2017-12-22

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a chronic, progressive condition characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys and other organs and by additional systemic manifestations. Individuals with ADPKD should have access to lifelong, multidisciplinary, specialist and patient-centred care involving: (i) a holistic and comprehensive assessment of the manifestations, complications, prognosis and impact of the disease (in physical, psychological and social terms) on the patient and their family; (ii) access to treatment to relieve symptoms, manage complications, preserve kidney function, lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and maintain quality of life; and (iii) information and support to help patients and their families act as fully informed and active partners in care, i.e. to maintain self-management approaches, deal with the impact of the condition and participate in decision-making regarding healthcare policies, services and research. Building on discussions at an international roundtable of specialists and patient advocates involved in ADPKD care, this article sets out (i) the principles for a patient-centred, holistic approach to the organization and delivery of ADPKD care in practice, with a focus on multispecialist collaboration and shared-decision making, and (ii) the rationale and knowledge base for a route map for ADPKD care intended to help patients navigate the services available to them and to help stakeholders and decision-makers take practical steps to ensure that all patients with ADPKD can access the comprehensive multispecialist care to which they are entitled. Further multispecialty collaboration is encouraged to design and implement these services, and to work with patient organizations to promote awareness building, education and research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  10. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF SIROLIMUS IN REDUCING CYST VOLUME IN PATIENTS WITH AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE

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    Sreelatha Melemadathil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease is by far the most frequent inherited kidney disease. In White populations, its prevalence ranges from one in 400 to one in 1000 (Gabow 1993. Though the corresponding figure in Blacks is not yet available, the incidence of ESRD due to ADPKD is similar in American Blacks and Whites (Yium et al, 1994. Renoprotective interventions in ADPKD are maximal reduction of blood pressure and proteinuria and limit the effects of additional potential promoters of disease progression such as dyslipidaemia, chronic hyperglycaemia or smoking. At present, there is no definitive treatment for reducing cyst volume and hence disease progression. Sirolimus (Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant mostly used for the management of kidney transplant recipients. This drug by specifically and effectively inhibiting mTOR, exerts antiproliferative and growth inhibiting effects and could be important for the inhibition of cyst progression in ADPKD. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is an interventional randomised open label, active control study for six months. ADPKD type 1 patients between the age of 18 to 60 years with a GFR > 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 were included in the study. RESULTS Total number of subjects enrolled – 60. Patients enrolled in sirolimus arm – 40. Patients enrolled in conventional treatment arm - 20. Patients dropped out due to sirolimus side effects - 5. Patients lost to followup - 1. Patients completed treatment in conventional treatment arm - 20. CONCLUSION Treatment with mTOR inhibitor sirolimus for 6 months was effective in reducing total kidney volume, total renal cyst volume and volume of the largest cyst in patients with ADPKD. There was a small, but significant increase in renal parenchymal volume on treatment with sirolimus. Extending the duration of treatment to one year caused further significant reduction in total kidney volume and cyst volume. Major side effect of sirolimus in our patients was

  11. Urinary proteomic biomarkers for diagnosis and risk stratification of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a multicentric study.

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    Andreas D Kistler

    Full Text Available Treatment options for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD will likely become available in the near future, hence reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the disease are strongly needed. Here, we aimed to define urinary proteomic patterns in ADPKD patients, which aid diagnosis and risk stratification. By capillary electrophoresis online coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS, we compared the urinary peptidome of 41 ADPKD patients to 189 healthy controls and identified 657 peptides with significantly altered excretion, of which 209 could be sequenced using tandem mass spectrometry. A support-vector-machine based diagnostic biomarker model based on the 142 most consistent peptide markers achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 94.2% in an independent validation cohort, consisting of 251 ADPKD patients from five different centers and 86 healthy controls. The proteomic alterations in ADPKD included, but were not limited to markers previously associated with acute kidney injury (AKI. The diagnostic biomarker model was highly specific for ADPKD when tested in a cohort consisting of 481 patients with a variety of renal and extrarenal diseases, including AKI. Similar to ultrasound, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic score depended on patient age and genotype. We were furthermore able to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression. A proteomic severity score was developed to predict height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV based on proteomic analysis of 134 ADPKD patients and showed a correlation of r = 0.415 (p<0.0001 with htTKV in an independent validation cohort consisting of 158 ADPKD patients. In conclusion, the performance of peptidomic biomarker scores is superior to any other biochemical markers of ADPKD and the proteomic biomarker patterns are a promising tool for prognostic evaluation of ADPKD.

  12. Non-image-forming light driven functions are preserved in a mouse model of autosomal dominant optic atrophy.

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    Georgia Perganta

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA is a slowly progressive optic neuropathy that has been associated with mutations of the OPA1 gene. In patients, the disease primarily affects the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and causes optic nerve atrophy and visual loss. A subset of RGCs are intrinsically photosensitive, express the photopigment melanopsin and drive non-image-forming (NIF visual functions including light driven circadian and sleep behaviours and the pupil light reflex. Given the RGC pathology in ADOA, disruption of NIF functions might be predicted. Interestingly in ADOA patients the pupil light reflex was preserved, although NIF behavioural outputs were not examined. The B6; C3-Opa1(Q285STOP mouse model of ADOA displays optic nerve abnormalities, RGC dendropathy and functional visual disruption. We performed a comprehensive assessment of light driven NIF functions in this mouse model using wheel running activity monitoring, videotracking and pupillometry. Opa1 mutant mice entrained their activity rhythm to the external light/dark cycle, suppressed their activity in response to acute light exposure at night, generated circadian phase shift responses to 480 nm and 525 nm pulses, demonstrated immobility-defined sleep induction following exposure to a brief light pulse at night and exhibited an intensity dependent pupil light reflex. There were no significant differences in any parameter tested relative to wildtype littermate controls. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number of melanopsin-expressing RGCs, cell morphology or melanopsin transcript levels between genotypes. Taken together, these findings suggest the preservation of NIF functions in Opa1 mutants. The results provide support to growing evidence that the melanopsin-expressing RGCs are protected in mitochondrial optic neuropathies.

  13. Cerebral Microbleeds and the Risk of Incident Ischemic Stroke in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Laurent; De Guio, François; Godin, Ophélia; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues; Jouvent, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent data suggest that microbleeds may also predict the risk of incident ischemic stroke. However, these results were observed in elderly individuals undertaking various medications and for whom causes of microbleeds and ischemic stroke may differ. We aimed to test the relationship between the presence of microbleeds and incident stroke in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy)-a severe monogenic small vessel disease known to be responsible for both highly prevalent microbleeds and a high incidence of ischemic stroke in young patients. We assessed microbleeds on baseline MRI in all 378 patients from the Paris-Munich cohort study. Incident ischemic strokes were recorded during 54 months. Survival analyses were used to test the relationship between microbleeds and incident ischemic stroke. Three hundred sixty-nine patients (mean age, 51.4±11.4 years) were followed-up during a median time of 39 months (interquartile range, 19 months). The risk of incident ischemic stroke was higher in patients with microbleeds than in patients without (35.8% versus 19.6%, hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.01; P =0.009). These results persisted after adjustment for history of ischemic stroke, age, sex, vascular risk factors, and antiplatelet agents use (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.26; P =0.02). The presence of microbleeds is an independent risk marker of incident ischemic stroke in CADASIL, emphasizing the need to carefully interpret MRI data. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Type II autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (Albers-Schönberg disease): clinical and radiological manifestations in 42 patients.

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    Bénichou, O D; Laredo, J D; de Vernejoul, M C

    2000-01-01

    Type II autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO II, Albers-Schonberg disease) is a genetic condition characterized by generalized osteosclerosis predominating in some skeletal sites such as the spine and pelvis. ADO II is rare, and most available clinical descriptions are based on small numbers of patients. We report the clinical and radiological manifestations in 42 ADO II patients. To our knowledge, this is the largest series reported so far. Our inclusion criterion was presence on radiographs of the spine of vertebral endplate thickening, producing the classic sandwich vertebra appearance. We found various patterns of sandwich vertebra, of which we provide a description to assist physicians in diagnosing ADO II. The classic bone-within-bone appearance was present in most but not all skeletal sites. The radiological penetrance of the disease was high (90%) and increased after 20 years of age. As many as 81% of our patients experienced clinical manifestations. Fractures were common (78% of patients) and healed slowly. Hip osteoarthritis developed in 27% of patients and required arthroplasty in 9 of the 16 affected hips. Nonmandibular osteomyelitis occurred in 4 cases (11%). Twenty-four percent of patients had thoracic or lumbar scoliosis. Orthopedic surgery was performed in 52.8% of patients, of whom half had at least three surgical procedures for internal fracture fixation, arthroplasty, limb deformity correction, or treatment of surgical complications. There was a high rate of surgical complications including nonunion, infection, prosthesis loosening, and intraoperative fractures. Nearly two-thirds of patients (64%) had stomatologic manifestations, including mandibular osteomyelitis in 4 patients (11%). Cranial nerve involvement responsible for hearing loss, bilateral optic atrophy, and/or facial palsy was present in 14 patients but was clearly attributable to ADO II in only 6 cases (16%). This large series sheds new light on several aspects of ADO II, most

  15. Laparoscopic Nephrectomy versus Open Nephrectomy for Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Pengyu Guo

    Full Text Available To compare efficacy and safety of laparoscopicnephrectomy (LN versus open nephrectomy (ON in the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis.A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library was performed up to October 2014. This systematic review was performed based on observational comparative studies that assessed the two techniques. The weighted mean difference (WMD and risk ratio (RR, with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI, were calculated to compare continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively.Seven studies were identified, including 195 cases (118 LN/77 ON. Although LN was associated with longer operative time (WMD 30.236, 95%CI 14.541 -45.932, P<0.001 and the specimen might not have been resected as heavy as the ON group (WMD -986.516, 95%CI -1883.24--89.795, P = 0.031, patients in this group might benefit from a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD -3.576, 95%CI 4.976--2.176, P <0.001, less estimated blood loss (WMD -180.245, 95%CI -317.939--42.556, P = 0.010, and lower need of transfusion (RR 0.345, 95%CI 0.183-0.650, P = 0.001. The LN group also had less overall complications (RR 0.545, 95%CI 0.329-0.903, P = 0.018. The need of narcotic analgesics between the two groups might have no significant difference (WMD -54.66, 95%CI -129.76-20.44, P = 0.154.LN for giant symptomatic ADPKD was feasible, safe and efficacious. Morbidity was significantly reduced compared with the open approach. For an experienced laparoscopist, LN might be a better alternative.

  16. Positron-emission computed tomography in cyst infection diagnosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

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    Jouret, François; Lhommel, Renaud; Beguin, Claire; Devuyst, Olivier; Pirson, Yves; Hassoun, Ziad; Kanaan, Nada

    2011-07-01

    Cyst infection remains a challenging issue in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In most patients, conventional imaging techniques are inconclusive. Isolated observations suggest that (18)fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸FDG) positron-emission computed tomography (PET/CT) might help detect cyst infection in ADPKD patients. Comparative assessment of administrative databases from January 2005 to December 2009 identified 27 PET/CT scans performed in 24 ADPKD patients for suspicion of abdominal infection. Cyst infection was definite if confirmed by cyst fluid analysis. Cyst infection was probable if all four of the following criteria were met: temperature of >38°C for >3 days, loin or liver tenderness, C-reactive protein plasma level of >5 mg/dl, and no CT evidence for intracystic bleeding. Episodes with only two or three criteria were grouped as "fever of unknown origin". Thirteen infectious events in 11 patients met all criteria for kidney (n = 3) or liver (n = 10) cyst infection. CT was contributive in only one patient, whereas PET/CT proved cyst infection in 11 patients (84.6%). In addition, 14 episodes of "fever of unknown origin" in 13 patients were recorded. PET/CT identified the source of infection in nine patients (64.3%), including 2 renal cyst infections. Conversely, PET/CT showed no abnormal ¹⁸FDG uptake in 5 patients, including 2 intracystic bleeding. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and PET/CT procedure was 9 days. This retrospective series underscores the usefulness of PET/CT to confirm and locate cyst infection and identify alternative sources of abdominal infection in ADPKD patients.

  17. A novel mutation in PRPF31, causative of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, using the BGISEQ-500 sequencer

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    Yu Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the genes responsible for retinitis pigmentosa. METHODS: A total of 15 Chinese families with retinitis pigmentosa, containing 94 sporadically afflicted cases, were recruited. The targeted sequences were captured using the Target_Eye_365_V3 chip and sequenced using the BGISEQ-500 sequencer, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Data were aligned to UCSC Genome Browser build hg19, using the Burroughs Wheeler Aligner MEM algorithm. Local realignment was performed with the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK v.3.3.0 IndelRealigner, and variants were called with the Genome Analysis Toolkit Haplotypecaller, without any use of imputation. Variants were filtered against a panel derived from 1000 Genomes Project, 1000G_ASN, ESP6500, ExAC and dbSNP138. In all members of Family ONE and Family TWO with available DNA samples, the genetic variant was validated using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A novel, pathogenic variant of retinitis pigmentosa, c.357_358delAA (p.Ser119SerfsX5 was identified in PRPF31 in 2 of 15 autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP families, as well as in one, sporadic case. Sanger sequencing was performed upon probands, as well as upon other family members. This novel, pathogenic genotype co-segregated with retinitis pigmentosa phenotype in these two families. CONCLUSION: ADRP is a subtype of retinitis pigmentosa, defined by its genotype, which accounts for 20%-40% of the retinitis pigmentosa patients. Our study thus expands the spectrum of PRPF31 mutations known to occur in ADRP, and provides further demonstration of the applicability of the BGISEQ500 sequencer for genomics research.

  18. A novel mutation in PRPF31, causative of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, using the BGISEQ-500 sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Hai-Lin; Li, Jian-Kang; Xu, Li; Tellier, Laurent; Li, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wei; Niu, Tong-Tong; Yang, Huan-Ming; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Dong-Ning

    2018-01-01

    AIM To study the genes responsible for retinitis pigmentosa. METHODS A total of 15 Chinese families with retinitis pigmentosa, containing 94 sporadically afflicted cases, were recruited. The targeted sequences were captured using the Target_Eye_365_V3 chip and sequenced using the BGISEQ-500 sequencer, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Data were aligned to UCSC Genome Browser build hg19, using the Burroughs Wheeler Aligner MEM algorithm. Local realignment was performed with the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK v.3.3.0) IndelRealigner, and variants were called with the Genome Analysis Toolkit Haplotypecaller, without any use of imputation. Variants were filtered against a panel derived from 1000 Genomes Project, 1000G_ASN, ESP6500, ExAC and dbSNP138. In all members of Family ONE and Family TWO with available DNA samples, the genetic variant was validated using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS A novel, pathogenic variant of retinitis pigmentosa, c.357_358delAA (p.Ser119SerfsX5) was identified in PRPF31 in 2 of 15 autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) families, as well as in one, sporadic case. Sanger sequencing was performed upon probands, as well as upon other family members. This novel, pathogenic genotype co-segregated with retinitis pigmentosa phenotype in these two families. CONCLUSION ADRP is a subtype of retinitis pigmentosa, defined by its genotype, which accounts for 20%-40% of the retinitis pigmentosa patients. Our study thus expands the spectrum of PRPF31 mutations known to occur in ADRP, and provides further demonstration of the applicability of the BGISEQ500 sequencer for genomics research. PMID:29375987

  19. Autosomal-dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with STAT1-mutation can be complicated with chronic active hepatitis and hypothyroidism.

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    Hori, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Teramoto, Takahide; Tsubouchi, Kohji; Naiki, Takafumi; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Ohara, Osamu; Seishima, Mariko; Kaneko, Hideo; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Naomi

    2012-12-01

    To describe a case of autosomal-dominant (AD)-chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) with a signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 gene mutation, and some of the important complications of this disease such as chronic hepatitis. We present a 23-year-old woman with CMC, chronic active hepatitis, and hypothyroidism. Her father also had CMC. We performed several immunological analyses of blood and liver samples, and searched for gene mutations for CMC in the patient and her father. We identified the heterozygous substitution c.821 G > A (p.Arg274Gln) in the STAT1 gene of both the patient and her father. The level of β-glucan induced interferon (IFN)-γ in her blood cells was significantly low. Immunoblot analysis detected serum anti-interleukin (IL)-17 F autoantibody. She was found to have increased (low-titer) antibodies related to her hypothyroidism and hepatitis. Her serum IL-18 levels fluctuated with her AST and ALT levels. Liver biopsy revealed CD68-positive cell infiltration and IL-18 expression in the sinusoidal regions. These results suggest that the chronic active hepatitis in this patient may be exacerbated by the excessive IL-18 accumulation caused by recurrent mucocutaneous fungal infection, and decreased IFN-γ production. AD-CMC is known to be caused by a gain-of-function mutation of the STAT1 gene. Chronic active hepatitis is a rare complication of AD-CMC, with currently unknown pathogenesis. It seems that the clinical phenotype in this patient is modified by autoimmune mechanisms and cytokine dysregulation. AD-CMC can be complicated by various immune disorders including autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy.

  20. Exon sequencing of PKD1 gene in an Iranian patient with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

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    Hafizi, Atousa; Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid; Shariati, Gholamreza; Saberi, Ali Hossein; Hamid, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common genetic kidney disorders with the incidence of 1 in 1,000 births. ADPKD is genetically heterogeneous with two genes identified: PKD1 (16p13.3, 46 exons) and PKD2 (4q21, 15 exons). Eighty five percent of the patients with ADPKD have at least one mutation in the PKD1 gene. Genetic studies have demonstrated an important allelic variability among patients, but very few data are known about the genetic variation among Iranian populations. In this study, exon direct sequencing of PKD1 was performed in a seven-year old boy with ADPKD and in his parents. The patient's father was ADPKD who was affected without any kidney dysfunction, and the patient's mother was congenitally missing one kidney. Molecular genetic testing found a mutation in all three members of this family. It was a missense mutation GTG>ATG at position 3057 in exon 25 of PKD1. On the other hand, two novel missense mutations were reported just in the 7-year-old boy: ACA>GCA found in exon 15 at codon 2241 and CAC>AAC found in exon 38 at codon 3710. For checking the pathogenicity of these mutations, exons 15, 25, and 38 of 50 unrelated normal cases were sequenced. our findings suggested that GTG>ATG is a polymorphism with high frequency (60%) as well as ACA>GCA and CAC>AAC are polymorphisms with frequencies of 14% and 22%, respectively in the population of Southwest Iran.

  1. Novel calcium-sensing receptor cytoplasmic tail deletion mutation causing autosomal dominant hypocalcemia: molecular and clinical study.

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    Obermannova, Barbora; Sumnik, Zdenek; Dusatkova, Petra; Cinek, Ondrej; Grant, Michael; Lebl, Jan; Hendy, Geoffrey N

    2016-04-01

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is a rare disorder caused by activating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). The treatment of ADH patients with 1α-hydroxylated vitamin D derivatives can cause hypercalciuria leading to nephrocalcinosis. We studied a girl who presented with hypoparathyroidism and asymptomatic hypocalcemia at age 2.5 years. Mutations of CASR were investigated by DNA sequencing. Functional analyses of mutant and WT CASRs were done in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The proband and her father are heterozygous for an eight-nucleotide deletion c.2703_2710delCCTTGGAG in the CASR encoding the intracellular domain of the protein. Transient expression of CASR constructs in kidney cells in vitro suggested greater cell surface expression of the mutant receptor with a left-shifted extracellular calcium dose-response curve relative to that of the WT receptor consistent with gain of function. Initial treatment of the patient with calcitriol led to increased urinary calcium excretion. Evaluation for mosaicism in the paternal grandparents of the proband was negative. We describe a novel naturally occurring deletion mutation within the CASR that apparently arose de novo in the father of the ADH proband. Functional analysis suggests that the cytoplasmic tail of the CASR contains determinants that regulate the attenuation of signal transduction. Early molecular analysis of the CASR gene in patients with isolated idiopathic hypoparathyroidism is recommended because of its relevance to clinical outcome and treatment choice. In ADH patients, calcium supplementation and low-dose cholecalciferol avoids hypocalcemic symptoms without compromising renal function. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Variability in clinical phenotypes of PRPF8-linked autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa correlates with differential PRPF8/SNRNP200 interactions.

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    Escher, Pascal; Passarin, Olga; Munier, Francis L; Tran, Viet H; Vaclavik, Veronika

    2018-01-01

    To expand the genotype/phenotype correlations in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) harboring PRPF8 variants. Two patients, a father and his daughter, harboring a novel p.PRPF8-Glu2331* variant, underwent ophthalmic examination at 3-year-interval, including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and ISCEV standard full field ERGs. All reported disease-causing PRPF8 variants were collected and localized in the PRPF8 and PRPF8/SNRNP200 protein structures. The p.PRPF8-Glu2331* variant results in a truncated PRPF8 protein lacking the last five C-terminal amino acids and caused in the two patients a severe clinical phenotype, with the macula being affected from the second decade on. All but two adRP-linked variants are located in the last exon 43 encoding the C-terminal tail of the C-terminal PRPF8 Jab1 domain. The p.PRPF8-Ser2118Phe and -Asn2280Lys variants encoded by exons 39 and 42, respectively, are located at the basis of the C-terminal tail. Frame-shift mutations and nonconservative amino acid changes in PRPF8 typically cause severe clinical phenotypes. The conservative missense variant p.PRPF8-Arg2310Lys that is not altering the global charge of the C-terminal tail, and variants located at the basis of the C-terminal tail show milder clinical phenotypes, in accordance with functional data on PRPF8/SNRNP200 interactions in yeast.

  3. Novel BICD2 mutation in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy-2.

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    Yoshioka, Mieko; Morisada, Naoya; Toyoshima, Daisaku; Yoshimura, Hajime; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Tomoko; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2018-04-01

    The most common form of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a recessive disorder caused by SMN1 mutations in 5q13, whereas the genetic etiologies of non-5q SMA are very heterogenous and largely remain to be elucidated. We present a father and son with atrophy and weakness of the lower leg muscles since infancy. Genetic studies in this family revealed a novel BICD2 mutation causing autosomal dominant lower extremity-predominant SMA type 2. The proband was the father, aged 30, and the son was aged 3. Both of them were born uneventfully to nonconsanguineous parents. While the father first walked at the age of 19 months, the son was unable to walk at age 3 years. In both, knee and ankle reflexes were absent and sensation was intact. Serum creatine kinase levels were normal. The son showed congenital arthrogryposis and underwent orthopedic corrections for talipes calcaneovalgus. Investigation of the father at the age of 5 years revealed normal results on nerve conduction studies and sural nerve biopsy. Electromyography showed chronic neurogenic change, and muscle biopsy showed features suggestive of denervation. The father was diagnosed clinically with a sporadic distal SMA. Follow-up studies showed very slow progression. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed a deleterious mutation in BICD2: c.1667A>G, p.Tyr556Cys, in this family. BICD2 is a cytoplasmic conserved motor-adaptor protein involved in anterograde and retrograde transport along the microtubules. Next-generation sequencing will further clarify the genetic basis of non-5q SMA. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel three-dimensional imaging volumetry in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: comparison with 2D volumetry.

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    Shin, Dongsuk; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Young Rae; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Park, Hayne Cho; Ahn, Curie

    2014-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) volumetry is an important marker for evaluating the progression of disease. Three-dimensional (3D) volumetry is generally more timesaving than 2D volumetry, but its reliability and accuracy are uncertain. Small and large phantoms simulating polycystic kidneys and 20 patients with ADPKD underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry. We evaluated the total kidney volume (TKV) and total cyst volume (TCV) using a novel 3D volumetry program (XelisTM) and compared 3D volumetry data with the conventional 2D method (the reference volume values). After upload and threshold setting, the other organs surrounding the kidney were removed by picking and sculpting. The novel method involves drawing of the kidney or cyst and automatic measurement of kidney volume and cyst volume in 3D images. The 3D volume estimation of the small and large phantoms differed from the actual values by 6.9% and -8.2%, respectively, for TKV and by 2.1% and 1.4% for TCV. In ADPKD patients, the intra-reader reliability of 3D volumetry was 30 ± 180 mL (1.3 ± 10.3%) and 25 ± 113 mL (1.2 ± 9.4%), respectively, for TKV and TCV. Correlation between 3D volumetry and 2D volumetry of TKV and TCV resulted in a high correlation coefficient and a regression slope approaching 1.00 (r = 0.97 - 0.98). The mean of the volume percentage differences for 3D vs. 2D for TKV : TCV were -6.0 ± 8.9% : 2.0 ± 11.8% in large ADPKD and -16.1 ± 10.4% : 13.2 ± 21.9% in small ADPKD. Our study showed that 3D volumetry has reliability and accuracy compared with 2D volumetry in ADPKD. 3D volumetry is more accurate for TCV and large ADPKD.

  5. Autosomal-dominant GTPCH1-deficient DRD: clinical characteristics and long-term outcome of 34 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trender-Gerhard, I; Sweeney, M G; Schwingenschuh, P; Mir, P; Edwards, M J; Gerhard, A; Polke, J M; Hanna, M G; Davis, M B; Wood, N W; Bhatia, K P

    2009-08-01

    An autosomal dominantly inherited defect in the GCH1 gene that encodes guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) is the most common cause of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). A classic phenotype of young-onset lower-limb dystonia, diurnal fluctuations and excellent response to levodopa has been well recognised in association with GCH1 mutations, and rare atypical presentations have been reported. However, a number of clinical issues remain unresolved including phenotypic variability, long-term response to levodopa and associated non-motor symptoms, and there are limited data on long-term follow-up of genetically proven cases. A detailed clinical evaluation of 34 patients (19 women, 15 men), with confirmed mutations in the GCH1 gene, is presented. The classic phenotype was most frequent (n = 23), with female predominance (F:M = 16:7), and early onset (mean 4.5 years) with involvement of legs. However, a surprisingly large number of patients developed craniocervical dystonia, with spasmodic dysphonia being the predominant symptom in two subjects. A subset of patients, mainly men, presented with either a young-onset (mean 6.8 years) mild DRD variant not requiring treatment (n = 4), or with an adult-onset (mean 37 years) Parkinson disease-like phenotype (n = 4). Two siblings were severely affected with early hypotonia and delay in motor development, associated with compound heterozygous GCH1 gene mutations. The study also describes a number of supplementary features including restless-legs-like symptoms, influence of female sex hormones, predominance of tremor or parkinsonism in adult-onset cases, initial reverse reaction to levodopa, recurrent episodes of depressive disorder and specific levodopa-resistant symptoms (writer's cramp, dysphonia, truncal dystonia). Levodopa was used effectively and safely in 20 pregnancies, and did not cause any fetal abnormalities.

  6. Clinical characteristics and disease predictors of a large Chinese cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

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    Dongping Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. METHODS: To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2. Patients were followed clinically and radiologically with sequential abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Clinical characteristics and laboratory data were related to changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and total kidney volume (TKV. A linear regression model was developed to analyze the factors which determine eGFR and TKV changes. RESULTS: The age range of this unselected cohort ranged from 4 to 77 years. Median follow-up time was 14.3 ± 10.6 months. Although inter-individual differences in eGFR and TKV were large, there was a consistent link between these two parameters. Baseline log10-transformed TKV and urinary protein/creatinine ratio were identified as the major predictors for a faster eGFR decline and were associated with a higher TKV growth rate. Interestingly, a lower thrombocyte count correlated significantly with lower eGFR (r = 0.222 and higher TKV (r = 0.134. CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort of Chinese patients with ADPKD provides unique epidemiological data for comparison with other cohorts of different ethnicity. In Chinese patients we identified a lower thrombocyte count as a significant predictor of disease progression. These results are important for the design of future clinical trials to retard polycystic kidney disease progression.

  7. Genetic heterogeneity in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy; exclusion of the EVR1 locus on chromosome 11q in a large autosomal dominant pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamashmus, M A; Downey, L M; Inglehearn, C F; Gupta, S R; Mansfield, D C

    2000-04-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is associated with mutations in the Norrie disease gene in X linked pedigrees and with linkage to the EVR1 locus at 11q13 in autosomal dominant cases. A large autosomal dominant FEVR family was studied, both clinically and by linkage analysis, to determine whether it differed from the known forms of FEVR. Affected members and obligate gene carriers from this family were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and in some cases fluorescein angiography. Patient DNAs were genotyped for markers at the EVR1 locus on chromosome 11q13. The clinical evaluation in this family is consistent with previous descriptions of FEVR pedigrees, but linkage analysis proves that it has a form of FEVR genetically distinct from the EVR1 locus on 11q. This proves that there are at least three different loci associated with comparable FEVR phenotypes, a situation similar to that existing for many forms of retinal degeneration.

