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Sample records for autoradiography

  1. Two views of functional mapping and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is meant to serve as an initial introduction into the use and analysis of functional mapping with radiotracers and film autoradiography. The first section describes functional autoradiography from a biologist's point of view, reviewing the advantages of radiotracers for bridging the gap between behavior and neurophysiology. The physical and chemical assumptions underlying the use of radiotracers in biological systems are then examined. The second section looks at the autoradiogram from an engineering standpoint and investigates how the basic physics of radioactive decay influences the measured parameters of autoradiographs. The problems of video densitometry and the quantification of optical density and isotope concentrations are discussed

  2. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  3. 13th international symposium on autoradiography (13th ISA '83)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the conference, 39 papers were heard all of which are included in INIS. Topics covered include: trends in development of solid state track detectors, theory and methods of quantitative autoradiography, equipment for autoradiographs processing and track counting, uses of autoradiography in research of semiconductors, in metallography and in biology

  4. Application of autoradiography in receptor localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies demonstrated that 3H-DHA bound to frozen section of guineapig lung with the characteristics expected of interactions with beta-receptors. Specific binding accounted for, as mean value, 85 per cent of total binding when the lung sections were incubated with 2nM 3H-DHA at 25 deg C for 20 minutes. The Binding was saturable with a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 32.37 ± 6.0 fmol/mg wet weight of the tissue. Binding was of high affinity with a Kd of 1.8 ± 0.51 nM. Autoradiography revealed that the distribution of beta-receptors in the lung sections was widespread. The highest density of beta-receptors was found in alveolar wall, labelling also occured in airway epithelium, bronchial smooth muscle and submucosal glands. Beta-receptors were sparse in vascular smooth muscle and connective tissue

  5. Cytoplasmic inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum L. autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco pollen grains were labelled with leucine 14C, part then being used for artificial pollination of specific Nicotiana lines, while the rest were processed directly, as controls, for light and electron microscopy and autoradiography. The apparent differences in silver grain density observed in the controls may be related to the different physiological states of pollen grains during labelling. A radioactive precursor does not impair the viability and fertility of pollen grains. Samples taken and observed at successive intervals after pollination allowed the monitoring of cytoplasmic transmission to the embryo sac. The cytoplasmic materials remain confined within the micropylar canal and the embryo sac for several days after pollination. The tagged mitochondria found in the embryo sac are not necessarily of male origin, since the radioactive materials they contain might be products of metabolism. (author)

  6. Some examples of the utilization of autoradiography in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although autoradiography has been used for a long time for metallurgic studies, new possibilities are open by a full exploitation of recent progress in nuclear emulsion techniques. A few examples are presented. (author)

  7. Tritium and Autoradiography in Cell Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because tritium emits low energy beta radiation, it is the most useful isotope for high resolution autoradiography. The relative abundance of hydrogen in most biologically important substances combined with a relatively short half-life allows the labelling of cellular components at specific activities that can often be detected at intracellular dimensions by the use of nuclear emulsions. The cells are attached to glass by various cytological procedures and after fixation a -wet or fluid photographic emulsion is applied directly to the cell surface and allowed to dry. After exposure the emulsion is developed while still in contact with the biological specimen. The preparation, an autoradiogram, when viewed under the light microscope shows the cellular structures and the location of the isotope with a resolution of less than 1 pm. In this way the distribution of tritium-labelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of individual chromosomes has been traced through two to three cell divisions. These studies were made possible by the preparation of tritiated thymidine which is a highly selective label for DNA and is quickly depleted when the cell is removed from the environment containing the labelled thymidine. The technique has yielded information on the mechanism of DNA replication, structure and reproduction of chromosomes, kinetics of cell division and more recently on the patterns and time sequence in the reproduction of different chromosomes in the same nucleus and the different parts of a single chromosome. All chromosomes studied so far contain two functional sub-units of DNA which are distributed in a semi-conservative fashion during reproduction. The two sub-units are unlike in some structural sense that limits the type of exchanges that may occur among the four sub-units of a reproducing chromosome. Present evidence on sequences leads to the hypothesis that chromosomes reproduce in a genetically controlled sequence. Further evidence on the patterns and mechanism of

  8. Application of an image processing software for quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present communication deals with the utilization of an image processing device for quantitative whole-body autoradiography, cell counting and also for interpretation of chromatograms. It is shown that the system parameters allow an adequate and precise determination of optical density values. Also shown are the main error sources limiting the applicability of the system. (orig.)

  9. Study of inclusions and segregation in metals by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three applications of radioisotope techniques to metallurgy are described. During the course of this work, new autoradiographic techniques are developed. These include the irradiation and autoradiography of extraction replicas, similar to those used in electron microscopy, and a two-colour dye-transfer process in which colour prints of autoradiographs are shown with the corresponding micrographs superposed. These methods are applied to the study of inclusions in steel and uranium and to an investigation of the segregation of sulphur and phosphorus in welds in stainless steel. (author)

  10. TRADITIONAL AND DIGITAL AUTORADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES: A COMPARISON STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, K; Carol Kestin, C

    2006-08-29

    This report fulfills the FY 2006 Enhanced Surveillance Campaign Level 3 milestones for Task TSR 11.1 as defined in the execution plan [1, 2]. The purpose of this task is to reduce the cycle time necessary to complete analytical evaluations required for surveillance of reservoirs. The development of the digital autoradiography system supports this task. The digital autoradiography system is currently operational and ready for implementation in reservoir surveillance performed in the Materials Test Facility (MTF) at Savannah River Site (SRS). SRS requests design agency (Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory) concurrence for the implementation of this system and on the establishment, in conjunction with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), of the implementation requirements for this system. Stainless steel tritium reservoirs and pinch welded tubes, which have been exposed to tritium for a prolonged period, are destructively evaluated at the end of their service lives for a variety of reasons. One requirement of this evaluation is to assess the tritium diffusion into the reservoir material. The current method used to determine the geometry and depth of tritium penetration is autoradiography. This technique employs a photographic emulsion and has been effective for a number of years. The primary disadvantage of this technique is the time required to obtain results. The success of the traditional technique is dependent on many variables, such as the proficiency of the operators in conducting sample preparation, the geometry of the sample and the shelf life of the photographic chemicals. If results are not satisfactory, several repetitions are often required and usually add weeks to the total analysis time for the sample. Due to the extensive time required for the liquid emulsion autoradiography method, a new, faster technique was desired. Personnel from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have been working on a system based on

  11. Evaluation of radiation-induced pulmonary lesions by spit autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal irradiation caused by radionuclides incorporated in pulmonary tissue is guilty of producing two kinds of biological effect: pulmonary fibrosis and carcinogenesis. The role of irradiation in the etheopathogenesis of carcinogenesis should be argued first by proving the presence of contamination radionuclides in pulmon, which is revealed by spit eliminations. To prove the presence of contaminating radionuclides inhaled in pulmon, spit autoradiography was used, representing the only way of showing the presence in pulmon of α- and β-emitting elements. Active elements contained in spit samples were identified by drawing the histograms of the path length of particles. Contamination was considered significant when the difference between average density of α traces determined on sample and average density of traces on control exceeded two to three times the average fluctuation. In the case of contamination with β-emitting elements, specific autoradiographic images were noticed for accumulations of β activity at cellular level. Spit autoradiography was applied during complex periodic medical examinations of miners working in radioactive ore mines. By means of exhaustive clinical and laboratory examinations, correlations were established between autoradiographic findings and pulmonary radiopathological aspects. At present, methodological improvements are being dealt with to standardize spit smear collecting and processing methods and especially to obtain exact quantitative determinations of pulmonary contamination. In this way it is hoped to establish a dose-effect relation that would be an objective element in considering pulmonary lesions caused by internal irradiation. (author)

  12. Quantitative grain density autoradiography and the intraspecific distribution of primary productivity in phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of a method of grain density autoradiography demonstrates that reliable measurements of the primary productivity of individual phytoplankton species can be obtained with this technique. Grain density autoradiography is particularly useful for providing an estimate of the intraspecific distribution of primary productivity. As an example, the productivity distribution of the marine diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus became positively skewed during a period of population decline

  13. BETAview autoradiography system: laboratory tests and biological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autoradiography system prototype (BETAview) is presented; it is aimed at quantitative dynamic analysis of radioactive labelled biological samples. The system is based on a GaAs pixel array detector, bump-bonded to a low threshold and single particle counting electronics (Medipix). The detector has an area of about 1 cm2, segmented in 64x64 square pixels, 200 μm thick. Studies with gamma and beta emitters (210Pb, 241Am, 152Eu, 32P, 90Sr and 14C) allowed to identify optimal detector bias, to estimate detection efficiency and to measure system counting linearity. Two experiments showed the system capability to select radionuclides with different beta spectra and to perform a real time monitoring of biological phenomena

  14. Quantitative electron microscopical autoradiography of calcium during dentinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    45Ca migration from the dental papilla and the odontablasts towards predentin and dentin has been studied through electron microscopical autoradiography in toothgerms of newborn cats. A quantitative procedure was applied to the study of the 45Ca migration in dentinogenesis. Two pathways of almost identical importance have been demonstrated. The direct pathway followed the intercellular spaces of the dental papilla and of the odontoblasts and reached the dentin via predentin. The second road, after passage through the intercellular spaces of the dental papilla, consisted of an intracellular migration through the odontoblast. The mitochondria and the golgi apparatus were progressively the most labelet at 5 min., 30 min. and 1 h. after intravenous injection. The calcium diffused into the odontablastic process without being associated with the dense granule. At 6 hours, maximum radioactivity was observed in the intertubular dentin. (auth.)

  15. Resolution-limiting factors in 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measured the extent to which factors other than the diffusion of the radioactive label during tissue preparation limits the spatial resolving power of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography. Radioactive swept frequency gratings were created using microcircuit lithography. The gratings consisted of alternating equal width radioactive and non-radioactive bars in groups of narrowing bar width (effective range 500-20 μm). The vertical thickness of the gratings ranged from 2.25 to 20 μm. The isotope in the radioactive bars was either 14C or 3H. A variety of X-ray films were exposed to these gratings and the resulting images scanned with microdensitometers or video digitizers to determine the fall off in image contrast (dark-bar values minus light-bar values) as a function of the number of dark bars (lines) per millimeter. The power of the isotope was the resolution limiting factor. Grating thickness and type of film made little difference. The limit of resolution with 14C was 10 lines/mm: with 3H it was 25 lines/mm. The microdensitometer itself is apt to be a resolution limiting factor; the resolving power of those commonly used in autoradiography is unlikely to exceed 10 lines/mm. From measurements of the steepness of gray-matter to white-matter transitions in the image from a tissue section, they conclude that the resolution in the image was no worse than 1.6-3.2 lines/mm. Either the isotope or diffusion of the 2-DG during tissue preparation must be the factor that limits resolution. (Auth.)

  16. The technique of autoradiography at very low temperature; Technique d'autoradiographie a tres basse temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Biological samples frozen in liquid nitrogen (-195 deg. C) acquire the hardness of light metals, enabling the surface for autoradiography to be cut on a milling machine. The autoradiographic exposure is made in saturated nitrogen vapour. The emulsion, on a plastic base, is laid on the milled surface in a dark room and this assembly is then placed above the liquid nitrogen in a foam-teflon container. Measurements show that, a temperature gradient is established between -190 deg. C at the liquid nitrogen surface and -121 deg. C at the top of the closed container. Developing is done at room temperature, the speed of the emulsion being practically unchanged. This technique enables the specimen to be kept far below the freezing-point, from the moment the animal is killed until the plate is developed. Freezing ensures complete absence of chemical diffusion and that the recorded tracer distribution is precisely that obtaining at the time of death. The distribution at different levels can be investigated by milling off successive layers. Pseudo-radiographic effects are wholly non-existent. The enhancement of natural colours in the anatomical elements, brought about by low temperatures, is such that it becomes possible to dispense with staining when making colour autoradiograms of sections. (author) [French] Les sujets congeles dans l'azote liquide (-190 deg. C) acquierent la durete metal leger, ce qui permet de preparer le plan d'autoradiographie par fraisage sur machine-outil. L'exposition autoradiographique est elle-meme effectuee dans la vapeur de l'azote liquide, en chambre noire, l'emulsion portee par une plaque plastique est appliquee contre la surface fraisee. Cet ensemble est dispose au-dessus de l'azote liquide contenu dans un recipient en mousse de teflon. Les mesures montrent qu'un gradient de temperature s'etablit entre -190 deg. C a la surface de l'azote liquide et -120 deg. C, a la partie superieure du recipient

  17. High speed quantitative digital beta autoradiography using a multistep avalanche detector and an Apple II microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an electronic, digital beta autoradiography system is described. Using a multistep avalanche/multiwire proportional counter (MSA/MWPC) detector system fitted with delay line readout, high speed digital imaging is demonstrated with submillimeter spatial resolution. In the case of autoradiography with a tritium label, image acquisition requires about one hour compared with several weeks for conventional film techniques. Good proportionality of observed counting rate relative to the known tritium activity is demonstrated. The application of the system to autoradiography in immunoelectrophoresis, histopathology and DNA sequencing is described (using 125I, 14C and 35S labels in addition to 3H). (orig.)

  18. Neutron induced autoradiography of some minerals from the Allchar mine

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaru, A; Skvarc, J; Kristof, E S; Stafilov, T

    1999-01-01

    The mineral lorandite from the Allchar mine (Kavadarci, Macedonia) will be used to estimate the average solar neutrino flux. Here, the amount of sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb isotope induced by the sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Tl(nu sub e , e sup -) sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb reaction is measured and converted to neutrino flux. To determine the few sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb atoms that are produced by solar neutrinos in the Tl ore it is necessary to know all the interfering reactions and/or impurities producing sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb. The concentration and/or spatial distribution of some impurities such as U in lorandite should be known as accurately as possible. In the present work uranium and boron concentrations in some minerals from the Allchar mine (lorandite, realgar, stibnite, orpiment and dolomite) were measured by neutron induced autoradiography. The tracks of sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U(n, f) reaction products were recorded by CR-39 and phosphate glass (PSK-50) etched track detectors, respectively. Results showed...

  19. The technique of autoradiography at very low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological samples frozen in liquid nitrogen (-195 deg. C) acquire the hardness of light metals, enabling the surface for autoradiography to be cut on a milling machine. The autoradiographic exposure is made in saturated nitrogen vapour. The emulsion, on a plastic base, is laid on the milled surface in a dark room and this assembly is then placed above the liquid nitrogen in a foam-teflon container. Measurements show that, a temperature gradient is established between -190 deg. C at the liquid nitrogen surface and -121 deg. C at the top of the closed container. Developing is done at room temperature, the speed of the emulsion being practically unchanged. This technique enables the specimen to be kept far below the freezing-point, from the moment the animal is killed until the plate is developed. Freezing ensures complete absence of chemical diffusion and that the recorded tracer distribution is precisely that obtaining at the time of death. The distribution at different levels can be investigated by milling off successive layers. Pseudo-radiographic effects are wholly non-existent. The enhancement of natural colours in the anatomical elements, brought about by low temperatures, is such that it becomes possible to dispense with staining when making colour autoradiograms of sections. (author)

  20. Detection of androgen receptor in human prostatic adenoma by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demura, Takayoshi; Sakashita, Shigeo; Takamura, Takao; Kuroda, Kazuhide (Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan))

    1982-09-01

    We developed a new amplified method to detect the localization of androgen receptors within the human prostatic tissue specimens. The tissue sections were treated with 50 ..mu..l of 100 nM tritiated dihydrotestosterone (/sup 3/H-DHT). The binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to receptors was demonstrated as silver grains on the stained tissue sections. The binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the prostatic tissue was inhibited by additional non-radioactive DHT remarkably and by testosterone partially, but not affected by additional progesterone and 17..beta..-estradiol. No binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the bladder tissue was found. These results showed that the binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the prostatic tissue was a specific reaction of /sup 3/H-DHT and androgen receptor. Androgen receptors were seen in the nuclei and the cytoplasmas of glandular epithelial cells of prostate. However, stromal cells contained less abundant androgen receptors. The method reported here has several advantages in detecting the androgen receptor of the prostatic tissue in comparison with the radioreceptor assay and other histochemical methods. 1) The needle biopsied specimens are big enough to examine. 2) Morphological observations are also possible on the same specimen because the specimens are stained with hematoxylin simultaneously. Therefore, we can know the relative ratio of androgen receptor positive cells and negative cells. 3) Binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the receptor with this method may be more specific than other histochemical methods, since binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the receptor was inhibited by 200-fold excess of non-radioactive DHT. 4) Treatment of scintillator, fluorographic technique shortens the exposure periods. The exposure periods are approximately six to twelve times shorter than that of the conventional autoradiography.

  1. Application of quantitative autoradiography to the measurement of biochemical processes in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative autoradiography makes it possible to measure the concentrations of isotopes in tissues of animals labeled in vivo. In a few cases, the administration of a judiciously selected labeled chemical compound and a properly designed procedure has made it possible to use this capability to measure the rate of a chemical process in animals in vivo. Emission tomography, and particularly positron emission tomography, provides a means to extend this capability to man and to assay the rates of biochemical processes in human tissues in vivo. It does not, however, obviate the need to adhere to established principles of chemical and enzyme kinetics and tracer theory. Generally, all such methods, whether to be used in man with positron emission tomography or in animals with autoradiography, must first be developed by research in animals with autoradiography, because it is only in animals that the measurements needed to validate the basic assumptions of the methods can be tested and evaluated

  2. Investigation of the sensory innervation of the dentin by light microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated proline was injected into the ganglion trigeminale of cats and two days later the animals were sacrificed and the appearance of the label in their teeth was examined by autoradiography, indicating the localization of nervous elements. Silver-staining was found in the dentin near the pulp. (L.E.)

  3. A Significant Contribution of INAA in Autoradiography for Elemental Profile Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Ratanatongchai, Wichian; Channuie, Jatechan

    Autoradiography has been carried out occasionally at the out-of-pool neutron radiography (NR) facility of the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 for more than a decade. Because of low and uncertain neutron flux at exposure position, the technique is not well recognized. The first attempt to conduct neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) using in-pool irradiation facility was initiated in Thailand in early 2014. The technique combines fundamental concepts of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and autoradiography to fulfil their limitations. The elemental composition obtained from INAA, however, is for the whole sample and it is not possible to map specific location of particular elements. Autoradiography, on the other hand, provides visual images without elemental information. Here, a near triangle of 1.5 cm x 3.0 cm metal Buddha image was irradiated using the in-pool dry irradiation facility. Irradiation times were 10 seconds and 15 minutes and decay times were varied. In parallel to elemental analysis, the irradiated sample was placed in good contact with an imaging plate to record self- emitting radiation. At a condition of irradiation, autoradiographic image and elemental appearances in INAA spectrum were compared. The structural profile in complementary with elemental information will help address questions regarding provenance, manufacturing technology, traditional beliefs which can be further applied to conservation methodology and authenticity approval.

  4. Study using macroscopic autoradiography of the distribution of vanadium 48 in the rat and mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of vanadium 48 distribution in the laboratory animal by macroscopic autoradiography. Vanadium 48 bioavailability is zero after oral administration and good after pulmonary administration. It is distributed throughout the body with a particular affinity for bone and teeth. Study of perinatal metabolism

  5. Thorium determination in thorotrast patient organs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and imaging plate autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used for the determination of Th in liver and spleen collected from autopsy subjects in Thorotrast patients to obtain useful information for dosimetry. The applicability of an imaging plate autoradiography technique for the determination of thorium distributions in organs to obtain information related to microdosimetry has also been evaluated

  6. Boron content in type 316 L stainless steel by neutron induced autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron is effective to the improvement of various properties of alloys, but it is difficult to characterize its behavior during the alloy processing. Neutron induced autoradiography (or called as F.T.E: Fission Track Etching) technique was attempted to quantitatively analyze boron content in type 316 L austenitic stainless steel. Reference samples with nine different boron contents were prepared and analyzed by conventional analysis method as well as by autoradiography technique using 'HANARO', a 30 MW research reactor in K.A.E.R.I. (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Cd ratio of the neutron flux was about 200 and thermal neutron flux was around 2x1013/cm2/sec. A Kodak CN-85TM detector with an alloy sample was irradiated with two different thermal neutron fluences of 1013 and 1014/cm2. Track densities on the autoradiographs were measured using image analyzer. Within the range of 10 to 50 ppm of boron, track densities from autoradiography showed the linear relationship with results from conventional analyses. When complementarily applied with other analysis technique like E.B.S.D. (Electron Backscattered Diffraction) or E.D.S. (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) neutron induced autoradiography technique was found very useful in distinguishing and identifying phases with the different distribution coefficient of boron. (author)

  7. Two methods that facilitate autoradiography of small 32P-labeled DNA fragments following electrophoresis in agarose gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods which permit detection by autoradiography of small 32P-labeled DNA fragments resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis are described. Agarose gel electrophoresis poses problems for autoradiography as (i) the gels are normally too thick to allow autoradiography without being dried first, and (ii) fragments of DNA of 1000 bp or less in length are readily lost during drying. In this study DNA fragments as small as 121 bp have been retained in agarose gels upon drying. This has been achieved by either (i) first fixing the DNA with the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, or (ii) drying the agarose gels onto Zeta-Probe charge-modified membranes

  8. Neutron autoradiography: working-out method and application in investigations of test paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron-induced autoradiography was carried out at MARIA research reactor in Poland. The paintings were exposed to the thermal neutrons. As a result, the radionuclides emitting beta particles and gamma rays were created from some of the elements existing in the painting. Beta particles were detected during successive exposure to a series of X-ray medical-sensitive films. The obtained images--blackening of the films depends mainly on the nuclear characteristic of recorded radionuclides and exposure parameters. The main purpose of this work was to work out a method, build a special stand and test sample paintings using neutron autoradiography. Samples of paintings were investigated and according to the obtained results, optimum test parameters have been selected: neutron irradiation conditions and autoradiographs exposure conditions

  9. Investigation of platinum group elements distribution in geological samples using gamma activation autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method is based on the irradiation of polished thin sections of the samples by microtron bremsstrahlung. The irradiation time is 30 min, maximum energy 26 MeV. The method allows platinum to be quantitated selectively in the presence of the rock-forming elements Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Mn, P, Ti, and Ni. The induced activity distribution in the samples was examined by using films for autoradiography (MR-type, Russia) followed by conversion to a digital format and computer processing. The gamma activation autoradiography was developed for aluminosilicates containing platinum inclusion. The detection limit is about 1 ng of platinum, spatial resolution is about 50 μm

  10. Combined autoradiography and immunofluorescence for estimation of single cell activity by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunofluorescence and 14CO2 autoradiography were used for simultaneously enumerating and assaying the autotrophic activity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in seawater. Relative activity (14CO2 assimilation as measured by autoradiography) and abundance were measured in simulated in situ incubations at seven stations in the primary NO2- maximum region of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. More than 104 cells-liter-1 were present; relative activity often showed a peak near the surface and an increase in the NO2- max region below the photic zone. The method permits assessment of individual cell activity; most cells at all depths were active in CO2 assimilation, usually at low and quite variable levels. Relative activity was positively correlated with the abundance of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, temperature, total dark CO2 assimilation and phenopigment concentration

  11. 2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography of single motor units: labelling of individual acutely active muscle fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-Deoxy-D-[1-14C]glucose (2DG) was given intravenously during repetitive stimulation of single motor units in adult cats and autoradiographs were made of frozen sections of the target muscles in order to evaluate methods designed to improve the spatial resolution of [14C]2DG autoradiography. With the modifications used, acutely active muscle fibers, independently identified by depletion of intrafiber glycogen, were associated with highly localized accumulations of silver grains over the depleted fibers. The results indicate that [14C]2DG autoradiography can successfully identify individual active muscle fibers and might in principle be used to obtain quantitative data about rates of glucose metabolism in single muscle fibers of defined histochemical type. The modifications may be applicable also to other tissues to give improved spatial resolution with [14C]-labeled metabolic markers. (Auth.)

  12. The use of autoradiography for investigating the distribution of radioactivity in lung counter calibration sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M; Marro, Leonora; Inn, Kenneth G W; Unterweger, Mike; Hodge, Pam

    2004-04-01

    This paper shows that autoradiography is a useful technique for investigating radioactivity distributions in lung phantoms and planar sources. It was applied to a sliced lung phantom that had activity homogeneously distributed throughout the tissue substitute material and to laminated planar sources in an attempt to answer three questions: 1) Was the activity distribution the same in each slice of the sliced homogeneous lung set? 2) Was the activity distribution the same for each of the laminated planar sources? and 3) Were the activity distributions the same between slices and planar sources? The activity distribution, including identification of some locations of elevated activity in the sliced homogeneous lungs, was easily obtained using autoradiography. This study demonstrates that neither the sliced homogeneous lung sets nor the laminated planar sources had a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity, as had been previously thought. PMID:15057056

  13. On the follicular pathway of percutaneous uptake of nanoparticles: Ion microscopy and autoradiography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the visualization of the penetration of sunscreen formulations containing TiO2 nanoparticles (about 20 nm primary particle size) into hair follicles of both human and porcine skin using the complementary methods of ion microscopy (PIXE, RBS, STIM) and autoradiography. Particles were found as deep as approx. 400 μm in the follicle, obviously introduced mechanically rather than by a diffusive process. No particles were observed in vital tissue nor in sebaceous glands

  14. C autoradiography with a novel wafer scale CMOS Active Pixel Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, M; Wells, K.; Anaxagoras, T; Allinson, NM; Larner, J

    2013-01-01

    C autoradiography is a well established technique for structural and metabolic analysis of cells and tissues. The most common detection medium for this application is film emulsion, which offers unbeatable spatial resolution due to its fine granularity but at the same time has some limiting drawbacks such as poor linearity and rapid saturation. In recent years several digital detectors have been developed, following the technological transition from analog to digital-based detection systems i...

  15. Localization of 125I-insulin binding sites in the rat hypothalamus by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro autoradiography and computer video densitometry were used to localize and quantify binding of 125I-insulin in the hypothalamus of the rat brain. Highest specific binding was found in the arculate, dorsomedial, suprachiasmatic, paraventricular and periventricular regions. Significantly lower binding was present in the ventromedial nucleus and median eminence. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that insulin modulates the neural regulation of feeding by acting at sites in the hypothalamus. (author)

  16. The use of autoradiography to accurately enumerate viable iron oxidizing leaching bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method using 14CO2 fixation and autoradiography has been developed. The method relies on viable leaching bacteria being able to oxidize iron, fix 14CO2 and form colonies on membrane filters. After drying, the membranes are placed on X-ray film and colonies containing radioactive carbon expose the film. Colonies were visualized as black spots on the X-ray film. The autoradiograph method was used to measure viable iron oxidizing leaching bacteria in a variety of leachates. A direct relationship was found between total cell count (T. ferrooxidans batch culture) and viable cells using the autoradiographic method (r2 = 0.96). The results suggested that one in four cells counted by phase contrast microscopy were viable by the autoradiographic method. The autoradiographic method and agarose gel plating were used to determine the number of viable leaching bacteria in leachates from a variety of sulfides. The number of viable leaching bacteria using autoradiography was well correlated to metal release from Mt Lyell and Mr Isa chalcopyrite. Lead release from galena (PbS) was correlated to viable cell number using autoradiography was well correlated to metal release from Mt Lyell and Mr Isa chalcopyrite. Lead release from galena (PbS) was correlated to viable cell number using autoradiography (r2 = 0.98). Good correlations between metal ion release and viability using the autoradiographic technique suggests that the technique is enumerating organisms involved in biodegradation of sulfides. Viable cell numbers using agarose gel plating were much lower (6--25 times) and showed no correlations to metal ion release from Mt Lyell and Mt Isa chalcopyrites and galena (PbS). Viable cell numbers from marmatite (ZnS) did not correlate with zinc release

  17. Evaluation of thermal neutron irradiation field using a cyclotron-based neutron source for alpha autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to measure the microdistribution of 10B in a cell to predict the cell-killing effect of new boron compounds in the field of boron neutron capture therapy. Alpha autoradiography has generally been used to detect the microdistribution of 10B in a cell. Although it has been performed using a reactor-based neutron source, the realization of an accelerator-based thermal neutron irradiation field is anticipated because of its easy installation at any location and stable operation. Therefore, we propose a method using a cyclotron-based epithermal neutron source in combination with a water phantom to produce a thermal neutron irradiation field for alpha autoradiography. This system can supply a uniform thermal neutron field with an intensity of 1.7×109 (cm−2 s−1) and an area of 40 mm in diameter. In this paper, we give an overview of our proposed system and describe a demonstration test using a mouse liver sample injected with 500 mg/kg of boronophenyl-alanine. - Highlights: • We developed a thermal neutron irradiation field using cyclotron based epithermal neutron source combination with a water phantom for alpha autoradiography. • The uniform thermal neutron irradiation field with an intensity of 1.7×109 (cm−2 s−1) with a size of 40 mm in diameter was obtained. • Demonstration test of alpha autoradiography using a liver sample with the injection of BPA was performed. • Boron image discriminated with the background event of protons was clearly shown by means of the particle identification

  18. [Electron-microscopic autoradiography of RNA synthesis in the myocardium after damage to it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galankin, V N; Pal'tsyn, A A; Badikova, A K

    1977-06-01

    Thermic burn of the wall of the left cardiac ventricle was inflicted to new born rats. Twenty-four hours after the injury the RNA synthesis of the myocardial cells remote from the site of burn were investigated by electron-microscopic autoradiography. Tissue samples were fixed 2 and 6 hours after the 3H-uridine injections. As compared with the control, experimental animals displayed a reduction of silver grains density over the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes. PMID:884310

  19. Reference systems for the determination of 10B through autoradiography images: Application to a melanoma experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of 10B in tissue samples may be determined by measuring the track density in the autoradiography image produced on a nuclear track detector. Different systems were evaluated as reference standards to be used for a quantitative evaluation of boron concentration. The obtained calibration curves were applied to evaluate the concentration of 10B in melanoma tumour of NIH nude mice after a biodistribution study. The histological features observed in the tissue sections were accurately reproduced by the autoradiography images.

  20. High speed quantitative digital beta autoradiography using a multi-step avalanche detector and an Apple-II microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an electronic, digital beta autoradiography system is described. Using a Multi-Step Avalanche/Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MSA/MWPC) detector system fitted with delay line readout, high speed digital imaging is demonstrated with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Good proportionality of observed counting rate relative to the known tritium activity is demonstrated. The application of the system to autoradiography in immunoelectrophoresis, histopathology and DNA sequencing is described. (author)

  1. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Örbom, Anders, E-mail: anders.orbom@med.lu.se; Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund SE-22185 (Sweden); Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo FI-02044 (Finland); Hauge, Håvard [Biomolex AS, Oslo NO-0319 (Norway); Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  2. Chemical neuroanatomy and in vitro receptor autoradiography: A basis for cerebral positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review chemical neuroanatomy and in vitro receptor (IVG) autoradiography as tools for the development of methods suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The organizations of monoaminergic, cholinergic, γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABA), and excitatory amino acidergic (EAA) pathways within the central nervous system are summarized, as is the presently accepted classification of GABA and EAA receptors. We describe the technique of IVG and discuss its unique advantages for the selection of possible PET methods. Finally, we discuss receptor changes in Huntington's disease and olivopontocerebellar atrophy, two human diseases for which IVG has suggested possible targets for PET imaging

  3. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging 18F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of 58Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a 125I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a 131I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10−6 counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were

  4. Variation in thickness of the large cryosections cut for whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to assess variation in thickness of the large cryosections for whole-body autoradiography (WBARG) was described, and the degree of intraslice and interslice variations were determined for our cryomicrotome system (LKB PMV-2250). Intraslice variation in thickness of the 180 x 80 mm cryosection was 0.72-0.92 μm within the range of section thickness for WBARG (15-50 μm), and interslice variation was 0.89-1.21 μm. These potential variations in section thickness should be kept in mind whenever working with quantitative WBARG. (author)

  5. Electron microscopic autoradiography and its application in research of sympathetic nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literary survey is presented of the application of electron microscopic autoradiography in research of the sympathetic nervous system and the results are reported of experiments with the application of electron microscopy in the research of ganglion cervicale superioris in rats and of nerve endings in the muscle septa of the cat spleen. Two methods were also compared of applying nuclear emulsions, i.e. on the mesh with histological sections and on the sections placed on the supporting membrane and on the glass slide. The former was found to be less exacting as concerns time. (L.O.)

  6. Autoradiography-based, three-dimensional calculation of dose rate for murine, human-tumor xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Fast Fourier Transform method for calculating the three-dimensional dose rate distribution for murine, human-tumour xenografts is outlined. The required input includes evenly-spaced activity slices which span the tumour. Numerical values in these slices are determined by quantitative 125I autoradiography. For the absorbed dose-rate calculation, we assume the activity from both 131I- and 90Y-labeled radiopharmaceuticals would be distributed as is measured with the 125I label. Two example cases are presented: an ovarian-carcinoma xenograft with an IgG 2ak monoclonal antibody and a neuroblastoma xenograft with meta-iobenzylguanidine (MIBG). (Author)

  7. Autoradiography of high affinity uptake of catecholamines by primary astrocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of D,L-[3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) and [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) by primary astrocyte cultures prepared from neonatal rat brains, was studied by measuring accumulation of tritium label, and localizing such uptake at the cellular level by autoradiography. The results confirm the authors previous findings of the existence of a high affinity uptake process for catecholamines in primary astrocyte cultures based on uptake properties, and in the present study also localizes such uptake to the major, astrocytic cell type. (Auth.)

  8. Quantitative autoradiography of [125I] apamin binding sites in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, P K; Horvath, E; Seibold, G; Habermann, E

    1984-01-01

    The binding sites for [125I] apamin in the central nervous system of rat, guinea-pig, chicken and frog were assessed by quantitative autoradiography on X-ray film. In rat and guinea-pig brain apamin labels preferentially the limbic-olfactory system, i.e. nucleus olfactorius, nuclei septi, habenula and hippocampus. In the rat spinal cord the peptide binds preferentially to the substantia gelatinosa. Tectum opticum and nuclei isthmi are labelled in chicken brain. In frog brain no preferentially "apamin-stained" area was found. The role of the cerebral binding sites is still unknown, whereas the spinal sites may be involved in apamin poisoning. PMID:6335967

  9. Quantitative autoradiography of [125I] apamin binding sites in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding sites for [125I] apamin in the central nervous system of rat, guinea-pig, chicken and frog were assessed by quantitative autoradiography on X-ray film. In rat and guinea-pig brain apamin labels preferentially the limbic-olfactory system, i.e. nucleus olfactorius, nuclei septi, habenula and hippocampus. In the rat spinal cord the peptide binds preferentially to the substantia gelatinosa. Tectum opticum and nuclei isthmi are labelled in chicken brain. In frog brain no preferentially 'apamin-stained' area was found. The role of the cerebral binding sites is still unknown, whereas the spinal sites may be involved in apamin poisoning. (author)

  10. Quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 125/I) apamin binding sites in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicki, P.K.; Horvath, E.; Habermann, E. (Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Rudolf-Buchheim-Institut fuer Pharmakologie); Seibold, G. (Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum)

    1984-12-01

    The binding sites for (/sup 125/I) apamin in the central nervous system of rat, guinea-pig, chicken and frog were assessed by quantitative autoradiography on X-ray film. In rat and guinea-pig brain apamin labels preferentially the limbic-olfactory system, i.e. nucleus olfactorius, nuclei septi, habenula and hippocampus. In the rat spinal cord the peptide binds preferentially to the substantia gelatinosa. Tectum opticum and nuclei isthmi are labelled in chicken brain. In frog brain no preferentially 'apamin-stained' area was found. The role of the cerebral binding sites is still unknown, whereas the spinal sites may be involved in apamin poisoning.

  11. 238U And 232Th Concentration In Rock Samples using Alpha Autoradiography and Gamma Spectroscopy Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium were measured for some rock samples selected from Dahab region in the south tip of Sinai. In order to detect any harmful radiation that would affect on the tourists and is becoming economic resource because Dahab have open fields of tourism in Egypt. The activity concentration of uranium and thorium in rocks samples was measured using two techniques. The first is .-autoradiography technique with LR-115 and CR-39 detectors and the second is gamma spectroscopic technique with NaI(Tl) detector. It was found that the average activity concentrations of uranium and thorium using .-autoradiography technique ranged from 6.41-49.31 Bqkg-1, 4.86- 40.87 Bqkg-1 respectively and by gamma detector are ranged from 6.70- 49.50 Bqkg-1, 4.47- 42.33 Bqkg-1 respectively. From the obtained data we can conclude that there is no radioactive healthy hazard for human and living beings in the area under investigation. It was found that there are no big differences between the calculated thorium to uranium ratios in both techniques

  12. A study on the behavior of boron in iron-base alloys by neutron induced autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Cho, Hae Dong; Han, Chang Hee; Lee, Chang Hee; Jung, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yi Kyung; Lee, Yong Bok

    2001-02-01

    Boron is widely utilized in steel or alloy making to improve certain properties. However, due to its lightness boron is difficult to detect or characterize its behavior even through TEM/EDS or EELS techniques. Although many companies recognize the beneficial effects of boron, the role or mechanism of the boron is not yet clearly understood. Therefore it is required to develop the autoradiography technique to elucidate the boron behavior in alloys. As the only institute operating research reactor in the country, it would be the responsibility of the institute to develop the technique and provide it to the industries. Quantitative analyses of boron in type 316 L stainless steel by neutron induced autoradiography was attempted in this study. Nine experimental reference alloys with different amount of boron were prepared and reliable chemical composition data were obtained. Autoradiographs of reference materials with three different neutron fluences ( 1.9 10{sup 13}, 1.9 10{sup 14} and 1.9 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2} ) were obtained and a trial calibration curve of boron content vs. track density was acquired.

  13. How Digital Autoradiography Technique can be useful for D and D projects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many stakeholders, it is obvious that radiological characterization is essential for D and D projects and all of them have its own specificities. Different types of techniques have been developed for characterizations not only by destructive methods but also by in situ investigations. Since 2010, the LASE laboratory, in charge of characterizations of different radionuclides that can be found in nuclear wastes, has developed the Digital Autoradiography (DA) technique. Today, DA technique is in routine use commercially for biological researches to obtain images of labelled molecules containing for example H-3, C-14, I-129,... i.e. radionuclides difficult to measure for D and D projects. The needs to investigate these hard to observe radionuclides are one of the R and D subjects for D and D proposed recently and highlighted by OECD. Up to now the R and D projects concerning Digital Autoradiography has been focused on mapping process in buildings under dismantling process and also on sampling procedures being essential before any destructive analysis. New developments are still going on to develop the technique and to modify technologies coming from biological researches. (authors)

  14. Neutron-induced autoradiography used in the investigation of modern pigments in paintings of known composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron-Induced Autoradiography is an effective analytical technique for mapping the location of a number of specified pigments in paintings. Most paintings which have been examined through neutron-induced autoradiography to date were painted prior to the introduction of the most common of modern pigments. By understanding die nuclear properties of these pigments, as revealed by this technique, a more informed analysis of modem paintings may result This investigation is part of an ongoing program to develop case studies for presentation to an undergraduate class at Cornell University, 'Art, Isotopes and Analysis'. We have found that this technique is a graphic and effective method of presenting nuclear reactions and radioactivity to non-specialists. Sample paintings are produced using pigments of known composition. A sequence of discreet layers, each a separate image, is documented in order to establish a reference for accurately interpreting the autoradiographs. The painting is then activated in the Cornell TRIGA reactor and a series of autoradiographs produced Gamma spectra taken before and after each film exposure gives us detailed information on which radioisotopes (and therefore, which pigments), are active. (author)

  15. 10B concentration evaluation in autoradiography images by optical density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantification and analysis of the tracks forming the autoradiography image of a tissue section is essential for the measurement of particle emitter concentration and distribution (e.g. 10B) in the sample. Conventional counting techniques cannot be used when track density is high because of track overlapping. A densitometry supported by image analysis method suitable for these cases has been developed. Optical density measurements obtained for boron solutions of known concentrations showed a linear behavior in the range of concentrations under consideration. - Highlights: ► A nuclear tracks quantification method was developed applying optical densitometry supported by image analysis. ► It will provide information about 10B distribution in samples whose autoradiographies present high density of tracks. ► A calibration curve for optical density versus boron concentration was constructed and applied to the analysis of boron-doped silicon wafers. ► Results were compared with those from an individual counting technique, obtaining a good agreement.

  16. {sup 10}B concentration evaluation in autoradiography images by optical density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portu, A., E-mail: portu@cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, AC: C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saint Martin, G., E-mail: gisaint@cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Brandizzi, D., E-mail: brandizzi@cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Laboratorio de Microespectrofotometria (LANAIS-MEF), CONICET-CNEA (Argentina); Bernaola, O.A., E-mail: bernaola@cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    The quantification and analysis of the tracks forming the autoradiography image of a tissue section is essential for the measurement of particle emitter concentration and distribution (e.g. {sup 10}B) in the sample. Conventional counting techniques cannot be used when track density is high because of track overlapping. A densitometry supported by image analysis method suitable for these cases has been developed. Optical density measurements obtained for boron solutions of known concentrations showed a linear behavior in the range of concentrations under consideration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nuclear tracks quantification method was developed applying optical densitometry supported by image analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It will provide information about {sup 10}B distribution in samples whose autoradiographies present high density of tracks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calibration curve for optical density versus boron concentration was constructed and applied to the analysis of boron-doped silicon wafers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with those from an individual counting technique, obtaining a good agreement.

  17. Combined autoradiography and immunofluorescence for estimation of single cell activity by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunofluorescence and 14CO2 autoradiography were used for simultaneously enumerating and assaying the autotrophic activity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in seawater. Relative activity (14CO2 assimilation as measured by autoradiography) and abundance were measured in simulated in situ incubations at seven stations in the primary NO2- maximum region of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. More than 104 cells liter-1 were present; relative activity often showed a peak near the surface and an increase in the NO2- max region below the photic zone. The method permits assessment of individual cell activity; most cells at all depths were active in CO2 assimilation, usually at low and quite variable levels. There were no differences in relative activity between samples incubated under simulated in situ conditions and in the dark. Relative activity was positively correlated with the abundance of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, temperature, total dark CO2 assimilation (as measured by liquid scintillation counting of replicate samples), and pheopigment concentration, and negatively correlated with oxygen concentration

  18. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for /sup 125/I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells.

  19. Quantitative autoradiography of [3H]CTOP binding to mu opioid receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 ([3H]CTOP), a potent and highly selective mu opioid antagonist, was used to localize the mu receptors in rat brain by light microscopic autoradiography. Radioligand binding studies with [3H]CTOP using slide-mounted tissue sections of rat brain produced a Kd value of 1.1 nM with a Bmax value of 79.1 fmol/mg protein. Mu opioid agonists and antagonists inhibited [3H]CTOP binding with high affinity (IC50 values of 0.2-2.4nM), while the delta agonist DPDPE, delta antagonist ICI 174,864, and kappa agonist U 69,593 were very weak inhibitors of [3H]CTOP binding. Light microscopic autoradiography of [3H]CTOP binding sites revealed regions of high density and regions of moderate labeling. The cerebral cortex showed a low density of [3H]CTOP binding

  20. (64)Cu-ATSM and (18)FDG PET uptake and (64)Cu-ATSM autoradiography in spontaneous canine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders E; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Jørgensen, Jesper T;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare (64)Cu-diacetyl-bis(N(4)-methylsemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM) and (18)FDG PET uptake characteristics and (64)Cu-ATSM autoradiography to pimonidazole immunohistochemistry in spontaneous canine sarcomas and carcinomas....

  1. Localization and quantitation of tritiated compounds in tissue sections with a gaseous detector of beta particles: Comparison with film autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribollet, E.; Dreifuss, J.J.; Charpak, G.; Dominik, W.; Zaganidis, N. (Univ. Medical Centre, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-02-15

    Quantitative analysis of tritium polymer standards and of brain sections labeled with tritiated vasopressin was carried out by using a gaseous detector of beta particles designed for this purpose. The gaseous detector showed major advantages compared with film autoradiography: the linearity and the large dynamic range of intensity measurements as well as the short time needed for data acquisition.

  2. Preliminary assessment of a multiwire camera for quantitative autoradiography of tritium-labelled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have assessed a multiwire camera for the high speed, quantitative autoradiography of tritium-labelled substances in two-dimensional systems. Exposure times for 3H were typically 1000 times less than film-based methods, with a detection efficiency of 19 + - 3% for those beta particles predicted to escape into the sensitive region from uniformly 3H-labelled plastic segments of 30 μm thickness. The spatial resolving power was calculated to be 0.4 mm full width half maximum (FWHM), the background count rate was 1 CPM cm-2 and the lowest activity monitored for a biochemical study was 0.15 Bq cm-2. The camera is expected to have wide applications for detecting and quantifying biological substances in a wide range of separation media. (author)

  3. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of selenized yeast and autoradiography of 75Se-containing proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional high-resolution gel electrophoresis (2DE) has been applied to the fractionation of 75Se-containing proteins in yeast, grown in 75Se-containing medium, and autoradiography was used for detection of the 75Se-containing proteins. Gel filtration and ultrafiltration were used to check whether the selenium side-chains were stable in the presence of the chemicals used for lysis and 2DE. The mass distribution of the selenium-containing proteins was estimated by use of gel filtration and the results were compared with the distribution obtained by 2DE. A 2DE map of selenium-containing proteins in yeast is presented, and compared with a total protein map of yeast. (orig.)

  4. Quantitative autoradiography of hippocampal GABAB and GASAA receptor changes in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABAB and GABAA receptors were examined by quantitative [3H] GABA autoradiography in postmortem human hippocampus from 6 histopathologically verified cases of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and 6 normal controls. Significant decrements in the Bmax for both types of GABA receptors were observed in DAT hippocampus as compared to normal controls. No significant differences in Kd values were revealed. As compared to controls, DAT hippocampus exhibited fewer GABAB receptors in stratum moleculare of the denate gyrus, stratum lacunosum-molecular and stratum pyramidale of CA1. Significant loss of GABAA receptors in DAT hippocampus was also observed in the CA1 pyramidal cell region. These changes could not be correlated with differences in age nor in postmortem delay between the two groups. These findings may reflect the neuronal pathologies in CA1 region in dentate gyrus, and in projections from the entorhinal cortex which are associated with the memory impairment of DAT. 29 refs. (Author)

  5. GaAs pixel radiation detector as an autoradiography tool for genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an autoradiography tool to be used mainly for genetic studies. It performs a quantitative analysis of radioactivity and can follow a dynamic process. We designed several applications, in particular one aimed at detecting hybridization of radio-labeled DNA fragments with known DNA-probes deposited on a micro-array. The technique is based on GaAs pixel array detector and low threshold, large dynamic range and good sensitivity integrated electronics developed for medical applications, suitable to detect markers (gamma or beta) such as 14C, 35S, 33P, 32P, 125I, even at very low activities. A Monte Carlo simulation of β- detection in GaAs is presented here in order to study the spatial resolution characteristics of such a system. For several biological applications, the electronics is required to perform at high temperatures (from 37 deg. to 68 deg. ): we present here studies of noise and minimum threshold as a function of the temperature

  6. Clay minerals sorbing radiocesium in Fukushima. Investigation by IP autoradiography and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although more than four years have passed after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant, the state of radioactive cesium, which is the main source of the high radioactivity in the environment of Fukushima, is not well understood yet. To advance this situation, we tried to specify radioactive soil particles using IP autoradiography and electron microscopy. As a result, the radioactive soil particles were classified into three types from their morphologies and chemical compositions: (1) conglomerates of fine clay minerals, (2) organic matter containing clay mineral particles, and (3) weathered biotite with a platy shape originated from granite. The weathered biotite is actually a biotite-vermiculite mixed layer mineral, forming a porous structure with well-developed cleavage, and kaolinite filling the cleavage spaces. It was indicated that radioactive cesium is located uniformly in the weathered biotite, rather than concentrated around the edge of the platy shape. (author)

  7. Quantitative autoradiography measurement of CA-MoV18 antigen concentration in ovarian carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of CA-MoV18 antigen in ovarian tumor and normal ovarian tissue samples were measured. Quantitative autoradiography was performed in 33 ovarian tissue samples with radiolabeled MoV18 monoclonal antibodies. Among them 22 samples were ovarian carcinomas, 7 samples were benign ovarian tumors and 4 samples were normal ovarian tissues. Among 19 serous ovarian carcinomas, 17 had MoV 18 antigen expression, ranging from 1.30 to 59.28 pmol/g tissue, 3 mutinous ovarian carcinomas and 11 nonmalignant ovaries (7 benign tumors and 4 normal tissues) were not detectable MoV 18 antigen. CA-MoV18 antigen was expressed in serous ovarian carcinomas. The concentration of CA-MoV 18 antigen was correlated with labelled antibodies (%ID/g) in tumor tissue

  8. Detection of radiolabelled bone marrow cells bearing surface immunoglobulins by combined autoradiography and immunoperoxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the simultaneous detection of radiolabelled bone marrow cells bearing surface immunoglobulins by combined autoradiography and immunoperoxidase. Bone marrow cells from normal CBA mice prelabelled in vivo with 125IUDR or exposed in vitro to [3H]thymidine were incubated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins under capping conditions, washed, cytocentrifuged and treated with methanol and hydrogen peroxide to destroy endogenous peroxidase. Cells were then covered with peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins, washed, treated with diaminobenzidine and hydrogen peroxide and finally covered with autoradiographic stripping film and exposed for different times. Peroxidase-positive cells were typically capped and those radiolabelled had autoradiographic silver grains overlying the nucleus. (Auth.)

  9. Techniques for demonstrating radiation pathology in aquatic organisms including histology and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory research carried out under well-designed conditions can produce reproducible results. However, if there is any variation in the experimental conditions including physical, chemical and biological factors, it may be difficult to compare the results obtained in different laboratories. The factors affecting the manifestation of radiation pathology are specially emphasized here. Radiation effects on fish and aquatic invertebrates are also described briefly. Almost all techniques developed for radiobiological research in mammals and cultured cells can be applied to research into aquatic organisms. Histopathological examination of fish should focus on the observation of the cell-renewal systems at appropriate time intervals after irradiation. Some techniques for demonstrating radiation pathology including histology and autoradiography in aquatic organisms, especially in fish, are illustrated with examples. (author)

  10. 14C autoradiography with an energy-sensitive silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first performance tests are presented of a carbon-14 (14C) beta-particle digital autoradiography system with an energy-sensitive hybrid silicon pixel detector based on the Timepix readout circuit. Timepix was developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration and it is similar to the photon-counting Medipix2 circuit, except for an added time-based synchronization logic which allows derivation of energy information from the time-over-threshold signal. This feature permits direct energy measurements in each pixel of the detector array. Timepix is bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon detector with 256 x 256 pixels of 55 μm pitch. Since an energetic beta-particle could release its kinetic energy in more than one detector pixel as it slows down in the semiconductor detector, an off-line image analysis procedure was adopted in which the single-particle cluster of hit pixels is recognized; its total energy is calculated and the position of interaction on the detector surface is attributed to the centre of the charge cluster. Measurements reported are detector sensitivity, (4.11 ± 0.03) x 10-3 cps mm-2 kBq-1 g, background level, (3.59 ± 0.01) x 10-5 cps mm-2, and minimum detectable activity, 0.0077 Bq. The spatial resolution is 76.9 μm full-width at half-maximum. These figures are compared with several digital imaging detectors for 14C beta-particle digital autoradiography.

