WorldWideScience

Sample records for autoradiographs

  1. Possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Morfologii)

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H/sup 3/-thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough investigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient.

  2. Automated analysis of autoradiographic imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisignani, W.T.; Greenhouse, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    A research programme is described which has as its objective the automated characterization of neurological tissue regions from autoradiographs by utilizing hybrid-resolution image processing techniques. An experimental system is discussed which includes raw imagery, scanning an digitizing equipments, feature-extraction algorithms, and regional characterization techniques. The parameters extracted by these algorithms are presented as well as the regional characteristics which are obtained by operating on the parameters with statistical sampling techniques. An approach is presented for validating the techniques and initial experimental results are obtained from an anlysis of an autoradiograph of a region of the hypothalamus. An extension of these automated techniques to other biomedical research areas is discussed as well as the implications of applying automated techniques to biomedical research problems. (author)

  3. On coherent optical evaluation of autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Freyer, K.

    1978-01-01

    The autoradiography imaging process can be described through the imaging equation s(y 1 ,y 2 ) = ∫ a(x 1 ,y 2 )h(y 1 ,y 2 ,x 1 ,x 2 )dx 1 dx 2 where s(y 1 ,y 2 ) in the density distribution of the autoradiograph, a(x 1 ,x 2 ) is the activity distribution over a plane sample and h(y 1 ,y 2 ,x 1 ,x 2 ) transfer fuction of the system. Light transfer through a lens system may be characterized in an analogous way. By application of the Fourier transformation to the imaging equation, the autoradiographic imaging process becomes a filter process with the function H (= Fourier transformer of h). If autoradiographs are imaged through a lens system by means of coherent light the Fourier transform of the autoradiograph is formed in the Fourier plane. Through suitable arrangement of filters in the Fourier plane, systematic imaging errors can be corrected or the autoradiographic imaging be changed. The possibilities of coherent-optical filtration in the evaluation of autoradiographs are considered. (author)

  4. The possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H 3 -thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough inestigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient [ru

  5. An autoradiographic study of equine hoof growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report introduces an autoradiographic method of studying the growth of entire equine hoof sections. It has the advantage that accurate measurements can be made of changes in the rate of growth before and after treatment such as dietary supplementation with biotin on the development of laminitis

  6. Cytogenetic and autoradiographic investigations in gonadal dysgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A.; Medical Academy, Poznan

    1977-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis in 23 patients with Turner's syndrome and in 33 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis consisted of sex chromatin determination and karyotype studies employing autoradiography in questionable cases. Here autoradiography is used as an indispensable complement to cytogenetic techniques. The labelling behaviour of aberrant chromosomes is described. After treatment of the autoradiographic films for more differentiation in results is employed

  7. Autoradiographic study of corrosion of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenenkova, S.B.; Kucheryavyi, M.N.; Bursteva, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the character of the interaction between a container-glass melt consisting of sodium calcium silicate and refractories in various furnace sections using an autoradiographic method. Static tests were conducted on specimens of the following refractories: chrome-aluminum-zircon, Bakor 41, corundum, a high alumina refractory, and a refractory based on tin dioxide. The specimens were activated by calcium 45. Autoradiography and photomicrography indicated that an intrinsic feature of all refractories was that calcium from the melt penetrated the refractories along the weak link; for fused-cast refractories, the glass phase; and for sintered refractories, through the binder and cracks

  8. Autoradiographic images in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portu, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Schwint, A.; Saint Martin, G.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to summarize the autoradiographic study performed to samples from different protocols of the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The qualitative analysis of histological and autoradiographic images, together with the determination of the boron concentration in the different structures of tumor, premalignant tissue and normal tissue contributed to the knowledge of the microdistribution of boron compounds. Besides, the study led to the optimization of the autoradiography technique applied to BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (author)

  9. The autoradiographic localization of paraquat in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning in mammals results in a characteristic lung lesion manifested principally as progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Paraquat is actively concentrated into the lung but the site of uptake remains undefined. A method is described for the autoradiographic localization of paraquat in rats. Preliminary evidence for the site of uptake implicates the bronchiol. (author)

  10. Some remarks on the evaluation of autoradiographs by means of microdensitometer ''Scanding 3''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysak, F.; Spunda, J.