  8. Diagnostic Algorithm in the Management of Acute Febrile Abdomen in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

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    Marie Neuville

    Full Text Available Acute febrile abdomen represents a diagnostic challenge in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. Although criteria have been proposed for cyst infection (CyI and hemorrhage (CyH, there is a lack of comparative assessments. Furthermore, distinguishing cystic from non-cystic complications remains problematic.ADPKD patients presenting with abdominal pain and/or fever between 01/2005 and 06/2015 were retrospectively identified in a systematic computerized billing database. CyH was defined as spontaneous intracystic density above 50 Hounsfield units on computed tomography (CT. CyI was definite if confirmed by cyst puncture, and probable if 4 criteria were met: 3-day fever, loin/liver tenderness, C-reactive protein (CRP plasma levels >50mg/L and no CT evidence for CyH. Other episodes were grouped as inflammation of unknown origin (IUO.Among a cohort of 173 ADPKD patients, 101 presented with 205 episodes of abdominal pain (n = 172 and/or fever (n = 33. 20 patients experienced 30 CyH, whereas 16 presented 23 episodes of definite (n = 11 or probable (n = 12 CyI. 35 IUO were observed in 31 patients. Clinically, fever was observed in 7% vs. 100% vs. 66% of CyH, CyI and IUO, respectively. Biologically, CRP cut-off at 70 mg/dl showed 92% sensitivity and 81% specificity in CyI diagnosis. Urine or blood cultures remained sterile in >90% of CyH, but were contributive in 53.4% of CyI and IUO, with a 74.2% prevalence for E. coli. Radiologically, ultrasounds, CT and magnetic resonance diagnosed CyI in 2.6%, 20% and 16.7% of cases, respectively. 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography (PET/CT was done within a median period of 7 days post antibiotics, and significantly changed patient management in 71.4%.This retrospective single-center series underscores the usefulness of clinical-fever-and biological-CRP-parameters, but emphasizes the limitations of bacteriological and radiological investigations in cases of acute febrile abdomen in

  9. Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms in the else kröner-fresenius registry of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Hartmut P H; Malinoc, Angelica; Bacher, Janina; Nabulsi, Zinaida; Ivanovas, Vera; Bruechle, Nadine Ortiz; Mader, Irina; Hoffmann, Michael M; Riegler, Peter; Kraemer-Guth, Annette; Burchardi, Christian; Schaeffner, Elke; Martin, Rodolfo S; Azurmendi, Pablo J; Zerres, Klaus; Jilg, Cordula; Eng, Charis; Gläsker, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Patients who harbor intracranial aneurysms (IAs) run a risk for aneurysm rupture and subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage which frequently results in permanent deficits or death. Prophylactic treatment of unruptured aneurysms is possible and recommended depending on the size and location of the aneurysm as well as patient age and condition. IAs are major manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Current guidelines do not suggest surveillance of IAs in ADPKD except in the setting of family history if IA was known in any relative with ADPKD. Management of IAs in ADPKD is problematic because limited data exist from large studies. We established the Else Kröner-Fresenius Registry for ADPKD in Germany. Clinical data were assessed for age at diagnosis of IAs, stage of renal insufficiency, and number, location and size of IAs as well as family history of cerebral events. Patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic IAs were included. All patients with ADPKD-related IAs were offered mutation scanning of the susceptibility genes for ADPKD, the PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Of 463 eligible ADPKD patients from the population base of Germany, 32 (7%) were found to have IAs, diagnosed at the age of 2-71 years, 19 females and 13 males. Twenty (63%) of these 32 patients were symptomatic, whereas IAs were detected in an asymptomatic stage in 12 patients. IAs were multifocal in 12 and unifocal in 20 patients. In 26 patients (81%), IAs were diagnosed before end-stage renal failure. Twenty-five out of 27 unrelated index cases (93%) had no IAs or cerebral events documented in their relatives with ADPKD. In 16 unrelated index patients and 3 relatives, we detected germline mutations. The mutations were randomly distributed across the PKD1 gene in 14 and the PKD2 gene in 2 index cases. Questionnaires answered for 320/441 ADPKD patients without IAs revealed that only 45/320 (14%) had MR angiography. In ADPKD, rupture of IAs occurs frequently before the start of dialysis

  10. Mutations in Splicing Factor Genes Are a Major Cause of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in Belgian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Frauke; Roels, Dimitri; De Jaegere, Sarah; Flipts, Helena; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Walraedt, Sophie; Claes, Charlotte; Fransen, Erik; Van Camp, Guy; Depasse, Fanny; Casteels, Ingele; de Ravel, Thomy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) is characterized by an extensive genetic heterogeneity, implicating 27 genes, which account for 50 to 70% of cases. Here 86 Belgian probands with possible adRP underwent genetic testing to unravel the molecular basis and to assess the contribution of the genes underlying their condition. Methods Mutation detection methods evolved over the past ten years, including mutation specific methods (APEX chip analysis), linkage analysis, gene panel analysis (Sanger sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing or whole exome sequencing), high-resolution copy number screening (customized microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization). Identified variants were classified following American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations. Results Molecular genetic screening revealed mutations in 48/86 cases (56%). In total, 17 novel pathogenic mutations were identified: four missense mutations in RHO, five frameshift mutations in RP1, six mutations in genes encoding spliceosome components (SNRNP200, PRPF8, and PRPF31), one frameshift mutation in PRPH2, and one frameshift mutation in TOPORS. The proportion of RHO mutations in our cohort (14%) is higher than reported in a French adRP population (10.3%), but lower than reported elsewhere (16.5–30%). The prevalence of RP1 mutations (10.5%) is comparable to other populations (3.5%-10%). The mutation frequency in genes encoding splicing factors is unexpectedly high (altogether 19.8%), with PRPF31 the second most prevalent mutated gene (10.5%). PRPH2 mutations were found in 4.7% of the Belgian cohort. Two families (2.3%) have the recurrent NR2E3 mutation p.(Gly56Arg). The prevalence of the recurrent PROM1 mutation p.(Arg373Cys) was higher than anticipated (3.5%). Conclusions Overall, we identified mutations in 48 of 86 Belgian adRP cases (56%), with the highest prevalence in RHO (14%), RP1 (10.5%) and PRPF31 (10.5%). Finally, we expanded the molecular

  11. Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease: Clinical Presentation of Patients With ADTKD-UMOD and ADTKD-MUC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayasreh, Nadia; Bullich, Gemma; Miquel, Rosa; Furlano, Mónica; Ruiz, Patricia; Lorente, Laura; Valero, Oliver; García-González, Miguel Angel; Arhda, Nisrine; Garin, Intza; Martínez, Víctor; Pérez-Gómez, Vanessa; Fulladosa, Xavier; Arroyo, David; Martínez-Vea, Alberto; Espinosa, Mario; Ballarín, Jose; Ars, Elisabet; Torra, Roser

    2018-05-18

    Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) is a rare underdiagnosed cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ADTKD is caused by mutations in at least 4 different genes: MUC1, UMOD, HNF1B, and REN. Retrospective cohort study. 56 families (131 affected individuals) with ADTKD referred from different Spanish hospitals. Clinical, laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic data were collected, and genetic testing for UMOD, MUC1, REN, and HNF1B was performed. Hyperuricemia, ultrasound findings, renal histology, genetic mutations. Age at ESRD, rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. ADTKD was diagnosed in 25 families (45%), 9 carried UMOD pathogenic variants (41 affected members), and 16 carried the MUC1 pathogenic mutation c.(428)dupC (90 affected members). No pathogenic variants were identified in REN or HNF1B. Among the 77 individuals who developed ESRD, median age at onset of ESRD was 51 years for those with ADTKD-MUC1 versus 56 years (P=0.1) for those with ADTKD-UMOD. Individuals with the MUC1 duplication presented higher risk for developing ESRD (HR, 2.24; P=0.03). The slope of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate showed no significant difference between groups (-3.0mL/min/1.73m 2 per year in the ADTKD-UMOD group versus -3.9mL/min/1.73m 2 per year in the ADTKD-MUC1 group; P=0.2). The prevalence of hyperuricemia was significantly higher in individuals with ADTKD-UMOD (87% vs 54%; P=0.006). Although gout occurred more frequently in this group, the difference was not statistically significant (24% vs 7%; P=0.07). Relatively small Spanish cohort. MUC1 analysis limited to cytosine duplication. The main genetic cause of ADTKD in our Spanish cohort is the MUC1 pathogenic mutation c.(428)dupC. Renal survival may be worse in individuals with the MUC1 mutation than in those with UMOD mutations. Clinical presentation does not permit distinguishing between these variants. However, hyperuricemia and gout are more frequent in individuals

  12. Characteristics of Intracranial Aneurysms in the Else Kröner-Fresenius Registry of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Hartmut P.H.; Malinoc, Angelica; Bacher, Janina; Nabulsi, Zinaida; Ivanovas, Vera; Bruechle, Nadine Ortiz; Mader, Irina; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Riegler, Peter; Kraemer-Guth, Annette; Burchardi, Christian; Schaeffner, Elke; Martin, Rodolfo S.; Azurmendi, Pablo J.; Zerres, Klaus; Jilg, Cordula; Eng, Charis; Gläsker, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients who harbor intracranial aneurysms (IAs) run a risk for aneurysm rupture and subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage which frequently results in permanent deficits or death. Prophylactic treatment of unruptured aneurysms is possible and recommended depending on the size and location of the aneurysm as well as patient age and condition. IAs are major manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Current guidelines do not suggest surveillance of IAs in ADPKD except in the setting of family history if IA was known in any relative with ADPKD. Management of IAs in ADPKD is problematic because limited data exist from large studies. Methods We established the Else Kröner-Fresenius Registry for ADPKD in Germany. Clinical data were assessed for age at diagnosis of IAs, stage of renal insufficiency, and number, location and size of IAs as well as family history of cerebral events. Patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic IAs were included. All patients with ADPKD-related IAs were offered mutation scanning of the susceptibility genes for ADPKD, the PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Results Of 463 eligible ADPKD patients from the population base of Germany, 32 (7%) were found to have IAs, diagnosed at the age of 2–71 years, 19 females and 13 males. Twenty (63%) of these 32 patients were symptomatic, whereas IAs were detected in an asymptomatic stage in 12 patients. IAs were multifocal in 12 and unifocal in 20 patients. In 26 patients (81%), IAs were diagnosed before end-stage renal failure. Twenty-five out of 27 unrelated index cases (93%) had no IAs or cerebral events documented in their relatives with ADPKD. In 16 unrelated index patients and 3 relatives, we detected germline mutations. The mutations were randomly distributed across the PKD1 gene in 14 and the PKD2 gene in 2 index cases. Questionnaires answered for 320/441 ADPKD patients without IAs revealed that only 45/320 (14%) had MR angiography. Conclusion In ADPKD, rupture of IAs occurs

  13. Characteristics of Intracranial Aneurysms in the Else Kröner-Fresenius Registry of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut P.H. Neumann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who harbor intracranial aneurysms (IAs run a risk for aneurysm rupture and subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage which frequently results in permanent deficits or death. Prophylactic treatment of unruptured aneurysms is possible and recommended depending on the size and location of the aneurysm as well as patient age and condition. IAs are major manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. Current guidelines do not suggest surveillance of IAs in ADPKD except in the setting of family history if IA was known in any relative with ADPKD. Management of IAs in ADPKD is problematic because limited data exist from large studies. Methods: We established the Else Kröner-Fresenius Registry for ADPKD in Germany. Clinical data were assessed for age at diagnosis of IAs, stage of renal insufficiency, and number, location and size of IAs as well as family history of cerebral events. Patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic IAs were included. All patients with ADPKD-related IAs were offered mutation scanning of the susceptibility genes for ADPKD, the PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Results: Of 463 eligible ADPKD patients from the population base of Germany, 32 (7% were found to have IAs, diagnosed at the age of 2–71 years, 19 females and 13 males. Twenty (63% of these 32 patients were symptomatic, whereas IAs were detected in an asymptomatic stage in 12 patients. IAs were multifocal in 12 and unifocal in 20 patients. In 26 patients (81%, IAs were diagnosed before end-stage renal failure. Twenty-five out of 27 unrelated index cases (93% had no IAs or cerebral events documented in their relatives with ADPKD. In 16 unrelated index patients and 3 relatives, we detected germline mutations. The mutations were randomly distributed across the PKD1 gene in 14 and the PKD2 gene in 2 index cases. Questionnaires answered for 320/441 ADPKD patients without IAs revealed that only 45/320 (14% had MR angiography. Conclusion: In ADPKD

  14. Diagnostic Algorithm in the Management of Acute Febrile Abdomen in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Marie; Hustinx, Roland; Jacques, Jessica; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Jouret, François

    2016-01-01

    Acute febrile abdomen represents a diagnostic challenge in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Although criteria have been proposed for cyst infection (CyI) and hemorrhage (CyH), there is a lack of comparative assessments. Furthermore, distinguishing cystic from non-cystic complications remains problematic. ADPKD patients presenting with abdominal pain and/or fever between 01/2005 and 06/2015 were retrospectively identified in a systematic computerized billing database. CyH was defined as spontaneous intracystic density above 50 Hounsfield units on computed tomography (CT). CyI was definite if confirmed by cyst puncture, and probable if 4 criteria were met: 3-day fever, loin/liver tenderness, C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels >50mg/L and no CT evidence for CyH. Other episodes were grouped as inflammation of unknown origin (IUO). Among a cohort of 173 ADPKD patients, 101 presented with 205 episodes of abdominal pain (n = 172) and/or fever (n = 33). 20 patients experienced 30 CyH, whereas 16 presented 23 episodes of definite (n = 11) or probable (n = 12) CyI. 35 IUO were observed in 31 patients. Clinically, fever was observed in 7% vs. 100% vs. 66% of CyH, CyI and IUO, respectively. Biologically, CRP cut-off at 70 mg/dl showed 92% sensitivity and 81% specificity in CyI diagnosis. Urine or blood cultures remained sterile in >90% of CyH, but were contributive in 53.4% of CyI and IUO, with a 74.2% prevalence for E. coli. Radiologically, ultrasounds, CT and magnetic resonance diagnosed CyI in 2.6%, 20% and 16.7% of cases, respectively. 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT was done within a median period of 7 days post antibiotics, and significantly changed patient management in 71.4%. This retrospective single-center series underscores the usefulness of clinical-fever-and biological-CRP-parameters, but emphasizes the limitations of bacteriological and radiological investigations in cases of acute febrile abdomen in ADPKD

  15. Functional characteristics of three new germline mutations of the thyrotropin receptor gene causing autosomal dominant toxic thyroid hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonacchera, M.; Van Sande, J.; Cetani, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    We report three unrelated families in which hyperthyroidism associated with thyroid hyperplasia was transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion, in the absence of signs of autoimmunity. Exon 10 of the TSH receptor gene was directly sequenced after PCR amplification from DNA of peripheral leukocytes. In one family, a C to A transversion resulted in an S505R substitution in the third transmembrane segment; in the second, an A to T transversion caused an N650Y substitution in the sixth transmembrane segment; and in the third family, an A to G transition resulted in an N670S substitution in the seventh transmembrane segment. When expressed by transfection in COS-7 cells, each mutated receptor displayed an increase in constitutive stimulation of cAMP production; no effect on basal accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP) could be detected. In binding studies, cells transfected with wild-type of mutated receptors showed similar levels of expression, with the mutated receptors displaying similar or slightly increased affinity for bovine TSH (bTSH) binding. Cells transfected with S505R and N650Y mutants showed a similar cAMP maximal TSH-stimulated accumulation over the cells transfected with the wild type, whereas N670S transfectants showed a blunted response with an increase in EC{sub 50}. A higher IP response to 100 mU/mL bTSH over that obtained with the wild-type receptor was obtained in cells transfected with N650Y; in contrast, cells transfected with S505R showed a blunted IP production (50% less), and the N670S mutant completely lost the ability to stimulate IP accumulation in response to bTSH. The differential effects of individual mutations on stimulation by bTSH of cAMP or IP accumulation suggest that individual mutant receptors may achieve different active conformations with selective abilities to couple to G{sub s}{alpha} and to G{sub q}{alpha}. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  16. POU4F3 mutation screening in Japanese hearing loss patients: Massively parallel DNA sequencing-based analysis identified novel variants associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Kitano

    Full Text Available A variant in a transcription factor gene, POU4F3, is responsible for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hereditary hearing loss, DFNA15. To date, 14 variants, including a whole deletion of POU4F3, have been reported to cause HL in various ethnic groups. In the present study, genetic screening for POU4F3 variants was carried out for a large series of Japanese hearing loss (HL patients to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of DFNA15 in the Japanese population. Massively parallel DNA sequencing of 68 target candidate genes was utilized in 2,549 unrelated Japanese HL patients (probands to identify genomic variations responsible for HL. The detailed clinical features in patients with POU4F3 variants were collected from medical charts and analyzed. Novel 12 POU4F3 likely pathogenic variants (six missense variants, three frameshift variants, and three nonsense variants were successfully identified in 15 probands (2.5% among 602 families exhibiting autosomal dominant HL, whereas no variants were detected in the other 1,947 probands with autosomal recessive or inheritance pattern unknown HL. To obtain the audiovestibular configuration of the patients harboring POU4F3 variants, we collected audiograms and vestibular symptoms of the probands and their affected family members. Audiovestibular phenotypes in a total of 24 individuals from the 15 families possessing variants were characterized by progressive HL, with a large variation in the onset age and severity with or without vestibular symptoms observed. Pure-tone audiograms indicated the most prevalent configuration as mid-frequency HL type followed by high-frequency HL type, with asymmetry observed in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Analysis of the relationship between age and pure-tone average suggested that individuals with truncating variants showed earlier onset and slower progression of HL than did those with non-truncating variants. The present study showed that variants

  17. Imaging features of tuberous sclerosis complex with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: a contiguous gene syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Susan J.; Andronikou, Savvas; Kilborn, Tracy; Kaplan, Bernard S.; Darge, Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Genes for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) type 2 and autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) type 1 are both encoded over a short segment of chromosome 16. When deletions involve both genes, an entity known as the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, variable phenotypes of TSC and ADPKD are exhibited. This syndrome has not been reviewed in the radiology literature. Unlike renal cysts in TSC, cystic disease in TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome results in hypertension and renal failure. A radiologist might demonstrate polycystic kidney disease before the patient develops other stigmata of TSC. Conversely, in patients with known TSC, enlarged and polycystic kidneys should signal the possibility of the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome and not simply TSC. Distinguishing these diagnoses has implications in prognosis, treatment and genetic counseling. To describe the clinical and imaging findings of tuberous sclerosis complex and polycystic kidney disease in seven pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed renal and brain imaging of children and young adults with genetically proven or high clinical suspicion for TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome. We included seven pediatric patients from two referral institutions. Ages ranged from birth to 21 years over the course of imaging. The mean follow-up period was 9 years 8 months (4 years 6 months to 20 years 6 months). No child progressed to end-stage renal disease during this period. Three patients were initially imaged for stigmata of TSC, three for abdominal distension and one for elevated serum creatinine concentration. All patients developed enlarged, polycystic kidneys. The latest available imaging studies demonstrated that in 12 of the 14 kidneys 50% or more of the parenchyma was ultimately replaced by >15 cysts, resulting in significant cortical thinning. The largest cysts in each kidney ranged from 2.4 cm to 9.3 cm. Echogenic lesions were present in 13 of the 14 kidneys, in keeping with

  18. Imaging features of tuberous sclerosis complex with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: a contiguous gene syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Susan J. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kilborn, Tracy [University of Cape Town, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Kaplan, Bernard S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Nephrology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Darge, Kassa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Genes for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) type 2 and autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) type 1 are both encoded over a short segment of chromosome 16. When deletions involve both genes, an entity known as the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, variable phenotypes of TSC and ADPKD are exhibited. This syndrome has not been reviewed in the radiology literature. Unlike renal cysts in TSC, cystic disease in TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome results in hypertension and renal failure. A radiologist might demonstrate polycystic kidney disease before the patient develops other stigmata of TSC. Conversely, in patients with known TSC, enlarged and polycystic kidneys should signal the possibility of the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome and not simply TSC. Distinguishing these diagnoses has implications in prognosis, treatment and genetic counseling. To describe the clinical and imaging findings of tuberous sclerosis complex and polycystic kidney disease in seven pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed renal and brain imaging of children and young adults with genetically proven or high clinical suspicion for TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome. We included seven pediatric patients from two referral institutions. Ages ranged from birth to 21 years over the course of imaging. The mean follow-up period was 9 years 8 months (4 years 6 months to 20 years 6 months). No child progressed to end-stage renal disease during this period. Three patients were initially imaged for stigmata of TSC, three for abdominal distension and one for elevated serum creatinine concentration. All patients developed enlarged, polycystic kidneys. The latest available imaging studies demonstrated that in 12 of the 14 kidneys 50% or more of the parenchyma was ultimately replaced by >15 cysts, resulting in significant cortical thinning. The largest cysts in each kidney ranged from 2.4 cm to 9.3 cm. Echogenic lesions were present in 13 of the 14 kidneys, in keeping with

  19. Automated home cage assessment shows behavioral changes in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Esteban; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2013-08-01

    Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is an autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by ataxia, involuntary movements, and dementia. A novel SCA17 mouse model having a 71 polyglutamine repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) has shown age related motor deficit using a classic motor test, yet concomitant weight increase might be a confounding factor for this measurement. In this study we used an automated home cage system to test several motor readouts for this same model to confirm pathological behavior results and evaluate benefits of automated home cage in behavior phenotyping. Our results confirm motor deficits in the Tbp/Q71 mice and present previously unrecognized behavioral characteristics obtained from the automated home cage, indicating its use for high-throughput screening and testing, e.g. of therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a mutation in the arginine-vasopressin II gene in four generations of a Korean family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myo-Jing Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a rare form of central diabetes insipidus that is caused by mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII gene. It is characterized by persistent polydipsia and polyuria induced by deficient or absent secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP. Here we report a case of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in four generations of a Korean family, caused by heterozygous missense mutation in exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene (c.286G>T. This is the first report of such a case in Korea.

  1. Genotype-phenotype correlation for DFNA22: characterization of non-syndromic, autosomal dominant, progressive sensorineural hearing loss due to MYO6 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsakal, Vedat; Hilgert, Nele; van Dinther, Joost

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and audiological examination was done in 2 Belgian families with autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) linked to DFNA22. Nineteen subjects in family 1 had mild to moderate SNHL starting in the third decade. The hearing loss was characterized by a flat audiogram affecting all......Hz. For all hitherto known DFNA22 families the audiological and clinical characteristics were correlated with the molecular data. This study describes the phenotype of 2 Belgian families with SNHL linked to DFNA22, both with a pathogenic change in the deafness gene MYO6. The phenotypes of all hitherto...

  2. Post transplant urinary tract infection in Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease a perpetual diagnostic dilema - 18-fluorodeoxyglucose - Positron emission computerized tomography - A valuable tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainaresh, VV; Jain, SH; Patel, HV; Shah, PR; Vanikar, AV; Trivedi, HL

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection contracted by renal allograft recipients. In patients of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), cyst infection presents a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge especially in the post transplant period. Accurate diagnosis forms the cornerstone in salvaging the graft from potentially catastrophic outcome. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) in the native kidney in a patient of post transplant ADPKD which presented as frequently relapsing UTI with graft dysfunction where in accurate diagnosis was made possible with the aid of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) - Positron emission computerized tomography (PET/CT)

  3. Clinical proof-of-concept trial to assess the therapeutic effect of sirolimus in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: SUISSE ADPKD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wüthrich Rudolf P

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently there is no effective treatment available to retard cyst growth and to prevent the progression to end-stage renal failure in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. Evidence has recently been obtained from animal experiments that activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway plays a crucial role in cyst growth and renal volume expansion, and that the inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin (sirolimus markedly slows cyst development and renal functional deterioration. Based on these promising results in animals we have designed and initiated the first randomized controlled trial (RCT to examine the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of sirolimus to retard disease progression in ADPKD. Method/design This single center, randomised controlled, open label trial assesses the therapeutic effect, safety and tolerability of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus (Rapamune® in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and preserved renal function. The primary outcome will be the inhibition of kidney volume growth measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI volumetry. Secondary outcome parameters will be preservation of renal function, safety and tolerability of sirolimus. Discussion The results from this proof-of-concept RCT will for the first time show whether treatment with sirolimus effectively retards cyst growth in patients with ADPKD. Trial registration NCT00346918

  4. Mapping of the locus for autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH2) to a 4-Mb YAC contig on chromosome 4q11-q21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, C.; Holmgren, G.; Forsman, K. [Univ. Hospital, Umea (Sweden)]|[Univ. of Umea (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-01-15

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (Al) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited enamel defects. We recently mapped a locus for autosomal dominant local hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH2) to the long arm of chromosome 4. The disease gene was localized to a 17.6-cM region between the markers D4S392 and D4S395. The albumin gene (ALB), located in the same interval, was a candidate gene for autosomal dominant AI (ADAI) since albumin has a potential role in enamel maturation. Here we describe refined mapping of the AIH2 locus and the construction of marker maps by radiation hybrid mapping and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-based sequence tagged site-content mapping. A radiation hybrid map consisting of 11 microsatellite markers in the 5-cM interval between D4S409 and D4S1558 was constructed. Recombinant haplotypes in six Swedish ADAI families suggest that the disease gene is located in the interval between D4S2421 and ALB. ALB is therefore not likely to be the disease-causing gene. Affected members in all six families share the same allele haplotypes, indicating a common ancestral mutation in all families. The AIH2 critical region is less than 4 cM and spans a physical distance of approximately 4 Mb as judged from radiation hybrid maps. A YAC contig over the AIH2 critical region including several potential candidate genes was constructed. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Progression of Dysphagia in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Chiharu; Hirano, Makito; Sakamoto, Hikaru; Ueno, Shuichi; Kusunoki, Susumu; Nakamura, Yusaku

    2017-06-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), an autosomal dominant triplet repeat disease, predominantly affects the cerebellum with a late onset and generally good prognosis. Dysphagia is commonly associated with the outcomes of neurodegenerative diseases such as SCA6. Although the characteristics of dysphagia have been rarely reported in SCA6, our previous study indicated that dysphagia is generally milder in SCA6 than in SCA3, another inherited ataxia with multisystem involvement. However, abnormalities in the pharyngeal phase in SCA6 were indistinguishable from those in SCA3, with no explainable reason. To determine the reason, we repeatedly performed videofluoroscopic examinations (VF) in 14 patients with SCA6. The results showed that the gross progression of dysphagia was apparently slow, but four patients had progressive dysphagia at an early disease stage; dysphagia began within 10 years from the onset of ataxia and rapidly progressed. A common clinical feature of the four patients was a significantly older age at the onset of ataxia (74.0 vs. 60.3 years), associated with significantly shorter triplet repeats. This finding surprisingly indicated that patients who had shorter repeats and thereby later onset and potentially better prognoses were at risk for dysphagia-associated problems. Ischemic changes, homozygous mutation, and diabetes mellitus as well as aging might have contributed to the observed progressive dysphagia. We found that conventionally monitored somatosensory evoked potentials at least partly reflected progressive dysphagia. Despite the small study group, our findings suggest that clinicians should carefully monitor dysphagia in patients with SCA6 who are older at disease onset (>60 years).

  6. Autosomal dominant HMSN with proximal involvement: new Brazilian cases HMSN autossômica dominante com envolvimento proximal: novos casos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Borges Patroclo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report four Brazilian siblings with Autosomal Dominant Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy with Proximal Dominant Involvement (HMSN-P, a rare form of HMSN, that was characterized by proximal dominant muscle weakness and atrophy onset after the age of 30 years, fasciculation, arreflexia and sensory disturbances with autosomal dominant inheritance. Electrophysiological study and sural nerve biopsy were in the accordance with axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy and laboratorial analysis disclosed serum lipids and muscle enzymes abnormalities. Our report is the first done by a group outside Japan, where the disease initially seemed to be restricted and stressed the phenotypic variability from the original report.Relatamos os casos de quatro irmãos brasileiros com Neuropatia Sensitivo Motora Hereditária com Envolvimento Proximal Dominante (HMSN-P, uma forma rara de HMSN caracterizada por fraqueza muscular de predomínio proximal e atrofia de instalação após os 30 anos, fasciculações, arreflexia, distúrbios sensitivos e padrão de herança autossômica dominante. Os estudos eletrofisiológicos e de biópsia do nervo sural confirmaram o diagnóstico de polineuropatia sensitivo-motora com padrão lesional axonal. Laboratorialmente foram constatadas anormalidades séricas no metabolismo lipídico e enzimas musculares. Nosso relato é o primeiro feito por um grupo fora do Japão, onde a doença parecia restrita até então e ressalta a variabilidade fenotípica apresentada nos casos Brasileiros.

  7. Autosomal dominant Carvajal plus syndrome due to the novel desmoplakin mutation c.1678A > T (p.Ile560Phe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wollmann, Eva; Dertinger, Susanne; Laccone, Franco

    2016-09-01

    Carvajal syndrome is an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive disorder, manifesting with dilated cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and palmoplantar keratoma. Additional manifestations can be occasionally found. Carvajal syndrome may be due to mutations in the desmocollin-2, desmoplakin, or plakophilin-2 gene. We report a family with Carvajal syndrome which additionally presented with hypoacusis, noncompaction, recurrent pharyngeal infections, oligodontia, and recurrent diarrhoea. Father and brother were also affected and had died suddenly, the father despite implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Genetic studies revealed the novel pathogenic mutation c.1678A > T in the desmoplakin gene resulting in the amino acid change Ile to Phe at position 560 in the index case and her brother. The index case underwent ICD implantation recently. Phenotypic manifestations of Carvajal syndrome are even broader than so far anticipated, the number of mutations in the desmoplakin gene responsible for Carvajal syndrome is still increasing, and these patients require implantation of an ICD as soon as their diagnosis is established.

  8. Examination of the presynaptic dopaminergic system using positron emission tomography in a family with autosomal dominant parkinsonism and dementia due to pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPNO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Wszolek, Z.K.; Pfeiffer, R.F.; Calne, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    We report positron emission tomography (PET) examinations of presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in a large family with an autosomal dominant neuro-degenerative disorder characterized pathologically by pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration, and clinically by parkinsonism, dystonia, paresis of conjugate gaze, apraxia of eyelid opening and closing, pyramidal tract dysfunction, and urinary incontinence. Dopaminergic function was studied and quantified with [ 18 F[-L-6-fluorodopa (6 FD) and PET in five affected patients, 13 individuals at-risk, and 15 similarly aged controls. The rate constant K i (mL/striatum/min) for 6 FD was decreased in all patients. None of the individuals at risk had reduced 6 FD uptake. In fact, three of them had increased values. Repeat scans have revealed a fall in 6 FD uptake in two out of the three with initially high constants. This may reflect a preclinical stage of involvement, but longer observation is necessary. (orig.) [de

  9. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney didease and end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Bjarne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo Friis; Strandgaard, Svend Valdemar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31...... December 2008. Methods. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular......, cerebrovascular, infection, other and unknown. Results. Cardiovascular disease was the major cause of death. A multivariate competing risk model comparing the two 8-year periods, adjusted for age at ESRD, gender and treatment modality, showed that deaths from cardiovascular disease decreased by 35% [hazard ratios...

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a variant in the AVP gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Bols Toustrup

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI is caused by variants in the arginine vasopressin (AVP gene. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a 42-year-old man carrying an adFNDI causing variant in exon 1 of the AVP gene using lentivirus-mediated nuclear reprogramming. The iPSCs carried the expected variant in the AVP gene. Furthermore, the iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers; displayed in vitro differentiation potential to the three germ layers and had a normal karyotype consistent with the original fibroblasts. This iPSC line is useful in future studies focusing on the pathogenesis of adFNDI.

  11. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney didease and end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Bjarne; Sørensen, Vibeke Rømming; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31...... December 2008. Methods. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular...... (HR) 0.65, P = 0.008] and deaths from cerebrovascular disease decreased by 69% (HR 0.31, P = 0.0003) from the first to the second time period. There were no significant changes between the time periods in death from cancer, infection, other or unknown. From the first to the second 8-year interval...

  12. Simultaneous Occurence of an Autosomal Dominant Inherited MSX1 Mutation and an X-linked Recessive Inherited EDA Mutation in One Chinese Family with Non-syndromic Oligodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Xia; Wong, Sing Wai; Han, Dong; Feng, Hai Lan

    2015-01-01

    To describe the simultaneous occurence of an autosomal dominant inherited MSX1 mutation and an X-linked recessive inherited EDA mutation in one Chinese family with nonsyndromic oligodontia. Clinical data of characteristics of tooth agenesis were collected. MSX1 and EDA gene mutations were detected in a Chinese family of non-syndromic oligodontia. Mild hypodontia in the parents and severe oligodontia in the son was recorded. A novel missense heterozygous mutation c.517C>A (p.Arg173Ser) was detected in the MSX1 gene in the boy and the father. A homozygous missense mutation c.1001G>A (p.Arg334His) was detected in the EDA gene in the boy and the same mutant occurred heterozygously in the mother. Simultaneous occurence of two different gene mutations with different inheritence patterns, which both caused oligodontia, which occurred in one subject and in one family, was reported.

  13. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and pain - a review of the disease from aetiology, evaluation, past surgical treatment options to current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badani, K K; Hemal, A K; Menon, M

    2004-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), often referred to as "adult" polycystic kidney disease, is one of the commonest hereditary disorders. It affects approximately 4 to 6 million individuals worldwide. The disease progresses to end-stage renal disease and it accounts for 10-15% of patients requiring dialysis in the United States. A comprehensive Medline search for aetiology, evaluation, screening, cellular biology, and treatment was utilized to locate, extract, and synthesize relevant data with respect to this topic. Special attention was focused on urologic literature and surgical textbooks regarding operative treatment of pain associated with ADPKD. Now, patients with ADPKD have more treatment options. More specifically, several therapeutic alternatives are now available for the management of pain in these patients. A recent review of literature supports the performance of open or laparoscopic cyst decortication procedures for control of pain and infection without the worry of causing further renal impairment in those with preserved renal function.

  14. Autosomal dominant precocious osteoarthropathy due to a mutation of the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) gene: further expansion of the phenotypic variations of COMP defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaji, Hiroyuki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sanyudo Hospital, 6-1-219 Chuou, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-0045 (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Department of Radiology, Nasu Chuou Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Watanabe, Sobei; Sasaki, Akira; Sano, Tokuhisa [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tohoku Kohsei-Nenkin Hospital, Miyagi (Japan); Mabuchi, Akihiko; Ikeda, Toshiyuki; Ikegawa, Shiro [Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases, SNP Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, Hirofumi [Division of Medical Genetics, Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We report on a Japanese family of four generations with an autosomal dominant precocious osteoarthropathy. The cardinal clinical manifestations of affected individuals were painful weight-bearing large joints, which started in late childhood or adolescence. The radiological hallmarks included coxa plana, mild epiphyseal dysplasia of the knee, and round talar domes with tibiotalar slant in childhood, which evolved into degenerative joint diseases in adulthood. The disease phenotype was cosegregated with a mutation of the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) gene in the family members, who underwent molecular evaluation. COMP mutations have been reported in a mild form of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED), Ribbing type, as well as allied disorders with more severe manifestations, such as MED Fairbank type and pseudoachondroplasia. Unlike previously reported cases with the Ribbing type, the present patients did not have short stature or brachydactyly. This report expands further the phenotypic variations of COMP defects. (orig.)

  15. Atrofia óptica hereditaria autosómica dominante: A propósito de una familia Dominant autosomal hereditary optical atrophy: Apropos of a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Taboada Lugo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre las causas de pérdida insidiosa, bilateral y simétrica de la visión central se deben tener siempre presente las atrofias ópticas heredo degenerativas. La atrofia óptica hereditaria autosómica dominante es la forma más frecuente de atrofia óptica heredofamiliar simple o monosintomática. Se realizó la caracterización clínica de una familia con el diagnóstico de esta discapacidad visual.Among the causes of insidious, bilateral and symmetric loss of the central vision, the hereditary and degenerative optical atrophies should always be taken into account. The dominant autosomal hereditary optical atrophy is the most frequent form of simple or monosymptomatic hereditary family optical atrophy. The clinical characterization of a family with the diagnosis of this visual impairment was made.

  16. Examination of the presynaptic dopaminergic system using positron emission tomography in a family with autosomal dominant parkinsonism and dementia due to pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPNO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, M. [Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Wszolek, Z.K. [Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Section of Neurology, Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Pfeiffer, R.F. [Section of Neurology, Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Calne, D.B. [Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    We report positron emission tomography (PET) examinations of presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in a large family with an autosomal dominant neuro-degenerative disorder characterized pathologically by pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration, and clinically by parkinsonism, dystonia, paresis of conjugate gaze, apraxia of eyelid opening and closing, pyramidal tract dysfunction, and urinary incontinence. Dopaminergic function was studied and quantified with [{sup 18}F]-L-6-fluorodopa (6 FD) and PET in five affected patients, 13 individuals at-risk, and 15 similarly aged controls. The rate constant K{sub i} (mL/striatum/min) for 6 FD was decreased in all patients. None of the individuals at risk had reduced 6 FD uptake. In fact, three of them had increased values. Repeat scans have revealed a fall in 6 FD uptake in two out of the three with initially high constants. This may reflect a preclinical stage of involvement, but longer observation is necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir berichten ueber Untersuchungen der praesynaptischen dopaminergen Funktion mit der Positronenemissionstomographie bei einer grossen Familie mit autosomal-dominant vererbtem Parkinsonismus und Demenz. Die Erkrankung ist pathologisch-anatomisch gekennzeichnet durch eine pallido-ponto-nigrale Degeneration. Klinisch bestehen ein Parkinsonismus, Dystonien, eine Apraxie der Augenoeffnung und -schliessung, pyramidale Dysfunktionen und eine Harninkontinenz. Die praesynaptische dopaminerge Funktion wurde untersucht und quantifiziert mittels [{sup 18}F]-L-6-Fluorodopa (6FD) PET bei fuenf erkrankten Patienten, 13 Risikopatienten und 15 Kontrollpersonen vergleichbaren Alters. Die Transportkonstante K{sub i} (ml/Striatum/min) fuer die striatale Aufnahme des Radiotracers war bei allen erkrankten Patienten erniedrigt. Von den 13 Risikopatienten hatte keiner eine reduzierte Aufnahme von 6FD. Drei Risikopatienten zeigten sogar Werte fuer K{sub i}, die oberhalb des Referenzbereiches der Kontrollpersonen lagen

  17. Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Penelope J; Kok, Cindy; Nicholson, Garth A; Ing, Alvin J; Spies, Judith M; Bassett, Mark L; Cameron, John; Kerlin, Paul; Bowler, Simon; Tuck, Roger; Pollard, John D

    2005-12-01

    Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals provided clinical information and blood for genetic analysis. Affected individuals had an adult onset of paroxysmal cough, GOR and distal sensory loss. Cough could be triggered by noxious odours or by pressure in the external auditory canal (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Other features included throat clearing, hoarse voice, cough syncope and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurophysiological and pathological studies demonstrated a sensory axonal neuropathy. Gastric emptying studies were normal, and autonomic function and sweat tests were either normal or showed distal hypohidrosis. Cough was likely to be due to a combination of denervation hypersensitivity of the upper airways and oesophagus, and prominent GOR. Most affected individuals were shown on 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring to have multiple episodes of GOR, closely temporally associated with coughing. Hoarse voice was probably attributable to acid-induced laryngeal damage, and there was no evidence of vocal cord palsy. No other cause for cough was found on most respiratory or otorhinological studies. Linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 has been found in both families, with no evidence of linkage to loci for known HSN I, autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, hereditary GOR or triple A syndrome. These families represent a genetically novel variant of HSN I, with a distinctive cough owing to involvement of the upper aerodigestive tract.