  11. Analysis of 18F-labelled synthesis products on TLC plates: Comparison of radioactivity scanning, film autoradiography, and a phosphoimaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared radioactivity scanning, film autoradiography, and digital photostimulated luminescence (PSL) autoradiography (phosphoimaging technique) in detection of radioactivity on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. TLC combined with radioactivity detection is rapid, simple, and relatively flexible. Here, 18F-labelled synthesis products were analyzed by TLC and the radioactivity distribution on the plates determined using the three techniques. Radioactivity scanning is appropriate only with good chromatographic resolution and previously validated scanning parameters. Film autoradiography exhibits poor linearity if radioactivity varies greatly. PSL provides high sensitivity and resolution and superior linearity compared with the other methods

  12. {sup 18}F-FDG positron autoradiography with a particle counting silicon pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, P; Lauria, A; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Marotta, M [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Aloj, L; Lastoria, S [Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adele.lauria@na.infn.it

    2008-11-07

    We report on tests of a room-temperature particle counting silicon pixel detector of the Medipix2 series as the detector unit of a positron autoradiography (AR) system, for samples labelled with {sup 18}F-FDG radiopharmaceutical used in PET studies. The silicon detector (1.98 cm{sup 2} sensitive area, 300 {mu}m thick) has high intrinsic resolution (55 {mu}m pitch) and works by counting all hits in a pixel above a certain energy threshold. The present work extends the detector characterization with {sup 18}F-FDG of a previous paper. We analysed the system's linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, background count rate, noise, and its imaging performance on biological samples. Tests have been performed in the laboratory with {sup 18}F-FDG drops (37-37 000 Bq initial activity) and ex vivo in a rat injected with 88.8 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG. Particles interacting in the detector volume produced a hit in a cluster of pixels whose mean size was 4.3 pixels/event at 11 keV threshold and 2.2 pixels/event at 37 keV threshold. Results show a sensitivity for {beta}{sup +} of 0.377 cps Bq{sup -1}, a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude and a lower detection limit of 0.0015 Bq mm{sup -2}. Real-time {sup 18}F-FDG positron AR images have been obtained in 500-1000 s exposure time of thin (10-20 {mu}m) slices of a rat brain and compared with 20 h film autoradiography of adjacent slices. The analysis of the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in a rat brain slice indicated that Poisson noise-limited imaging can be approached in short (e.g. 100 s) exposures, with {approx}100 Bq slice activity, and that the silicon pixel detector produced a higher image quality than film-based AR.

  13. Mapping of uranium and phosphorus in sediments of Lakes Baikal and Issyk-Kul by neutron-induced autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium and phosphorus distribution in sediment cores from the axial part of the Akademicheskiy Ridge in Lake Baikal and in the southern coastal part of Lake Issyk-Kul were studied using neutron-induced autoradiography based on the 235U(n,f) and 31P(n,β)32P reactions. The composition, morphology and structure of the mineral phases which include U and P, were studied by an electron microprobe, combined with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Layers and concretions of uranium-bearing phosphorite (U and P concentration of about 50 ppm and 19.2 wt%, respectively) were identified by autoradiography in the sediments of Lake Baikal. These layers may be considered as good paleomarkers for sediment chronology in Lake Baikal. The phosphorites consist of a metastable phase of calcium-deficient phosphate which has not been observed before in sediments and rocks

  14. A technique for improved resolution of [3H]thymidine autoradiography in the avian embryo: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described for producing pulse-like effects in [3H]thymidine autoradiography in chick embryos. This procedure involves combining thymidine with reserpine, which temporarily inhibits thymidine incorporation. The concept is to introduce thymidine, allow time for its incorporation, then introduce reserpine, so that subsequent uptake is inhibited, and a relatively discrete label will appear in cells generated at the time of thymidine administration. The best results occurred when thymidine was administered 12 h prior to reserpine, or when the two were introduced simultaneously. A dose of 0.004 mg of reserpine produced the suppression, but had no deleterious effects, in terms of embryonic survival or in long-lasting changes in cell numbers, as reflected by cell counts in the trochlear nucleus, a population which was undergoing proliferation at the time of reserpine injection. Thus, this technique appears to hold considerable promise for improving the precision of the autoradiography procedure in avian embryos. (Auth.)

  15. EM autoradiography evidence for irradiated pollen DNA of leymus angustus entering wheat ovary and GISH of its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was proved that DNA of irradiated pollen of Leymus angustus entered wheat ovary by means of labelling pollens of L. angustus with 3H-TdR and electronic microscopic autoradiography. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis on wheat x L. angustus hybrids showed that chromosome number variation and structural aberration of L. angustus took place in the hybrids recovered after pollinating with irradiated pollens of L. angustus

  16. 3H-TdR autoradiography in vitro incubation for the evaluation of the therapeutic effect in chronic atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed with the feasibility of using 3H-TdR autoraoiography in vitro incubation to evaluate the therapeutic effect of atrophic gastritis. The results showed that gastric mucosa labelling indices measured by autoradiography can reflect the property, severity and clincal conditions of chronic gastritis quantitatively. The methodology is raliable and reproducible. It was suggested that labelling indices may serve as a cytokinetic parameter to evaluate the therapeutic effect of atrophic gastritis

  17. Quantitative autoradiography of 3H-nomifensine binding sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 3H-nomifensine binding sites in the rat brain has been studied by quantitative autoradiography. The binding of 3H-nomifensine to caudate putamen sections was saturable, specific, of a highly affinity (Kd = 56 nM) and sodium-dependent. The dopamine uptake inhibitors benztropine, nomifensine, cocaine, bupropion and amfonelic acid were the most potent competitors of 3H-nomifensine binding to striatal sections. The highest levels of (benztropine-displaceable) 3H-nomifensine binding sites were found in the caudate-putamen, the olfactory tubercle and the nucleus accumbens. 6-Hydroxy-dopamine-induced lesion of the ascending dopaminergic bundle resulted in a marked decrease in the 3H-ligand binding in these areas. Moderately high concentrations of the 3H-ligand were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anteroventral thalamic nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the lateral septum, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the zona incerta and some hypothalamic nuclei. There were low levels of binding sites in the habenula, the dorsolateral geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area and the periaqueductal gray matter. These autoradiographic data are consistent with the hypothesis that 3H-nomifensine binds primarily to the presynaptic uptake site for dopamine but also labels the norepinephrine uptake site. 33 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  18. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scatton, B.; Dubois, A.; Dubocovich, M.L.; Zahniser, N.R.; Fage, D.

    1985-03-04

    The distribution of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in the rat brain has been studied by quantitative autoradiography. The binding of /sup 3/H-nomifensine to caudate putamen sections was saturable, specific, of a highly affinity (Kd = 56 nM) and sodium-dependent. The dopamine uptake inhibitors benztropine, nomifensine, cocaine, bupropion and amfonelic acid were the most potent competitors of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding to striatal sections. The highest levels of (benztropine-displaceable) /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites were found in the caudate-putamen, the olfactory tubercle and the nucleus accumbens. 6-Hydroxy-dopamine-induced lesion of the ascending dopaminergic bundle resulted in a marked decrease in the /sup 3/H-ligand binding in these areas. Moderately high concentrations of the /sup 3/H-ligand were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anteroventral thalamic nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the lateral septum, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the zona incerta and some hypothalamic nuclei. There were low levels of binding sites in the habenula, the dorsolateral geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area and the periaqueductal gray matter. These autoradiographic data are consistent with the hypothesis that /sup 3/H-nomifensine binds primarily to the presynaptic uptake site for dopamine but also labels the norepinephrine uptake site. 33 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. Thallium-201: Autoradiography in pigmented mice and melanin-binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjaelve, H.; Nilsson, M.; Larsson, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiography with /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in C57Bl mice showed a strong labelling of the eye melanin and of pigmented hair follicles. An analysis of the affinity of thallium for pigment from cow eyes indicated a binding to three groups of sites and showed a marked sensitivity to the addition of H/sup +/-ions. The results are consistent with the conception that a binding of thallium occurs to the free carboxyl groups of the melanin and that the structure of the polymer has a marked influence on the affinity. Similar results have previously been obtained with other cations. There was no indication that the strong in vivo affinity of thallium to melanin is due to a more firm binding than for other cations which do not localize on melanin in vivo. Instead, the ability of cations to pass the melanocyte membranes and reach the melanin granules is probably decisive for whether a melanin-binding will take place in vivo. Toxic effects on the eye and epilation are symptoms of thallium intoxication which may be related to its melanin-binding. The fate of /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in some other tissues is also described and discussed.

  20. Strontium-90 in placentas, embryos and foetuses of mice evaluated by whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 is a hazardous fission product from nuclear reactions. Its transplacental passage is of particular interest because of the high sensitivity of embryos/foetuses to ionizing radiation. We have used whole-body autoradiography to study the foetal uptake and retention of 90Sr and the embryonic/foetal transfer of this isotope as a function of gestational age. Fifteen minutes after an intraperitoneal injection of 50 μci90Sr-nitrate into a 14-day-pregnant mouse, radioactivity was present in the placenta, but not in the foetus. During a 72-hour observation period, 90Sr gradually accumulated in the hard foetal tissues. In the soft foetal tissues, accumulation occurred up to 12-24 hours. After 72 hours, no 90Sr could be detected in the soft tissues. 90Sr crossed the visceral yolk sac placenta during early gestation, the visceral yolk sac and the chorioallantoic placentas during late gestation. Transfer increased considerably at the end of the latter period. There was a marked uptake of 90Sr in all structures of early embryos, whereas the isotope concentrated in the preskeletal and skeletal parts of the foetuses. Intake of 90Sr during early gestation may therefore be more injurious to the offspring than intake during late gestation. (author)

  1. Ultrastructure and autoradiography of dormant and activated parenchyma of Helianthus tuberosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parenchyma cells of dormant tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. OB1 (Jerusalem artichoke) contain a very low amount of hormones, therefore they respond to 2.4-D or IAA treatment by dividing and synthesizing RNA, DNA, and polyamines. In particular the activation of the dormant tissues induces an early synthesis of DNA, which reaches the maximum at 3 hours, much before the beginning of the S phase (12 hours). By supplying [6-3H] thymidine and carrying out electron microscopic autoradiography, we were able to determine that plastids and mitochondria were the organelles responsible for this early synthesis while the DNA in the nucleus first appeared labeled at 15 hours. In addition, ultrastructural observations carried out to compare the dormant cells with activated ones, showed an increase in the nucleolar volume, a different organization of the tubular complex of the plastids and several other ultrastructural changes which indicate that at 3 hours some fundamental metabolic processes are already active; they become even more evident later on. The implication of these results in the physiology of the tuber cells during activation are discussed. (Author)

  2. Light microscopic autoradiography for study of early changes in the distribution of water-soluble materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach using autoradiography for the study of early changes in the distribution of water-soluble materials and the chemography involved was investigated. Radioactive calcium chloride (45Ca) was injected into the iliac vein of a rat. Ten seconds after the injection the rat was frozen in hexane (-90 degrees C). The frozen rat was embedded in 5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and blocked in the coolant. A sheet of plastic tape coated with a synthetic rubber glue was fastened to the trimmed block surface, and whole-body sections 2-10 microns thick were cut with a disposable microtome knife. Selected sections were freeze-dried and then covered with a dried autoradiographic emulsion film about 1 microns thick. The autoradiograph clearly showed the distribution of radioactive calcium in the calcification zone of long bones. The samples chosen to assess chemographic artifacts showed positive and negative chemographies on most of the tissues when these were kept at 23 degrees C, and although both chemographic effects were significantly reduced when the samples were kept at -20 degrees C, cells in several tissues still exhibited positive and negative chemographies. The technique can be used for the study of any animal whose size is suitable for whole-body freeze-sectioning

  3. Determination of liposomal boron biodistribution in tumor bearing mice by using neutron capture autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to accumulate the 10B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve accurate measurements of 10B concentrations in biological samples, we employ a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of the sliced whole body samples of tumor bearing mice using CR- 39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 detectors attached with samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the TRIGA II reactor at the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University. We obtained NCAR images for mice injected intraveneously by 10B-polyethylene-glycol (PEG) binding liposome or 10B-bare liposome. The 10B concentrations in the tumor tissue of mice were estimated by means of alpha and lithium track density measurements. In this study, we increased the accumulation of 10B atoms in the tumor tissues by binding PEG chains to the surface of liposome, which increase the retension in the blood flow and escape the phagocytosis by reticulo-endotherial systems. Therefore, 10B-PEG liposome is a candidate for an effective 10B carrier in BNCT.(author)

  4. Comparison of cerebral blood flow using the noninvasive microsphere method and autoradiography with iodine-123 IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the significance of measurement of cerebral blood flow by the noninvasive microsphere method (NIMS) using 123I-IMP in 11 patients (nine men and two women) with cerebral vascular disease. Their ages at the time of study ranged from 35 to 69 years (mean, 52 years). Evaluation was done by comparison of cardiac output using ultrasonography and rCBF obtained by IMP-autoradiography (ARG). Simultaneous acquisition of images was carried out in all patients using both NIMS and IMP-ARG. Cardiac output (CO) was obtained using color Doppler ultrasonography on the same day. The values of CBF obtained by NIMS and ARG were compared, and a statistically significant difference (r=0.74) was found in the region of interest (ROI) determined to be the pulmonary artery (PA) compared with that of the right ventricle (RV). There was a significant difference (r=0.815) between the CBF values obtained from ARG and NIMS. Of interest, there was no problem with regard to the time activity curve in patients with tricuspid regurgitation (TR) 1-degree. In conclusion, our data emphasize that the NIMS technique is more useful than ARG technique. (author)

  5. Research on the main factors of dose estimation influenced by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In most situations, the spatial locations of radiopharmaceuticals are not uniform, so that in order to estimate the dose to cells and cell nuclei is necessary. Methods: Auto-radio-graphy (ARG) is a method to obtain the precise spatial information of the (radio-labels, relative to the tissue histology. In the study, the microscopic locations of this) radioactive substance in the liver of mice were investigated through microscopic frozen section ARG, and a mathematical model was developed, which can be conveniently used to microdosimetry, such as estimations of the doses received by the cell nuclei in rat liver after injection of 99mTc-MIBI via tail veins in the test. Results: A comparison of the radiation dose rate estimates was conducted between the cellular dosimetry model and MIRD, revealing significant differences. Conclusion: ARG was proved to be a useful approach to provide detailed spatial and dosimetric information on radiopharmaceuticals within organs so that the authors can evaluate precisely the effectiveness of radiotherapy and radiotoxicity and microscopic radiation-effect in nuclear medicine. In the study the influence factors of dose estimation are detail analysed and discussed

  6. Speciation of radioactive soil particles in the Fukushima contaminated area by IP autoradiography and microanalyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hatta, Tamao; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Yamada, Hirohisa; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2014-11-18

    Radioactive soil particles several tens of micrometers in size were collected from litter soil in the radiation contaminated area by the Fukushima nuclear plant accident and characterized using electron and X-ray microanalyses. The radioactive particles were discriminated by autoradiography using imaging plates (IP) on which microgrids were formed by laser ablation in order to find the particles under microscopy. Fifty radioactive particles were identified and classified into three types from their morphology and chemical composition, namely: (1) aggregates of clay minerals, (2) organic matter containing clay mineral particulates, and (3) weathered biotite originating from local granite. With respect to the second type, dissolution of the organic matter did not reduce the radiation, suggesting that the radionuclides were also fixed by the clay minerals. The weathered biotite grains have a plate-like shape with well-developed cleavages inside the grains, and kaolin group minerals and goethite filling the cleavage spaces. The reduction of the radiation intensity was measured before and after the trimming of the plate edges using a focused ion beam (FIB), to examine whether radioactive cesium primarily sorbed at frayed edges. The radiation was attenuated in proportion to the volume decrease by the edge trimming, implying that radioactive cesium was sorbed uniformly in the porous weathered biotite. PMID:25343443

  7. Monolayer freeze-fracture autoradiography: quantitative analysis of the transmembrane distribution of radioiodinated concanavalin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of monolayer freeze-fracture autoradiography (MONOFARG) has been developed and the principles, quantitation, and application of the method are described. Cell monolayers attached to polylysine-treated glass were freeze-fractured, shadowed, and coated with dry, Parlodion-supported Ilford L4 photographic emulsion at room temperature. Quantitative aspects of MONOFARG were examined using radioiodinated test systems. Background was routinely -4 grains/μm2/day, the highest overall efficiency was between 25% and 45%, and grain density and efficiency were dependent on radiation dose for iodine-125 and D-19 development. Corrected grain densities were linearly proportional to iodine-125 concentration. The method was applied to an examination of the transmembrane distribution of radioiodinated and fluoresceinated concanavalin A (125I-FITC-Con-A). Human erythrocytes were labeled, column-purified, freeze-dried or freeze-fractured, autoradiographed, and examined by electron microscopy. The number of silver grains per square micrometer of unsplit single membrane was essentially identical to that of split extracellular membrane halves. These data demonstrate that 125I-FITC-Con-A partitions exclusively with the extracellular half of the membrane upon freeze-fracturing and can be used as a quantitative marker for the fraction of extracellular split membrane halves. This method should be able to provide new information about certain transmembrane properties of biological membrane molecules and probes, as well as about the process of freeze-fracture per se

  8. Quantitative autoradiography of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors in the forebrain of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors was investigated in the turtle forebrain by the technique of in vitro receptor autoradiography. Muscarinic binding sites were labeled with 1 nM 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H-QNB), and benzodiazepine sites were demonstrated with the aid of 1 nM 3H-flunitrazepam (3H-FLU). Autoradiograms generated on 3H-Ultrofilm apposed to tissue slices revealed regionally specific distributions of muscarinic and benzodiazepine binding sites that are comparable with those for mammalian brain. Dense benzodiazepine binding was found in the anterior olfactory nucleus, the lateral and dorsal cortices, and the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), a structure with no clear mammalian homologue. Muscarinic binding sites were most dense in the striatum, accumbens, DVR, lateral geniculate, and the anterior olfactory nucleus. Cortical binding sites were studied in greater detail by quantitative analysis of autoradiograms generated by using emulsion-coated coverslips. Laminar gradients of binding were observed that were specific for each radioligand; 3H-QNB sites were most dense in the inner molecular layer in all cortical regions, whereas 3H-FLU binding was generally most concentrated in the outer molecular layer and was least dense through all layers in the dorsomedial cortex. Because pyramidal cells are arranged in register in turtle cortex, the laminar patterns of receptor binding may reflect different receptor density gradients along pyramidal cell dendrites

  9. Morphological and biochemical studies of canine progressive rod-cone degeneration. 3H-fucose autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visual cell pathology and rod outer segment renewal were investigated in normal and PRCD-affected miniature poodles using 3H-fucose autoradiography. Twenty-four hours following the intravitreal injection of 3H-fucose, label accumulated diffusely over cone OS and in a banded pattern at the rod OS base. In normal rods, the band of 3H-label was displaced sclerad with time. PRCD-affected rods in the early stages of the disease (stages 0-1) also showed a similar 3H-label pattern but a significantly (P less than 0.001) reduced renewal rate (control = 2.35 +/- 0.43 mu/24 hr; affected = 0.99 +/- mu/24 hr). This abnormal renewal rate was present in central, equatorial, and peripheral visual cells and was not associated with the presence or density of pigment in the RPE cell layer. Biochemical studies indicated that the 3H-label was present as an integral membrane component in the rod OS and confirmed that canine rhodopsin is a fucosylated glycoprotein. The 3H-band in the rod OS layer disappeared in stage 2 of the disease; diffuse label now was present over rod OS that had decreased length and were reduced in number. At this stage of the disease, interphotoreceptor space was invaded by phagocytic cells, and photoreceptor nuclei were lost from the outer nuclear layer. These late degenerative changes were more extensive in the superior and inferior retinal meridians

  10. Pharmacokinetic study and whole body autoradiography of radioiodinated human calcitonin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the disappearance of synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) from blood have been studied in rats. Blood levels of hCT were determined after a single intravenous (iv) and intramuscular (im) administration of unlabelled or radioiodinated (125I) hCT in rats, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with each other. The biological half-time of immunoreactive hCT after iv or im administration of unlabelled hCT was estimated as 25 or 26 min, respectively. The biological half-time of 125I-hCT was 44 min and 3.2 h for iv and im administration, respectively. The distribution of 125I-hCT in the blood was larger in the serum than in the blood cells for iv and im administration. The results of organ distribution of 125I-hCT by using whole body autoradiography showed that liver, lung, kidney, bone, and adrenal glands may be target tissue of the hormone. The radioactivity might be excreted mainly into the urine and feces. The present results of the pharmacokinetics of exogenous hCT supply a fundamental information for the understanding of its physiological actions and for its therapeutic use. (author). 21 refs

  11. Detection of androgen receptor in human prostatic adenoma by the autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a new amplified method to detect the localization of androgen receptors within the human prostatic tissue specimens. The tissue sections were treated with 50 μl of 100 nM tritiated dihydrotestosterone (3H-DHT). The binding of 3H-DHT to receptors were demonstrated as silver grains on the stained tissue sections. The binding of 3H-DHT to the prostatic tissue was inhibited by additional non-radioactive DHT remarkably and by testosterone partially, but not affected by additional progesterone and 17#betta#-estradiol. No binding of 3H-DHT to the bladder tissue was found. These results showed that the binding of 3H-DHT to the prostatic tissue was a specific reaction of 3H-DHT and androgen receptor. Androgen receptors were seen in the nuclei and the cytoplasmas of glandular epithelial cells of prostate. However, stromal cells contained less abundant androgen receptors. The method reported here has several advantages in detecting the androgen receptor of the prostatic tissue in comparison with the radioreceptor assay and other histochemical methods. 1) The needle biopsied specimens are big enough to examine. 2) Morphological observation are also possible on the same specimen because the specimens are stained with hematoxylin simultaneously. Therefore, we can know the relative ratio of androgen receptor positive cells and negative cells. 3) Binding of 3H-DHT to the receptor with this method may be more specific than other histochemical methods, since binding of 3H-DHT to the receptor was inhibited by 200-fold excess of non-radioactive DHT. 4) Treatment of scintillator, fluorographic technique shortens the exposure periods. The exposure periods are approximately six to twelve times shorter than that of the conventional autoradiography. (J.P.N.)

  12. [3H]dopamine release and dopamine receptor autoradiography in alcohol-preferring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Given the reported importance of the A10 dopaminergic pathway in the reinforcement of many abused drugs, the objective of the present study was to examine the interaction of ethanol with dopamine neurotransmission, using an ethanol-preferring Fawn-Hooded (FH) strain of rats. [3H]Dopamine release was evoked from in vitro prisms of both FH and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat nucleus accumbens. KC1-stimulated [3H]dopamine release was reproducible, although S2/S1 ratios significantly differed between FH and WKY rats (FH 1.13±0.05, WKY 0.89±0.04, p3H]dopamine release was dependent on the presence of calcium ions, as demonstrated by the significant reduction in S2/S1 ratios upon calcium exclusion (FH 0.53±0.03, WKY 0.53±0.05> p2/D3-agonist quinpirole (1, 3 and 10μM). Ethanol (0.3, 1 and 3% υ/υ) potentiated the KC1-evoked release of [3H] dopamine in a concentration-related manner. Autoradiography was employed to quantify dopamine D1- and D2- binding site densities in the limbic system of FH and WKY rats. FH rats possessed a significantly higher density of D1- binding sites in the nucleus accumbens (FH 688±21, WKY 582±49 dpm/mm2; p<0.05, n=4). These findings suggest differences in central dopaminergic mechanisms may underlie alcohol seeking behaviour in FH rats. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  13. Measurement of glucose metabolism in rat spinal cord slices with dynamic positron autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted to measure the regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in sliced spinal cords in vitro. The thoracic spinal cord of a mature Wister rat was cut into 400-μm slices in oxygenated and cooled (1-4 deg. C) Krebs-Ringer solution. After at least 60 min of preincubation, the spinal cord slices were transferred into double polystyrene chambers and incubated in Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 deg. C, bubbled with 5% O2/5% CO2 gas. To measure MRglc, we used the dynamic positron autoradiography technique (dPAT) with F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) and the net influx constant of [18F]FDG as an index. Uptake curves of [18F]FDG were well fitted by straight lines for more than 7 h after the slicing of the spinal cord (linear regression coefficient, r=0.99), indicating a constant uptake of glucose by the spinal cord tissue. The slope (K), which denotes MRglc, is affected by tetrodotoxin, and high K+ (50 mM) or Ca2+-free, high Mg2+ solution. After 10 min of hypoxia, the K value following reoxygenation was similar to the unloaded control value, but after 45 min of hypoxia, the K value was markedly lower than the unloaded control value, and after >90 min of reoxygenation it was nearly 0. Our results indicate that the living spinal cord slices used retained an activity-dependent metabolism to some extent. This technique may provide a new approach for measuring MRglc in sliced living spinal cord tissue in vitro and for quantifying the dynamic changes in MRglc in response to various interventions such as hypoxia

  14. Measurement of glucose metabolism in rat spinal cord slices with dynamic positron autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaoping [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510100 (China); Asai, Tatsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Morioka, Koichi [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery II, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Uchida, Kenzo; Baba, Hisatoshi [Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Tanaka, Kuniyoshi [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery II, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Zhuang Jian [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510100 (China); Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: yfuji@u-fukui.ac.jp

    2009-02-15

    We attempted to measure the regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in sliced spinal cords in vitro. The thoracic spinal cord of a mature Wister rat was cut into 400-{mu}m slices in oxygenated and cooled (1-4 deg. C) Krebs-Ringer solution. After at least 60 min of preincubation, the spinal cord slices were transferred into double polystyrene chambers and incubated in Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 deg. C, bubbled with 5% O{sub 2}/5% CO{sub 2} gas. To measure MRglc, we used the dynamic positron autoradiography technique (dPAT) with F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) and the net influx constant of [{sup 18}F]FDG as an index. Uptake curves of [{sup 18}F]FDG were well fitted by straight lines for more than 7 h after the slicing of the spinal cord (linear regression coefficient, r=0.99), indicating a constant uptake of glucose by the spinal cord tissue. The slope (K), which denotes MRglc, is affected by tetrodotoxin, and high K{sup +} (50 mM) or Ca{sup 2+}-free, high Mg{sup 2+} solution. After 10 min of hypoxia, the K value following reoxygenation was similar to the unloaded control value, but after 45 min of hypoxia, the K value was markedly lower than the unloaded control value, and after >90 min of reoxygenation it was nearly 0. Our results indicate that the living spinal cord slices used retained an activity-dependent metabolism to some extent. This technique may provide a new approach for measuring MRglc in sliced living spinal cord tissue in vitro and for quantifying the dynamic changes in MRglc in response to various interventions such as hypoxia.

  15. Laminar pattern of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in rat visual cortex using quantitative receptor autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laminar distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, including the M1-receptor subtype, of beta-adrenergic receptors, and noradrenaline uptake sites, was studied in the adult rat visual, frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex, using quantitative receptor autoradiography. In the visual cortex, the highest density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was found in layer I. From layer II/III to layer V binding decreases continueously reaching a constant binding level in layers V and VI. This laminar pattern of muscarinic receptor density differs somewhat from that observed in the non-visual cortical regions examined: layer II/III contained the highest receptor density followed by layer I and IV: lowest density was found in layer V and VI. The binding profile of the muscarinic cholinergic M1-subtype through the visual cortex shows a peak in cortical layer II and in the upper part of layer VI, whereas in the non-visual cortical regions cited the binding level was high in layer II/III, moderate in layer I and IV, and low in layer VI. Layers I to IV of the visual cortex contained the highest beta-adrenergic receptor densities, whereas only low binding levels were observed in the deeper layers. A similar laminar distribution was found also in the frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex. The density of noradrenaline uptake sites was high in all layers of the cortical regions studied, but with noradrenaline uptake sites somewhat more concentrated in the superficial layers than in deeper ones. The distinct laminar pattern of cholinergic and noradrenergic receptor sites indicates a different role for acetylcholine and noradrenaline in the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex, and in particular, the visual cortex. (author)

  16. Measurement of P-Glycoprotein expression in human neuroblastoma xenografts using in vitro quantitative autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonti, Rosa; Levchenko, Andrey; Mehta, Bipin M.; Zhang Jiaju; Tsuruo, Takashi; Larson, Steven M

    1999-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has a role in multidrug resistance (MDR) encountered in human cancers. In this study, we used the colchicine-resistant cell line BE(2)-C/CHCb(0.2), a strain of neuroblastoma cell line BE(2)-C, as a model to measure variations of P-gp expression in cells grown in vitro and in vivo. Cells were cultured in the medium supplemented with colchicine. At the beginning of the study the drug was withdrawn and, after 22 days, added back to the culture medium. Cells were harvested at various time points and xenografted in nude mice. P-gp content in cells was measured by self-competitive binding assay and in tumors, by quantitative autoradiography (QAR). Both assays were carried out using {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody MRK16, reactive with P-gp. Concentration of P-gp in cells varied from a maximum of 1,361 pmol/g in the presence of colchicine to a minimum of 374 pmol/g in the absence of colchicine in the culture medium. P-gp concentration in the tumors ranged from 929 to 188 pmol/g, which correlated with P-gp content in the cells at the time of their injection in the mice. QAR is an accurate and reliable method to quantify P-gp expression in tumors. Changes in colchicine concentration in the ambient medium of BE(2)-C/CHCb(0.2) cells growing in vitro resulted in a change in phenotype of P-gp expression, which was stable under conditions of in vivo growth over approximately 9 cell divisions in nude mice xenografts. Therefore, P-gp content in xenografts depends only on the level of resistance of the cells at the time of their injection in the mice.

  17. Atomic force microscopic neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography for boron imaging in detailed cellular histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information on subcellular microdistribution of 10B compounds a cell is significant to evaluate the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) because the damage brought by the released alpha/lithium particles is highly localized along their path, and radiation sensitivity is quite different among each cell organelles. In neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography (NIAR) technique, 10B can be measured as tracks for the energetic charged particles from 10B(n, alpha)7Li reactions in solid state track detectors. To perform the NIAR at intracellular structure level for research of 10B uptake and/or microdosimetry in BNCT, we have developed high-resolution NIAR method with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM has been used for analyses of biological specimens such as proteins, DNAs and surface of living cells have, however, intracellular detailed histology of cells has been hardly resolved with AFM since flat surface of sectioned tissue has quite less topographical contrast among each organelle. In our new sample preparation method using UV processing, materials that absorb UV in a semi-thin section are selectively eroded and vaporized by UV exposure, and then fine relief for cellular organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, filament structure and so on reveals on flat surface of the section, which can be observed with an AFM. The imaging resolution was comparable to TEM imaging of cells. This new method provides fast and cost-effective observation of histological sections with an AFM. Combining this method with NIAR technique, intracellular boron mapping would be possible. (author)

  18. Imaging, Autoradiography, and Biodistribution of 188Re-Labeled PEGylated Nanoliposome in Orthotopic Glioma Bearing Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Feng-Yun J.; LEE, TE-WEI; Kao, Chih-Hao K.; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Zhang, Xiaoning; Lee, Wan-Yu; Chen, Wan-Jou; Wang, Shu-Chi; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2011-01-01

    The 188Re-labeled pegylated nanoliposome (abbreviated as 188Re-Liposome) was prepared and evaluated for its potential as a theragnostic agent for glioma. 188Re-BMEDA complex was loaded into the pegylated liposome core with pH 5.5 ammonium sulfate gradient to produce 188Re-Liposome. Orthotopic Fischer344/F98 glioma tumor-bearing rats were prepared and intravenously injected with 188Re-Liposome. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic study, autoradiography (ARG), histopathology, and nano-SPECT/CT ima...

  19. Detection of virus and cellular-determined antigens in situ using [125I]protein A and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the use of [125I]Protein A, isolated from Staphylococcus aureus, in detecting antigen-antibody complexes by autoradiography on single cells. The method is relatively quick, reproducibile, potentially more sensitive than immunofluorescence, and should be useful in combination with conventional radioimmuno-assays. The authors have used it to detect the cellular expression of IgM, kappa, lambda, and β2-micro globulin, as well as the expression of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) associated antigens expressed in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. (Auth.)

  20. Boron concentration measurements by alpha spectrometry and quantitative neutron autoradiography in cells and tissues treated with different boronated formulations and administration protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility to measure boron concentration with high precision in tissues that will be irradiated represents a fundamental step for a safe and effective BNCT treatment. In Pavia, two techniques have been used for this purpose, a quantitative method based on charged particles spectrometry and a boron biodistribution imaging based on neutron autoradiography. A quantitative method to determine boron concentration by neutron autoradiography has been recently set-up and calibrated for the measurement of biological samples, both solid and liquid, in the frame of the feasibility study of BNCT. This technique was calibrated and the obtained results were cross checked with those of α spectrometry, in order to validate them. The comparisons were performed using tissues taken form animals treated with different boron administration protocols. Subsequently the quantitative neutron autoradiography was employed to measure osteosarcoma cell samples treated with BPA and with new boronated formulations. - Highlights: • A method for 10B measurements in samples based on neutron autoradiography was developed. • The results were compared with those of alpha spectrometry applied on tissue and cell samples. • Boronated liposomes were developed and administered to osteosarcoma cell cultures. • Neutron autoradiography was employed to measure boron concentration due to liposomes. • Liposomes were proved to be more effective in concentrating boron in cells than BPA

  1. Autoradiography study and SPECT imaging of reporter gene HSV1-tk expression in heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan Xiaoli [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China)], E-mail: LXL730724@hotmail.com; Liu Ying; He Yong; Wu Tao; Zhang Binqing; Gao Zairong; An Rui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China); Zhang Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China)], E-mail: zhyx1229@163.com

    2010-04-15

    Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility and optimal conditions of imaging herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene transferred into hearts with {sup 131}I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ({sup 131}I-FIAU) using autoradiography (ARG) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in animal models. Methods: HSV1-tk inserted into adenovirus vector (Ad5-tk) and adenovirus (Ad5-null) was prepared. Rats or rabbits were divided into a study group receiving intramyocardial injection of Ad5-tk, and a control group receiving Ad-null injection. In the study group of rats, two sets of experiments, time-course study and dose-dependence study, were performed. In time-course experiments, rats were injected with {sup 131}I-FIAU on Days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7, after transfection of 1x10{sup 8} pfu Ad5-tk, to study the feasibility and suitable time course for reporter gene imaging. In dose-dependence study, various titers of Ad5-tk (5x10{sup 8}, 1x10{sup 8}, 5x10{sup 7} and 1x10{sup 7} pfu) were used to determine the threshold and optimal viral titer needed for detection of gene expression. The gamma counts of hearts were measured. The rat myocardium was analyzed by ARG and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SPECT whole-body planar imaging and cardiac tomographic imaging were performed in the rabbit models. Results: From the ARG images, rats injected with Ad5-tk showed significant {sup 131}I-FIAU activity in the anterolateral wall compared with background signals seen in the control Ad5-null rats. In time-course study, the highest radioactivity in the focal myocardium could be seen on Day 1, and then progressively declined with time. In dose-dependence study, the level of {sup 131}I-FIAU accumulation in the transfected myocardium declined with the decrease of Ad viral titers. From the ARG analysis and gamma counting, the threshold viral titer was 5x10{sup 7} pfu, and the optimal Ad titer was 1x10{sup 8} pfu

  2. Quantitative autoradiography of muscarine cholinergic receptors and their M1 and M2 subtypes in the rat hippocampus. Influence of a mixed neutron-gamma irradiation. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The muscarine cholinergic receptors and their M1 and M2 subtypes are studied by quantitative autoradiography in the hippocampus of 8 shams and 9 rats exposed to a mixed neutron-gamma irradiation at a dose of 8 Gy. 75 minutes post irradiation, no significative difference is noted

  3. Rubidium mobility in the apple-tree and autoradiography as an aid in measuring the distribution and spread of the root-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were made on the usability of rubidium-86 for measuring the distribution and spread of the root system of fruit trees. The tracer techniques developed so far in horticulture are not applicable for various reasons. Therefore, a new method of autoradiography was developed. The results of the preliminary investigations are very promising

  4. Determination of the synthesis site of the infections flacherie virus-RNA by light microscopy-autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site of the RNA synthesis of the infectious flacherie virus in the midgut epithelial cells of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lep., Bombycidae), has been investigated using both autoradiography and light microscopy techniques. The density or ratio between silver grain and the respective cell structure (silver grain/μm2) has been used as criteria to identify the site of the viral RNA synthesis. Actinomycin D selectively blocked about 60% of the cell RNA synthesis without affecting the virus RNA synthesis. The obtained data indicated that the viral RNA synthesis occurs in the nucleus of the midgut epithelial cells of the silkworm larvae. Some evidence about the viral RNA translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm and inhibition of the synthesis of normal RNA by the virus were observed. (Author)

  5. Detection of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome carriers: Analysis of hair roots for HPRT by agarose gel electrophoresis and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flat agarose gel electrophoresis and autoradiography were used to analyze hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) activity in individual hair roots collected from the scalps of females to determine the presence of HPRT-deficient cells. Autoradiographs of hair-root lysates of normal homozygous females contained two well-separated dark zones representing HPRT and APRT activities. In contrast, some hair roots from carriers of HPRT deficiency contained two zones of activity with the same relative proportion of APRT and HPRT as hair roots of normal homozygotes, while others contained decreased amounts of HPRT activity. These hair roots consisted of HPRT+ and HPRT- cells. In addition, some hair roots from heterozygous carriers contained APRT but no HPRT activity. Such hair roots consisted of HPRT- cells only. (author)

  6. Acute effects of three club drugs on the striatum of rats: Evaluation by quantitative autoradiography with [18F]FDOPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we used quantitative autoradiography to study the acute effect of cocaine, methamphetamine, and ketamine on the uptake of [18F]FDOPA in the striatum of rats. Drugs were treated 0.5 h before (pre-treated), and 1.5 h after (post-treated) [18F]FDOPA injections, rats were then sacrificed at 2 h post [18F]FDOPA injections to determine the striatum/frontal cortex binding ratios in the striatum. The ratios were lower in the post-treated groups than those of the pre-treated groups, suggesting a net effect of inhibition of trapping of the tracer. The order of uptake inhibition is: ketamine>methamphetamine>cocaine

  7. Statistical parametric maps of 18F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during 18F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in 18F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although partial volume

  8. Statistical parametric maps of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Marti-Climent, Josep M. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Collantes, Maria; Molinet, Francisco [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Delgado, Mercedes; Garcia-Garcia, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Brain Mapping Unit, Madrid (Spain); Juri, Carlos [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Neurology, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez-Valle, Maria E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, MRI Research Center, Madrid (Spain); Gago, Belen [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Obeso, Jose A. [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Penuelas, Ivan [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although

  9. MO-G-17A-09: Quantitative Autoradiography of Biopsy Specimens Extracted Under PET/CT Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a procedure for accurate determination of PET tracer concentration with high spatial accuracy in situ by performing Quantitative Autoradiography of Biopsy Specimens (QABS) extracted under PET/CT guidance. Methods: Autoradiography (ARG) standards were produced from a gel loaded with a known concentration of FDG biopsied with 18G and 20G biopsy needles. Specimens obtained with these needles are generally cylindrical: up to 18 mm in length and about 0.8 and 0.6 mm in diameter respectively. These standards, with similar shape and density as biopsy specimens were used to generate ARG calibration curves.Quantitative ARG was performed to measure the activity concentration in biopsy specimens extracted from ten patients. The biopsy sites were determined according to PET/CT's obtained in the operating room. Additional CT scans were acquired with the needles in place to confirm correct needle placements. The ARG images were aligned with the needle tip in the PET/CT images using the open source CERR software. The mean SUV calculated from the specimen activities (SUVarg) were compared to that from PET (SUVpet) at the needle locations. Results: Calibration curves show that the relation between ARG signal and activity concentration in those standards is linear for the investigated range (up to 150 kBq/ml). The correlation coefficient of SUVarg with SUVpet is 0.74. Discrepancies between SUVarg and SUVpet can be attributed to the small size of the biopsy specimens compared to PET resolution. Conclusion: The calibration procedure using surrogate biopsy specimens provided a method for quantifying the activity within the biopsy cores obtained under FDG-PET guidance. QABS allows mapping the activity concentration in such biopsy specimens with a resolution of about 1mm. QABS is a promising tool for verification of biopsy adequacy by comparing specimen activity to that expected from the PET image. A portion of this research was funded by a research grant from

  10. Localization of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in poplar and switchgrass plants using phosphor imager autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphor imager autoradiography is a technique for rapid, sensitive analysis of the localization of xenobiotics in plant tissues. Use of this technique is relatively new to research in the field of plant science, and the potential for enhancing visualization and understanding of plant uptake and transport of xenobiotics remains largely untapped. Phosphor imager autoradiography is used to investigate the uptake and translocation of the explosives 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene within Populus deltoides x nigra DN34 (poplar) and Panicum vigratum Alamo (switchgrass). In both plant types, TNT and/or TNT-metabolites remain predominantly in root tissues while RDX and/or RDX-metabolites are readily translocated to leaf tissues. Phosphor imager autoradiography is further investigated for use in semi-quantitative analysis of uptake of TNT by switchgrass. - Phosphor imager autoradiography allows for rapid localization and quantification of RDX, TNT, and/or metabolites in plant tissues.

  11. Fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of epithelial cells: Fate of incorporated lipids as followed by freeze fracture and autoradiography of plastic sections

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, G.; Burger, K.N.J.; Bron, R.; van Meer, G.; Verkleij, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    The fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of influenza virus- infected monolayers of an epithelial cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (van Meer et al., 1985. Biochemistry. 24:3593-3602), has been analyzed by morphological techniques. The distribution of liposomal lipids over the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains after fusion was assessed by autoradiography of liposomal [3H]dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine after rapid freezing or chemical fixation and further processi...

  12. Investigation of the protein-binding ability of radiopharmaceuticals in plasma, tumor and organs by sequential native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native page)-autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important characteristic using for screening of radiopharmaceuticals is their selective accumulation in regions of interests (ROI). This is shown through their protein-binding ability (PB) in ROI. We have developed an effective method for investigating the PB of radiopharmaceuticals: Sequential native-PAGE-autoradiography. The study of PB of In-111, Sm-153 and Yb-169 and their complexes in plasma, tumor, liver, spleen and kidney was demonstrated the effectiveness of this new method. (author)

  13. Fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of epithelial cells: Fate of incorporated lipids as followed by freeze fracture and autoradiography of plastic sections

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, G; Burger, K.N.J.; Bron, R.; van Meer, G.; Verkleij, A J

    1988-01-01

    The fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of influenza virus-infected monolayers of an epithelial cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (van Meer et al., 1985. Biochemistry, 24: 3593-3602), has been analyzed by morphological techniques. The distribution of liposomal lipids over the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains after fusion was assessed by autoradiography of liposomal [3H]dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine after rapid freezing or chemical fixation and further processi...

  14. Fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of epithelial cells: fate of incorporated lipids as followed by freeze fracture and autoradiography of plastic sections

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of influenza virus- infected monolayers of an epithelial cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (van Meer et al., 1985. Biochemistry. 24:3593-3602), has been analyzed by morphological techniques. The distribution of liposomal lipids over the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains after fusion was assessed by autoradiography of liposomal [3H]dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine after rapid freezing or chemical fixation and further processi...

  15. Reactions of high-FeO olivine rock with groundwater and redox-sensitive elements studied by surface-analytical methods and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of unaltered olivine rock with groundwater and redox-sensitive elements (Tc, Re, and U) was investigated at elevated temperatures in the laboratory. Olivine was found to react easily with water taking up trace elements in alteration products. The alteration products were characterized using Rutherford backscattering, secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microprobe analysis. The sample surfaces were studied by autoradiography and digital image processing techniques

  16. 64Cu-ATSM and 18FDG PET uptake and 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography in spontaneous canine tumors: comparison with pimonidazole hypoxia immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare 64Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylsemicarbazone) (64Cu-ATSM) and 18FDG PET uptake characteristics and 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography to pimonidazole immunohistochemistry in spontaneous canine sarcomas and carcinomas. Biopsies were collected from individual tumors between approximately 3 and 25 hours after the intravenous injection of 64Cu-ATSM and pimonidazole. 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography and pimonidazole immunostaining was performed on sectioned biopsies. Acquired 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography and pimonidazole images were rescaled, aligned and their distribution patterns compared. 64Cu-ATSM and 18FDG PET/CT scans were performed in a concurrent study and uptake characteristics were obtained for tumors where available. Maximum pimonidazole pixel value and mean pimonidazole labeled fraction was found to be strongly correlated to 18FDG PET uptake levels, whereas more varying results were obtained for the comparison to 64Cu-ATSM. In the case of the latter, uptake at scans performed 3 h post injection (pi) generally showed strong positive correlated to pimonidazole uptake. Comparison of distribution patterns of pimonidazole immunohistochemistry and 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography yielded varying results. Significant positive correlations were mainly found in sections displaying a heterogeneous distribution of tracers. Tumors with high levels of pimonidazole staining generally displayed high uptake of 18FDG and 64Cu-ATSM (3 h pi.). Similar regional distribution of 64Cu-ATSM and pimonidazole was observed in most heterogeneous tumor regions. However, tumor and hypoxia level dependent differences may exist with regard to the hypoxia specificity of 64Cu-ATSM in canine tumors

  17. 18F-choline in experimental soft tissue infection assessed with autoradiography and high-resolution PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For each oncological tracer it is important to know the uptake in non-tumorous lesions. The purpose of this study was to measure the accumulation of fluorine-18 choline (FCH), a promising agent for the evaluation of certain tumour types, in infectious tissue. Unilateral thigh muscle abscesses were induced in five rats by intramuscular injection of 0.1 ml of a bacterial suspension (Staphylococcus aureus, 1.2 x 109 CFU/ml). In all animals, FCH accumulation was measured with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) on day 6. Autoradiography of the abscess and ipsilateral healthy muscle was performed on day 7 (three animals) and day 11 (two animals) and correlated with histology. In addition, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET was performed on day 5. Increased FCH uptake was noted in specific layers of the abscess wall which contained an infiltrate of mainly granulocytes on day 7 and mainly macrophages on day 11. The autoradiographic standardised uptake values in the most active part of the abscess wall were 2.99 on day 7 (n=3) and 4.05 on day 11 (n=2). In healthy muscle the corresponding values were 0.99 and 0.64. The abscesses were clearly visualised on the FCH and FDG PET images. In conclusion, this study demonstrated avid FCH accumulation in inflammatory tissue, which limits the specificity of FCH for tumour detection. Future studies are now needed to determine the degree of this limitation in human cancer patients. (orig.)

  18. {sup 18}F-choline in experimental soft tissue infection assessed with autoradiography and high-resolution PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, Matthias T. [PET Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich (Switzerland); Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science of ETH, PSI and USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Weber, Bruno; Spaeth, Nicolas; Buck, Alfred [PET Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich (Switzerland); Honer, Michael; Ametamey, Simon M.; Westera, Gerrit [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science of ETH, PSI and USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Bode, Beata [Institute of Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaim, Achim H. [Klinik Im Schachen, Schaenisweg, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2004-03-01

    For each oncological tracer it is important to know the uptake in non-tumorous lesions. The purpose of this study was to measure the accumulation of fluorine-18 choline (FCH), a promising agent for the evaluation of certain tumour types, in infectious tissue. Unilateral thigh muscle abscesses were induced in five rats by intramuscular injection of 0.1 ml of a bacterial suspension (Staphylococcus aureus, 1.2 x 10{sup 9} CFU/ml). In all animals, FCH accumulation was measured with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) on day 6. Autoradiography of the abscess and ipsilateral healthy muscle was performed on day 7 (three animals) and day 11 (two animals) and correlated with histology. In addition, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET was performed on day 5. Increased FCH uptake was noted in specific layers of the abscess wall which contained an infiltrate of mainly granulocytes on day 7 and mainly macrophages on day 11. The autoradiographic standardised uptake values in the most active part of the abscess wall were 2.99 on day 7 (n=3) and 4.05 on day 11 (n=2). In healthy muscle the corresponding values were 0.99 and 0.64. The abscesses were clearly visualised on the FCH and FDG PET images. In conclusion, this study demonstrated avid FCH accumulation in inflammatory tissue, which limits the specificity of FCH for tumour detection. Future studies are now needed to determine the degree of this limitation in human cancer patients. (orig.)

  19. Mapping of odor-related neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb by high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution of odor-induced neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station of the olfactory pathway, is believed to reflect important aspects of chemosensory coding. We report here the application of high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to the mapping of spatial patterns of metabolic activity at the level of single neurons in the olfactory bulb. It was found that glomeruli, which are synaptic complexes containing the first synaptic relay, tend to be uniformly active or inactive during odor exposure. Differential 2-deoxyglucose uptake was also observed in the somata of projection neurons (mitral cells) and interneurons (periglomerular and granule cells). This confirms and extends our previous studies in which odor-specific laminar and focal uptake patterns were revealed by the conventional x-ray film 2-deoxyglucose method due to Sokoloff and colleagues [Sokoloff, L., Reivich, M., Kennedy, C., DesRosiers, M. H., Patlak, C. S., Pettigrew, K. D., Sakurada, O. and Shinohara, M. (1977) J. Neurochem. 28, 897-916]. Based on results obtained by the two methods, it is suggested that the glomerulus as a whole serves as a functional unit of activity. The high-resolution results are interpreted in terms of the well-characterized synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb and also serve to illustrate the capability of the 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to map metabolic activity in single neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system

  20. Spinal cord blood flow measured by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography during and after graded spinal cord compression in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relations between degree of thoracic spinal cord compression causing myelographic block, reversible paraparesis, and extinction of the sensory evoked potential on one hand, and spinal cord blood flow on the other, were investigated. This was done in rats using the blocking weight-technique and 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. A load of 9 g caused myelographic block. Five minutes of compression with that load caused a reduction of spinal cord blood flow to about 25%, but 5 and 60 minutes after the compression spinal cord blood flow was restored to 60% of the pretrauma value. A load of 35 g for 5 minutes caused transient paraparesis. Recovery to about 30% was observed 5 and 60 minutes thereafter. During compression at a load of 55 g, which caused almost total extinction of sensory evoked potential and irreversible paraplegia, spinal cord blood flow under the load ceased. The results indicate that myelographic block occurs at a load which does not cause irreversible paraparesis and that a load which permits sensory evoked potential to be elicited results in potentially salvageable damage

  1. In vitro receptor autoradiography reveals angiotensin IL (ANG II) binding associated with sensory and motor components of the vagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific, high affinity Ang II binding in the dog's dorsal medulla is concentrated in the area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmnX). More recently Ang II binding sites were observed where bundles of vagal afferent fibers enter the dorsal medulla 6 mm rostral to obex and in the nodose ganglia and peripheral vagal nerves. Since Ang II binding in the nTS and dmnX overlies the distribution of vagal afferent fibers and efferent neurons, the effects of nodose ganglionectomy and cervical vagotomy on Ang II binding in the dorsal medulla were studied in rats and dogs using autoradiography after incubation of 14 μm coronal sections with 0.4 nM 125I-Ang II. Nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of 1 μm unlabeled Ang II. Two weeks after unilateral nodose ganglionectomy Ang II binding sites were absent ipsilaterally in the region where vagal afferent fibers enter the dorsal medulla. In the nTS and dmnX, binding near obex was reduced, while more rostrally these nuclei were almost completely devoid of Ang II binding on the denervated side. After cervical vagotomy, the loss of binding was restricted to the ipsilateral dmnX. These data are the first to reveal that Ang II binding in the dorsal medulla requires an intact vagal system

  2. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, N; Chatti, K; Coulon, P; Maitrejean, S; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.03.014

    2004-01-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of beta radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as /sup 99m/Tc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range gamma -rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm/sup 2/ for /sup 3/H and 0.01 for /sup 14/C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10/sup 4/) and spatial resolution (50 mu m for /sup 3/H or /sup 99m/Tc to 150 mu m for /sup 32/P or /sup 18/F ( beta /sup +/)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitte...