    1980-01-01

    Some factors, which influence the evaluation of autoradiographs by means of microdensitometer ''Scanding 3'' are described. The effect of pixel's area (area of picture element) used for digitalization of autoradiographs was studied. Experiments were carried out to explain the phenomena which are connected with scanning of fine details of structure. Attention is drawn to the influence of quantification of the optical density during digitalization of an autoradiograph on its evaluation. (author)

  11. Autoradiographic studies of oleilanilide-3H distribution in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro Alvarez, M.J.; Saez Angulo, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the possibility that oleilanilides are involved in the pathgenesis of ''toxic syndrome'' is studied. Oleilanilide- 3 H labelled in the anilidi aromatic ring has been used to determine the distribution, localization and incorporation of that compound in several tissues of rats. Liquid scintillation counting for quantitative evaluation of the total radioactivity accumulated in the tissues, as well as autoradiographic techniques have been employed as analytical procedures. Results obtained from measurement of total radioactivity have shown accumulation of oleilanilide or its metabolites in all the studied tissues, mainly in the liver. No specific radioactivity localization has been detected by autoradiographic techniques, being the labelled molecules distributed in cytaplasm and cell interstice. (Author)

  12. Autoradiographic studies of actinide sorption in groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kelley, G.D.; Beall, G.W.; Allard, B.

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiography is a convenient and sensitive technique for the study of spacial distributions of alpha radioactive nuclides on slabs of rock or on other planar surfaces. The autoradiographic camera contains an arrangement for placing in firm contact Polaroid sheet film, a plastic scintillator screen, and the radioactive face of the specimen. As an example of the use of the autoradiographic method, a series of sorption experiments were carried out in which synthetic groundwater solutions of americium, neptunium, uranium, and plutonium were contacted with Climax Stock granite under aerated and anoxic conditions at pH 8 to 9. The sorption observed at specific mineral sites was correlated with data on sorption of these actinides on pure minerals

  13. A new approach to the autoradiographic study of proliferating lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweiman, B.; Lisak, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    An adaptation of a cell filtration method for the autoradiographic study of cultured lymphocytes has been developed. The percentages of labelled cells are very similar in the filtered cell population to those obtained from replicate cultures processed by centrifugation. The filter method permitted a higher recovery of cells from small numbers in culture with better cytological detail than seen when cells were washed by repeated centrifugation, then suspended and smeared. (author)

  14. Application of autoradiographic methods for contaminant distribution studies in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povetko, O.G.; Higley, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine physical location of contaminants in soil, solidified soil 'thin' sections, which preserve the undisturbed structural characteristics of the original soil, were prepared. This paper describes an application of different autoradiographic methods to identify the distribution of selected nuclides along key structural features of sample soils and sizes of 'hot particles' of contaminant. These autoradiographic methods included contact autoradiography using CR-39 (Homalite Plastics) plastic alpha track detectors and neutron-induced autoradiography that produced fission fragment tracks in Lexan (Thrust Industries, Inc.) plastic detectors. Intact soil samples containing weapons-grade plutonium from Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site and control samples from outside the site location were used in thin soil section preparation. Distribution of particles of actinides was observed and analyzed through the soil section depth profile from the surface to the 15-cm depth. The combination of two autoradiographic methods allowed to distinguish alpha- emitting particles of natural U, 239+240 Pu and non-fissile alpha-emitters. Locations of 990 alpha 'stars' caused by 239+240 Pu and 241 Am 'hot particles' were recorded, particles were sized, their size-frequency, depth and activity distributions were analyzed. Several large colloidal conglomerates of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am 'hot particles' were found in soil profile. Their alpha and fission fragment 'star' images were micro photographed. (author)

  15. Autoradiographic methods for studying marked volatile substances (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.; Wepierre, J.