  18. Targeted deletion of the Nesp55 DMR defines another Gnas imprinting control region and provides a mouse model of autosomal dominant PHP-Ib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Leopold F; Mrakovcic, Maria; Steinborn, Ralf; Chung, Ung-Il; Bastepe, Murat; Jüppner, Harald

    2010-05-18

    Approximately 100 genes undergo genomic imprinting. Mutations in fewer than 10 imprinted genetic loci, including GNAS, are associated with complex human diseases that differ phenotypically based on the parent transmitting the mutation. Besides the ubiquitously expressed Gsalpha, which is of broad biological importance, GNAS gives rise to an antisense transcript and to several Gsalpha variants that are transcribed from the nonmethylated parental allele. We previously identified two almost identical GNAS microdeletions extending from exon NESP55 to antisense (AS) exon 3 (delNESP55/delAS3-4). When inherited maternally, both deletions are associated with erasure of all maternal GNAS methylation imprints and autosomal-dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib, a disorder characterized by parathyroid hormone-resistant hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. As for other imprinting disorders, the mechanisms resulting in abnormal GNAS methylation are largely unknown, in part because of a paucity of suitable animal models. We now showed in mice that deletion of the region equivalent to delNESP55/delAS3-4 on the paternal allele (DeltaNesp55(p)) leads to healthy animals without Gnas methylation changes. In contrast, mice carrying the deletion on the maternal allele (DeltaNesp55(m)) showed loss of all maternal Gnas methylation imprints, leading in kidney to increased 1A transcription and decreased Gsalpha mRNA levels, and to associated hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Besides representing a murine autosomal-dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib model and one of only few animal models for imprinted human disorders, our findings suggest that the Nesp55 differentially methylated region is an additional principal imprinting control region, which directs Gnas methylation and thereby affects expression of all maternal Gnas-derived transcripts.

  19. Autosomal dominant inheritance of brain cardiolipin fatty acid abnormality in VM/DK mice: association with hypoxic-induced cognitive insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Nathan L; Jia, Xibei; Kiebish, Michael; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2014-01-01

    Cardiolipin is a complex polyglycerol phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and regulates numerous enzyme activities especially those related to oxidative phosphorylation and coupled respiration. Abnormalities in cardiolipin can impair mitochondrial function and bioenergetics. We recently demonstrated that the ratio of shorter chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (C16:0; C18:0; C18:1) to longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2; C20:4; C22:6) was significantly greater in the brains of adult VM/DK (VM) inbred mice than in the brains of C57BL/6 J (B6) mice. The cardiolipin fatty acid abnormalities in VM mice are also associated with alterations in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes. In this study we found that the abnormal brain fatty acid ratio in the VM strain was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in reciprocal B6 × VM F1 hybrids. To evaluate the potential influence of brain cardiolipin fatty acid composition on cognitive sensitivity, we placed the parental B6 and VM mice and their reciprocal male and female B6VMF1 hybrid mice (3-month-old) in a hypoxic chamber (5 % O2). Cognitive awareness (conscientiousness) under hypoxia was significantly lower in the VM parental mice and F1 hybrid mice (11.4 ± 0.4  and 11.0 ± 0.4 min, respectively) than in the parental B6 mice (15.3 ± 1.4 min), indicating an autosomal dominant inheritance like that of the brain cardiolipin abnormalities. These findings suggest that impaired cognitive awareness under hypoxia is associated with abnormalities in neural lipid composition.

  20. Spinocerebellar ataxias Ataxias espinocerebelares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs constitute a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia in association with some or all of the following conditions: ophthalmoplegia, pyramidal signs, movement disorders, pigmentary retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive dysfunction and dementia. OBJECTIVE: To carry out a clinical and genetic review of the main types of SCA. METHOD: The review was based on a search of the PUBMED and OMIM databases. RESULTS: Thirty types of SCAs are currently known, and 16 genes associated with the disease have been identified. The most common types are SCA type 3, or Machado-Joseph disease, SCA type 10 and SCA types 7, 2, 1 and 6. SCAs are genotypically and phenotypically very heterogeneous. A clinical algorithm can be used to distinguish between the different types of SCAs. CONCLUSIONS: Detailed clinical neurological examination of SCA patients can be of great help when assessing them, and the information thus gained can be used in an algorithm to screen patients before molecular tests to investigate the correct etiology of the disease are requested.As ataxias espinocerebelares (AECs compreendem um grupo heterogeneo de enfermidades neurodegenerativas, que se caracterizam pela presença de ataxia cerebelar progressiva, associada de forma variada com oftalmoplegia, sinais piramidais, distúrbios do movimento, retinopatia pigmentar, neuropatia periférica, disfunção cognitiva e demência. OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão clínico-genética dos principais tipos de AECs. MÉTODO: A revisão foi realizada através da pesquisa pelo sistema do PUBMED e do OMIM. RESULTADOS: Na atualidade existem cerca de 30 tipos de AECs, com a descoberta de 16 genes. Os tipos mais comuns são a AEC tipo 3, ou doença de Machado-Joseph, a AEC tipo 10, e as AECs tipo 7, 2 1, e 6. As AECs apresentam grande heterogeneidade genotípica e fenotípica. Pode-se utilizar um algoritmo clínico para a

  1. SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 mutations in autosomal recessive or dominant canine cystinuria: a new classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brons, A-K; Henthorn, P S; Raj, K; Fitzgerald, C A; Liu, J; Sewell, A C; Giger, U

    2013-01-01

    Cystinuria, one of the first recognized inborn errors of metabolism, has been reported in many dog breeds. To determine urinary cystine concentrations, inheritance, and mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes associated with cystinuria in 3 breeds. Mixed and purebred Labrador Retrievers (n = 6), Australian Cattle Dogs (6), Miniature Pinschers (4), and 1 mixed breed dog with cystine urolithiasis, relatives and control dogs. Urinary cystinuria and aminoaciduria was assessed and exons of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA. In each breed, male and female dogs, independent of neuter status, were found to form calculi. A frameshift mutation in SLC3A1 (c.350delG) resulting in a premature stop codon was identified in autosomal-recessive (AR) cystinuria in Labrador Retrievers and mixed breed dogs. A 6 bp deletion (c.1095_1100del) removing 2 threonines in SLC3A1 was found in autosomal-dominant (AD) cystinuria with a more severe phenotype in homozygous than in heterozygous Australian Cattle Dogs. A missense mutation in SLC7A9 (c.964G>A) was discovered in AD cystinuria in Miniature Pinschers with only heterozygous affected dogs observed to date. Breed-specific DNA tests were developed, but the prevalence of each mutation remains unknown. These studies describe the first AD inheritance and the first putative SLC7A9 mutation to cause cystinuria in dogs and expand our understanding of this phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disease, leading to a new classification system for canine cystinuria and better therapeutic management and genetic control in these breeds. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Recurrent De Novo Mutations Affecting Residue Arg138 of Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase Cause a Progeroid Form of Autosomal-Dominant Cutis Laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Ganesh, Jaya; Tan, Yu Xuan; Al Bughaili, Mohammed; Lin, Angela E; Sahai, Inderneel; Bahena, Paulina; Reichert, Sara L; Loh, Abigail; Wright, Graham D; Liu, Jaron; Rahikkala, Elisa; Pivnick, Eniko K; Choudhri, Asim F; Krüger, Ulrike; Zemojtel, Tomasz; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mostafavi, Roya; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Symoens, Sofie; Pajunen, Leila; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Meierhofer, David; Robinson, Peter N; Mundlos, Stefan; Villarroel, Camilo E; Byers, Peter; Masri, Amira; Robertson, Stephen P; Schwarze, Ulrike; Callewaert, Bert; Reversade, Bruno; Kornak, Uwe

    2015-09-03

    Progeroid disorders overlapping with De Barsy syndrome (DBS) are collectively denoted as autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 3 (ARCL3). They are caused by biallelic mutations in PYCR1 or ALDH18A1, encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), respectively, which both operate in the mitochondrial proline cycle. We report here on eight unrelated individuals born to non-consanguineous families clinically diagnosed with DBS or wrinkly skin syndrome. We found three heterozygous mutations in ALDH18A1 leading to amino acid substitutions of the same highly conserved residue, Arg138 in P5CS. A de novo origin was confirmed in all six probands for whom parental DNA was available. Using fibroblasts from affected individuals and heterologous overexpression, we found that the P5CS-p.Arg138Trp protein was stable and able to interact with wild-type P5CS but showed an altered sub-mitochondrial distribution. A reduced size upon native gel electrophoresis indicated an alteration of the structure or composition of P5CS mutant complex. Furthermore, we found that the mutant cells had a reduced P5CS enzymatic activity leading to a delayed proline accumulation. In summary, recurrent de novo mutations, affecting the highly conserved residue Arg138 of P5CS, cause an autosomal-dominant form of cutis laxa with progeroid features. Our data provide insights into the etiology of cutis laxa diseases and will have immediate impact on diagnostics and genetic counseling. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Refinement of a locus for autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominancy (HMSN-P) and genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kouji; Kaji, Ryuji; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Jambaldorj, Jamiyansuren; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Takashima, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Masanori; Makino, Satoshi; Tamiya, Gen

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominancy (HMSN-P) is an adult-onset peripheral neurodegenerative disorder which has been reported only in the Okinawa Islands, Japan. The disease locus of "Okinawa-type" HMSN-P has been previously mapped to 3q13.1, with all affected individuals sharing an identical haplotype around the locus, suggesting that the undiscovered causative mutation in HMSN-P originated from a single founder. We have newly found two large families from the western part of Japan within which multiple members developed symptoms similar to those exhibited by HMSN-P patients from Okinawa, with no record of affinal connection between the islands. Using these pedigrees with "Kansai-type" HMSN-P, we carried out a linkage study utilizing eight microsatellite markers and identified a candidate region on 3q13.1 cosegregating with the disease (maximum two-point LOD score of 8.44 at theta=0.0) overlapping with the Okinawa-type HMSN-P locus. However, the disease haplotype shared among all affected members in these families was different from that in the Okinawa kindred, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. Such allelic variation should aid in the identification of the disease-causative gene. Moreover, the allelic heterogeneity of HMSN-P in the Japanese population suggests that HMSN-P may be more common across other ethnic groups, but classified into other disease categories.

  4. Application of Whole Exome Sequencing in Six Families with an Initial Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-San Jose, Patricia; Liu, Yichuan; March, Michael; Pellegrino, Renata; Golhar, Ryan; Corton, Marta; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; López-Molina, Maria Isabel; García-Sandoval, Blanca; Guo, Yiran; Tian, Lifeng; Liu, Xuanzhu; Guan, Liping; Zhang, Jianguo; Keating, Brendan; Xu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the genetics underlying dominant forms of inherited retinal dystrophies using whole exome sequencing (WES) in six families extensively screened for known mutations or genes. Thirty-eight individuals were subjected to WES. Causative variants were searched among single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertion/deletion variants (indels) and whenever no potential candidate emerged, copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed. Variants or regions harboring a candidate variant were prioritized and segregation of the variant with the disease was further assessed using Sanger sequencing in case of SNVs and indels, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for CNVs. SNV and indel analysis led to the identification of a previously reported mutation in PRPH2. Two additional mutations linked to different forms of retinal dystrophies were identified in two families: a known frameshift deletion in RPGR, a gene responsible for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and p.Ser163Arg in C1QTNF5 associated with Late-Onset Retinal Degeneration. A novel heterozygous deletion spanning the entire region of PRPF31 was also identified in the affected members of a fourth family, which was confirmed with qPCR. This study allowed the identification of the genetic cause of the retinal dystrophy and the establishment of a correct diagnosis in four families, including a large heterozygous deletion in PRPF31, typically considered one of the pitfalls of this method. Since all findings in this study are restricted to known genes, we propose that targeted sequencing using gene-panel is an optimal first approach for the genetic screening and that once known genetic causes are ruled out, WES might be used to uncover new genes involved in inherited retinal dystrophies. PMID:26197217

  5. Medical resource utilization and costs associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the USA: a retrospective matched cohort analysis of private insurer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Holly Krasa,2 Dorothee Oberdhan,2 Arlene Chapman,3 Ronald D Perrone4 1Covance Market Access Services Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 2Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development and Commercialization, Inc., Rockville, MD, 3Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 4Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. Methods: This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13. ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0–17, 18–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, and 65+ years and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. Results: The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1–5 (n=316 to n=860, dialysis (n=586, and post-transplant (n=615. Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43–56 years. Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant. The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system

  6. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2: Clinicogenetic Aspects, Mechanistic Insights, and Management Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. Velázquez-Pérez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia that occurs as a consequence of abnormal CAG expansions in the ATXN2 gene. Progressive clinical features result from the neurodegeneration of cerebellum and extra-cerebellar structures including the pons, the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex. Clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging approaches have been used to characterize the natural history of the disease, allowing its classification into four distinct stages, with special emphasis on the prodromal stage, which is characterized by a plethora of motor and non-motor features. Neuropathological investigations of brain tissue from SCA2 patients reveal a widespread involvement of multiple brain systems, mainly cerebellar and brainstem systems. Recent findings linking ataxin-2 intermediate expansions to other neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have provided insights into the ataxin-2-related toxicity mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases and have raised new ethical challenges to molecular predictive diagnosis of SCA2. No effective neuroprotective therapies are currently available for SCA2 patients, but some therapeutic options such as neurorehabilitation and some emerging neuroprotective drugs have shown palliative benefits.

  7. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Giannelli, Marco; Ginestroni, Andrea; Soricelli, Andrea; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Tessa, Carlo; Galli, Lucia; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Piacentini, Silvia; Salvatore, Elena; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years) on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM) and cortical gray matter (GM) in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  8. Repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions are strongly associated with epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Karen N.; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Zeng, Desmond; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M.; Ochoa, Adriana; Teive, Hélio A. G.; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is the result of a non-coding, pentanucleotide repeat expansion within intron 9 of the Ataxin 10 gene. SCA10 patients present with pure cerebellar ataxia; yet, some families also have a high incidence of epilepsy. SCA10 expansions containing penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs, termed “ATCCT interruptions,” experience large contractions during germline transmission, particularly in paternal lineages. At the same time, these alleles confer an earlier age at onset which contradicts traditional rules of genetic anticipation in repeat expansions. Previously, ATCCT interruptions have been associated with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures in one Mexican-American SCA10 family. In a large cohort of SCA10 families, we analyzed whether ATCCT interruptions confers a greater risk for developing seizures in these families. Notably, we find that the presence of repeat interruptions within the SCA10 expansion confers a 6.3-fold increase in the risk of an SCA10 patient developing epilepsy (6.2-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only) and a 13.7-fold increase in having a positive family history of epilepsy (10.5-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only). We conclude that the presence of repeat interruptions in SCA10 repeat expansion indicates a significant risk for the epilepsy phenotype and should be considered during genetic counseling. PMID:24318420

  9. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

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    Mario Mascalchi

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM and cortical gray matter (GM in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  10. From mild ataxia to huntington disease phenocopy: the multiple faces of spinocerebellar ataxia 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Panas, Marios; Paraskevas, George P; Bougea, Anastasia M; Kladi, Athina; Karadima, Georgia; Kapaki, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA 17) is a rare autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) caused by a CAG/CAA expansion in the TBP gene, reported from a limited number of countries. It is a very heterogeneous ADCA characterized by ataxia, cognitive decline, psychiatric symptoms, and involuntary movements, with some patients presenting with Huntington disease (HD) phenocopies. The SCA 17 expansion is stable during parent-child transmission and intrafamilial phenotypic homogeneity has been reported. However, significant phenotypic variability within families has also been observed. Report of the Family. We presently report a Greek family with a pathological expansion of 54 repeats at the SCA 17 locus that displayed remarkable phenotypic variability. Among 3 affected members, one presented with HD phenocopy; one with progressive ataxia, dementia, chorea, dystonia, and seizures, and one with mild slowly progressive ataxia with minor cognitive and affective symptoms. Conclusions. This is the first family with SCA 17 identified in Greece and highlights the multiple faces of this rare disorder, even within the same family.

  11. From Mild Ataxia to Huntington Disease Phenocopy: The Multiple Faces of Spinocerebellar Ataxia 17

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    Georgios Koutsis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA 17 is a rare autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA caused by a CAG/CAA expansion in the TBP gene, reported from a limited number of countries. It is a very heterogeneous ADCA characterized by ataxia, cognitive decline, psychiatric symptoms, and involuntary movements, with some patients presenting with Huntington disease (HD phenocopies. The SCA 17 expansion is stable during parent-child transmission and intrafamilial phenotypic homogeneity has been reported. However, significant phenotypic variability within families has also been observed. Report of the Family. We presently report a Greek family with a pathological expansion of 54 repeats at the SCA 17 locus that displayed remarkable phenotypic variability. Among 3 affected members, one presented with HD phenocopy; one with progressive ataxia, dementia, chorea, dystonia, and seizures, and one with mild slowly progressive ataxia with minor cognitive and affective symptoms. Conclusions. This is the first family with SCA 17 identified in Greece and highlights the multiple faces of this rare disorder, even within the same family.

  12. Recommendations for the use of tolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease : a position statement on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups on Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ron T; Arici, Mustafa; Benzing, Thomas; Birn, Henrik; Capasso, Giovambattista; Covic, Adrian; Devuyst, Olivier; Drechsler, Christiane; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Emma, Francesco; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Le Meur, Yannick; Massy, Ziad A; Ong, Albert C M; Ortiz, Alberto; Schaefer, Franz; Torra, Roser; Vanholder, Raymond; Więcek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at

  13. Hepatic Cyst Infection During Use of the Somatostatin Analog Lanreotide in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: An Interim Analysis of the Randomized Open-Label Multicenter DIPAK-1 Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantinga, M.A. (Marten A.); D’Agnolo, H.M.A. (Hedwig M. A.); E. Casteleijn (Eric); de Fijter, J.W. (Johan W.); E. Meijer (Esther); A.L. Messchendorp (A. Lianne); D. Peters (Dorien); M. Salih (Mahdi); E.M. Spithoven (Edwin); D. Soonawala (Darius); F.W. Visser (Folkert); Wetzels, J.F.M. (Jack F. M.); R. Zietse (Bob); J.P.H. Drenth (Joost); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); Drenth, J.P.H.; J.W. de Fijter (Johan); Gansevoort, R.T.; D.J.M. Peters (Dorien J.M.); J.F.M. Wetzels (Jack); Zietse, R.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and Aims: The DIPAK-1 Study investigates the reno- and hepatoprotective efficacy of the somatostatin analog lanreotide compared with standard care in patients with later stage autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). During this trial, we witnessed several

  14. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orskov, Bjarne; Sørensen, Vibeke Rømming; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Strandgaard, Svend

    2012-04-01

    With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2008. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, infection, other and unknown. Cardiovascular disease was the major cause of death. A multivariate competing risk model comparing the two 8-year periods, adjusted for age at ESRD, gender and treatment modality, showed that deaths from cardiovascular disease decreased by 35% [hazard ratios (HR) 0.65, P=0.008] and deaths from cerebrovascular disease decreased by 69% (HR 0.31, P=0.0003) from the first to the second time period. There were no significant changes between the time periods in death from cancer, infection, other or unknown. From the first to the second 8-year interval, the prevalence of cancer increased by 35% (P=0.0002) while the cancer incidence was stable. In Danish patients with ADPKD and ESRD, there was a significant reduction in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths from 1993 to 2008. The prevalence of cancer increased without significant change in cancer incidence or deaths from cancer.

  15. RHO Mutations (p.W126L and p.A346P in Two Japanese Families with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

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    Satoshi Katagiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate genetic and clinical features of patients with rhodopsin (RHO mutations in two Japanese families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. Methods. Whole-exome sequence analysis was performed in ten adRP families. Identified RHO mutations for the cosegregation analysis were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Ophthalmic examinations were performed to evaluate the RP phenotypes. The impact of the RHO mutation on the rhodopsin conformation was examined by molecular modeling analysis. Results. In two adRP families, we identified two RHO mutations (c.377G>T (p.W126L and c.1036G>C (p.A346P, one of which was novel. Complete cosegregation was confirmed for each mutation exhibiting the RP phenotype in both families. Molecular modeling predicted that the novel mutation (p.W126L might impair rhodopsin function by affecting its conformational transition in the light-adapted form. Clinical phenotypes showed that patients with p.W126L exhibited sector RP, whereas patients with p.A346P exhibited classic RP. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrated that the novel mutation (p.W126L may be associated with the phenotype of sector RP. Identification of RHO mutations is a very useful tool for predicting disease severity and providing precise genetic counseling.

  16. Rationale and design of the RESOLVE trial: lanreotide as a volume reducing treatment for polycystic livers in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

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    Gevers Tom JG

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD suffers from polycystic liver disease. Symptoms arise when liver volume increases. The somatostatin analogue lanreotide has proven to reduce liver volume in patients with polycystic liver disease. However, this study also included patients with isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD. The RESOLVE trial aims to assess the efficacy of lanreotide treatment in ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers. In this study we present the design of the RESOLVE trial. Methods/design This open-label clinical trial evaluates the effect of 6 months of lanreotide in ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers. Primary outcome is change in liver volume determined by computerised tomography-volumetry. Secondary outcomes are changes in total kidney volume, kidney intermediate volume and renal function. Furthermore, urinary (NGAL, α1-microglobulin, KIM-1, H-FABP, MCP-1 and serum (fibroblast growth factor 23 biomarkers associated with ADPKD disease severity are assessed to investigate whether these biomarkers predict treatment responses to lanreotide. Moreover, safety and tolerability of the drug in ADPKD patients will be assessed. Discussion We anticipate that lanreotide is an effective therapeutic option for ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers and that this trial aids in the identification of patient related factors that predict treatment response. Trial registration number Clinical trials.gov NCT01354405

  17. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Renal Calculi and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Report of 11 Cases

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    Xiao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis accelerates the renal failure in the patients with ADPKD. In order to evaluate the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of calculus in these patients, 11 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and renal stones were included in the study. Two patients had bilateral renal stones. All patients were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance. 13 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed in 1 stage by the urology team under ultrasound guidance. 5 people received second operation with flexible nephroscopy in lateral position. The success rate and morbidity and mortality of the technique and hospital stay were recorded. Results. The puncture procedure was fully successful in all cases. The renal function improved in these patients. 5 patients had moderate fever after the surgery. 5 patients received flexible nephroscopy to take out the residual calculi. 2 persons had ESWL therapy after the surgery. Conclusion. PCNL is an ideal, safe, and effective method to remove the stones from those patients with no definite increase in the risk of complication. The outcome and stone-free rate are satisfactory comparable to the PCNL in the patients without ADPKD.

  18. Autosomal dominant Marfan-like connective-tissue disorder with aortic dilation and skeletal anomaslies not linked to the Fibrillin genes

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    Boileau, C.; Coulon, M.; Alexandre, J.-A.; Junien, C. (Laboratorie Central de Biochimie et de Genetique Moleculaire (France)); Jondeau, G.; Delorme, G.; Dubourg, O.; Bourdarias, J.-P. (CHU Ambroise Pare, Boulogne (France)); Babron, M.-C.; Bonaieti-Pellie, C. (INSERM, Chateau de Longchamp, Paris (France)); Sakai, L. (Shriners' Hospital for Crippled Children, Portland, OR (United States)); Melki, J. (Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France))

    1993-07-01

    The authors describe a large family with a connective-tissue disorder that exhibits some of the skeletal and cardiovascular features seen in Marfan syndrome. However, none of the 19 affected individuals displayed ocular abnormalities and therefore did not comply with recognized criteria for this disease. These patients could alternatively be diagnosed as MASS (mitral valve, aorta, skeleton, and skin) phenotype patients or represent a distinct clinical entity, i.e., a new autosomal dominant connective-tissue disorder. The fibrillin genes located on chromosomes 15 and 5 are clearly involved in the classic form of Marfan syndrome and a clinically related disorder (congenital contractural arachnodactyly), respectively. To test whether one of these genes was also implicated in this French family, the authors performed genetic analyses. Blood samples were obtained for 56 family members, and four polymorphic fibrillin gene markers, located on chromosomes 15 (Fib15) and 5 (Fib5), respectively, were tested. Linkage between the disease allele and the markers of these two genes was excluded with lod scores of [minus]11.39 (for Fib15) and [minus]13.34 (for Fib5), at 0 = .001, indicating that the mutation is at a different locus. This phenotype thus represents a new connective-tissue disorder, overlapping but different from classic Marfan syndrome. 33 refs., 1 fig. 2 tabs.

  19. Polysomnographic and neurometabolic features may mark preclinical autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy due to a mutation in the DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase gene, DNMT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Pizza, Fabio; Tonon, Caterina; Lodi, Raffaele; Carelli, Valerio; Poli, Francesca; Franceschini, Christian; Barboni, Piero; Seri, Marco; Ferrari, Simona; La Morgia, Chiara; Testa, Claudia; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Liguori, Rocco; Winkelmann, Juliane; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to report the clinical picture of two asymptomatic daughters of a patient with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) due to a mutation in the DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase gene, DNMT1. Clinical assessment based on history, neurologic examination, sleep recordings, neurophysiologic neuroimaging, and genetic tests was performed. History and neurologic examination in both subjects were unremarkable. Genetic analysis disclosed in both the paternally-inherited heterozygous point mutation in the DNMT1 gene. Sleep recordings found sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods (SOREMPs) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) revealed increased cerebellar myoinositol (mI) in both subjects. Auditory and ophthalmologic investigations as well as structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans revealed no abnormalities. The two asymptomatic carriers of the heterozygous DNMT1 mutation for ADCA-DN, a late-onset neurodegenerative disease, presented with SOREMPs associated with an increase of mI in the brain, a marker of glial cell activity and density characteristic of early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, SOREMPs may precede the clinical picture of ADCA-DN as an early polysomnographic marker of central nervous system involvement detected by MRS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Atypical Association of Ethmoidal Encephalocele and Hydrocephalus in an Adult Patient with Autosomal-Dominant Osteopetrosis Type I (ADO-I): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Zefferino; Castellani, Carlotta; Borsa, Stefano; Carrabba, Giorgio; Locatelli, Marco; Di Cristofori, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Osteopetroses are a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders characterized by increased bone density as the result of defective osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis type I (ADO-I) is defined by the presence of osteosclerosis involving mainly the skull bones, variably associated with compression of the foramina of cranial nerves and vascular structures, hypertelorism, exophthalmos, and less commonly with hydrocephalus, pseudotumor, and Chiari malformation type I. We describe an adult patient with ADO-I presenting with an atypical association of clinical manifestations that required a tailored management. On admission, the patient complained about chronic headache, recurrent sinusitis, and postnasal drip. Findings of the examination didn't show clear signs of increased intracranial pressure, whereas imaging studies revealed thickening of the skull bones and an unexpected fistula associated with anterior ethmoidal meningoencephalocele. Some days after endoscopic transnasal closure of the fistula, a severe hypertensive hydrocephalus developed, which required a prompt ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, complicated by a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. The 6-month follow-up showed complete recovery. After reviewing the literature, we can confirm that ours was the second case of an adult ADO-I patient associated with anterior ethmoidal meningoencephalocele, the first one needing a combined treatment of the encephalocele and hydrocephalus. Because ADO-I is a rare disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, our case can represent a prototype for the future management of similar cases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Variant in EFEMP1 Co-Segregating in a Family with Autosomal Dominant Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

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    Donna S Mackay

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is a clinically important and genetically heterogeneous cause of progressive vision loss as a result of retinal ganglion cell death. Here we have utilized trio-based, whole-exome sequencing to identify the genetic defect underlying an autosomal dominant form of adult-onset POAG segregating in an African-American family. Exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.418C>T, p.Arg140Trp in exon-5 of the gene coding for epidermal growth factor (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1 that co-segregated with disease in the family. Linkage and haplotype analyses with microsatellite markers indicated that the disease interval overlapped a known POAG locus (GLC1H on chromosome 2p. The p.Arg140Trp substitution was predicted in silico to have damaging effects on protein function and transient expression studies in cultured cells revealed that the Trp140-mutant protein exhibited increased intracellular accumulation compared with wild-type EFEMP1. In situ hybridization of the mouse eye with oligonucleotide probes detected the highest levels of EFEMP1 transcripts in the ciliary body, cornea, inner nuclear layer of the retina, and the optic nerve head. The recent finding that a common variant near EFEMP1 was associated with optic nerve-head morphology supports the possibility that the EFEMP1 variant identified in this POAG family may be pathogenic.

  2. Aldosterone synthase gene is not a major susceptibility gene for progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

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    Gnanasambandan Ramanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most common heritable kidney disease and is characterized by bilateral renal cysts. Hypertension is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD and mortality in patients with ADPKD. The aldosterone synthase gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been extensively studied as hypertension candidate genes. The present study is aimed to investigate the potential modifier effect of CYP11B2 gene on the progression of CKD in ADPKD. One hundred and two ADPKD patients and 106 healthy controls were recruited based on Ravine inclusion and exclusion criteria. The three tag-SNPs within CYP11B2 gene (rs3802230, rs4543, and rs4544 were genotyped using FRET-based KASPar method. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to assess the potential associations between these polymorphisms and CKD stages. Mantel- Haenszel stratified analysis was used to explore confounding and interaction effects of these polymorphisms. Of the three tag-SNPs genotyped, rs4544 polymorphism was monomorphic and rs3802230 deviated Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The CYP11B2 tag-SNPs did not show significant association with ADPKD or CKD. Further, these polymorphisms did not exhibit confounding effect on the relationship between CKD progression and hypertension. Our results suggest that aldosterone synthase gene is not a major susceptibility gene for progression of CKD in South Indian ADPKD patients.

  3. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity

  4. A missense mutation in the alpha-actinin 1 gene (ACTN1 is the cause of autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia in a large French family.

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    Paul Guéguen

    Full Text Available Inherited thrombocytopenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a reduced number of blood platelets. Despite the identification of nearly 20 causative genes in the past decade, approximately half of all subjects with inherited thrombocytopenia still remain unexplained in terms of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Here we report a six-generation French pedigree with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and the identification of its genetic basis. Of the 55 subjects available for analysis, 26 were diagnosed with isolated macrothrombocytopenia. Genome-wide linkage analysis mapped a 10.9 Mb locus to chromosome 14 (14q22 with a LOD score of 7.6. Candidate gene analysis complemented by targeted next-generation sequencing identified a missense mutation (c.137GA; p.Arg46Gln in the alpha-actinin 1 gene (ACTN1 that segregated with macrothrombocytopenia in this large pedigree. The missense mutation occurred within actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin 1, a functionally critical domain that crosslinks actin filaments into bundles. The evaluation of cultured mutation-harboring megakaryocytes by electron microscopy and the immunofluorescence examination of transfected COS-7 cells suggested that the mutation causes disorganization of the cellular cytoplasm. Our study concurred with a recently published whole-exome sequence analysis of six small Japanese families with congenital macrothrombocytopenia, adding ACTN1 to the growing list of thrombocytopenia genes.

  5. A novel T→G splice site mutation of CRYBA1/A3 associated with autosomal dominant nuclear cataracts in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenfei; Su, Dongmei; Li, Qian; Yang, Fan; Ma, Zicheng; Zhu, Siquan; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the disease-causing mutation and the molecular phenotype that are responsible for the presence of an autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract disease in a Chinese family. The family history and clinical data were recorded. The patients were given a physical examination and their blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Direct sequencing was used to detect the mutation. Transcription analysis of the mutant crystallin, beta A1 (CRYBA1/A3) gene was performed to verify whether the defective mutation had influenced the splice of the mature mRNA. The phenotype of the congenital cataract in the family was identified as a nuclear cataract type, by using slit-lamp photography. Direct sequencing revealed a novel mutation IVS3+2 T→G in CRYBA1/A3. This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, but was not found in unaffected family members nor in the 100 unrelated controls. Transcription analysis of the mutant CRYBA1/A3 gene indicated that this mutation had influenced the splice of the mature mRNA. Our study identified a novel splice site mutation in CRYBA1/A3. This mutation was responsible for aberrant splicing of the mature mRNA and had caused the congenital nuclear cataracts in the family. This is the first report relating an IVS3+2 T→G mutation of CRYBA1/A3 to congenital cataracts.