  3. Region-specific tritium enrichment, and not differential β-absorption, is the major cause of 'quenching' in film autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium quenching refers to the situation in which estimates of tritium content generated by film autoradiography depend on the chemical composition of the tissue as well as on the concentration of the radioisotope. When analysing thin brain sections, for example, regions rich in lipid content generate reduced optical densities on x-ray film compared with lipid-poor regions even when the total tissue concentration of tritium in those regions is identical. We hypothesize that the dried thickness of regions within sections depends upon the relative concentrations and types of lipid within the regions. Areas low in white matter dry thinner than areas high in white matter, leading to a relative enrichment of tritium in the thinner regions. To test this model, a series of brain pastes were made with different concentrations of grey and white matter and impregnated with equal amounts of tritium. The thickness of dried sections was compared with percentage of white matter and apparent radioactive content as determined by autoradiogram analysis. The results demonstrated that thickness increased, and apparent radioactivity decreased, with higher percentages of white matter. In the second experiment, thickness measurements from dried sections were successfully used to correct the apparent radioisotope content of autoradiograms created from tritium containing white- and grey-matter tissue slices. We conclude that within-section thickness variation is the major physical cause for 'tritium quenching'. (author)

  4. Electron microscope autoradiography of 14C photosynthate distribution at the haustorium-host interface in powdery mildew of pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustorial complexes were isolated from leaves of Pisum sativum with Erysiphe pisi and exposed to 14CO2 for 2 hours. The constituents of the isolated fraction were quantified and ultrastructurally described and the distribution of 14C studied by electron microscope autoradiography and statistical treatment. Most (86%) of the isotope in the fraction was associated with haustorial complexes. Three classes of haustorial complexes were distinguished by degree of labelling and ultrastructure. Most of the haustorial complexes were termed healthy (i.e., they showed a normal ultrastructure) and were heavily labelled; necrotic complexes were unlabelled; and a class with intermediate labelling, modified extrahaustorial membrane and usually a normal haustorial cytoplasm was termed pre-necrotic. In healthy haustorial complexes the haustorial lobes and extrahaustorial membrane showed the highest grain densities and the body and extrahaustorial matrix were also significantly labelled. Comparison of the results suggest that ultrastructural modifications leading to necrosis were caused by dehydration which in turn determined reduction in photosynthate transfer. Other factors influencing transport into haustoria and the status of the extrahaustorial matrix are also discussed. U.V. fluorescence microscopy with acetamido-isothiocyanatostilbene salt was used to distinguish healthy and pre-necrotic haustorial complexes. It is recommended as a simple technique to monitor the functional quality of isolated haustorial complexes. (author)

  5. High resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography. Potential applications in the field of drug or radiopharmaceuticals developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiography, an imaging technique allowing to get the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance in a tissue, is generally obtained by means of films or photographic emulsions. This is a difficult methodology with several limitations: the major one being quantification which is not precise. We have contributed to the development of new high resolution beta imaging systems to replace the photographic emulsion by a direct counting of beta radioactivity. They have similar or improved performances compared to the film. The sensitivity of the detection is specially enhanced, multiplying by a factor of 100 to 500 the rapidity of image acquisition. Linearity of the detectors is improved giving a better dynamic range than the film. So quantification of radioactivity in the tissue sections is obtained with a good reliability. Multi-isotopes imaging is also achieved by using algorithms of separation based on the different characteristics of energies or decaying schemes of the isotopes. Many potential applications can be found in the development of drugs or radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  6. Determination of end-of-life-failure fractions of HTGR-fuel particles by postirradiation annealing and beta autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-product contamination of the helium coolant of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is strongly influenced by the end-of-life (EOL) failed-particle fraction. Knowledge of the EOL-failure fraction is the basis for model calculations to predict the total fission product release from the reactor core. After disintegration of irradiation fuel rods, fuel particles are placed in individual holes of a graphite tray. During a 5-h heat treatment at 10000C in a helium atmosphere failed particles leak fission products, especially the volatile cesium, into the graphite. After unloading a β-autoradiograph of the tray is made. Holes that housed defective particles are identified from black spots on the β-sensitive film. The EOL-failure fraction is the ratio of defective particles to the total number of particles tested. The technique is called PIAA, PostIrradiation Annealing and Autoradiography. The PIAA technique was applied to particles of a Trisocoated highly-enriched UO2 fissile batch irradiated to a burnup of 35% FIMA at an irradiation temperature of 12500C. Visual examination showed all particles to be intact. From 11 to 47% of the particles had failed, as determined by PIAA. Further, postirradiation examination showed that localized corrosion of the silicon carbide coating by fission-product rare-earth chlorides had occurred

  7. The ultilization of whole-body autoradiography and allied tracer techniques in distribution and biotransformation studies of N-nitrosamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tissue disposition of various N-nitrosamines has been examined by whole-body autoradiography and allied tracer techniques in a series of studies. Tracing of N-nitrosamine-metabolizing tissues was a major purpose of the studies. The data obtained provide evidence that the in vivo localization of N-nitrosamine metabolites in various tissues is almost invariably due to local metabolism in the same tissues and that the tumourigenesis by N-nitrosamines is to a considerable extent correlated with this metabolism. The epithelial linings of the upper digestive tract and respiratory pathways were usually very active in N-nitrosamine metabolism, and these tissues also were prevalent sites for N-nitrosamine carcinogenesis. The presence of cytochrome P-450 activity has been shown in these structures and may normally play a role in defending the body against unrestrained uptake of xenobiotics. However, noxious effects may instead be induced for chemicals bioacivated by cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, such as N-nitrosamines. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Inhibitory Effect of Recreational Drugs on Dopaminergic Terminal Neuron by PET and Whole-Body Autoradiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye Hsin-Hsien Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little investigation for the functional roles of peripheral dopamine. [18F]FDOPA has been used in cancer imaging (i.e., neuroendocrine and tumors pancreatic tumors and neuroimaging (i.e., Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Here, we accessed side effects of recreational drugs such as ketamine, cocaine, and methamphetamine on dopamine neurons in peripheral organs by using positron emission tomography (PET imaging and quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBAR with [18F]FDOPA. The images were applied for the measurement of specific binding ratios (SBRs of striatum with the cerebellum as the reference region. Clear striatal [18F]FDOPA-derived radioactivity was observed. Moderate level of radiotracer accumulation was presented in the mucosal layers of the stomach and small intestine. The medulla layers of kidney had higher radioactivity than that of the cortex. Blocking images markedly eliminated the specific binding of [18F]FDOPA in the striatum and in peripheral organs such as stomachs, intestines, and kidney. Ketamine showed the highest inhibitory effect on striatal [18F]FDOPA-derived radioactivity followed by cocaine and methamphetamine. The current results demonstrated a useful crossing-validating tool that enhances the capability of [18F]FDOPA for further investigations of the alteration of dopaminergic neurons in the brain disorder or cancer diseases in peripheral tissues.

  9. Quantitative autoradiography of 125I-[Sar1, Ile8]-angiotensin II binding in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain contains its own angiotensin II (AII) system. To better understand the role of central AII in cardiovascular regulation, we used 125I-[Sar1, Ile8]-AII (125I-SI-AII), radioactive AII antagonist, to autoradiographically localize putative AII receptor binding in many parts of the central nervous system of the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. With 125I-SI-AII binding on brain membrane preparations. Scatchard analysis indicated that Kd values were from 0.10 +/- 0.04 nM to 0.13 +/- 0.05 nM, whereas Bmax values (femtomol/mg protein) were found to be from 6.95 +/- 1.60 to 15.52 +/- 4.99 among brain regions studied. Various SI-AII receptor binding activities among brain regions revealed in this study were therefore most likely due to differences in AII receptor density with high affinity binding of 125I-AII. Using 125I-SI-AII, specific binding for SI-AII was found in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), subfornical organ (SFO), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), area postrema, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX), and the nucleus of spinal tract of the trigeminal system (NSV). With quantitative receptor autoradiography in conjunction with radioactive standards, we have observed that the NTS possesses the highest SI-AII binding, followed by the PVN, SFO, NTS, DMX, and NSV. No significant differences were observed between the SHR and WKY rats in the SI-AII binding within the SFO, PVN and NTS. However, SHR at early hypertensive (7 weeks) and established hypertensive (16 weeks) stages contained significantly higher SI-AII bindings in the NSV, as compared to age-matched WKY rats

  10. Dopamine D2 receptors and transporters in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Bergström, Kim; Mantere, Tuija; Räsänen, Pirkko; Särkioja, Terttu; Tiihonen, Jari

    2003-10-01

    Increasing evidence implies the involvement of the dopamine (DA) system in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. We measured striatal DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics by using [(125)I]epidepride in human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography (WHA), which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. We also evaluated the correlation between transporter and receptor DA binding site densities and putative correlation of [(125)I]epidepride binding between the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. In the type 1 alcoholics, the DA D(2) receptor density was 21.4-32.6% lower in all dorsal striatal structures (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus) when compared with the controls. Type 2 alcoholics had 19.6-21.4% lower binding in other dorsal striatal structures, except medial globus pallidus, where they were not significantly different from controls. The density of DA D(2) receptors and DAT had a significant positive correlation only in the putamen of type 1 alcoholics. The binding of [(125)I]epidepride showed also consistent and statistically significant positive correlation between nucleus accumbens and all dorsal striatal areas in type 1 alcoholics but not in the controls. In the type 2 alcoholics, the correlation was weaker than that observed in the type 1 alcoholics, and no correlation was observed between nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus. Our results show that these two subgroups of alcoholics have stark differences in their DA D(2) receptor binding characteristics. Type 2 alcoholics may have selective deficiency in the dorsal striatum, whereas in limbic structures they may not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, WHA provides a useful tool for detailed mapping of neuronal receptors in healthy as well as diseased brain, and can also be used in radioligand development for PET. PMID:14505335

  11. Cortical dopamine D2 receptors in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Halonen, Pirjo; Tiihonen, Jari

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with lower density of striatal dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, but there is much less data on cortical DA D(2) receptors. We evaluated the [(125)I]epidepride binding to DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics and controls in frontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate cortices by using human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography, which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. Type 1 alcoholics had lower and type 2 alcoholics had higher DA D(2) receptor density in all cortical areas compared to controls. Although the results did not reach statistical significance, the effect sizes were high. The DA D(2) receptor density in type 2 alcoholics decreased statistically significantly with age, and after correcting for age the binding values also fell below the level of controls. A statistically non-significant tendency towards a decrease of cortical DA D(2) receptors was seen in controls, whereas in the type 1 alcoholic group no consistent correlation or even tendency towards increase with age was observed. Our results give preliminary evidence that DA D(2) receptors in cortical areas may be lower among both groups of alcoholics, but not necessarily of same magnitude as in subcortical structures. The rapid decline of cortical DA D(2) receptors among type 2 alcoholics may have some relevance to their antisociality, because this trait tends to diminish with age. The absence of correlation or even tendency towards increase of cortical DA D(2) receptors with age seen in type 1 alcoholics may give further evidence that they have a pre-existing dopaminergic deficit. However, these results especially regarding aging effect must be considered as preliminary due to the different age-range of type 2 alcoholics compared to two other groups. PMID:15452867

  12. Quantitative autoradiography of 14C-D-glucose metabolism of normal and traumatized rat brain using micro-absorption photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It could be shown using 14C-glucose as energy-providing substrate for brain tissue metabolism that for bolus type application a retarded and even channelling of the substrate into the metabolic process takes place. The presence of tracer in the tissue was established using autoradiography. A linear correlation between the amount of tissue-incorporated 14C section thickness and exposure time could be established by means of densitometric measurement of brain sections of various thicknesses, by applying various 14C-activities and by different exposure times. From these correlations direct conclusions may be made regarding the specific activity of the tissue provided that exposure time and section thickness of the sample are known. Comparative studies between cortex and narrow and between traumatized and non-traumatized brain tissue show that the rate of metabolism in brain cortex is markedly higher than in the marrow and that 14C-incorporation is higher in traumatized tissue than in non-traumatized tissue. Whilst the difference in rate of metabolism between brain cortex and marrow can be clearly related to the differing cell count/unit surface area for cortex and marrow, the different energy conversion rates for functionally damaged and normal brain tissue is a specific characteristic of injury. Apart from the fact that an increased 14C-deposition is in no way indicative of an increased metabolic activity, the possibility of quantifying 14C-tissue content provides a basis for estimating therapeutic effects e.g. in the treatment of trauma-caused brain edema. (orig.)

  13. Effects of high-dose fenfluramine treatment on monoamine uptake sites in rat brain: Assessment using quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative that in humans is used primarily as an anorectic agent in the treatment of obesity. In rats, subchronic high-dose d,l-fenfluramine treatment (24 mg/kg subcutaneously, twice daily for 4 days) causes long-lasting decreases in brain serotonin (5HT), its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and high-affinity 5HT uptake sites. Moreover, this high-dose treatment regimen causes both selective long-lasting decreases in fine-caliber 5HT-immunoreactive axons and appearance of other 5HT-immunoreactive axons with morphology characteristic of degenerating axons. Determination of the potential neurotoxic effects of fenfluramine treatment using immunohistochemistry is limited from the perspectives that staining is difficult to quantify and that it relies on presence of the antigen (in this case 5HT), and the 5HT-depleting effects of fenfluramine are well known. In the present study, we used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to assess, in detail, the density and regional distribution of [3H]paroxetine-labeled 5HT and [3H]mazindol-labeled catecholamine uptake sites in response to the high-dose fenfluramine treatment described above. Because monoamine uptake sites are concentrated on monoamine-containing nerve terminals, decreases in uptake site density would provide a quantitative assessment of potential neurotoxicity resulting from this fenfluramine treatment regimen. Marked decreases in densities of [3H]paroxetine-labeled 5HT uptake sites occurred in brain regions in which fenfluramine treatment decreased the density of 5HT-like immunostaining when compared to saline-treated control rats. These included cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus, thalamus, and medial hypothalamus

  14. Disposition of metronidazole in hens (Gallus gallus) and quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica): pharmacokinetics and whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hens were given single intravenous or oral doses (30 mg/kg body weight) of metronidazole and the plasma concentrations of the drug were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at intervals from 10 min to 24 h after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated by the Lagrange algorithm technique. The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) after the intravenous injection was 4.2 +/- 0.5 h, the volume of distribution (Vd(ss) 1.1 +/- 0.2 L/kg and the total body clearance (ClB) 131.2 +/- 20 mL/h.kg. Oral bioavailability of the metronidazole was 78 +/- 16%. The plasma maximum concentration (Cmax) 31.9 +/- 2.3 micrograms/mL was reached 2 h after the oral administration and the oral elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) was 4.7 +/- 0.2 h. The binding of metronidazole to proteins in hen plasma was very low (less than 3%). Whole body autoradiography of [3H] metronidazole in hens and quails showed an even distribution of labelled material in various tissues at short survival intervals (1-4 h) after oral or intravenous administration. A high labelling was seen in the contents of the small and large intestines. In the laying quails a labelling was also seen in the albumen and in a ring in the periphery of the yolk at long survival intervals. Our results show that a concentration twofold above the MIC is maintained in the plasma of hens for at least 12 h at an oral dose of 30 mg/kg metronidazole

  15. Effects of high-dose fenfluramine treatment on monoamine uptake sites in rat brain: Assessment using quantitative autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, N.M.; Mitchell, W.M.; Contrera, J.F.; De Souza, E.B. (NIDA Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative that in humans is used primarily as an anorectic agent in the treatment of obesity. In rats, subchronic high-dose d,l-fenfluramine treatment (24 mg/kg subcutaneously, twice daily for 4 days) causes long-lasting decreases in brain serotonin (5HT), its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and high-affinity 5HT uptake sites. Moreover, this high-dose treatment regimen causes both selective long-lasting decreases in fine-caliber 5HT-immunoreactive axons and appearance of other 5HT-immunoreactive axons with morphology characteristic of degenerating axons. Determination of the potential neurotoxic effects of fenfluramine treatment using immunohistochemistry is limited from the perspectives that staining is difficult to quantify and that it relies on presence of the antigen (in this case 5HT), and the 5HT-depleting effects of fenfluramine are well known. In the present study, we used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to assess, in detail, the density and regional distribution of (3H)paroxetine-labeled 5HT and (3H)mazindol-labeled catecholamine uptake sites in response to the high-dose fenfluramine treatment described above. Because monoamine uptake sites are concentrated on monoamine-containing nerve terminals, decreases in uptake site density would provide a quantitative assessment of potential neurotoxicity resulting from this fenfluramine treatment regimen. Marked decreases in densities of (3H)paroxetine-labeled 5HT uptake sites occurred in brain regions in which fenfluramine treatment decreased the density of 5HT-like immunostaining when compared to saline-treated control rats. These included cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus, thalamus, and medial hypothalamus.

  16. Preliminary identification of contaminating α- and β-emitting radionuclides in nuclear facilities to be decommissioned through Digital Autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous publications, we presented how Digital Autoradiography (DA) could be of the most useful help in a preparation to decommissioning context: with this technique, a radiological mapping of the facility to dismantle can be obtained at a rate of around 2 weeks/100 m2. The technique is sensitive to all types of radioactivity (including α and 3H- or 14C-emitted β) and to both labile and fixed radioactivity. The method (radiosensitive screens exposure followed by a scanning step at the laboratory in a small-size device) neither involves nuclear material transportation, neither produces wastes, nor requires operators' presence during signal acquisition. The purpose is to accurately locate possible contamination spots, in order to relevantly perform targeted sampling and thus limit destructive analyses runs at the laboratory. In the latest developments, additional methods were implemented to analyze various nuclear samples (wastes, blocks, rubbles, pieces of furniture, drilled cores...) through this technique, to preliminary check for contamination, and to evaluate contamination location, homogeneity, and activity. These methods have proven themselves relevant and useful to build appropriate analyses and optimized decontamination protocols at the LASE (Laboratory of Analyses and Operators' Support). In this paper, we propose a new autoradiographic tool providing the identification of the contaminating radionuclide of a sample or an area, based on the stacking of several screens. The decrease of the signal screen after screen could be considered specific to one radionuclide. Modeling results obtained through Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP) were in excellent agreement with experimental results obtained with sealed sources. Moreover, a method was developed to scan all the screens in the stack in only one run (instead of as many runs as screens) to shorten analysis duration. In the case of non-penetrating radiations (α particles, 3H- or 14C

  17. Binding sites for iodinated endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 demonstrated on human uterine glandular epithelial cells by quantitative high-resolution autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, A P; Cameron, I T; Smith, S K; Brown, M J

    1991-04-01

    Quantitative in-vitro receptor autoradiography has been used to localize and compare the anatomical distribution of binding sites for iodinated endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) in human uterus. Binding sites for the three iodinated isoforms had a similar gross anatomical distribution. The density of binding sites was significantly higher in the endometrium compared with the myometrium and greatest at the endometrial-myometrial junction. In cross-competition experiments, unlabelled ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, sarafotoxin S6b and mouse vasoactive intestinal contractor (1 mumol/l) competed for the binding sites of all the iodinated peptides suggesting that ETs may bind to the same receptor. However, preproendothelin(110-130) (endothelin-like peptide) or preproendothelin(124-130) and other non-endothelin vasoactive peptides tested as a concentration of 1 mumol/l did not compete. Micro-autoradiography revealed that high densities of iodinated ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3 binding sites were localized to glandular epithelial cells and blood vessels with lower levels in the myometrium and vascular smooth muscle, suggesting that these potent vasoactive and proliferative agents could play a role in the control of menstruation. PMID:2030325

  18. Assessment of the metabolic trapping rate of FDG in rat brain using dual tracer autoradiography with 18F-FDG and 14C-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dual tracer autoradiography using 18F-FDG and 14C-FDG was applied to the estimation of changes in the metabolic trapping rate in rat brain. Rats were infused with kainic acid (1 μg/μL) into the right striatum 3 hours prior to the tracer experiment. 18F-FDG was intravenously injected into the rats, and 14C-FDG was injected 44 minutes after 18F-FDG injection. The rats were decapitated at 1 minute post-injection of 14C-FDG, and frozen brain sections were prepared. The slices were exposed on imaging plate for 1 hour, and 18F-FDG images (45 minutes) were obtained. After the decay of 18F, the same slices were contacted with imaging plate for 1 week, and 14C-FDG images (1 minute) were obtained. Radioactivity concentrations in cerebral cortex at 1 minute and 45 minutes after 18F-FDG injection were determined by the dissection method, the values were used to normalize 18F-FDG and 14C-FDG image. The subtraction image was made by subtracting the normalized 14C-FDG image from the 18F-FDG image. In the results, intrastriatal infusion of kainic acid significantly enhanced the metabolic trapping process of FDG. The dual tracer autoradiography with 18F-FDG and 14C-FDG seems to be useful to assess the metabolic trapping rate of FDG in brain injury. (author)

  19. A study on compatibilities on transgenic herbicide-resistant rice with wild relatives by using autoradiography of 32P labeled pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the possibility of gene flow through observation of the sexual compatibilities of transgenic herbicide-resistant rice with wild relative by using isotope tracer to label pollen grains, the experiments on radioactivity, tracer mode, autoradiography film and time were conducted. Better procedure was to label pollen grains of transgenic herbicide-resistant rice by culturing the rice in a 1.48 x 107 Bq/L 32P nutrient liquid, to pollinate the labelled pollen grains on the stigmas of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis), Oryza officinalis and weedy rice (Oryza sativa) respectively, and then 3 hour later, to fix these pistils on a piece of glass plate and cover the film of Luck 400 on it for autoradiography. The autoradiographs show that the tube of the transgenic rice's pollens cannot penetrate the stigma of barnyard grass and arrive at embryo sacs to fertilize, so that the possibility of gene flow between them is the lowest; the tube of the labelled pollens can penetrate the stigma of O officinalis and enter the style but can not arrive at embryo sacs to fertilize, so the possibility of gene flow between them is relatively low; and the pollen tube can arrive at the embryo sacs of the weedy rice, so that the possibility of gene flow is relatively high from transgenic herbicide-resistant rice to weedy rice. (authors)

  20. Immunocharacteristics of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick as embryo demonstrated by a combined method of autoradiography and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick embryo on days 10, 12 and 15 of incubation was studied 1 h after the injection of tritium-labelled steroid hormone using the thaw-mount autoradiographic technique. Oestradiol target cells were localized in the caudal zone that corresponds to the so-called 'caudal lobe', while androgen target cells were found throughout the rostral and caudal lobes of the anterior gland. With a combined autoradiography and immunohistochemistry technique, most of the oestrogen target cells showed immunoreactivity to turkey LH antiserum but not to adrenocorticotrophin (1-24) and β-thyrotrophin antisera. In contrast, androgen target cells did not show positive immunoreactivity to the three antisera used. The results suggested a direct and early involvement of oestrogens but not of androgens in the feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in the chick embryo. (U.K.)

  1. Fission product migration in intact fuel rods. S176 experiments 1-5: Gamma spectrometric and beta autoradiography results on radial fission product distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third of a group which present the results obtained during the first 5 experiments in the S176 series of irradiation experiments. The aim of this series is to provide information on the distribution of fission products in intact irradiated fuel rods, both within the UO2, fuel and on the inside of the Zircaloy clad. Fuel rods, previously irradiated to appreciable burnups in the Aagesta R3 reactor, after cooling, are reirradiated in the Studsvik R2 test reactor for short periods to build up significant inventories of short-lived fission products of interest. The irradiation conditions are well defined. Examination of sections of fuel and clad within a short time after removal from the reactor is performed by means of high-resolution Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry. The fuel sections are also examined metallographically to determine fuel structure, and by β autoradiography

  2. Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT-Guided Biopsy and Cryoablation with Autoradiography of Biopsy Specimen for Treatment of Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybody, Majid; Grewal, Ravinder K; Healey, John H; Antonescu, Cristina R; Fanchon, Louise; Hwang, Sinchun; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Kirov, Assen; Farooki, Azeez

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by small benign tumors of mesenchymal origin also known as phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors mixed connective tissue variant. Excellent prognosis is expected with eradication of the culprit tumor. These small tumors are notoriously difficult to localize with conventional imaging studies; this often leads to an extensive work up and prolonged morbidity. We report a patient with clinical diagnosis of TIO whose culprit tumor was localized with Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT and MRI. Biopsy and cryoablation were performed under Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT guidance. Autoradiography of the biopsy specimen was performed and showed in situ correlation between Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake and histopathology with millimeter resolution. PMID:27150801

  3. Somatostatin receptor expression in the human spleen - Answer to an enigma by ex-vivo and in-vitro autoradiography after 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: radiolabelled somatostatin analogues are being used for diagnostic and therapeutic (PRRT) purposes in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expressing tumours. During PRRT a significant spleen uptake may lead to radiation doses of > 20 Gy. Yet, the threshold dose for spleen radiation induced toxicity is currently unknown. Based on previous 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT studies, demonstrating higher uptake in spleen than in splenosis, white pulp (WP) localization of radioactivity was suggested. This hypothesis was investigated in the current pilot study using the longer lived 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate. Methods: a patient diagnosed with neuroendocrine neoplasm of the pancreatic tail (SUVmax on 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT 100.4) with liver metastasis (SUV 47.3, normal liver SUV 12.5) and uptake in the spleen (SUV 41.0) received 1 GBq 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate. 2 h after administration whole-body planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT of the upper abdomen was performed, followed by laparoscopic resection of the pancreatic tumour and splenectomy the next day. After spleen transport from Bad Berka to Rotterdam ex-vivo micro-SPECT of the removed spleen was acquired for 73 min using 2.5 mm diameter pinholes. Spleen fragments (∼10 * 10 * 5 mm) were either snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen or fixed in 10% formalin and paraffin embedded. Ex-vivo autoradiography of 10 μm cryo-sections was performed and serial sections were used for 111In-DOTA-octreotate in-vitro autoradiography after decay of 177Lu. FFPE sections were used for HE- and immunostaining for SSTR2A and cell subsets CD4 (Th-cell), CD8 (Ts-cell), CD20 (B-cell) and CD68 (macrophage). Results: 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate scintigraphy and SPECT/CT demonstrated high uptake in the pancreatic tumor, hepatic metastasis and homogeneously in the normal spleen. High resolution micro-SPECT imaging of the isolated spleen also revealed a relatively homogeneous uptake (calculated rest activity 60 MBq 177Lu). The vast

  4. Quantitative determination of the intracellular fate of internalized plasma membrane in dissociated pituitary prolactin cells utilizing a radioiodinated cationic ferritin probe (CFI) and electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissociated anterior pituitary cells derived from estrogen-treated female rats were incubated with radioiodinated cationic ferritin (CFI) for 2 min and subsequently in the absence of CFI for varying periods of time up to 3 hr in order to quantitate, using electron microscopic autoradiography, the distribution of retrieved plasma membrane in these cells. Following a 2-min incubation with CFI, autoradiographic grains were found to be associated almost exclusively with the plasma membrane. With increasing periods of incubation in the absence of CFI, grain-density analysis revealed increasing levels of CFI in multiple intracellular organelles. The levels of CFI were greatest for the lysosomes, intermediate for the mature secretory granules, and least for the Golgi cisternae and immature secretory granules. These findings are consistent with the idea that a portion of the retrieved plasma membrane is degraded in lysosomes and that the remainder is recycled to organelles comprising the secretory pathway to be reutilized in successive waves of the secretory cycle

  5. Quantitative autoradiography of ligands for dopamine receptors and transporters in brain of Göttingen minipig: comparison with results in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bender, Dirk;

    2006-01-01

    The pig has been used as animal model for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopamine (DA) receptors and pharmacological perturbations of DA neurotransmission. However, the binding properties of DA receptors and transporters in pig brain have not been characterized in vitro. Therefore......, the saturation binding parameters of [3H]SCH 23390 for DA D1 receptors and [3H]raclopride for DA D2/3 receptors were measured by quantitative autoradiography in cryostat sections from brain of groups of 8 week old and adult female Göttingen minipigs. The magnitudes of Bmax and Kd for these ligands...... were similar in young and old pigs, and were close to those reported for rat and human brain. Furthermore, gradients in the concentrations of D1 and D2/3 sites in striatum measured in vitro agreed with earlier findings in PET studies. However, the dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand [3H]GBR12935 did not...

  6. Distributions of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster: light and electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography following intraperitoneal injection of these compounds to hamsters. Exposed silver grains of 35S-sulfate were concentrated in the trabecular meshwork, sclera, and cornea, and grains of 3H-glucosamine were localized in the trabecular region. The radioactivity of both isotopes was observed in the Golgi apparatuses of the endothelial cells of the angular aqueous plexus and the trabecular meshwork. The grains were noted over the entire cytoplasm, except for the nucleus, and then were incorporated into the amorphous substance and collagen fibers in the region adjacent to the angular aqueous sinus. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the angular region synthesize and secrete the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid

  7. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with [3H]PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of [3H]PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in [3H]PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration

  8. Uptake of waterborne 109Cd(II) in the scallop (Chlamys islandica) studied by in vivo gamma counting and quantitative whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scallops caught in the North coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Quebec, Canada) have been found to contain elevated levels of cadmium (Cd), though this area is far from any point source of pollution. Concentrations observed ranges from 2 to more than 20 mg/kg (w.w.) in the whole animal. This exceeds the European guidelines of 1 mg Cd/kg set for molluscs and have led to the refusal of scallop stocks from the area mentioned above. Relatively little is known about the uptake of Cd by scallops, apart from the fact that they often exhibit high concentrations of this metal in their tissues, especially in the digestive gland. To better understand the fate of Cd in scallop, we have exposed Chlamys islandica (60- 80 mm shell height) to waterborne 109Cd(II) (nominal concentration 37 kBq/L, closed system) for 45 hours. Accumulation of Cd was followed over time by non-destructive in vivo gamma counting (IVGC). At the termination of the exposure period, scallops were then placed in clean running seawater and radioactivity loss was monitored for 35 d. Results from IVGC were used to quantify the kinetics of uptake and elimination. Six of these scallops were sampled at t = 0, 7, and 35 d during the depuration period and used for whole-body autoradiography to precisely determined the distribution of the accumulated 109Cd. Preliminary analysis of data from IVGC showed that scallop rapidly accumulated 109Cd(II) from the water and that elimination was bi-exponential, with 30-35% of the radioactivity being eliminated within 2 d while the remaining 65-70% was eliminated at a slower rate, with half-life values ranging from 20 to 140 d (average 73 ± 52 d). Whole-body autoradio-graphy shows that 109Cd was distributed in all tissues of the scallop, the highest concentration being found in the kidney and the lowest in the muscle. Actually, the concentration of the radiolabel in the kidney is some 10 times higher than in any other tissue. Despite of its small size (ca. 1% of soft tissue

  9. Quantitative Single-Particle Digital Autoradiography with α-Particle Emitters for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy using the iQID Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W.; Frost, Sophia; Frayo, Shani; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, E. B.; Jones, Jon C.; Green, Damian J.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, B. M.

    2015-07-01

    Abstract Alpha emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm) causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with alpha emitters may inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. For accurate dosimetry in alpha-RIT, tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed dose to targeted and non-targeted cells, especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, iQID (ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector), for use in alpha-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection technology that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/X-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs recent advances in CCD/CMOS cameras and computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, we evaluated this system’s characteristics for alpha particle imaging including measurements of spatial resolution and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 (211At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ~20 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the alpha particle background was measured at a rate of (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10–4 cpm/cm2 (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was performed using a large-area iQID configuration (ø 11.5 cm

  10. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W., E-mail: brian.miller@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85719 (United States); Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C.; Orozco, Johnnie J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Green, Damian J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 and Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fisher, Darrell R. [Dade Moeller Health Group, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4} cpm/cm{sup 2} (40 mm diameter detector area

  11. The centuries-old and thousand- year oscillations of uranium distribution in the Lake Baikal sediments, according to the neutron-fission (n,f)-autoradiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Ivan; Zhmodik, Sergey; Belyanin, Dmitriy; Khlistov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The trace elements local distribution data, particularly (U, P, Br, Mo, BiSi et. all) in a lake and oceans bottom sediments reflects the conditions of those sediments formation, and correlates with changes in paleoclimatic conditions. In papers [Colman et all, 1995; Goldberg et all, 2000, etc.] established that the concentrations of some elements contained in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal, in particular BiSi, Sr / Ba, Sr / Rb, Ti, U et al., reflect changes in insolation caused by periodic oscillations parameters Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). At the same time, a bottom sediments of the largest continental lake (Lake Baikal), can keep a record of changes less periodicity. Our research focuses on the study of the spatial distribution of uranium with high resolution in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal. The purpose of this research is determination the centure-old and thousand- old year oscillations in the concentration of uranium in the sediments of Lake Baikal. Fragments of the lake sediment columns taken from the axial part of the Akademicheskiy Ridge in Lake Baikal (stations coordinates St -8 (53 32'15"N 107 56'25"E); - and St11 - (53 33'51"N 108 00'05"E) were studied using complex of local analysis methods, such as: n, f - and n, β-autoradiography, SEM. The distributions of uranium and phosphorus in the authigenic component of sediments along the whole columns length (with the resolution of 10 micron which corresponds to the time resolution of about six months) have been studied by the autoradiography method. Statistical data analysis (Fourier and wavelet analysis) were used for detection oscillations in the uranium concentration Three main different factors of concentrators were established for uranium and phosphorus in the sediments of the Academic mountain range:1) sedimentation, 2) nutrient,3) diagenetic. The periodicity (range from 100 to 1,000 years), in the distribution of authigenic uranium in the sediment column were identified by

  12. Syntheses and in vitro evaluation of fluorinated naphthoxazines as dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonists: radiosynthesis, ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography of [18F]F-PHNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Carbon-11-labeled (+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4]oxazin-9-ol ([11C]-(+)-PHNO) is a dopamine D2/D3 agonist radioligand that is currently used to image the high-affinity state of dopamine receptors in humans with positron emission tomography (PET). The present study reports the preparation and evaluation of fluorinated (+)-PHNO derivatives. Methods: Five fluorinated (+)-PHNO derivatives were synthesized and tested in vitro for inhibition of binding of [3H]domperidone in homogenates of rat striatum and inhibition of binding to [3H]-(+)-PHNO in homogenates of human-cloned D2Long receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells and rat striatum. Radiolabeling with fluorine-18 was carried out for the most promising candidate, N-fluoropropyl-(+)-HNO (F-PHNO), and ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography studies with this radiopharmaceutical were performed in rodents. Results: (+)-PHNO and the fluorinated analogs inhibited binding of [3H]domperidone and [3H]-(+)-PHNO to the high- and low-affinity states of dopamine D2 receptors, consistent with D2 agonist behavior. The average dissociation constant at the high-affinity state of D2, K iHigh, was 0.4 nM for F-PHNO and proved to be equipotent with (+)-PHNO (0.7 nM). All other fluorinated derivatives were significantly less potent (K iHigh=2-102 nM). The most promising candidate, F-PHNO, was labeled with fluorine-18 in 5% uncorrected radiochemical yield, with respect to starting fluoride. Ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography studies in rodents revealed that [18F]F-PHNO rapidly enters the rodent brain. However, this radiotracer does not reveal specific binding in the brain and is rapidly cleared. Conclusions: Five novel dopamine D2/D3 agonists based on (+)-PHNO were synthesized and evaluated in vitro. F-PHNO was shown to behave as a potent D2 agonist in vitro and was therefore radiolabeled with fluorine-18. Despite the promising in vitro pharmacological profile, [18F]F-PHNO did not

  13. Distribution of Murine Tissue Specific γ-Glutamyltransferase: Comparison of six monoclonal antibody applications in Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemistry, and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT: E.C. 2.3.2.2.) is a glycoprotein enzyme which is involved in glutathione metabolism and amino acid transport through the plasma membrane. It is distributed widely in several organs including liver and kidney. Several isozymes of GGT have been reported and some of the isozymes may be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We have produced six monoclnal antibodies (mAbs) against GGT purified from the liver of 2-acetamidofluorene (AAF) treated rats. All of the six mAbs were obtained by immunizing mice with liver GGT. Six hybridomas which produced anti-GGT Abs were extensively subcloned and injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice to obtain large quantities of Abs. These mAbs were purified from ascites by ammonium sulfate precipitation and protein A sepharose CL-4B column chromatography. Using these mAbs we performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmvnoassay (RIA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and autoradiography (ARG) to study the distribution of GGT isozyme in tissue. The results indicate that GGT-mAb 1 is specific for the AAF treated liver GGT, GGT-mAb 5 for the normal liver GGT, and GGT-mAb 6 for the normal kidney GGT. These mAbs may be used to evaluate the distribution of GGT isozymes in different tissues.

  14. Combination of digital autoradiography and alpha track analysis to reveal the distribution of definite alpha- and beta-emitting nuclides in contaminated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital autoradiography using Imaging Plate is commonly employed for searching 'hot' particles in the contaminated soil, sediment and aerosol probes. However digital radiography images combined with Alpha Track radiography data could provide much more information about micro-distribution of different alpha- and beta- nuclides. The discrimination method to estimate the distribution of radionuclides that are the main contributors to the total radioactivity (90Sr/90Y, 137Cs, 241Am) has been developed on the case of artificial reservoir V-17 (PA 'Mayak'). The bottom sediments and hydrobionts probes collected from V-17 along with the standards of 137Cs, 90Sr/90Y and 241Am have been exposed for a short time (15 min) using a stack of 3 Imaging Plates (Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System, Perkin Elmer). The attenuation of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) intensity from layer to layer of the Imaging Plates depends on the type and energy of radiation. Integrated approach using PSL attenuation in the samples and standards (digital radiography) along with Alpha Track radiography and gamma-spectroscopy of the preparation was used to estimate the contribution of the main nuclides in specific parts of contaminated samples. The observation of the 90Sr/90Y and 137Cs activity maxima could help to find the phases which are responsible for preferential sorption of the nuclides. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Tissue distribution and excretion of myosmine after i.v. administration to Long-Evans rats using quantitative whole-body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glas, Susanna; Tyroller, Stefan; Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Richter, Elmar [Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Walther Straub Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Steiner, Kurt; Kiefer, Gudrun [Institute of Drug Metabolism and Pharmakokinetics, Merck KGaA, Grafing (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Occurrence of the tobacco alkaloid myosmine has been proven in various staple foods, vegetables and fruits. Myosmine can be easily activated by nitrosation yielding 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanone (HPB) and the esophageal carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine. Most of the reaction products after myosmine peroxidation were also identified as urinary metabolites after oral administration to rats. Whole-body autoradiography with freeze dried or multiple solvent extracted tissue sections was used to trace [2'-{sup 14}C]myosmine (0.1 mCi/kg bw) 0.1, 0.25, 1, 4 and 24 h after i.v. injection in Long-Evans rats. In addition, in vitro binding of radioactivity to esophageal and eye tissue was determined and excretion of radioactivity via urine and feces was quantified. Radioactivity is rapidly eliminated by renal excretion. Approximately 30% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in urine within the first 4 h and excretion with urine (72%) and feces (15%) was nearly complete after 24 h. A rapid concentration of radioactivity can be seen in the stomach and in the salivary and lachrymal glands. Rats killed 1 and 4 h after treatment showed by far the highest labeling in the accessory genital gland. High levels of nonextractable radioactivity were present in esophageal tissue and melanin. The half lives for the disappearance of radioactivity from various tissues are in the order of about 1 h. Eye and esophagus sections both showed nonextractable labeling after in vitro incubation with {sup 14}C-myosmine. In conclusion, the toxicological significance of myosmine accumulation in esophagus and accessory genital gland requires further investigations. Hair analysis might be applicable for myosmine biomonitoring, because of possible enrichment in melanin containing tissues. (orig.)

  16. Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using [14C]alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and [18F]fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with [18F]fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy

  17. Evaluation of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy using iodine-131 MIBG autoradiography and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxorubicin is one of the most useful anticancer agents, but its repeated administration can induce irreversible cardiomyopathy as a major complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac sympathetic neurons using iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry, which is a marker of cardiac innervation. Wistar rats were treated with doxorubicin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 4 (n=5), 6 (n=6) or 8 (n=7) weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), calculated by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an indicator of cardiac function. Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 131I-MIBG uptake of the left ventricular wall (24 ROIs) was measured by autoradiography. 131I-MIBG uptake pattern was compared with histopathological results, the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry and the degree of myocyte damage assessed using a visual scoring system on haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. LVEF was significantly decreased in the 8-week group (P131I-MIBG uptake ratio of subepicardium to subendocardium were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 8-week group as compared with the control group. It may be concluded that radioiodinated MIBG is a reliable marker for the detection of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy; it detects such damage earlier than do other clinical parameters and in this study showed a good correlation with the reduction in the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 stain. The subendocardial layer appeared to be more vulnerable to doxorubicin than the subepicardium. (orig.)

  18. Sorption and diffusion of cobalt, strontium, cesium and americium in natural fissure surfaces and drill core cups studied by autoradiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method based on autoradiography was developed to determine the diffusion of radionuclides into the rock matrix. To investigate the diffusion the samples, which has been in contact with radioactive tracer solution up to 6 months, were splitted by sawing. From the autoradiograms of the cross sections the penetration depths of radionuclides were determined and the apparent diffusion coefficient Dsup(a) calculated. The filled and unfilled natural fissure surfaces chosen to this study were bars of drilling cores and drill core cups of tonalite, mica gneiss and rapakivi granite. After contact time of 3 months the highest penetration depths of cesium were observed for natural fissure surface sample of rapakivi granite up to 2.5 mm and of mica gneiss up to 3.7 mm. For strontium the penetration depths of 6 mm and 11 mm for unfilled and filled natural fissure samples of rapakivi granite were found. Dsup(a)-values for cesium varied between 1.5 x 10-15 and 3.2 x 10-14, for strontium between 3.5 x 10-14 and 2.1 x 10-13 m2/s. D-value obtained for cobalt (drill core cup sample, tonalite) was 5.4 x 10-17 m2/s. 241Am was only sorbed on the surface of the sample and thus no apparent diffusion coefficient could be calculated. Filling materials, chlorite and secondary minerals in tonalite and rapakivi granite increased diffusion into the mother rock. Radionuclides were sorbed both into the filling material and through fillers into the rock matrix. Cs and Sr penetrated though calcite filling material in mica gneiss into the mother rock. Calcite didn't influence on diffusion of radionuclides. Penetration depths of Cs and Sr were about the same for filled and unfilled samples

  19. Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahiro, S.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Diksic, M.; Mitsuka, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Feindel, W. (Cone Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-07-01

    Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using (14C)alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and (18F)fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with (18F)fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy.

  20. Neurogenesis in the vomeronasal epithelium of adult garter snakes: 3. Use of /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography to trace the genesis and migration of bipolar neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.T.; Halpern, M.

    1988-10-01

    Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography and unilateral vomeronasal (VN) axotomy has permitted us to demonstrate directly the existence of VN stem cells in the adult garter snake and to trace continuous bipolar neuron development and migration in the normal VN and deafferentated VN epithelium in the same animal. The vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of adult garter snakes are both capable of incorporating 3H-thymidine. In the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, 3H-thymidine-labeled cells were initially restricted to the base of the undifferentiated cell layer in animals surviving 1 day following 3H-thymidine injection. With increasing survival time, labeled cells progressively migrated vertically within the receptor cell column toward the apex of the bipolar neuron layer. In both the normal and denervated VN epithelium, labeled cells were observed through the 56 days of postoperative survival. In the normal epithelium, labeled cells were always located within the matrix of the intact receptor cell columns. However, labeled cells of the denervated epithelium were always located at the apical front of the newly formed cell mass following depletion of the original neuronal cell population. In addition, at postoperative days 28 and 56, labeled cells of the denervated VN epithelium achieved neuronal differentiation and maturation by migrating much farther away from the base of the receptor cell column than the labeled cells on the normal, unoperated contralateral side. This study directly demonstrates that basal cells initially incorporating 3H-thymidine are indeed stem cells of the VN epithelium in adult garter snakes.

  1. Neurogenesis in the vomeronasal epithelium of adult garter snakes: 3. Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography to trace the genesis and migration of bipolar neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography and unilateral vomeronasal (VN) axotomy has permitted us to demonstrate directly the existence of VN stem cells in the adult garter snake and to trace continuous bipolar neuron development and migration in the normal VN and deafferentated VN epithelium in the same animal. The vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of adult garter snakes are both capable of incorporating 3H-thymidine. In the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, 3H-thymidine-labeled cells were initially restricted to the base of the undifferentiated cell layer in animals surviving 1 day following 3H-thymidine injection. With increasing survival time, labeled cells progressively migrated vertically within the receptor cell column toward the apex of the bipolar neuron layer. In both the normal and denervated VN epithelium, labeled cells were observed through the 56 days of postoperative survival. In the normal epithelium, labeled cells were always located within the matrix of the intact receptor cell columns. However, labeled cells of the denervated epithelium were always located at the apical front of the newly formed cell mass following depletion of the original neuronal cell population. In addition, at postoperative days 28 and 56, labeled cells of the denervated VN epithelium achieved neuronal differentiation and maturation by migrating much farther away from the base of the receptor cell column than the labeled cells on the normal, unoperated contralateral side. This study directly demonstrates that basal cells initially incorporating 3H-thymidine are indeed stem cells of the VN epithelium in adult garter snakes

  2. Calcium dynamics in the healing of tooth extraction sockets in mice evaluated using 45Ca-autoradiography and Electron Probe Micro Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calcium distribution in tooth extraction sockets of mice was examined using 45-Calcium autoradiography (ARG) and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Mice were divided into 8 groups (n=8) according to the number of days (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 20 respectively) after extraction. Frozen sections were taken from mice on each experimental day after injection of 45-Calcium (RI). The process of formation of new bone was observed using ARG. An ultimate analysis was performed by EPMA. Histological analysis was performed with toluidine blue- and alizarin red S-staining. In toluidine blue-staining, an osteoblast was found along the socket wall at 4 days and non-calcified periodontal ligament was recognized until 5 days after extraction. In alizarin red S-staining, new bone was recognized separated from the socket wall at 4 days after extraction. 45Ca-labeling was detected strongly in the periosteum of the mandible, the surface of cement and periodontal ligament in control animals. 45Ca-labeling was moved from the bottom to the top of the tooth extraction socket during the period from 1 to 5 days after extraction, but in the periodontal ligament lower than in the granulation tissue. 45Ca-labeling was detected in the socket at 7, 10 and 20 days. At 4 days, calcium phosphate was observed in the central portion of the socket using EPMA. 45Ca-labeling showed deposition of calcium phosphate for alveolar bone and new bone. These results suggest that the granulation tissue may be involved in the initial calcification in the tooth extraction socket and lead to the formation of new bone in it. (author)

  3. Expression of dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus of the rat: characterization using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analysed the expression of dopamine receptor subtypes in the subthalamic nucleus by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We also studied, using autoradiography, all pharmacologically characterized dopamine receptors in four subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. For comparison, dopamine receptor subtypes were also evaluated in brain regions where they are more abundant and well characterized. The radioligands used were: [3H]SCH-23390, [3H]emonapride and [3H]2-dipropylamino-7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene for dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptors, respectively; and [3H]YM-09151-2 in the presence of raclopride for dopamine D4 receptors. Finally, we also evaluated the effect of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle on dopamine receptor levels expressed in the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus. The lesion was estimated by decrease in the binding of [3H]WIN-35428, a specific dopamine transporter label. D1, D2 and D3 receptor messenger RNAs and binding sites were present in the subthalamic nucleus, but no messenger RNA for D4 receptors was found, although specific binding sites for these receptors were observed. As compared to the intact side, the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion did not change D1 receptors, increased D2 receptors, and decreased D3 receptors and the dopamine transporter. The results suggest that postsynaptic D1, D2 or D3 receptors can mediate the effect of dopamine on subthalamic nucleus neuronal activity. D4 receptors would mediate exclusively presynaptic effects.These results reinforce the idea that dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus may play an important role in the physiology of the basal ganglia and in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Effect of irradiation on the formation of secretory granules in the mouse submandibular glands; Study of electron microscopic autoradiography with sup 3 H-leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaito, Tomoi; Nasu, Masanori; Kondoh, Nobuyoshi; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    To determine the effect of radiation on secretory granule morphosis of the submandibular acinar cells, the lower jaw of the rat irradiated with 10 Gy of X-ray. We observed intracellular localization of reducing argentum grains three days after irradiation by electron microscopic autoradiography with {sup 3}H-Leucine (RI). The argentum grain ratio localizing in the ganular endoplasmic reticulum stood at the same level both in the irradiated group (IG) and in the non-irradiated group (NG) 30 minutes after injection of RI. But in NG the ratio declined sharply at the 60-minute mark. One hundred and eighty minutes after the injection of RI, the argentum grain ratio in NG showed the same level at the 60-minute mark. While in IG the ratio was lower than that at the 60 minutes after the injection but not as low as in NG. The argentum grain ratio localized in the Golgi complex showed the same level in both NG and IG and decreased with time after the injection of RI. The argentum grain ratio localized in the secretory granule increased with time after the injection of RI in both NG and IG. The ratio in IG was entirely lower than that in NG. A retarding trend of secretory progress was recognized, showing a high ratio even 180 minutes after injection in IG, while the ratio reached a peak of 60 minutes in NG after the injection of RI. The argentum grain localizing in the other cellular organelles which have no relation with secretory granule morphosis showed a ratio below 10 percent in both NG and IG at each testing time after the injection of RI and no distinctive change was recognized in the procedure. The secretory granule morphosis of the mouse's submandibule was clarified to be retarded three days after 10 Gy irradiation. (J.P.N.).

  5. The effect of irradiation on the intracellular transportation of the parotid gland acinar cells in the mouse. Localization of monosaccharides studied by electron microscopic autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Hajime (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of radiation on the ability to ingest monosaccharides and intracellular transportation in the parotid gland in mice. The submandibular regions, including the parotid gland, was exposed to 10 Gy of X-rays. Three days after irradiation, the localization of reducing silver grains in organelles was determined, using electron microscopic autoradiography with H-3 labeled galactosamine, glucosamine, fucose, and mannose. In the non-irradiated group, the proportion of reducing silver grains in the acinar cells began to increase 15 min after administration of monosaccharides, reached a peak at 180 min, and thereafter decreased. Similar findings were observed in the irradiated group, although the values were lower than the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the endoplasmic reticulum reached a peak at 15 min in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, and gradually decreased until 120 min. Thereafter, it became almost constant and low, but the proportion in the irradiated group was slightly higher than in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the Golgi apparatus was maximum at 60 min in the non-irradiated group, and gradually decreased until 360 min. A similar tendency was seen in the irradiated group, although its variation was not so marked as in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the condensing vacuoles was maximum at 120 min, and thereafter, it decreased; the decrease was only slight in the irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in secretory granules increased with time in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, although this was only slight in the irradiated group, and reached a peak at 360 min. Transportation of monosaccharides in an acinar cell was found to be delayed by irradiation. (N.K.).