    1961-01-01

    The autoradiographic methods for animals used up to the present do not make it possible to localise exactly the distribution of marked volatile molecules. The Ullberg method (1954) which we have modified (Cohen, Delassue, 1959) involves cold desiccant. The method due to Pellerin (1957) avoids this desiccant but the histological comparison of the autoradiography with the biological document itself is difficult, if not impossible. Nevertheless, we have adopted certain points in the two methods and propose the following technique for the autoradiographic study of marked volatile molecules: 1- The surface of the frozen sample to be studied is prepared using a freezing microtome. 2- The last section, which is 20 μ thick and whose histological elements are parallel to those of the block, is dried by cooling and is used as the biological reference document for the autoradiography obtained, as is indicated in 3; 3- The radiography films are applied to the frozen block at -30 deg. C. The autoradiographs correspond to the radioactivity of the volatile molecule and of its non-volatile degradation products. 4- The radiographic film is also applied to the 20 μ section previously dried at -20 deg. C. This autoradiography corresponds to the radioactivity of the non-volatile degradation products of the molecule. 5- We confirmed the absence of diffusion of the volatile molecule and of pseudo-radiographic effects (photochemical and others). This method, which has enabled us to study the distribution of a carbide, para-cymene (C 14 ) 7, macroscopically in the case of a whole mouse and microscopically on the skin of a dog, can find general applications. (authors) [fr

  16. Autoradiographic localization of benzomorphan binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crain, B.J.; Kwenjen Chang; McNamara, J.O.; Valdes, F.

    1985-07-17

    The benzomorphan subpopulation of opiate binding sites was labeled by (TH)diprenorphine in the presence of unlabeled ligands selected to quench and delta opiate binding sites. The distribution of benzomorphan binding sites was then localized autoradiographically. The distribution differs from the distributions of , delta and kappa opiate binding and is quite similar to the distribution of US -endorphin immunoreactivity. These observations support the hypothesis, based on biochemical studies in brain membranes, that benzomorphan binding sites may represent the ligand recognition sites of putative epsilon receptors. (Auth.). 34 refs.; 3 figs.

  17. Autoradiographical investigations of the proliferation of gynaecological carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehweck, H.

    1981-01-01

    23 biopsies and operation preparations of gynaecological tumours were examined autoradiographically: 8 with an external short-time preirradiation of up to 750 R, one with a curative radiotherapy 1 1/2 years ago. Besides the determination of quantitative parameters of growth kinetics another main concern was to find out the interdependence between the proliferation behaviour of the tumour cells and the histological differentiation of the tumour parenchyma and the topographical location of the malignant cells in the tissue. Possible effects of a previous radiotherapy on the cell proliferation are discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Electron histochemical and autoradiographic studies of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Kohji; Aida, Takeo; Asano, Goro

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the vascular smooth muscle cell in the aorta and the arteries of brain, heart in autopsied cases, cholesterol fed rabbits and canine through electron histochemical and autoradiographic methods, using 3 H-proline and 3 H-thymidine. The vascular changes are variable presumably due to the functional and morphological difference of vessels. Aging, pathological condition and physiological requirement induce the disturbances of vascular functions as contractility. According to various pathological conditions, the smooth muscle cell altered their shape, surface properties and arrangement of subcellular organelles including changes in number. The morphological features of arteries during aging is characterized by the thickening of endothelium and media. Decreasing cellularity and increasing collagen contents in media. The autoradiographic and histochemical observations using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAM) and ruthenium red stains demonstrated that the smooth muscle cell is a connective tissue synthetic cell. The PAM impregnation have proved that the small bundle of microfilaments become associated with small conglomerate of collagen and elastic fibers. Cytochemical examination will provide sufficient evidence to establish the contribution of subcellular structure. The acid phosphatase play an important role in vascular disease and they are directly involved in cellular lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed animals, and the activity of Na-K ATPase on the plasma membrane may contribute to the regulation of vascular blood flow and vasospasms. Direct injury and subsequent abnormal contraction of smooth muscle cell may initiate increased permeability of plasma protein and lipid in the media layer and eventually may developed and enhance arteriosclerosis. (author)

  19. The autoradiographic observation of neutron activated plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Motoko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    Imaging Plate (IP) is a radiography apparatus of applying photostimulable luminescence. IP has some advantages in comparison with X-ray film, for example, high sensitivity, wide latitude and high fidelity for radiations. The high sensitivity of IP makes it possible to observe the distribution of short-lived nuclides. We obtained autoradiographs of Azuki bean cuttings. In the basal region of Azuki bean cuttings, the intensity of autoradiographs of indole acetic acid (IAA)-treated samples were higher than that of water- and Gibbereline(GA)-treated ones. The high intensity parts of IAA-treated cuttings were extended upwards. The high intensive imaging of basal region treated in IAA indicated that high elemental concentrations were in existence for adventitious root formations. The measurement results by γ-ray spectrometry showed that the Ca content in the Azuki bean cuttings basal region increased in IAA treatment. It seems that the cell division for adventitious root formation needs Ca. In Azuki bean epicotyls, Ca content showed an increase to basal region, though Mg content increased to upper region. (author)