  6. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spithoven, E.M.; Meijer, E.; Boertien, W.E.; Gaillard, C.A.J.M.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T. [University of Groningen, Department of Nephrology, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, RB Groningen (Netherlands); Borns, C.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, M.J.W.; Jagt, E. van der [University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vart, P. [University of Groningen, Department of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBF{sub MRI}) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values. First, we validated RBF{sub MRI} measurement using phantoms simulating renal artery hemodynamics. Thereafter, we investigated in a test-set of 21 patients intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variation of RBF{sub MRI}. After validation, we measured RBF{sub MRI} in a cohort of 91 patients and compared the variability explained by characteristics indicative for disease severity for RBF{sub MRI} and RBF measured by continuous hippuran infusion. The correlation in flow measurement using phantoms by phase-contrast MRI was high and fluid collection was high (CCC=0.969). Technical problems that precluded RBF{sub MRI} measurement occurred predominantly in patients with a lower eGFR (34% vs. 16%). In subjects with higher eGFRs, variability in RBF explained by disease characteristics was similar for RBF{sub MRI} compared to RBF{sub Hip,} whereas in subjects with lower eGFRs, this was significantly less for RBF{sub MRI}. Our study shows that RBF can be measured accurately in ADPKD patients by phase-contrast, but this technique may be less feasible in subjects with a lower eGFR. (orig.)

  7. Regional association of pCASL-MRI with FDG-PET and PiB-PET in people at risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease

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    Lirong Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD is a small subset of Alzheimer's disease that is genetically determined with 100% penetrance. It provides a valuable window into studying the course of pathologic processes that leads to dementia. Arterial spin labeling (ASL MRI is a potential AD imaging marker that non-invasively measures cerebral perfusion. In this study, we investigated the relationship of cerebral blood flow measured by pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL MRI with measures of cerebral metabolism (FDG PET and amyloid deposition (Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET. Thirty-one participants at risk for ADAD (age 39±13 years, 19 females were recruited into this study, and 21 of them received both MRI and FDG and PiB PET scans. Considerable variability was observed in regional correlations between ASL-CBF and FDG across subjects. Both regional hypo-perfusion and hypo-metabolism were associated with amyloid deposition. Cross-sectional analyses of each biomarker as a function of the estimated years to expected dementia diagnosis indicated an inverse relationship of both perfusion and glucose metabolism with amyloid deposition during AD development. These findings indicate that neurovascular dysfunction is associated with amyloid pathology, and also indicate that ASL CBF may serve as a sensitive early biomarker for AD. The direct comparison among the three biomarkers provides complementary information for understanding the pathophysiological process of AD.

  8. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  9. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoven, E M; Meijer, E; Borns, C; Boertien, W E; Gaillard, C A J M; Kappert, P; Greuter, M J W; van der Jagt, E; Vart, P; de Jong, P E; Gansevoort, R T

    2016-03-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values. First, we validated RBFMRI measurement using phantoms simulating renal artery hemodynamics. Thereafter, we investigated in a test-set of 21 patients intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variation of RBFMRI. After validation, we measured RBFMRI in a cohort of 91 patients and compared the variability explained by characteristics indicative for disease severity for RBFMRI and RBF measured by continuous hippuran infusion. The correlation in flow measurement using phantoms by phase-contrast MRI was high and fluid collection was high (CCC=0.969). Technical problems that precluded RBFMRI measurement occurred predominantly in patients with a lower eGFR (34% vs. 16%). In subjects with higher eGFRs, variability in RBF explained by disease characteristics was similar for RBFMRI compared to RBFHip, whereas in subjects with lower eGFRs, this was significantly less for RBFMRI. Our study shows that RBF can be measured accurately in ADPKD patients by phase-contrast, but this technique may be less feasible in subjects with a lower eGFR. Renal blood flow (RBF) can be accurately measured by phase-contrast MRI in ADPKD patients. RBF measured by phase-contrast is associated with ADPKD disease severity. RBF measurement by phase-contrast MRI may be less feasible in patients with an impaired eGFR.

  10. Identification of Two Disease-causing Genes TJP2 and GJB2 in a Chinese Family with Unconditional Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hereditary Hearing Impairment

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    Hong-Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 300 genetic loci that have been found to be related to hereditary hearing impairment (HHI, including 92 causative genes for nonsyndromic hearing loss, among which 34 genes are related to autosomal dominant nonsyndromic HHI (ADNSHHI. Traditional linkage analysis and candidate gene sequencing are not effective at detecting the ADNSHHI, especially for the unconditional families that may have more than one pathogenic cause. This study identified two disease-causing genes TJP2 and GJB2 in a Chinese family with unconditional ADNSHHI. Methods: To decipher the genetic code of a Chinese family (family 686 with ADNSHHI, different gene screening techniques have been performed, including linkage analysis, candidate genes screening, high-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing. These techniques were done on samples obtained from this family over a period of 10 years. Results: We identified a pathogenic missense mutation, c. 2081G>A (p.G694E, in TJP2, a gene that plays a crucial role in apoptosis and age-related hearing loss (ARHL. The mutation was co-segregated in this pedigree in all, but not in the two patients who presented with different phenotypes from the other affected family members. In one of the two patients, we confirmed that the compound heterozygosity for p.Y136FNx01 and p.G45E in the GJB2 gene may account for the phenotype shown in this patient. Conclusions: We identified the co-occurrence of two genetic causes in family 686. The possible disease-causing missense mutation of TJP2 in family 686 presents an opportunity for further investigation into ARHL. It is necessary to combine various genes screening methods, especially for some unconventional cases.

  11. Three novel and the common Arg677Ter RP1 protein truncating mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in a Spanish population

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    Antiñolo Guillermo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP, a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal degeneration disorders affecting the photoreceptor cells, is one of the leading causes of genetic blindness. Mutations in the photoreceptor-specific gene RP1 account for 3–10% of cases of autosomal dominant RP (adRP. Most of these mutations are clustered in a 500 bp region of exon 4 of RP1. Methods Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and direct genomic sequencing were used to evaluate the 5' coding region of exon 4 of the RP1 gene for mutations in 150 unrelated index adRP patients. Ophthalmic and electrophysiological examination of RP patients and relatives according to pre-existing protocols were carried out. Results Three novel disease-causing mutations in RP1 were detected: Q686X, K705fsX712 and K722fsX737, predicting truncated proteins. One novel missense mutation, Thr752Met, was detected in one family but the mutation does not co-segregate in the family, thereby excluding this amino acid variation in the protein as a cause of the disease. We found the Arg677Ter mutation, previously reported in other populations, in two independent families, confirming that this mutation is also present in a Spanish population. Conclusion Most of the mutations reported in the RP1 gene associated with adRP are expected to encode mutant truncated proteins that are approximately one third or half of the size of wild type protein. Patients with mutations in RP1 showed mild RP with variability in phenotype severity. We also observed several cases of non-penetrant mutations.

  12. Live Donor Renal Transplant With Simultaneous Bilateral Nephrectomy for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Is Feasible and Satisfactory at Long-term Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sarwat B; Inouye, Brian; Phelan, Michael S; Kramer, Andrew C; Sulek, Jay; Weir, Matthew R; Barth, Rolf N; LaMattina, John C; Schweitzer, Eugene J; Leeser, David B; Niederhaus, Silke V; Bartlett, Stephen T; Bromberg, Jonathan S

    2016-02-01

    Timing of bilateral nephrectomy (BN) is controversial in patients with refractory symptoms of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (APKD) in need of a renal transplant. Adults who underwent live donor renal transplant (LRT) + simultaneous BN (SBN) from August 2003 to 2013 at a single transplant center (n = 66) were retrospectively compared to a matched group of APKD patients who underwent LRT alone (n = 52). All patients received general health and polycystic kidney symptom surveys. Simultaneous BN increased operative duration, estimated blood loss, transfusions, intravenous fluid, and hospital length of stay. Most common indications for BN were pain, loss of abdominal domain, and early satiety. There were more intraoperative complications for LRT + SBN (6 vs 0, P = 0.03; 2 vascular, 2 splenic, and 1 liver injury; 1 reexploration to adjust graft positioning). There were no differences in Clavien-Dindo grade I or II (39% vs 25%, P = 0.12) or grade III or IV (7.5% vs 5.7%, P = 1.0) complications during the hospital course. There were no surgery-related mortalities. There were no differences in readmission rates (68% vs 48%, P = 0.19) or readmissions requiring procedures (25% vs. 20%, P = 0.51) over 12 months. One hundred percent of LRT + SBN allografts functioned at longer than 1 year for those available for follow-up. Survey response rate was 40% for LRT-alone and 56% for LRT + SBN. One hundred percent of LRT + SBN survey responders were satisfied with their choice of having BN done simultaneously. Excellent outcomes for graft survival, satisfaction, and morbidity suggest that the combined operative approach be preferred for patients with symptomatic APKD to avoid multiple procedures, dialysis, and costs of staged operations.

  13. Profiling conserved biological pathways in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disorder (ADPKD) to elucidate key transcriptomic alterations regulating cystogenesis: A cross-species meta-analysis approach.

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    Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Pandey, Priyanka

    2017-09-05

    Initiation and progression of fluid filled cysts mark Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Thus, improved therapeutics targeting cystogenesis remains a constant challenge. Microarray studies in single ADPKD animal models species with limited sample sizes tend to provide scattered views on underlying ADPKD pathogenesis. Thus we aim to perform a cross species meta-analysis to profile conserved biological pathways that might be key targets for therapy. Nine ADPKD microarray datasets on rat, mice and human fulfilled our study criteria and were chosen. Intra-species combined analysis was performed after considering removal of batch effect. Significantly enriched GO biological processes and KEGG pathways were computed and their overlap was observed. For the conserved pathways, biological modules and gene regulatory networks were observed. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) was performed for genes found in conserved pathways. We obtained 28 modules of significantly enriched GO processes and 5 major functional categories from significantly enriched KEGG pathways conserved in human, mice and rats that in turn suggest a global transcriptomic perturbation affecting cyst - formation, growth and progression. Significantly enriched pathways obtained from up-regulated genes such as Genomic instability, Protein localization in ER and Insulin Resistance were found to regulate cyst formation and growth whereas cyst progression due to increased cell adhesion and inflammation was suggested by perturbations in Angiogenesis, TGF-beta, CAMs, and Infection related pathways. Additionally, networks revealed shared genes among pathways e.g. SMAD2 and SMAD7 in Endocytosis and TGF-beta. Our study suggests cyst formation and progression to be an outcome of interplay between a set of several key deregulated pathways. Thus, further translational research is warranted focusing on developing a combinatorial therapeutic

  14. Medical resource utilization and costs associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the USA: a retrospective matched cohort analysis of private insurer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Tyler; Schaefer, Caroline; Krasa, Holly; Oberdhan, Dorothee; Chapman, Arlene; Perrone, Ronald D

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. Methods This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU) and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13). ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0–17, 18–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, and 65+ years) and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. Results The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1–5 (n=316 to n=860), dialysis (n=586), and post-transplant (n=615). Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43–56 years). Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant). The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system relative to the general population. Any treatments that delay progression to later stages of CKD may provide potential health care cost offsets. PMID:25759590

  15. Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene rs4362 polymorphism on the progression of kidney failure in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Gnanasambandan; Ghosh, Santu; Elumalai, Ramprasad; Periyasamy, Soundararajan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S

    2016-06-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited systemic disorder, characterized by the fluid filled cysts in the kidneys leading to end stage renal failure in later years of life. Hypertension is one of the major factors independently contributing to the chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) genes have been extensively studied as hypertension candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of angiotensin converting enzyme tagging - single nucleotide polymorphisms (ACE tag-SNPs) in progression of CKD in patients with ADPKD. m0 ethods: In the present study six ACE tagSNPs (angiotensin converting enzyme tag single nucleotide polymorphisms) and insertion/deletion (I/D) in 102 ADPKD patients and 106 control subjects were investigated. The tagSNPs were genotyped using FRET-based KASPar method and ACE ID by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis. Genotypes and haplotypes were compared between ADPKD patients and controls. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of genotypes and hypertension on CKD advancement. Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) stratified analysis was performed to study the relationship between different CKD stages and hypertension and their interaction. All loci were polymorphic and except rs4293 SNP the remaining loci followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Distribution of ACE genotypes and haplotypes in controls and ADPKD patients was not significant. A significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between SNPs forming two LD blocks. The univariate analysis revealed that the age, hypertension, family history of diabetes and ACE rs4362 contributed to the advancement of CKD. The results suggest that the ACE genotypes are effect modifiers of the relationship between hypertension and CKD advancement among the ADPKD patients.

  16. Cyst Ablation Using a Mixture of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Iodized Oil in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: the Long-Term Results

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    Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    We wanted to assess the long-term results of cyst ablation with using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and symptomatic cysts. Cyst ablation using a mixture of NBCA and iodized oil was performed in 99 cysts from 21 patients who had such symptoms as abdominal distension and pain. The collapse or reaccumulation of the ablated cysts after the procedure was assessed during the follow-up period of 36 to 90 months. The treatment effects, including symptom relief, and the clinical data such as the blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were also assessed, together with the complications. The procedure was technically successful in all 99 cysts from the 21 patients. Any procedure-related significant complications were not detected. Seventy-seven of 99 cysts (78%) were successfully collapsed on the follow-up CT. Twenty-two cysts showed reaccumulation during long-term follow-up period. The clinical symptoms were relieved in 17 of the 21 patients (76%). Four of 12 patients (33%) with hypertension and two of six patients (33%) with azotemia were improved. End stage renal disease (ESRD) occurred in six of the 21 patients (28%) during the follow-up period. The mean age of ESRD in our patients was 57 years. The mean time interval for the development of ESRD was 19 months. Ablation using a mixture of NBCA and iodized oil may be an effective, safe method for obtaining symptom relief in patients with ADPKD.

  17. Endothelin 1 gene is not a major modifier of chronic kidney disease advancement among the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients

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    Annapareddy Shiva Nagendra Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by the presence of numerous cysts in the kidney and manifest with various renal and extra-renal complications leading to ESRD. Endothelin may contribute to various renal and extra-renal manifestations pointing to genetic and environmental modifying factors that alter the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD in ADPKD. In the present study we investigated six genes coding for endothelin 1 (EDN1 tagging-single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs to unravel the EDN1 gene modifier effect for renal disease progression in ADPKD. Materials and Methods: The tag-SNPs were genotyped using FRET-based KASPar method in 108 ADPKD patients and 119 healthy subjects. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to determine the association between ADPKD and EDN1 tag-SNPs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of tag-SNPs on CKD progression. The relationship between different CKD stages and hypertension and their interaction Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis was performed. Results: All loci are polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Distribution of EDN1 genotypes and haplotypes in control and ADPKD is not statistically significant. Five SNPs covering 3.4 kb forming single LD block, but the LD was not strong between SNPs. The EDN1 genotypes are not contributing to the CKD advancement among the ADPKD patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that the EDN1 gene is not a major modifier of CKD advancement among ADPKD patients.

  18. Autosomal Dominant STAT3 Deficiency and Hyper-IgE Syndrome Molecular, Cellular, and Clinical Features From a French National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Melki, Isabelle; Natividad, Angels; Puel, Anne; Fieschi, Claire; Yun, Ling; Thumerelle, Caroline; Oksenhendler, Eric; Boutboul, David; Thomas, Caroline; Hoarau, Cyrille; Lebranchu, Yvon; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Cazorla, Celine; Aladjidi, Nathalie; Micheau, Marguerite; Tron, Fran[cedil]cois; Baruchel, Andre; Barlogis, Vincent; Palenzuela, Gilles; Mathey, Catherine; Dominique, Stephane; Body, Gerard; Munzer, Martine; Fouyssac, Fanny; Jaussaud, Rolland; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Blanche, Stephane; Debre, Marianne; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lambert, Nathalie; Grandin, Virginie; Ndaga, Stephanie; Jacques, Corinne; Harre, Chantal; Forveille, Monique; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Durandy, Anne; Bodemer, Christine; Suarez, Felipe; Hermine, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Fischer, Alain; Picard, Capucine

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant deficiency of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is the main genetic etiology of hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig) E syndrome. We documented the molecular, cellular, and clinical features of 60 patients with heterozygous STAT3 mutations from 47 kindreds followed in France. We identified 11 known and 13 new mutations of STAT3. Low levels of interleukin (IL)-6-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation (or accumulation) of STAT3 were observed in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes (EBV-B cells) from all STAT3-deficient patients tested. The immunologic phenotype was characterized by high serum IgE levels (96% of the patients), memory B-cell lymphopenia (94.5%), and hypereosinophilia (80%). A low proportion of IL-17A-producing circulating T cells was found in 14 of the 15 patients tested. Mucocutaneous infections were the most frequent, typically caused by Staphylococcus aureus (all patients) and Candida albicans (85%). Up to 90% of the patients had pneumonia, mostly caused by Staph. aureus (31%) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (30%). Recurrent pneumonia was associated with secondary bronchiectasis and pneumatocele (67%), as well as secondary aspergillosis (22%). Up to 92% of the patients had dermatitis and connective tissue abnormalities, with facial dysmorphism (95%), retention of decidual teeth (65%), osteopenia (50%), and hyperextensibility (50%). Four patients developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The clinical outcome was favorable, with 56 patients, including 43 adults, still alive at the end of study (mean age, 21 yr; range, 1 mo to 46 yr). Only 4 patients died, 3 from severe bacterial infection (aged 1, 15, and 29 yr, respectively). Antibiotic prophylaxis (90% of patients), antifungal prophylaxis (50%), and IgG infusions (53%) improved patient health, as demonstrated by the large decrease in pneumonia recurrence. Overall, the prognosis of STAT3 deficiency may be considered good, provided that multiple prophylactic

  19. Long-term effect of coffee consumption on autosomal dominant polycystic kidneys disease progression: results from the Suisse ADPKD, a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardat-Rotar, Laura; Puhan, Milo A; Braun, Julia; Serra, Andreas L

    2018-02-01

    Previous in vitro experiments of human polycystic kidney disease (PKD) cells reported that caffeine is a risk factor for the promotion of cyst enlargement in patients with autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD). The relentless progression of ADPKD inclines the majority of physicians to advocate minimization of caffeine consumption despite the absence of clinical data supporting such a recommendation so far. This is the first clinical study to assess prospectively the association between coffee consumption and disease progression in a longitudinal ADPKD cohort. Information on coffee consumption and disease progression was collected at each follow-up visit using standardized measurement methods. The main model for the outcomes, kidney size (height-adjusted total kidney volume, htTKV) and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), was a linear mixed model. Patients entered the on-going Swiss ADPKD study between 2006 and June 2014 and had at least 1 visit every year. The sample size of the study population was 151 with a median follow-up of 4 visits per patient and a median follow-up time of 4.38 years. After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, hypertension, sex, body mass index and an interaction term (coffee*visit), coffee drinkers did not have a statistically significantly different kidney size compared to non-coffee drinkers (difference of -33.03 cm 3 height adjusted TKV, 95% confidence interval (CI) from -72.41 to 6.34, p = 0.10). After the same adjustment, there was no statistically significant difference in eGFR between coffee and non-coffee drinkers (2.03 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , 95% CI from -0.31 to 4.31, p = 0.089). Data derived from our prospective longitudinal study do not confirm that drinking coffee is a risk factor for ADPKD progression.

  20. Successful haploidentical donor hematopoietic stem cell transplant and restoration of STAT3 function in an adolescent with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N C; Gallagher, J L; Torgerson, T R; Gilman, A L

    2015-07-01

    Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES), caused by mutations in Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is associated with defective STAT3 signaling and Th17 differentiation and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Most patients suffer significant morbidity and premature mortality. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been reported in a small number of cases, with mixed outcomes. We report successful haploidentical donor HSCT in a patient with AD-HIES. Evaluation of lymphocyte subsets, STAT3 signaling, and Th17 cells was performed pre- and post-HSCT. A 14-year old female with AD-HIES developed recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) abscesses. Immunologic analysis showed elevated IgE (4331 kU/L), absent Th17 cells, and markedly decreased STAT3 phosphorylation in cytokine stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. She had breakthrough abscesses despite clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and developed steroid refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She underwent T-cell depleted haploidentical HSCT from her father following reduced intensity conditioning. She developed one MRSA hand abscess after transplant. Twenty-four months post transplant, she had complete donor chimerism (>95 % donor), normal absolute T cell numbers, and a normal percentage of Th17 cells. IgE was normal at 25 kU/L. She remains well 42 months after transplantation off all antibacterial prophylaxis. Haploidentical HSCT led to successful bone marrow engraftment, normalization of STAT3 signaling in hematopoietic cells, normalization of IgE, and restoration of immune function in this patient with AD-HIES.

  1. A Recurrent Mutation in CACNA1G Alters Cav3.1 T-Type Calcium-Channel Conduction and Causes Autosomal-Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelier, Marie; Blesneac, Iulia; Monteil, Arnaud; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Ando, Kunie; Mundwiller, Emeline; Brusco, Alfredo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Anheim, Mathieu; Castrioto, Anna; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Durr, Alexandra; Lory, Philippe; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary cerebellar ataxias (CAs) are neurodegenerative disorders clinically characterized by a cerebellar syndrome, often accompanied by other neurological or non-neurological signs. All transmission modes have been described. In autosomal-dominant CA (ADCA), mutations in more than 30 genes are implicated, but the molecular diagnosis remains unknown in about 40% of cases. Implication of ion channels has long been an ongoing topic in the genetics of CA, and mutations in several channel genes have been recently connected to ADCA. In a large family affected by ADCA and mild pyramidal signs, we searched for the causative variant by combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing. In CACNA1G, we identified a c.5144G>A mutation, causing an arginine-to-histidine (p.Arg1715His) change in the voltage sensor S4 segment of the T-type channel protein Cav3.1. Two out of 479 index subjects screened subsequently harbored the same mutation. We performed electrophysiological experiments in HEK293T cells to compare the properties of the p.Arg1715His and wild-type Cav3.1 channels. The current-voltage and the steady-state activation curves of the p.Arg1715His channel were shifted positively, whereas the inactivation curve had a higher slope factor. Computer modeling in deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons suggested that the mutation results in decreased neuronal excitability. Taken together, these data establish CACNA1G, which is highly expressed in the cerebellum, as a gene whose mutations can cause ADCA. This is consistent with the neuropathological examination, which showed severe Purkinje cell loss. Our study further extends our knowledge of the link between calcium channelopathies and CAs. PMID:26456284

  2. Ataxias and Cerebellar or Spinocerebellar Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and conducts a broad range of basic and clinical research on cerebellar and spinocerebellar degeneration, including work aimed at finding the cause(s) of ataxias and ways to ... Publications Definition Ataxia ...

  3. Automatic total kidney volume measurement on follow-up magnetic resonance images to facilitate monitoring of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Timothy L; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Edwards, Marie E; Warner, Joshua D; Irazabal, Maria V; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E; Erickson, Bradley J

    2016-02-01

    Renal imaging examinations provide high-resolution information about the anatomic structure of the kidneys and are used to measure total kidney volume (TKV) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. TKV has become the gold-standard image biomarker for ADPKD progression at early stages of the disease and is used in clinical trials to characterize treatment efficacy. Automated methods to segment the kidneys and measure TKV are desirable because of the long time requirement for manual approaches such as stereology or planimetry tracings. However, ADPKD kidney segmentation is complicated by a number of factors, including irregular kidney shapes and variable tissue signal at the kidney borders. We describe an image processing approach that overcomes these problems by using a baseline segmentation initialization to provide automatic segmentation of follow-up scans obtained years apart. We validated our approach using 20 patients with complete baseline and follow-up T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Both manual tracing and stereology were used to calculate TKV, with two observers performing manual tracings and one observer performing repeat tracings. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to compare the different approaches. Our automated approach measured TKV at a level of accuracy (mean difference ± standard error = 0.99 ± 0.79%) on par with both intraobserver (0.77 ± 0.46%) and interobserver variability (1.34 ± 0.70%) of manual tracings. All approaches had excellent agreement and compared favorably with ground-truth manual tracing with interobserver, stereological and automated approaches having 95% confidence intervals ∼ ± 100 mL. Our method enables fast, cost-effective and reproducible quantification of ADPKD progression that will facilitate and lower the costs of clinical trials in ADPKD and other disorders requiring accurate, longitudinal kidney quantification. In addition, it will hasten the routine use of

  4. Cyst infection in hospital-admitted autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients is predominantly multifocal and associated with kidney and liver volume

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    Balbo, B.E.P. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R. [Divisão de Medicina Nuclear, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jayanthi, S.K. [Divisão de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dettoni, J.B. [Divisão de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, I.; Onuchic, L.F. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-13

    Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has improved cyst infection (CI) management in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The determinants of kidney and/or liver involvement, however, remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging factors associated with CI in kidney (KCI) and liver (LCI) in ADPKD. A retrospective cohort study was performed in hospital-admitted ADPKD patients with suspected CI. Clinical, imaging and surgical data were analyzed. Features of infected cysts were evaluated by PET/CT. Total kidney (TKV) and liver (TLV) volumes were measured by CT-derived multiplanar reconstruction. CI was detected in 18 patients who experienced 24 episodes during an interval of 30 months (LCI in 12, KCI in 10 and concomitant infection in 2). Sensitivities of CT, magnetic resonance imaging and PET/CT were 25.0, 71.4, and 95.0%. Dysuria (P<0.05), positive urine culture (P<0.01), and previous hematuria (P<0.05) were associated with KCI. Weight loss (P<0.01) and increased C-reactive protein levels (P<0.05) were associated with LCI. PET/CT revealed that three or more infected cysts were present in 70% of the episodes. TKV was higher in kidney-affected than in LCI patients (AUC=0.91, P<0.05), with a cut-off of 2502 mL (72.7% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity). TLV was higher in liver-affected than in KCI patients (AUC=0.89, P<0.01) with a cut-off of 2815 mL (80.0% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity). A greater need for invasive procedures was observed in LCI (P<0.01), and the overall mortality was 20.8%. This study supports PET/CT as the most sensitive imaging method for diagnosis of cyst infection, confirms the multifocal nature of most hospital-admitted episodes, and reveals an association of kidney and liver volumes with this complication.

  5. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Novel Mutation in the Human Calcium-Sensing Receptor That Co-Segregates With Autosomal-Dominant Hypocalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Qvist Rasmussen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The human calcium-sensing receptor (CASR is the key controller of extracellular Cao2+ homeostasis, and different mutations in the CASR gene have been linked to different calcium diseases, such as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, severe hyperparathyroidism, autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia (ADH, and Bartter’s syndrome type V. In this study, two generations of a family with biochemically and clinically confirmed ADH who suffered severe muscle pain, arthralgia, tetany, abdominal pain, and fatigue were evaluated for mutations in the CASR gene. The study comprises genotyping of all family members, functional characterization of a potential mutant receptor by in vitro analysis related to the wild-type receptor to reveal an association between the genotype and phenotype in the affected family members. The in vitro analysis of functional characteristics includes measurements of inositol trisphosphate accumulation, Ca2+ mobilization in response to [Ca2+]o-stimulation and receptor expression. The results reveal a significant leftward shift of inositol trisphosphate accumulation as a result of the “gain-of-function” mutant receptor and surprisingly a normalization of the response in (Ca2+i release in the downstream pathway and additionally the maximal response of (Ca2+i release was significantly decreased compared to the wild type. However, no gross differences were seen in D126V and the D126V/WT CASR dimeric >250 kDa band expression compared to the WT receptor, however, the D126V and D126V/WT CASR immature ~140 kDa species appear to have reduced expression compared to the WT receptor. In conclusion, in this study, a family with a clinical diagnosis of ADH in two generations was evaluated to identify a mutation in the CASR gene and reveal an association between genotype and phenotype in the affected family members. The clinical condition was caused by a novel, activating, missense mutation (D126V in the CASR gene and the in vitro functional

  6. Calcilytic Ameliorates Abnormalities of Mutant Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Knock-In Mice Mimicking Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia (ADH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bingzi; Endo, Itsuro; Ohnishi, Yukiyo; Kondo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Abe, Masahiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH). ADH patients develop hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypercalciuria, similar to the clinical features of hypoparathyroidism. The current treatment of ADH is similar to the other forms of hypoparathyroidism, using active vitamin D3 or parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, these treatments aggravate hypercalciuria and renal calcification. Thus, new therapeutic strategies for ADH are needed. Calcilytics are allosteric antagonists of CaSR, and may be effective for the treatment of ADH caused by activating mutations of CaSR. In order to examine the effect of calcilytic JTT-305/MK-5442 on CaSR harboring activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains in vitro, we first transfected a mutated CaSR gene into HEK cells. JTT-305/MK-5442 suppressed the hypersensitivity to extracellular Ca(2+) of HEK cells transfected with the CaSR gene with activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains. We then selected two activating mutations locating in the extracellular (C129S) and transmembrane (A843E) domains, and generated two strains of CaSR knock-in mice to build an ADH mouse model. Both mutant mice mimicked almost all the clinical features of human ADH. JTT-305/MK-5442 treatment in vivo increased urinary cAMP excretion, improved serum and urinary calcium and phosphate levels by stimulating endogenous PTH secretion, and prevented renal calcification. In contrast, PTH(1-34) treatment normalized serum calcium and phosphate but could not reduce hypercalciuria or renal calcification. CaSR knock-in mice exhibited low bone turnover due to the deficiency of PTH, and JTT-305/MK-5442 as well as PTH(1-34) increased bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in these mice. These results demonstrate that calcilytics can reverse almost all the phenotypes of ADH including hypercalciuria and renal calcification, and suggest that calcilytics can become a

  7. Positive Predictive Values of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision Coding Algorithms to Identify Patients With Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinusha Kalatharan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes (ICD-10 for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is used within several administrative health care databases. It is unknown whether these codes identify patients who meet strict clinical criteria for ADPKD. Objective: The objective of this study is (1 to determine whether different ICD-10 coding algorithms identify adult patients who meet strict clinical criteria for ADPKD as assessed through medical chart review and (2 to assess the number of patients identified with different ADPKD coding algorithms in Ontario. Design: Validation study of health care database codes, and prevalence. Setting: Ontario, Canada. Patients: For the chart review, 201 adult patients with hospital encounters between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2014, assigned either ICD-10 codes Q61.2 or Q61.3. Measurements: This study measured positive predictive value of the ICD-10 coding algorithms and the number of Ontarians identified with different coding algorithms. Methods: We manually reviewed a random sample of medical charts in London, Ontario, Canada, and determined whether or not ADPKD was present according to strict clinical criteria. Results: The presence of either ICD-10 code Q61.2 or Q61.3 in a hospital encounter had a positive predictive value of 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79%-89% and identified 2981 Ontarians (0.02% of the Ontario adult population. The presence of ICD-10 code Q61.2 in a hospital encounter had a positive predictive value of 97% (95% CI, 86%-100% and identified 394 adults in Ontario (0.003% of the Ontario adult population. Limitations: (1 We could not calculate other measures of validity; (2 the coding algorithms do not identify patients without hospital encounters; and (3 coding practices may differ between hospitals. Conclusions: Most patients with ICD-10 code Q61.2 or Q61.3 assigned during their hospital encounters have ADPKD according to the clinical

  8. The history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 in Brazil: travels of a gene A história da ataxia espinocerebelar tipo 10 no Brasil: as viagens de um gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the history of spinocerebellar ataxia 10 (SCA10, since its first report in a large Portuguese-ancestry Family with autosomal dominant pure cerebellar ataxia, till the final identification of further families without Mexican ancestry. These families present a quite different phenotype from those SCA10 families described in Mexico.Os autores apresentam a história da descoberta da ataxia espinocerebelar tipo 10 (AEC10 no Brasil, desde o primeiro relato em uma família com ancestrais portugueses com ataxia cerebelar pura, autossômica dominante, até a identificação de famílias sem ancestrais mexicanos. Essas famílias apresentam um fenótipo de AEC10, com ataxia cerebelar "pura", distinta daquele descrito nas famílias no México.

  9. A postnatal role for embryonic myosin revealed by MYH3 mutations that alter TGFbeta signaling and cause autosomal dominant spondylocarpotarsal synostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieba, J.; Zhang, W.; Chong, J.X.; Forlenza, K.N.; Martin, J.H.; Heard, K.; Grange, D.K.; Butler, M.G.; Kleefstra, T.; Lachman, R.S.; Nickerson, D.; Regnier, M.; Cohn, D.H.; Bamshad, M.; Krakow, D.