  6. Localization of CGRP receptor components and receptor binding sites in rhesus monkey brainstem: A detailed study using in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, and autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Gaspar, Renee C; Roberts, Rhonda; Chen, Tsing-Bau; Zeng, Zhizhen; Villarreal, Stephanie; Edvinsson, Lars; Salvatore, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have revealed that certain brainstem areas are activated during migraine attacks. The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is associated with activation of the trigeminovascular system and transmission of nociceptive information and plays a key role in migraine pathophysiology. Therefore, to elucidate the role of CGRP, it is critical to identify the regions within the brainstem that process CGRP signaling. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence were performed to detect mRNA expression and define cellular localization of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), respectively. To define CGRP receptor binding sites, in vitro autoradiography was performed with [(3)H]MK-3207 (a CGRP receptor antagonist). CLR and RAMP1 mRNA and protein expression were detected in the pineal gland, medial mammillary nucleus, median eminence, infundibular stem, periaqueductal gray, area postrema, pontine raphe nucleus, gracile nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, and spinal cord. RAMP1 mRNA expression was also detected in the posterior hypothalamic area, trochlear nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, medial lemniscus, pontine nuclei, vagus nerve, inferior olive, abducens nucleus, and motor trigeminal nucleus; protein coexpression of CLR and RAMP1 was observed in these areas via immunofluorescence. [(3)H]MK-3207 showed high binding densities concordant with mRNA and protein expression. The present study suggests that several regions in the brainstem may be involved in CGRP signaling. Interestingly, we found receptor expression and antagonist binding in some areas that are not protected by the blood-brain barrier, which suggests that drugs inhibiting CGRP signaling may not be able to penetrate the central nervous system to antagonize receptors in these brain regions. PMID:26105175

  7. The effect of irradiation on the intracellular transportation of the parotid gland acinar cells in the mouse. Localization of monosaccharides studied by electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of radiation on the ability to ingest monosaccharides and intracellular transportation in the parotid gland in mice. The submandibular regions, including the parotid gland, was exposed to 10 Gy of X-rays. Three days after irradiation, the localization of reducing silver grains in organelles was determined, using electron microscopic autoradiography with H-3 labeled galactosamine, glucosamine, fucose, and mannose. In the non-irradiated group, the proportion of reducing silver grains in the acinar cells began to increase 15 min after administration of monosaccharides, reached a peak at 180 min, and thereafter decreased. Similar findings were observed in the irradiated group, although the values were lower than the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the endoplasmic reticulum reached a peak at 15 min in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, and gradually decreased until 120 min. Thereafter, it became almost constant and low, but the proportion in the irradiated group was slightly higher than in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the Golgi apparatus was maximum at 60 min in the non-irradiated group, and gradually decreased until 360 min. A similar tendency was seen in the irradiated group, although its variation was not so marked as in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the condensing vacuoles was maximum at 120 min, and thereafter, it decreased; the decrease was only slight in the irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in secretory granules increased with time in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, although this was only slight in the irradiated group, and reached a peak at 360 min. Transportation of monosaccharides in an acinar cell was found to be delayed by irradiation. (N.K.)

  8. In vitro autoradiography of ionotropic glutamate receptors in hippocampus and striatum of aged Long-Evans rats: relationship to spatial learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using in vitro autoradiography, we investigated [3H]α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate, [3H]kainate and [3H]N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in two forebrain regions, the hippocampus and striatum, of young (four months of age) and aged (24-25 months of age) Long-Evans rats that had previously been tested for spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze. Although there was substantial preservation of binding in the aged rats, reductions in binding were present in the aged rats that were specific to ligand and anatomical region. In the hippocampus of aged rats, [3H]α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate binding in CA1 and [3H]kainate binding in CA3 were reduced. In contrast, N-methyl-d-aspartate binding was not significantly different between age groups. There was evidence of sprouting in the dentate gyrus molecular layer of aged rats, indicated by changes in the topography of [3H]kainate binding. Binding density was analysed with respect to patch/matrix compartmentalization in the striatum. The most striking result was a large decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in aged rats that was not limited to any dorsal/ventral or patch/matrix area of the striatum. Additionally, [3H]kainate binding in striatal matrix was modestly reduced in aged rats. Of these age effects, only N-methyl-d-aspartate binding in the striatum and [3H]kainate binding in the CA3 region of the hippocampus were correlated with spatial learning, with lower binding in the aged rats associated with better spatial learning ability.Age-related alterations in ionotropic glutamate receptors differ with respect to the receptor subtype and anatomical region examined. The age effects were not neccessarily indicative of cognitive decline, as only two age-related binding changes were correlated with spatial learning. Interestingly, in these instances, lower binding in the aged rats was associated with preserved spatial learning, suggesting a compensatory reduction in receptor

  9. Exploration of dopamine transporter and D2 receptors in morphine dependent rats through 125I-β-CTT, 125I-IBZM cerebral autoradiography and the biodistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the variation of cerebral dopamine (DA) transmitting system in morphine dependent (MD) rats using dopamine transporter (DAT) and D2 receptors imaging agent. Methods: MD model rats were established by using a two-compartment (C1 and C2-morphine conditioned compartment) apparatus for assessing morphine conditioned place preferences in rats. 125I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane (125I-β-CIT) and 125I-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl] benzamide (125I-IBZM) cerebral DAT and D2 receptor autoradiography and biodistribution study were used to evaluate the variation of DAT and D2 receptors in morphine dependent rats. Results: The mean time of MD rats entering from C1 to C2 was (0.84 +- 0.50) min after 6 days' conditioned place preference training, shorter than that of the control group [(2.40 +- 1.10) min, P 125I-β-CIT uptake ratio of striatum (ST)/cerebellum (CB) and nucleus acumens (NAC)/CB in MD group were 4.76 +- 0.92 and 2.72 +- 0.96, significantly lower than that of control group (5.92 +- 0.67 and 4.16 +- 0.56, P 125I-IBZM uptake ratio in MD group were 4.11 +- 0.56 and 2.64 +- 0.25, lower than that in control group (5.43 +- 0.74 and 3.49 +- 0.65, P 125I-β-CIT, 125I-IBZM biodistribution study also showed that the DAT and D2 binding sites were reduced in ST of MD group by (21.68 +- 11.11)% and (18.69 +- 9.97)% comparing to the controls, respectively. Conclusions: The DAT and D2 receptors in both ST and NAC were all involved and reduced to some extent in morphine dependent model rats, the DAT and D2 receptor imaging agent could reflect the variation of DAT and D2receptors, this would afford the theoretical basis for D2 receptors and DAT imaging in study on preventing drug addiction and on its abstinence

  10. Effect of irradiation for intracellular transport on mouse parotid gland; Study of electron microscopic autoradiography with [sup 3]H-leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondou, Nobuyoshi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Using light and electron microscopic autoradiographies by means of [sup 3]H-leucine, the influence of X-radiation, 10 Gy upon the submandibular region including parotid gland of a mouse was examined. The number of reduced silver grain per unit area of acinar cell was compared, and the rate of reduced silver grain localized in the intracellular organelle involved in the synthesis and transport of protein was observed. In the non-radiation (NR) group, reduced silver grain in the acinar cell of parotid gland showed the maximum value 30 minutes after [sup 3]H-leucine administration and thereafter decreased with time. Even the 3 and 14 post-radiation (PR) day-groups showed the maximum values at 30 minutes, but to a lesser extent than the NR groups, and subsequent time-course was noted a little. Reduced silver grain localized in the rough surfaced reticulum showed the highest rate at 15 minutes for the NR, 3 and 14 PR groups, and thereafter decreased abruptly. In comparing the rate of reduced silver grain localized in Golgi apparatus, the NR group showed the highest rate at 60 minutes and gradually decreased thereafter. The 3 PR group showed the highest rate at 60 minutes and similar tendency up to 120 minutes. The 14 PR group showed almost the similar tendency to the NR group. Reduced silver particles localized peri- and intra-secretory granules showed higher rate at 60 minutes for the NR group. In the 3 PR group, peri- and intra-secretory granules showed almost the same rate at 180 minutes, with a time lag for the transition of [sup 3]H-leucine to the secretory granules. In the 3 and 14 PR groups, similar order of rate was noted at 60 minutes between peri- and intra-secretory granules, with a transition time approximating to that of the NR group. Subsequent discharge, however, showed a delay tendency. Pathohistological examination revealed strong morphological changes of intracellular organelle in the 3 PR group and less remarkable changes in the 14 PR group. (author).

  11. Expression of dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus of the rat: characterization using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, G.; Liang, J.J. [Instituto de Fisiologia, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado postal 406, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sierra, A.; Martinez-Fong, D. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional de Mexico, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico City (Mexico); Quirion, R. [McGill Center for Research in Schizophrenia, Douglas Hospital Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Aceves, J. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional de Mexico, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico City (Mexico); Srivastava, L.K. [McGill Center for Research in Schizophrenia, Douglas Hospital Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    We analysed the expression of dopamine receptor subtypes in the subthalamic nucleus by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We also studied, using autoradiography, all pharmacologically characterized dopamine receptors in four subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. For comparison, dopamine receptor subtypes were also evaluated in brain regions where they are more abundant and well characterized. The radioligands used were: [{sup 3}H]SCH-23390, [{sup 3}H]emonapride and [{sup 3}H]2-dipropylamino-7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene for dopamine D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} and D{sub 3} receptors, respectively; and [{sup 3}H]YM-09151-2 in the presence of raclopride for dopamine D{sub 4} receptors. Finally, we also evaluated the effect of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle on dopamine receptor levels expressed in the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus. The lesion was estimated by decrease in the binding of [{sup 3}H]WIN-35428, a specific dopamine transporter label. D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} and D{sub 3} receptor messenger RNAs and binding sites were present in the subthalamic nucleus, but no messenger RNA for D{sub 4} receptors was found, although specific binding sites for these receptors were observed. As compared to the intact side, the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion did not change D{sub 1} receptors, increased D{sub 2} receptors, and decreased D{sub 3} receptors and the dopamine transporter. The results suggest that postsynaptic D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} or D{sub 3} receptors can mediate the effect of dopamine on subthalamic nucleus neuronal activity. D{sub 4} receptors would mediate exclusively presynaptic effects.These results reinforce the idea that dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus may play an important role in the physiology of the basal ganglia and in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Somatostatin receptor sst1-sst5 expression in normal and neoplastic human tissues using receptor autoradiography with subtype-selective ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin receptors are known to be expressed in a large number of human tumours and represent the basis for in vivo tumour targeting. Stable somatostatin derivatives such as octreotide or lanreotide are the most frequently used radiopharmaceuticals acting through specific binding to somatostatin receptors; however, they do not bind with high affinity to all five receptor subtypes. Whereas the mRNAs for most receptor subtypes have been detected in tumours, it is in most cases unclear which of the receptor subtype proteins are expressed. Since in vitro receptor binding methods are close correlates and predictors of in vivo peptide receptor targeting, we took advantage of the recently developed subtype-selective analogues and evaluated approximately 200 tumours for their receptor subtype protein expression in specific binding assays using autoradiography with 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-somatostatin-28 and displacement by subtype-selective analogues. The majority of the tested neuroblastomas, meningiomas, medulloblastomas, breast carcinomas, lymphomas, renal cell carcinomas, paragangliomas, small cell lung carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas predominantly expressed sst2. The prostate carcinomas and sarcomas preferentially expressed sst1, while a majority of inactive pituitary adenomas displayed sst3 and, to a lesser extent, sst2. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas preferentially expressed sst2 and sst5; gastroenteropancreatic tumours and phaeochromocytomas frequently displayed sst2 and/or sst1. Non-neoplastic human tissues such as vessels, nerve plexus, pancreatic islets, prostatic stroma, adrenal medulla, spleen and germinal centres of the lymphoid tissues preferentially expressed sst2. However, the human gastric mucosa predominantly expressed sst1 while colonic mucosa displayed sst2. Interestingly, a minority of tumours showed a strong 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-somatostatin-28 binding, of which less than 50% could be displaced by the sum of the

  13. Measurement with a digital autoradiography instrument of the distribution of 18F-FDG and 99m TcO4 in a tissue section from a melanoma xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work was carried out to measure the distributions of 18F-FDG and 99m-TcO4- in a melanoma xenograft, using a recently developed method based on a digital autoradiography instrument. A dose of 20 MBq 18F-FDG was injected via a tail vein into an immunodeficient mouse bearing a melanoma xenograft. The FDG was allowed to accumulate in the tissues for one hour, and then a dose of 100 MBq 99mTc was injected into the tail vein. The animal was sacrificed 20 seconds afterwards, the tumor was removed and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. A 10 μm cryosection through the center of the tumor was obtained and put on a thin glass slide. Measurements of the distributions were performed with a digital autoradiography instrument (IDEAS Bioscope 3250), based on a 32 x 32 mm silicon detector. The pixel size was equal to 50 x 50 μm, and the particle hits were grouped into these pixels according to their positions of maximum energy absorption. The tissue section was left in the same position until all measurements had been carried out. A late image (the 99m-Tc image), acquired the next day, was corrected for decay and for duration of the acquisition. An 18F-FDG image was obtained after subtraction of the decay corrected 99mTc-image from an image obtained immediately after preparation of the cryosection. The quality of the images was acceptable. The central part of the tumor had very low uptake, but there was a good correlation between the uptake of 18F-FDG and blood flow, as measured by 99m-TcO-4-, in all parts of the tissue section. The uptake of 18F-FDG in a melanoma xenograft is closely correlated to blood supply. (author)

  14. Selective detection of adenosine A1 receptor-dependent G-protein activity in basal and stimulated conditions of rat brain [35S]guanosine 5minutes or feet-(γ-thio)triphosphate autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [35S]Guanosine 5minutes or feet-(γ-thio)triphosphate autoradiography is a novel technique to detect receptor-dependent activation of G-proteins in brain tissue sections. While an increasing number of reports using this approach are beginning to appear, little effort has been directed to the identification of factors responsible for the heterogeneously distributed [35S]guanosine 5minutes or feet-(γ-thio)triphosphate signal in basal conditions. The present study demonstrates that endogenously formed adenosine generates a widespread and prominent adenosine A1 receptor-dependent signal in basal conditions using this technique. Treatment of rat brain tissue sections with the A1-selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine dose-dependently (ec5035S]guanosine 5minutes or feet-(γ-thio)triphosphate binding in a region-specific manner, an effect fully mimicked by the adenosine-depleting enzyme adenosine deaminase, and less so by the A1 antagonist cirsimarin and by caffeine. That adenosine was continuously formed during the incubation is supported by the constant requirements of adenosine deaminase in order to suppress basal radioligand binding and further by the fact that low micromolar concentrations of adenine nucleotides evoked only adenosine-mimicking and fully 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine-sensitive binding responses. In the presence of adenosine deaminase, all responses to adenine nucleotides were abolished, indicating that prior conversion to adenosine was required. Upon stimulation, this technique selectively detected A1 receptor-activated G-proteins, as the non-selective agonists adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine and the A1-selective agonist N6-p-sulfophenyladenosine all evoked only 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine-sensitive responses in identical gray matter areas, and also in several white matter areas such as the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, optic tract and cerebellar white matter. Dose-response studies revealed region

  15. Evaluation of trans-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid accumulation in low-grade glioma in chemically induced rat models: PET and autoradiography compared with morphological images and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can have a problem to delineate diffuse gliomas with an intact blood–brain barrier (BBB) especially when a marked peritumoral edema is present. We evaluated the potential of trans-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-18F-FACBC) positron emission tomography (PET) to delineate the extent of diffuse gliomas by comparing PET findings with autoradiography, in vivo and ex vivo MRI, and histopathology findings. Methods: Dynamic PET was performed in rats with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced glioma for 60 min after anti-18F-FACBC injection. Contrast-enhanced MRI was performed before or after PET. The PET images were fused with in vivo and ex vivo MR images, and histopathological images for direct comparisons. Autoradiograms were compared with the results of Evans Blue (EB) extravasation (to assess BBB integrity) and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: Histopathological examination, including EB extravasation assessment, and enhanced T1-weighted MRI identified several diffuse gliomas with slight BBB disruption, similar to low-grade human gliomas. Anti-18F-FACBC uptake was specific and high in the gliomas, irrespective of BBB integrity. Higher anti-18F-FACBC uptake corresponded to areas of T2 hyperintensity, independent of gadolinium enhancement. Ex vivo autoradiography also showed high anti-18F-FACBC accumulation in tumors lacking EB extravasation and a correlation between anti-18F-FACBC accumulation and tumor cell density, but not EB extravasation. Conclusions: Anti-18F-FACBC-PET allowed visualization of gliomas irrespective of BBB integrity. The tumor-to-normal uptake ratio of anti-18F-FACBC generally correlated with the relative cell density. Anti-18F-FACBC PET combined with MRI shows promise for preoperative glioma delineation. Advances in knowledge: Radiopharmaceuticals that cross the BBB, such as anti-18F-FACBC, are taken up by low-grade gliomas with equivocal MRI findings due to an intact BBB

  16. Tumor-specific accumulation of 125I-labeled mouse-human chimeric anti-CEA antibody in a xenografted human cancer model demonstrated by whole-body autoradiography and immunostaining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body autoradiography (WBAR) was used to study the biodistribution of 125I-labeled mouse-human chimeric antibody (Ch F11-39) to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in athymic nude mice bearing the CEA-producing MKN-45 human gastric carcinoma xenografts. Significantly high uptake of 125I-Ch F11-39 in the tumors obtained by tissue-counting technique was confirmed by WBAR of mice of 12, 24, 48, and 96 h postinjection of 125I-Ch F11-39. When compared with histochemical or immunohistochemical staining results of the tumor tissue sections, imaging profiles of 125I-Ch F11-39 obtained by WBARs were topographically correlated with histopathological findings of tissues and immunohistochemical localization of CEA in the tumor tissues, indicating that the accumulation of 125I-Ch F11-39 at the tumor site is based on its specificity for CEA. These results demonstrate that this chimeric antibody may serve as a potential useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic reagent for human CEA-producing cancers

  17. The effect of 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on binding and internalization of epidermal growth factor in cultures cells. Studies on BT-20 cells using quantitative electron microscope autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of 1.25 (OH)2D3 on epidermal growth receptor (EGF-R) and on EGF internalization were examined in human mammary carcinoma BT-20 cells. In this cell line, with known amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. EGF was not stimulatory for growth. Biological assay and quantitative EM autoradiography combined with iodinated ligand binding to specific receptors demonstrated that the number of binding sites unit of length of plasma membrane was 2.48-fold higher in treated than in control cells. I-EGF was progressively internalized in a time-and temperature-dependent manner after selective association with the membrane-coated pits. No modification of the time course of I-EGF internalization was noted in the control and in the treated cells, but a different distribution of the labeling in the subcellular compartment was observed in treated cells. In 1.25(OH)2D3-treated batches, the grain density remained low in the receptosomes throughout the experiment, whereas it was high and occurred early in the lysosomes. On the other hand, in control cells, the grain density of the receptosomes was high, whereas it occurred late and was relatively low in the lysosomes. These data suggest that 1.25(OH)2D3 is a regulator of EGF-R level in BT-20 cell line, but it cannot affirmed whether this effect is direct or mediated by other parameters

  18. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to accumulate the 10B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of 10B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of 10BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The 10B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of 10B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of 10B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping).

  19. Preparation of [1-11C]dopamine, [1-11C]p-tyramine and [1-11C]m-tyramine. Autoradiography and PET examination of [1-11C]dopamine in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for no-carrier-added 1-11C-labelling of 3-hydroxy-, 4-hydroxy- and 3,4-dihydroxy-substituted phenethylamines is described. [11C]Dopamine, [11C]p-tyramine and [11C]m-tyramine were prepared from on-line produced [11C]nitromethane. Condensation of [11C] nitromethane with various protected and unprotected benzaldehydes was investigated. A one-pot two-step reduction of the substituted 11C-labelled nitrostyrene intermediates gave after hydrolysis and purification the corresponding labelled amines in a total radiochemical yield of 8-20% and a specific radioactivity of 400-1000 Ci/mmol. The radiochemical purity was higher than 98%. [11C]Dopamine was used for in vitro autoradiography on human post-mortem brain sections and for positron emissions tomography (PET) on Cynomolgus monkeys. Autoradiographic examinations of [11C]dopamine binding on human brain section post-mortem demonstrated specific binding in the caudate putamen and the substantia nigra, regions with a dense dopaminergic innervation. Some binding was also seen in the globus pallidum, nucleus ventralis of the thalamus and in nucleus dentatus of the cerebellum, regions where the dopaminergic innervation is very low. In PET examinations of [11C]dopamine binding in Cynomolgus monkeys there was a high uptake of radioactivity in the pituitary, the kidneys and the heart. Any passage of [11C]dopamine across the blood-brain barrier could not be demonstrated. In human PET studies [11C]dopamine has potential as a radioligand for examination of the myocardium, pituitary and kidneys. (Author)

  20. 6-Deoxy-6-[131I]iodo-L-ascorbic acid for the in vivo study of ascorbate. Autoradiography, biodistribution in normal and hypolipidemic rats, and in tumor-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal female rat distribution studies showed high and specific uptake of 6-deoxy-6-[131I]iodo-L-ascorbic acid (6-131IAsA) into the adrenal glands, known to highly express the ascorbate sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-2 (SVCT-2), and the adrenal gland was clearly visualized by whole-body autoradiography. Preinjection of sulfinpyrazone, a known blocker of ascorbate transport, with 6-131IAsA resulted in decreased uptake of radioactivity in rat adrenal glands compared to the control group, seemingly illustrating the participation of the SVCT transporter (probably the SVCT-2 subtype) in the uptake process in vivo. 4-Aminopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-induced hypolipidemic rats showed a 1.7-fold increase in adrenal uptake of radioactivity at 30 min postinjection of 6-131IAsA, compared to the control, with increased adrenal-to-liver and adrenal-to-kidney ratios. To further characterize 6-131IAsA for its tumor uptake properties, biodistribution studies were also performed using male nude mice implanted with either Y-1 adrenocortical tumor cells or adrenal medulla-derived PC12 cells. None of these tumors exhibited relevant uptake of 6-131IAsA while normal adrenal glands showed high uptake of radioactivity, suggesting that these tumors in this model have only a poor transport capacity for this agent. The present study demonstrates that the use of radioiodinated 6-IAsA may help to obtain information about functional alterations in diseased adrenal glands, but it does not exhibit desirable properties as a tumor-seeking agent for ascorbic acid bioactivity. (author)

  1. Neutron activation autoradiography and scanning macro-XRF of Rembrandt van Rijn's Susanna and the Elders (Gemaeldegalerie Berlin): a comparison of two methods for imaging of historical paintings with elemental contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfeld, Matthias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Laurenze-Landsberg, Claudia [Gemaeldegalerie Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Denker, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (formerly Hahn-Meitner-Institute), Berlin (Germany); Janssens, Koen [University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Noble, Petria [Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Imaging methods with elemental contrast are of great value for the investigation of historical paintings, as they allow for study of sub-surface layers that provide insight into a painting's creation process. Two of the most important methods are neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) and scanning macro-XRF (MA-XRF). Given the differences between these methods in the fundamental physical phenomena exploited, a theoretical comparison of their capabilities is difficult and until now a critical comparison of their use on the same painting is missing. In this paper, we present a study of Rembrandt van Rijn's painting Susanna and the Elders from the Gemaeldegalerie in Berlin employing both techniques. The painting features a considerable number of overpainted features and a wide range of pigments with different elemental tracers, including earth pigments (Mn/Fe), Azurite (Cu), lead white (Pb), vermilion (Hg) and smalt (Co, As). MA-XRF can detect all elements above Si (Z = 14), suffers from few spectral overlaps and can be performed in a few tens of hours in situ, i.e. in a museum. NAAR requires the stay of the painting at a research facility for several weeks, and inter-element interferences can be difficult to resolve. Also, only a limited number of elements contribute to the acquired autoradiographs, most notably Mn, Cu, As, Co, Hg and P. However, NAAR provides a higher lateral resolution and is less hindered by absorption in covering layers, which makes it the only method capable of visualizing P in lower paint layers. (orig.)

  2. Neutron activation autoradiography and scanning macro-XRF of Rembrandt van Rijn's Susanna and the Elders (Gemaeldegalerie Berlin): a comparison of two methods for imaging of historical paintings with elemental contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging methods with elemental contrast are of great value for the investigation of historical paintings, as they allow for study of sub-surface layers that provide insight into a painting's creation process. Two of the most important methods are neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) and scanning macro-XRF (MA-XRF). Given the differences between these methods in the fundamental physical phenomena exploited, a theoretical comparison of their capabilities is difficult and until now a critical comparison of their use on the same painting is missing. In this paper, we present a study of Rembrandt van Rijn's painting Susanna and the Elders from the Gemaeldegalerie in Berlin employing both techniques. The painting features a considerable number of overpainted features and a wide range of pigments with different elemental tracers, including earth pigments (Mn/Fe), Azurite (Cu), lead white (Pb), vermilion (Hg) and smalt (Co, As). MA-XRF can detect all elements above Si (Z = 14), suffers from few spectral overlaps and can be performed in a few tens of hours in situ, i.e. in a museum. NAAR requires the stay of the painting at a research facility for several weeks, and inter-element interferences can be difficult to resolve. Also, only a limited number of elements contribute to the acquired autoradiographs, most notably Mn, Cu, As, Co, Hg and P. However, NAAR provides a higher lateral resolution and is less hindered by absorption in covering layers, which makes it the only method capable of visualizing P in lower paint layers. (orig.)

  3. Neutron activation autoradiography and scanning macro-XRF of Rembrandt van Rijn's Susanna and the Elders (Gemäldegalerie Berlin): a comparison of two methods for imaging of historical paintings with elemental contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Laurenze-Landsberg, Claudia; Denker, Andrea; Janssens, Koen; Noble, Petria

    2015-06-01

    Imaging methods with elemental contrast are of great value for the investigation of historical paintings, as they allow for study of sub-surface layers that provide insight into a painting's creation process. Two of the most important methods are neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) and scanning macro-XRF (MA-XRF). Given the differences between these methods in the fundamental physical phenomena exploited, a theoretical comparison of their capabilities is difficult and until now a critical comparison of their use on the same painting is missing. In this paper, we present a study of Rembrandt van Rijn's painting Susanna and the Elders from the Gemäldegalerie in Berlin employing both techniques. The painting features a considerable number of overpainted features and a wide range of pigments with different elemental tracers, including earth pigments (Mn/Fe), Azurite (Cu), lead white (Pb), vermilion (Hg) and smalt (Co, As). MA-XRF can detect all elements above Si ( Z = 14), suffers from few spectral overlaps and can be performed in a few tens of hours in situ, i.e. in a museum. NAAR requires the stay of the painting at a research facility for several weeks, and inter-element interferences can be difficult to resolve. Also, only a limited number of elements contribute to the acquired autoradiographs, most notably Mn, Cu, As, Co, Hg and P. However, NAAR provides a higher lateral resolution and is less hindered by absorption in covering layers, which makes it the only method capable of visualizing P in lower paint layers.

  4. Structural analysis of DNA by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 years, molecular biology has rapidly been developing owing to easy structural analysis of DNA, a fundamental substance involved in life function. The application of highly sensitive RI with the production of large amounts of DNA and with no change in the chemical property of the substance to be tested has greatly contributed to molecular biology. For the development of life science and biotechnology, it is essential to analyze basic arrangement of DNA, identify genes, predict amino acid arrangement of proteins, and clarify regulation mechanism involved in genes. To understand DNA function sufficiently, analysis of secondary or tertiary structure, as well as primary structure of DNA, is extremely important. In this paper, the primary DNA structural analysis is provided in relation to RI application. Structural analysis of DNA can be classified into (1) hybridization method and (2) basic arrangement determination method. The application of DNA analysis is discussed in terms of the following: (1) varified analysis of the antibody, (2) isolation and analysis of carcinogenic genes, and (3) gene diagnosis. There is a problem with manual process in the structural analysis of DNA. Currently, automatic apparatuses for extraction, purification, reaction, isolation, and detection of DNA have been developing. (N.K.)

  5. Luminescence autoradiography on SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence radiation on SiO2-samples, caused by ionizing irradiation of high dose and emitted at room-temperature, can be recorded locally by autoradiographic techniques and materials. By this method results are obtained about the homogeneity and the quality of silicea glasses, about the structure of quartz crystals and quartz minerals, about the agglomeration of the quartz crystals in ceramics and about the structural disturbances in thin SiO2-layers. According to the penetration depth of the ionizing irradiation it is possible to investigate the bulk or the surface of the sample. (author)

  6. Application of autoradiography in finger print analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to broaden the possibilities of developing latent finger prints a tracer technique has been developed using sup(110m)Ag and autoradiographic imaging. This method has been tested on glass, paper and certain plastics. On paper it is possible to visualize finger prints even after previous development using Ninhydrin. It is shown that usable finger prints may be obtained also from materials from which they cannot be obtained using classical methods, e.g., polyethylene and simulated leather. (author)

  7. Search for HPs in lungs by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples from human lungs have been investigated in order to localize deposited hot particles. The samples are taken from 5 people died in accidents during February-June 1987. The method of sample preparation and exposure arrangements are described in detail. After 40 days of exposure on standard X-ray films, hot particles (HP) have been detected in two of the samples, each one containing 11 and 1 HP respectively. The sample containing 11 HP has been taken from a construction worker who had died on April 20, 1987. The HP activity have been in the range 0.05 to 0.5 Bq. 2 figs., 6 refs

  8. Positron autoradiography for intravascular imaging: feasibility evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 70% of acute coronary artery disease is caused by unstable (vulnerable) plaques with an inflammation of the overlying cap and high lipid content. A rupturing of the inflamed cap of the plaque results in propagation of the thrombus into the lumen, blockage of the artery and acute ischaemic syndrome or sudden death. Morphological imaging such as angiography or intravascular ultrasound cannot determine inflammation status of the plaque. A radiotracer such as 18F-FDG is accumulated in vulnerable plaques due to higher metabolic activity of the inflamed cap and could be used to detect a vulnerable plaque. However, positron emission tomography (PET) cannot detect the FDG-labelled plaques because of respiratory and heart motions, small size and low activity of the plaques. Plaques can be detected using a miniature particle (positron) detector inserted into the artery. In this work, a new detector concept is investigated for intravascular imaging of the plaques. The detector consists of a storage phosphor tip bound to the end of an intravascular catheter. It can be inserted into an artery, absorb the 18F-FDG positrons from the plaques, withdrawn from the artery and read out. Length and diameter of the storage phosphor tip can be matched to the length and the diameter of the artery. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluations of coronary plaque imaging with the proposed detector were performed. It was shown that the sensitivity of the storage phosphor detector to the positrons of 18F-FDG is sufficient to detect coronary plaques with 1 mm and 2 mm sizes and 590 Bq and 1180 Bq activities in the arteries with 2 mm and 3 mm diameters, respectively. An experimental study was performed using plastic tubes with 2 mm diameter filled with an FDG solution, which simulates blood. FDG spots simulating plaques were placed over the surface of the tube. A phosphor tip was inserted into the tube and imaged the plaques. Exposure time was 1 min in all simulations and experiments. Experiments showed that detecting the coronary plaques using the proposed technique is possible. The proposed technique has the potential for fast and accurate detection of vulnerable coronary and other intravascular plaques

  9. Positron autoradiography for intravascular imaging: feasibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Xu, Tong [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ducote, Justin L [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam [Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Mukherjee, Jogeshwar [Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2006-02-21

    Approximately 70% of acute coronary artery disease is caused by unstable (vulnerable) plaques with an inflammation of the overlying cap and high lipid content. A rupturing of the inflamed cap of the plaque results in propagation of the thrombus into the lumen, blockage of the artery and acute ischaemic syndrome or sudden death. Morphological imaging such as angiography or intravascular ultrasound cannot determine inflammation status of the plaque. A radiotracer such as 18F-FDG is accumulated in vulnerable plaques due to higher metabolic activity of the inflamed cap and could be used to detect a vulnerable plaque. However, positron emission tomography (PET) cannot detect the FDG-labelled plaques because of respiratory and heart motions, small size and low activity of the plaques. Plaques can be detected using a miniature particle (positron) detector inserted into the artery. In this work, a new detector concept is investigated for intravascular imaging of the plaques. The detector consists of a storage phosphor tip bound to the end of an intravascular catheter. It can be inserted into an artery, absorb the 18F-FDG positrons from the plaques, withdrawn from the artery and read out. Length and diameter of the storage phosphor tip can be matched to the length and the diameter of the artery. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluations of coronary plaque imaging with the proposed detector were performed. It was shown that the sensitivity of the storage phosphor detector to the positrons of 18F-FDG is sufficient to detect coronary plaques with 1 mm and 2 mm sizes and 590 Bq and 1180 Bq activities in the arteries with 2 mm and 3 mm diameters, respectively. An experimental study was performed using plastic tubes with 2 mm diameter filled with an FDG solution, which simulates blood. FDG spots simulating plaques were placed over the surface of the tube. A phosphor tip was inserted into the tube and imaged the plaques. Exposure time was 1 min in all simulations and experiments. Experiments showed that detecting the coronary plaques using the proposed technique is possible. The proposed technique has the potential for fast and accurate detection of vulnerable coronary and other intravascular plaques.

  10. Assessment of regional tumor hypoxia using 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 64Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) positron emission tomography: Comparative study featuring microPET imaging, PO2 probe measurement, autoradiography, and fluorescent microscopy in the R3327-AT and FaDu rat tumor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare two potential positron emission tomography (PET) tracers of tumor hypoxia in an animal model. Methods and Materials: The purported hypoxia imaging agents 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and 64Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) were compared by serial microPET imaging of Fisher-Copenhagen rats bearing the R3327-AT anaplastic rat prostate tumor. Probe measurements of intratumoral PO2 were compared with the image data. At the microscopic level, the relationship between the spatial distributions of 64Cu (assessed by digital autoradiography) and tumor hypoxia (assessed by immunofluorescent detection of pimonidazole) was examined. 18F-FMISO and 64Cu-ATSM microPET images were also acquired in nude rats bearing xenografts derived from the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line, FaDu. Results: In R3327-AT tumors, the intratumoral distribution of 18F-FMISO remained relatively constant 1-4 h after injection. However, that of 64Cu-ATSM displayed a significant temporal evolution for 0.5-20 h after injection in most tumors. In general, only when 64Cu-ATSM was imaged at later times (16-20 h after injection) did it correspond to the distribution of 18F-FMISO. Oxygen probe measurements were broadly consistent with 18F-FMISO and late 64Cu-ATSM images but not with early 64Cu-ATSM images. At the microscopic level, a negative correlation was found between tumor hypoxia and 64Cu distribution when assessed at early times and a positive correlation when assessed at later times. For the FaDu tumor model, the early and late 64Cu-ATSM microPET images were similar and were in general concordance with the 18F-FMISO scans. Conclusion: The difference in behavior between the R3327-AT and FaDu tumor models suggests a tumor-specific dependence of Cu-ATSM uptake and retention under hypoxic conditions

  11. Quantitative electron microscope autoradiography: application of multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the analysis of high resolution EM autoradiographs is described. It identifies labelled cell organelle profiles in sections on a strictly statistical basis and provides accurate estimates for their radioactivity without the need to make any assumptions about their size, shape and spatial arrangement. (author)

  12. A comparative study protein metabolism in various tissues by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the use of autoradiographic technique, the incorporation of 35S-methionine in tissue protein has been utilized as an index of tissue protein synthesis. It was found that 35S-methionine incorporates rapidly in immature cells of bone marrow, liver, kidney and spleen. In spite of their important physiological functions, heart, lung and skeletal muscle have their proteins synthesized at low speed

  13. Autoradiography of 3H-α-fluoromethyl histidine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-α-fluoromethyl histidine (3H-α-FMH), designed as a Kcat-inhibitor of mammalian histidine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.22), was administered intravenously in male and pregnant female mice of the NMRI strain and the distribution of tritium in the body recorded by whole-body and microautoradiography. The results showed penetration of radioactivity into most tissues within 5 min. after the injection. After 4 hrs the highest levels of radioactivity were present in the intestinal content and in the kidneys. In the pregnant animal there was also a high labelling of the foetal tissues. When whole-body sections were washed in TCA prior to the autoradiographic exposure to retain only protein-bound radioactivity, a distinct labelling pattern was seen in the kidneys of the pregnant female mice ebut not in those of the male mice. Microautoradiography of the kidneys showed that the cells involved were located within the proximal convoluted tubuli. In several mouse strains, including the NMRI, the activity of kidney histidine decarboxylase is low in the males but high in females during a transient period of pregnancy. Incorporation of tritium into kidney protein after treatment with 3H-α-FMH, was correlated to a loss in histidine decarboxylase activity. The isotopic labelling was confined mainly to a component which cofractionated with histidine decarboxylase in polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis (PAGE) under nondenaturing conditions. Our data indicate that the cells described above represent the location of kidney histidine decarboxylase. (author)

  14. Receptor autoradiography in the hippocampus of man and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the following questions: regional distribution of binding sites for 5-HT, glutamate, and acetylcholine in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus of rat and human brain; comparison of receptor distribution and neuronal pathways with identified transmitters; correlation of region-specific densities between different receptors and receptor subtypes (colocalization of different receptors on the level of hippocampal layers) and comparison of receptor distribution in human and rat hippocampus

  15. Biomedical applications of digital autoradiography with a MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) was used as a β- radioactivity detector in biological and medical applications. Two different kinds of experiments were performed: the study of variations in the ability of cell clones to incorporate a radioactive precursor of DNA biosynthesis (3H-thymidine) and the regional carbohydrate consumption in myocardial tissue by means of a deposit tracer of glucose metabolism

  16. Quantification of tumour hypoxia. Functional histology and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor cell hypoxia is considered one of the important causes for radiation resistance. The introduction of IMRT (intensity modulated radiotherapy) allows specific boosting of tumor subvolumes that may harbour these radioresistant tumour cells. PET imaging of these subvolumes can be incorporated into treatment planning. However, at this moment microenvironmental changes visualized and quantified by means of PET-imaging need to be validated by high-resolution microscopic techniques. This will allow interpretation of imaging techniques with intermediate resolution (such as PET/CT) in relation to complex cellular signaling in response to anti-cancer treatments. (orig.)

  17. Glycine uptake by lamprey spinal neurons demonstrated by light microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have mapped the neuronal uptake of 3H-glycine in the spinal cords of large larval sea lampreys: Petromyzon marinus. Spinal cords were incubated in 10(-6) M 3H-glycine for 15 minutes. They were rinsed in lamprey solution, fixed in phosphate-buffered 2% glutaraldehyde, and washed in phosphate buffer. They were then sectioned with a cryostat at 16-m thickness or dehydrated, embedded in Epon, and sectioned at 1-4 micron. Sections were coated with a photographic emulsion and maintained at 4 degrees C for 1-7 days. By sectioning horizontally, it was possible to obtain complete serial reconstructions of up to 1.5-mm lengths of cord in 100-150 sections. The outlines of labelled cells were traced with a Nikon drawing attachment. For one Epon-embedded spinal cord sectioned at 4 micron, tracings were superimposed to form complete maps for 0.6-1.5-mm lengths in three representative regions of cord: rostral (gill region), caudal (dorsal fin region), and midsection. The labelled neurons were small (5-10-micron diameter) cells distributed throughout the central gray columns. They numbered 22 cells per hemisegment in the rostral region, 33 in the midsection, and 43 in the caudal region. None of the previously identified cell types were labelled, including lateral interneurons, edge cells, giant interneurons, dorsal cells, and Mueller and Mauthner axons

  18. Nuclide identification of alpha-emitters by autoradiography in specimen of atomic victims at Nagasaki

    OpenAIRE

    Shichijo, Kazuko; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    The explosion of a plutonium Atomic bomb over Nagasaki city in Japan took place at 1102h on August 9, 1945. Radiation dose of A-bomb survivor is practically estimated from external radiation. The alpha particles can be disregarded science they travel only a short distance through air. Plutonium remaining in the soil at Nagasaki after 24yr has been determined in 1971. In the patients subjected to the Atomic bomb there was no evidence of the introduction of radioactive material. We have already...

  19. Labelling of Cells Engaged in DNA Synthesis: Autoradiography and BrdU Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peder Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    The cell cycle is divided in four phases: G1 phase, S phase (DNA-synthesis), G2 phase (together termed interphase) and M phase (mitosis). Cells that have ceased proliferation enter a state of quiescence called G0. M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: mitosis, in which the...

  20. Action study of mumio preparation on mitotic index by autoradiography way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author made conclusion that leading of mumio preparation raise the mitotic activity and promote of rapid passing by cells mitotic cycle that lead to rapid partition and raising of quantity cells in hemopoietic organs

  1. Neutron-induced autoradiography in the study of Venetian oil paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex technological investigation of 14th-18th centuries Venetian paintings from the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw has been performed in connection with the 'Serenissima - Light of Venice' exhibition. All the paintings under analysis were irradiated in a specially designed station at the research reactor MARIA in Swierk near Warsaw. Beta-rays emerging from the painting surface irradiated by thermal neutrons and recorded on a X-ray film displayed the distribution of elements in pigments used for creating individual layers of the painting. It allows for tracing the particular phases of the painting structure invisible to the naked eye. The report presents results obtained for the following paintings: J. Tintoretto - Portrait of a Venetian Admiral, M. Marieschi - The palace of Doges in Venice, B. Bellotto called Canaletto - Fantasy architecture with self-portrait of the artist. (author)

  2. Schistosoma mansoni: quantification of skin penetration and early migration by differential external radioassay and autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, J.R. (New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca (USA))

    1982-04-01

    Eleven gamma-emitting radionuclides (/sup 49/Sc, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 75/Se (as selenomethionine, selenocystine, selenite and selenate), /sup 109/Cd, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 203/Hg) were screened as labelling agents for Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by incubation of infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails in radioactive solution. Only (/sup 75/Se)methionine yielded satisfactorily labelled cercariae. Differential external radioassay, a new technique employing partial body shielding within a total body counter, permitted separate estimation of tail and body radioactivity of conscious mice previously exposed by tail immersion to /sup 75/Se-labelled cercariae, with measurements repeated as often as desired. Approximately 39% of the /sup 75/Se present in emergent cercariae was retained by schistosomula transformed in vitro but this was subject to considerable variation, especially in schistosomula transformed in vivo. Secreted or catabolized label from penetrant cercariae and schistosomula was rapidly removed from the skin by the bloodstream. Numbers of schistosomula in tail skin were directly proportional to the number of reduced silver foci counted on tail autoradiograms; only a very small fraction of tail radioactivity represented unbound ('spurious') label. Migration of schistosomula away from skin was 50% complete at 3.8-4.3 days, as determined by probit analysis of autoradiographic data.

  3. Schistosoma mansoni: quantification of skin penetration and early migration by differential external radioassay land autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven gamma-emitting radionuclides (49Sc, 54Mn, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se (as selenomethionine, selenocystine, selenite and selenate), 109Cd, 125Sb, 133Ba, 137Cs and 203Hg) were screened as labelling agents for Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by incubation of infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails in radioactive solution. Only [75Se]methionine yielded satisfactorily labelled cercariae. Differential external radioassay, a new technique employing partial body shielding within a total body counter, permitted separate estimation of tail and body radioactivity of conscious mice previously exposed by tail immersion to 75Se-labelled cercariae, with measurements repeated as often as desired. Approximately 39% of the 75Se present in emergent cercariae was retained by schistosomula transformed in vitro but this was subject to considerable variation, especially in schistosomula transformed in vivo. Secreted or catabolized label from penetrant cercariae and schistosomula was rapidly removed from the skin by the bloodstream. Numbers of schistosomula in tail skin were directly proportional to the number of reduced silver foci counted on tail autoradiograms; only a very small fraction of tail radioactivity represented unbound ('spurious') label. Migration of schistosomula away from skin was 50% complete at 3.8-4.3 days, as determined by probit analysis of autoradiographic data. (author)

  4. Microdosimetry of alpha-emitting decay products in tissue using conventional film autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented work describes a practical method using conventional photographic films; specifically, Ilford Pan F Plus 135-36, Black and White, ISO 50 film for obtaining images of alpha tracks. A variety of alpha radiation sources including electrodeposited planchets, Bomarc soil, and samples of bone containing 226Ra were placed directly on the film for up to 3 days. Post-exposure the film was developed using standard darkroom techniques with Kodak D-76 developer for 7 min, stop bath, and fixer. Tracks consisting of five or more grains were counted using an Olympus BX51 microscope at 910 magnification in a 9 cm2 circular field-of-view. Initial analysis shows an efficiency of approximately 34.9 % with an uncertainty in track counts of ±2.4 % for the monoenergetic particles. (author)

  5. Quantative autoradiography of inhaled 239PuO2 in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PuO2 particles behaved similarly in the lungs of rat and hamster. The relative concentrations of PuO2 up to 1-yr postexposure were 1.0 for lung parenchyma, 1.3 for subpleural areas, 0.5 for peribronchiolar regions and 0.2 for perivascular regions in the lungs

  6. Autoradiography of lyophilized animal sections. Bone density measurement in osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain a better understanding on the β-ray radiography of lyophilized animal sections, the bone densities of the osteoporosis rats were measured using a 147Pm planar radiation source. An imaging plate as a radiation sensor was overlaid on the animal section together with a density calibrator. After exposure, radioactivity recorded on the sensor was quantified using a bio-imaging analyzer. The density calibration curve showed linearity in the wide range with a good correlation coefficient (R2≥0.999). The inter- and intra-plate variability showed CV values less than 3.7%. On the measurement of bone density, bone density differences between the sham group and ovariectomized (OVX) group were statistically significant in the femoral cortical (p=0.001) and trabecular bone (p=0.07), and vertebral trabecular bone (p=0.043). Based on these results, we developed a new and valuable method, which made it possible to measure bone density of axial skeleton of a rat, as an alternative to commonly used methods. (author)

  7. [11C]β-CIT, a cocaine analogue. Preparation, autoradiography and preliminary PET investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) is a cocaine analogue with a high affinity for the dopamine transporter. [11C]β-CIT was prepared by N-methylation of nor-β-CIT with [11C]methyl iodide. The total radiochemical yield of [11C]β-CIT was 40-50% with an overall synthesis time of 35-40 min. The radiochemical purity was > 99% and the specific radioactivity at the time of injection was about 1000 Ci/mmol (37 GBq/μmol). Autoradiographic examination of [11C]β-CIT binding in human brains post-mortem demonstrated a high level of specific binding in the striatum. PET examination of [11C]β-CIT in a Cynomolgus monkey showed a marked accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum. The ratio of radioactivity in the striatum-to-cerebellum approached 5 after 87 min. In a displacement experiment, radioactivity in the striatum but not in the cerebellum, was markedly reduced after injection of unlabelled cocaine. [11C]β-CIT has a potential as ligand for PET examination of cocaine effects in man. (author)

  8. A rapid method for the autoradiography of alpha active air sample filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes an improved version of a technique using a phosphor screen and an optical photographic emulsion to detect alpha-active particles. The sensitivity of the technique when using 'instant' high speed polaroid film is reported. The equipment has been designed to produce rapid results and does not need 'darkroom' conditions. (author)

  9. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic autoradiography of inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain autoradiographs of particles of 239PuO2 deposited in rat lung. The technique was used to obtain quantitative information on the clearance rates of particles from the alveoli, bronchioles and trachea up to 240 d after exposure. At all times, the concentration of particles on the surface of the bronchioles was an order of magnitude greater than on the tracheal surface. The clearance of Pu from both regions followed a biphasic pattern, similar to that obtained by radiometric analysis of the whole lung. Most of the radiation dose to the bronchiolar epithelium originated from Pu particles in peribronchiolar alveoli in which they were preferentially retained, compared to other alveolar regions. The prolonged retention of particles in the peribronchiolar alveoli may be a significant factor in the induction of lung carcinomas

  10. Use of track autoradiography in crystal and the physical study of synthetic diamond monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The track radiography method was used to study the boron impurity distribution throughout the bulk of synthetic diamond crystals. It was found that in most of the crystals the boron concentration in growth pyramids of {100} faces is several times as high as that in the pyramids of {111} faces. The boron impurity in growth pyramids of {100} and {111} faces is placed zonally. The higher boron concentration was observed in the diagonal interlayer zones. The distinction in electrophysical properties of the {100} and {111} growth pyramids is caused not only by the different degree of boron absorption by the growing faces but also by the amount of its compensation with nitrogen. (author)

  11. Digestion of bacteria by Nais variabilis (Oligochaeta) as established by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serratia marcescens grown on different tritiated substrates was fed to Nais variabilis for 40 min, 4 h, and 17 h periods. The substrates were glucose, thymidine and glycerol which labelled mainly low molecular compounds, DNA, and lipids respectively. The worms incorporated radioactive label into their tissues within 40 min of feeding on the labelled bacteria. Incorporation of label where low molecular weight compounds were labelled could be due to absorption of dissolved bacterial secretions through the gut or body wall. However, DNA is a macromolecule not secreted by bacteria, consequently the label within this molecule could only accumulate in worm tissue after digestion, absorption and assimilation. No definite pattern of uptake or translocation along the worm was conclusively established but there was some indication that uptake was greatest in the anterior region of the intestine. Bacterial lipids were digested more slowly than the other materials labelled. (author)

  12. Optimization by neutron-induced autoradiography of grain refinement in cast aluminium strip production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography was used to determine the distribution and content of boron in the AlTi5B1 alloy. Metallurgically treated samples were irradiated in a reactor with a flux density of 1.35x1013 cm-2s-1. The density of boron tracks was measured using equipment consisting of a microcomputer with a 256 k main memory and the necessary peripherals, a graphics display with image memory and a color monitor, and a unit of ball feed. It was proved that by mere irradiation of the sample with thermal neutrons sufficiently accurate information may be obtained on the distribution and content of boron in fine-grain aluminium. (Z.S.). 9 figs

  13. Investigation of element contents of natural diamond crystals of different gemological features by INAA and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The work presented aims at understanding the role of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities on the natural diamond ( Type Ι ) quality, microstructure and morphology having different gemological features for identification their deposit. An according of the Kimberly Process there is Certification Scheme for regulating trade in diamonds to exclude 'bloody' diamonds. The 'four C's' criteria (color, clarity, carat weight, cut) had for decades been used by gemologists worldwide to evaluate precious gem diamonds. Those four parameters were believed to determine the value of the stones. Some 10 years ago gemologists added to those traditional criteria a fifth C, signifying Confidence. The role of the fifth C in pricing precious stones increased over time. An according of the Kimberly Process it is necessary to determine diamond deposit. Impurity content of natural diamonds is basic feature to for identification their deposit. We have used autoradiographic technique for investigation of spatial impurity distributions in natural diamond crystals. It is based on the secondary beta irradiation registration. Impurities were identified by energy lines of the gamma spectra obtained and by half-life periods. We bring information which allow to clarify the spatial distributions of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities depended inner morphology of diamond crystal. It was established several types of impurity distributions depending from inner morphology of diamond crystals. Results of INAA and autoradiographic study of natural diamonds use for to make of international data for identification their deposit

  14. Kinetics and autoradiography of high affinity uptake of serotonin by primary astrocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary astrocyte cultures prepared from the cerebral cortices of neonatal rats showed significant accumulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; [3H]-5-HT). At concentrations in the range of 0.01 to 0.7 microM [3H]-5-HT, this uptake was 50 to 85% Na+ dependent and gave a Km of 0.40 +/- 0.11 microM [3H]-5-HT and a Vmax of 6.42 +/- 0.85 (+/- SEM) pmol of [3H]-5-HT/mg of protein/4 min for the Na+-dependent component. In the absence of Na+ the uptake was nonsaturable. Omission of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline markedly reduced the Na+-dependent component of [3H]-5-HT uptake but had a negligible effect on the Na+-independent component. This suggest significant oxidative deamination of serotonin after it has been taken up by the high affinity system, followed by release of its metabolite. The authors estimated that this system enabled the cells to concentrate [3H]-5-HT up to 44-fold at an external [3H]-5-HT concentration of 10(-7) M. Inhibition of [3H]-5-HT uptake by a number of clinically effective antidepressants was also consistent with a specific high affinity uptake mechanism for 5-HT, the order of effectiveness of inhibition being chlorimipramine greater than fluoxetine greater than imipramine = amitriptyline greater than desmethylimipramine greater than iprindole greater than mianserin. Uptake of [3H]-5-HT was dependent on the presence of Cl- as well as Na+ in the medium, and the effect of omission of both ions was nonadditive. Varying the concentration of K+ in the media from 1 to 50 mM had a limited effect on [3H]-5-HT uptake

  15. Quantitative Electron Microscopic Autoradiography of Insulin, Glucagon, and Somatostatin Binding Sites on Islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogesh C.; Amherdt, Mylene; Orci, Lelio

    1982-09-01

    After monolayer cultures of rat islets were exposed to [125I]insulin, [125I]glucagon, and [125I]tyrosinyl somatostatin, specific autoradiographic grains associated with each radioactively labeled ligand were found on B, A, and D cells. The density of labeling of the B, A, and D cells with each labeled ligand correlated well with the known actions of the three hormones on each of the islet cells.