  20. Autoradiographic study of the permeability characteristics of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingham, J G.C.; Baker, J H; Loehry, C A [Royal Victoria Hospital, Bournemouth (UK)

    1978-02-01

    This autoradiographic study demonstrates the distribution of a range of small solutes and macromolecules in the mucosa of the guinea-pig small intestine after intracardiac injection. The substances investigated were: /sup 14/C-urea, /sup 3/H-mannose, /sup 3/H-inulin, and /sup 125/I polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Small bowel biopsies were taken at intervals from one to 60 minutes after injection and the tissues processed for autoradiography. Light microscopic examination of the autoradiographs showed that the compartmental distribution depended on the molecular size of the substances being studied. Urea and mannose, as small solutes, were uniformly distributed throughout the intravascular, extravascular, and epithelial compartments. Inulin was evenly distributed in the vessel lumen and extravascular space but there was a considerable drop in concentration in the epithelium. PVP exhibited the most marked gradients, the concentration being greatest in the vascular lumina, lower in the extravascular space, least in the epithelium. Thus there appear to be two barriers to macromolecular passage which are freely permeable to small solutes: the capillary wall and the epithelium. At a light microscopical level it was not possible to observe whether the limiting membrane of each of these barriers is the cell plasmalemmal membrane or the basement membrane. The selectivity of the epithelial barrier was greater than that of the capillary barrier.

  1. Autoradiographic study of nuclear protein acetylation during Locust spermiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, D.; Chevaillier, P.

    1975-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies, at the light and electron microscope level, demonstrate that spermatid nuclei of the Locust Locusta migratoria incorporate 3 H-acetate, especially during the first stages of spermiogenesis. The highest level of acetate incorporation is observed during stage II of spermiogenesis. During this stage and the following, the spermatid nucleus undergoes a number of structural and chemical modifications: chromatin decondenses and somatic histones are progressively replaced by newly synthesized arginine-rich proteins. Therefore, the higher degree of acetylation of nuclear components coincides with chromatin decondensation and precedes the protein transition occurring in later stages. Cytochemical and autoradiographic tests have been realized so as to localize 3 H-acetate in the nuclear components. Trichloracetic acid was used at various concentrations: the action of hydrochloric acid, pronase and DNase was also tested. The results support the idea that proteins, and among them histones, are the only nuclear components to be acetylated during spermiogenesis. Thus, histone acetylation seems to play an important role in modulating histone-DNA interactions and allowing histone replacement [fr

  2. Automated analysis of autoradiographic grains density with scanning microspectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Pingrong

    1988-01-01

    The mouse ascites tumour cells were used as the specimen, and 3 H-thymidine was used as the tracer. The smears were treated without staining or with Eosin or Giemsa-Wright staining. The automatic analysis of autoradiographic silver grains was performed with UNIVAR-MSPM. The relationship between integrated optical density (IOD) and silver grain density (SGD) in cell nuclei was studied. The results showed that the IOD could reflect the SGD basically, the correlation coefficients being 0.922, 0.9118 and 0.6218. Since the G-W stained cell nuclei appeared blue, their IOD was influenced strongly, whereas the Eosin stained cell nuclei appeared light red, their IOD was influenced only slightly. The latter was recommended. This method could be used for studying the DNA synthesis and cell proliferating kinetics

  3. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

  4. Autoradiographic analysis of protein regeneration in striated skeleton muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoune, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    An autoradiographic study was conducted of protein regeneration in striated muscles aimed at clarifying the contradictions in the literature: while some authors hold that the regeneration rate is identical for all types of myofibril proteins and the myofibril is thus regenerated as a whole, others claim that the regeneration rate differs depending on the type of the myofibril protein. Tritium-labelled leucine incorporation experiments showed the existence of at least 2 pools of newly formed proteins in striated muscles in both adult and young animals. One pool is regenerated in 1 to 2 weeks, the other roughly in a month. The regeneration of proteins is initially more significant in red fibres; thus the rate of myofibril protein regeneration is not uniform. In adult animals regeneration seems to be slower in filaments than in the sarcoplasm and in the mitochondria. (A.K.)

  5. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.G.; Morel, G.; Belles-Isles, M.; Jeandel, L.; Heisler, S.