    2017-01-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) is a skeletal disorder characterized by progressive vertebral, carpal and tarsal fusions, and mild short stature. The majority of affected individuals have an autosomal recessive form of SCT and are homozygous or compound heterozygous for nonsense mutations in

  10. Recurrent De Novo Mutations Affecting Residue Arg1 38 of Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase Cause a Progeroid Form of Autosomal-Dominant Cutis Laxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Ganesh, Jaya; Tan, Yu Xuan; Al Bughaili, Mohammed; Lin, Angela E.; Sahai, Inderneel; Bahena, Paulina; Reichert, Sara L.; Loh, Abigail; Wright, Graham D.; Liu, Jaron; Rahikkala, Elisa; Pivnick, Eniko K.; Choudhri, Asim F.; Krüger, Ulrike; Zemojtel, Tomasz; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mostafavi, Roya; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Symoens, Sofie; Pajunen, Leila; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Meierhofer, David; Robinson, Peter N.; Mundlos, Stefan; Villarroel, Camilo E.; Byers, Peter; Masri, Amira; Robertson, Stephen P.; Schwarze, Ulrike; Callewaert, Bert; Reversade, Bruno; Kornak, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Progeroid disorders overlapping with De Barsy syndrome (DBS) are collectively denoted as autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 3 (ARCL3). They are caused by biallelic mutations in PYCR1 or ALDH18A1, encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), respectively,

  11. Clinical features, neurogenetics and neuropathology of the polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias type 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüb, Udo; Schöls, Ludger; Paulson, Henry; Auburger, Georg; Kermer, Pawel; Jen, Joanna C; Seidel, Kay; Korf, Horst-Werner; Deller, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias type 1 (SCA1), 2 (SCA2), 3 (SCA3), 6 (SCA6) and 7 (SCA7) are genetically defined autosomal dominantly inherited progressive cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs). They belong to the group of CAG-repeat or polyglutamine diseases and share pathologically expanded and meiotically unstable glutamine-encoding CAG-repeats at distinct gene loci encoding elongated polyglutamine stretches in the disease proteins. In recent years, progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these currently incurable diseases: Identification of underlying genetic mechanisms made it possible to classify the different ADCAs and to define their clinical and pathological features. Furthermore, advances in molecular biology yielded new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological role of the gene products of SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7 (i.e. ataxin-1, ataxin-2, ataxin-3, α-1A subunit of the P/Q type voltage-dependent calcium channel, ataxin-7). In the present review we summarize our current knowledge about the polyglutamine ataxias SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7 and compare their clinical and electrophysiological features, genetic and molecular biological background, as well as their brain pathologies. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the structure, interactions and functions of the different disease proteins. On the basis of these comprehensive data, similarities, differences and possible disease mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Peripheral Neuropathy in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1, 2, 3, and 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemann, Christoph; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Rakowicz, Maryla; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Szymanski, Sandra; Berciano, Jose; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Pedersen, Karine; Depondt, Chantal; Rola, Rafal; Klockgether, Thomas; García, Antonio; Mutlu, Gurkan; Schöls, Ludger

    2016-04-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are characterized by autosomal dominantly inherited progressive ataxia but are clinically heterogeneous due to variable involvement of non-cerebellar parts of the nervous system. Non-cerebellar symptoms contribute significantly to the burden of SCAs, may guide the clinician to the underlying genetic subtype, and might be useful markers to monitor disease. Peripheral neuropathy is frequently observed in SCA, but subtype-specific features and subclinical manifestations have rarely been evaluated. We performed a multicenter nerve conduction study with 162 patients with genetically confirmed SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6. The study proved peripheral nerves to be involved in the neurodegenerative process in 82 % of SCA1, 63 % of SCA2, 55 % of SCA3, and 22 % of SCA6 patients. Most patients of all subtypes revealed affection of both sensory and motor fibers. Neuropathy was most frequently of mixed type with axonal and demyelinating characteristics in all SCA subtypes. However, nerve conduction velocities of SCA1 patients were slower compared to other genotypes. SCA6 patients revealed less axonal damage than patients with other subtypes. No influence of CAG repeat length or biometric determinants on peripheral neuropathy could be identified in SCA1, SCA3, and SCA6. In SCA2, earlier onset and more severe ataxia were associated with peripheral neuropathy. We proved peripheral neuropathy to be a frequent site of the neurodegenerative process in all common SCA subtypes. Since damage to peripheral nerves is readily assessable by electrophysiological means, nerve conduction studies should be performed in a longitudinal approach to assess these parameters as potential progression markers.

  13. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  14. Generation of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line SCA3.A11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Kofoed; Borland, Helena; Hasholt, Lis Frydenreich

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG-repeat expanding mutation in ATXN3. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a SCA3 patient by electroporation of dermal fibroblasts with episomal plasmids encoding L-MYC, LIN28...

  15. Generation of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line SCA3.B11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Kofoed; Borland, Helena; Hasholt, Lis Frydenreich

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of the CAG-repeat in ATXN3. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from SCA3 patient dermal fibroblasts by electroporation with episomal plasmids encoding L...

  16. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line, IBMS-iPSC-014-05, from a female autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patient carrying a common mutation of R803X in PKD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ching Ho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is one of the most commonly inherited forms of polycystic kidney disease, and is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys. Here we generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of a 63-year-old female ADPKD patient carrying an R803X mutation in the PKD2 gene using the Sendai-virus delivery system. Downstream characterization of these iPSCs showed that they possessed normal karyotyping, were free of genomic integration, retained the disease-causing PKD2 mutation, expressed pluripotency markers and could differentiate into three germ layers.

  17. The SCA1 (Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and MJD (Machado-Joseph disease CAG repeats in normal individuals: segregation analysis and allele frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Emília Vieira Wiezel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3 are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases caused by expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the SCA1 and MJD genes. These expanded sequences are unstable upon transmission, leading to an intergeneration increase in the number of repeats (dynamic mutation. The transmission of the CAG repeat was studied in normal mother-father-child trios, referred for paternity testing (SCA1, n = 367; MJD, n = 879. No segregation distortion was detected. The CAG allele frequencies were determined in 330 unrelated individuals (fathers from couples tested for paternity. The allele frequency distributions did not differ from those previously reported for European populations. The estimated values for the statistic parameters indicating diversity at the SCA1 locus did not differ much from those reported previously for other STRs in the Brazilian population, while those for the MJD locus were close to or higher than the maximum values of previous reports. This shows that SCA1 and MJD are highly informative loci for applications in genetic and population studies and for forensic analysis.

  18. Mutation in the kv3.3 voltage-gated potassium channel causing spinocerebellar ataxia 13 disrupts sound-localization mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Middlebrooks

    Full Text Available Normal sound localization requires precise comparisons of sound timing and pressure levels between the two ears. The primary localization cues are interaural time differences, ITD, and interaural level differences, ILD. Voltage-gated potassium channels, including Kv3.3, are highly expressed in the auditory brainstem and are thought to underlie the exquisite temporal precision and rapid spike rates that characterize brainstem binaural pathways. An autosomal dominant mutation in the gene encoding Kv3.3 has been demonstrated in a large Filipino kindred manifesting as spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13. This kindred provides a rare opportunity to test in vivo the importance of a specific channel subunit for human hearing. Here, we demonstrate psychophysically that individuals with the mutant allele exhibit profound deficits in both ITD and ILD sensitivity, despite showing no obvious impairment in pure-tone sensitivity with either ear. Surprisingly, several individuals exhibited the auditory deficits even though they were pre-symptomatic for SCA13. We would expect that impairments of binaural processing as great as those observed in this family would result in prominent deficits in localization of sound sources and in loss of the "spatial release from masking" that aids in understanding speech in the presence of competing sounds.

  19. Increased protein kinase C gamma activity induces Purkinje cell pathology in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jingmin; Hassler, Melanie L; Shimobayashi, Etsuko; Paka, Nagendher; Streit, Raphael; Kapfhammer, Josef P

    2014-10-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are hereditary diseases leading to Purkinje cell degeneration and cerebellar dysfunction. Most forms of SCA are caused by expansion of CAG repeats similar to other polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease. In contrast, in the autosomal dominant SCA-14 the disease is caused by mutations in the protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) gene which is a well characterized signaling molecule in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The study of SCA-14, therefore, offers the unique opportunity to reveal the molecular and pathological mechanism eventually leading to Purkinje cell dysfunction and degeneration. We have created a mouse model of SCA-14 in which PKCγ protein with a mutation found in SCA-14 is specifically expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. We find that in mice expressing the mutated PKCγ protein the morphology of Purkinje cells in cerebellar slice cultures is drastically altered and mimics closely the morphology seen after pharmacological PKC activation. Similar morphological abnormalities were seen in localized areas of the cerebellum of juvenile transgenic mice in vivo. In adult transgenic mice there is evidence for some localized loss of Purkinje cells but there is no overall cerebellar atrophy. Transgenic mice show a mild cerebellar ataxia revealed by testing on the rotarod and on the walking beam. Our findings provide evidence for both an increased PKCγ activity in Purkinje cells in vivo and for pathological changes typical for cerebellar disease thus linking the increased and dysregulated activity of PKCγ tightly to the development of cerebellar disease in SCA-14 and possibly also in other forms of SCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 29 due to mutations in ITPR1: a case series and review of this emerging congenital ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambonin, Jessica L; Bellomo, Allison; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Everman, David B; Frazer, Lee M; Geraghty, Michael T; Harper, Amy D; Jones, Julie R; Kamien, Benjamin; Kernohan, Kristin; Koenig, Mary Kay; Lines, Matthew; Palmer, Elizabeth Emma; Richardson, Randal; Segel, Reeval; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Vanstone, Jason R; Gibbons, Melissa; Collins, Abigail; Fogel, Brent L; Dudding-Byth, Tracy; Boycott, Kym M

    2017-06-28

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 29 (SCA29) is an autosomal dominant, non-progressive cerebellar ataxia characterized by infantile-onset hypotonia, gross motor delay and cognitive impairment. Affected individuals exhibit cerebellar dysfunction and often have cerebellar atrophy on neuroimaging. Recently, missense mutations in ITPR1 were determined to be responsible. Clinical information on 21 individuals from 15 unrelated families with ITPR1 mutations was retrospectively collected using standardized questionnaires, including 11 previously unreported singletons and 2 new patients from a previously reported family. We describe the genetic, clinical and neuroimaging features of these patients to further characterize the clinical features of this rare condition and assess for any genotype-phenotype correlation for this disorder. Our cohort consisted of 9 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 28 months to 49 years. Disease course was non-progressive with infantile-onset hypotonia and delays in motor and speech development. Gait ataxia was present in all individuals and 10 (48%) were not ambulating independently between the ages of 3-12 years of age. Mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment was present in 17 individuals (85%). Cerebellar atrophy developed after initial symptom presentation in 13 individuals (72%) and was not associated with disease progression or worsening functional impairment. We identified 12 different mutations including 6 novel mutations; 10 mutations were missense (with 4 present in >1 individual), 1 a splice site mutation leading to an in-frame insertion and 1 an in-frame deletion. No specific genotype-phenotype correlations were observed within our cohort. Our findings document significant clinical heterogeneity between individuals with SCA29 in a large cohort of molecularly confirmed cases. Based on the retrospective observed clinical features and disease course, we provide recommendations for management. Further research into the natural

  1. A novel missense variant (Gln220Arg) of GNB4 encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant motor and sensory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shiroh; Morikawa, Takuya; Fujioka, Ryuta; Noda, Kazuhito; Kosaka, Kengo; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Shibata, Hiroki

    2017-09-01

    Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease F (CMTDIF) is an autosomal dominant hereditary form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) caused by variations in the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 gene (GNB4). We examined two Japanese familial cases with CMT. Case 1 was a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was slowly progressive gait disturbance and limb dysesthesia that appeared at the age of 47. On neurological examination, he showed hyporeflexia or areflexia, distal limb muscle weakness, and distal sensory impairment with lower dominancy. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy with reduced action potentials in the lower limbs. Case 2 was an 80-year-old man, Case 1's father, who reported difficulty in riding a bicycle at the age of 76. On neurological examination, he showed areflexia in the upper and lower limbs. Distal sensory impairment in the lower limbs was also observed. Nerve conduction studies revealed mainly axonal involvement. Exome sequencing identified a novel heterozygous nonsynonymous variant (NM_021629.3:c.659T > C [p.Gln220Arg]) in GNB4 exon 8, which is known to be responsible for CMT. Sanger sequencing confirmed that both patients are heterozygous for the variation, which causes an amino acid substitution, Gln220Arg, in the highly conserved region of the WD40 domain of GNB4. The frequency of this variant in the Exome Aggregation Consortium Database was 0.000008247, and we confirmed its absence in 502 Japanese control subjects. We conclude that this novel GNB4 variant is causative for CMTDIF in these patients, who represent the first record of the disease in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Recommendations for the use of tolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a position statement on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups on Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansevoort, Ron T; Arici, Mustafa; Benzing, Thomas; Birn, Henrik; Capasso, Giovambattista; Covic, Adrian; Devuyst, Olivier; Drechsler, Christiane; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Emma, Francesco; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Le Meur, Yannick; Massy, Ziad A; Ong, Albert C M; Ortiz, Alberto; Schaefer, Franz; Torra, Roser; Vanholder, Raymond; Więcek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at initiation of treatment with evidence of rapidly progressing disease. In this paper, on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups of Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice, we aim to provide guidance for making the decision as to which ADPKD patients to treat with tolvaptan. The present position statement includes a series of recommendations resulting in a hierarchical decision algorithm that encompasses a sequence of risk-factor assessments in a descending order of reliability. By examining the best-validated markers first, we aim to identify ADPKD patients who have documented rapid disease progression or are likely to have rapid disease progression. We believe that this procedure offers the best opportunity to select patients who are most likely to benefit from tolvaptan, thus improving the benefit-to-risk ratio and cost-effectiveness of this treatment. It is important to emphasize that the decision to initiate treatment requires the consideration of many factors besides eligibility, such as contraindications, potential adverse events, as well as patient motivation and lifestyle factors, and requires shared decision-making with the patient. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  3. Síndrome das pernas inquietas com herança autossômica dominante piorada pelo uso de mirtazapina: relato de caso Worsening of autosomal dominant restless legs syndrome after use of mirtazapine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 78 anos, com diagnóstico estabelecido de síndrome das pernas inquietas (SPI, de etiologia primária com herança autossômica dominante. A paciente apresentava quadro depressivo associado. Enfatiza-se a piora do quadro clínico da SPI após o uso de anti-depressivo com ação inibidora seletiva da recaptação de serotonina (mirtazapina, com atenuação dos sintomas após a retirada da droga, e a excelente resposta terapêutica com o uso de agonista dopaminérgico (pramipexol em baixa dose.We report the case of a 78 years old female patient with primary restless legs syndrome (RLS with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In addition, the patient also had depression. We emphasize the worsening of symptoms of RLS after the use of a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor (mirtazapine, with improvement after the drug was discontinued, and an excellent recovery with the use of low dose dopaminergic agonist (pramipexol.

  4. Complete Heart Block with Diastolic Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Enlarging Previously Diagnosed Thrombosed Aneurysm of Sinus of Valsalva in a Patient with History of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ali Eltawansy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block.

  5. Risk of Japanese carriers of hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7, the first autosomal-dominantly inherited risk factor for hematological neoplasms, to develop monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Sandra; Iida, Shinsuke; Wikowicz, Aleksandra; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Inagaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Ziepert, Marita; Ueda, Ryuzo; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7 (pP-7) is a frequent target of paraproteins in German patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/multiple myeloma (MM). The frequency of MGUS/MM is lower in Japan than in Europe. As pP-7, the first molecularly defined autosomal-dominant risk factor for any hematological neoplasm, is inherited in a dominant fashion, we determined the incidence of the pP-7 carrier state in a Japanese population, and compared the frequency of pP-7-specific paraproteins and the pP-7 carrier state in Japanese and German patients with MGUS/MM. Peripheral blood from 111 Japanese patients with MGUS/MM and 278 healthy blood donors was analyzed for the pP-7 carrier state by isoelectric focusing and for pP-7-specific antibodies by ELISA. The Japanese group was compared with 252 German MGUS/MM patients and 200 healthy controls. Five of 111 (4.5%) Japanese and 35/252 (13.9%) German IgA/IgG MGUS/MM patients had a pP-7-specific paraprotein (P=0.009). The prevalence of healthy pP-7 carriers in the Japanese study group was 1/278 (0.36%), whereas it was 4/200 in the German group (P=0.166). The relative risk for pP-7 carriers developing MGUS/MM had an odds ratio of 13.1 in the Japanese and 7.9 in the German group. In conclusion, the fraction of pP-7 carriers with a pP-7-specific paraprotein is lower among Japanese than in German patients with MGUS/MM, but pP-7 carriers in both ethnic groups have a high risk of developing MGUS/MM. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Germ-line CAG repeat instability causes extreme CAG repeat expansion with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Ek, Jakob; Duno, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by dominant inheritance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and diverse extracerebellar symptoms. A subgroup of the ataxias is caused by unstable CAG-repeat expansions in their respective ...... of paternal germ-line repeat sequence instability of the expanded SCA2 locus.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 October 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.231....

  7. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new finding, to our knowledge, was the normality of visual, somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials. Conclusion. Our study confirms the existence of CADASIL in. South Africa, and also suggests that skin electron microscopy is useful, despite recent reports of its low sensitivity, and that evoked potentials in CADASIL ...

  8. Autosomal dominant non-epidermolytic palmoplantar hyperkeratosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-08-12

    epidermolytic and the isolated type (NEPPK). The non-volar skin, hair, teeth, nails and other organ systems were not involved. The presence of the disorder in the proband's father and its absence in her paternal grandfather and ...

  9. Cleidocranial Dysplasia with Autosomal Dominant Inheritance Pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] These patients have the following triad of lesions, which is considered ... Brachycephalic skull with depression in the frontal bone of skull, depressed ... hyper mobility of both shoulders with associated radiographic features. Odontologist is ...

  10. Autosomal dominant transmission of GLUT1 deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, J.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Verrips, A.; Guertsen, E.; Herrmann, R.; Kutzick, C.; Florcken, A.; Voit, T.

    2001-01-01

    GLUT1 deficiency is caused by a defect in the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT1. Impaired glucose transport across brain tissue barriers is reflected by hypoglycorrhachia and results in an epileptic encephalopathy with developmental delay and motor disorders. Recently heterozygous mutations in

  11. Autosomal dominant craniosynostosis of the sutura metopica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; van den Boogaard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Trigonocephaly due to craniosynostosis of the sutura metopica was found in two sibs with normal intelligence. Both were microcephalic. The father had a sloping forehead and possibly partial metopic craniosynostosis. The paternal grandfather had a bony ridge at the upper half of the metopic suture

  12. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitreoretinochoroidopathy Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Foundation Fighting Blindness Prevent Blindness: Living Well with Low Vision Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM ( ...

  13. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease, incidental finding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N.J. Gildenhuys

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... This case study serves as a learning opportunity and future reference in the cases and management of ... sentation, special investigations, and treatment. The table ... trauma to an abnormal kidney is still a controversial topic. .... running into fence. AP ... He does not have any prior medical or surgical history.

  14. New autosomal recessive faciodigitogenital syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Teebi, A S; Naguib, K K; Al-Awadi, S; Al-Saleh, Q A

    1988-01-01

    Most pedigrees of Aarskog's faciodigitogenital syndrome have suggested X linked inheritance. However, sex influenced autosomal dominant inheritance is also a possibility in some families. We describe an Arab family of normal consanguineous parents with five children (three males and two females) with some features of Aarskog syndrome in addition to some unusual hair changes. The possibility that this family represents a distinct previously unrecognised faciodigitogenital syndrome with short s...

  15. Autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency caused by a novel NFKBIA mutation, p.Ser36Tyr, presents with mild ectodermal dysplasia and non-infectious systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takakazu; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Hara, Junichi; Okada, Keiko; Hashii, Yoshiko; Okafuji, Ikuo; Nodomi, Seishiro; Kawai, Tomoki; Izawa, Kazushi; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Yasumi, Takahiro; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Heike, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) is characterized by hypohidrosis, dental abnormalities, sparse hair, and immunodeficiency. Autosomal dominant (AD)-EDA-ID, caused by a heterozygous mutation within NFKBIA, is very rare and its clinical features remain largely unknown. This study describes a patient with AD-EDA-ID harboring a novel NFKBIA mutation who presented with mild EDA and non-infectious systemic inflammation. The clinical presentation of an AD-EDA-ID patient was described and immunological, genetic, and biochemical analyses were performed, with a focus on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. The patient presented with symptoms of mild EDA-ID, namely sparse hair and hypohidrosis, although a skin biopsy confirmed the presence of sweat glands. There were no dental abnormalities. The patient also suffered from non-infectious inflammation, which responded to systemic corticosteroid therapy; however, the patient remained ill. Immunological analyses revealed reduced Toll-like receptor/IL-1 (TLR/IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family responses to various stimuli. Genetic analysis identified a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, p.Ser36Tyr, in NFKBIA, resulting in defective NFKBIA degradation and impaired NF-κB activation. The patient was diagnosed with AD-EDA-ID and underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Engraftment was successful, with few signs of acute graft versus host disease. However, the patient suffered hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, and died from a brain hemorrhage due to intractable thrombocytopenia. AD-EDA-ID patients can present with mild ectodermal dysplasia and non-infectious inflammation, rather than with recurrent infections. Also, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for AD-EDA-ID is still a clinical challenge.

  16. Technical Evaluation: Identification of Pathogenic Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease by Next-Generation Sequencing and Use of a Comprehensive New Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Moritoshi; Higashihara, Eiji; Kawano, Haruna; Higashiyama, Ryo; Koga, Daisuke; Fukui, Takafumi; Gondo, Nobuhisa; Oka, Takehiko; Kawahara, Kozo; Rigo, Krisztina; Hague, Tim; Katsuragi, Kiyonori; Sudo, Kimiyoshi; Takeshi, Masahiko; Horie, Shigeo; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing of PKD1 and PKD2 is expected to play an increasingly important role in determining allelic influences in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the near future. However, to date, genetic testing is not commonly employed because it is expensive, complicated because of genetic heterogeneity, and does not easily identify pathogenic variants. In this study, we developed a genetic testing system based on next-generation sequencing (NGS), long-range polymerase chain reaction, and a new software package. The new software package integrated seven databases and provided access to five cloud-based computing systems. The database integrated 241 polymorphic nonpathogenic variants detected in 140 healthy Japanese volunteers aged >35 years, who were confirmed by ultrasonography as having no cysts in either kidney. Using this system, we identified 60 novel and 30 known pathogenic mutations in 101 Japanese patients with ADPKD, with an overall detection rate of 89.1% (90/101) [95% confidence interval (CI), 83.0%-95.2%]. The sensitivity of the system increased to 93.1% (94/101) (95% CI, 88.1%-98.0%) when combined with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis, making it sufficient for use in a clinical setting. In 82 (87.2%) of the patients, pathogenic mutations were detected in PKD1 (95% CI, 79.0%-92.5%), whereas in 12 (12.8%) patients pathogenic mutations were detected in PKD2 (95% CI, 7.5%-21.0%); this is consistent with previously reported findings. In addition, we were able to reconfirm our pathogenic mutation identification results using Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, we developed a high-sensitivity NGS-based system and successfully employed it to identify pathogenic mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in Japanese patients with ADPKD.

  17. A follow-up study of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with intracranial aneurysms using 3.0 T three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Qian, Yi [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Xuan [Clinical Nutrition Department of Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Liaoyuan [Department of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, Shengqiang, E-mail: yushengqiang_cz@163.com [Department of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: laijiangtaotao@163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients have an increased risk for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Our aim was to screen and follow up the unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) detected by 3.0 T three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF MRA) in patients with ADPKD in order to evaluate the growth of UIAs and the value of 3D-TOF MRA. Methods: From 2011 to 2012, we followed up UIAs detected in 40 ADPKD patients who had MRA examinations with an interval of at least 36 months. All MRA examinations were performed on a 3 T system (Achieva X-Series, Philips Medical Systems) with a Sense-Head-8 receiver head coil. The acquired data sets were transferred to a workstation (EWS, Philips Medical) to perform maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) with a specialized software package (Philips Medical). The size of UIAs was determined as the longest diameter in transverse or vertical measurement. UIAs that grew more than 20% were considered as enlarged. Results: Fifty UIAs were found in 40 previously examined ADPKD patients who underwent 3.0 T 3D-TOF MRA follow-ups. No patients ever had treatment before the second examination. The longest diameter of all follow-up UIAs was less than 10 mm and mean diameter was 3.64 ± 2.25 mm. UIAs in only 4 patients (10%) were considered as enlarged. None of the 50 IAs in the 40 ADPKD patients ruptured during the MRA follow-up period. Conclusion: 3.0 T 3D-TOF MRA was feasible for UIAs follow-up in ADPKD patients. The chance of enlargement and rupture of UIAs in ADPKD patients was not higher than in the general population.

  18. A follow-up study of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with intracranial aneurysms using 3.0 T three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Qian, Yi; Zheng, Xuan; Xiao, Liaoyuan; Yu, Shengqiang; Liu, Shiyuan

    2013-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients have an increased risk for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Our aim was to screen and follow up the unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) detected by 3.0 T three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF MRA) in patients with ADPKD in order to evaluate the growth of UIAs and the value of 3D-TOF MRA. From 2011 to 2012, we followed up UIAs detected in 40 ADPKD patients who had MRA examinations with an interval of at least 36 months. All MRA examinations were performed on a 3T system (Achieva X-Series, Philips Medical Systems) with a Sense-Head-8 receiver head coil. The acquired data sets were transferred to a workstation (EWS, Philips Medical) to perform maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) with a specialized software package (Philips Medical). The size of UIAs was determined as the longest diameter in transverse or vertical measurement. UIAs that grew more than 20% were considered as enlarged. Fifty UIAs were found in 40 previously examined ADPKD patients who underwent 3.0 T 3D-TOF MRA follow-ups. No patients ever had treatment before the second examination. The longest diameter of all follow-up UIAs was less than 10mm and mean diameter was 3.64 ± 2.25 mm. UIAs in only 4 patients (10%) were considered as enlarged. None of the 50 IAs in the 40 ADPKD patients ruptured during the MRA follow-up period. 3.0 T 3D-TOF MRA was feasible for UIAs follow-up in ADPKD patients. The chance of enlargement and rupture of UIAs in ADPKD patients was not higher than in the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amino alcohol- (NPS-2143 and quinazolinone-derived calcilytics (ATF936 and AXT914 differentially mitigate excessive signalling of calcium-sensing receptor mutants causing Bartter syndrome Type 5 and autosomal dominant hypocalcemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Letz

    Full Text Available Activating calcium sensing receptor (CaSR mutations cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH characterized by low serum calcium, inappropriately low PTH and relative hypercalciuria. Four activating CaSR mutations cause additional renal wasting of sodium, chloride and other salts, a condition called Bartter syndrome (BS type 5. Until today there is no specific medical treatment for BS type 5 and ADH. We investigated the effects of different allosteric CaSR antagonists (calcilytics on activating CaSR mutants.All 4 known mutations causing BS type 5 and five ADH mutations were expressed in HEK 293T cells and receptor signalling was studied by measurement of intracellular free calcium in response to extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]o. To investigate the effect of calcilytics, cells were stimulated with 3 mM [Ca2+]o in the presence or absence of NPS-2143, ATF936 or AXT914.All BS type 5 and ADH mutants showed enhanced signalling activity to [Ca2+]o with left shifted dose response curves. In contrast to the amino alcohol NPS-2143, which was only partially effective, the quinazolinone calcilytics ATF936 and AXT914 significantly mitigated excessive cytosolic calcium signalling of all BS type 5 and ADH mutants studied. When these mutants were co-expressed with wild-type CaSR to approximate heterozygosity in patients, ATF936 and AXT914 were also effective on all mutants.The calcilytics ATF936 and AXT914 are capable of attenuating enhanced cytosolic calcium signalling activity of CaSR mutations causing BS type 5 and ADH. Quinazolinone calcilytics might therefore offer a novel treatment option for patients with activating CaSR mutations.

  20. Excitatory inputs to four types of spinocerebellar tract neurons in the cat and the rat thoraco-lumbar spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sony Shakya; Bannatyne, B Anne; Jankowska, Elzbieta; Hammar, Ingela; Nilsson, Elin; Maxwell, David J

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum receives information from the hindlimbs through several populations of spinocerebellar tract neurons. Although the role of these neurons has been established in electrophysiological experiments, the relative contribution of afferent fibres and central neurons to their excitatory input has only been estimated approximately so far. Taking advantage of differences in the immunohistochemistry of glutamatergic terminals of peripheral afferents and of central neurons (with vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 or VGLUT2, respectively), we compared sources of excitatory input to four populations of spinocerebellar neurons in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord: dorsal spinocerebellar tract neurons located in Clarke's column (ccDSCT) and in the dorsal horn (dhDSCT) and ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) neurons including spinal border (SB) neurons. This was done on 22 electrophysiologically identified intracellularly labelled neurons in cats and on 80 neurons labelled by retrograde transport of cholera toxin b subunit injected into the cerebellum of rats. In both species distribution of antibodies against VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 on SB neurons (which have dominating inhibitory input from limb muscles), revealed very few VGLUT1 contacts and remarkably high numbers of VGLUT2 contacts. In VSCT neurons with excitatory afferent input, the number of VGLUT1 contacts was relatively high although VGLUT2 contacts likewise dominated, while the proportions of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 immunoreactive terminals were the reverse on the two populations of DSCT neurons. These findings provide morphological evidence that SB neurons principally receive excitatory inputs from central neurons and provide the cerebellum with information regarding central neuronal activity. PMID:22371473

  1. Familial co-segregation of Coffin-Lowry syndrome inherited from the mother and autosomal dominant Waardenburg type IV syndrome due to deletion of EDNRB inherited from the father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupe, Jacob; Sampath, Srirangan; Lacassie, Yves

    2014-10-01

    We report an African-American family that was identified after the proposita was referred for diagnostic evaluation at 4½ months with a history of Hirschsprung and dysmorphic features typical of Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Family evaluation revealed that the father had heterochromidia irides and hypertelorism supporting the clinical diagnosis of WS; however, examination of the mother revealed characteristic facial and digital features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS). Molecular testing of the mother identified a novel 2 bp deletion (c.865_866delCA) in codon 289 of RPS6KA3 leading to a frame-shift and premature termination of translation 5 codons downstream (NM_004586.2:p.Gln289ValfsX5). This deletion also was identified in the proposita and her three sisters with a clinical suspicion of CLS, all of whom as carriers for this X-linked disorder had very subtle manifestations. The molecular confirmation of WS type 4 (Shah-Waardenburg; WS4) was not as straightforward. To evaluate WS types 1-4, multiple sequential molecular tests were requested, including Sanger sequencing of all exons, and deletion/duplication analysis using MLPA for PAX3, MITF, SOX10, EDN3 and EDNRB. Although sequencing did not identify any disease causing variants, MLPA identified a heterozygous deletion of the entire EDNRB in the father. This deletion was also found in the proposita and the oldest child. Since the heterozygous deletion was the only change identified in EDNRB, this family represents one of the few cases of an autosomal dominant inheritance of WS4 involving the endothelin pathway. Altogether, clinical evaluation of the family revealed one child to be positive for WS4 and two positive for CLS, while two children were positive for both diseases simultaneously (including the proposita) while another pair test negative for either disease. This kinship is an example of the coincidence of two conditions co-segregating in one family, with variable phenotypes requiring molecular testing to

  2. A panel study on patients with dominant cerebellar ataxia highlights the frequency of channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelier, Marie; Coarelli, Giulia; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Konop, Juliette; Davoine, Claire-Sophie; Tesson, Christelle; Valter, Rémi; Anheim, Mathieu; Behin, Anthony; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Charles, Perrine; David, Albert; Ewenczyk, Claire; Fradin, Mélanie; Goizet, Cyril; Hannequin, Didier; Labauge, Pierre; Riant, Florence; Sarda, Pierre; Sznajer, Yves; Tison, François; Ullmann, Urielle; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Mochel, Fanny; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni; Durr, Alexandra

    2017-06-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have a marked heterogeneous genetic background, with mutations in 34 genes identified so far. This large amount of implicated genes accounts for heterogeneous clinical presentations, making genotype-phenotype correlations a major challenge in the field. While polyglutamine ataxias, linked to CAG repeat expansions in genes such as ATXN1, ATXN2, ATXN3, ATXN7, CACNA1A and TBP, have been extensively characterized in large cohorts, there is a need for comprehensive assessment of frequency and phenotype of more 'conventional' ataxias. After exclusion of CAG/polyglutamine expansions in spinocerebellar ataxia genes in 412 index cases with dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxias, we aimed to establish the relative frequencies of mutations in other genes, with an approach combining panel sequencing and TaqMan® polymerase chain reaction assay. We found relevant genetic variants in 59 patients (14.3%). The most frequently mutated were channel genes [CACNA1A (n = 16), KCND3 (n = 4), KCNC3 (n = 2) and KCNA1 (n = 2)]. Deletions in ITPR1 (n = 11) were followed by biallelic variants in SPG7 (n = 9). Variants in AFG3L2 (n = 7) came next in frequency, and variants were rarely found in STBN2 (n = 2), ELOVL5, FGF14, STUB1 and TTBK2 (n = 1 each). Interestingly, possible risk factor variants were detected in SPG7 and POLG. Clinical comparisons showed that ataxias due to channelopathies had a significantly earlier age at onset with an average of 24.6 years, versus 40.9 years for polyglutamine expansion spinocerebellar ataxias and 37.8 years for SPG7-related forms (P = 0.001). In contrast, disease duration was significantly longer in the former (20.5 years versus 9.3 and 13.7, P=0.001), though for similar functional stages, indicating slower progression of the disease. Of interest, intellectual deficiency was more frequent in channel spinocerebellar ataxias, while cognitive impairment in adulthood was similar among the three groups. Similar

  3. Properties of bilateral spinocerebellar activation of cerebellar cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus eGeborek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to explore the cerebellar cortical inputs from two spinocerebellar pathways, the spinal border cell-component of the ventral spinocerebellar tract (SBC-VSCT and the dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT, respectively, in the sublobule C1 of the cerebellar posterior lobe. The two pathways were activated by electrical stimulation of the contralateral lateral funiculus (coLF and the ipsilateral LF (iLF at lower thoracic levels. Most granule cells in sublobule C1 did not respond at all but part of the granule cell population displayed high-intensity responses to either coLF or iLF stimulation. As a rule, Golgi cells and Purkinje cell simple spikes responded to input from both LFs, although Golgi cells could be more selective. In addition, a small population of granule cells responded to input from both the coLF and the iLF. However, in these cases, similarities in the temporal topography and magnitude of the responses suggested that the same axons were stimulated from the two LFs, i.e. that the axons of individual spinocerebellar neurons could be present in both funiculi. This was also confirmed for a population of spinal neurons located within known locations of SBC-VSCT neurons and dorsal horn DSCT neurons. We conclude that bilateral spinocerebellar responses can occur in cerebellar granule cells, but the VSCT and DSCT systems that provide the input can also be organized bilaterally. The implications for the traditional functional separation of VSCT and DSCT systems and the issue whether granule cells primarily integrate functionally similar information or not are discussed.