  16. Quantitative autoradiography at electronic microscopy level of tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L.) infected by pepper ringspot virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA replication of the pepper ringspot virus, its translocation and its association with mitochondria are studied. Some basic aspects of the research are first examined: actinomycin D (AMD) effects on parts of the nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm of healthy - and infected cells; comparative study between the circle method and the planimetry method to determine the cell areas; determination of the proportion between the silver grain densities of nucleulus, nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells treated with AMD; determination of the HD (Half-Distance) for the working conditions. Use of the mathemathical model proposed by NADLER gives basic information with respect to the translocation and association of the virus with the mitochondria in the host cells: in the mitochondria associated system the silver grains covering the two components are predominantly constituted by the RNA of the radioactive virus (78%); the time necessary for the RNA synthesis, the virus maturity and its translocation to the mitochondria, (checked by U-5-3H treatment) can be shorter than 5 hours. (M.A.)

  17. Autoradiography of 3H- and 14C-Thymidine in Bone Marrow by a Double-Emulsion Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work a new method has been developed to study the generation time of bone- marrow cells in cultures, after double labelling with 3H- and 14C-thymidine, by means of a double-emulsion autoradiographic technique. In such an investigation it is not practicable to use a single thick layer of emulsion since this prevents satisfactory staining of the bone marrow cells with Giemsa stain. If the specimen is stained before making the autoradiograph it must be covered with a protective layer to retain the stain and this absorbs a large proportion of the 3H-electrons. The technique adopted is a modification of the method described by Baserga and Nemeroff. The bone-marrow smear is covered with a very thin layer of the fine-grain Gevaert emulsion NUC 715. After an exposure suitable for the 3H-thymidine (1-5 d)the emulsion is processed and the bone marrow can be stained adequately through the thin emulsion. It is then dipped in a 7% solution of celloidin in amyl acetate to protect the stain during subsequent procedures (celloidin in ether-alcohol mixture removes the stain). The specimen is then dipped in Kodak NTB-2 emulsion having a larger grain size than the first emulsion, and exposed to 14C-electrons (2-6 weeks). The second emulsion can then be processed without affecting the staining of the bone-marrow smear. The celloidin layer is sufficiently thick to absorb all 3H-electrons so that an increase in grain density in the second emulsion is due to 14C electrons only. Moreover the celloidin layer still permits good autoradiographic resolution in the second emulsion. Autoradiographs in the first and second emulsion are easily recognised by the difference in grain size. It is thus possible to distinguish between cells containing only 3H-thymidine and only 14C-thymidine or both 3H- and 14C-thymidine. The interpretation of the results will be discussed. (author)

  18. An experimental study on healing of pulp wound following pulpotomy in dogs by autoradiography with tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment is an autoradiographical study of the healing process in pulp wounds following pulpotomy and direct capping with calcium hydroxide. Experimental, young adult, mongrel dogs were divided into the following two groups: A group: Pulpotomy was performed and the following intervals allowed to lapse between amputation and sacrifice. One hour before sacrifice, 1μCi/gbw 3H-thymidine was injected intravenously (flash labeling). B group: Single pulse labeling was performed either one day (1 spl) or two days (2 spl) after amputation. During the first two days after amputation, pulp stem cells under the cutting surface divided and proliferated, with the proliferative rate reaching a maximum during the second day and decreased gradually from the fourth day after pulpotomy. Cells in the first zone became columnar in shapes and assumed a regular arrangement under the necrotic layer. Though these cells were unlabeled in the A group, they were prominently labeled in the B group. These finding indicate a part of the proliferated undifferentiated mesenchymal cells migrated and regularly arranged beneath the necrotic layer, differentiated into odontoblasts and then produced a dentine bridge. The remaining undifferentiated mesenchymal cells in the second zone reverted to pulp stem cells to accomplish healing. (auth.)

  19. Quantitative autoradiography of radionuclides in biological tissues by high resolution nuclear analysis: application in radio-toxicology and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of radiation damage on cells in living organisms an auto-radiograph, based on the STIC method, has been developed for the particles detection. This apparatus associates a thin scintillator with a photosensitive detector (CCD). The design and the performance of this well adapted tool for low activity biological samples study, are described. (A.L.B.)

  20. Electron microscopic autoradiography of the uptake of [3H]GABA in dispersed cell cultures of rat cerebellums. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of GABAergic synapses in dispersed cell cultures of the rat cerebellum was followed from 7 to 21 days in vitro(DIV). The majority of GABAergic synapses appeared between 10 and 14 DIV, and apparently no additional GABAergic synapses formed after 14 DIV. The first step in the development of GABAergic synapses appeared to be the formation of a larger diameter swelling in a GABAergic neuronal process. After the initial contact between the pre - and postsynaptic elements was established, both the number of synaptic vesicles and the thickness of the postsynaptic density increased, while the cross-sectional area of the presynaptic element decreased. The length of the postsynaptic density showed some increase, but no changes were noted in the synaptic cleft thickness, size of the synaptic vesicles or the shape of the synaptic vesicles. The findings indicate that the formation of GABAergic synapses was not preceded by the formation of other types of junction or performed synaptic elements. In addition, the timing and the rate of formation of GABAergic synapses appears not to depend on contact with a single type of postynaptic neuron, but rather to depend upon intrinsic properties of the development of the GABAergic neuron. (Auth.)

  1. Functional connectivity-based parcellation and connectome of cortical midline structures in the mouse: a perfusion autoradiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Holschneider

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rodent cortical midline structures (CMS are involved in emotional, cognitive and attentional processes. Tract tracing has revealed complex patterns of structural connectivity demonstrating connectivity-based integration and segregation for the prelimbic, cingulate area 1, retrosplenial dysgranular cortices dorsally, and infralimbic, cingulate area 2, and retrosplenial granular cortices ventrally. Understanding of CMS functional connectivity (FC remains more limited. Here we present the first subregion-level FC analysis of the mouse CMS, and assess whether fear results in state-dependent FC changes analogous to what has been reported in humans. Brain mapping using [14C]-iodoantipyrine was performed in mice during auditory-cued fear conditioned recall and in controls. Regional cerebral blood flow was analyzed in 3-D images reconstructed from brain autoradiographs. Regions-of-interest were selected along the CMS anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes. In controls, pairwise correlation and graph theoretical analyses showed strong FC within each CMS structure, strong FC along the dorsal-ventral axis, with segregation of anterior from posterior structures. Seed correlation showed FC of anterior regions to limbic/paralimbic areas, and FC of posterior regions to sensory areas--findings consistent with functional segregation noted in humans. Fear recall increased FC between the cingulate and retrosplenial cortices, but decreased FC between dorsal and ventral structures. In agreement with reports in humans, fear recall broadened FC of anterior structures to the amygdala and to somatosensory areas, suggesting integration and processing of both limbic and sensory information. Organizational principles learned from animal models at the mesoscopic level (brain regions and pathways will not only critically inform future work at the microscopic (single neurons and synapses level, but also have translational value to advance our understanding of human brain architecture.

  2. [O-methyl-11C]β-CIT-FP, a potential radioligand for quantitation of the dopamine transporter: Preparation, autoradiography, metabolite studies, and positron emission tomography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-CIT-FP [N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane] is a cocaine analogue with a high affinity for the dopamine transporter. [O-methyl-11C]β-CIT-FP ([11C]β-CIT-FP) was prepared byO -alkylation of the free acid with [11C]methyl iodide. The total radiochemical yield of [11C]β-CIT-FP was 50 to 60% with an overall synthesis time of 30 min. The radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific radioactivity at time of injection was about 37 GBq/μmol (1000 Ci/mmol). Autoradiographic examination of [11C]β-CIT-FP binding in human brain postmortem demonstrated specific binding in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Positron emission tomography (PET) examination of [11C]β-CIT-FP in a Cynomolgus monkey demonstrated accumulation in the striatum with a striatum-to-cerebellum ratio of about 8 after 60 min. Equilibrium in the striatum was attained within 70 to 90 min. The radioactivity ratios of thalamus/cerebellum and neocortex/cerebellum were about 2 and 1.5, respectively. In a displacement experiment, radioactivity in the striatum but not in the cerebellum was reduced after injection of β-CIT, indicating that striatal radioactivity following injection of [11C]β-CIT-FP is associated with dopamine transporter sites and that the binding is reversible. The fraction of the total radioactivity in plasma representing [11C]β-CIT-FP determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was 84% at 15 min and 50% at 95 min. [11C]β-CIT-FP should be a useful PET radioligand for the quantitation of dopamine transporters in the human brain in vivo

  3. Dynamics of neuroepithelial body (NEB) formation in developing hamster lung: Light microscopic autoradiography after 3H-thymidine labeling in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographs were prepared from lungs of a newborn Syrian golden hamster exposed continuously to 3H-thymidine for the final 4.5 days of a normal 16 day gestation. Silver grains were counted over nuclei of 1,298 small-granule endocrine cells in 165 neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) in the right upper lobe and along the left axial bronchus, where nodal NEBs occurred at branch points and internodal NEBs in the airway between them. Nuclei of 1,005 nonendocrine airway epithelial cells were counted next to the NEBs. Label was distributed differently in the two populations: All nonendocrine cells were labeled, whereas many endocrine cells were not. In NEBs of the right upper lobe, total label (net grains/nuclear profile) averaged only 23% of that in nonendocrine cells. Along the left axial bronchus, mean label in nonendocrine cells and internodal NEBs rose 10-fold between the hilum and the periphery. Increases for both populations were linear and parallel, but total label in the NEBs was consistently lower than that in the surrounding epithelium by 15 grains/nuclear profile. Nodal NEBs were more lightly labeled than those of the internodes, consistent with their earlier formation. A few very heavily labeled small-granule cells (0.9%) occurred singly in the periphery of large, otherwise lightly labeled NEBs. In contrast to NEBs, neurons in 10 bronchial ganglia of the right lung were virtually unlabeled. These arise from vagal neural crest and seem to comprise an entirely distinct population. We conclude that NEBs belong intrinsically to pulmonary endoderm, not neural crest. During fetal life each develops from a cell or cells programmed to stop dividing well ahead of other elements in the epithelium. Their formation is linked closely to early proliferation of the bronchial tree and is an integral part of growth and differentiation of the airway lining

  4. Fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of epithelial cells: Fate of incorporated lipids as followed by freeze fracture and autoradiography of plastic sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoll, G.; Burger, K.N.J.; Bron, R.; van Meer, G.; Verkleij, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The fusion of liposomes with the plasma membrane of influenza virus-infected monolayers of an epithelial cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (van Meer et al., 1985. Biochemistry, 24: 3593-3602), has been analyzed by morphological techniques. The distribution of liposomal lipids over the apica

  5. Effect of colchicine and vinblastine over the odontoblasts secretion from mice lower incisor as revealed by autoradiography after injection of 35S-sodium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the biosynthesis study of sulphated compounds in the odontoblasts under the effect of colchicine and vinblastine, male mice, (M. musculus, albinus) weighing 22 to 25 g. were used. They were divided in 3 groups of 3 animals each. One group was used as control, the other received 0.1 mg of colchicine and the last one received 0.2 mg of vinblastine. Two hours after the administration of colchicine and 3 hours after the vinblastine, all the treated animals and the control group received one single dose of 10μCi/g of 35S-sodium sulphate and were sacrificed after 10, 30 and 120 minutes. The lower incisors were prepared for radioautography. This study showed that the secretory odontoblasts in the presence of colchicine and vinblastine, incorporated the radioactive material, but there was a delay in the biosynthesis process of sulphated compounds accumulating the secretory material, which could be due to: 1. the colchicine in the odontoblasts would act in the final fase of the sulphatation process; 2. the vinblastine would act primarily in the local were the proteic substract of the sulphated compounds (glycosaminoglicans) is synthesized, resulting in a lack of material to bind the radiactive sulphur. (Author)

  6. Effect of colchicine and vinblastine over the odontoblasts secretion from mice lower incisor as revealed by autoradiography after injection of /sup 35/S-sodium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, L.F.; Blumen, G. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia)

    1983-07-01

    For the biosynthesis study of sulphated compounds in the odontoblasts under the effect of colchicine and vinblastine, male mice, (M. musculus, albinus) weighing 22 to 25 g. were used. They were divided in 3 groups of 3 animals each. One group was used as control, the other received 0.1 mg of colchicine and the last one received 0.2 mg of vinblastine. Two hours after the administration of colchicine and 3 hours after the vinblastine, all the treated animals and the control group received one single dose of 10..mu..Ci/g of /sup 35/S-sodium sulphate and were sacrificed after 10, 30 and 120 minutes. The lower incisors were prepared for radioautography. This study showed that the secretory odontoblasts in the presence of colchicine and vinblastine, incorporated the radioactive material, but there was a delay in the biosynthesis process of sulphated compounds accumulating the secretory material, which could be due to: 1. the colchicine in the odontoblasts would act in the final phase of the sulphatation process; 2. the vinblastine would act primarily in the local were the proteic substract of the sulphated compounds (glycosaminoglicans) is synthesized, resulting in a lack of material to bind the radiactive sulphur.

  7. Evidence for cholinergic participation in the control of bird song; acetylcholinesterase distribution and muscarinic receptor autoradiography in the zebra finch brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain regions thought to be involved in the control of song in the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), were examined histochemically using the Karnovsky and Roots direct-coloring method for the detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the autoradiographic method for the localization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors following injection of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H QNB). All presently identified vocal control nuclei in both males and females contain AChE. These nuclei include Area X, magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (MAN), nucleus interface (NIF), caudal nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale (HVc), intercollicular nucleus (ICo), nucleus uva, robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), and tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve nucleus (nXIIts). All nuclei except Area X contain mostly AChE-synthesizing cell bodies. All of these nuclei contain some AChE in the neuropil, with particularly intense staining in Area X, the surrounding LPO, and the dorsomedial portion of ICo. In agreement with this description are very high concentrations of 3H QNB in both Area X and the dorsomedial ICo. HVc also appears specifically labeled. Evidence from these two histological technique suggests that efferent projections of most vocal control area may utilize acetylcholine, and that several of the vocal control nuclei may themselves receive muscarinic cholinergic projection. In Area X, there are sex differences of AChE neuropil staining. This evidence suggesting that sexually dimorphic projections to or within Area X are cholinergic or cholinoceptive

  8. Sorption and diffusion of cobalt, nickel, strontium, iodine, cesium and americium in natural fissure surfaces and drill core cups studied by autoradiography, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the studies on sorption and diffusion of Cs, Sr, Co, Ni, Am and I in common rocks in Finnish bedrock carried out in laboratory experiments. Samples used in these studies were sections of drill cores containing filled and unfilled natural fracture surfaces and drill cores with a diamond drilled longitudinal cavity in the middle of the sample (drill core cups). Samples originated from the two nuclear power plant sites in Finland: tonalite and mica gneiss from Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and rapakivi granite from Haestholmen in Loviisa. The water used in the experiments was synthetic groundwater spiked at a time with one of the radionuclides: Cs-134, Sr-90, Co-60, Ni-63, Am-241 and I-125. Contact times from one week to one year were used to evaluate time dependence of diffusion. An autoradiographic method was used for determination of the penetration depths and diffusion pathways of elements. For determination of diffusion coefficients a quantitative computerized autoradiographic method was used to get the concentration profiles of the radionuclides in the drill cores. Sorption on natural fracture surfaces was more effective than on freshly drilled core samples. Filling materials on natural fracture surfaces, except calcite, increased sorption. The distribution coefficients for drill core cups were about the same as those for unfilled natural fracture surfaces after a contact time of one week and the sorption tendency of radionuclides was: Ka(Cs) > Ka(Co) > Ka(Am) > Ka(Ni) > Ka(Sr) > Ka(I). Radionuclides were observed to penetrate into fissures of the rock matrix and high-capacity minerals. Strontium was found as far as 35 mm in a filled natural fracture surface sample of rapakivi granite after a contact time of one year. The corresponding values were 3.0 mm for cesium, 2.1 mm for cobalt and 2.6 mm for nickel. For americium no diffusion could be observed (a-values for strontium was 6.6 x 10-16-1.1 x 10-13 m2/s, for cesium 4.7 x 10-16-7.2 x 10-15 m2/s, for cobalt 8.5 x 10-17-9.6 x 10-16 m2/s and for nickel (1.6-4.1) x 10-16 m2/s

  9. Sorption and diffusion of cobalt, nickel, strontium, iodine, cesium and americium in natural fissure surfaces and drill core cups studied by autoradiography, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical studies on geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured crystalline rock and migration of radionuclides in groundwater circulating through the fractured zones have indicated the importance of diffusion into the rock matrix. Samples chosen for this study were filled and unfilled natural fracture surfaces and drill cores having a central drilled cavity ('drill core cups'). Samples originated from the two nuclear power plant sites in Finland: mica gneiss and tonalite from Olkiluoto and rapakivi granite from Haestholmen in Loviisa. An autoradiographic method was used for determination of the penetration depths and calculation of diffusion coefficients of Cs-134, Sr-90, Co-60, Ni-63, I-125 and Am-241. Emphasis was also directed to testing the quantitative autoradiographic method for diffusion coefficient measurements. After one year's contact time the penetration depths of strontium in tonalite were 15 mm and 10 mm for the filled and unfilled natural fracture surface samples and 5 mm for drill core cups. In the filled natural fracture surface sample of rapakivi granite the penetration depth of strontium was 35 mm. For cesium penetration depths in tonalite from 2.0 mm (unfilled natural surface) to 3.0 mm (drill core cup) were observed. For cobalt a penetration depth of 0.9 mm was found in the drill core cup sample of tonalite after contact time of one year and 1.5 mm in the filled natural fracture surface of rapakivi granite after contact time of six months. The range of Da-values of strontium was 1.4 x 10-14 - 1.1 x 10-13 m2/s. The Da-values for cesium and cobalt in tonalite (drill core cup samples) were 7 x 10-15 m2/s and 5 x 10-16 m2/s, respectively

  10. Dynamic changes in glucose metabolism of living rat brain slices induced by hypoxia and neurotoxic chemical-loading revealed by positron autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh rat brain slices were incubated with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 degree C, and serial two-dimensional time-resolved images of [18F]FDG uptake were obtained from these specimens on imaging plates. The fractional rate constant (= k3*) of [18F]FDG proportional to the cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglc) was evaluated by applying the Gjedde-Patlak graphical method to the image data. With hypoxia loading (oxygen deprivation) or glucose metabolism inhibitors acting on oxidative phosphorylation, the k3* value increased dramatically suggesting enhanced glycolysis. After relieving hypoxia ≤10-min, the k3* value returned to the pre-loading level. In contrast, with ≥20-min hypoxia only partial or no recovery was observed, indicating that irreversible neuronal damage had been induced. However, after loading with tetrodotoxin (TTX), the k3* value also decreased but returned to the pre-loading level even after 70-min TTX-loading, reflecting a transient inhibition of neuronal activity. This technique provides a new means of quantifying dynamic changes in the regional CMRglc in living brain slices in response to various interventions such as hypoxia and neurotoxic chemical-loading as well as determining the viability and prognosis of brain tissues. (author)

  11. Effects of irradiation on intracellular protein synthesis in demilune of mouse sublingual gland; Study of electron microscopic autoradiography with [sup 3]H-leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohki, Ikuko; Nasu, Masanori; Matsunaga, Hajime; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    The effects of radiation on amino acid transport in demilune of the sublingual glands were examined in mice. After 10 Gy X-ray irradiation to the submandibular region, [sup 3]H-leucine was administered to these mice. Three days after irradiation, light microscopic autoradiograms and electron microscopic autoradiograms were obtained to determine the silver grain count in demilune and the distribution of silver grain in the organelles of these cells involved in protein synthesis. Both non-irradiated and irradiated groups showed a peak count 30 minutes after the administration of [sup 3]H-leucine and a tendency to decrease in the count thereafter. The magnitude of the chronological change in this parameter was smaller in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The percentage of silver grain in the rough endoplasmic reticulum also reached a peak 30 minutes after [sup 3]H-leucine administration in both non-irradiated and irradiated groups. Thereafter the percentage tended to decrease with time in the non-irradiated group. In the irradiated group, on the other hand, the percentage showed little change from the peak level at 60, 120, and 180 minutes. In the non-irradiated group, the percentage of silver grain in the Golgi apparatus was relatively high at 30 and 60 minutes. The percentage tended to be low at 120 and 180 minutes in the irradiated group. In the non-irradiated group, the percentage of silver grain in condencing vacuoles reached a peak at 60 minutes and decreased gradually thereafter. This parameter reached a peak at 30 minutes in the irradiated group. The percentage of silver grain in the secretory granules increased with time in both non-irradiated and irradiated groups. At 30 and 60 minutes, the percentage was significantly higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. At 180 minutes, however, it was significantly lower in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. (author).

  12. Immunohistochemical C-FOS expression and autoradiography to study galnin/neuropeptide y Y1 receptor-receptor interactions in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Narváez, Manuel; Millón, Carmelo; Flores, Antonio; SAntin, Luis; Parrado, Conchi; Puigcerver, Araceli; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Fuxe, Kjell; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Ángel

    2013-01-01

    We have shown Galanin(GAL)/Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor(Y1) interactions in the nucleus tractus solitarius and the arcuate nucleus. Since both peptides play an important role in mood disorders, the aim of this work was to study GAL/Y1 interactions in the amygdala(AMY), key nucleus for fear, mood, and motivation. We have combined the analysis of the expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity(c-Fos IR) with an autoradiographic study in the AMY. Groups of anaesthetized rats (n=4) received intracerebrove...

  13. Quantitative autoradiography of the binding sites for ( sup 125 I) iodoglyburide, a novel high-affinity ligand for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlert, D.R.; Gackenheimer, S.L.; Mais, D.E.; Robertson, D.W. (Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We have developed a high specific activity ligand for localization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the brain. When brain sections were incubated with ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide (N-(2-((((cyclohexylamino)carbonyl)amino)sulfonyl)ethyl)-5-{sup 125}I-2- methoxybenzamide), the ligand bound to a single site with a KD of 495 pM and a maximum binding site density of 176 fmol/mg of tissue. Glyburide was the most potent inhibitor of specific ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding to rat forebrain sections whereas iodoglyburide and glipizide were slightly less potent. The binding was also sensitive to ATP which completely inhibited binding at concentrations of 10 mM. Autoradiographic localization of ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding indicated a broad distribution of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the brain. The highest levels of binding were seen in the globus pallidus and ventral pallidum followed by the septohippocampal nucleus, anterior pituitary, the CA2 and CA3 region of the hippocampus, ventral pallidum, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and substantia nigra zona reticulata. The hilus and dorsal subiculum of the hippocampus, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, olfactory tubercle and the zona incerta contained relatively high levels of binding. A lower level of binding (approximately 3- to 4-fold) was found throughout the remainder of the brain. These results indicate that the ATP-sensitive potassium channel has a broad presence in the rat brain and that a few select brain regions are enriched in this subtype of neuronal potassium channels.

  14. Quantitative autoradiography of the binding sites for [125I] iodoglyburide, a novel high-affinity ligand for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a high specific activity ligand for localization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the brain. When brain sections were incubated with [125I]iodoglyburide (N-[2-[[[(cyclohexylamino)carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]ethyl]-5-125I-2- methoxybenzamide), the ligand bound to a single site with a KD of 495 pM and a maximum binding site density of 176 fmol/mg of tissue. Glyburide was the most potent inhibitor of specific [125I]iodoglyburide binding to rat forebrain sections whereas iodoglyburide and glipizide were slightly less potent. The binding was also sensitive to ATP which completely inhibited binding at concentrations of 10 mM. Autoradiographic localization of [125I]iodoglyburide binding indicated a broad distribution of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the brain. The highest levels of binding were seen in the globus pallidus and ventral pallidum followed by the septohippocampal nucleus, anterior pituitary, the CA2 and CA3 region of the hippocampus, ventral pallidum, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and substantia nigra zona reticulata. The hilus and dorsal subiculum of the hippocampus, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, olfactory tubercle and the zona incerta contained relatively high levels of binding. A lower level of binding (approximately 3- to 4-fold) was found throughout the remainder of the brain. These results indicate that the ATP-sensitive potassium channel has a broad presence in the rat brain and that a few select brain regions are enriched in this subtype of neuronal potassium channels

  15. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  16. Daily growth increments in otoliths of juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes melanops: an evaluation of autoradiography as a new method of validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the commonly used oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) and an alternate chemical, the radioisotope calcium-45, in terms of their success as time-markers to validate daily growth increment formation in the otoliths of juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes melanops

  17. ATP P2x receptors studied by quantitative autoradiography of [3H]α,β- methylene-ATP binding in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: P2x receptors are ligand-gated cationic channels widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The probable natural P2x ligand is ATP but the 3H-labelled form of the stable ATP analogue α,β-methylene-ATP is the only compound currently used in radioligand binding studies of P2x receptors. In order to further test its specificity for P2x receptor binding sites in the CNS we have examined the effects of several ATP analogues, and other ATP-related substances on the binding of [3]α,β-methylene-ATP to fresh-frozen sections of rat brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were decapitated under halothane anaesthesia (5% in the mixture of N2C/O2, 65:35), 20 μM thick brain sections were incubated in the presence of 10 μM [3H]α,β-methylene-ATP and 2.5 μM Ca2+ -in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer. Autoradiograms were evaluated by quantitative densitometry. [3H]α,β-Methylene-ATP binding was sensitive to the P2 antagonist suramin (IC50 ∼ 20 μM) but it was only moderately inhibited by Reactive Blue 2 and related dyes (IC50 - 200 - 400 μM ). Two ATP analogues (3'-O-(trinitrophenyl)-adenosine-5'-triphosphate and β,γ-imido-ATP) produced IC50 -1-2 μM but β,γ-methylene-ATP was less potent. ATP analogues with other than adenine residues (inosine-5'-triphosphate, guanosine-5'-triphosphate, uridine-5'-triphosphate and cytidine-5'-triphosphate) were inactive. Cations (K+, Rb+, Cs+ and Mg2+ at 5 mM and Na+ at 150 mM) moderately reduced [3H]α,β-methylene-ATP binding but HgCl2 and p-chloromercuriphenyl sulphonate caused strong inhibitions. Several compounds known to interact with other ATP binding sites (ATPases: ouabain, thapsigargin; ATP or adenosine receptors: adenosine, 2-Cl-ATP, 2-methyl-S-ATP) and cationic channels (glibenclamide, dantrolene) had no effect. We conclude that [3H]α,β-methylene-ATP at low μM concentrations binds predominantly to P2x receptors. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  18. Synthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol by rat liver rough microsomes as visualized by electron microscopic autoradiography: Relationship to GTP-stimulated membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following conditions of incubation for the analysis of liponucleotide synthesis, we compared GTP-dependent formation of CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DG) and membrane fusion in RNA-depleted rough microsomes from rat liver. After incubation of stripped rough microsomes (SRM) in the presence of GTP and [5-3H]-CTP, radioactivity was recovered in lipid extracts and identified by thin-layer chromatography as a single spot which co-migrated with CDP-DG. The nucleotide requirement for CDP-DG synthesis and that for membrane fusion were observed to be identical. We next carried out an electron microscopic autoradiographic analysis on incubated membranes to determine the site of incorporation of [5-3H]-CTP. Silver grains were observed directly over the unilamellar membranes of natural vesicles. In confirmation of the biochemical data, quantitation of silver grain density indicated more grains over membranes incubated in the presence of GTP than over those incubated in the absence of this nucleotide. For membranes incubated in the presence of GTP, the grain density was similar over fused and unfused membranes in the same preparation. When SRM were incubated with the enzyme co-factors required for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol, a GTP-independent membrane fusion was observed by both transmission and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Together with the biochemical and autoradiographic data, this suggests that phospholipid metabolism may be activated by GTP and lead to the fusion of RER membrane

  19. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage

  20. Discrete mapping of brain Mu and delta opioid receptors using selective peptides: Quantitative autoradiography, species differences and comparison with kappa receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, N.A.; Hughes, J. (Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Cambridge (England))

    1989-05-01

    The opioid peptides, (3H)DAGO and (3H)DPDPE, bound to rat and guinea pig brain homogenates with a high, nanomolar affinity and to a high density of mu and delta receptors, respectively. (3H)DAGO binding to mu receptors was competitively inhibited by unlabelled opioids with the following rank order of potency: DAGO greater than morphine greater than DADLE greater than naloxone greater than etorphine much greater than U50488 much greater than DPDPE. In contrast, (3H)DPDPE binding to delta receptors was inhibited by compounds with the following rank order of potency: DPDPE greater than DADLE greater than etorphine greater than dynorphin(1-8) greater than naloxone much greater than U50488 much greater than DAGO. These profiles were consistent with specific labelling of the mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively. In vitro autoradiographic techniques coupled with computer-assisted image analyses revealed a discrete but differential anatomical localization of mu and delta receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain. In general, mu and delta receptor density in the rat exceeded that in the guinea pig brain and differed markedly from that of kappa receptors in these species. However, while mu receptors were distributed throughout the brain with hotspots in the fore-, mid- and hindbrain of the two rodents, the delta sites were relatively diffusely distributed, and were mainly concentrated in the forebrain with particularly high levels within the olfactory bulb (OB), n. accumbens and striatum. Notable regions of high density of mu receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain were the accessory olfactory bulb, striatal patches and streaks, amygdaloid nuclei, ventral hippocampal subiculum and dentate gyrus, numerous thalamic nuclei, geniculate bodies, central grey, superior and inferior colliculi, solitary and pontine nuclei and s. nigra.

  1. Discrete mapping of brain Mu and delta opioid receptors using selective peptides: Quantitative autoradiography, species differences and comparison with kappa receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opioid peptides, [3H]DAGO and [3H]DPDPE, bound to rat and guinea pig brain homogenates with a high, nanomolar affinity and to a high density of mu and delta receptors, respectively. [3H]DAGO binding to mu receptors was competitively inhibited by unlabelled opioids with the following rank order of potency: DAGO greater than morphine greater than DADLE greater than naloxone greater than etorphine much greater than U50488 much greater than DPDPE. In contrast, [3H]DPDPE binding to delta receptors was inhibited by compounds with the following rank order of potency: DPDPE greater than DADLE greater than etorphine greater than dynorphin(1-8) greater than naloxone much greater than U50488 much greater than DAGO. These profiles were consistent with specific labelling of the mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively. In vitro autoradiographic techniques coupled with computer-assisted image analyses revealed a discrete but differential anatomical localization of mu and delta receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain. In general, mu and delta receptor density in the rat exceeded that in the guinea pig brain and differed markedly from that of kappa receptors in these species. However, while mu receptors were distributed throughout the brain with hotspots in the fore-, mid- and hindbrain of the two rodents, the delta sites were relatively diffusely distributed, and were mainly concentrated in the forebrain with particularly high levels within the olfactory bulb (OB), n. accumbens and striatum. Notable regions of high density of mu receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain were the accessory olfactory bulb, striatal patches and streaks, amygdaloid nuclei, ventral hippocampal subiculum and dentate gyrus, numerous thalamic nuclei, geniculate bodies, central grey, superior and inferior colliculi, solitary and pontine nuclei and s. nigra

  2. Dual isotopes imaging in whole-body autoradiography (WBARG). Distribution of 14C-benzo-a-pyrene and 113Sn-tributyltin in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue distributions of 14C-BaP and 113Sn-TBT, individually and together, were compared in mummichog by WBARG, after forced-feeding or intraperitoneal injection. Electron differential absorption (EDA) by metal foil was tested to visualize the distribution of 14C and 113Sn in tissue sections of animals exposed to both radiochemicals. Distribution of 14C and 113Sn in fish did not differ as a function of exposure route, but 14C liver/blood and bile/ blood concentration ratios were lower in fish dosed with BaP + TBT. EDA allowed a clear differentiation of 14C and 113Sn signals and could be used to image other radionuclides pairs. (author)

  3. Study on the metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism was studied by diferent types of autoradiographic techniques, such as: (1) in body level by whole-body autoradiography; (2) in organ level by whole-organ autoradiography; (3) in cellular level by microautoradiography; (4) in subcellular level by electron microscopic autoradiography; (5) in combinative form by tissue fixative autoradiography; (6) in ionizing form by freezing autoradiography; (7) for radioactive mateials with two radionuclides by double radionuclide autoradiography; (8) for radioactive materials with low level of radionuclides by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography; (9) in dissociative products by chromatographic autoradiography

  4. 5-HT2A/2C receptor and 5-HT transporter densities in mice prone or resistant to chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity: a quantitative autoradiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Feng; Huang, Xin; Han, Mei; Chen, Feng; Storlien, Len; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2004-08-27

    The present study examined the density of 5-HT2A/2C receptors and 5-HT transporters in the brains of chronic high-fat diet-induced obese (cDIO) and obese-resistant (cDR) mice. Thirty-five male mice were used in this study. Twenty-eight mice were fed with a high-fat diet (40% of calories from fat) for 6 weeks and then classified as the cDIO (n=8) or cDR (n=8) mice according to the highest and lowest body weight gainers. Seven mice were placed on a low-fat diet (LF: 10% of calories from fat) and were used as controls. After 20 weeks of feeding, the sum of epididymal, perirenal, omental and inguinal fat masses was 9.3+/-0.3 g in the cDIO group versus 3.1+/-0.5 g in the cDR (pcDIO mice had a significantly higher 5-HT2A/2C binding density in the anterior olfactory nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) compared to the cDR and LF mice (+39% and +47%, p=0.003 and 0.045, respectively), whereas the latter two groups did not differ. The density of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the VMH was associated with total amount of fat mass (r=0.617, p=0.032). On the other hand, the cDR mice had significantly lower 5-HT transporter binding than the cDIO and LF mice, respectively, in the nucleus accumbens (-44%, -38%, both pcDIO and cDR mice. It provides neural anatomical bases by which genetic variability in 5-HT2A/2C receptors and 5-HT transporter may influence satiety and sensory aspects of energy balance. PMID:15276882

  5. A proposed method for the determination of cerebral regional intermediary glucose metabolism in humans in vivo using specifically labeled 11C-glucose and positron emission transverse tomography (PETT). I. An animal model with 14C-glucose and rat brain autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon data obtained with our arterio-venous technique for the determination of cerebral metabolism in humans in vivo we have proposed a method for the determination of cerebral regional intermediary glucose metabolism in humans in vivo using specifically labeled 11C-glucose and positron emission transverse tomography (PETT). In it we would give the subject successive intravenous injections of [3,4-11C] glucose, [2,5-11C] glucose and [1-11C] glucose. There would be a 30 min period of continuous PETT measurements following each injection and a 2 hr interval after the first and second injections. The data would be used with suitable equations and algorithms to estimate for each specific region of the subject's brain the dynamics of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) metabolic pathways and the incorporation of glucose carbons into lactate, and the extent of dilution of glucose carbons into lactate, and the extent of dilution of glucose carbons in traversing the TCA with their subsequent incorporation into other carbon pools of the brain (ie, glutamate, glutamine, GABA, alanine). Using 14C as a model for 11C and autoradiographs made with rat brain slices, we have produced an animal model to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed method. The resulting autoradiographs have provided evidence of the validity of the predictions made from our arterio-venous data. The model was employed to show the selective reductions in the rates of incorporation of specific carbon atoms of glucose into regions of the rat brain and evidence of altered metabolic pathways following a single electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and after a series of nine ECS

  6. Utilización de la autorradiografía en la detección de antígenos predominantes de Trichinella spiralis en tres modelos experimentales WESTERN BLOT AUTORADIOGRAPHY IN THE DETECTION OF DOMINANT ANTIGENS OF Trichinella spiralis IN THREE EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA ALEJANDRA MORENO CARCIA; MARIA PATROCINIO RAMOS DE LEON; JESUS MUÑOZ ESCOBEDO

    2001-01-01

    En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo la detección de antígenos predominantes de Trichinella spiralis en 3 modelos experimentales (Rata, ratón y conejo), mediante Western blot (WB) autorradiografía. A los animales experimentales se les administró larvas infectantes del parásito y se sangraron pre-inoculación y a la cuarta semana postinfección. El AST (Antígeno soluble de Trichinella) se obtuvo a partir de larvas de músculo de rata experimentalmente infectadas. Con el AST se realizaron corrid...

  7. Microscale nutrient patches produced by zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    John T. LEHMAN; Scavia, Donald

    1982-01-01

    Both track autoradiography and grain-density autoradiography show that individual zooplankton create miniature patches of dissolved nutrients and that algae exploit those regions to absorb phosphate. The patches are short lived and can be dispersed artificially by small-scale turbulence. Our data support a simple model of encounters between algae and nutrient plumes produced by swimming zooplankton.

  8. Cytogenetic and autoradiographic investigations in gonadal dysgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic analysis in 23 patients with Turner's syndrome and in 33 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis consisted of sex chromatin determination and karyotype studies employing autoradiography in questionable cases. Here autoradiography is used as an indispensable complement to cytogenetic techniques. The labelling behaviour of aberrant chromosomes is described. After treatment of the autoradiographic films for more differentiation in results is employed

  9. Regional distribution of putative NPY Y*U1 receptors and neurons expressing Y*U1 mRNA in forebrain areas of the rat central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Philip J.; Sheikh, Søren P.; Jakobsen, Cherine R.;

    1993-01-01

    Anatomi, neurobiologi, neuropeptide Y, NPY analogues, receptor autoradiography, in situ hybridization histochemistry, Y*U1 mRNA, Y*U1 andY*U2 receptors, rat......Anatomi, neurobiologi, neuropeptide Y, NPY analogues, receptor autoradiography, in situ hybridization histochemistry, Y*U1 mRNA, Y*U1 andY*U2 receptors, rat...

  10. Integrated chemical-thermal and laser treatment of structural and tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the techniques of autoradiography, radiography, metallography and micro hardness measurement, the distribution of boron and the surface hardening of structural and tool steels under complex chemical, thermal and laser treatment have been investigated

  11. STUDY OF ESTROGEN BINDING SITE ON HUMAN EJACULATED SPERMATOZOA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUJin-Shong; WANGYi-Fei

    1989-01-01

    The specific estrogen binding site for 17β-estradiol has been investigated on human spermatozoa by electron microscopec autoradiography. The results show that the binding sites were distributed over the surface of human spermatozoa: acrosomal cap, equatorial

  12. RETROGRADE AXONAL TRANSPORT OF PHOSPHOINOSITIDES AFTER INTRANEURAL INJECTION OF [3H]MYO-INOSITOL INTO THE RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although autoradiography has demonstrated local incorporation of [3H]inositol into axonal phospholipids after intraneural injection (Gould, 1976; Gould et at., 1987b), retrograde axonal transport of phosphatidylinositol has only been demonstrated after injection of lipid precurso...

  13. Determination Of Natural Boron Concentration In Coffee Leaves, Using de Autobiography by Neutron Capture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of natural boron concentration in coffee leaves, using the autoradiography, by neutron capture technique. The boron absorption coefficient in young coffee leaves was measured using autoradiography by neutron capture. In two experiments carried out in April and November, 1996, it was found that the coefficient varies between 0.9 and 5.3 nmol/h. the concentration of natural boron in coffee leaves in regard to age, symptoms and treatment received was also studied, using the same technique. (Author)

  14. Determination of radioactivity in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two major counting techniques in use in most laboratories today are those utilizing liquid or crystal scintillation counters. A discussion of liquid scintillation counting is inextricably linked with the problems of sample preparation and both are emphasized in this chapter. Radiochromatography and autoradiography are also discussed. Chromatography is one of the most important techniques for the separation of chemical compounds from biological material. Most of the detection mechanisms applicable to radiochromatography use x-ray film, a β-particle detector, or a luminescence detector. In biological autoradiography, labeled substances in the organism, tissue, or cell, are made visible by preparing thin sections and exposing them to a suitable photographic film. Light and electron microscope autoradiography were also discussed. 12 figures, 6 tables

  15. Consciousness and Endogenous State Reduction Two Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2001-01-01

    It is normally claimed that physical systems create and influence consciousness, but that consciousness cannot influence physical systems. However, I believe that this idea is flawed, and I suggest the following experiments as a way of demonstrating the influence of consciousness on physical systems. The first uses Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with humans, and the second uses autoradiography with rats. Background arguments are given, where it is claimed that 'pain' consciousness is correlated in a certain way with the binding of opiates to receptors in the brain. Key Words: state reduction, state collapse, macroscopic superpositions, PET scan, autoradiography.

  16. Autoradiographic and cytochemical studies on the intracellular transport of secreted proteins in the lacrimal ducts (glandula extraorbitalis) of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azini was isolated from the glandula lacrimalis of the rat. Its vitality was proven by oxygen use measurements. In autoradiographic studies isolated Azini was marked with L-(4,5-3H)-leucine and fixed at various times thereafter. The light microscopic autoradiography showed a time dependent distribution of the silver grains whose association with membrane-enclosed compartments made the electron microscopic autoradiography possible. This distribution allows an analysis of the kinetics of the intracellular transport of secreted proteins. Because of its limited spatial resolution the autoradiographic research methods were combined with the cytochemical presentation of the peroxidase, a secreted protein, of the lacrimal duct. (orig./MG)

  17. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography

  18. Determination of the phytoplankton activity of the Saidenbach reservoir by means of microautoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period from the beginning of march to the end of may 1977 the seasonal changes of phytoplankton and activity in the reservoir Saidenbach were investigated by means of autoradiography in intervals of 2-3 days. As the meteorological and hydrological conditions substantially deviated from long-term average, there was no characteristic spring diatom maximum. By means of autoradiography a high activity of flagellates in comparison with the diatoms was recorded. The relationship between the number of silver grains and cell volume could be characterized by an inverse relationship. (author)

  19. Photosynthetic activity of dominant algal species in eutrophic shallow lake (Grosser Mueggelsee, Berlin) investigated by microautoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic activity of dominant phytoplankton in a eutrophic shallow lake was investigated by autoradiography in 1979 and 1980. It was shown by light and dark field microscopy that all species of cyanophyta (Oscillatoria redekei, Oscillatoria agardhii, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) were characterized by a continuously high uptake of NaH14CO3. Similarly high photosynthetic activity was observed during the occurrence of Cryptomonas sp. and nanoplankton. Contrary to these observations, diatoms showed remarkably high portions of photosynthetically inactive biomass when their development was abundant. The reasons for this discrepancy between high biomass of diatoms and relatively low primary production (measured by 14C method and autoradiography) are discussed. (author)

  20. Cycling S-phase cells in animal and spontaneous tumours. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the proliferative activities of cell populations has mainly been restricted to the use of autoradiography and flow cytometric measurements. The introduction of a new BrdUrd specific antibody makes it possible to determine exactly the DNA synthesizing cells. The BrdUrd technique is safe with respect to handling and the results are obtained within five hours. The suitability of the BrdUrd labelling procedure has been studied in different cell lines and compared with 3H-thymidine autoradiography and flow cytometry. (orig.)

  1. Photo- and digital-detectors for quantitative digital densitometry for distribution analysis of ores by means of gamma-activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for photo processing of nuclear film detectors, which ensures higher reproducibility (about 2 %) of densitometry has been suggested. Application of the method allows for recovering fine mineralogical texture of a complex polymetallic ore of the Norilsk deposit with time series autoradiograms after computer processing. Some problems concerning interpretation of the results are discussed. It has been shown that application of digital imaging plates as a detector demonstrates high reproducibility suitable for precise quantitative autoradiography. The developed method of digital gamma-activation autoradiography via short-lived radionuclides may be successfully used for screening analysis of large area ore's thin sections. (author)

  2. Morphological and physiological aspects of the salivary gland chromosomes of Rhynchosciara in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the salivary gland chromosomes of Rhynchosciara americana was investigated under in vitro conditions for different periods of time. The salivary glands were incubated in a chemically defined medium supplemented with calf serum. The incubation of the salivary glands lasted from a few minutes to 30 days. RNA synthesis was studied by means of autoradiography and the DNA synthesis was studied both by autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. Puffing activity under in vitro conditions was studied as well as the activity of the nucleolus. The results suggest that the activity of the nucleolus and that of some of the RNA puffs studied is cyclical under in vitro conditions. (Author)

  3. Hyphal growth of hypomyces chlorinus tul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of the chitin precursor N-acetyl-D-(1,3H) glucosamine by H. chlorinus has been studied by light and electron microscopy autoradiography. Light microscopic autoradiography schowed that the incorporation occurred preferentially at the hyphal apex. Autoradiograms from electron microscopy were quantitatively evaluated to determine the relative radioactivity incorporation between the cell wall and cytoplasm: this showed that (3H) incorporation took place mainly in the plasmalemma-wall complex. However, a small amount of N-acetyl glucosamine can enter into the cytoplasmic space and is then transported by endomembranes (Golgi apparatus-vesicles) to the plasmalemma-cell wall interface before polymerization. (author)

  4. A comparison of analytical methods for detection of [14C]trichloro acetic acid-derived radioactivity in needles and branches of spruce (Picea sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The branches (wood and needles) of spruces of varying age treated with [14C]trichloro acetic acid (3.7 GBq/mmol) were studied, using the following methods: Qualitative: - Conventional macroautoradiography with X-ray film and histological classification. Quantitative: - 14C combustion analysis with the sample oxidizer A 307 (Canberra/Packard) followed by measurement of radioactivity using the LS counter 6000 (Beckman Instrumentts); - digital autoradiography with the Digital Autoradiograph LB 286 (Berthold GmbH); -digital autoradiography with the Bio-imaging Analyzer BAS 2000 (Fuji Film Co.). (orig.)

  5. In vivo evaluation of carborane gadolinium-DTPA complex as an MR imaging boron carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the Gd-carborane complex 2 as an MR imaging and boron carrier agent was carried out in vivo using tumor-bearing Donryu rats, MRI, ICP-AES, and α-autoradiography. The MR imaging revealed that the carborane Gd-DTPA 2 was metabolized slower in the body than Gd-DTPA 1. The results of the ICP-AES method indicated that compound 2 was incorporated into normal tissues and metabolized quickly, whereas it was not accumulated into tumor or brain tissue. The α-autoradiography showed that a high level of boron was obtained in the internal organs and in the necrosis of tumor tissue. (author)

  6. Possible applications of radionuclide techniques in criminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioindicator methods in dactyloscopy is described, in which is used the bond of suitable radioindicators to certain components of the sweat secretion with subsequent detection of the local distribution of these radionuclides using the autoradiographic method. The use of autoradiography and gamma spectrometry is given in ballistics, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis in the investigation of motor car accidents and in the verification of historical objects, in forensic medicine, the use of autoradiography in the expertise of photographs, beta radiography in graphology and the use of radioactive labelling for trapping criminals. (J.P.)

  7. Autoradiographic localization of Na+-K+-ATPase with 3H-ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 3H-ouabain as an inhibitor, the site of the Na+-K+-ATPase system in cells was determined autoradiographically. Experiments were performed woth guinea pig's kidney tissue. The application of light microscopical autoradiography to freeze-dried tissue showed that especially the distal tubule, and to a smaller extent the proximal tubule and the collecting tubule have Na+-K+-ATPase. Electron microscopical autoradiography showed that this activity is restricted to the baso-lateral plasmamembranes. The quantity of specific bound ouabain turns out to be correlated to the quantity of baso-lateral plasmamembrane's surface

  8. Observations on proliferating sheath cells in the regenerating nerves of lizard

    OpenAIRE

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation of sheath cells (Schwann and endoneurium) of growing nerves has been studied by autoradiography after 3~-thymidinead ministration to lizards (Anolis carolinensis and Lampropholis delicata) with regenerating tails. Schwann cells of regenerating nerves derive from the multiplication of resident cells within the growing nerves, but labelled Schwann cells derived from the regenerative blastema also appear to ensheath the new axons. Endoneurium cel...

  9. Methods for measurement of cerebral blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1976-01-01

    technique continues to be useful, modern technical improvements consisting of the use of micropipettes and a stereo microscope in combination with an image splitter and a television camera which allows the accurate assessment of diameter variations of a few percent [22]. Autoradiography of brain slices...

  10. Investigations on the uptake of 14C-labelled chlorhexidine diglutonate through dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this dissertation it was shown using radioactively labelled 14C tracer molecules that chlorhexidine is adsorbed on the dental surface of extracted teeth. Evidence for this was provided by the three following methods: a) back diffusion and release in rinses; b) thin layer chromatography of the adsorbed substance, and c) autoradiography. (orig./MG)

  11. A 55,000-60,000 Mr receptor protein for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Identification in human tumor cell lines and partial purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L S; Kellerman, G M; Behrendt, N; Picone, R; Danø, K; Blasi, F

    1988-01-01

    bifunctional amino-reactive reagent followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography revealed with the four cell lines studied the occurrence of a single band migrating with an Mr of 70,000-75,000, indicating complex formation with an Mr of 55,000-60,000 u-PA receptor...

  12. XIIIth National Biochemical Days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 333 abstracts of contributions presented, 3 of which have been inputted in INIS. These deal with the incorporation of 3H-labelled thymidine into the DNA of some viruses; with the autoradiography of such labelled DNA in rat brain after ischemia; and with the labelling of monoclonal antibodies with 99Tc and 131I. (M.D.)

  13. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the human central nervous system : autoradiographic distribution and receptor densities in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Wilczak, N

    1997-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors were studied in postmortem adult human brain and cervical spinal cord using autoradiography with human recombinant I-125-PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB binds to the three different dimers of PDGF receptors (alpha alpha, alpha beta and beta beta) PDGF receptors were

  14. Injected TFF1 and TFF3 bind to TFF2-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S S; Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Kissow, Hannelouise; Nexø, Ebba; Thim, L

    2003-01-01

    intravenously to female Wistar rats. The tissue distribution was assessed by gamma counting of organ samples and by autoradiography of histological sections. The degradation of 125I-TFF3 was studied by means of trichloracetic acid (TCA) precipitation and the saturability of the binding by administration of...

  15. Radioactive radiation from uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aid of contamination meters and autoradiography, the intensity of the radiation emitted by uranium- and thorium-containing pieces (about 50 stages) of a mineral collection. The measuring instrument, the radiation measurements, the autoradiographic procedure, the radiation shields, and the consequences with regard to radiation protection are described. (HK)

  16. Changes in 5-HT4 receptor and 5-HT transporter binding in olfactory bulbectomized and glucocorticoid receptor heterozygous mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie L; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Zueger, Maha;

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT(4) receptor is a new potential target for antidepressant treatment and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. This study investigated differences in 5-HT(4) receptor and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) binding by quantitative autoradiography of [(3)H]SB207145 and (S)-[N-methyl-(3)...

  17. Nuclear thread bridging the sister cells prior to radiation-induced cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercellular protoplasmic bridges between sister cells prior to radiation-induced cell fusion were examined by various methods which included time-lapse photography, chemical staining, autoradiography, and scanning electron microscopy. It was concluded that these bridges contained nuclear material and that fusion occurred mainly as a consequence of chromosome or chromatin bridges

  18. Neuroanatomical localization of endocrine control of reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid autoradiography and systematic and intracranial steroid treatment were undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which are sufficient to activate steroid sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail. (1) Autoradiographic localization of steroid binding cells was performed on male and female quail brains using tritiated (3H) testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The distributions of labelled cells in the quail brain following 3H-T or 3H-E2 injection and autoradiography were similar to one another. The distribution of labelled cells following 3H-DHT autoradiography was limited in comparison to that following 3H-T autoradiography. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in nucleus taeniae. (2) Intracranial implantation of minute pellets of testoterone propionate (TP) and estradiol benzoate (EB) was performed to determine neuroanatomical loci at which steroids activate sexual behavior. Both TP and EB implants in the preoptic area (POA) activated male copulatory behavior. (3) Systematic injection of aromatase inhibitor prior to and concurrent with implantation completely blocked copulatory behavior in males with TP implants in the POA but failed to block copulation in males with EB implants in the POA. (4) Intact males and castrated males given 5 dosages of systematic EB treatment were tested for sexual behavior, and blood samples from each group were assayed for E2 concentration. (5) Midbrain DHTP implants were activated crowing without significantly stimulating peripheral androgen-sensitive tissues, but the effect on crowing was not localized to any one nucleus

  19. Analysis of Chromatin Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: chromatin, nucleases, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, melting point, gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide, autoradiography, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, Sanger sequencing, restriction endonucleases, exonucleases, linker DNA, chloroform extraction, nucleosomes,…

  20. Scanning electron microscopy - application and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the scanning electron microscope, and other image forming scanning systems (STEM and the nuclear microprobe), to a range of nuclear reactor problems is described. Particular attention is given to the solution of fracture problems. Autoradiography, electron spectroscopy, and an investigation of irradiation damage in boron carbide using the transmission electron microscope are also described. (author)

  1. Rembrandt’s An Old Man in Military Costume: the underlying image re-examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, K.; Janssens, K.; Van der Snickt, G.; Szafran, Y.; Woollett, A.T.; Dik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The painting An Old Man in Military Costume in the J. Paul Getty Museum, by Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, was studied using two complementary, element-specific imaging techniques—neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) and macro-X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) mapping—to reveal the second, hidden paint

  2. Neurotransmission in the hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following five chapters: introduction; neuronal elements in the hippocampus and their synaptic connections; Membrane properties and postsynaptic responses of hippocampal neurons; The enzyme histochemistry of neurotransmitter metabolism; and Receptor autoradiography in the hippocampus of man and rat

  3. Radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in the various aspects of biological research. The following topics were presented: labelled compounds; conformation-function relationships of hormonal polypeptides and their spectroscopic study; neutron scattering and neutron diffraction for biological studies; high resolution autoradiography; radioimmunoassay; nuclear medicine; transfer of excitation energy in photosynthesis; radioagronomy; radiation preservation of food

  4. Radiographic examination methods for fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the fast neutron reactor fuel pins structure the NIIAR Institute used x diffraction, neutronic radiography and autoradiographies. The two first methods are used for internal macrostructure studies, the third method for the plutonium and uranium radial distribution. These methods and the main results are indicated in this document

  5. Cellular localization, binding sites, and pharmacologic effects of TFF3 in experimental colitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellev, Stine; Thim, Lars; Pyke, Charles;

    2007-01-01

    effect of TFF3 on dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Expression of endogenous TFF1-3 was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, and the distribution of intravenously, intraperitoneally, and subcutaneously administered (125)I-TFF3 by autoradiography and gamma...

  6. [A clinical trial of neutron capture therapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes accomplishments by this laboratory concerning development of high-resolution alpha-autoradiography design of an optimized epithermal neutron beam dosimetry and treatment planning Using Monte Carlo techniques development of a prompt-gamma 10B analysis facility

  7. Localization of CGRP receptor components and receptor binding sites in rhesus monkey brainstem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Roberts, Rhonda; Chen, Tsing-Bau;

    2016-01-01

    -like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), respectively. To define CGRP receptor binding sites, in vitro autoradiography was performed with [(3)H]MK-3207 (a CGRP receptor antagonist). CLR and RAMP1 mRNA and protein expression were detected in the pineal gland, medial mammillary...

  8. Autoradiographic investigation of diatom succession in Lake Tahoe. [Natural /sup 14/C tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dozier, B. J.; Beauchamp, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon-14 grain density autoradiography was used to qualitatively assess the changes in photosynthetic activity occurring throughout the course of a year within the three dominant phytoplankton populations in Lake Tahoe. Lake Tahoe is an ultraoligotrophic subalpine monomictic lake situated at 1898 m in the Sierra-Nevada-mountains of California and Nevada. Diatoms dominate the lake phytoplankton.

  9. Fuel-containing particles released from the fourth block of the Chernobyl NPP in soil samples of the Bryansk district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiography is used to identify radioactive microparticles in the small soil fraction. Microparticles containing α-emitters are detected. Radiochemical and α-spectrometric methods revealed the nature of the α-tracks. The contents of Pu and 241Am in the studied sample are estimated. The data confirm the open-quotes Chernobyl originclose quotes of the contaminated Bryanski soil (Novozybkovsk region)

  10. DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID) SYNTHESIS FOLLOWING MICROINJECTION OF HETEROLOGOUS SPERM AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEI INTO HAMSTER OOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have investigated the ability of the hamster oocyte to initiate DNA synthesis in nuclei differing in basic protein content. DNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography in oocytes that had been incubated in 3H-thymidine after being parthenogenetically activated by sha...

  11. Radiosynthesis and characterisation of a potent and selective GPR139 agonist radioligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhne, Sebastiaan; Nøhr, Anne Cathrine; Marek, AleŠ; Elbert, TomáŠ; Klein, Anders Bue; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Wellendorph, Petrine; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer

    2016-01-01

    . Reductive debromination of precursor 5 was accomplished using 3H2, Pd/C and triethylamine in DMF at ambient temperature to give target molecule [3H]-1 with a specific activity of 19.3 Ci mmol-1 and a radiochemical purity of ≥95%. By application of autoradiography and binding studies, it was not possible to...

  12. Localization of adenovirus DNA replication in KB cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlak, J.M.; Rozijn, Th.H.; Spies, F.

    1975-01-01

    The localization of adenovirus type 5 DNA replication has been investigated by both fractionation of isolated nuclei and electron-microscope autoradiography. Nuclear fractionation by means of the M-band-technique of Tremblay et al. (Tremblay, G. Y., Daniels, M. J., and Schaechter, M. (1969). J. Mol.

  13. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götz, C.; Fekete, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Forczek, Sándor; Fuksová, Květoslava; Li, X.; Englmann, M.; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, A.; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 5 (2007), s. 1447-1457. ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : UPLC * FTICR-MS * tritium autoradiography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.867, year: 2007

  14. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of β-(p-chlorophenyl)-GABA (Baclofen), 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of 14C-baclofen was studied according to the autoradiography of a whole body in SD-JCL male rats after oral administration of 14C-baclofen (100 μCi/kg). Distribution of radioactivity in kidney and liver was already apparent 15 min after administration. Radioactivity in kidney and liver was increased distribution of radioactivity in skeletal muscle was apparent 1 hr after administration. Radio and activity in various tissues decreased 3 hrs after administration. Distribution of radioactivity in brain and spinal cord remained low at any time after administration. Distribution of radioactivity of 14C-baclofen in autoradiography was consistent with that in tracer study (Yamamoto et al 1977). (auth.)

  15. Radioelements: their detection and measurement; Les radioelements: detection et mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A brief review of the properties of nuclear radiations is followed by a description of the basic techniques used for their detection: autoradiography, methods using the ionisation of gases (ionisation chambers, proportional counters, Geiger-Muller counters), scintillation techniques. The principles of the different methods of measurement are explained, whether they concern the activity or the energy absorbed (dosimetry). This is followed by a description of the basic techniques (4 {pi} counter, defined solid angle, {beta}-{gamma} coincidences). (author) [French] Apres un bref rappel des proprietes des rayonnements nucleaires, on decrit les techniques fondamentales employees pour leur detection: autoradiographie, procedes utilisant l'ionisation des gaz (chambres d'ionisation, compteurs proportionnels, compteurs de Geiger-Muller), technique des scintillations. On expose le principe des differentes methodes de mesure concernant soit l'activite, soit l'energie absorbee (dosimetrie). Les techniques fondamentales (compteur 4 {pi}, angle solide defini, coincidences {beta}-{gamma}) sont ensuite decrites. (auteur)

  16. In situ trace element microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

  17. Biological fate of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in rats, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is the chemical widely used not only as the antioxidant for food additives but also as that for containers. 14C-BHT was administered orally to rats, and the subcellular distribution and the change of existence mode in course of time in kidneys were investigated, also the separation and identification of the metabolites in urine were tested. Radioactivity was determined with a liquid scintillation counter. Subcellular fractions were separated by the gel-filtration with Sephadex, and thin layer autoradiography was performed, and radioactive parts were confirmed. The radioactivity in each fraction of the reference group showed the highest 6 hours after the administration, and then it decreased rapidly, but the radioactivity in microsome fraction was the highest at 12 hours after the administration. Only BHT acids was identified out of the metabolites in urine by the thin layer autoradiography, and further investigation will be made about other metabolites. (Kobatake, H.)

  18. Autoradiographic localization of binding sites for [3H] γ-aminobutyrate, [3H] muscimol, (+) [3H] bicuculline methiodide and [3H] flunitrazepam in cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord were used to visualize sites for [3H]γ-aminobutyrate, [3H]muscimol, [3H]bicuculline methiodide and [3H] flunitrazepam by autoradiography. In cerebellar cultures, many large neurons (presumably Purkinje cells) and interneurons were labelled. In spinal cord cultures, these compounds were mainly bound to small and medium-sized neurons, whereas the majority of large neurons were unlabelled. No binding sites for these radioligands were found on glial cells. Binding of [3H]γ-aminobutyrate, [3H]muscimol and [3H]bicuculline methiodide was markedly reduced or inhibited by adding unlabelled γ-aminobutyrate, muscimol and bicuculline (10-3M) respectively to the incubation medium. Addition of a thienobenzazepine markedly reduced binding with [3H]flunitrazepam. It is concluded that tissues cultures are an excellent tool to visualize the cellular localization of binding sites for neurotransmitters and drugs using autoradiography. (author)

  19. Safety handling of 125I in animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope 125I in animal experiments is used for several purposes. One major problem with using 125I is to handle it extremely carefully. The careful handling is required when using 125I in animal experiments because of its higher evaporation and difficulty for sealing. When conducting animal experiments white using 125I, we have encountered several serious problems but have devised new techniques and methods for a long time. In this paper, we will describe the safety handling for requirements based on our experiments. The newly devised safety handling procedures are the following: a device for protecting isotope contamination during the preparation of the injectable solution, collection method of airborne radioactivity from the animals that were injected, enhancing the method for autoradiography of the whole body, finding of elusion of 125I from the tissues during fixative process, estimation of the exposed time for light microscopic autoradiography. (author)

  20. The effect of ground water - rock interactions on the migration of redox sensitive radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe interactions of redox sensitive elements with common Finnish rocks studied in the laboratory under oxic and anoxic conditions. They also describe sorption and diffusion of technetium, uranium, plutonium and neptunium studied in drill cores of granites and gneiss. Cylindrical drill core cup samples and plane surfaces sawed from drill cores were exposed for periods from six to eighteen months to synthetic groundwater to which Tc-99, U-233, Pu-236 or Np-237 had been added. Identification of the sorption and the diffusion pathways were discovered by qualitative autoradiography. The concentrations of elements versus depth in the drill core were measured radiometrically, by quantitative autoradiography or by both methods. The migration of plutonium was slow in all samples. Technetium, uranium and neptunium were transported effectively under both oxic and anoxid conditions. Transported species of these elements were found throughout the rock matrices investigated - in microfissures, along mineral grain boundaries and in the minerals themselves

  1. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...

  2. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  3. Spermatogenesis in Nereis diversicolor O.F. Mueller (Annelid Polychete) morphologic and autoradiographic study of nuclear evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of nuclear structure was related to DNA and RNA syntheses, visualized by high resolution autoradiography. In spermatogonia, the nucleus shows chromatin clumps, irregular in shape and size. At this stage, 3H-uridine and 3H-thymidine incorporation is very low. In premeiotic interphase spermatocytes, a typical nuclear evolution is found. During the G1 period, chromatin strands constitute a regular reticulum. Autoradiography performed at this stage indicates a huge increase in RNA synthesis. During the S period, chromatin undergoes extensive dispersion. The G2 period seems to be marked by nucleolar regression and decrease in RNA synthesis. The possible relation between increase of RNA synthesis at premeiotic interphase and the differentiation of meiotic cells is discussed

  4. Blood group glycolipids as epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, B J; Douglas, L J

    1996-01-01

    The role of glycosphingolipids as possible epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans was examined by investigating the binding of biotinylated yeasts to lipids extracted from human buccal epithelial cells and separated on thin-layer chromatograms. Binding was visualized by the addition of 125I-streptavidin followed by autoradiography. Five C. albicans strains thought from earlier work to have a requirement for fucose-containing receptors all bound to the same three components in the lipi...

  5. The mineralogy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document aims at making known to CEA geologists the main activity fields of the Mineralogy department by briefly recalling the principles of the implemented methods. It addresses the following methods: petrography, mineral microscopy and metallogeny, mineralogical analysis, autoradiography, thermal analysis, analytical chemistry, chromatography on paper, spectrographic methods (emission spectrography, atomic absorption spectrography), X rays (X ray diffraction, X fluorescence spectroscopy), the techniques of study of radioactive equilibriums or nuclear geology, analysis by neutron activation, and data processing in geology

  6. Digital imaging of autoradiographs from paintings by Georges de La Tour (1593-1652)

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, C O; Laurenze, C; Schmidt, C; Slusallek, K

    1999-01-01

    The artistic work of the painter Georges de La Tour has been studied very intensively in the last few years, mainly by French and US-American art historians and natural scientists. To support the in-depth analysis of two paintings from the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, two similar paintings from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin have been investigated. The method of neutron activation autoradiography has been applied using imaging plates with digital image processing.

  7. Modulation of sulfated proteoglycan synthesis by bovine aortic endothelial cells during migration

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The rates of 35S-sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan were compared in multi-scratch wounded and confluent cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells to determine whether proteoglycan synthesis is altered as cells are stimulated to migrate and proliferate. Incorporation was found to be stimulated in a time-dependent manner, reaching maximal levels 44-50 h after wounding, as cells migrated into wounded areas of the culture dish. Quantitative autoradiography of 35S- sulfate-labeled single-s...

  8. Autoradiographic and gamma spectrometric investigation of AlSi-1 microwire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For determining the homogeneity reeled-up wire (25 μm diameter) was activated for 90 h applying a neutron flux of 3 to 5 x 1013 n cm-2s-1. The activated impurities were identified by gamma spectrometry and by autoradiography after various decay times. The studies were performed with a view to improve the quality, in particular the ductility of AlSi-1 wire for bonding in microelectronics. (author)

  9. Production and characterization of a hybridoma-derived antibody to Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, K D; Larsh, H W

    1982-01-01

    A hybridoma cell line was isolated which produced monoclonal antibody to one protein component of a yeast-phase cytoplasmic antigenic complex of Blastomyces dermatitidis. The immunoglobulin M antibody product was characterized by immunodiffusion, autoradiography of polyacrylamide gels, and cellulose acetate electrophoresis. By attaching the antibody to an affinity gel, one major protein band was identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as the antigen for which the antibody was specific.

  10. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine-labeled proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabaqchali, S.; O'Farrell, S; Holland, D.; Silman, R

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of [35S]methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection a...

  11. In vitro study of the giant tubule collagen formation in bovine dentin by [3H]-proline incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unerupted permanent bovine incisors studied by routine autoradiography using radioactive proline incorporation revealed collagen formation within the giant tubules situated in the incisal dentin. A high [3H]-proline labeling was seen within the pulpal vascularized portion of the giant tubules, as well as in association with groups of cells immediately incisal to the blood vessel loops. The incisal portion of the giant tubules showed no or insignificant [3H]-proline labeling. (author)

  12. {beta}-ray photography of lyophilized animal sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Shigeo [Tokyo College of Pharmacy, Hachioji (Japan); Kimata, Hideki [Kowa Co. Ltd., Higashimurayama, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuzawa, Takashi [Nemeto Co. Ltd., Suginami-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-30

    A new photographic method that images the density distribution of lyophilized animal sections approximately 50 {mu}m in thickness is described. The new method involves sandwiching the animal section between a radiation sensor and a {sup 147}Pm planar radiation source. Either conventional photographic film or an imaging plate for radioluminography can be used as the sensor. The method described herein will find promising applications in whole body autoradiography as well as in the study of osteoporosis in experimental animals. (Author).

  13. β-ray photography of lyophilized animal sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new photographic method that images the density distribution of lyophilized animal sections approximately 50 μm in thickness is described. The new method involves sandwiching the animal section between a radiation sensor and a 147Pm planar radiation source. Either conventional photographic film or an imaging plate for radioluminography can be used as the sensor. The method described herein will find promising applications in whole body autoradiography as well as in the study of osteoporosis in experimental animals. (Author)

  14. Increased protein synthesis by cells exposed to a 1,800-MHz radio-frequency mobile phone electromagnetic field, detected by proteome profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Gerner, Christopher; Haudek, Verena; Schandl, Ulla; Bayer, Editha; Gundacker, Nina; Hutter, Hans Peter; Mosgoeller, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether or not low intensity radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EME) associated with mobile phone use can affect human cells, we used a sensitive proteome analysis method to study changes in protein synthesis in cultured human cells. Methods Four different cell kinds were exposed to 2 W/kg specific absorption rate in medium containing 35S-methionine/cysteine, and autoradiography of 2D gel spots was used to measure the increased synthesis of individual pr...

  15. Two-dimensional measurement of natural radioactivity of some Archean and Proterozoic rocks from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi/Hareyama, Mihoko

    2001-01-01

    The imaging plate is employed as a radiation sensor for obtaining two-dimensional radiation images of natural radioactivity. We used it to evaluate the autoradiography of several types of Archean and Proterozoic granitoids and ultramafic rocks from South Africa for obtaining the distribution of radiation emitters. The semiquantitative dose of natural radioactivity, represented by PSL value in the imaging plate measuring system (the intensity of photostimulated luminescence per unit area), is ...

  16. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine-labeled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of [35S]methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile

  17. Specific Dot-Immunobinding Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, Renato; Jerez, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    A specific and very sensitive dot-immunobinding assay for the detection and enumeration of the bioleaching microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was developed. Nitrocellulose spotted with samples was incubated with polyclonal antisera against whole T. ferrooxidans cells and then in 125I-labeled protein A or 125I-labeled goat antirabbit immunoglobulin G; incubation was followed by autoradiography. Since a minimum of 103 cells per dot could be detected, the method offers the possibility of si...

  18. Effect of carbenoxolone on the synthesis of glycoproteins and DNA in rat gastric epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    van Huis, G A; Kramer, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of carbenoxolone on the synthesis of glycoproteins in the surface mucous cells and the production of new cells in the rat gastric mucosa was studied by means of a vascular perfusion system. The rate of incorporation of tritiated galactose, glucosamine, serine, and sulphate in surface mucous cells, studied by autoradiography, was not affected by the addition of carbenoxolone to the drinking water. The sugar composition (determined by gas-liquid chromatography) of the gastric glyc...

  19. Axonal transport and incorporation of radioactivity after injection of N-[3H]acetyl-D-mannosamine into rat mesencephalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been performed to demonstrate the possibility of incorporation of sialic acid into nerve endings of the rubrospinal tract after antegrade axonal transport. Young adult rats received injections of N-[3H]acetyl-D-mannosamine into the red nucleus and axonal transport of the tritiated compounds along the axons of afferent and efferent connections of the red nucleus was studied and the transported material was analysed. Light microscopic autoradiography and biochemical methods were used. (Auth./C.F.)

  20. Short-term, high-efficiency expression of transfected DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Sussman, D J; Milman, G

    1984-01-01

    We have achieved high-efficiency uptake and expression of foreign DNA in mouse Ltk- cells by modifying the DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection method of McCutchan and Pagano (J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 42:351-357, 1968) to include an initial incubation at elevated pH followed by a shock treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. Up to 80% of mouse Ltk- cells transfected with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expressed thymidine kinase as measured by autoradiography.

  1. Potassium determination in antique glasses by means of radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive methods are very important in investigations of antique objects. The main purpose of that work was to compare two radiometric methods which were used for determination of potassium in glasses. In the radiometric methods the natural radioactivity of potassium isotope 40K was used. Samples of glasses were examined by autoradiography and gamma spectrometry. The precissions of mentioned methods, possibilities, limitation and restriction using them in investigations of antique glasses were determined. (author)

  2. Identification of two germ-tube-specific cell wall antigens of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponton, J; J. M. Jones

    1986-01-01

    Outer cell wall layers of intact yeast- and mycelial-phase Candida albicans B311 were extracted with dithiothreitol. Antisera against mycelial-phase organisms were absorbed with yeast-phase organisms or yeast-phase extract and used to stain Western blots of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels loaded with yeast- and mycelial-phase extracts. Autoradiography of gels loaded with extracts from organisms surface labeled with 125I was used to detect surface antigens containing proteins. Antig...

  3. Brain Maps on the Go: Functional Imaging During Motor Challenge in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Maarek, J-M I

    2008-01-01

    Brain mapping in the freely-moving animal is useful for studying motor circuits, not only because it avoids the potential confound of sedation or restraints, but because activated brain states may serve to accentuate differences that only manifest partially while a subject is in the resting state. Perfusion or metabolic mapping using autoradiography allows one to examine changes in brain function at the circuit level across the entire brain with a spatial resolution (∼100 microns) appropriate...

  4. Membrane-associated phosphoproteins in Plasmodium berghei-infected murine erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Normal and Plasmodium berghei (NYU-2 strain)-infected murine erythrocytes display substantially different patterns of plasma membrane phosphoproteins phosphorylation. Intact erythrocytes (normal and parasite infected) incubated with 32Pi and isolated washed erythrocyte plasma membranes incubated with gamma-32P-ATP were analyzed for phosphoproteins by SDS PAGE and autoradiography. Two new phosphoproteins of molecular weight 45,000 (pp45) and 68,000 (pp68), which are absent in normal erythrocyt...

  5. Chloroplast phosphoproteins: distribution of phosphoproteins within spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of phosphoproteins within spinach chloroplasts was studied. Intact chloroplasts with good rates of CO2-dependent oxygen evolution were fed (γ-32P)ATP and then separated into stroma and membrane fractions. Only one major labelled stroma protein was identified by gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, with a mol. wt. of 66000. The membranes were separated into envelopes and thylakoid fractions. Three labelled proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis in the envelope with mol. wt. of 50500, 29000 and 13000. (author)

  6. Cryosectioning of undecalcified tissues for immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijntjes, N V; Van de Putte, L B; Van der Pol, M; Guelen, P J

    1979-01-01

    The present report describes a procedure for preparing 4--6 micrometers cryostat sections of undecalcified fresh frozen tissue which contain hard tissue, for immunofluorescence. The apparatus used is a cryomicrotome originally designed for cutting sections for whole body autoradiography. To obtain cryostat sections suitable for tissue immunofluorescence the standard procedure was modified with respect to the hardness and edges of the microtome knife, the temperature of the cryostat and the carboxymethyl cellulose concentration of the embedding material. PMID:387879

  7. DNA repair synthesis in human skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation used in PUVA (psoralen and UV-A) therapy for psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultraviolet radiation used in psoralen and UV-A (PUVA) therapy stimulated DNA repair activity in normal human skin and in the uninvolved skin from psoriatic patients. The activity detected by autoradiography increased linearly with exposure time. No stimulation was observed when the UV-B component was removed from the incident radiation by filtration through glass. Therefore UV-B damage to DNA was found responsible for the activity detected following exposure to the unfiltered PUVA light source. (author)

  8. 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptor binding levels are related to differences in impulsive behavior in the Roman Low- (RLA) and High- (RHA) avoidance rat strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Ultved, L; Adamsen, D;

    2014-01-01

    serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding using highly specific radioligands ((3)H-escitalopram, (3)H-MDL100907 and (3)H-WAY100635) and mGlu2/3 receptor binding ((3)H-LY341495) using receptor autoradiography in fronto-cortical sections from RLA-I (n=8) and RHA-I (n=8) male rats...

  9. Insulin, not C-peptide (proinsulin), is present in crinophagic bodies of the pancreatic B-cell

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    We have obtained evidence by autoradiography and immunocytochemistry that mature secretory granules of the pancreatic B-cell gain access to a lysosomal compartment (multigranular or crinophagic bodies) where the secretory granule content is degraded. Whereas the mature secretory granule content shows both insulin and C-peptide (proinsulin) immunoreactivities, in crinophagic bodies only insulin, but not C- peptide, immunoreactivity was detectable. The absence of C-peptide (proinsulin) immunore...

  10. Complete in vitro DNA replication of SV40 chromatin in digitonin-treated permeable cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Oda,Takuzo; Watanabe,Sekiko; Hanakawa,Shiro; Nakamura, Takashi

    1980-01-01

    A permeable cell system has been developed by treatment with digitonin for studying in vitro DNA replication of chromatin. DNA replication of simian virus 40 nucleoprotein complexes (SV40 chromatin) in digitonin-treated permeable cells was analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose-gel. Autoradiography of the agarose-gel revealed that [32P]dCTP was incorporated in SV40 DNA I, II and replicating intermediates. The time course of the incorporation indicated the complete replication of SV40 DNA and ...

  11. Datenakquisitionsentwicklung und Untergrundstudien für den Weltraumdetektor AMS-02 und den CMOS-Detektor MIMOSA-V

    OpenAIRE

    Schmanau, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of space qualified electronics, detector simulations and realtime data acquisition software. The covered detector designs reach from the AMS-02 experiment, as a large scale multi purpose detector with several sub-detectors for cosmic particle research, to the small single type CMOS-detector MIMOSA-V for autoradiography of micro-arrays within the REGINS project. The presented background study focuses on problems with the simulation of diffractive scattering.

  12. Latent insulin receptors and possible receptor precursors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, P J; Wan, C F; Rosen, O M; Rubin, C S

    1983-01-01

    Cell surface and cryptic insulin receptors were solubilized from the particulate fraction of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes with buffer containing 1% Triton X-100. Solubilized receptors were affinity crosslinked with 125I-labeled insulin and disuccinimidyl suberate and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography after specific immunoprecipitation. Two insulin-binding polypeptides were identified: the more abundant protein had a Mr of 130,000, corre...

  13. Data summary report for the destructive examination of Rods G7, G9, J8, I9, and H6 from Turkey Point Fuel Assembly B17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R B; Pasupathi, V

    1981-04-01

    Destructive examination results of five spent fuel rods from a Turkey Point Unit 3 pressurized water reactor are reported. Examinations included fission gas analysis, cladding hydrogen content analysis, fuel burnup analysis, metallographic examination, autoradiography and shielded electron microprobe analysis. All rods were found to be of sound integrity with an average burnup of 27 GWd/MTU and a 0.3% fission gas release.

  14. Elastic atlas registration of β- autoradiograms using scattered data interpolators

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, J.; Wells, K.; Metaxas, A; Bailey, A; Kitchen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Autoradiography is a widely extended pre-clinical nuclear imaging modality used in life sciences to investigate and localise radiolabelled biological pathways in thin ex-vivo tissue sections. After the tissue section has been exposed to an ionising radiation detector the resulting labelled regions are subsequently analysed. Typically, the resulting autoradiograms are analysed manually by an expert life scientists using a visual template as reference to measure the different radioligand uptake...

  15. Late stage of weathering of uranium ores as a waste rock after historical silver mining, Joachimsthal, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 450-year old dump after mining of silver ores with significant contents of radionuclides was studied as an analog of modern waste rock dumps after mining of uranium. Migration of radionuclides in the dump and underwards and radioactive disequilibrium were measured using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. The localization and bond of radionuclides were studied by means of alpha-autoradiography. Weathering of selected grains of uranyl phosphates was described. (author)

  16. 111In-cetuximab as a diagnostic agent by accessible epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor targeting in human metastatic colorectal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Lee, Shin-Yu; Chiang, Ping-Fang; Yao, Cheng-Jung; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal adenocarcinoma is a common cause death cancer in the whole world. The aim of this study is to define the 111In-cetuximab as a diagnosis tracer of human colorectal adenocarcinoma. In this research, cell uptake, nano-SPECT/CT scintigraphy, autoradiography, biodistribution and immunohitochemical staining of EGF receptor were included. HCT-116 and HT-29 cell expressed a relatively high and moderate level of EGF receptor, respectively. The nano-SPECT/CT image of 111In-cetuximab showed t...

  17. Biochemical and electrophysiological evidence of functional vasopressin receptors in the rat superior cervical ganglion.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiraly, M; Audigier, S; Tribollet, E; Barberis, C; Dolivo, M; Dreifuss, J J

    1986-01-01

    Binding of radioactive vasopressin--but not of oxytocin--was detected by autoradiography and by labeling of membranes obtained from the rat superior cervical ganglion. In both instances binding could be displaced by V1 (smooth muscle-type) but not by V2 (kidney-type) agonists, indicating that the ganglionic vasopressin receptors are similar to those present on hepatocytes and vascular smooth muscle. In accordance with the V1 character of the receptors, vasopressin activated the turnover of me...

  18. Receptor binding sites for substance P, but not substance K or neuromedin K, are expressed in high concentrations by arterioles, venules, and lymph nodules in surgical specimens obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Mantyh, C R; Gates, T S; Zimmerman, R P; Welton, M L; Passaro, E P; Vigna, S R; Maggio, J E; Kruger, L.; Mantyh, P W

    1988-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that tachykinin neuropeptides [substance P (SP), substance K (SK), and neuromedin K (NK)] play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses. To test this hypothesis in a human inflammatory disease, quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to examine possible abnormalities in tachykinin binding sites in surgical specimens from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Surgical specimens of colon were obtained from patients with ulcerative ...

  19. Comparison of intravenous and intraperitoneal [123I]IBZM injection for dopamine D2 receptor imaging in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Intraperitoneal (IP) injection represents an attractive alternative route of radiotracer administration for small animal imaging, e.g., for longitudinal studies in transgenic mouse models. We explored the cerebral kinetics of the reversible dopamine D2 receptor ligand [123I]IBZM after IP injection in mice. Methods: Cerebral [123I]IBZM kinetics were assessed by ex vivo autoradiography in mice sacrificed between 30 and 200 min after IP or intravenous (IV) injection. The striatum-to-cerebellum (S/C) uptake ratio at 140 min was evaluated in wild-type mice and R6/2 transgenic mice (a Huntington's disease model) in comparison with in vitro autoradiography using [3H]raclopride. Results: [123I]IBZM uptake was slower and lower after IP injection [maximum uptake in striatum 5.6% injected dose per gram (ID/g) at 60 min] than IV injection (10.5%ID/g at 30 min). Between 60 and 120 min, striatal (cerebellar) uptake after IP injection reached 63% (91%) of the uptake after IV injection. The S/C uptake ratio increased to 15.5 at 200 min after IP injection, which corresponds to 87% of the IV injection value (17.8). Consistent with in vitro [3H]raclopride autoradiography, the S/C ratio given by ex vivo [123I]IBZM autoradiography (140 min after IP injection) was significantly reduced in R6/2 mice. Conclusions: Although IP injection resulted in slower kinetics, relevant measures of dopamine D2 receptor availability were comparable. Thus, IP injection represents a promising route of tracer administration for small animal [123I]IBZM SPECT. This should considerably simplify the implementation of longitudinal small animal neuroimaging studies, e.g., in transgenic mouse models

  20. A method for the assessment of specific energy distribution in a model tumor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the short range of alpha particles in tissue, the calculation of dose from internally deposited alpha emitters requires a detailed analysis of the microscopic distribution of the radionuclide in order to determine the spatial distribution of energy emission events and, from this, the spatial distribution of dose. In the present study, the authors used quantitative autoradiography (QAR) to assess the microdistribution of a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment in human glioma xenografts in mice

  1. Digital imaging of autoradiographs from paintings by Georges de La Tour (1593-1652)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The artistic work of the painter Georges de La Tour has been studied very intensively in the last few years, mainly by French and US-American art historians and natural scientists. To support the in-depth analysis of two paintings from the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, two similar paintings from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin have been investigated. The method of neutron activation autoradiography has been applied using imaging plates with digital image processing

  2. [18F]p-MPPF: A Radiolabeled Antagonist for the Study of 5-HT1A Receptors with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the present status of the researches conducted with [18F]4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-[N-(2''-pyridinyl)-p-fluoro benzamido]ethyl] -piperazine known as [18F]p-MPPF, a new 5-HT1A antagonist for the study of the serotonergic neurotransmission with positron emission tomography (PET). This includes chemistry, radiochemistry, animal data (rats, cats, and monkeys) with autoradiography and PET, human data with PET, toxicity, and metabolism

  3. Structural changes accompanying phosphorylation of tarantula muscle myosin filaments

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Electron microscopy has been used to study the structural changes that occur in the myosin filaments of tarantula striated muscle when they are phosphorylated. Myosin filaments in muscle homogenates maintained in relaxing conditions (ATP, EGTA) are found to have nonphosphorylated regulatory light chains as shown by urea/glycerol gel electrophoresis and [32P]phosphate autoradiography. Negative staining reveals an ordered, helical arrangement of crossbridges in these filaments, in which the hea...

  4. Characterization of the heat shock response in Brucella abortus and isolation of the genes encoding the GroE heat shock proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J.; Adams, L G; Ficht, T A

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to define the heat shock response in the bovine intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus, a rough variant lacking extensive lipopolysaccharide was pulse-labeled with [35S]methionine following exposure to elevated temperatures. The major heat shock proteins observed following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography migrate at 70, 62, 18, and 10 kDa. The maximum response was observed between 42 and 46 degrees C and within 2 to 3 h of the shif in...

  5. Demonstration of the uptake of 35S by chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are two methods of evaluation of the uptake of 30S by chondrosarcomas, i.e. autoradiography and external monitoring of the Bremsstrahlung. A higher concentration of sulfur in the tumor area of three patients was demonstrated after the injection of aliquots of both diagnostic and therapeutic activities. Apart from the simple handling and the quickly obtained results, the external monitoring of the Bremsstrahlung permits quantitative evaluation of the degree of uptake and a simple control over the progress of therapy. (orig.)

  6. Simultaneous identification of Trypanosoma cruzi surface and internal antigens reactive to different immunoglobulin classes (radio-immunoblotting) Identificação simultânea de antígenos internos e de superfície de Trypanosoma cruzi reativos para diferentes classes de imunoglobulinas (radio-immunoblotting)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Simonsen Stolf; Eufrosina Setsu Umezawa; Bianca Zingales

    1990-01-01

    A radioactive Western-blotting technique was developed by which the reactivity of Immunoglobulins (Igs) from different classes to both membrane radiolabelled and internal parasite antigens is simultaneously identified. The method includes radioiodination of parasites, polypeptide fractionation by SDS-PAGE, Western-blot transfer and autoradiography of the immunoblots developed with anti-Igs conjugates labelled with enzymes. The analysis is then performed by the comparison of common bands on th...

  7. Molecular imaging: Bridging the gap between neuroradiology and neurohistology

    OpenAIRE

    Heckl, S; Pipkorn, R.; Nägele, T; Vogel, U; Küker, W.; Voigt, K.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, in vivo imaging methods have largely relied on imaging gross anatomy. More recently it has become possible to depict biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. These new research methods use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), near-infrared optical imaging, scintigraphy, and autoradiography in vivo and in vitro. Of primary interest is the development of methods using MRI and PET with which the progr...

  8. Autoradiographic images in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to summarize the autoradiographic study performed to samples from different protocols of the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The qualitative analysis of histological and autoradiographic images, together with the determination of the boron concentration in the different structures of tumor, premalignant tissue and normal tissue contributed to the knowledge of the microdistribution of boron compounds. Besides, the study led to the optimization of the autoradiography technique applied to BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (author)

  9. Distribution of [14C]-labelled aflatoxin B1 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of [14C]-labelled aflatoxin B1 has been studied in mice with the aid of whole-body autoradiography. In addition to the localisation of labelled aflatoxin B1 and/or its metabolites in the liver, bile, kidney, lung and urine an uptake of 14C in the pigment of the Harderian gland and the eye was observed. Uptake of radioactivity was also found in the eyes of the foetuses although their livers did not accumulate radioactivity. (author)

  10. Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Wright, Ernest M.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2012-01-01

    Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG ...

  11. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabaqchali, S.; O' Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile.

  12. Bulk characterization of (U, Pu) mixed carbide fuel for distribution of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, K. V. Vrinda, E-mail: kvvdevi@barc.gov.in; Khan, K. B. [Radiometallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400094 (India); Biju, K. [Health physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400094 (India); Kumar, Arun [Nuclear fuels group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400094 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Homogeneous distribution of plutonium in (U, Pu) mixed fuels is important from fuel performance as well as reprocessing point of view. Radiation imaging and assay techniques are employed for the detection of Pu rich agglomerates in the fuel. A simulation study of radiation transport was carried out to analyse the technique of autoradiography so as to estimate the minimum detectability of Pu agglomerates in MC fuel with nominal PuC content of 70% using Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. [Penetration of polyene antibiotics into human embryonic kidney tissue cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, L S; Sokolov, V N; Vaĭnshteĭn, V A; Diment, A V; Tereshin, I M

    1977-12-01

    Penetration of 14C-amphotericin AM-2 into the cells of the tissue culture of the human embryon kidneys was studied by means of light autoradiography after incubation with the antibiotic. Microscopic examination of the autographs of the cell slices revealed the presence of the radioactive label in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the cells. The revealed intracellular localization of the label was evident of the antibiotic penetration into the cells. PMID:596858

  14. South Africa: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa has a rich cultural history with ample opportunities for Neutron Imaging to be applied in Archaeological and Palaeontological studies as depicted in the references. Through this collaboration the NI and CH communities are united to introduce neutron induced Autoradiography of paintings as new analytical technique to South Africa. The outcome is foreseen to be a database on NI techniques and applications in CH as well as and exhibition at a museum to showcase the scientific collaborations

  15. In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

  16. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  17. A method for the assessment of specific energy distribution in a model tumor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noska, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the short range of alpha particles in tissue, the calculation of dose from internally deposited alpha emitters requires a detailed analysis of the microscopic distribution of the radionuclide in order to determine the spatial distribution of energy emission events and, from this, the spatial distribution of dose. In the present study, the authors used quantitative autoradiography (QAR) to assess the microdistribution of a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment in human glioma xenografts in mice.

  18. Antimicrobial action of an endophytic fungi from Sophor flavescens and structure identification of its active constituent

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Na; He, Lu; Liu, Na; Wang, Yong; Xu, Hongbo; Liu, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungus BS002 was isolated and characterized from Sophora flavescens by plate method, which has broad antimicrobial activity. Isolation and trace of a new bioactive compound from the fungus’ culture extracts with the method of column chromatography and TLC biological autoradiography was conducted. Finally, it was identified as 6,7-(2′E) dibutenyl-5,8-dihydroxy-(Z)-cyclooct-2-ene-1,4-dione by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The compou...

  19. A format for databasing and comparison of AFLP fingerprint profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Chuah Aaron; Hong Yan

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a PCR-based technique that involves restriction of genomic DNA followed by ligation of adaptors to the fragments generated and selective PCR amplification of a subset of these fragments. The amplified fragments are separated on a sequencing gel and visualized by autoradiography or fluorescent sequencing equipment. AFLP allows high-resolution genotyping but the lack of a format for databasing and comparison of AFLP fingerprin...

  20. The distribution of 35S-sulfadiazine and 14C-trimethoprim in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 35S-labelled sulfadiazine and 14C-labelled trimethoprim was studied in rainbow trout by use of whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation. As compared to mammals, gastrointestinal absorption and elimination were slow. Accumulation in the skin and the uveal tract of the eye was observed for both drugs tested. The results also indicated that the bile was an important route of excretion. Considerable radioactivity was still present in the skin at 144 hr. survival time. (author)

  1. Distribution of somatostatin receptors in normal and neoplastic human tissues: recent advances and potential relevance.

    OpenAIRE

    Reubi, J. C.; Schaer, J C; Markwalder, R.; Waser, B; Horisberger, U.; Laissue, J

    1997-01-01

    This short review describes the localization of somatostatin receptors with in vitro receptor autoradiography techniques in several non-classical, normal human somatostatin target tissues as well as in selected human tumors. In addition to brain, gut and neuroendocrine localizations, somatostatin receptors are expressed in most lymphatic tissues, including gut-associated lymphatic tissue, spleen and thymus; in the cortical and medullary area of the kidney; in the stroma of the prostate and in...

  2. Root-Uptake of C-14 Acetic Acid by Various Plants and C-14 Dynamics Surrounding the Experimental Tessera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 (C-14, t1/2 = 5.73x103 yrs) from radioactive waste is one of the most important radioactive nuclides for environmental assessment in the context of geological disposal, and understanding the transfer of radioactive elements to plants is essential for public health safety. In order to obtain fundamental knowledge, culture experiments using marigold (Tagetes patula L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea S.), paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants were conducted to examine root-uptake and dynamics of C-14 in the laboratory. The C-14 radioactivity in each plant part (e.g. shoot, root, edible part, etc.), medium (e.g. culture solution, sand, etc.), and air was determined. The distribution of C-14 in the plants was visualized using autoradiography. For a comparison, autoradiography was also done using Na-22. Results of the present study indicated that C-14 labeled CO2 gas was released from the culture solution to the atmosphere. Clear autoradiography images were observed in plants for the shoots and lower roots which were soaked in the culture solution. The upper roots which were not soaked in the culture solution were not clearly imaged. In the radiotracer experiment using Na-22, a clear image was observed for the whole carrot seedling, even including the upper root, on the autoradiography. However, the amounts of C-14 acetic acid absorbed by all the plants through their roots were considered to be very small. Inorganic carbon transformed from C-14 acetic acid would be taken up by plants through the roots, and some fraction of C-14 would be assimilated into the shoots by photosynthesis. (authors)

  3. Physiology of the Rhizobium-legume association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhizobium deoxyribonucleic acid has been detected within Vicia faba root cells by in situ hybridization and autoradiography after exposure of root apexes to Rhizobium viable cells. Reannealed regions are localized in the cortex cells; the presence of bacterial DNA is specific for the root tissue; labelled regions were not detectable within apexes exposed to non-nodulating strains or to bacteria other than Rhizobium; Rhizobium DNA was not detectable in tissues of plants other than its leguminous host

  4. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( [3H]DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. [3H]DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of [3H]DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of [3H] DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT

  5. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of [125I]EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of [125I]EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of [125I]EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland

  6. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  7. Direct comparison of phosphate uptake by adnate and loosely attached microalgae within an intact biofilm matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, J.M.; Wetzel, R.G. (Michigan State Univ., Hickory Corners (USA)); Klomparens, K.L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-09-01

    We report a direct comparison of phosphate uptake by adnate and loosely attached microalgae in an intact biofilm matrix, with resolution at the level of individual cells. Track scanning electron microscope autoradiography enabled assay of ({sup 33}P)phosphate uptake from the overlying water by adnate algae left undisturbed on mature leaves of the macrophyte Potamogeton illinoensis or on artificial plant mimics. The epiphyte communities developed in either phosphate-poor or moderately phosphate-enriched water, and they were assayed on both natural and artificial plants. All adnate taxa examined from both natural and artificial plants in both habitats took up significantly less radiolabel when assayed beneath the overlying matrix than when they were exposed to the water upon removal of the overstory material. Track scanning electron microscope autoradiography and track light microscope autoradiography were intercalibrated to enable comparison of ({sup 33}P)phosphate uptake by adnate and loosely attached components of the epiphyte matrix. Loosley attached cells on substrata from both habitats took up significantly more radiolabel than did underlying adnate cells, indicating that access to phosphate supplies from the water depended on the position of microbial cells in the matrix. In this short-term assay, the adnate microalgae were relatively isolated from the water column nutrient source.

  8. Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat

  9. Use of 75Se tracer and autoradiographic techniques in the study of schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an overview of recent studies on the use of 75Se to tag larval schistosomes and to monitor their migration and distribution patterns in naive mice and those previously exposed to cercariae. The principles and techniques of radioassay and autoradiography in studying various aspects of 75Se-labelled larval schistosomes are described. The main shortcoming of radioassay in monitoring location and movement of labelled schistosomula is that some of the label dissociates from the schistosomula and accumulates in host tissues, notably the liver. Dissociated label is indistinguishable from schistosomula-bound label making monitoring of parasite migration extremely difficult. This difficulty is overcome by compressed tissue autoradiography where labelled schistosomula can be seen as reduced silver foci on an autoradiographic film, whereas dissociated label is too diffusely distributed to produce such reduced silver foci. Furthermore, using autoradiography, quantitative information on parasite migration in normal and immunized laboratory animals can be obtained that would be impossible using traditional recovery techniques. In addition to using 75Se tracer in migration studies, the radio-isotope has potential for elucidating various aspects of schistosome transmission ecology and snail population dynamics in natural waters. (author)

  10. Use of /sup 75/Se tracer and autoradiographic techniques in the study of schistosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandiwana, S.K. (New York State Veterinary Coll., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The paper provides an overview of recent studies on the use of /sup 75/Se to tag larval schistosomes and to monitor their migration and distribution patterns in naive mice and those previously exposed to cercariae. The principles and techniques of radioassay and autoradiography in studying various aspects of /sup 75/Se-labelled larval schistosomes are described. The main shortcoming of radioassay in monitoring location and movement of labelled schistosomula is that some of the label dissociates from the schistosomula and accumulates in host tissues, notably the liver. Dissociated label is indistinguishable from schistosomula-bound label making monitoring of parasite migration extremely difficult. This difficulty is overcome by compressed tissue autoradiography where labelled schistosomula can be seen as reduced silver foci on an autoradiographic film, whereas dissociated label is too diffusely distributed to produce such reduced silver foci. Furthermore, using autoradiography, quantitative information on parasite migration in normal and immunized laboratory animals can be obtained that would be impossible using traditional recovery techniques. In addition to using /sup 75/Se tracer in migration studies, the radio-isotope has potential for elucidating various aspects of schistosome transmission ecology and snail population dynamics in natural waters. (author).