  4. Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinós, Carmen; Calpena, Eduardo; Martínez-Rubio, Dolores; Lupo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy that comprises a complex group of more than 50 diseases, is the most common inherited neuropathy. CMT is generally divided into demyelinating forms, axonal forms and intermediate forms. CMT is also characterized by a wide genetic heterogeneity with 29 genes and more than 30 loci involved. The most common pattern of inheritance is autosomal dominant (AD), although autosomal recessive (AR) forms are more frequent in Mediterranean countries. In this chapter we give an overview of the associated genes, mechanisms and epidemiology of AR-CMT forms and their associated phenotypes.

  5. [Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8: the case of a Spanish family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Cabrero, D; Sánchez-Migallón, M; Cantarero, S; García-Ruiz Espiga, P J; Giménez-Pardo, A; Trujillo-Tiebas, M; Ayuso-García, C

    Dominant autosomic ataxias include a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the abnormal expansion of triplets. Male aged 33, with expansion of the SCA 8 gene (100 repetitions), who presented a clinical picture compatible with a pancerebellar syndrome. The patient had been diagnosed 11 years earlier as suffering from previously of histiocytosis X. A clinico genetic study was conducted on the patient and several members of his family (parents and two sisters). Both sisters and the father were found to be carriers of the expansion (110 and 150 repetitions, respectively), and are currently asymptomatic. There is no relation between the number of repetitions and the age of onset of the disease. The normal interval in our population oscillates between 16 37 repetitions, and the pathological interval has not been well determined. There may be a relation between the SCA 8 form and histiocytosis X.

  6. Phenotype variability and early onset ataxia symptoms in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7: comparison and correlation with other spinocerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Cristino de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by heterogeneous clinical presentation. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7 is caused by an abnormal CAG repeat expansion and includes cerebellar signs associated with visual loss and ophthalmoplegia. Marked anticipation and dynamic mutation is observed in SCA7. Moreover, phenotype variability and very early onset of symptoms may occur. In this article, a large series of Brazilian patients with different SCA subtypes was evaluated, and we compared the age of onset of SCA7 with other SCA. From the 26 patients with SCA7, 4 manifested their symptoms before 10-year-old. Also, occasionally the parents may have the onset of symptoms after their children. In conclusion, our study highlights the genetic anticipation phenomenon that occurs in SCA7 families. Patients with very early onset ataxia in the context of a remarkable family history, must be considered and tested for SCA7.

  7. Frequency of the different mutations causing spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2, MJD/SCA3 and DRPLA in a large group of Brazilian patients Freqüência das mutações que causam ataxia espinocerebelar (SCA1, SCA2, MJD/SCA3 e DRPLA em um grupo numeroso de pacientes Brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iscia Lopes-Cendesi

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1, spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 and Machado-Joseph disease or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (MJD/SCA3 are three distinctive forms of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA caused by expansions of an unstable CAG repeat localized in the coding region of the causative genes. Another related disease, dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA is also caused by an unstable triplet repeat and can present as SCA in late onset patients. We investigated the frequency of the SCA1, SCA2, MJD/SCA3 and DRPLA mutations in 328 Brazilian patients with SCA, belonging to 90 unrelated families with various patterns of inheritance and originating in different geographic regions of Brazil. We found mutations in 35 families (39%, 32 of them with a clear autosomal dominant inheritance. The frequency of the SCA1 mutation was 3% of all patients; and 6 % in the dominantly inherited SCAs. We identified the SCA2 mutation in 6% of all families and in 9% of the families with autosomal dominant inheritance. The MJD/SCA3 mutation was detected in 30 % of all patients; and in the 44% of the dominantly inherited cases. We found no DRPLA mutation. In addition, we observed variability in the frequency of the different mutations according to geographic origin of the patients, which is probably related to the distinct colonization of different parts of Brazil. These results suggest that SCA may be occasionally caused by the SCA1 and SCA2 mutations in the Brazilian population, and that the MJD/SCA3 mutation is the most common cause of dominantly inherited SCA in Brazil.Ataxia espinocerebelar tipo 1 (SCA1, ataxia espinocerebelar tipo 2 (SCA2 e doença de Machado-Joseph ou ataxia espinocerebelar tipo 3 (MJD/SCA3 são três formas de ataxia espinocerebelar (SCA que apresentam herança genética autossômica dominante. Nessas três doenças foi encontrada uma expansão instável de trinucleotídeo CAG localizada na região codificadora dos

  8. The burden of gestational diabetes mellitus in Jamaican women with a family history of autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes La carga de la diabetes mellitus gestacional en mujeres de Jamaica con antecedentes familiares de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael R. Irving

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine if Jamaican women of African descent with a family history of early onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes have greater odds of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM than those without a family history of the disease. METHODS: A comparative study was conducted of two groups of pregnant Jamaican women: the first with a family history of early onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes; the second with no history of the disease. Incidence, odds for developing GDM, and metabolic profiles in first and second trimesters were assessed using SPSS 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States. RESULTS: The incidence of GDM was 12.0 % in women with a family history of early onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes and 1.5% in women without a family history of the disease (P OBJETIVOS: Determinar si las mujeres jamaicanas de ascendencia africana con antecedentes familiares de inicio temprano de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2 tienen mayor probabilidad de desarrollar diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG que las que no tienen esos antecedentes familiares. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio comparativo con dos grupos de mujeres jamaicanas embarazadas: el primero con mujeres que tenían antecedentes familiares de inicio temprano de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2 y el segundo con mujeres sin antecedentes familiares de esa enfermedad. Se empleó el programa SPSS v. 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, Estados Unidos de América para analizar los resultados y calcular la incidencia, la probabilidad de desarrollar DMG y los perfiles metabólicos en el primer y el segundo trimestres de gestación. RESULTADOS: La incidencia de DMG fue de 12,0% en las mujeres con antecedentes familiares de inicio temprano de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2 y de 1,5% en las mujeres sin antecedentes familiares de esa enfermedad (P < 0,05. Las mujeres del primer grupo tuvieron nueve veces más probabilidades de desarrollar DMG que las

  9. Unilateral Autosomal Recessive Anophthalmia in a Patient with Cystic Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amandeep; Bansal, Ankit; Garg, Ajay; Sharma, Bhawani S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anophthalmia is a rare ocular malformation. It is a genetically determined disorder and is typically associated with syndromes. However, sporadic nonsyndromic familial as well as non-familial cases of anophthalmia have also been reported. Non-syndromic familial cases are usually bilateral and have been attributed to autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked inheritance patterns. The authors hereby report a rare case of autosomal recessive unilateral anophthalmia in a patient with no other associated congenital anomaly. Patient was operated for craniopharyngioma. The clinical, radiological and intraoperative findings are discussed. PMID:27928292

  10. Deregulation of the actin cytoskeleton and macropinocytosis in response to phorbol ester by the mutant protein kinase C gamma that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro eYamamoto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cγ (γPKC gene have been found to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. γPKC is a neuron-specific member of the classical PKCs and is activated and translocated to subcellular regions as a result of various stimuli, including diacylglycerol synthesis, increased intracellular Ca2+ and phorbol esters. We investigated whether SCA14 mutations affect the γPKC-related functions by stimulating HeLa cells with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylpholbol 13-acetate, a type of phorbol ester. Wild-type (WT γPKC-GFP was translocated to the plasma membrane within 10 min of TPA stimulation, followed by its perinuclear translocation and cell shrinkage, in a PKC kinase activity- and microtubule-dependent manner. On the other hand, although SCA14 mutant γPKC-GFP exhibited a similar translocation to the plasma membrane, the subsequent perinuclear translocation and cell shrinkage were significantly impaired in response to TPA. Translocated WT γPKC colocalized with F-actin and formed large vesicular structures in the perinuclear region. The uptake of FITC-dextran, a marker of macropinocytosis, was promoted by TPA stimulation in cells expressing WT γPKC, and FITC-dextran was surrounded by γPKC-positive vesicles. Moreover, TPA induced the phosphorylation of MARCKS, which is a membrane-substrate of PKC, resulting in the translocation of phosphorylated MARCKS to the perinuclear region, suggesting that TPA induces macropinocytosis via γPKC activation. However, TPA failed to activate macropinocytosis and trigger the translocation of phosphorylated MARCKS in cells expressing the SCA14 mutant γPKC. These findings suggest that γPKC is involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and macropinocytosis in HeLa cells, while SCA14 mutant γPKC fails to regulate these processes due to its reduced kinase activity at the plasma membrane. This property might be involved in

  11. Reduced cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a comparative study with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, Anna; De Leva, Maria Fulvia; Maddaluno, Gennaro; Filla, Alessandro; De Michele, Giuseppe [University Federico II, Department of Neurosciences and Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, Naples (Italy); Pappata, Sabina; Pellegrino, Teresa [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Fiumara, Giovanni [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Carotenuto, Raffaella; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and peripheral neuropathy. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is often present. This study evaluated the cardiac sympathetic function in patients with SCA2 using {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in comparison with patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and control subjects. Nine patients with SCA2, nine patients with PD, and nine control subjects underwent {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging studies from which early and late heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratios and myocardial washout rates were calculated. Early (F = 12.3, p < 0.0001) and late (F = 16.8, p < 0.0001) H/M ratios were significantly different among groups. In controls, early and late H/M ratios (2.2 {+-} 0.12 and 2.1 {+-} 0.20) were significantly higher than in patients with SCA2 (1.9 {+-} 0.23 and 1.8 {+-} 0.20, both p < 0.05) and with patients with PD (1.7 {+-} 0.29 and 1.4 {+-} 0.35, both p < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in washout rates among groups (F = 11.7, p < 0.0001). In controls the washout rate (19.9 {+-} 9.6 %) was significantly lower (p < 0.005) than in patients with PD (51.0 {+-} 23.7 %), but not different from that in SCA2 patients (19.5 {+-} 9.4 %). In SCA2 patients, in a multivariable linear regression analysis only the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score was independently associated with early H/M ratio ({beta} = -0.12, p < 0.05). {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy demonstrated an impairment of cardiac sympathetic function in patients with SCA2, which was less marked than in PD patients. These results suggest that {sup 123}I-MIBG cardiac imaging could become a useful tool for analysing the pathophysiology of SCA2. (orig.)

  12. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6: MRI of three Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, J.I.; Tokumoto, H.; Yukitake, M.; Matsui, M.; Kuroda, Y.; Matsuyama, Z.; Kawakami, H.; Nakamura, S.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the MRI findings in three Japanese patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) in which a polymorphic CAG repeat was identified in the gene encoding the α 1A voltage-dependent P/Q-type Ca 2+ channel subunit (CACNL1A4). All showed slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and mild pyramidal signs. Neuroradiologically, they had moderate cerebellar atrophy, most prominently in the superior vermis, whereas the brain stem appeared to be spared. No abnormal signal intensity was identified. (orig.)

  13. Spinocerebellar ataxias in Venezuela: genetic epidemiology and their most likely ethnic descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Irene; Ikonomu, Vassiliki; Arias, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Dominantly inherited ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias, SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar and spinal tract degeneration with ataxia and other signs, common to all known subtypes. Several types are relatively frequent worldwide, but in several countries, one specific SCA may show a higher prevalence owing to founder phenomena. In Venezuela, genetic epidemiological features of SCAs have been assessed during the last 30 years; mutations in ATXN1 (SCA1), ATXN2 (SCA2), ATXN3 (SCA3), CACNA1A (SCA6), ATXN7 (SCA7), ATXN8 (SCA8), ATXN10 (SCA10), TBP (SCA17) and ATN1 (dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy, DRPLA) loci were searched among 115 independent families. SCA7 was the most frequent subtype (26.6%), followed by SCA3 (25.0%), SCA2 (21.9%), SCA1 (17.2%), SCA10 (4.7%) and DRPLA (3.1%); in 43% of the families, the subtype remained unidentified. SCA7 mutations displayed strong geographic aggregation in two independent founder foci, and SCA1 showed a very remote founder effect for a subset of families. SCA10 families were scattered across the country, but all had an identical in-phase haplotype carried also by Mexican, Brazilian and Sioux patients, supporting a very old common Amerindian origin. Prevalence for dominant SCAs in Venezuela was estimated as 1:25 000 nuclear families, provenances of which are either Caucasoid, African or Amerindian.

  14. Origin, course, and laterality of spinocerebellar axons in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, J R; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    1998-08-01

    Spinocerebellar axons have been studied extensively in placental mammals, but there have been no full reports on their origin, laterality, or spinal course in any marsupial. We have used the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) to obtain such information and to ask whether any spinocerebellar neurons innervate both the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum through axonal collaterals. To identify spinal neurons that project to the cerebellum, we employed the retrograde transport of Fluoro-Gold (FG) from the anterior lobe, the main target of spinocerebellar axons. In some cases, cerebellar injections of FG were combined with hemisections of the rostral cervical or midthoracic spinal cord, so that laterality of spinocerebellar connections could be established. To determine whether single neurons project to both the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe, injections of Fast Blue (FB) into the anterior lobe were combined with injections of Diamidino yellow (DY) or rhodamine B dextran (RBD) into the posterior lobe, or vice versa. Following injections of FG into the anterior lobe, neurons were labeled throughout the length of the spinal cord, which differed in laminar distribution and laterality of their projections. Among other areas, neurons were labeled in the central cervical nucleus, the nucleus centrobasalis, Clarke's nucleus, the dorsal horn dorsal spinocerebellar tract area, the spinal border region, and Stilling's nucleus. When anterior lobe injections of FB were combined with injections of RBD or DY into the posterior lobe, or vice versa, some double-labeled neurons were present in all major spinocerebellar groups. Cerebellar injections of FG also retrogradely labeled spinocerebellar axons, allowing us to document their locations in the gray matter as well as within the periphery of the lateral and ventral funiculi at all spinal levels. A few spinocerebellar axons also were found in the dorsal funiculus (a dorsal column-spinocerebellar tract

  15. Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa with RP1 mutations is associated with myopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chassine, T.; Bocquet, B.; Daien, V.; Avila-Fernandez, A.; Ayuso, C.; Collin, R.W.J.; Corton, M.; Hejtmancik, J.F.; Born, L.I. van den; Klevering, B.J.; Riazuddin, S.A.; Sendon, N.; Lacroux, A.; Meunier, I.; Hamel, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the refractive error in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) caused by RP1 mutations and to compare it with that of other genetic subtypes of RP. METHODS: Twenty-six individuals had arRP with RP1 mutations, 25 had autosomal dominant RP (adRP) with RP1

  16. Progeria (Hutchison - Gilford syndrome in siblings: In an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Tanjore

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is an autosomal dominant, premature aging syndrome. Six and three year old female siblings had sclcrodermatous changes over the extremities, alopecia, beaked nose, prominent veins and bird-like facies. Radiological features were consistent with features of progeria. The present case highlights rarity of progeria in siblings with a possible autosomal recessive pattern.

  17. Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infacts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lifestyle with adequate exercise and control of other risk factors for stroke such as high blood pressure, diaetes and high cholesterol are highly recommended. Recently, a randomized trail that tested Donepezil (Aricept), a drug recommended for Alzheimer’s disease, did not find it to be effective ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help regulate nerve cell (neuron) maturation and specialization (differentiation), the ability of neurons to move (migrate) ... Ataxia Foundation National Sleep Foundation University of Kansas Medical Center Resource List: Deafness and Hard of Hearing ...

  19. Autosomal Dominant Aniridia in A Nigerian Family: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 54year old man brought his son to our clinic because of large eyeballs and poor vision from birth. Family history revealed that father and another child had poor vision and used to squeeze their faces especially in bright light. Examination of the boy revealed bilateral aniridia with congenital glaucoma. The father, the other ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain, which do not affect a person's intelligence. Related Information What does it mean if a ... protein that plays an important role in several body systems. To carry out its roles, the STAT3 ...

  1. Autosomic dominant type II Osteopetrosis (Albers-Schonberg disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrano, Angela R; Salamanca, Juan C; Ospino, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    The osteopetrosis type II or albers-schonberg disease is an infrequent disease secondary to the decrease in the bone resorption. The osteoclast is the principal cell involved in the disease. The osteopetrosis is characterized by few symptoms and it also has a benign course, but may further develop medullar insufficiency. We report a case of a young patient that initially shows, thrombocytopenia and bone pain with increase in the bone density, suggestive of osteopetrosis type II. The x ray exam was conclusive of osteopetrosis

  2. Combined Occurrence of Autosomal Dominant Aniridia and Autosomal Recessive Albinism in Several Members of a Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahalom, Claudia; Sharon, Dror; Dalia, Eli; Simhon, Shiran Ben; Shemesh, Efrat; Blumenfeld, Anat

    2015-06-01

    To characterize clinical and genetic aspects of a family with a unique combination of two hereditary blinding eye diseases. Comprehensive eye examination of proband and family members. Molecular analyses of the TYR and PAX6 genes. A young couple, both legally blind, requested genetic counselling regarding their ocular condition. The female was previously diagnosed with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1A) and her spouse was diagnosed with Peters anomaly. A comprehensive clinical examination revealed that the female had OCA1A combined with signs of another ocular disease, showing some similarity to aniridia. A complete ocular examination of her family members revealed that her brother also suffered from the same combined phenotype, her father had typical OCA1A signs, and her mother and sister had aniridia-like phenotype, without clinical diagnosis until the time of presentation. Molecular analysis identified two compound heterozygous TYR mutations known to cause OCAIA and cosegregate with oculocutaneous albinism. In addition, we identified a novel heterozygous PAX6 mutation confirming the atypical aniridia phenotype. We report here a unique and rare clinical phenotype that is explained by the segregation of two severe inherited eye diseases. The clinical and genetic analysis in this family allowed them to receive accurate genetic counseling.

  3. Autosomal recessive hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria is not caused by mutations in the type II renal sodium/phosphate cotransporter gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Koul, K. Op de; Knots, E.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present the genetic defect for autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is unknown. Type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NPT2) gene is a serious candidate for being the causative gene in either or both autosomal recessive and

  4. Vascular Risk Factors and Clinical Progression in Spinocerebellar Ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Y. Lo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contributions of vascular risk factors to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA are not known.Methods: We studied 319 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3, and 6 and repeatedly measured clinical severity using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA for 2 years. Vascular risk factors were summarized by CHA2DS2-VASc scores as the vascular risk factor index. We employed regression models to study the effects of vascular risk factors on ataxia onset and progression after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeats. Our secondary analyses took hyperlipidemia into account.Results: Nearly 60% of SCA participants were at low vascular risks with CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, and 31% scored 2 or greater. Higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores were not associated with either earlier onset or faster progression of ataxia. These findings were not altered after accounting for hyperlipidemia. Discussion: Vascular risks are not common in SCAs and are not associated with earlier onset or faster ataxia progression.

  5. Prevalence of spinocerebellar ataxia 36 in a US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Juliana M; Diaz, Tatyana; Petty, Lauren E; Quintáns, Beatriz; Yáñez, Zuleima; Boerwinkle, Eric; Muzny, Donna; Akhmedov, Dmitry; Berdeaux, Rebecca; Sobrido, Maria J; Gibbs, Richard; Lupski, James R; Geschwind, Daniel H; Perlman, Susan; Below, Jennifer E; Fogel, Brent L

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and clinical features of individuals affected by spinocerebellar ataxia 36 (SCA36) at a large tertiary referral center in the United States. A total of 577 patients with undiagnosed sporadic or familial cerebellar ataxia comprehensively evaluated at a tertiary referral ataxia center were molecularly evaluated for SCA36. Repeat primed PCR and fragment analysis were used to screen for the presence of a repeat expansion in the NOP56 gene. Fragment analysis of triplet repeat primed PCR products identified a GGCCTG hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of NOP56 in 4 index cases. These 4 SCA36-positive families comprised 2 distinct ethnic groups: white (European) (2) and Asian (Japanese [1] and Vietnamese [1]). Individuals affected by SCA36 exhibited typical clinical features with gait ataxia and age at onset ranging between 35 and 50 years. Patients also suffered from ataxic or spastic limbs, altered reflexes, abnormal ocular movement, and cognitive impairment. In a US population, SCA36 was observed to be a rare disorder, accounting for 0.7% (4/577 index cases) of disease in a large undiagnosed ataxia cohort.

  6. Partial Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Spinocerebellar Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Laura Alice Santos; Martins, Camilla Polonini; Horsczaruk, Carlos Henrique Ramos; da Silva, Débora Cristina Lima; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Meira Mainenti, Míriam Raquel; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The motor impairments related to gait and balance have a huge impact on the life of individuals with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Here, the aim was to assess the possibility of retraining gait, improving cardiopulmonary capacity, and challenging balance during gait in SCA using a partial body weight support (BWS) and a treadmill. Also, the effects of this training over functionality and quality of life were investigated. Eight SCA patients were engaged in the first stage of the study that focused on gait training and cardiovascular conditioning. From those, five took part in a second stage of the study centered on dynamic balance training during gait. The first and second stages lasted 8 and 10 weeks, respectively, both comprising sessions of 50 min (2 times per week). The results showed that gait training using partial BWS significantly increased gait performance, treadmill inclination, duration of exercise, and cardiopulmonary capacity in individuals with SCA. After the second stage, balance improvements were also found. Combining gait training and challenging tasks to the postural control system in SCA individuals is viable, well tolerated by patients with SCA, and resulted in changes in capacity for walking and balance.

  7. Aneurisma gigante do segmento intracavernoso da carótida interna associado a doença renal policística autossômica dominante: relato de caso Giant aneurysm of the intracavernous internal carotid artery associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keven F. Ponte

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso de mulher de 60 anos com doença renal policística autossômica dominante (DRPAD que desenvolveu quadro de cefaléia e oftalmoplegia completa à direita. A TC levantou a hipótese de um aneurisma gigante do segmento intracavernoso da carótida interna direita, o que foi confirmado pela arteriografia. Realizou-se, então, tratamento endovascular por oclusão do vaso parental com molas destacáveis no segmento supraclinóideo. A paciente evoluiu com a interrupção da cefaléia e com redução parcial da ptose e da oftalmoplegia. Neste artigo, enfatiza-se a relação entre DRPAD e aneurismas intracranianos. Comenta-se a história natural dos aneurismas originados no segmento intracavernoso da artéria carótida interna e comparam-se as opções terapêuticas no manejo destas lesões.We report the case of a 60 years-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD that presented with headache and right complete ophthalmoplegia. The CT scan raised the possibility of a giant aneurysm of the right intracavernous internal carotid artery, confirmed by angiography. The patient underwent endovascular occlusion of parent vessel with detachable coils, then she presented interruption of headache and partial recovery of ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. We emphasize the relationship between ADPKD and intracranial aneurysms. We also discuss the natural history and compare the therapeutic options for the management of giant aneurysms of the cavernous portion of the carotid artery.

  8. The population genetics of X-autosome synthetic lethals and steriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Joseph; Johnson, Norman A; True, John R

    2011-11-01

    Epistatic interactions are widespread, and many of these interactions involve combinations of alleles at different loci that are deleterious when present in the same individual. The average genetic environment of sex-linked genes differs from that of autosomal genes, suggesting that the population genetics of interacting X-linked and autosomal alleles may be complex. Using both analytical theory and computer simulations, we analyzed the evolutionary trajectories and mutation-selection balance conditions for X-autosome synthetic lethals and steriles. Allele frequencies follow a set of fundamental trajectories, and incompatible alleles are able to segregate at much higher frequencies than single-locus expectations. Equilibria exist, and they can involve fixation of either autosomal or X-linked alleles. The exact equilibrium depends on whether synthetic alleles are dominant or recessive and whether fitness effects are seen in males, females, or both sexes. When single-locus fitness effects and synthetic incompatibilities are both present, population dynamics depend on the dominance of alleles and historical contingency (i.e., whether X-linked or autosomal mutations occur first). Recessive synthetic lethality can result in high-frequency X-linked alleles, and dominant synthetic lethality can result in high-frequency autosomal alleles. Many X-autosome incompatibilities in natural populations may be cryptic, appearing to be single-locus effects because one locus is fixed. We also discuss the implications of these findings with respect to standing genetic variation and the origins of Haldane's rule.

  9. Clinical and molecular characteristics of a Brazilian family with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 Características clínicas e moleculares de uma família Brasileira com ataxia espinocerebelar tipo 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iscia Lopes-Cendes

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of late onset neurodegenerative disorders. To date, seven different genes causing autosomal dominant SCA have been mapped: SCA1, SCA2, Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3, SCA4, SCA5, SCA7 and dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA. Expansions of an unstable trinucleotide CAG repeat cause three of these disorders: SCA1, MJD/SCA3 and DRPLA. We studied one Brazilian family segregating an autosomal dominant type of SCA. A total of ten individuals were examined and tested for the presence of the SCA1, MJD and DRPLA mutations. Three individuals, one male and two females, were considered affected based on neurological examination; ages at onset were: 32, 36 and 41 years. The first complaint in all three patients was gait ataxia which progressed slowly over the years. Six individuals showed one allele containing an expanded CAG repeat in the SCA1 gene. The mean size of the expanded allele was 48.2 CAG units. Instability of the expanded CAG tract was seen in the two transmissions that were observed in this family. In both occasions there was a contraction of the CAG tract. Our study demonstrates that SCA1 occurs in the Brazilian population. In addition, our results stress the importance of molecular studies in the confirmation of diagnosis and for pre-symptomatic testing in SCAs.As ataxias espinocerebelares (AECs fazem parte de um grupo de doenças neurodegenerativas que apresentam grande heterogeneidade clínica e genética. Existem até o momento sete genes mapeados responsáveis pelas AECs de transmissão autossômica dominante: SCA1, SCA2, doença de Machado-Joseph (DA/7 ou SCA3, SCA4, SCA5, SCA7 e atrofia dentatorubropalidoluisiana (ADRPL. Uma expansão de um trínucletídeo CAG foi identificada como a mutação responsável na SCA], DMJ e ADRPL. Estudamos uma família brasileira com uma forma autossômica dominante de AEC. Dez indivíduos foram examinados e

  10. Neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration associated with altered neurotransmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeliki Giannakopoulou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inherited neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases that occur across different species, such as the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, and many are caused by mutations in the same genes as corresponding human conditions. In the present study, we report an inherited neurodegenerative condition, termed ‘neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration’ (NVSD which affects neonatal or young dogs, mainly Rottweilers, which recently has been linked with the homozygosity for the RAB3GAP1:c.743delC allele. Mutations in human RAB3GAP1 cause Warburg micro syndrome (WARBM, a severe developmental disorder characterized predominantly by abnormalities of the nervous system including axonal peripheral neuropathy. RAB3GAP1 encodes the catalytic subunit of a GTPase activator protein and guanine exchange factor for Rab3 and Rab18 proteins, respectively. Rab proteins are involved in membrane trafficking in the endoplasmic reticulum, autophagy, axonal transport and synaptic transmission. The present study attempts to carry out a detailed histopathological examination of NVSD disease, extending from peripheral nerves to lower brain structures focusing on the neurotransmitter alterations noted in the cerebellum, the major structure affected. NVSD dogs presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia and some clinical manifestations that recapitulate the WARBM phenotype. Neuropathological examination revealed dystrophic axons, neurodegeneration and intracellular vacuolization in specific nuclei. In the cerebellum, severe vacuolation of cerebellar nuclei neurons, atrophy of Purkinje cells, and diminishing of GABAergic and glutamatergic fibres constitute the most striking lesions. The balance of evidence suggests that the neuropathological lesions are a reaction to the altered neurotransmission. The canine phenotype could serve as a model to delineate the disease-causing pathological mechanisms in RAB3GAP1 mutation.

  11. Modifications of resting state networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Cervo, Amedeo; Marsili, Angela; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the integrity of the Resting State Networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and the correlations between the modification of these networks and clinical variables. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data from 19 SCA2 patients and 29 healthy controls were analyzed using an independent component analysis and dual regression, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Correlations between the resting state networks alterations and disease duration, age at onset, number of triplets, and clinical score were assessed by Spearman's coefficient, for each cluster which was significantly different in SCA2 patients compared with healthy controls. In SCA2 patients, disruption of the cerebellar components of all major resting state networks was present, with supratentorial involvement only for the default mode network. When controlling at voxel level for gray matter volume, the reduction in functional connectivity in supratentorial regions of the default mode network, and in cerebellar regions within the default mode, executive and right fronto-parietal networks, was still significant. No correlations with clinical variables were found for any of the investigated resting state networks. The SCA2 patients show significant alterations of the resting state networks, only partly explained by the atrophy. The default mode network is the only resting state network that shows also supratentorial changes, which appear unrelated to the cortical gray matter volume. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of these changes. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways: shared ideas but different functions in motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eJiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impressive precision of mammalian limb movements relies on internal feedback pathways that convey information about ongoing motor output to cerebellar circuits. The spino-cerebellar tracts (SCT in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord have long been considered canonical neural substrates for the conveyance of internal feedback signals. Here we consider the distinct features of an indirect spino-cerebellar route, via the brainstem lateral reticular nucleus (LRN, and the implications of this pre-cerebellar ‘detour’ for the execution and evolution of limb motor control. Both direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways signal spinal interneuronal activity to the cerebellum during movements, but evidence suggests that direct SCT neurons are mainly modulated by rhythmic activity, whereas the LRN also receives information from systems active during postural adjustment, reaching and grasping. Thus, while direct and indirect spino-cerebellar circuits can both be regarded as internal copy pathways, it seems likely that the direct system is principally dedicated to rhythmic motor acts like locomotion, while the indirect system also provides a means of pre-cerebellar integration relevant to the execution and coordination of de

  13. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6 Protein Aggregates Cause Deficits in Motor Learning and Cerebellar Plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, Melanie D; Krause, Martin; Boele, Henk-Jan; Kruse, Wolfgang; Pollok, Stefan; Kuner, Thomas; Dalkara, Deniz; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Herlitze, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is linked to poly-glutamine (polyQ) within the C terminus (CT) of the pore-forming subunits of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels (Cav2.1) and is characterized by CT protein aggregates found in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). One hypothesis regarding SCA6 disease is that

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cell - derived neurons for the study of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Kofoed; Stummann, Tina C.; Madsen, Helena Borland

    2016-01-01

    The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines were established from two SCA3 patients. Dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed using an integration-free method...

  15. Early symptoms in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3, and 6.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Globas, C.; Montcel, S.T. du; Baliko, L.; Boesch, S.; Depondt, C.; DiDonato, S.; Durr, A.; Filla, A.; Klockgether, T.; Mariotti, C.; Melegh, B.; Rakowicz, M.; Ribai, P.; Rola, R.; Schmitz-Hubsch, T.; Szymanski, S.; Timmann, D.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Bauer, P.; Schols, L.

    2008-01-01

    Onset of genetically determined neurodegenerative diseases is difficult to specify because of their insidious and slowly progressive nature. This is especially true for spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) because of varying affection of many parts of the nervous system and huge variability of symptoms. We

  16. Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, K.; Meister, M.; Dugbartey, G. J.; Zijlstra, M. P.; Vinet, J.; Brunt, E. R. P.; van Leeuwen, F. W.; Rueb, U.; Kampinga, H. H.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2012-01-01

    K. Seidel, M. Meister, G. J. Dugbartey, M. P. Zijlstra, J. Vinet, E. R. P. Brunt, F. W. van Leeuwen, U. Rub, H. H. Kampinga and W. F. A. den Dunnen (2012) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology38, 548558 Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type

  17. Evidence of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) patient fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Nanna; Wardman, Jonathan H; Hargreaves, Iain P

    2017-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the ataxin-2 gene. We show increased oxidative stress, abnormalities in the antioxidant system, changes in complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and changes in mitochondrial mor...