  11. Localization of 3H-glucosamine and 35S-sulfate in the hamster retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization of 3H-glucosamine and 35S-sulfate in the hamster retina was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Exposed silver grains were concentrated in the nerve fiber, inner plexiform, outer plexiform and inner segment layers. The heaviest labeling was observed over the inner segment layer in the glucosamine experiment and over the nerve fiber layers in the sulfate experiment. Specimens from 12- and 16-day-old hamsters showed slightly heavier labeling than did those from adult animals. In the electron microscopic autoradiography using 3H-glucosamine, grains were initially associated with the retinal pigment epithelium, the inner segment and the Mueller cell and were subsequently displaced into the spaces between the retinal pigment epithelium and the outer segment and into the nerve fiber layers. The labelled sulfates in the electron microscopic autoradiography were seen in the nerve fiber, plexiform and photoreceptor layers. These data indicate that glycosaminoglycans may be synthesized in the retinal pigment epithelium, the inner segment and the Mueller cell. (author)

  12. Quantitative radioimmunohistochemical method using [125I]-protein A to measure the content of methionine enkephalin in discrete rat brain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a quantitative radioimmunohistochemical method, using [125I]-protein A in combination with a specific antibody to methionine enkephalin (Met-enk), for determination of the content of this peptide in discrete areas of rat brain. After paraformaldehyde fixation, rat brain sections were incubated with a Met-enk polyclonal antibody, followed by incubation with [125I]-protein A. After autoradiography with 3H-sensitive Ultrofilm, optical densities (OD) were quantified by computerized microdensitometry. The OD obtained were compared to a standard curve, constructed after determination by radioimmunoassay of the Met-enk content in corresponding brain areas from adjacent tissue sections. After comparing 15 different brain areas over a ninetyfold range of concentrations, we found a linear relationship between the content of Met-enk, as determined by radioimmunoassay, and the OD generated by autoradiography. The content of Met-enk in other discrete brain areas can be quantified by interpolation of the OD determined by autoradiography in the standard curve. The method allows, for the first time, precise quantification of peptide concentrations in discrete areas and nuclei from thin sections of rat brain. This technique has a more than 100-fold higher sensitivity than classical radioimmunoassays, with the additional advantage of neuroanatomical localization. It also has the potential for application to the quantification of many other antigens present in brain and other tissues

  13. Direct comparison of phosphate uptake by adnate and loosely attached microalgae within an intact biofilm matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a direct comparison of phosphate uptake by adnate and loosely attached microalgae in an intact biofilm matrix, with resolution at the level of individual cells. Track scanning electron microscope autoradiography enabled assay of [33P]phosphate uptake from the overlying water by adnate algae left undisturbed on mature leaves of the macrophyte Potamogeton illinoensis or on artificial plant mimics. The epiphyte communities developed in either phosphate-poor or moderately phosphate-enriched water, and they were assayed on both natural and artificial plants. All adnate taxa examined from both natural and artificial plants in both habitats took up significantly less radiolabel when assayed beneath the overlying matrix than when they were exposed to the water upon removal of the overstory material. Track scanning electron microscope autoradiography and track light microscope autoradiography were intercalibrated to enable comparison of [33P]phosphate uptake by adnate and loosely attached components of the epiphyte matrix. Loosley attached cells on substrata from both habitats took up significantly more radiolabel than did underlying adnate cells, indicating that access to phosphate supplies from the water depended on the position of microbial cells in the matrix. In this short-term assay, the adnate microalgae were relatively isolated from the water column nutrient source

  14. Detection of genetic variation with radioactive ligands. II. Genetic variants of vitamin D-labeled group-specific component (Gc) proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique for detecting electrophoretic and quantitative variants of group-specific component (Gc) proteins is described. The technique, in vitro labeling with radioactive vitamin D followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography (PAGE autoradiography), permits sensitive, high resolution detection of Gc variants by virtue of a physiologically significant property: the ability of Gc to bind vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Using this procedure, anodal Gc variants, with mobility similar to Gc Aborigine and Gc Eskimo, were observed in Chinese, Japanese, African Pygmies, and American Blacks. The gene frequency of these variants ranges from 2.6% to 15%; they were not previously known to be polymorphic in these populations. In addition to qualitative variants, individual variation in Gc band density ratios is documented and discussed. These studies not only illustrate the utility of PAGE autoradiography in screening Gc, but also confirm that a major functional role of Gc in man and other animals is the transport of vitamin D and vitamin D metabolites

  15. Tissue distribution of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and its metabolites in F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tissue distribution of the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in the F344 rat was studied by whole-body autoradiography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of the wholebody autoradiography experiments indicate that the substance is able to freely cross biological membranes and reach all tissues of the body. A high level of tissue-bound metabolites occurred in the mucosa of the ethmoturbinates, in the lung, and the liver, which are the targets for the carcinogenicity of NNK in F344 rats. However, tissue-bound radioactivity was also present in non-target tissues such as the lateral nasal gland(Steno's gland), the tracheal mucosa, and the mucosa of the nasopharyngeal duct. A high level of unbound radioactivity occurred in the preputial gland, submaxillary and adrenal glands, and the urinary and gastrointestinal systems. High localization of unbound radioactivity was observed in the stomach lumen not only after p.o. but also after i.v. administration of NNK. Analysis of extracts of the stomach contents by high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that, due to their basicity, NNK and its metabolites were trapped in the gastric juice and later reabsorbed from the intestinal tract. Analysis of unbound metabolites in various tissues and in the urine after i.v. or p.o. administration of [carbonyl-14C]NNK indicated metabolism and excretion of products resulting from alpha-carbon hydroxylation, carbonyl reduction, and pyridine N-oxidation of NNK. In vitro autoradiography experiments showed that NNK is metabolized in the mucosa of the ethmoturbinates, the lung, and the liver, suggesting that the tumors are induced by metabolites formed locally in the target tissues. In the lung, the labeling was higher in the bronchial tree than in the lung parenchyma

  16. Development of the preoptic area: time and site of origin, migratory routes, and settling patterns of its neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the rat preoptic area were examined with [3H]thymidine autoradiography. For neurogenesis, the experimental animals were the offspring of pregnant females given an injection of [3H]thymidine on two consecutive gestational days. Nine groups were exposed to [3H]thymidine on embryonic days E13-E14, E14-E15, E21-E22, respectively. On postnatal day P5, the percentage of labeled cells and the proportion of cells originating during 24-hr periods were quantified at four anteroposterior levels in the preoptic area. Throughout most of the preoptic area there is a lateral to medial neurogenetic gradient. Neurons originate between E12-E15 in the lateral preoptic area, between E13-E16 in the medial preoptic area, between E14-E17 in the medial preoptic nucleus, and between E15-E18 in the periventricular nucleus. These structures also have intrinsic dorsal to ventral neurogenetic gradients. There are two atypical structures: (1) the sexually dimorphic nucleus originates exceptionally late (E15-E19) and is located more lateral to the ventricle than older neurons; (2) in the median preoptic nucleus, where older neurons (E13-E14) are located closer to the third ventricle than younger neurons (E14-E17). For an autoradiographic study of morphogenesis, pregnant females were given a single injection of [3H]thymidine during gestation, and their embryos were removed either two hrs later (short survival) or in successive 24-hr periods (sequential survival). Short-survival autoradiography was used to locate the putative neuroepithelial sources of preoptic nuclei, and sequential survival autoradiography was used to trace the migratory waves of young neurons and their final settling locations. The preoptic neuroepithelium is located anterior to and in the front wall of the optic recess

  17. Evaluation of [123I]-CLINDE as a potent SPECT radiotracer to assess the degree of astroglia activation in cuprizone-induced neuroinflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and sensitivity of the high-affinity translocator protein (TSPO) ligand [123I]-CLINDE in imaging TSPO changes in vivo and characterise and compare astroglial and TSPO changes in the cuprizone model of demyelination and remyelination in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed with cuprizone for 4 weeks to induce demyelination followed by 2-4 weeks of standard diet (remyelination). Groups of mice were followed by in vivo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging using [123I]-CLINDE and uptake correlated with biodistribution, autoradiography, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The uptake of [123I]-CLINDE in the brain as measured by SPECT imaging over the course of treatment reflects the extent of the physiological response, with significant increases observed during demyelination followed by a decrease in uptake during remyelination. This was confirmed by autoradiography and biodistribution studies. A positive correlation between TSPO expression and astrogliosis was found and both activated astrocytes and microglial cells expressed TSPO. [123I]-CLINDE uptake reflects astrogliosis in brain structures such as corpus callosum, caudate putamen, medium septum and olfactory tubercle as confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo results. The dynamics in the cuprizone-induced astroglial and TSPO changes, observed by SPECT imaging, were confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and autoradiography. The highly specific TSPO radioiodinated ligand CLINDE can be used as an in vivo marker for early detection and monitoring of a variety of neuropathological conditions using noninvasive brain imaging techniques. (orig.)

  18. In vivo and in vitro detection of dopamine d2 receptors in uveal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodei, Lisa; Hofland, Leo J; Ferone, Diego; Mooy, Cornelia M; Kros, Johan M; Paridaens, Dion A; Baarsma, Seerp G; Ferdeghini, Marco; Van Hagen, Martin P; Krenning, Eric P; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2003-12-01

    Scintigraphy with radiolabeled benzamides was used in melanoma patients. Studies with a newer benzamide called 123I-epidepride, a high-affinity D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, showed high sensitivity in D2R-positive pituitary adenomas. We evaluated the presence of D2R in patients with uveal melanomas in vivo with 123I-epidepride, and in vitro in melanomas, using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and 125I-epidepride autoradiography. We studied the in vivo tumor-to-background (TB) ratios in six patients with posterior uveal melanoma (one previously enucleated). IHC was performed in 3 of 6 tumors after enucleation and in another 20 uveal melanomas, 7 metastatic lymph nodes from skin melanoma, and 2 normal specimens. 125I-epidepride autoradiography was performed in 10 uveal melanomas (3 of which were studied in vivo), 7 metastases, and 2 normal samples. Radioligand uptake was present in the affected eye of 5 patients with uveal melanoma (TB = 3.1-6.1) and absent in the operated one (TB = 1). Eight uveal tumors were positive at IHC (35%), 14 weakly positive (61%), and 1 negative (4%). Two metastases were positive (29%), 2 weakly positive (29%), and 3 negative (42%). Two uveal tumors were positive at autoradiography (20%), 7 had nonspecific binding (70%), and 1 was negative (10%). One metastasis was positive (14%), while 6 were negative (86%). 123I-epidepride scintigraphy in uveal melanomas seems promising for sensitivity and image quality. D2R was demonstrated in a significant proportion of the melanomas, although 123I-epidepride uptake might also be nonspecific and unrelated to D2R binding. Although further studies on larger series are needed, 123I-epidepride could represent a future tool to study the expression of D2R in other classes of neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:14969602

  19. Autoradiographic methods for studying marked volatile substances (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic methods for animals used up to the present do not make it possible to localise exactly the distribution of marked volatile molecules. The Ullberg method (1954) which we have modified (Cohen, Delassue, 1959) involves cold desiccant. The method due to Pellerin (1957) avoids this desiccant but the histological comparison of the autoradiography with the biological document itself is difficult, if not impossible. Nevertheless, we have adopted certain points in the two methods and propose the following technique for the autoradiographic study of marked volatile molecules: 1- The surface of the frozen sample to be studied is prepared using a freezing microtome. 2- The last section, which is 20 μ thick and whose histological elements are parallel to those of the block, is dried by cooling and is used as the biological reference document for the autoradiography obtained, as is indicated in 3; 3- The radiography films are applied to the frozen block at -30 deg. C. The autoradiographs correspond to the radioactivity of the volatile molecule and of its non-volatile degradation products. 4- The radiographic film is also applied to the 20 μ section previously dried at -20 deg. C. This autoradiography corresponds to the radioactivity of the non-volatile degradation products of the molecule. 5- We confirmed the absence of diffusion of the volatile molecule and of pseudo-radiographic effects (photochemical and others). This method, which has enabled us to study the distribution of a carbide, para-cymene (C14) 7, macroscopically in the case of a whole mouse and microscopically on the skin of a dog, can find general applications. (authors)

  20. Characterization of the binding properties of T-773 as a PET radioligand for phosphodiesterase 10A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a dual-substrate PDE that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP and is selectively expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons. Recent studies have suggested that PDE10A inhibition is a novel approach for the treatment of disorders such as schizophrenia and Huntington's disease. A positron emission tomography (PET) occupancy study can provide useful information for the development of PDE10A inhibitors. We discovered T-773 as a candidate PET radioligand for PDE10A and investigated its properties by in vitro autoradiography and a PET study in a monkey. Methods: Profiling of T-773 as a PET radioligand for PDE10A was conducted by in vitro enzyme inhibitory assay, in vitro autoradiography, and PET study in a monkey. Results: T-773 showed a high binding affinity and selectivity for human recombinant PDE10A2 in vitro; the IC50 value in an enzyme inhibitory assay was 0.77 nmol/L, and selectivity over other PDEs was more than 2500-fold. In autoradiography studies using mouse, rat, monkey, or human brain sections, radiolabeled T-773 selectively accumulated in the striatum. This selective accumulation was not observed in the brain sections of Pde10a-KO mice. The binding of [3H]T-773 to PDE10A in rat brain sections was competitively inhibited by MP-10, a selective PDE10A inhibitor. In rat brain sections, [3H]T-773 bound to a single high affinity site of PDE10A with Kd values of 12.2 ± 2.2 and 4.7 ± 1.2 nmol/L in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens, respectively. In a monkey PET study, [11C]T-773 showed good brain penetration and striatum-selective accumulation. Conclusion: These results suggest that [11C]T-773 is a potential PET radioligand for PDE10A

  1. Evaluation of [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE as a potent SPECT radiotracer to assess the degree of astroglia activation in cuprizone-induced neuroinflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattner, Filomena [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, ANSTO LifeSciences, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Australia Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, ANSTO LifeSciences, Kirrawee DC, NSW (Australia); Bandin, David Linares; Staykova, Maria; Fordham, Susan; Willenborg, David O. [Canberra Hospital, Neurosciences Research Unit (ANU Medical School), Woden, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Berghofer, Paula; Gregoire, Marie Claude; Ballantyne, Patrice; Quinlivan, Mitchell; Pham, Tien; Katsifis, Andrew [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, ANSTO LifeSciences, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and sensitivity of the high-affinity translocator protein (TSPO) ligand [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE in imaging TSPO changes in vivo and characterise and compare astroglial and TSPO changes in the cuprizone model of demyelination and remyelination in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed with cuprizone for 4 weeks to induce demyelination followed by 2-4 weeks of standard diet (remyelination). Groups of mice were followed by in vivo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging using [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE and uptake correlated with biodistribution, autoradiography, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The uptake of [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE in the brain as measured by SPECT imaging over the course of treatment reflects the extent of the physiological response, with significant increases observed during demyelination followed by a decrease in uptake during remyelination. This was confirmed by autoradiography and biodistribution studies. A positive correlation between TSPO expression and astrogliosis was found and both activated astrocytes and microglial cells expressed TSPO. [{sup 123}I]-CLINDE uptake reflects astrogliosis in brain structures such as corpus callosum, caudate putamen, medium septum and olfactory tubercle as confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo results. The dynamics in the cuprizone-induced astroglial and TSPO changes, observed by SPECT imaging, were confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and autoradiography. The highly specific TSPO radioiodinated ligand CLINDE can be used as an in vivo marker for early detection and monitoring of a variety of neuropathological conditions using noninvasive brain imaging techniques. (orig.)

  2. Influence of age on the passage of paraquat through the blood-brain barrier in rats: a distribution and pathological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to determine the extent of paraquat entry into the brain of neonatal and elderly rats, as compared with adult rats, which may be dependent on the efficacy of the blood-brain barrier. A single, median lethal dose (20 mg/kg s.c.) of paraquat containing [14C]paraquat was administered to neonatal (10 day old), adult (3 month old) and elderly (18 month old) rats. In contrast to the adult and elderly rats where paraquat levels fell over the 24 h post-dosing period to negligible levels, paraquat concentrations in neonatal brains did not decrease with time between 0.5 and 24 h following dosing. The distribution of [14C]paraquat was measured in selective brain regions using quantitative autoradiography in all three age groups of rats, 30 min and 24 h following dosing. Autoradiography demonstrated that brain paraquat distributions were similar in the rat age groups. Most of the paraquat was confined to regions outside the blood-brain barrier and to brain regions that lack a complete blood-brain barrier e.g. dorsal hypothalamus, area postrema and the anterior olfactory bulb. Between 0.5 h and 24 h following dosing, paraquat concentrations in deeper brain structures, some distance away from the sites of entry, began to slowly increase in all the rat age groups. By 24 h following dosing, a majority of brain regions examined using quantitative autoradiography revealed significantly higher paraquat concentrations in neonatal brains as compared to brain regions of adult and elderly rats. Despite increased paraquat entry into neonatal brain, we could find no evidence for paraquat-induced neuronal cell damage following a detailed histopathological examination of perfused-fixed brains. In conclusion, impaired blood-brain barrier integrity in neonatal brain thus permitting more paraquat to enter than in adult brain, did not result in neuronal damage

  3. PET imaging of TSPO in a rat model of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The goal of this study was to measure functional and structural aspects of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats using TSPO microPET imaging with [18 F]DPA-714, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in vitro autoradiography and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in order to characterize a small animal model for screening of new PET tracers targeting neuroinflammation. Methods: Rats were injected stereotactically with LPS (50 μg) in the right striatum and with saline in the left striatum. [18 F]DPA-714 microPET, MRI, in vitro autoradiography and IHC studies were performed at different time points after LPS injection for 1 month. Results: Analysis of the microPET data demonstrated high uptake of the tracer in the LPS injected site with an affected-to-non-affected side-binding potential ratio (BPright-to-left) of 3.0 at 3 days after LPS injection. This BP ratio decreased gradually over time to 0.9 at 30 days after LPS injection. In vitro autoradiography ([18 F]DPA-714) and IHC (CD68, GFAP and TSPO) confirmed local neuroinflammation in this model. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI demonstrated BBB breakdown near the LPS injection site at day 1, which gradually resolved over time and was absent at 1 month after LPS injection. Conclusion: The LPS model is useful for first screening of newly developed tracers because of the easy design and the robust, unilateral inflammatory reaction allowing the use of the contralateral region as control. Additionally, this model can be used to test and follow up the benefits of anti-inflammatory therapies by non-invasive imaging

  4. Alternative Radioligands for Investigating the Molecular Pharmacology of Melatonin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Céline; Brasseur, Chantal; Delagrange, Philippe; Ducrot, Pierre; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin exerts a variety of physiologic activities that are mainly relayed through the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 Low expressions of these receptors in tissues have led to widespread experimental use of the agonist 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin as a substitute for melatonin. We describe three iodinated ligands: 2-(2-[(2-iodo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-4,5-dimethoxy phenyl) (DIV880) and (2-iodo-N-2-[5-methoxy-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine-3-yl])acetamide (S70254), which are specific ligands at MT2 receptors, and N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide (SD6), an analog of 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin with slightly different characteristics. Here, we further characterized these new ligands with regards to their molecular pharmacology. We performed binding experiments, saturation assays, association/dissociation rate measurements, and autoradiography using sheep and rat tissues and recombinant cell lines. Our results showed that [(125)I]-S70254 is receptor, and can be used with both cells and tissue. This radioligand can be used in autoradiography. Similarly, DIV880, a partial agonist [43% of melatonin on guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding assay], selective for MT2, can be used as a tool to selectively describe the pharmacology of this receptor in tissue samples. The molecular pharmacology of both human melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, using a series of 24 ligands at these receptors and the new radioligands, did not lead to noticeable variations in the profiles. For the first time, we described radiolabeled tools that are specific for one of the melatonin receptors (MT2). These tools are amenable to binding experiments and to autoradiography using sheep or rat tissues. These specific tools will permit better understanding of the role and implication in physiopathologic processes of the melatonin receptors. PMID:26759496

  5. Binding characteristics of 9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenzazine (AV-133) to the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, H.-H. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.-J. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung University and Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Juang, J.-H. [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chung Gung University and Chung Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Skovronsky, Daniel M. [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Yen, T.-C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung University and Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wey, S.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kung, M.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: kungmp@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu

    2010-05-15

    The vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) is highly expressed in pancreatic {beta}-cells and thus has been proposed to be a potential target for measuring {beta}-cell mass (BCM) by molecular imaging. C-11- and F-18-labeled tetrabenazine derivatives targeting VMAT2 have shown some promising results as potential biomarkers for BCM. In the present study, we examined the binding characteristics of 9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenzazine ([{sup 18}F]AV-133), a potential PET tracer for BCM imaging, in rat pancreas and rat brain. Methods: Pancreatic exocrine cells and pancreatic islet cells were isolated and purified from Sprague-Dawley rats. Membrane homogenates, prepared from both pancreatic exocrine and islet cells as well as from brain striatum and hypothalamus regions, were used for in vitro binding studies. In vitro and ex vivo autoradiography studies with [{sup 18}F]AV-133 were performed on rat brain and rat pancreas sections. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed to confirm the distribution of VMAT2 on islet {beta}-cells. Results: Excellent binding affinities of [{sup 18}F]AV-133 were observed in rat striatum and hypothalamus homogenates with K{sub d} values of 0.19 and 0.25 nM, respectively. In contrast to single-site binding observed in rat striatum homogenates, rat islet cell homogenates showed two saturable binding sites (site A: K{sub d}=6.76 nM, B{sub max}=60 fmol/mg protein; site B: K{sub d}=241 nM, B{sub max}=1500 fmol/mg protein). Rat exocrine pancreas homogenates showed only a single low-affinity binding site (K{sub d}=209 nM), which was similar to site B in islet cells. In vitro autoradiography of [{sup 18}F]AV-133 using frozen sections of rat pancreas showed specific labeling of islets, as evidenced by co-localization with anti-insulin antibody. Ex vivo VMAT2 pancreatic autoradiography in the rat, however, was not successful, in contrast to the excellent ex vivo autoradiography of VMAT2 binding sites in the brain. In vivo/ex vivo islet

  6. Plutonium microdistribution in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount and location of plutonium in bone from three humans injected during the mid-1940's has been studied by autoradiography and alpha particle spectrometry. Concentrations are similar on endosteal surfaces, Haversian canal surfaces and periosteal surfaces of long bone midshafts 17 months after injection. Endosteal surface concentrations are higher in the axial skeleton than in the appendicular skeleton 15 and 17 months post injection. For dosimetric purposes, volume deposits may be considered to be infinitely thick whereas surface deposits may be considered to have zero thickness. Secondary surface deposits are dosimetrically important, even when the plutonium is almost completely deposited in bone volume

  7. In vitro dose-response of macrophages to 239PuO2 and 241AmO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study designed to examine various means of solubilizing actinide particles within macrophages, we have measured the in vitro effects of 241AmO2 and 239PuO2 on these cells. Dose distribution within the cell population was estimated by autoradiography and compared to cell detachment as a function of time. The 241AmO2 and 239PuO2 were toxic in proportion to their radioactivity rather than their mass. Approximately 385 intracellular disintegrations are required from either radionuclide to cause cells to detach from the flask surface

  8. 18F-annexin V apoptosis imaging for detection of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-annexin V was labeled with 18F-SFB, after size-column exclusion chromatography, the radiochemical purity exceeded 95 %. High focal uptake of 18F-annexin V was visualized in myocardium ischemia-reperfusion injury (RI) area of rat models, which was consistent with autoradiography, the standard uptake values (SUV) of RI was 7.93 ± 3.85, whereas remote viable myocardium was 1.02 ± 0.19 (p 18F-annexin V can be serve as a candidate for the early detection of myocardial ischemia and injury. (author)

  9. Fission product migration in intact fuel rods S176 experiments 1-5: Metallography results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a project, the aim of which is to provide information on the distribution of fission products in intact irradiated fuel rods, both within the UO2 fuel and on the inside of the zircaloy clad. Fuel rods, previously irradiated to appreciable burnups in the Aagesta R3 reactor, after cooling, are re-irradiated in the Studsvik R2 test reactor for short periods to build up significant inventories of short-lived fission products of interest. The irradiation conditions are well defined. In this report the results from the ceramographic analyses of the fuel rods are presented together with the beta autoradiography results

  10. Comparison of fluorographic methods for the detection of 35S-labeled proteins in polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight different methods of fluorographic enhancement of sensitivity to 35S decay after gel electrophoresis were compared. Using Kodak X-Omat AR X-ray film, we found that some fluors were about equivalent to 2,5-diphenyloxazole/dimethyl sulfoxide embedding, whereas several other fluors were not quite as effective, but still were significantly more sensitive than control autoradiography. The most sensitive procedures can yield a detectable darkening of film with less than 1 dpm/mm2 of 35S after a 1-week exposure

  11. Activation of GLP-1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells reduces the autoregulatory response in afferent arterioles and increases renal blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Elisa Pouline; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kissow, Hannelouise; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Deacon, Carolyn F; Jensen, Boye L; Holst, Jens J; Sorensen, Charlotte Mehlin

    2015-01-01

    localize renal GLP-1 receptors and describe GLP-1 mediated effects on the renal vasculature. We hypothesized that renal GLP-1 receptors are located in the renal microcirculation and activation of these affects renal autoregulation and increases renal blood flow. In vivo autoradiography using (125)I-GLP-1......, (125)I-exendin-4 (GLP-1 analog) and 125I-exendin 9-39 (GLP-1 receptor antagonist) was performed in rodents to localize specific GLP-1 receptor binding. GLP-1 mediated effects on blood pressure (BP), renal blood flow (RBF), heart rate (HR), renin secretion, urinary flow rate and Na+ and K+ excretion...

  12. Leishmania diagnostic and identification py using 32P labelled DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P32 labelled DNA probes are valious instruments for the parasitic diseases by using hybridization reaction. In this paper we describe the methodology and present the foundations for the radioactive probes production, based on the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), for the Leishmania diagnostic an identification. We also describe the kDNA purification protocol from Leishmania reference cepa, the process of P32 labelling of the kDNA by using the nick translation method, gathering, sample preparation and treatment, the optimum conditions for the hybridization reaction and the procedures for the autoradiography

  13. The role of dopamine transporter imaging agent [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in hemi-parkinsonism rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between the determination of dopamine level by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ECD) and the detection of dopamine transporter (DAT) counts using autoradiography with DAT image agent [99mTc]TRODAT-1. For striatal lesions, pretreatment of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the medial forebrain bundle shows that autoradiogaphic labeling of striatum region is reduced to near-background level. Using HPLC with ECD, unilateral 6-OHDA treatment is associated with significant (p99mTc]TRODAT-1 for the evaluation of animal DAT

  14. The enzymatic histochemistry study in diaschisis area after focal cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes in activities of acetylcholine esterase (AChE), acid phosphatase (ACP) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in diaschisis area after focal cerebral ischemia. Methods: The activities of AChE, ACP and SDH in diaschisis areas which were defined by cerebral blood flow autoradiography in a rat model of right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were observed using enzymatic histochemistry. Results: With focal cerebral ischemia, there were no changes in AChE and ACP activities in the diaschisis areas, but SDH activity decreased. Conclusion: In the diaschisis areas the function of cholinergic system and lysosome was not affected, but metabolic activity of mitochondria decreased

  15. Localization of lead in rat peripheral nerve by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead intoxication in rats reliably produces segmental demyelination. Following a single intravenous injection of radioactive lead, localization of tracer was observed sequentially by quantitative electron microscopical autoradiography. The animals injected had been on a lead-containing diet for 70 days; as a result, the blood-nerve barrier was broken down and demyelination was proceeding. Six hours after a single dose, the lead was localized to the endoneurial space of the peroneal nerve, and 72 hours later, to the myelin membrane. Lead may exert a direct effect on the membrane and alter its stability both by altering the lipid content of the membrane and by directly interfering with the lamellar structure

  16. Molecular basis of neural function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings contain abstracts of plenary lectures, of young neurochemists' ESN honorary lectures, lectures at symposia and workshops and poster communications. Twenty abstracts were inputted in INIS. The subject of these were the use of autoradiography for the determination of receptors, cholecystokinin, nicotine, adrenaline, glutamate, aspartate, tranquilizers, for distribution and pharmacokinetics of obidoxime-chloride, for cell proliferation, mitosis of brain cells, DNA repair; radioimmunoassay of cholinesterase, tyrosinase; positron computed tomography of the brain; biological radiation effects on cholinesterase activity; tracer techniques for determination of adrenaline; and studies of the biological repair of nerves. (J.P.)

  17. Importance of dissolved organic carbon for phytoplankton nutrition in a eutrophic reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znachor, Petr; Nedoma, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2010), s. 367-376. ISSN 0142-7873 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP206/07/P407; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/0462; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : mixotrophy * phytoplankton * PDMPO * DOC * autoradiography * diatoms Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.749, year: 2010

  18. Investigation of porosity and microfracturing in a disturbed zone with the 14CPMMA method based on samples from full-scale experimental deposition holes of the TVO research tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The porosity and microfracturing samples from the disturbed zone of full-scale experimental deposition holes in the TVO Research Tunnel were investigated with the 14CPMMA method on gneissic tonalite at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki in Finland. The method involved impregnation of the rocks with 14C methylmethacrylate, irradiation polymerization, autoradiography and optical densitometry with digital image processing techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to investigate in greater detail the pore apertures and minerals in porous regions. SEM/EDX measurements were conducted on 14CMMA-impregnated samples. (6 refs., 99 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. Specific dot-immunobinding assay for detection and enumeration of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific and very sensitive dot-immunobinding assay for the detection and enumeration of the bioleaching microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was developed. Nitrocellulose spotted with samples was incubated with polyclonal antisera against whole T. ferrooxidans cells and then in 125I-labeled protein A or 125I-labeled goat antirabbit immunoglobulin G; incubation was followed by autoradiography. Since a minimum of 103 cells per dot could be detected, the method offers the possibility of simultaneous processing of numerous samples in a short time to monitor the levels of T. ferrooxidans in bioleaching operations

  20. Survey of the chemical diffusion at infinite dilution in the nickel-plutonium and aluminium-uranium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility S0 and chemical diffusion coefficients DPuNi at infinite dilution of plutonium in nickel have been determined by autoradiography α in poly-phased system by the welded couples method: S0 varies from 40 to 80.10-6 (atomic concentration) and DPuNi follows an Arrhenius law D = D0 exp (-Q/RT) with 0.03 cm2/s 0 2/s and 46000 cal/mole 2/s and the activation energy lies between 24000 and 34000 cal/mole. (author)

  1. Stereotyped distribution of proliferating keratinocytes in disorders affecting the epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the technique of autoradiography after incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) to evaluate keratinocyte proliferation in basal, epibasal, and other epidermal layers in 30 diseases affecting the epidermis. The number and proportion of 3H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes were counted in the different layers of the epidermis. Significant correlations were found between the proliferative indices of the different epidermal layers. Such links indicate that the epidermis responds in a rather stereotyped way to various pathological conditions. There exists some regulation in the distribution, number, and proportion of 3H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes in the various layers of the epidermis

  2. Liquid scintillation counting of 3H-thymidine incorporated into rat lens DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA synthesis in the lens has previously been localized by autoradiography following incorporation of 3H-thymidine. For the quantification of DNA synthesis in the lens, pooling of lenses and extraction of the DNA for liquid scintillation counting, has formerly been adapted. In the present investigation a method has been developed for the extraction of the unincorporated tracer from whole lenses after short time incubation in a medium containing 3H-thymidine. The 3H-thymidine incorporated into individual lenses was then detected by liquid scintillation counting after dissolution of the lenses. The sources of the variation in the method are evaluated. (author)

  3. In vivo tracking of the migration of Strongyloides ratti in the rat with selenium-75 labelled third stage larvae (L3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration of larval Strongyloides ratti in the rat has been generally believed to conform to the ''skin-lung-intestine'' pathway commonly associated with skin penetrating nematodes of the order Strongylida and family Strongyloididae. In this study an autoradiographic technique is used in conjunction with ordinary radioassay procedures to investigate the route of migrating larval Strongyloides ratti and to determine the exact site of inhibition of this nematode in immune rats. Autoradiography offers two major advantages over instrumental radioassay: it is far more sensitive and provides direct evidence of the association of radioactivity and parasite in specific tissue

  4. [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin as possible radiotracer for the imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using single photon emission computer tomography; [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin als moeglicher Radiotracer fuer die Darstellung der nikotinergen Acetylcholin Rezeptoren mittels Single-Photon-Emissions-Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulik, Dagmar Julia

    2015-03-06

    For the synthesis of [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin as possible radiotracer for the imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors using SPECT two different technologies were used: the radio-iodination with iodogen and the radio-iodination with nitric acid. The latter one showed higher efficiency. The radiotracer will allow to detect degenerative processes and other nACh-depending diseases in the brain (Alzheimer, Parkinson) and to observe the progress. The autoradiography is aimed to the imaging of the nACh receptors in the brain bypassing the brain-blood barrier. The highest activity was measured in the thalamus of mice and rat brains.

  5. The development of MWPC-based systems for imaging X-rays, gamma rays and charged particles in applications in medicine, materials science and biochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of several complete MWPC based imaging systems for applications in medicine (a positron camera), industry (a second positron camera), materials science (two 2-d X-ray diffraction systems) and biochemistry (an autoradiography system for 2-d immunoelectrophoresis using a tritium label). A moderately detailed description of two of the systems is given and some special developments in the areas of fast modular electronics for the delay line readout technique and fast imaging data taking are described in more detail. The state of rapid expansion of this area of application of MWPC technology and its relationship to the microprocessor revolution are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of local concentration of absorbed tritium in the crack head in high resistant steels under stress corrosion. Mesure de la concentration locale en tritium absorbe en tete de fissure dans des aciers a haute resistance en cours de corrosion sous contrainte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brass, A.M.; Gonzalez, J.; Chene, J. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France))

    1993-09-01

    In AISI 4120 and 4130 steels, electrochemical permeation tests by hydrogen and stress corrosion in tritiated NaCl 3.5% solution are made on pre fissured test specimens. The optimal resolution of autoradiography with the used film is about 2 [mu]m, and micro densimetry analysis allows a 10[sup -2] ppm tritium concentration detection. The tritium enrichment is linked to the deformation of the plastic zone, and is observed in crack head for 4120 steel though the tritium segregation ratio remains low because of steel planar stress state and preexisting traps contribution. (A.B.).

  7. Chronic growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion induces reciprocal and reversible changes in mRNA levels from hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertherat, J.; Timsit, J; Bluet-Pajot, M T; Mercadier, J J; Gourdji, D; KORDON, C.; Epelbaum, J.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion on somatostatin-(SRIH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) were studied by in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiography in rats bearing a GH-secreting tumor. 6 and 18 wk after tumor induction, animals displayed a sharp increase in body weight and GH plasma levels; pituitary GH content was reduced by 47 and 55%, while that of prolactin and thyrotropin was unchanged. At 18 wk, hypothalamic GHRH and SRIH levels had fallen by 84 and 52%, respectivel...

  8. Reductions in [3H]nicotinic acetylcholine binding in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), dysfunction in the basal forebrain cholinergic system is accompanied by a consistent loss of presynaptic cholinergic markers in cortex, but changes in cholinergic receptor binding sites are poorly understood. In the present study, we used receptor autoradiography to map the distribution of nicotinic [3H]acetylcholine binding sites in cortices of individuals with AD and PD and matched control subjects. In both diseases, a profound loss of nicotinic receptors occurs in all cortical layers, particularly the deepest layers

  9. Effect of feldspar composition on thermoluminescence in minerals separated from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study was made of factors influencing the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of feldspars separated from irradiated foods. Autoradiography and optical densitometry with application of digital image processing was found to be a suitable method for determining the mineral specific differences in irradiated feldspars. Alteration of K feldspar was observed to reduce the luminescence intensity. A structural change from unaltered mineral to fully seriticized form without marked change in element composition was accompanied by a decrease in TL from very intensive to nonobservable. Likewise increase in FeO concentration during alteration was accompanied by decrease in the TL intensity. Thermoluminescence of plagioclase increased with the CaO/Na2O ratio

  10. Diffusion of sulfur 35S in β-Ni3S2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of 35S radioisotope in β-Ni3S2 polycrystals was studied at temperatures ranging from 848 to 893 K and at sulfur vapour pressure (5.6 x 10-6 - 3.2 x 10-4) Pa. The autoradiography and the tracer sectioning method were used. It was found that the bulk diffusion is the main process of sulfur transport. The activation energy of the diffusion equals (190±10) kJmol-1. Under the conditions used in the experiments the dominant anionic point defects are single-ionized vacancies and quasi-free electrons. (author)

  11. Rembrandt’s An Old Man in Military Costume: the underlying image re-examined

    OpenAIRE

    Trentelman, K.; Janssens, K; Van der Snickt, G.; Szafran, Y.; Woollett, A.T.; Dik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The painting An Old Man in Military Costume in the J. Paul Getty Museum, by Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, was studied using two complementary, element-specific imaging techniques—neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) and macro-X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) mapping—to reveal the second, hidden painting. NAAR provided a strong image of the face and cloak of the underlying figure, along with an indication of the chemical composition. The single-element distribution maps produced by MA-XRF mappi...

  12. Pollen mitochondria in cytoplasmically male sterile tobacco zygotic and embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is being made to establish cytoplasmic organelles transmission during the process of fertilization, by using tobacco grain pollen labelled with leucine 14C and tritiated thymidine. Through autoradiography the fate of pollen germination and its entry into the embryo sac has been studied. A few days after fertilization, labelled cytoplasmic organelles - mainly mitochondria - were detected in the embryo sac. However, labelling was not observed in cytoplasmic organelles by using tritiated thymidine. For more conclusive results labelled DNA incorporated in cytoplasmic organelles have to be traced during the embryo and endosperm development

  13. Diffusion experiment of a radionuclide in granitic rock cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective diffusion coefficient of neptunium-237 which is one of hazardous long-lived radionuclide including high level radioactive waste was determined by using 40 mm diameter and 5 mm thick disks under an aerobic condition. An alpha autoradiography was performed for cross sections of a 20 mm thick granite disk to study the penetrated neptunium into granite. The effective diffusion coefficient of neptunium diffused through a water saturated granite was about 2.5 x 10-13 m2/sec. The autoradiograph of solid state track detectors clearly showed that biotite constituting granite has storage pores and keep diffusing species in it. (author)

  14. Inter-comparison of boron concentration measurements at INFN-University of Pavia (Italy) and CNEA (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, Agustina; Postuma, Ian; Gadan, Mario Alberto; Saint Martin, Gisela; Olivera, María Silvina; Altieri, Saverio; Protti, Nicoletta; Bortolussi, Silva

    2015-11-01

    An inter-comparison of three boron determination techniques was carried out between laboratories from INFN-University of Pavia (Italy) and CNEA (Argentina): alpha spectrometry (alpha-spect), neutron capture radiography (NCR) and quantitative autoradiography (QTA). Samples of different nature were analysed: liquid standards, liver homogenates and tissue samples from different treatment protocols. The techniques showed a good agreement in a concentration range of interest in BNCT (1-100ppm), thus demonstrating their applicability as precise methods to quantify boron and determine its distribution in tissues. PMID:26454177

  15. Reprint of Inter-comparison of boron concentration measurements at INFN-University of Pavia (Italy) and CNEA (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, Agustina; Postuma, Ian; Gadan, Mario Alberto; Saint Martin, Gisela; Olivera, María Silvina; Altieri, Saverio; Protti, Nicoletta; Bortolussi, Silva

    2015-12-01

    An inter-comparison of three boron determination techniques was carried out between laboratories from INFN-University of Pavia (Italy) and CNEA (Argentina): alpha spectrometry (alpha-spect), neutron capture radiography (NCR) and quantitative autoradiography (QTA). Samples of different nature were analysed: liquid standards, liver homogenates and tissue samples from different treatment protocols. The techniques showed a good agreement in a concentration range of interest in BNCT (1-100 ppm), thus demonstrating their applicability as precise methods to quantify boron and determine its distribution in tissues. PMID:26508276

  16. Neuroprotective effects of M826, a reversible caspase-3 inhibitor, in the rat malonate model of Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Toulmond, Sylvie; Tang, Keith; Bureau, Yves; Ashdown, Helen; Degen, Sarah; O'Donnell, Ruth; Tam, John; Han, Yongxin; Colucci, John; Giroux, André; Zhu, Yanxia; Boucher, Mathieu; Pikounis, Bill; Xanthoudakis, Steven; Roy, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Caspases, key enzymes in the apoptosis pathway, have been detected in the brain of HD patients and in animal models of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of a new, reversible, caspase-3-specific inhibitor, M826 (3-({(2S)-2-[5-tert-butyl-3-{[(4-methyl-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)methyl]amino}-2-oxopyrazin-1(2H)-yl]butanoyl}amino)-5-[hexyl(methyl)amino]-4-oxopentanoic acid), in a rat malonate model of HD.Pharmacokinetic and autoradiography studies after i...

  17. Evaluation of σ-1 receptor radioligand 18F-FTC-146 in rats and squirrel monkeys using PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, Michelle L; Shen, Bin; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen;

    2014-01-01

    and human serum/liver microsome studies were performed to gain information about the potential of (18)F-FTC-146 for eventual clinical translation. METHODS: The distribution and stability of (18)F-FTC-146 in rats were assessed via PET/CT, autoradiography, γ counting, and high-performance liquid......, whereas (18)F-FTC-146 appeared to be stable in human serum. Finally, liver microsome studies revealed that (18)F-FTC-146 has a longer half-life in human microsomes, compared with rodents. CONCLUSION: Together, these results indicate that (18)F-FTC-146 is a promising tool for visualizing S1Rs in...

  18. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  19. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of 3H-GABA and 3H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs

  20. Axoplasmic transport of microtubule-associated proteins in the rat sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-ATP was injected into the L5 dorsal root ganglion and axoplasmic transport of the phosphorylate MA proteins 2, microtubule-associated proteins 2, was observed. After the injection of 32P-ATP, the nerve was dissected out at prescribed time intervals and sliced into 5-mm pieces. Each segment was electrophoresed on an SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel and subjected to autoradiography. A protein of 310,000 dalton was transported at a velocity of 6.6-10.6 mm/day in the axon with the electrophoretic mobility identical to that of MA proteins 2, one of the key components associated with the microtubules

  1. Rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a rapid, sensitive enzymatic assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) that does not require chromatography, HPLC, or autoradiography. The assay is based on the use of an inexpensive substrate, tritiated acetate, instead of [14C]chloramphenicol. The method is adapted from one originally used by de Crombrugghe et al. and by Shaw, but with simplifications appropriate for routine use. In our hands, the method is as sensitive as the customary thin-layer chromatography assay and is far more efficient for the performance of many assays, both in terms of labor and expense

  2. Astrocytosis precedes amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer APPswe transgenic mouse brain: a correlative positron emission tomography and in vitro imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Ni, Ruiqing; Voytenko, Larysa; Marutle, Amelia [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Centre for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Gulyas, Balazs; Halldin, Christer [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Nanyang Technological University, NTU - Imperial College, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Toth, Miklos; Haeggkvist, Jenny [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Centre for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-04-17

    Pathological studies suggest that neuroinflammation is exacerbated by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels in the brain early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The time course and relationships between astrocytosis and Aβ deposition were examined using multitracer in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in an AD transgenic mouse model, followed by postmortem autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis. PET imaging with the amyloid plaque tracer {sup 11}C-AZD2184 and the astroglial tracer {sup 11}C-deuterium-L-deprenyl ({sup 11}C-DED) was carried out in APPswe mice aged 6, 8-15 and 18-24 months (4-6 animals/group) and in wild-type (wt) mice aged 8-15 and 18-24 months (3-6 animals/group). Tracer uptake was quantified by region of interest analysis using PMOD software and a 3-D digital mouse brain atlas. Postmortem brain tissues from the same APPswe and wt mice in all age groups were analysed for Aβ deposition and astrocytosis by in vitro autoradiography using {sup 3}H-AZD2184, {sup 3}H-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and {sup 3}H-L-deprenyl and immunostaining performed with antibodies for Aβ{sub 42} and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in sagittal brain sections. {sup 11}C-AZD2184 PET retention in the cerebral cortices of APPswe mice was significantly higher at 18-24 months than in age-matched wt mice. Cortical and hippocampal {sup 11}C-DED PET binding was significantly higher at 6 months than at 8-15 months or 18-24 months in APPswe mice, and it was also higher than at 8-15 months in wt mice. In vitro autoradiography {sup 3}H-AZD2184 and {sup 3}H-PIB binding confirmed the in vivo findings with {sup 11}C-AZD2184 and demonstrated age-dependent increases in Aβ deposition in APPswe cortex and hippocampus. There were no significant differences between APPswe and wt mice in {sup 3}H-L-deprenyl autoradiography binding across age groups. Immunohistochemical quantification demonstrated more Aβ{sub 42} deposits in the cortex and hippocampus and more

  3. Leukemia revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately

  4. Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram or duloxetine, reverses memory impairment induced by central 5-HT depletion in rats: evidence for direct 5-HT receptor modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bornø; du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Song, Dekun;

    2014-01-01

    reuptake inhibitor escitalopram, or the 5-HT norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine. SERT occupancies were estimated by ex vivo autoradiography. PCPA depleted central 5-HT by >90% in tissue and microdialysate, and impaired NOR and SA performance. Restoring central 5-HT with 5-HTP reversed these...... deficits. At similar SERT occupancies (>90%) vortioxetine, but not escitalopram or duloxetine, restored memory performance. Acute fenfluramine significantly increased extracellular 5-HT in control and PCPA-treated rats, while vortioxetine did so only in control rats. Thus, vortioxetine restores 5-HT...

  5. Leukemia revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E P

    1980-01-01

    Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately.

  6. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine during early developmental stages of ovoviviparous and oviparous embryos in the brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA synthesis in the embryos during various developmental stages in the brood pouch of the Artemia female as well as the encysted eggs produced by oviparity was studied by autoradiography using 3H-thymidine. Nuclei of the embryos through the blastula stage in the brood pouch were labelled, regardless of the existence of the thick shell surrounding the embryos. However, incorporation of 3H-thymidine into nuclei was absent in the stages between gastrula and early nauplii which had developed in the brood pouch or were delivered from encysted dry eggs. (author)

  7. Experiments in nuclear science

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Sidney A

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of Geiger-Muller CountersResolving TimeBackground CorrectionsInverse Square LawCorrections for Geometry FactorsBack Scatter of RadiationCorrections for Self-absorptionRange of Beta RadiationsAbsorption of Beta RadiationAbsorption of Gamma RadiationRadioactive Decay and Instrument EfficiencyHalf-life DeterminationInvestigation of Two IndependentlyDecaying RadionuclidesHalf-life of a Long-lived RadionuclideAutoradiographyCalibration and Operation of the ElectroscopeProperties of Proportional CountersIntegral SpectraGamma Spectrometry IGamma Spectrometry IILiquid Scintillation Cou

  8. Study of the structure and corrosive-electrochemical behavior of chromized carbon steel 45 in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation is made of the corrosion resistance of chromized carbon steel 45 in 5-98% solutions of HNO3 at 40 and 80 degree C in relation to its additional surface microalloying with boron and molybdenum. The structure and phase composition of the diffusion layer and the distribution of the principal components in the layer are studied by the methods of track autoradiography, x-ray diffraction and x-ray spectral analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy

  9. Detection of an endothelin-1-binding protein complex by low temperature SDS-PAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found that the complex of ET-1 and its binding protein was stable enough to be separated by SDS-PAGE when electrophoresis was run at a low temperature. Cross-linking was not necessary for the detection of 125I-ET-1 and its binding protein complex by autoradiography. This simple method could be used in qualitative (estimation of apparent molecular weight of ET-1 binding protein) and quantitative (determination of relative content of ET-binding protein) analysis of the ET-binding protein complex. ET-binding protein complexes of various animal species and organs were investigated by this method

  10. Connection between the microstructure of steels Fe-23 % Ni, Fe-33 % Ni, Fe-23 % Ni-0.4 % C and Fe-Cr-Ni 18-10 in the austenitic or martensitic state and their behaviour after cathodic loading with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of the alloys: Fe-23 % Ni, Fe-33 % Ni, Fe-23 % Ni-0.4 % C, Z2CN18-10 (304L), Z5CNT18-10 (321) which plays an important part in metal embrittlement by hydrogen, is studied by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. An extensive study of carbon segregation is carried out in acicular martensite Fe-Ni-C using high resolution C 14 autoradiography because of the importance of hydrogen-carbon interaction out of the solution on hydrogen trapping in hydrogen embrittlement of iron alloys

  11. HU210-induced downregulation in cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding strongly correlates with body weight loss in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Victoria S; Wang, Hongqin; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2009-07-01

    In vitro autoradiography was used to examine changes in cannabinoid CB1 receptors (targeted with [(3)H] CP55,940) in rats treated with the potent cannabinoid agonist HU210. Animals were administered with HU210 (25, 50, 100 microg/kg) for 4 or 14 days or received a single 100 microg/kg injection of HU210 and sacrificed 24 h later. The acute dose resulted in a decrease in binding in the caudate putamen and hippocampus. A dose dependent, region-specific reduction (P HU210. PMID:19169813

  12. Heat shock response of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, RCC; Fan, L.

    1996-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were documented for the first time in both somatic extracts and excretory/secretory (ES) products of the infective-stage larvae of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. Larvae recovered from muscles of infected mice were heat shocked at 37, 40, 43 and 45 degrees C in RPMI 1640 medium containing L(-)[35S]methionine. Somatic extracts and ES products of heat-shocked worms were then analysed by SDS-PAGE, autoradiography and laser densitometry. Prominent bands of H...

  13. Experimental methods for investigation of radioactive gas diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new means to determine parameters of radioactive gas diffusion in solids based on the simultaneous use of gas permeability and autoradiography methods is suggested. The technique is designed for the study of topological peculiarities of the diffusion process and for the determination of the spectrum of the diffusion local coefficients. The design of the installation is developed, the corresponding mathematical model is suggested, and technique of the experiment conducting is tested. Using the autoradiographic variant of permeability method the diffusion coefficients of the radioactive inert gas-radon-in polypropylene are determined. A good accordance of the results obtained with the data of traditional methods of investigation is found

  14. Tritiated thymidine uptake in chondrocytes of chickens afflicted with tibial dyschondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3H-Thymidine was localized in sections of growth-plate cartilage and associated tibial dyschondroplastic lesion by autoradiography. One hour after 3H-thymidine was injected, radioactivity was found in the proliferating zone; after 48 hr it was also in the hypertrophic zone, and by 96 hr it was present in cells that were 4 to 5 mm into the lesion. This indicates that the lesion develops from the growth plate itself. The life span of the cells in the growth plate appears to be about 48 hr

  15. Radiotracers for PETT: new developments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer development with positron emitters has its major focus on problems in the neurosciences. Progress is reviewed for high-level isotope production and labelled precurser synthesis with the medical cyclotron. The study of regional brain glucose metabolism represented the first extension of one of the methods of neurochemical autoradiography to humans and the study of brain protein synthesis and neurotransmitter receptors followed. In a more general sense, one PETT instrumentation will provide resolution in the 5 mm range is already emerging. Research status is reviewed. 103 references

  16. The EM autoradiographic distribution of label in tissue blocks of pallidum incorporating [3H]-Leu-enkephalin and [3H]-naloxone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of radioactivity in pallidal tissue blocks incubated in the presence of either a tritiated enkephalin analogue or [3H]-naloxone, was examined using EM autoradiography. The quantitative evaluation was based on the principle of proportional grain counting. The results showed a preferential accumulating of silver grains over dendrites in the enkephalin-labelled tissue. Following naloxone-labelling, a slight enrichment of grains over axonal elements was found. The findings provide ultrastructural support for previous biochemical data which suggested that different types of opiate binding sites have different tissue localizations. (author)

  17. Neutron sensitivity of CR-39 SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solid State Nuclear Track Detector material CR-39 has been successfully used in different fields of research on account of its low registration threshold and good optical and mechanical parameters. It is produces by several firms with variable quality. For the application of CR-39 to neutron induced autoradiography a good lateral homogeneity and low neutron induced background track density are necessary. In this paper, the results of testing different kinds of CR-39 and their properties for neutron registration are presented. (author)

  18. Structural analysis of fibrinogen synthesized by cultured chicken hepatocytes in the presence or absence of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D L; Plant, P W; Pindyck, J; Mosesson, M W; Grieninger, G

    1983-03-30

    Hepatocyte monolayers, derived from chick embryos and cultured in chemically defined medium without hormones, synthesize and secrete fibrinogen that resembles chicken plasma fibrinogen immunochemically and structurally. Addition of a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, to the cultured cells resulted in an appreciable and relatively selective increase in fibrinogen synthesis. Autoradiography of fibrinogen that had been metabolically labelled with [35S]methionine and then subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, unreduced or under disulfide-reducing conditions, revealed that only dimeric forms of fibrinogen, containing undegraded A alpha, B beta, and gamma chains, were secreted under stimulated and unstimulated culture conditions. PMID:6830818

  19. The imaging pin detector - a simple and effective new imaging device for soft x-rays and soft beta emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new bidimensional imaging detector system for soft X and beta radiations is reported. Based on the detection of the differential induction signals on pickup electrodes placed around a point anode in a gas avalanche detector, the system described has achieved a spatial resolution of better than 1mm fwhm over a field of 30mm diameter while preserving excellent pulse height resolution. The present device offers considerable potential as a cheap and robust imaging system for applications in X-ray diffraction and autoradiography. (author)

  20. An analysis of the fuel temperature history and microstructure of an irradiated PHWR fuel element by computer modelling and post-irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-irradiation metallography and beta-gamma autoradiography performed on the outer fuel element of a PHWR fuel bundle irradiated to a burnup of 3698 MWD/MTU at linear heat ratings ranging from 204 W/cm to 418 W/cm revealed no detectable grain growth or fission product redistribution in the fuel. Detailed analysis using a computer model PROFESS predicted that the maximum fuel centre temperature was 1508 K assuming 96.5 dense fuel, and that the equiaxial grain growth which had occurred was not discernible from the range of variation in the initial grain size. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  1. No activation of new initiation points for deoxyribonucleic acid replication in BALB/c 3T3 cells transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BALB/c 3T3 cells were transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus, and five clones were isolated in soft agar. Average replicon sizes of the transformed cell lines were stimated by the method of fiber-autoradiography and found to be the same size as the nontransformed 3T3 cells, analyzed in parallel. The results indicate that, unlike simian virus 40 and Epstein-Barr virus, Kirsten sarcoma virus does not activate new initiation points for cellular deoxyribonucleic acid replication in murine sarcome virus-transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of ethyleneoxylated and allyloxylated chalcone derivatives for imaging of amyloid β plaques by SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchigami, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yuki; Haratake, Mamoru; Ono, Masahiro; Yoshida, Sakura; Nakayama, Morio

    2014-01-01

    We report radioiodinated chalcone derivatives as new SPECT imaging probes for amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. The monoethyleneoxy derivative 2 and allyloxy derivative 8 showed a high affinity for Aβ(1-42) aggregates with Ki values of 24 and 4.5 nM, respectively. Fluorescent imaging demonstrated that 2 and 8 clearly stained thioflavin-S positive Aβ plaques in the brain sections of Tg2576 transgenic mice. In vitro autoradiography revealed that [125I]2 displayed no clear accumulation toward Aβ plaques i...