  18. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease) : severe destruction of the lateral reticular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rub, U; de Vos, RAI; Schultz, C; Brunt, ER; Paulson, H; Braak, H

    The lateral reticular nucleus (LRT) of the medulla oblongata is a precerebellar nucleus involved in proprioception and somatomotor automatisms. We investigated this nucleus in five individuals with clinically diagnosed and genetically confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, Machado-Joseph

  19. Experimental research on preimplantation genetic diagnosis for autosomal dominant polycys-tic kidney disease%常染色体显性多囊肾疾病行胚胎植入前遗传学诊断的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴; 徐炳森; 黄学锋; 周颖

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立由PKD1突变所致常染色体显性多囊肾疾病(autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease,ADPKD)的胚胎植入前遗传学诊断(preimplantation genetic diagnosis,PGD)方法.方法:①通过微卫星连锁分析确定2个多囊肾家系的ADPKD致病基因.检测的微卫星包括为与PKD1连锁的KG8、 SM6、CW4和CW2以及与PKD2连锁的D4S1534、D4S1563、D4S414和D4S423.②对18个淋巴细胞和1个PKD1 突变所致ADPKD成员行常规体外受精胚胎移植后的5个废弃胚胎15个卵裂球行多重巢式PCR和毛细管电泳检测与PKD1连锁的微卫星分型.结果:①KG8、CW4和CW2 可作为连锁微卫星分析外周血和单个细胞的PKD1突变;②2个家系的致病基因均为PKD1;③单个卵裂球扩增成功率为86.67%(13/15),单个淋巴细胞扩增成功率为88.89%(16/18),CW4等位基因脱扣率为25%(4/16),CW2未发现等位基因脱扣,均未发现污染,2个胚胎携带致病基因.结论:PKD1连锁的微卫星分型可作为PKD1突变所致ADPKD的PGD诊断方法.

  20. Distintas formas de presentación clínica de un raquitismo hipofosfatémico autosómico dominante por mutación del factor de crecimiento fibroblástico 23 en una familia Different forms of clinical presentation of an autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets caused by a FGF 23 mutation in one family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Luis Negri

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Describimos distintas formas de presentación clínica de un raquitismo hipofosfatémico autosómico dominante en 4 miembros de una misma familia y su respuesta al tratamiento. Paciente N° 1: de sexo femenino de 60 años que consultó por dolores costales y pélvicos, con osteoporosis densitométrica, hipofosfatemia con bajo umbral renal de fósforo, PTH intacta normal y calcemia normal. Tratada con fósforo neutro y calcitriol logró la normalización bioquímica y una notable mejoría de la densitometría en menos de un año. Paciente N° 2: su nieta, consultó al año y ocho meses de edad por presentar talla en percentil 3 y genu varum. En el laboratorio mostró hipofosfatemia y fosfatasa alcalina total muy elevada y en la Rx de mano, ensanchamiento y deflecamiento epifisario compatible con raquitismo. Tratada con fósforo neutro y calcitriol, normalizó los parámetros bioquímicos y logró un ascenso en el percentil de talla de 3 a 50 a los 20 meses de tratamiento. Paciente N° 3: la madre de la paciente N° 2, quien sin ninguna manifestación clínica y con densitometría ósea normal presentó hipofosfatemia que se normalizó con tratamiento con fosfato neutro. Paciente N° 4: el tío de la paciente N° 2, tuvo raquitismo hipofosfatémico de niño, y luego de los 5 años normalizó el fósforo sin tratamiento. Estudiado a los 29 años presentó fósforo normal y densitometría ósea normal. El análisis del ADN genómico de la paciente N° 3 mostró una mutación con sentido erróneo en el gen del factor de crecimiento fifroblástico 23 (sustitución de arginina por una glutamina en posición 179. Por lo tanto se llegó al diagnóstico de raquitismo/osteomalacia hipofosfatémico autosómico dominante.In this report we describe different forms of clinical presentation of an autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR in 4 members of the same family as well as the treatment used in these patients and their response to it. Patient N

  1. Organization of spinocerebellar projection map in three types of agranular cerebellum: Purkinje cells vs. granule cells as organizer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenio Nunes, M.L.; Sotelo, C.; Wehrle, R.

    1988-01-01

    The organization of the spinocerebellar projection was analysed by the anterograde axonal WGA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase-wheat germ agglutinin conjugate) tracing method in three different types of agranular cerebellar cortex either induced experimentally by X-irradiation or occurring spontaneously in weaver (wv/wv) and staggerer (sg/sg) mutant mice. The results of this study show that in the X-irradiated rat and weaver mouse, in both of which the granule cells are directly affected and die early in development, the spinal axons reproduce, with few differences, the normal spinocerebellar pattern. Conversely, in staggerer mouse, in which the Purkinje cells are intrinsically affected and granule neurons do not seem to be primarily perturbed by the staggerer gene action, the spinocerebellar organization is severely modified. These findings appear somewhat paradoxical because if granule cells, the synaptic targets of mossy spinocerebellar fibers, were necessary for the organization of spinocerebellar projection, the staggerer cerebellum would exhibit a much more normal projectional map than the weaver and the X-irradiated cerebella. It is, therefore, obvious that granule cells, and even specific synaptogenesis, are not essential for the establishment of the normal spinocerebellar topography. On the other hand, the fact that the Purkinje cells are primarily affected in the unique agranular cortex in which the spinocerebellar organization is severely modified suggests that these neurons could be the main element in the organization of the spinocerebellar projection map. This hypothesis is discussed in correlation with already-reported findings on the zonation of the cerebellar cortex by biochemically different clusters of Purkinje cells

  2. Constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2011-12-01

    Chromosomal imbalances can result from numerical or structural anomalies. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities are often referred to as aneuploid conditions. This article focuses on the occurrence of constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy in humans. Topics covered include frequency, mosaicism, phenotypic findings, and etiology. The article concludes with a consideration of anticipated advances that might allow for the development of screening tests and/or lead to improvements in our understanding and management of the role that aneuploidy plays in the aging process and acquisition of age-related and constitutional conditions.

  3. A novel approach identifying hybrid sterility QTL on the autosomes of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Christopher T D; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    When species interbreed, the hybrid offspring that are produced are often sterile. If only one hybrid sex is sterile, it is almost always the heterogametic (XY or ZW) sex. Taking this trend into account, the predominant model used to explain the genetic basis of F1 sterility involves a deleterious interaction between recessive sex-linked loci from one species and dominant autosomal loci from the other species. This model is difficult to evaluate, however, as only a handful of loci influencing interspecies hybrid sterility have been identified, and their autosomal genetic interactors have remained elusive. One hindrance to their identification has been the overwhelming effect of the sex chromosome in mapping studies, which could 'mask' the ability to accurately map autosomal factors. Here, we use a novel approach employing attached-X chromosomes to create reciprocal backcross interspecies hybrid males that have a non-recombinant sex chromosome and recombinant autosomes. The heritable variation in phenotype is thus solely caused by differences in the autosomes, thereby allowing us to accurately identify the number and location of autosomal sterility loci. In one direction of backcross, all males were sterile, indicating that sterility could be entirely induced by the sex chromosome complement in these males. In the other direction, we identified nine quantitative trait loci that account for a surprisingly large amount (56%) of the autosome-induced phenotypic variance in sterility, with a large contribution of autosome-autosome epistatic interactions. These loci are capable of acting dominantly, and thus could contribute to F1 hybrid sterility.

  4. A novel approach identifying hybrid sterility QTL on the autosomes of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T D Dickman

    Full Text Available When species interbreed, the hybrid offspring that are produced are often sterile. If only one hybrid sex is sterile, it is almost always the heterogametic (XY or ZW sex. Taking this trend into account, the predominant model used to explain the genetic basis of F1 sterility involves a deleterious interaction between recessive sex-linked loci from one species and dominant autosomal loci from the other species. This model is difficult to evaluate, however, as only a handful of loci influencing interspecies hybrid sterility have been identified, and their autosomal genetic interactors have remained elusive. One hindrance to their identification has been the overwhelming effect of the sex chromosome in mapping studies, which could 'mask' the ability to accurately map autosomal factors. Here, we use a novel approach employing attached-X chromosomes to create reciprocal backcross interspecies hybrid males that have a non-recombinant sex chromosome and recombinant autosomes. The heritable variation in phenotype is thus solely caused by differences in the autosomes, thereby allowing us to accurately identify the number and location of autosomal sterility loci. In one direction of backcross, all males were sterile, indicating that sterility could be entirely induced by the sex chromosome complement in these males. In the other direction, we identified nine quantitative trait loci that account for a surprisingly large amount (56% of the autosome-induced phenotypic variance in sterility, with a large contribution of autosome-autosome epistatic interactions. These loci are capable of acting dominantly, and thus could contribute to F1 hybrid sterility.

  5. SCA28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Kirsten; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Aidt, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of rare inherited neurodegenerative diseases characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, resulting in unsteady gait, clumsiness, and dysarthria. The disorders are predominantly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Mutations in the gen...

  6. Clinical and CT features in cases of spinocerebellar degeneration occurring at infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eda, Isematsu; Nakano, Chizuko; Kawahara, Hitoshi; Takeshita, Kenzo

    1985-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and CT findings were evaluated in 7 patients in whom symptoms compatible with spinocerebellar degeneration had occurred at infancy. CT findings included atrophy of the vermis, hemisphere and brain-stem, and dilation of the forth ventricle. These were in accordance with those reported in adult cases of spinocerebellar degeneration. There was some correlation between the severity of clinical symptoms and CT findings. Clinical lesions tended to coincide with CT findings. None of the patients had typical adult types such as delayed cerebello-cortical atrophy and olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy. There were great differences in clinical symptoms among the patients. Many of the patients had complications such as pigmentary degeneration of the retina, optic atrophy and cataract, which are rare in adult cases. It is therefore considered impossible to categorize these cases, except for two cases of familial convulsive paraplegia, as a given type. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. MRI of the spinocerebellar degeneration (multiple system atrophy, Holmes type, and Menzel-Joseph type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Eiichiro; Makino, Naoki.

    1991-01-01

    We have analyzed MRI in 33 patients with several forms of spinocerebellar degeneration; 17 with multiple system atrophy, 10 with Holmes type, and 6 with Menzel-Joseph type. The MRIs were obtained using a 1.5-T GEMR System. Patients with multiple system atrophy demonstrated: atrophy of the brain stem, particularly basis pontis; decreased signal intensity of the white matter of pons; atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum; atrophy and decreased signal intensity of the putamen, particularly along their lateral and posterior portions; and atrophy of the cerebrum. Patients with Holmes type showed: atrophy of the cerebellum; atrophy of the vermis more than hemispheres; and nuclei of the cerebellum with no decreased intensity on T 2 -weighted sequences. Patients with Menzel-Joseph type demonstrated moderate atrophy of the brain stem and mild atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of the spinocerebellar degeneration. (author)

  8. Motor Decline in Clinically Presymptomatic Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 Gene Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Perez, Luis; Díaz, Rosalinda; Pérez-González, Ruth; Canales, Nalia; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Medrano, Jacquelín; Sánchez, Gilberto; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis; Torres, Cira; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Background Motor deficits are a critical component of the clinical characteristics of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, there is no current information on the preclinical manifestation of those motor deficits in presymptomatic gene carriers. To further understand and characterize the onset of the clinical manifestation in this disease, we tested presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers, and volunteers, in a task that evaluates their motor performance and their motor learning capabilities. Methods and Findings 28 presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers and an equal number of control volunteers matched for age and gender participated in the study. Both groups were tested in a prism adaptation task known to be sensible to both motor performance and visuomotor learning deficits. Our results clearly show that although motor learning capabilities are intact, motor performance deficits are present even years before the clinical manifestation of the disease start. Conclusions The results show a clear deficit in motor performance that can be detected years before the clinical onset of the disease. This motor performance deficit appears before any motor learning or clinical manifestations of the disease. These observations identify the performance coefficient as an objective and quantitative physiological biomarker that could be useful to assess the efficiency of different therapeutic agents. PMID:19401771

  9. Rare Disease Patient Registry & Natural History Study - Coordination of Rare Diseases at Sanford

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    -Hirschhorn Syndrome; 4p16.3 Microduplication Syndrome; 4p Deletion Syndrome, Non-Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome; Autosomal Recessive Stickler Syndrome; Stickler Syndrome Type 2; Stickler Syndrome Type 1; Stickler Syndrome; Mucolipidosis Type 4; X-linked Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 4; X-linked Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3; X-linked Intellectual Disability - Ataxia - Apraxia; X-linked Progressive Cerebellar Ataxia; X-linked Non Progressive Cerebellar Ataxia; X-linked Cerebellar Ataxia; Vitamin B12 Deficiency Ataxia; Toxic Exposure Ataxia; Unclassified Autosomal Dominant Spinocerebellar Ataxia; Thyroid Antibody Ataxia; Sporadic Adult-onset Ataxia of Unknown Etiology; Spinocerebellar Ataxia With Oculomotor Anomaly; Spinocerebellar Ataxia With Epilepsy; Spinocerebellar Ataxia With Axonal Neuropathy Type 2; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 8; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 4; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 37; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 36; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 35; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 34; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 32; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 30; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 29; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 28; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 27; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 26; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 25; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 23; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 22; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 21; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 20; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 19/22; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 18; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 17; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 16; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 15/16; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 14; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 13; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 12; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 11; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 With Axonal Neuropathy; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1; Spinocerebellar Ataxia - Unknown; Spinocerebellar Ataxia - Dysmorphism

  10. Enamelin/ameloblastin gene polymorphisms in autosomal amelogenesis imperfecta among Syrian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashash, Mayssoon; Bazrafshani, Mohamed Riza; Poulton, Kay; Jaber, Saaed; Naeem, Emad; Blinkhorn, Anthony Stevenson

    2011-02-01

      This study was undertaken to investigate whether a single G deletion within a series of seven G residues (codon 196) at the exon 9-intron 9 boundary of the enamelin gene ENAM and a tri-nucleotide deletion at codon 180 in exon 7 (GGA vs deletion) of ameloblastin gene AMBN could have a role in autosomal amelogenesis imperfecta among affected Syrian families.   A new technique - size-dependent, deletion screening - was developed to detect nucleotide deletion in ENAM and AMBN genes. Twelve Syrian families with autosomal-dominant or -recessive amelogenesis imperfecta were included.   A homozygous/heterozygous mutation in the ENAM gene (152/152, 152/153) was identified in affected members of three families with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta and one family with autosomal-recessive amelogenesis imperfecta. A heterozygous mutation (222/225) in the AMBN gene was identified. However, no disease causing mutations was found. The present findings provide useful information for the implication of ENAM gene polymorphism in autosomal-dominant/-recessive amelogenesis imperfecta.   Further investigations are required to identify other genes responsible for the various clinical phenotypes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Andhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia-autosomal recessive form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar Arun

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with classical features in 2 sisters is reported. The mode of inheritance in these seems to be autosomal recessive; which is a very rare occurrence.

  12. Behavioral Retardation in a Macaque with Autosomal Trisomy and Aging Mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waal, Frans B. M. de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The social development of a female rhesus monkey was followed from birth until death, age 32 months. The monkey had an extra autosome and was hydrocephalic. The monkey showed serious motor deficiencies, delayed social development, poorly established dominance relationships, and heavy dependence on mother and kin. The monkey was, however, well…

  13. A KCNC3 mutation causes a neurodevelopmental, non-progressive SCA13 subtype associated with dominant negative effects and aberrant EGFR trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Swati; Nick, Jerelyn A; Zhang, Yalan; Galeano, Kira; Butler, Brittany; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Hathorn, Tyisha; Ranum, Laura P W; Smithson, Lisa; Golde, Todd E; Paucar, Martin; Morse, Richard; Raff, Michael; Simon, Julie; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Rincon-Limas, Diego E; Lewis, Jada; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Nick, Harry S; Waters, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3). We detail the clinical phenotype of four SCA13 kindreds that confirm causation of the KCNC3R423H allele. The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. Targeted expression of human KCNC3R423H in Drosophila triggers aberrant wing veins, maldeveloped eyes, and fused ommatidia consistent with the neurodevelopmental presentation of patients. Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. Confirmation of the absence of plasma membrane targeting was based on the loss of current conductance in cells expressing the mutant channel. Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr) results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Together, these results indicate that the neurodevelopmental consequences of

  14. A KCNC3 mutation causes a neurodevelopmental, non-progressive SCA13 subtype associated with dominant negative effects and aberrant EGFR trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Khare

    Full Text Available The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3. We detail the clinical phenotype of four SCA13 kindreds that confirm causation of the KCNC3R423H allele. The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. Targeted expression of human KCNC3R423H in Drosophila triggers aberrant wing veins, maldeveloped eyes, and fused ommatidia consistent with the neurodevelopmental presentation of patients. Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. Confirmation of the absence of plasma membrane targeting was based on the loss of current conductance in cells expressing the mutant channel. Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT protein, which explains dominant inheritance. We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Together, these results indicate that the neurodevelopmental

  15. Rhythmic activity of feline dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons during fictive motor actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedirchuk, Brent; Stecina, Katinka; Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl

    2013-01-01

    (without phasic afferent feedback). In this study, we compared the activity of DSCT and VSCT neurons during fictive rhythmic motor behaviors. We used decerebrate cat preparations in which fictive motor tasks can be evoked while the animal is paralyzed and there is no rhythmic sensory input from hindlimb......Neurons of the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts (DSCT) have been described to be rhythmically active during walking on a treadmill in decerebrate cats, but this activity ceased following deafferentation of the hindlimb. This observation supported the hypothesis that DSCT neurons primarily relay...

  16. A novel NR2E3 gene mutation in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa with cystic maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, D.; Votruba, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    NR2E3 is a gene that encodes for photoreceptor cell specific nuclear receptor, which is involved in cone proliferation. The splice site mutation 119-2A>C in NR2E3 (15q23) has been previously reported to underlie recessive enhanced cone S sensitivity syndrome, clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration, Goldman-Favre syndrome and also autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). However, the mutation c 571 + 2 T > C in NR2E3 has not been previously reported with retinal d...

  17. Dominant inheritance of cerebral gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonana, J; Sotos, J F; Romshe, C A; Fisher, D A; Elders, M J; Rimoin, D L

    1977-08-01

    Cerebral gigantism is a syndrome consisting of characteristic dysmorphic features, accelerated growth in early childhood, and variable degrees of mental retardation. Its etiology and pathogenesis have not been defined. Three families are presented with multiple affected members. The vertical transmission of the trait and equal expression in both sexes in these families indicates a genetic etiology with a dominant pattern of inheritance, probably autosomal. As in previously reported cases, extensive endocrine evaluation failed to define the pathogenesis of the accelerated growth present in this disorder.

  18. Simulating spinal border cells and cerebellar granule cells under locomotion--a case study of spinocerebellar information processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Spanne

    Full Text Available The spinocerebellar systems are essential for the brain in the performance of coordinated movements, but our knowledge about the spinocerebellar interactions is very limited. Recently, several crucial pieces of information have been acquired for the spinal border cell (SBC component of the ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT, as well as the effects of SBC mossy fiber activation in granule cells of the cerebellar cortex. SBCs receive monosynaptic input from the reticulospinal tract (RST, which is an important driving system under locomotion, and disynaptic inhibition from Ib muscle afferents. The patterns of activity of RST neurons and Ib afferents under locomotion are known. The activity of VSCT neurons under fictive locomotion, i.e. without sensory feedback, is also known, but there is little information on how these neurons behave under actual locomotion and for cerebellar granule cells receiving SBC input this is completely unknown. But the available information makes it possible to simulate the interactions between the spinal and cerebellar neuronal circuitries with a relatively large set of biological constraints. Using a model of the various neuronal elements and the network they compose, we simulated the modulation of the SBCs and their target granule cells under locomotion and hence generated testable predictions of their general pattern of modulation under this condition. This particular system offers a unique opportunity to simulate these interactions with a limited number of assumptions, which helps making the model biologically plausible. Similar principles of information processing may be expected to apply to all spinocerebellar systems.

  19. The natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3, and 6: a 2-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, H.; Bauer, P.; Giunti, P.; Labrum, R.; Sweeney, M.G.; Charles, P.; Durr, A.; Marelli, C.; Globas, C.; Linnemann, C.; Schols, L.; Rakowicz, M.; Rola, R.; Zdzienicka, E.; Schmitz-Hubsch, T.; Fancellu, R.; Mariotti, C.; Tomasello, C.; Baliko, L.; Melegh, B.; Filla, A.; Rinaldi, C.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Szymanski, S.; Berciano, J.; Infante, J.; Timmann, D.; Boesch, S.; Hering, S.; Depondt, C.; Pandolfo, M.; Kang, J.S.; Ratzka, S.; Schulz, J.; Tezenas du Montcel, S.; Klockgether, T.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and identify factors that influence their progression, we initiated the EUROSCA natural history study, a multicentric longitudinal cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6.

  20. Motor Training in Degenerative Spinocerebellar Disease: Ataxia-Specific Improvements by Intensive Physiotherapy and Exergames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthis Synofzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is essentially involved in movement control and plays a critical role in motor learning. It has remained controversial whether patients with degenerative cerebellar disease benefit from high-intensity coordinative training. Moreover, it remains unclear by which training methods and mechanisms these patients might improve their motor performance. Here, we review evidence from different high-intensity training studies in patients with degenerative spinocerebellar disease. These studies demonstrate that high-intensity coordinative training might lead to a significant benefit in patients with degenerative ataxia. This training might be based either on physiotherapy or on whole-body controlled videogames (“exergames”. The benefit shown in these studies is equal to regaining one or more years of natural disease progression. In addition, first case studies indicate that even subjects with advanced neurodegeneration might benefit from such training programs. For both types of training, the observed clinical improvements are paralleled by recoveries in ataxia-specific dysfunctions (e.g., multijoint coordination and dynamic stability. Importantly, for both types of training, the retention of the effects seems to depend on the frequency and continuity of training. Based on these studies, we here present preliminary recommendations for clinical practice, and articulate open questions that might guide future studies on neurorehabilitation in degenerative spinocerebellar disease.

  1. Operation of a P300-based brain-computer interface by patients with spinocerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Okahara

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the efficacy of a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA, which is often accompanied by cerebellar impairment. Methods: Eight patients with SCA and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were instructed to input Japanese hiragana characters using the P300-based BCI with green/blue flicker. All patients depended on some assistance in their daily lives (modified Rankin scale: mean 3.5. The chief symptom was cerebellar ataxia; no cognitive deterioration was present. A region-based, two-step P300-based BCI was used. During the P300 task, eight-channel EEG data were recorded, and a linear discriminant analysis distinguished the target from other nontarget regions of the matrix. Results: The mean online accuracy in BCI operation was 82.9% for patients with SCA and 83.2% for controls; no significant difference was detected. Conclusion: The P300-based BCI was operated successfully not only by healthy controls but also by individuals with SCA. Significance: These results suggest that the P300-based BCI may be applicable for patients with SCA. Keywords: BCI, BMI, P300, Visual stimuli, Spinocerebellar ataxia

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging for nerve fiber bundles in the brain stem and spinocerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Tsuguo

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can create an image of the anisotropic nature of diffusion and express it quantitatively. Nerve fibers have a large anisotropic diffusion, and it is possible to obtain images of the nerve fiber bundle. The purpose of this study is to observe the nerve fiber bundles in the brain stem using DTI and study its potential for diagnosing the type of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and 3D-tractography images were obtained for 41 subjects with no brain stem abnormalities. We created an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map and an FA map using DTI for 16 subjects in the disease group (11 with hereditary SCD and 5 with non-hereditary SCD) and 25 in the control group. The diffusion value of the pons and middle cerebellar peduncle was measured using ADC, and the degree of anisotropic diffusion was measured using FA. The pyramidal tract, superior cerebellar peduncle, and inferior cerebellar peduncle were clearly demonstrated for all cases. ADC for the middle cerebellar peduncle in spinocerebellar ataxin (SCA)1 was significantly higher, similar to that for the pons in dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). In MSA-C, ADC for both the pons and middle cerebellar peduncle was significantly elevated and FA was significantly decreased. There were no significant changes in SCA3. We could observe the nerve fiber bundles in the brain stem using DTI. FA and ADC measurements with DTI can aid in diagnosing the type of SCD. (author)

  3. Motor Training in Degenerative Spinocerebellar Disease: Ataxia-Specific Improvements by Intensive Physiotherapy and Exergames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is essentially involved in movement control and plays a critical role in motor learning. It has remained controversial whether patients with degenerative cerebellar disease benefit from high-intensity coordinative training. Moreover, it remains unclear by which training methods and mechanisms these patients might improve their motor performance. Here, we review evidence from different high-intensity training studies in patients with degenerative spinocerebellar disease. These studies demonstrate that high-intensity coordinative training might lead to a significant benefit in patients with degenerative ataxia. This training might be based either on physiotherapy or on whole-body controlled videogames (“exergames”). The benefit shown in these studies is equal to regaining one or more years of natural disease progression. In addition, first case studies indicate that even subjects with advanced neurodegeneration might benefit from such training programs. For both types of training, the observed clinical improvements are paralleled by recoveries in ataxia-specific dysfunctions (e.g., multijoint coordination and dynamic stability). Importantly, for both types of training, the retention of the effects seems to depend on the frequency and continuity of training. Based on these studies, we here present preliminary recommendations for clinical practice, and articulate open questions that might guide future studies on neurorehabilitation in degenerative spinocerebellar disease. PMID:24877117

  4. Genetic Counselors' Experiences Regarding Communication of Reproductive Risks with Autosomal Recessive Conditions found on Cancer Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mets, Sarah; Tryon, Rebecca; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Zierhut, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    The development of hereditary cancer genetic testing panels has altered genetic counseling practice. Mutations within certain genes on cancer panels pose not only a cancer risk, but also a reproductive risk for autosomal recessive conditions such as Fanconi anemia, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia. This study aimed to determine if genetic counselors discuss reproductive risks for autosomal recessive conditions associated with genes included on cancer panels, and if so, under what circumstances these risks are discussed. An on-line survey was emailed through the NSGC list-serv. The survey assessed 189 cancer genetic counselors' experiences discussing reproductive risks with patients at risk to carry a mutation or variant of uncertain significance (VUS) in a gene associated with both an autosomal dominant cancer risk and an autosomal recessive syndrome. Over half (n = 82, 55 %) reported having discussed reproductive risks; the remainder (n = 66, 45 %) had not. Genetic counselors who reported discussing reproductive risks primarily did so when patients had a positive result and were of reproductive age. Reasons for not discussing these risks included when a patient had completed childbearing or when a VUS was identified. Most counselors discussed reproductive risk after obtaining results and not during the informed consent process. There is inconsistency as to if and when the discussion of reproductive risks is taking place. The wide variation in responses suggests a need to develop professional guidelines for when and how discussions of reproductive risk for autosomal recessive conditions identified through cancer panels should occur with patients.

  5. Autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome associated with biallelic LZTR1 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jennifer J; van der Smagt, Jasper J; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Alswaid, Abdulrahman; Baker, Eva H; Blair, Edward; Borck, Guntram; Brinkmann, Julia; Craigen, William; Dung, Vu Chi; Emrick, Lisa; Everman, David B; van Gassen, Koen L; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Harr, Margaret H; Jain, Mahim; Kuechler, Alma; Leppig, Kathleen A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Peleg, Amir; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Rogers, R Curtis; Sagi-Dain, Lena; Sapp, Julie C; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Schanze, Denny; Stewart, Helen; Taylor, Jenny C; Verbeek, Nienke E; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A; Zackai, Elaine H; Zweier, Christiane; Zenker, Martin; Lee, Brendan; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2018-02-22

    PurposeTo characterize the molecular genetics of autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome.MethodsFamilies underwent phenotyping for features of Noonan syndrome in children and their parents. Two multiplex families underwent linkage analysis. Exome, genome, or multigene panel sequencing was used to identify variants. The molecular consequences of observed splice variants were evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.ResultsTwelve families with a total of 23 affected children with features of Noonan syndrome were evaluated. The phenotypic range included mildly affected patients, but it was lethal in some, with cardiac disease and leukemia. All of the parents were unaffected. Linkage analysis using a recessive model supported a candidate region in chromosome 22q11, which includes LZTR1, previously shown to harbor mutations in patients with Noonan syndrome inherited in a dominant pattern. Sequencing analyses of 21 live-born patients and a stillbirth identified biallelic pathogenic variants in LZTR1, including putative loss-of-function, missense, and canonical and noncanonical splicing variants in the affected children, with heterozygous, clinically unaffected parents and heterozygous or normal genotypes in unaffected siblings.ConclusionThese clinical and genetic data confirm the existence of a form of Noonan syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and identify biallelic mutations in LZTR1.Genet Med advance online publication, 22 February 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.249.

  6. Spinocerebellar ataxia 36 (SCA36): «Costa da Morte ataxia».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; García-Murias, M; Sobrido, M J

    To describe the history of the discovery of SCA36 and review knowledge of this entity, which is currently the most prevalent hereditary ataxia in Galicia (Spain) owing to a founder effect. SCA36 is an autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia with late onset and slow progression. It presents with cerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and discrete motor neuron impairment (tongue atrophy with denervation, discrete pyramidal signs). SCA36 was first described in Japan (Asida River ataxia) and in Galicia(Costa da Morte ataxia). The condition is caused by a genetic mutation (intronic hexanucleotide repeat expansion) in the NOP56 gene on the short arm of chromosome 20 (20p13). Magnetic resonance image study initially shows cerebellar vermian atrophy that subsequently extends to the rest of the cerebellum and finally to the pontomedullary region of the brainstem without producing white matter lesions. Peripheral nerve conduction velocities are normal, and sensorimotor evoked potential studies show delayed conduction of stimuli to lower limbs. In patients with hearing loss, audiometric studies show a drop of >40dB in frequencies exceeding 2,500Hz. Auditory evoked potential studies may also show lack of waves I and II. Costa da Morte ataxia or SCA36 is the most prevalent SCA in the Spanish region of Galicia. Given the region's history of high rates of emigration, new cases may be diagnosed in numerous countries, especially in Latin America. Genetic studies are now available to patients and asymptomatic carriers. Since many people are at risk for this disease, we will continue our investigations aimed at elucidating the underlying pathogenic molecular mechanisms and discovering effective treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, K; Meister, M; Dugbartey, G J; Zijlstra, M P; Vinet, J; Brunt, E R P; van Leeuwen, F W; Rüb, U; Kampinga, H H; den Dunnen, W F A

    2012-10-01

    A characteristic of polyglutamine diseases is the increased propensity of disease proteins to aggregate, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to the underlying neurodegeneration. Healthy cells contain mechanisms for handling protein damage, the protein quality control, which must be impaired or inefficient to permit proteotoxicity under pathological conditions. We used a quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of the pons of eight patients with the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. We employed the anti-polyglutamine antibody 1C2, antibodies against p62 that is involved in delivering ubiquitinated protein aggregates to autophagosomes, antibodies against the chaperones HSPA1A and DNAJB1 and the proteasomal stress marker UBB⁺¹. The 1C2 antibody stained neuronal nuclear inclusions (NNIs), diffuse nuclear staining (DNS), granular cytoplasmic staining (GCS) and combinations, with reproducible distribution. P62 always co-localized with 1C2 in NNI. DNS and GCS co-stained with a lower frequency. UBB⁺¹ was present in a subset of neurones with NNI. A subset of UBB⁺¹-containing neurones displayed increased levels of HSPA1A, while DNAJB1 was sequestered into the NNI. Based on our results, we propose a model for the aggregation-associated pathology of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3: GCS and DNS aggregation likely represents early stages of pathology, which progresses towards formation of p62-positive NNI. A fraction of NNI exhibits UBB⁺¹ staining, implying proteasomal overload at a later stage. Subsequently, the stress-inducible HSPA1A is elevated while DNAJB1 is recruited into NNIs. This indicates that the stress response is only induced late when all endogenous protein quality control systems have failed. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society.

  8. Recent Advancements in Targeted Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules in Neurodegenerative Disease–-Spinocerebellar Ataxia–-Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Prakash; Meenakshi Malhotra

    2008-01-01

    Drug discovery and its methodologies have been very effective in terms of treating cancers and immunological disorders but have not been able to stop genetic diseases as most of the drugs target at the protein level. They merely mitigate the symptoms of the disease. Spinocerebellar ataxia is a neurological genetic disorder that is caused by the formation of an abnormal protein. There have been several reports on ataxic drug development but actual clinical treatment is yet to be achieved. Olig...

  9. [Voluntary postural control learning with a use of visual bio-feedback in patients with spinocerebellar degenerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, K I; Ioffe, M E; Chernikova, L A; Kulikov, M A; Illarioshkin, S N; Markova, E D

    2004-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation of possibility and features of voluntary postural control learning using biofeedback from a force platform in patients with spinocerebellar ataxias. Thirty-seven patients with different forms of spinocerebellar degenerations and 13 age-matched healthy subjects were trained to shift the center of pressure (CP) during several stabilographic computer games which tested an ability to learn 2 different types of voluntary postural control: general strategy and precise coordination of CP shifting. Despite the disturbances of static posture and ability for voluntary control of CP position, patients with spinocerebellar degenerations can learn to control a vertical posture using biofeedback on stabilogram. In contrast to healthy subjects, improvement of coordination in the training process does not exert a significant influence on the static posture characteristics, in particular on lateral CP oscillations. The results obtained suggest involvement of the cerebellum in both types of postural control that distinguishes them from pathology caused by motor cortex and nigro-striatal system involved only in one type of postural control.