  3. Autoradiographic study of 3H-proline incorporation by rat periodontal ligament, gingival connective tissue and dental pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of 3H-proline incorporation by the rat periodontal ligament, the gingival connective tissue and the dental pulp were studied by autoradiography. The rate of 3H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was 2.8 times higher than by the gingival connective tissue and 5 times higher than by the dental pulp. These differences were significant (p3H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was significantly different (p3H-proline incorporation. The ratio of the rates of 3H-proline incorporation by the three tissues did not correlate with the ratio of the cellular densities in the same three tissues. (author)

  4. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.)

  5. Mucosal cell proliferation in duodenal ulcer and duodenitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bransom, C J; Boxer, M E; Palmer, K R; Clark, J. C.; Underwood, J C; Duthie, H. L.

    1981-01-01

    Mucosal cell proliferation in the first part of the duodenum was studied in 24 patients using a tissue culture technique in which endoscopic biopsies were subjected to autoradiography after exposure to tritiated thymidine. Eight patients had a normal duodenum, eight had duodenal ulcer, and eight had symptomatic chronic non-specific duodenitis. The mean crypt labelling index (LI) in normal duodenum was 8.8 0.4% (SEM). Increased labelling indices of 15.6 +/- 1.7% were found near the edge of du...

  6. Determination of 3H-thymidine incorporation into ovarian cancer cells and its validity with regard to cytostatic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of 3H-thymidine in ovarian cancer cells determined by autoradiography represents a method of additional tumor characterization. The in vitro tests allowed roughly hints about the efficiency of an intended therapy in 49 patients suffering from ovarian cancer. High risk patients ought to be excluded from chemotherapy, if the incorporation of thymidine is low. For this decision the results of oncobiograms and clinical parameters were evaluated. The 3H-thymidine incorporation enables to select an individual kind of therapy for any patient with regard to success and duration of treatment. (author)

  7. Repair of DNA damage in light sensitive human skin diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, I.; Varga, L.; Tam' asi P., Gundy, S.

    1978-12-01

    Repair of uv-light induced DNA damage and changes in the semiconservative DNA synthesis were studied by in vitro autoradiography in the skin of patients with lightdermatoses (polymorphous light eruption, porphyria cutanea tarda, erythropoietic protoporphyria) and xeroderma pigmentosum as well as in that of healthy controls. In polymorphous light eruption the semiconservative DNA replication rate was more intensive in the area of the skin lesions and in the repeated phototest site, the excision repair synthesis appeared to be unaltered. In cutaneous prophyrias a decreased rate of the repair incorporation could be detected. Xeroderma pigmentosum was characterized by a strongly reduced repair synthesis.

  8. [{sup 18}F]p-MPPF: A Radiolabeled Antagonist for the Study of 5-HT{sub 1A} Receptors with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenevaux, A. E-mail: Alain.Plenevaux@ulg.ac.be; Lemaire, C.; Aerts, J.; Lacan, G.; Rubins, D.; Melega, W.P.; Brihaye, C.; Degueldre, C.; Fuchs, S.; Salmon, E.; Maquet, P.; Laureys, S.; Damhaut, P.; Weissmann, D.; Le Bars, D.; Pujol, J.-F.; Luxen, A

    2000-07-01

    This paper summarizes the present status of the researches conducted with [{sup 18}F]4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-[N-(2''-pyridinyl)-p-fluoro benzamido]ethyl] -piperazine known as [{sup 18}F]p-MPPF, a new 5-HT{sub 1A} antagonist for the study of the serotonergic neurotransmission with positron emission tomography (PET). This includes chemistry, radiochemistry, animal data (rats, cats, and monkeys) with autoradiography and PET, human data with PET, toxicity, and metabolism.

  9. Myocardial uptake of indium-111-labeled antimyosin in acute subendocardial infarction: Clinical, histochemical, and autoradiographic correlation of myocardial necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium-111-labeled antimyosin has been utilized in the diagnosis and localization of acute transmural myocardial infarction. The present report describes a patient who presented with a massive subendocardial infarction. Two days after the injection of antimyosin, the patient's clinical status markedly deteriorated and he expired. Postmortem examination demonstrated severe three-vessel coronary artery disease with extensive myocyte death in the endocardium. Autoradiography and histochemical staining of the prosected heart demonstrated high correlation for myocardial necrosis and corresponded to clinical evidence for diffuse subendocardial infarction

  10. Myocardial uptake of indium-111-labeled antimyosin in acute subendocardial infarction: Clinical, histochemical, and autoradiographic correlation of myocardial necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendel, R.C.; McSherry, B.A.; Leppo, J.A. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Indium-111-labeled antimyosin has been utilized in the diagnosis and localization of acute transmural myocardial infarction. The present report describes a patient who presented with a massive subendocardial infarction. Two days after the injection of antimyosin, the patient's clinical status markedly deteriorated and he expired. Postmortem examination demonstrated severe three-vessel coronary artery disease with extensive myocyte death in the endocardium. Autoradiography and histochemical staining of the prosected heart demonstrated high correlation for myocardial necrosis and corresponded to clinical evidence for diffuse subendocardial infarction.

  11. A New Method for the Detection and Enumeration of Xylitol-resistant (fructose-PTS-) Strains of Streptococcus mutans from Pure Cultures and Human Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Dréan, M. -F.; Trahan, L.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the identification and enumeration, in large bacterial populations, of Streptococcus mutans of both xylitol-resistant and xylitol-sensitive phenotypes was developed. Since xylitol-resistant cells have lost the capacity to take up xylitol from the extracellular medium, due to a defect in their fructose-PTS, there is no uptake of [14C]xylitol by these cells whereas the [14C]xylitol taken up by the sensitive cells is used to visualise them by autoradiography. The method wa...

  12. Lysosomal degradation of receptor-bound urokinase-type plasminogen activator is enhanced by its inhibitors in human trophoblastic choriocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Henning; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Ebbesen, P.;

    1990-01-01

    apparently intact form in the medium or was still cell associated. The degradation could be inhibited by inhibitors of vesicle transport and lysosomal hydrolases. By electron microscopic autoradiography, both 125I-u-PA and 125I-u-PA-inhibitor complexes were located over the cell membrane at 4 degrees C, with...... the highest density of grains over the membrane at cell-cell interphases, but, after incubation at 37 degrees C, 17 and 27% of the grains for u-PA and u-PA-PAI-1 complexes, respectively, appeared over lysosomal-like bodies. These findings suggest that the u-PA receptor possesses a clearance function...

  13. Autoradiographic studies on percutaneous absorption of flumethasone-pivalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of topically applied radioactive flumethasone-pivalate was studied by means of autoradiography (direct mounting method). This substance was deposited in horny and Malpighian layers of epidermis and skin appendages (hair follicle, sebaceous gland and apocrine gland) more densely than in epidermis. This distribution pattern was discussed in comparison with the distribution patterns of the previously studied topical corticosteroids, namely, hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone-17-butyrate, triamcinolone-acetonide, betamethasone-17-valerate, 17-α-desoxymethasone, fluocinolone-acetonide and beclomethasone-dipropionate. (auth.)

  14. Use of nonyl alcohol as a temporary sprout-inhibiting agent in plant potatoes. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a model experiment, macro-autoradiographic studies were carried out in potatoes treated with 14C-nonyl alcohol and stored under different ventilation and temperature conditions to elucidate the penetrating power and residue problems. After a 48-hour application by means of an air-return system, nonyl alcohol was uniformly distributed on the total surface of the potatoes. The active agent applied was mainly located in the peels. The continuous increase in radioactivity of treated potatoes stored together with untreated potatoes is indicative of a continuous evaporation of the active agent. The evaluation and assessment of the autoradiographies were in good agreement with radioactivity values determined quantitatively. (author)

  15. Quantitative determination of fissionable materials in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for quantitative neutron-induced autoradiography (NIAR) of human hair samples containing small amounts of plutonium or uranium is described. It requires irradiation of hairs in intimate contact with two thin mica sheets by a suitable dose of thermal neutrons to provide adequate numbers of fission fragments. The technique has been used to examine scalp hair voluntarily provided by 35 humans intermittently exposed to both soluble and insoluble uranium materials. The results indicate that in situations of low intermittent exposure the method is preferable to presently used blood, urine, or whole body monitoring methods. Limitations of the method are discussed

  16. Particle size analysis in estimating the significance of airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report information on pertinent methods and techniques for analysing particle size distributions is compiled. The principles underlying the measurement methods are described, and the merits of different methods in relation to the information being sought and to their usefulness in the laboratory and in the field are explained. Descriptions on sampling methods, gravitational and inertial particle separation methods, electrostatic sizing devices, diffusion batteries, optical sizing techniques and autoradiography are included. Finally, the report considers sampling for respirable activity and problems related to instrument calibration

  17. [3H]GABA uptake as a marker for cell type in primary cultures of cerebellum and olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of [3H]GABA into cell cultures of rat cerebellum and olfactory bulb was studied by autoradiography, using β-alanine and aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid to distinguish neuronal-specific and glial-specific uptake. Neurons and astrocytes were also labelled by tetanus toxin and anti-GFAP respectively. This combination of markers allowed identification and quantification of several cell types. Cerebellar cultures were found to contain 77% granule neurons, 7.5% inhibitory neurons (probably stellate and basket cells) and 15% astrocytes. Olfactory bulb cultures were over 50% in small neurons which accumulated GABA, the olfactory bulb granule neuron being GABAergic in vivo. (Auth.)

  18. Acceleration of mitotic cycle in meristem cells of seedlings roots by gamma irradiation of pea and maize seeds at stimulating doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds were irradiated with 500 or 1,000 rads of 60Co γ-rays and laid on filter paper for germination. After 2-3 d the seedlings were placed for 30 min. into a nutrient solution containing 3H-thymidine. Afterwards the seedlings were placed in a non-radioactive nutrient solution and every 2 h the root tip was fixed and prepared for autoradiography for determination of cell division. Irradiation of both the pea and maize seeds resulted in a reduction of the duration of the mitotic cycle, the individual phases being shortened to a different extent. Stimulating radiation doses increased the activity of cell division. (MG)

  19. Detection in situ of γ-ray-induced DNA strand breaks in single cells: enzymatic labelling of free 3'-OH ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented of a procedure allowing the detection and counting of free 3'-OH DNA strand extremities in single cells in situ. Terminal transferase (TdT) catalysed the incorporation of 3H-dGMP into fixed nuclei of human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (HT29), using free 3'-OH ends as initiator. Radioactivity was detected by autoradiography and determined quantitatively with a rapid image-processing system for grain counting. The initiator activity for TdT increases with the dose of γ-rays in the dose range 2.5-20 Gy. (author)

  20. Complete in vitro replication of SV40 DNA and chromatin in saponin-treated permeable cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosogi,Nobuo; Hanakawa,Shiro; Watanabe,Sekiko; Oda,Takuzo

    1981-01-01

    A permeable cell system has been developed by treatment with saponin for studying in vitro replication of DNA and chromatin. DNA replication of simian virus 40 nucleoprotein complexes (SV40 chromatin) in saponin-treated permeable cells was found to be more efficient than that in digitonin-treated permeable cells. Autoradiography of the agarose-gel revealed that [alpha-32P]dCTP was incorporated into SV40 DNA I, II and replicating intermediates. The time course of the incorporation indicated co...

  1. Non-equilibrium segregation of boron on grain boundary in Fe-30%Ni alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The moving boundary non-equilibrium segregation during recrystallization and the influence of pre-deformation in Fe-30%Ni Alloy at1000℃ was investigated by the PTA (particle tracking autoradiography) technique, optical and electron microscopy. The results indicated that intensity of boron segregation on moving boundary after different deformation is concerned with the pre-deformation degree and the movingspeed of the boundary. The TEM ( transmission electron microscopy) result showed that the dislocation density nearby the moving boundary increase obviously. The phenomena are discussed by the widening grain boundary mechanism.

  2. Novel electronics for MCP imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe novel electronics for processing signals from a microchannel plate detector using a resistive anode readout. High sampling-rate (MHz) Analogue-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) coupled to a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) combine to offer high spatial resolution (70μm), low noise (0.1countcm-1s-1) imaging over a large (93mmx93mm) imaging area.These new low-cost electronics form an integral part of a MCP-based system for digital autoradiography designed to image radiolabelled thin tissue slices and 1- and 2-D electrophoresis gels

  3. Astrocytosis precedes amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer APPswe transgenic mouse brain: a correlative positron emission tomography and in vitro imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathological studies suggest that neuroinflammation is exacerbated by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels in the brain early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The time course and relationships between astrocytosis and Aβ deposition were examined using multitracer in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in an AD transgenic mouse model, followed by postmortem autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis. PET imaging with the amyloid plaque tracer 11C-AZD2184 and the astroglial tracer 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl (11C-DED) was carried out in APPswe mice aged 6, 8-15 and 18-24 months (4-6 animals/group) and in wild-type (wt) mice aged 8-15 and 18-24 months (3-6 animals/group). Tracer uptake was quantified by region of interest analysis using PMOD software and a 3-D digital mouse brain atlas. Postmortem brain tissues from the same APPswe and wt mice in all age groups were analysed for Aβ deposition and astrocytosis by in vitro autoradiography using 3H-AZD2184, 3H-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and 3H-L-deprenyl and immunostaining performed with antibodies for Aβ42 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in sagittal brain sections. 11C-AZD2184 PET retention in the cerebral cortices of APPswe mice was significantly higher at 18-24 months than in age-matched wt mice. Cortical and hippocampal 11C-DED PET binding was significantly higher at 6 months than at 8-15 months or 18-24 months in APPswe mice, and it was also higher than at 8-15 months in wt mice. In vitro autoradiography 3H-AZD2184 and 3H-PIB binding confirmed the in vivo findings with 11C-AZD2184 and demonstrated age-dependent increases in Aβ deposition in APPswe cortex and hippocampus. There were no significant differences between APPswe and wt mice in 3H-L-deprenyl autoradiography binding across age groups. Immunohistochemical quantification demonstrated more Aβ42 deposits in the cortex and hippocampus and more GFAP+ reactive astrocytes in the hippocampus at 18-24 months than at 6 months in APPswe

  4. Non destructive estimation of Pu microhomogeneity in FBTR fuel using image analysis of XGAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (U0.3,Pu0.7)C fuel is the driver fuel for FBTR which is being fabricated in Radiometallurgy Division of BARC through the conventional process of carbothermic reduction of mixed oxide followed by pelletisation, sintering and encapsulation. Homogeneity of fissile nuclide is an important requirement for nuclear fuel which is monitored using different inspection techniques during fuel fabrication. X-Gamma autoradiography (XGAR) is a routine inspection technique used for ensuring the correct loading of fuel (MC) and insulation (UC) pellets in FBTR fuel pin. This paper describes the image analysis studies of digitised XGARs which bring out information about homogeneity of plutonium distribution in FBTR fuel. (author)

  5. LARGE ANIMAL PARKINSONS DISEASE MODELS USING VIRAL VECTORS AND INOCULATION OF PREFORMED FIBRILS TO MEDIATE ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN OVEREXPRESSION AND MISFOLDING IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Landau, A.M.; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg; Bjarkam, C.R.; Brooks, David; Kirik, Deniz; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    2015-01-01

    Animal models towards understanding and treating Parkinson’s disease (PD) are important translational steps toward clinical applications. The Göttingen minipig(GM), fits progressional neurological models due to an relative low adult weight between 20-40 kg, and has a large gyrencephalic brain (6x 5...... quantified by neurological tests (behavior, scoring and gait), conventional and preclinical PET scanning modalities, autoradiography and post mortem histological evaluation. Results: Studies are still ongoing and data is being collected. First results from LV methods shoved "prove of concept" on gait and...... as antiaggreganttreatment, induced pluripotent stem cells or immunotherapy and development of novel radioligands for early diagnosis and assess disease progression....

  6. Experimental and in situ investigations on americium, curium and plutonium behaviour in marine benthic species: transfer from water or sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tranfer of transuranic elements -americium, curium and plutonium- from the sediments containing them to some marine benthic species (endofauna and epifauna) was studied with a twofold approach - laboratory and in-situ investigation. The experimental investigations, divided into three parts, made it possible to specify concentration factors (F.C.), transfer factors (F.T.) and to understand the process involved for 5 benthic species. The result were refined by an in-situ study that brought new data on the marine distribution of the transuranic elements released by the La Hague plant. Finally, the localization of americium and plutonium in the tissues and cells of these species was determined by autoradiography

  7. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents aspects of current and recent work on the distribution of radium and plutonium near the surfaces of human bone and applications of the data. Included are sections on methods, surface deposit thickness, radium distribution near the endosteal surface, the use of alpha spectrometry in conjunction with autoradiography, radium distribution in the mastoid, and factors affecting plutonium specific activity. Emphasis is placed on the alpha spectrometry technique because of its usefulness and its recent application to problems of local dosimetry. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  8. Identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum surface proteins by radioiodination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, A; Bakken, V

    1994-09-01

    Surface exposed proteins of Renibacterium salmoninarum were identified by radiolabelling whole bacterial cells with 125I, followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. The most prominent bands had molecular masses of approximately 57 kDa and 22 kDa; in addition, some less intensively labelled bands were detected. Polyclonal sera raised against the 22 kDa protein did not react with the 57 kDa protein. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the purified 22 kDa protein showed no similarity with the sequence of the 57 kDa protein. PMID:7926685

  9. Transmitter-related retrograde labeling in the pigeon optic lobe; a high resolution autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution light microscopic and electron microscopic autoradiography in a restricted area of the pigeon subtectal nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis (Ipc) 30 min after onset of a tectal [3H]glycine injection shows labeling mainly of the following elements: neuronal perikarya, initial axon segments and dendrites. Rapid labeling of such intrinsic Ipc elements and not of synaptic terminals possibly of tectal origin strongly suggests a fast retrograde migration of radioactivity within Ipc-tectal neurons. Fixation experiments indicate a soluble nature of this radioactive meterial. This type of retrograde labeling in the glycinergic Ipc-tectal pathway seems to be related to the transmitter specificity of the system. (Auth.)

  10. The transport pathway of labelled Mycena osmundicola and assimilated labelled materials in the embryonic cells of Gastrodia elata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycena osmundicola Lange. was labelled by 3H-glucose and the seeds of Gastrodia elata B1. were sown on the saprophytic leaves of labelled M. osmundicola. By means of autoradiography, it is found that the labelled M. osmundicola infected embryonic cells of G. elata only through the suspensor cells. In the embryonic cells of G. elata the assimilated labelled materials entered into the cells by the wall of cell. After the protocorm formed, the assimilated labelled materials were transferred by the vascular tissue of G. elata

  11. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  12. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Cosegregation of cell wall and DNA in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaeppi, J M; Karamata, D

    1982-01-01

    Cosegregation of cell wall and DNA of a lysis-negative mutant of Bacillus subtilis was examined by continuously labeling (i) cell wall, (ii) DNA, and (iii) both cell wall and DNA. After four to five generations of chase in liquid media it was found by light microscope autoradiography that the numbers of wall segregation units per cell are 29 and 9 in rich and minimal medium, respectively. Under the same conditions the numbers of segregation units of DNA were almost 50% lower: 15 and 5, respec...

  14. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Reubi, J. C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J. G.; Foekens, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, 125I-[Tyr11]-somatostatin-14, 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-somatostatin-28, or 125I-[Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, ...

  15. Dynamic spatio-temporal imaging of early reflow in a neonatal rat stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Pierre-Louis; Bonnin, Philippe; Lacombe, Pierre; Couture-Lepetit, Elisabeth; Fau, Sebastien; Renolleau, Sylvain; Gharib, Abdallah; Baud, Olivier; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to better understand blood-flow changes in large arteries and microvessels during the first 15 minutes of reflow in a P7 rat model of arterial occlusion. Blood-flow changes were monitored by using ultrasound imaging with sequential Doppler recordings in internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and basilar trunk. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes were obtained by using laser speckle Doppler monitoring. Tissue perfusion was measured with [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Cerebral energy metabolism was evaluated by mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Gradual increase in mean blood-flow velocities illustrated a gradual perfusion during early reflow in both ICAs. On ischemia, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory presented a residual perfusion, whereas the caudal territory remained normally perfused. On reflow, speckle images showed a caudorostral propagation of reperfusion through anastomotic connections, and a reduced perfusion in the MCA territory. Autoradiography highlighted the caudorostral gradient, and persistent perfusion in ventral and medial regions. These blood-flow changes were accompanied by mitochondrial respiration impairment in the ipsilateral cortex. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of a primary collateral pathway through the circle of Willis, providing an immediate diversion of blood flow toward ischemic regions, and secondary efficient cortical anastomoses in the immature rat brain. PMID:23047273

  16. Glucose utilisation in the lungs of septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequestration and degranulation of leucocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation is considered to be a key event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with sepsis. Glucose serves as the main source of energy in activated leucocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether glucose utilisation in the lungs can be used as an indicator of pulmonary leucocyte accumulation in an experimental model of sepsis of intra-abdominal origin. Sepsis was induced in rats by abdominal implantation of a gelatine capsule containing bacteria and rat colonic contents. Empty gelatine capsules were implanted in control animals. Animals were studied 6 and 12 h after sepsis induction. Glucose utilisation was measured as the tissue uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) 1 h after intravenous injection of the tracer. Micro-autoradiography was also performed after injection of tritiated deoxyglucose. We found increased uptake of 18FDG in the lungs of septic animals. The uptake also increased with time after sepsis induction. 18FDG uptake in circulating leucocytes was increased in septic animals compared with controls, and micro-autoradiography showed intense accumulation of deoxyglucose in leucocytes in the lungs of septic animals. We conclude that glucose utilisation is increased in the lungs of septic rats. Measurements of pulmonary glucose utilisation as an index of leucocyte metabolic activity may open new possibilities for studies of the pathophysiology of sepsis and for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  17. Labelling indices after 3H-thymidine incorporation during organ culture of duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporation of 3H-thymidine during organ culture of duodenal biopsy specimens from 34 coeliac and 10 non-coeliac patients was studied by autoradiography. High labelling indices were found in flat, coeliac mucosas. Gluten fractions, which provoked histological deterioration during culture, induced labelling of a greater proportion of crypt cells and higher migration rate than parallelly cultured specimens on gluten-free medium. No influence on clypt cell kinetics could be observed after culture with gluten fractions incapable of producing histological damage or with alpha-lactalbumin. In coeliac remission mucosas, labelling indices were at the same level as in non-coeliac biopsis, and no significant effects of gluten were observed. Autoradiography seems to be a fairly sensitive and reliable determinant of gluten toxicity by organ culture in coeliac desease and should supplement the histological appraisal of the biopsies. The increment of labelling indices provoked by gluten exposure seemed not merely to be a concequence of increased desquamation of cells from the biopsy surface but could imply a direct influence of gluten on crypt cell kinetics in coeliac disease. (Auth.)

  18. Preparation and biological evaluation of Re/99Tcm (CO)3+-diphenyldiazene derivative as candidates for imaging Aβ plaques in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the non-invasive and diagnostic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD), 99Tcm (CO)3+-L (L: (E)-2-(4-((4-(dimethylamino) phenyl) diazenyl) phenylamino) acetic acid, a diphenyldiazene derivative) was prepared, radiochemical purity was above 95%. Initial autoradiography results suggested that 99Tcm (CO)3+-L showed selective binding to the Aβ plaque-like structures in the brain section from the AD transgenic mice (Tg C57, APP, PSI 12-month-old), further, 99Tcm (CO)3+-L showed the same binding sites with fluorescence-stained by Re (CO)3+-L. Biodistribution of 99Tcm (CO)3+-L in normal mice demonstrated low uptake in brain (5 min: (0.52±0.11) % ID/g) whilst slow clearance from the brain tissues at 120 min post-injection (0.28±0.04)% ID/g. The corresponding Re analogue was also synthesized, and the nature of its lowest electronically excited state was determined by studies of the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission properties at room temperature. In addition, the fluorescent staining of the Re-complex was performed in comparison to Thioflavin-T and autoradiography results of 99Tcm (CO)3+-L. In conclusion, these results are encouraging for further exploration of 99Tcm (CO)3+-L as a SPECT imaging agent for Aβ plaques in the AD brain. (authors)

  19. Neutrons and art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following modern trends in art objects connoisseurship, through examination of the structure of art objects supports traditional studies conducted by art historians based on composition, iconographic and stylistic comparisons. It must be emphasized that complete technological examinations are carried out by means of comprehensive physical and chemical studies. Among various methods used for the examination of art objects, methods which apply neutrons such as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and neutron-induced autoradiography are crucial due to their high sensitivity, reproducibility and capability of simultaneous determination of several tens of elements. Systematic studies on art objects using instrumental neutron activation analysis and neutron autoradiography have been carried out in the institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. It was possible to accumulate a number of essential data on the concentration of trace elements particularly in chalk grounds and pigments (such as lead white, lead-tin yellow, smalt), Chinese porcelain, Thai ceramics, silver denarius, jewellery made of copper alloys, as well as in the clay fillings of Egyptian mummies. The above mentioned examination of art objects prior to their conservation helps to determine precisely the materials used in the process of creating art objects, as well as to identify the appropriate place of origin of particular materials. (author)

  20. Dual-Modality Optical/PET Imaging of PARP1 in Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Giuseppe; Carney, Brandon; Brand, Christian; Kossatz, Susanne; Irwin, Christopher P.; Carlin, Sean D.; Keliher, Edmund J.; Weber, Wolfgang; Reiner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current study presents [18F]PARPi-FL as a bimodal fluorescent/positron emission tomography (PET) agent for PARP1 imaging. Procedures [18F]PARPi-FL was obtained by 19F/18F isotopic exchange and PET experiments, biodistribution studies, surface fluorescence imaging, and autoradiography carried out in a U87 MG glioblastoma mouse model. Results [18F]PARPi-FL showed high tumor uptake in vivo and ex vivo in small xenografts (<2 mm) with both PET and optical imaging technologies. Uptake of [18F]PARPi-FL in blocked U87 MG tumors was reduced by 84 % (0.12±0.02 %injected dose/gram (%ID/g)), showing high specificity of the binding. PET imaging showed accumulation in the tumor (1 h p.i.), which was confirmed by ex vivo phosphor autoradiography. Conclusions The fluorescent component of [18F]PARPi-FL enables cellular resolution optical imaging, while the radiolabeled component of [18F]PARPi-FL allows whole-body deep-tissue imaging of malignant growth. PMID:25895168

  1. Germany: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies - Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron imaging is a non-destructive investigation method with a fast growing application field in materials research and fundamental science. The method is used broadly in the cultural heritage research as complementary technique to x-ray imaging. The ability of neutron beam to transmit thick layers of metal and the sensitivity to light elements makes the technique unique for detection of organic substances in metal and stone matrices. The high penetration power of neutrons allows for investigation of samples with real dimensions of about 100 cm3. The neutron imaging in cultural heritage helps to provide information about manufacturing processes and material properties which is very important for further restoration and conservation of the objects. The development of new methods like energy selective imaging and grating interferometry and the application of autoradiography increase the potential of the method for characterization of cultural heritage samples. The neutron tomography instrument CONRAD has been in operation since 2005 at the Hahn-Meitner research reactor at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). Over the last 5 years, significant development work has been performed to expand the radiographic and tomographic capabilities of the beamline. New techniques have been implemented, including imaging with polarized neutrons, Bragg-edge mapping, high-resolution neutron imaging and grating interferometry. These methods together with the autoradiography have been provided to the user community as tools to help address scientific problems particularly in the field of cultural heritage and palaeontology. Descriptions and parameters of the facilities are given

  2. Radiosynthesis, In Vivo Biological Evaluation, and Imaging of Brain Lesions with [123I]-CLINME, a New SPECT Tracer for the Translocator Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattner, F.; Quinlivan, M.; Greguric, I.; Pham, T.; Liu, X.; Jackson, T.; Berghofer, P.; Fookes, C. J. R.; Dikic, B.; Gregoire, M.-C.; Dolle, F.; Katsifis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The high affinity translocator protein (TSPO) ligand 6-chloro-2-(4′-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-methylethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide (CLINME) was radiolabelled with iodine-123 and assessed for its sensitivity for the TSPO in rodents. Moreover neuroinflammatory changes on a unilateral excitotoxic lesion rat model were detected using SPECT imaging. [123I]-CLINME was prepared in 70–80% radiochemical yield. The uptake of [123I]-CLINME was evaluated in rats by biodistribution, competition, and metabolite studies. The unilateral excitotoxic lesion was performed by injection of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid unilaterally into the striatum. The striatum lesion was confirmed and correlated with TSPO expression in astrocytes and activated microglia by immunohistochemistry and autoradiography. In vivo studies with [123I]-CLINME indicated a biodistribution pattern consistent with TPSO distribution and the competition studies with PK11195 and Ro 5-4864 showed that [123I]-CLINME is selective for this site. The metabolite study showed that the extractable radioactivity was unchanged [123I]-CLINME in organs which expresses TSPO. SPECT/CT imaging on the unilateral excitotoxic lesion indicated that the mean ratio uptake in striatum (lesion : nonlesion) was 2.2. Moreover, TSPO changes observed by SPECT imaging were confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunochemistry, and autoradiography. These results indicated that [123I]-CLINME is a promising candidate for the quantification and visualization of TPSO expression in activated astroglia using SPECT. PMID:26199457

  3. Radiosynthesis, In Vivo Biological Evaluation, and Imaging of Brain Lesions with [123I]-CLINME, a New SPECT Tracer for the Translocator Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mattner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high affinity translocator protein (TSPO ligand 6-chloro-2-(4′-iodophenyl-3-(N,N-methylethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide (CLINME was radiolabelled with iodine-123 and assessed for its sensitivity for the TSPO in rodents. Moreover neuroinflammatory changes on a unilateral excitotoxic lesion rat model were detected using SPECT imaging. [123I]-CLINME was prepared in 70–80% radiochemical yield. The uptake of [123I]-CLINME was evaluated in rats by biodistribution, competition, and metabolite studies. The unilateral excitotoxic lesion was performed by injection of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid unilaterally into the striatum. The striatum lesion was confirmed and correlated with TSPO expression in astrocytes and activated microglia by immunohistochemistry and autoradiography. In vivo studies with [123I]-CLINME indicated a biodistribution pattern consistent with TPSO distribution and the competition studies with PK11195 and Ro 5-4864 showed that [123I]-CLINME is selective for this site. The metabolite study showed that the extractable radioactivity was unchanged [123I]-CLINME in organs which expresses TSPO. SPECT/CT imaging on the unilateral excitotoxic lesion indicated that the mean ratio uptake in striatum (lesion : nonlesion was 2.2. Moreover, TSPO changes observed by SPECT imaging were confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunochemistry, and autoradiography. These results indicated that [123I]-CLINME is a promising candidate for the quantification and visualization of TPSO expression in activated astroglia using SPECT.

  4. Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse: an autoradiographic study of vitamin A-storing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse was investigated by the use of light- and electron-microscopic autoradiography. Young male mice were fed a diet containing 3H-vitamin A acetate for a week. Lymph nodes were removed and prepared for autoradiography. Lipid droplets in fibroblast-like cells showed high concentrations of radioactivity. These cells were distributed around lymphatic sinuses and blood vessels. The cells can, therefore, be classified as ''vitamin A-storing cells'' according to criteria proposed earlier by Yamada and Hirosawa (1976). Control animals from the same litter were maintained on ordinary laboratory food for the same period and examined by electron microscopy. Lipid-droplet-containing cells were found in the same areas as in the experimental animals but in fewer numbers. This suggests that the increased number of vitamin A-containing lipid droplets is due to hypervitaminosis A in the experimental animals. The presence of some cells containing these droplets in the control animals would imply that even under normal feeding conditions the animals ingested excess amounts of vitamin A, which was retained in lipid droplets. The stored vitamin A probably participates in metabolic processes such as the formation of glycoproteins in ground substance

  5. Molecular imaging of cholinergic processes in prostate cancer using {sup 11}C-donepezil and {sup 18}F-FEOBV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokholm, Morten Gersel; Bender, Dirk; Jakobsen, Steen; Froekiaer, Joergen; Borghammer, Per [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Hoeyer, Soeren [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Histopathology, Aarhus C (Denmark); Borre, Michael [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Urology, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    High-grade prostate cancer (PC) displays parasympathetic neoneurogenesis. We investigated the binding of two PET tracers that visualize cholinergic nerves in PC tissue using autoradiography. Prostatectomy tissue was subjected to autoradiography with {sup 11}C-donepezil and {sup 18}F-FEOBV and correlated with Gleason scores (GS). Regions of interest on the autoradiograms were defined and quantified. Tracer binding in cancer tissue regions was compared with that in normal tissue. We included 13 patients with biopsy-verified PC. In particular, {sup 11}C-donepezil uptake was higher in ''high-grade'' PC (GS ≥4 + 3) than in ''low-grade'' PC and benign hyperplasia. {sup 11}C-donepezil uptake ranged from a mean of 56 % higher (GS 3 + 3) to 409 % higher (GS 4 + 4), and {sup 18}F-FEOBV uptake ranged from 67 % higher (GS 3 + 3) to 194 % higher (GS 4 + 5). The uptake of both tracers was higher in PC with a high GS than in PC with a low GS, but the difference was significant only for {sup 11}C-donepezil (p = 0.003). Uptake of PET tracers binding to cholinergic nerves was markedly higher in PC with a high GS than in PC with a low GS. This finding implies that {sup 11}C-donepezil PET/CT may be able to differentiate between low-grade and high-grade PC. (orig.)

  6. Accumulation of 14C-5,6-dihydroxytryptamine-melanin in intrathecal and subependymal phagocytes of the rat CNS and possible routes of their elimination from brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-5,6-DHT-Melanin, a labelled synthetic polymer resembling the naturally occurring melanin formed in brain by autoxidation of dopamine, was injected into the left lateral ventricle of adult rats, and its fate followed by autoradiography and by transmission electron microscopy of structures identified as labelled in preceding light micrographs, and by EM-autoradiography. Shortly after injection, melanin particles (easily identified in the em because of their size, structure and electron opacity) were seen ingested by supraependymal and epiplexus cells, by cells residing in the piaarachnoid, i.e. free subarachnoidal cells and perivascular cells, and by subependymally located microglia-like cells with intraventricular processes. Up to day four, an increase in the number of labelled phagocytes in the CSF was noted which transformed into typical reactive macrophages. Beyond this time, many intraventricular melanin-loaded phagocytes formed rounded clusters; cells of such clusters were subsequently found to invade the brain parenchyma by penetrating the ependymal lining and to accumulate in the perivascular space of brain vessels. 14C-Melanin-storing macrophages were found in the marginal sinus of the deep jugular lymph nodes suggesting emigration of CNS-derived phagocytes via lymphatics or prelymphatics that contact the subarachnoidal space compartment. This does not exclude the possibility that some of the macrophages leave the brain via the systemic circulation by penetrating the vascular endothelium; these may be disposed of in peripheral organs other than the lymph nodes

  7. Histological type of Thorotrast-induced liver tumors associated with the translocation of deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to internally deposited radionuclides is known to induce malignant tumors of various histological types. Thorotrast, a colloidal suspension of radioactive Thorium dioxide (232ThO2) that emits alpha-particles, was used as a radiographic contrast during World War II. Thorotrast is known to induce liver tumors, particularly intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and angiosarcoma (AS), decades after injection. Therefore, patients injected with Thorotrast comprise a suitable study group to understand biological effects of internal ionizing radiation injury. Autoradiography and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) were carried out on non-tumorous liver sections from Thorotrast-induced ICC (T-ICC) and Thorotrast-induced AS (T-AS). Autoradiography revealed that the slope of the regression line of the number of alpha tracks for the amount of deposited Thorium (232Th) was higher in non-tumorous parts of the liver with T-ICC than those with T-AS. XRF showed that the intensity ratio of Radium (Ra) to Thorium (Th) in non-tumorous liver tissue with T-ICC was significantly higher than that with T-AS. Furthermore, the mean 228Ra/232Th radioactivity ratio at the time of death calculated was also significantly higher in T-ICC cases than in T-AS cases. These suggest that the metabolic behavior of radionuclides such as relocation and excretion, as well as the content of deposited radionuclides, is a major factor in determining the histological type of Thorotrast-induced liver tumors. (author)

  8. Densitometry of autoradiographs by scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the advantages of the autoradiography technique is the possibility of obtaining the distribution of the chemical elements over the whole surface samples. A method for transformation of the autoradiography image into an electronic format with the use of the digital document scanners of different types has been developed for computer analysis purposes. It is shown that the technique developed allows us to obtain the two-dimensional distribution of optical density of autoradiograms, replacing one-dimensional densitometry with the using of a microphotometer. A comparison with conventional densitometry is presented. In our work we examined both Small Office Home Office (SOHO) and drum type scanners. Drum scanners give a linear response within a wide range of optical density (up to 2.5), whereas SOHO-scanners possess a linear dependence characteristics up to 0.5. We have demonstrated that the response of SOHO-scanners can be approximated reasonably well by an exponential dependence permitting the optical density measurement to be extended to 2. The effects of the driver as well as of other parameters (gamma, contrast, brightness, filters and etc.) on the final image were studied. The digital scanners were used as tools for 2-D densitometry to investigate the distribution of Co, Fe, Pt and Ir bearing phases in geological samples

  9. Autoradiographic evidence of nuclear binding of spironolactone in rabbit cortical collecting tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous biochemical studies indicated that the spirolactone-mineralocorticoid receptor complexes are unable to translocate into the nucleus. The present study was designed to reinvestigate the intracellular distribution of spirolactone-binding sites, using autoradiography. For this purpose, rabbit kidney pyramids were incubated at 30 C with tritiated SC9420 or aldosterone. Thereafter, aldosterone-sensitive cortical collecting tubules were microdissected and processed for dry film autoradiography. The concentration was 2 nM for both steroids. Non-specific labeling was determined by incubations with tritiated steroids plus a 100-fold excess of unlabeled steroids. Results show the presence of specific nuclear labeling for both [3H] aldosterone and [3H]SC9420. Specific cytoplasmic labeling was very low for both [3H]aldosterone and [3H]SC9420. The nuclear labeling by [3H]SC9420 was equally and almost completely displaced by a 100-fold excess of unlabeled aldosterone or SC9420 (91% and 87%, respectively). We conclude that spironolactone-receptor complexes migrate into the nucleus. The difference between these results and those of previous studies with biochemical techniques, which failed to detect specific nuclear binding of spirolactone, may be due to methodological reasons

  10. High-resolution beta imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, β radioactivity has been used to label molecules and follow them in various biological processes. β imaging is obtained by autoradiography. Classically made on films or on photographic emulsions, autoradiography is now supplanted by radio-imagers which are very performing. The phosphor-imager, β-imager and μ-imager are the systems mainly used today and their operating principles and properties are compared. The great advantages of these imagers are: their rapidity to obtain results and their reliability for absolute quantification. All emitters (β-, β- -γ and β+) are detectable as well as the gamma emitters of nuclear medicine, by means of their low energy electrons ejected during y emission. Phosphor-imager is well suited to energetic tracers and large series of experiments. Real time radio-imagers (β-imager and μ-imager) are preferred to verify experimental conditions. The β--imager and s-imager are often complementary: one with a large field of view and medium resolution, the other with a higher resolution, but a small surface of detection. Their numerous applications in molecular biology (blotting. gene expression) and in physiopathology (binding, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry) are well known. Today other applications are under development in molecular imaging. Moreover, the possibility of multi-detection opens new fields of investigations, especially in nuclear medicine. (author)

  11. Biodistribution, cellular localization, and in vivo tolerability of {sup 35}S-labeled antiinflammatory dendritic polyglycerol sulfate amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhausen, Cornelia [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Veterinary Pathology (Germany); Gröger, Dominic [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Mundhenk, Lars [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Veterinary Pathology (Germany); Donat, Cornelius K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Department of Neuroradiopharmaceuticals (Germany); Schnorr, Jörg [Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Haag, Rainer [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Gruber, Achim D., E-mail: achim.gruber@fu-berlin.de [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Veterinary Pathology (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Antiinflammatory dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) holds great potential in the treatment and imaging of inflammatory processes. Here, we studied its biokinetic behavior, biodistribution, target cells, and in vivo toxicology. Following intravenous or subcutaneous application of {sup 35}sulfur-labeled dPGS amine with a molecular weight of 10.05 kDa and a hydrodynamic diameter of 5.7 ± 1.5 nm to mice, tissues were collected at specific time points (2, 15 min; 1, 24 h; 5, 21 days) and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting, autoradiography, radioluminography, and light microscopic autoradiography. The blood half-life of dPGS amine was 12 days. The major route of elimination was via the bile and feces. Elimination via the kidney and urine was only initially observed after i.v., but not after s.c. injection. Regardless of the administration mode, liver and spleen were late target organs where dPGS amine accumulated in phagocytic cells. Despite bioaccumulation, toxicological histopathology failed to identify any adverse effects at any time and in any tissues examined suggesting a high in vivo biocompatibility and encouraging future investigation for biomedical applications.

  12. In vivo [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine binding in rat striatum: sensitivity to dopamine concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The sensitivity of the in vivo binding of [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([11C]DTBZ) and [11C]methylphenidate ([11C]MPH) to their respective targets - vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) and neuronal membrane dopamine transporter - after alterations in endogenous levels of dopamine was examined in the rat brain. Methods: In vivo binding of [11C]DTBZ and [11C]MPH was determined using a bolus+infusion protocol. The in vitro number of VMAT2 binding sites was determined by autoradiography. Results: Repeated dosing with α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) at doses that significantly (-75%) depleted brain tissue dopamine levels resulted in increased (+36%) in vivo [11C]DTBZ binding to VMAT2 in the striatum. The increase in binding could be completely reversed via treatment with L-DOPA/benserazide to restore dopamine levels. There were no changes in the total number of VMAT2 binding sites, as measured using in vitro autoradiography. No changes were observed for in vivo [11C]MPH binding to the dopamine transporter in the striatum following AMPT pretreatment. Conclusion: These results indicate that large reductions in dopamine concentrations in the rat brain can produce modest but significant changes in the binding of radioligands to VMAT2, which can be reversed by replenishment of dopamine using exogenous L-DOPA.

  13. Receptor binding sites for substance P in surgical specimens obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, C.R.; Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Kruger, L.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-05-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that tachykinin neuropeptides (substance P (SP), substance K (SK), and neuromedin K (NK)) play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses. To test this hypothesis in a human inflammatory disease, quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to examine possible abnormalities in tachykinin binding sites in surgical specimens from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In all cases, specimens were processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography by using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton-Hunter conjugates of NK, SK, and SP. In colon tissue obtained from ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease patients, very high concentrations of SP receptor binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules located in the submucosa, muscalairs mucosa, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and serosa, in contrast to control patients. These results demonstrate that receptor binding sites for SP, but not SK or NK, are ectopically expressed in high concentrations by cells involved in mediating inflammatory and immune responses. These data suggest that SP may be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and might provide some insight into the interaction between the nervous system and the regulation of inflammation and the immune response in human inflammatory disease.

  14. Specific radiosensitivy and postnatal neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult and young rabbits were delivered a gamma exposure of 4.5 Gy. A light and electron microscope cytological investigation of the hippocampal region in the early hours following the exposure showed the particular radiosensitivity of the dentate gyrus which was demonstrated by: 1) pycnotic cells to be found at the basis of the granular cell layer (subgranular zone) exclusively; 2) a more discrete injury of the granular layer where most nuclei showed a lighter chromatin appearing as ''light spots''. Both radioinduced injuries are described, especially their kinetics, importance, and the effects of dose and age of the animal. The presence of pycnotic cells in the subgranular zone was related to the late postnatal neurogenesis occurring in this zone. The pattern and chronology of this late postnatal neurogenesis was investigated by autoradiography following 3H thymidine injection. Finally, two series of investigations combining autoradiography and irradiation brought further data on the radiosensitivity and radioresistance of the dental gyrus cells and demonstrated the recovery capacity of the subgranular zone

  15. Localization of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate proteoglycans in vascular endothelium: Antithrombin binding on cultured endothelial cells and perfused rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the interaction of 125I-antithrombin (125I-AT) with microvascular endothelial cells (RFPEC) to localize the cellular site of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). The radiolabeled protease inhibitor bound specifically to the above HSPG with a Kd of approximately 50 nM. Confluent monolayer RFPEC cultures exhibited a linear increase in the amount of AT bound per cell for up to 16 d, whereas suspension RFPEC cultures possessed a constant number of protease inhibitor binding sites per cell for up to 5 d. These results suggest that monolayer RFPEC cultures secrete anticoagulantly active HSPG, which then accumulate in the extracellular matrix. This hypothesis was confirmed by quantitative light and EM level autoradiography which demonstrated that the AT binding sites are predominantly located in the extracellular matrix with only small quantities of protease inhibitor complexed to the cell surface. We have also pinpointed the in vivo position of anticoagulantly active HSPG within the blood vessel wall. Rat aortas were perfused, in situ, with 125I-AT, and bound labeled protease inhibitor was localized by light and EM autoradiography. The anticoagulantly active HSPG were concentrated immediately beneath the aortic and vasa vasorum endothelium with only a very small extent of labeling noted on the luminal surface of the endothelial cells. Based upon the above data, we propose a model whereby luminal and abluminal anticoagulantly active HSPG regulate coagulation mechanism activity

  16. Proliferation of subependymal cells in the adult primate CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New formation of stem cells in the subependymal brain layer of a normal adult primate has been documented by light and electron microscopy and trough 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) uptake studies. Serial sections (1.5 μm) prepared for autoradiography were examined under the light microscope and then reembedded for electron microscopy. In individual sections subependymal cells did not appear labeled; however, serial sections revealed that many cells were slightly labeled indicating a low level of 3H-TdR incorporating during DNA synthesis. Dividing subependymal cells were also observed by light and electron microscopy. The poor incorporation of intraperitoneally injected 3H-TdR is due to the blood-brain barrier toward 3H-TdR. Rat experiments with the thymidine analogue, 123I-iododeoxyuridine (IUDR-125I) showed that after intraventricular injection of IUDR-125I about ninety times more radioactivity is incorporated into dividing stem cells of the brain than after an intraperitoneal injection of IUDR-125I. Differential corporation of 3H-TdR seems to depend on the type of stem cells, i.e., whether a stem cell may be precursor for glial or neuronal brain cells. Changes in membrane permeability, intracellular DNA activity as well as difference in locally available 'cold' thymidine may be a reason for differential uptake of radioactive thymidine. Differential uptake of 3H-TdR needs consideration when autoradiography is applied on brain cells. (author)

  17. Transuranics and other radionuclides in Bikini Lagoon: concentration data retrieved from aged coral sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X radiography and autoradiography of thin vertical sections were used to estimate the growth rate of a specimen of Favites virens from Bikini Lagoon. Discrete bands of radioactivity were identifiable with specific nuclear test series. The coral growth rate of 8.0 mm year-1 determined by autoradiography is in good agreement with the rate of 8.1 +- 2.2 mm year-1 derived from the ''seasonal'' alternating light and dark bands on x radiographs. With these bands as growth rate indicators, the coral was sectioned into yearly increments and analyzed by low-level, nondestructive gamma spectrometry, radiochemical techniques, and mass spectrometry to reconstruct the variations in the concentration of transuranics and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini since 1954. From the concentration data retained in this indicator species, the exchange rate of radionuclides between the lagoon and the open ocean is computed to be longer than exchange rates based on physical circulation data. There is no constant ratio of plutonium isotopes in the coral growth sections, suggesting that the redistributions of the several plutonium isotopes in the environment may be governed by different biogeochemical processes. Increased levels of 210Po (210Pb) were found in test-year growth sections, contradicting previous arguments that no 210Pb has resulted from weapons testing

  18. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex.

  19. Elemental concentrations and tracer uptake behavior of manganese, zinc, and selenium in brain of normal mice during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations and uptake behavior of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in mouse brain were studied by a multitracer technique, neutron activation analysis and autoradiography. Comparative concentrations on Mn, Zn, and Se and tracer uptake behavior of 54Mn, 65Zn, and 75Se were examined in brains of 1-, 4-, 8-, 21-, and 56-day-old mice, and evaluated in terms of brain concentration (parts per million, ppm) and brain uptake rate (the radioactivity percentage of injected dose per gram of brain, %dose/g), respectively. As a result, the brain concentrations of Mn increased with growth, although those of Se and Zn did not change. On the other hand, the uptakes of the three tracers by brains of 1-day-old mice were much higher than those of older ones. Using radioactive 54Mn as a single tracer, autoradiography was examined to determine the Mn uptake regional distribution in brains of 1-, 8-, and 21-day-old mice, and a higher regional uptake of Mn by the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus in brains of young mice was observed. (author)

  20. Interaction of angiotensin II with functional smooth muscle cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the authors report on the characterization of a highly enriched population of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) prepared from collagenase-treated medial layer explant outgrowths of rabbit aortae. Studies done on cells from first passage explant outgrowths showed that the cells retain the fine structural features of vascular SMC in situ, can be immunostained with anti-smooth muscle myosin IgG, and bind [125I]angiotensin II (ANG II) in a specific and saturable manner with an apparent Kd of 1 nM. Addition of ANG II to the cultures causes obvious shape changes and retraction of cell processes. Electron microscopic autoradiography of cells labeled with [125I]ANG II show that the initial site of interaction of ANG II with the SMC is the plasma membrane. The distribution of ANG II receptors among cells in the population was studied using light microscopic autoradiography. The autoradiographical grain density varied among cells in the population ranging from cells that were heavily labeled to those that possessed virtually no label. These data imply that the expression of ANG II receptors may be limited to a certain progeny within the cell population or is a function of their stage within the cell cycle