  10. Understanding the Pathophysiology of Spinocerebellar Ataxias through genetics, neurophysiology, structural and functional neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Pal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10 years a large cohort of 656 index patients with clinically suspected degenerative ataxias were clinically evaluated under various research projects. Of these, 625 index patients underwent genetic tests for the clinically suspected most probable diagnosis. A diagnosis could be achieved in 218 patients (34.9%. Among these 218 index patients, 82 each were SCA1 and SCA2, 32 were SCA3, 4 were SCA12, and 18 were Friedreich's Ataxia. Thus among the Autosomal Dominant Ataxias (SCAs there was equal prevalence of SCA1 and SCA2 (41% each followed by SCA3 (16% and SCA12 (2%. This high prevalence of SCA1 is in contrast to the available National and International literature. The rate of clinical disease progression, especially in SCA2, was dependent on the CAG repeat size, and may commence linearly from birth.Apart from cerebellar involvement, a comprehensive evaluation of the neuroaxis in various subsets of this genetically proved cohort showedsubclinicalinvolvement of the cerebral cortex, central motor and sensory pathways, peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Important findings include: (aAmixedsensorimotor and pure sensory neuropathy was seen in all the three subtypes of SCAs, while pure motor neuropathy was uncommon; (b There was reduced cortical excitability and prolonged central motor conduction time, most evident in SCA1 and least in SCA2; (c Cardiac autonomic dysfunction, predominantly parasympathetic, was seen in SCA, and the severity correlated with the duration of illness in SCA1; (d In SCA1 there was a global impairment of balance, with greater instability in anterior–posterior than medio–lateral directions; (e In all the three SCAs there was a significant loss of gray matter in both cerebellar hemispheres and vermis. Vermian atrophy was more pronounced in SCA3, while SCA1 and SCA2 had significant white matter atrophy. Pontine white matter atrophy was more pronounced in SCA2; (f Cerebellar activity was

  11. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs. Michael A Henning, Sinclair A Marcon. Abstract. A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, ...

  12. Dominant versus recessive traits conveyed by allelic mutations - to what extent is nonsense-mediated decay involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Shachar, S.; Khajavi, M.; Withers, M.A.; Shaw, C.A.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Brunner, H.G.; Lupski, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in ROR2, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, can cause autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome (RRS), a severe skeletal dysplasia with limb shortening, brachydactyly, and a dysmorphic facial appearance. Other mutations in ROR2 result in the autosomal dominant disease, brachydactyly type B

  13. Axonal loss occurs early in dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Sander, Birgit; Wegener, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to investigate retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in relation to age in healthy subjects and patients with OPA1 autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional investigation of RNFL...

  14. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  15. CT scanning of the brain and lumber CSF monoamine metabolites in spinocerebellar degenerative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hidenao; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Nakanishi, Takao; Kuramoto, Kenmei

    1984-01-01

    Eight patients with parenchymatous cerebellar degeneration (PCD) group (3 with late cortical cerebellar atrophy and 5 with Holmes' hereditary ataxia), 14 with olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA) group (4 with Shy-Drager syndrome, 6 with OPCA without family history and 4 with Menzel type SCS), 15 with Parkinson's disease and 44 control with other neurological diseases were studied. In all the spinocerebellar degenerative disorder s (SCD) cases, CVI values corresponding to the cerebellar atrophy were definitely reduced. On the other hand, PVI values corresponding to the pontine atrophy were only significantly decreased in OPCA group. However, since there were several cases showing only questionable pontine atrpphy, it seems difficult to clearly differentiate individual OPCA cases from other SCD cases on CT films alone. Concerning monoamine metabolites in CSF, it was noted that a significant reduction of HVA and total MHPG was found in the OPCA group. Among them, the patients with overt autonomic failure showed the lowest HVA level and the cases of Menzel type of SCD showed a slight reduction of HVA but an unexpected elevation of free MHPG values. The cases of Parkinson's disease showed a definite reduction of HVA. On the other hand, the cases of PCD group showed no significant difference against controls. 5-HIAA levels were not significantly different among the SCD subgroups. (J.P.N.)

  16. Misclassification of Patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia as having Psychogenic Postural Instability based on Computerized Dynamic Posturography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Herdman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific criteria have been developed based on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP to assist clinicians in identifying patients with psychogenic balance problems1-4. Patients with known Spinocerebellar Ataxia (SCA meet several of the criteria for psychogenic balance problem and risk being misclassified as having imbalance of psychogenic origin. However, our research shows that patients with SCA may be distinguished from patients with psychogenic balance problems in several ways. We compared test performance on CDP and the observation of specific behaviors that are associated with psychogenic balance problems in patients with SCA (n = 43 and patients with known psychogenic balance problems (n = 40. Chi square analysis was used to determine if there were significant differences between the groups for the frequency of each criterion for psychogenic CDP and Observed Behaviors. Level of significance was Bonferroni corrected for multiple comparisons. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratios were calculated for each criterion. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to examine whether the two patient groups demonstrated similar groupings of criteria. Comparison of the results of these analyses identified two criteria that were significantly more frequent in the Psychogenic group than in the SCA group: Regular Periodicity of sway and Circular Sway. Sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratios identified two additional criteria, Inconsistent Motor Responses and Large lateral Sway that also seem to suggest a psychogenic component to a person’s imbalance. Prospective studies are needed to validate the usefulness of these findings.

  17. [123I]-IMP SPECT findings in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nakabayashi, Haruo; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Nakajima, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    To study the dynamics of metabolic function in the cerebellar hemispheres, vermis and brain stem of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), we used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in six Japanese patients with SCA6 and nine normal control subjects. All patients with SCA6 were found to have expanded CAG repeats (from 22 to 24 repeats). The SPECT data were also analyzed semiquantitatively. The rCBF in the cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem was not significantly lower in patients with SCA6 than in normal controls. However, the ratio of the cerebellar hemisphere to occipital lobe (C/O ratio) was significantly lower in patients. The ratio of the vermis and brain stem to occipital lobe (V/O, P/O ratio) were not significantly lower in patients. The C/O, V/O and P/O ratio were especially sensitive indexes for regional cerebral function in patients with SCA6. Results of this study suggest that the functional decrease in SCA6 may begin in the cerebellar hemispheres. IMP SPECT was useful for evaluating rCBF in patients with SCA6. (author)

  18. Cerebello-cerebral functional relationship in spinocerebellar degeneration using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin; Sakayori, Osamu; Komaba, Yuichi; Terashi, Akiro

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the laterality of cerebellar ataxia and its influence for the cerebral cortex in spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 patients with sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (sOPCA), 7 patients with hereditary SCD (hSCD), and 10 age matched control subjects. The laterality of cerebellar ataxia was evaluated by the total score of the difference between left and right limbs of three limb-coordination tests. The lateralities of rCBF were calculated by asymmetry indices (AIs) of each region of interest in the cerebellum, thalamus, caudate, putamen, cerebral cortices. The laterality of cerebellar ataxia was significantly correlated with AI in the cerebellum in patients with sOPCA. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were observed between AI in the cerebellum and each AI in the thalamus, frontal cortex in patients with sOPCA. However, no correlations were observed between AI in the cerebellum and the other AIs in controls and patients with h SCD. Duration of illness in patients with sOPCA with laterality is shorter than that in patients without laterality. These results suggest that the existence of crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis (CCCD) resulting from transneuronal deactivation through cerebello-thalamo-cerebral pathway in patients with the early stage of sOPCA with laterality. (author)

  19. Cerebello-cerebral functional relationship in spinocerebellar degeneration using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin; Sakayori, Osamu; Komaba, Yuichi; Terashi, Akiro [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    In order to investigate the laterality of cerebellar ataxia and its influence for the cerebral cortex in spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 patients with sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (sOPCA), 7 patients with hereditary SCD (hSCD), and 10 age matched control subjects. The laterality of cerebellar ataxia was evaluated by the total score of the difference between left and right limbs of three limb-coordination tests. The lateralities of rCBF were calculated by asymmetry indices (AIs) of each region of interest in the cerebellum, thalamus, caudate, putamen, cerebral cortices. The laterality of cerebellar ataxia was significantly correlated with AI in the cerebellum in patients with sOPCA. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were observed between AI in the cerebellum and each AI in the thalamus, frontal cortex in patients with sOPCA. However, no correlations were observed between AI in the cerebellum and the other AIs in controls and patients with h SCD. Duration of illness in patients with sOPCA with laterality is shorter than that in patients without laterality. These results suggest that the existence of crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis (CCCD) resulting from transneuronal deactivation through cerebello-thalamo-cerebral pathway in patients with the early stage of sOPCA with laterality. (author).

  20. CT scanning of the brain and lumbar CSF monoamine metabolites in spinocerebellar degenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hidenao; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Nakanishi, Takao; Kuramoto, Kenmei [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1984-08-01

    Eight patients with parenchymatous cerebellar degeneration (PCD) group (3 with late cortical cerebellar atrophy and 5 with Holmes' hereditary ataxia), 14 with olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA) group (4 with Shy-Drager syndrome, 6 with OPCA without family history and 4 with Menzel type SCS), 15 with Parkinson's disease and 44 control with other neurological diseases were studied. In all the spinocerebellar degenerative disorders (SCD) cases, CVI values corresponding to the cerebellar atrophy were definitely reduced. On the other hand, PVI values corresponding to the pontine atrophy were only significantly decreased in OPCA group. However, since there were several cases showing only questionable pontine atrophy, it seems difficult to clearly differentiate individual OPCA cases from other SCD cases on CT films alone. Concerning monoamine metabolites in CSF, it was noted that a significant reduction of HVA and total MHPG was found in the OPCA group. Among them, the patients with overt autonomic failure showed the lowest HVA level and the cases of Menzel type of SCD showed a slight reduction of HVA but an unexpected elevation of free MHPG values. The cases of Parkinson's disease showed a definite reduction of HVA. On the other hand, the cases of PCD group showed no significant difference against controls. 5-HIAA levels were not significantly different among the SCD subgroups.

  1. Two in one: report of a patient with spinocerebellar ataxia types 2 and 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Sachin S; Goldman, Jennifer G

    2012-09-01

    To report a rare case of the coexistence of 2 spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) mutations in a single patient. Case report. University hospital, Movement Disorders Center. A 54-year-old man of Mexican, American Indian, and French descent with an 11-year history of gait and limb ataxia. Findings of clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and video electroencephalographic monitoring. Neurologic history revealed a gradually progressive gait and limb ataxia along with muscle cramps and sensory symptoms in his distal extremities; examination revealed executive dysfunction, dysarthria, ataxia, and sensory neuronopathy. Episodes of loss of awareness were reported, but electroencephalograms were negative. Brain imaging demonstrated severe cerebellar and brainstem atrophy. Genetic evaluation of the case revealed mutations in both the SCA2 and SCA10 genes. Our patient has a unique combination of genetic mutations for 2 different SCAs, types 2 and 10, which to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. His clinical phenotype is largely consistent with SCA2, but his possible seizures and Mexican heritage suggest influences of SCA10.

  2. Alteration of CBF and CMRO2 and TRH effects on CBF in spinocerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyoshi, Toshihiko; Namura, Yasuhiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and to evaluate the cerebral circulation and metabolism in patients with SCD. We performed a positron emission tomography study on each of six SCD patients (mean age 47.7 ± 3.6 : 5 cases; OPCA of Dejerene-Thomas type, 1 case; OPCA of Menzel type) and twelve normal volunteers. In SCD patients there were marked reductions in CBF (p < 0.01) and CMRO2 (p < 0.01) in the cerebellum compared with normal volunteers, while in the cerebral cortices and the thalamus, SCD patients showed normal values. There were no significant changes in regional and global CBF after 2 mg TRH intravenous injection in the SCD patients. But comparing CBF before TRH administration with corrected CBF (CBF after TRH · mean global CBF before TRH/mean global CBF after TRH), it is only the CBF of the cerebellum that increased after TRH administration (paired t test, p < 0.02). This elevation of CBF in the cerebellum would be related to some clinical effects of TRH in SCD patients. (author)

  3. Recent Advancements in Targeted Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules in Neurodegenerative Disease - Spinocerebellar Ataxia - Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Prakash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery and its methodologies have been very effective in terms of treating cancers and immunological disorders but have not been able to stop genetic diseases as most of the drugs target at the protein level. They merely mitigate the symptoms of the disease. Spinocerebellar ataxia is a neurological genetic disorder that is caused by the formation of an abnormal protein. There have been several reports on ataxic drug development but actual clinical treatment is yet to be achieved. Oligonucleotide therapy called sequence specific siRNA mediated gene silencing has evolved with promising results. This approach emphasizes on suppressing the expression of the diseased gene at mRNA level. However, there is a limitation in delivery of siRNA to the target site. Several methods have been developed over the last decade to enhance the target specific delivery of DNA, siRNA, protein and small drug molecules for therapeutic purpose with less or no side effects. This review discusses the latest upcoming technologies in the field that focus on a number of nonviral nanocarriers for targeted delivery. In this review, we explore the promise and potential of novel therapeutics with interest on ataxia therapy.

  4. Evaluation of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy by computerized tomography in spinocerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroko; Asano, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takatoshi; Hirao, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Yasushi; Sobue, Itsuro

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of various parameters of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy in computerized tomographs of 142 cases of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 100 age and sex matched controls was carried out in order to investigate whether these parameters would correspond to the subtypes of this disease and differing grades of various clinical manifestations. One supra- and all infratentorial parameters of SCD showed statistically significant atrophy with a risk of P < 0.005. Among the subtypes, OPCA had a more severely atrophied pons than LCCA (P < 0.005), Menzel (P < 0.05) and SSP (P < 0.01). There was a correlation between the distribution of symptoms like gait, speech, ataxia of extremities and ocular movement disorders, and distribution and degree of infratentorial atrophy with statistical significance (P < 0.05 ∼ P < 0.005). The degree of atrophy of the pons and the width of the IV ventricle were directly proportional to the duration of the illness in cases of less than 10 years, but not to those of over 10 years. Follow-up CT scan was done for 24 patients, 12 within 3 years, 12 after the lapse of 3 years. The latter group showed statistically significant atrophy between the 1st and 2nd scans in several parameters, but there was no significance between those of the former group. (author)

  5. Evaluation of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy by computerized tomography in spinocerebellar degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroko; Asano, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takatoshi; Hirao, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Yasushi; Sobue, Itsuro

    1986-08-01

    Measurement of various parameters of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy in computerized tomographs of 142 cases of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 100 age and sex matched controls was carried out in order to investigate whether these parameters would correspond to the subtypes of this disease and differing grades of various clinical manifestations. One supra- and all infratentorial parameters of SCD showed statistically significant atrophy with a risk of P < 0.005. Among the subtypes, OPCA had a more severely atrophied pons than LCCA (P < 0.005), Menzel (P < 0.05) and SSP (P < 0.01). There was a correlation between the distribution of symptoms like gait, speech, ataxia of extremities and ocular movement disorders, and distribution and degree of infratentorial atrophy with statistical significance (P < 0.05 -- P < 0.005). The degree of atrophy of the pons and the width of the IV ventricle were directly proportional to the duration of the illness in cases of less than 10 years, but not to those of over 10 years. Follow-up CT scan was done for 24 patients, 12 within 3 years, 12 after the lapse of 3 years. The latter group showed statistically significant atrophy between the 1st and 2nd scans in several parameters, but there was no significance between those of the former group.

  6. Evidence for nonallelic genetic heterogeneity in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker-Wagemakers, L. M.; Gal, A.; Kumar-Singh, R.; van den Born, L. I.; Li, Y.; Schwinger, E.; Sandkuijl, L. A.; Bergen, A. A.; Kenna, P.; Humphries, P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent evidence suggesting the involvement of mutant rhodopsin proteins in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa has prompted us to investigate whether this form of the disease shows non-allelic genetic heterogeneity, as has previously been shown to be the case in autosomal

  7. Allele frequency distribution for 21 autosomal STR loci in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; van Driem, George L; Tshering of Gaselô, Karma; de Knijff, Peter

    2007-07-20

    We studied the allele frequency distribution of 21 autosomal STR loci contained in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler (Applied Biosystems), the Powerplex 16 (Promega) and the FFFL (Promega) multiplex PCR kits among 936 individuals from the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan. As such these are the first published autosomal DNA results from this country.

  8. Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    to complete a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 266 patients were contacted, 243 (91%) of whom provided consent to participate in the study. Results showed that the economic burden of ADPKD was substantial at all levels of the disease. Lost wages due to reduced productivity were large...... in absolute terms across all disease strata. Mean total annual costs were highest in dialysis patients, driven by maintenance dialysis care, while the use of immunosuppressants was the main cost component for transplant care. Costs were twice as high in patients with CKD stages 4-5 compared to CKD stages 1......) stages 1-3; CKD stages 4-5; transplant recipients; and maintenance dialysis patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of ADPKD patients was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Data on medical resource utilisation were extracted from medical charts and patients were asked...

  9. EPHB4 kinase-inactivating mutations cause autosomal dominant lymphatic-related hydrops fetalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Almedina, S.; Martinez-Corral, I.; Holdhus, R.; Vicente, A.; Fotiou, E.; Lin, S.; Petersen, K.; Simpson, M.A.; Hoischen, A.; Gilissen, C.F.; Jeffery, H.; Atton, G.; Karapouliou, C.; Brice, G.; Gordon, K.; Wiseman, J.W.; Wedin, M.; Rockson, S.G.; Jeffery, S.; Mortimer, P.S.; Snyder, M.P.; Berland, S.; Mansour, S.; Makinen, T.; Ostergaard, P.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrops fetalis describes fluid accumulation in at least 2 fetal compartments, including abdominal cavities, pleura, and pericardium, or in body tissue. The majority of hydrops fetalis cases are nonimmune conditions that present with generalized edema of the fetus, and approximately 15% of these

  10. A New Therapeutic Strategy for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Activation of AMP Kinase by Metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    antibody binding was detected with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-rat, anti-rabbit, or anti-goat secondary antibodies (1:5,000–10:000; Jackson Labs ...M., Cavallo, R., Dooijes, D., van Beest , M., van Es, J., Loureiro, J., Ypma, A., Hursh, D., Jones, T., Bejsovec, A., et al. (1997). Armadillo

  11. The myosin chaperone UNC45B is involved in lens development and autosomal dominant juvenile cataract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Comyn, Sophie; Mang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis, followed by targeted deep sequencing, in a Danish multigeneration family with juvenile cataract revealed a region of chromosome 17 co-segregating with the disease trait. Affected individuals were heterozygous for two potentially protein-disrupting alleles in this reg...... advance online publication, 19 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.21....

  12. Bone Status Among Patients With Nonsurgical Hypoparathyroidism, Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcaemia, and Pseudohypoparathyroidism: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbjerg, Line; Malmstroem, Sofie; Sikjaer, Tanja; Rejnmark, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism (Ns-HypoPT) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) are both rare diseases, characterized by hypocalcemia. In Ns-HypoPT, PTH levels are low, whereas patients with PHP often have very high levels due to receptor-insensitivity to PTH (PTH-resistance). Accordingly, we hypothesized that indices of bone turnover and bone mineralization/architecture are similar in Ns-HypoPT and PHP despite marked differences in PTH levels. We studied 62 patients with Ns-HypoPT and 31 with PHP as well as a group of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We found a significantly higher areal BMD (aBMD) by DXA among patients with Ns-HypoPT, both compared with PHP and the background population. Compared with Ns-HypoPT, PHP patients had significantly lower total and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) assessed by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans at the spine and hip. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) scans showed a lower trabecular area and vBMD as well as a lower trabecular number at the tibia in PHP compared to Ns-HypoPT and matched controls. In PHP, PTH levels correlated with levels of markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, P1NP), and bone resorption (CTx). In adult males, levels of bone markers were significantly higher in PHP compared with Ns-HypoPT. Levels of procalcitonin and calcitonin were significantly higher in PHP compared with Ns-HypoPT. In conclusion, indices of bone turnover, density, and microarchitecture differ between patients with Ns-HypoPT and PHP. Our data suggest that patients with PHP do not have a complete skeletal resistance to PTH and that the effects of chronically high PTH levels in PHP are mostly confined to the trabecular tissue. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Renal replacement therapy for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spithoven, Edwin M; Kramer, Anneke; Meijer, Esther

    2014-01-01

    on RRT prevalence and survival on RRT in 12 European countries with 208 million inhabitants. We studied four 5-year periods (1991-2010). Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: From the first to the last study period, the prevalence...... for non-ADPKD subjects. Improved survival was noted for all RRT modalities: haemodialysis [adjusted hazard ratio for mortality during the last versus first time period 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.91), peritoneal dialysis 0.55 (0.38-0.80) and transplantation 0.52 (0.32-0.74)]. Cardiovascular...

  14. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease, incidental finding with trauma: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Gildenhuys

    2017-03-01

    In cases of blunt renal trauma with a history suggesting the possibility of a pre-existing lesion, the threshold for requesting CT of the abdomen should be lowered, even in absence of gross haematuria.

  15. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano A Hawkes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available CADASIL is the most common cause of hereditary stroke and vascular dementia. Published information about this disease in South America is scant. We describe clinical and demographic characteristics of 13 patients (10 families with CADASIL from Argentina.Methods Medical records, diagnostic tests and family history of patients with CADASIL were reviewed.Results Thirteen patients with CADASIL (10 families were included. All patients had European ancestry. Initial presentation was stroke in most patients (n = 11. Stroke patients later developed cognitive complaints (n = 9, migraine with aura (n = 1, apathy (n = 4 and depression (n = 6. External capsule and temporal lobe involvement on MRI were characteristic imaging findings. Two patients died after intracerebral hemorrhage.Conclusion This is the first report of non-related patients with CADASIL in South America addressing ancestry. Since European ancestry is not highly prevalent in all South American countries, there may be variable incidence of CADASIL within this region.

  16. Ultrabiomicroscopic-Histopathologic Correlations in Individuals with Autosomal Dominant Congenital Microcoria: Three-Generation Family Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Ramirez-Miranda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital microcoria (CMC is due to a maldevelopment of the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris, with a pupil diameter of less than 2 mm. It is associated with juvenile open angle glaucoma and myopia. We report on a three-generation Mexican-Mestizo family with CMC. The eldest member’s iris biopsy proved muscle anomalies. Further, we analyzed novel ultrasound biomicroscopy findings in the family members who did not require surgery. Patients and Methods: A 62-year-old woman, her 41-year-old son and her 9-year-old grandson affected with microcoria since birth, documented by clinical examination and ultrasound biomicroscopy. The eldest member underwent phacoemulsification, and a biopsy of the iris and the anterior capsule of the lens was taken. Results: Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the CMC diagnosis showing iris thinning and a pupil diameter of less than 2 mm. Histopathology of the iris showed a significant reduction of smooth muscle cells, but no alterations of the anterior lens capsule. Discussion: Although CMC is a rare disorder, which is due to a maldevelopment of the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris, it could be associated with juvenile open angle glaucoma and myopia; therefore, precise diagnosis is required. Ultrasound biomicroscopy could be a great option to confirm the disorder.

  17. Focal palmoplantar keratoderma caused by an autosomal dominant inherited mutation in the desmoglein 1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milingou, M; Wood, P; Masouye, [No Value; McLean, WH; Borradori, L

    2006-01-01

    Background: Palmoplantar keratodermas (PPK) encompass a large genetically heterogeneous group of diseases associated with hyperkeratosis of the soles and/or palms that occur either isolated or in association with other cutaneous and extracutaneous manifestations. Pathogenic mutations in the

  18. Blepharophimosis, ptosis, polythelia and brachydactyly (BPPB): a new autosomal dominant syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittebol-Post, D.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    A father and two sons with blepharophimosis, ptosis, polythelia and brachydactyly are presented, apparently without other abnormalities. The features do not fit into any previously described syndrome. This condition may represent a hitherto undescribed syndrome, although resemblance with the

  19. Resolving a genetic paradox throughout preimplantation genetic diagnosis for autosomal dominant severe congenital neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcov, Mira; Reches, Adi; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Cohen, Tania; Amit, Ami; Dgany, Orly; Tamary, Hannah; Yaron, Yuval

    2010-03-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia is an inherited disease characterized by low peripheral blood neutrophils, amenable to bone marrow transplantation. Genetic analysis in the family here described detected a ELA2 splice-site mutation in the affected child and also in his asymptomatic father. The parents requested preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), coupled with HLA matching, to obtain a suitable bone marrow donor for the affected child. A PGD protocol was developed, based on multiplex nested PCR for direct analysis of the ELA2 mutation, flanking polymorphic markers and HLA typing. The amplification efficiency of the mutation was > 90% in single leukocytes from the affected child but only 67% in the father. Analysis of single haploid sperm cells from the father demonstrated three different sperm-cell populations: (1) sperm cells harboring the ELA2 mutation on the 'affected' haplotype, (2) sperm cells without the ELA2 mutation on the 'normal' haplotype, and (3) sperm cells without the ELA2 mutation on the 'affected' haplotype. These data demonstrate that the ELA2 mutation in the father occurred de novo during his embryonic development, resulting in somatic as well as germ-line mosaicism. This conclusion was also taken into consideration when PGD was performed. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Autosomal dominant SCN8A mutation with an unusually mild phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, G; Collett-White, F; Orsini, A; Thomas, S; Jayapal, S; Trump, N; Zaiwalla, Z; Jayawant, S

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in SCN8A, coding for the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.6, have been described in relation to infantile onset epilepsy with developmental delay and cognitive impairment, in particular early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) type 13. Here we report an infant and his father with early onset focal epileptic seizures but without cognitive or neurological impairment in whom next generation sequence analysis identified a heterozygous mutation (c.5630A > G, p. (Asn1877Ser)) in the SCN8A gene. This mutation, confirmed by Sanger sequence analysis, affects a highly conserved amino acid and in silico tools predicts that it may be pathogenic. The reported infant has a normal developmental profile at 16-month follow-up. His father also had normal development and has no cognitive impairment at 42 years. This is the second known SCN8A mutation associated with a phenotype of benign familial infantile epilepsy. Good seizure control was achieved in our patients with sodium channel blockers. Based on our proband and a recently described group of families with benign familial infantile epilepsy and SCN8A variant we suggest expanding testing to patients with infantile epilepsy and no cognitive impairment. In addition, the same SCN8A variant (c.5630A > G, p. (Asn1877Ser)) is also found in patients with epilepsy and developmental delay highlighting the phenotypic variability and the possible role of other protective genetic factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Autosomal dominant stapes fixation, syndactyly, and symphalangism in a family with NOG mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Amstrup, Tine; Wanscher, Jens Højberg

    2018-01-01

    bilateral conductive hearing loss. Three patients were treated with stapedectomy, on one or both ears, due to fixation of stapes. All the affected members had syndactyly and symphalangism. A not previously reported mutation in the NOG gene (c.688_699del, p.Cys230_Cys232delins11) was found to segregate...... with the stapes fixation, syndactyly, and symphalangism. p.Cys230_Cysdelins11 was classified as likely pathogenic according to guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of the reported mutation corresponds with previous case reports of families...

  2. Macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    in the nasal macula (13.6 (± 5.7) dB versus 19.7 (± 0.7) dB) and in the central macula (14.2 (± 5.1) dB versus 19.9 (± 0.3) dB). The average sensitivity decreased with decreasing BCVA in ADOA (p ... fixation was observed in 35% of ADOA patients versus 14% of controls. Unstable fixation was found only in ADOA, where its prevalence was 7%. CONCLUSION: ADOA was associated with unstable fixation and subnormal microperimetric sensitivity, especially in the central and nasal macula where the ganglion cell...

  3. A New Therapeutic Strategy for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Activation of AMP Kinase by Metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    role for CHOP during inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. J. Biochem. 146, 123–132. Joly, D., Ishibe, S., Nickel, C., Yu, Z., Somlo, S...urinary HCO3 excretion in response to an initial alkali load, resulting in compensated metabolic alkalosis . Therefore, it appears that the IRR may play a

  4. Four Copies of SNCA Responsible for Autosomal Dominant Parkinson’s Disease in Two Italian Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Ferese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD is mostly characterized by alpha-synuclein (SNCA aggregation and loss of nigrostriatal dopamine-containing neurons. In this study a novel SNCA multiplication is described in two siblings affected by severe parkinsonism featuring early onset dyskinesia, psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive deterioration. Methods. SNCA dosage was performed using High-Density Comparative Genomic Hybridization Array (CGH-Array, Multiple Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, and Quantitative PCR (qPCR. Genetic analysis was associated with clinical evaluation. Results. Genetic analysis of siblings showed for the first time a 351 Kb triplication containing SNCA gene along with 6 exons of MMRN1 gene in 4q22.1 and a duplication of 1,29 Mb of a genomic region flanking the triplication. Conclusions. The identification of this family indicates a novel mechanism of SNCA gene multiplication, which confirms the genomic instability in this region and provides data on the genotype-phenotype correlation in PD patients.

  5. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and lipid peroxidation products in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dan; Strandgaard, S.; Borresen, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    academic medical center. Factor: Patients with ADPKD versus controls. Outcomes & Measurement: Plasma (P) levels, urinary (U) excretion, and urinary clearance (C) of ADMA and HODE. Because of multiple comparisons, P for significance is considered less than 0.0167. Results: Patients with ADPKD had......-sectional nature of study, and limited number of markers of oxidative stress. Conclusions: P-ADMA and P-HODE levels are increased in patients with early ADPKD. Increased P-ADMA level is related to decreased CADMA and is accompanied by oxidative stress. Am J Kidney Dis 51:184-191. (c) 2008 by the National Kidney...

  6. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  7. Caffeine alleviates progressive motor deficits in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nélio; Simões, Ana T; Prediger, Rui D; Hirai, Hirokazu; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Pereira de Almeida, Luís

    2017-03-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a neurodegenerative spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) associated with an expanded polyglutamine tract within ataxin-3 for which there is currently no available therapy. We previously showed that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, delays the appearance of striatal damage resulting from expression of full-length mutant ataxin-3. Here we investigated the ability of caffeine to alleviate behavioral deficits and cerebellar neuropathology in transgenic mice with a severe ataxia resulting from expression of a truncated fragment of polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 in Purkinje cells. Control and transgenic c57Bl6 mice expressing in the mouse cerebella a truncated form of human ataxin-3 with 69 glutamine repeats were allowed to freely drink water or caffeinated water (1g/L). Treatments began at 7 weeks of age, when motor and ataxic phenotype emerges in MJD mice, and lasted up to 20 weeks. Mice were tested in a panel of locomotor behavioral paradigms, namely rotarod, beam balance and walking, pole, and water maze cued-platform version tests, and then sacrificed for cerebellar histology. Caffeine consumption attenuated the progressive loss of general and fine-tuned motor function, balance, and grip strength, in parallel with preservation of cerebellar morphology through decreasing the loss of Purkinje neurons and the thinning of the molecular layer in different folia. Caffeine also rescued the putative striatal-dependent executive and cognitive deficiencies in MJD mice. Our findings provide the first in vivo demonstration that caffeine intake alleviates behavioral disabilities in a severely impaired animal model of SCA. Ann Neurol 2017;81:407-418. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  8. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang improves the aversive memory in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maurmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA-2 is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder without specific therapy identified, and it is related to the loss of function in the cerebellum, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neurotoxic processes. Scientific evidence indicates that Mangifera indica L. aqueous extract (MiE and its major constituent (mangiferin display antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions. Aims: To investigate the MiE and mangiferin effects on behavioral outcomes of neurological function in SCA-2 transgenic mice. Methods: The SCA-2 transgenic mice were daily and orally administered during 12 months with MiE (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, mangiferin (10 mg/kg or vehicle. It was evaluated locomotion (open-field, aversive memory (inhibitory avoidance and declarative memory (object recognition. To explore possible cellular mechanisms underlying the in vivo effects was also evaluated their effects on nerve grow factor (NGF and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels in the human glioblastoma cell line U138-MG supernatant. Results: MiE administration did not affect the object recognition memory, but mangiferin did. The natural extract improved selectively the aversive memory in SCA-2 mice, indicating that MiE can affect behavioral parameters regarding fear-related memory. MiE also induced a significant increase in supernatant levels of NGF and TNF-α in vitro in human U138-MG glioblastoma cells. Conclusions: The results suggest that MiE enhances the aversive memory through a mechanism that might involve an increase in neurotrophin and cytokine levels. These findings constitute the basis for the use of the natural extract in the prevention/treatment of memory deficits in SCA-2.

  9. Spinocerebellar ataxia: a critical review of cognitive and socio-cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocondo, Flora; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    The primary aim of this contribution is to provide a critical discussion on cognitive and sociocognitive implications of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) subtypes. The term SCA refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders that have been increasingly investigated in the last years, sharing the characteristic of progressive ataxia resulting from degeneration of cerebellum and its connections. In past decades only involvement of cerebellum in behaviour and timing has been investigated, bringing to the belief about its central role in timing of movement and sensation, particularly for short intervals of time. Only very recently the cerebellum has been considered as a potentially important centre for cognitive processing and related spheres of social cognition, so that several studies with SCA patients have been carried out on these topics: as a consequence a section of this review will be dedicated to this important aspect. After a brief discussion on most commonly used methods to assess cognitive and socio-cognitive abilities in SCAs, cognitive and socio-cognitive profiles of principal SCA subtypes have been thoroughly reviewed and critically discussed. Due to the very poor literature in this field the most common SCA variants have been fully included (i.e. SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7). A comparative summary of the main characteristics of cognitive and social cognition deficit in SCA subtypes has been proposed together with a research agenda for future investigation in this field principally aimed at using measures of cognition and/or social cognition as potential predictors of the extent and progression of disease.

  10. Social and cultural elements associated with neurocognitive dysfunctions in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Emmanuele Mercadillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 (SCA2 is a rare genetic disorder producing cerebellar degeneration and affecting motor abilities. Neuroimaging studies also show neurodegeneration in subcortical and cortical regions related to emotional and social processes. From social neuroscience it is suggested that motor and social abilities can be influenced by particular cultural dynamics so, culture is fundamental to understand the effect of brain related alterations. Here we present the first analysis about the cultural elements related to the SCA2 disorder in 15 patients previously evaluated with neuroimaging and psychometric instruments, and their nuclear relationships distributed in six geographical and cultural regions in Mexico. Ethnog