    1988-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of 125 I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with 125 I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes

  6. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaschi, S.; Spagnoli, L.G. (Universita degli Studi, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Anatomia ed Istologia Patologica)

    1983-07-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells.

  7. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaschi, Sergio; Spagnoli, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells. (author)

  8. Autoradiographic changes in the kidney of the whole-body sublethally x-ray irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinic, A; Uray, Z

    1977-01-01

    203Hg-hydroxymersalyl uptake/gram of kidney (HU), renal autoradiographic and histologic aspect after 800 R x-ray whole-body rat irradiation was studied. Twenty-four to seventy-two hours after irradiation, HU increased, while tubular autoradiographic granularity decreased. Their return to the control levels occurred gradually within two weeks. The relations of these findings to the early circulatory and dystrophic changes, as well as to the subsequent postirradiation restoring renal process are discussed.

  9. Autoradiographic study of actinide sorption on climax stock granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, G.W.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Allard, B.

    1980-06-01

    An autoradiographic technique that employed an arrangement for placing in firm contact Polaroid sheet film, a scintillator screen, and the radioactive face of a specimen was applied to a study of the sorption of americium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium on Climax Stock granite under varying conditions of pH and Eh. Qualitative agreement was found between the sorption of americium on crushed, pure minerals and on the minerals comprising the specimen of Climax Stock granite. The observations also supported a mechanism for reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) and Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) by Fe(II)-containing minerals. There was no evidence for reduction of U(VI) by the Fe(II)-containing minerals, although the uranium, assumed to be present as UO 2 2+ , appeared to be the only actinide species to exhibit sorption by a simple, cation-exchange mechanism at particular mineral sites. Some implications of these results for nuclear waste isolation are discussed briefly

  10. Neurogenesis in spinal cord of mouse: an autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nornes, H.O.; Carry, M.

    1978-01-01

    An autoradiographic analysis of the time and sites of origin, and the migration and setting patterns of neurons was made in the spinal cord of the mouse. The neurons originated on days 10-15 of gestation with temporal gradients along the ventrodorsal and rostrocaudal axes. The motor neurons originated on days 10-11 of gestation; the neurons in the intermediate gray region originated on days 11-14 of gestation; the neurons of the head of the dorsal horn originated on days 12-14 of gestation. The neurons that originated on days 10 and 11 originated and migrated primarily from the basal plate, and they settled in the adjacent regions of the intermediate zone; those neurons formed on days 12-14 originated and migrated primarily from the alar plate, and it was concluded that these neuroblasts similarly settled in the adjacent regions of the intermediate zone. Extraventricular proliferation, which presumably signaled the initial stages of gliogenesis, was first observed on day 12 of gestation. This study supports the classical idea of the mosaic pattern of neurogenesis in the embryonic spinal cord. (Auth.)

  11. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G. (Glasgow Dental Hospital (UK))

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium.

  12. In situ autoradiographic detection of folylpolyglutamate synthetase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussman, D.J.; Milman, G.; Osborne, C.; Shane, B.

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the conversion of folate (pteroylmonoglutamate) to the polyglutamate forms (pteroylpolyglutamates) that are required for folate retention by mammalian cells. A rapid in situ autoradiographic assay for FPGS was developed which is based on the folate cofactor requirement of thymidylate synthase. Chinese hamster AUX B1 mutant cells lack FPGS activity and are unable to accumulate folate. As a result, the conversion of [6- 3 H]deoxyuridine to thymidine via the thymidylate synthase reaction is impaired in AUX B1 cells and no detectable label is incorporated into DNA. In contrast, FPGS in wild-type Chinese hamster CHO cells causes folate retention and enables the incorporation of [6- 3 H]deoxyuridine into DNA. Incorporation may be detected by autoradiography of monolayer cultures or of colonies replica plated onto polyester discs. Introduction of Escherichia coli FPGS into AUX B1 cells restores the activity of the thymidylate synthase pathway and demonstrates that the E. coli FPGS enzyme can provide pteroylpolyglutamates which functions in mammalian cells

  13. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of 3 H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium. (author)

  14. Uranium in bone: metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Haines, J.W.; Howells, G.R.; Green, D.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and retention of intravenously injected hexavalent uranium-233 in the skeleton of the female rat has been investigated using a variety of autoradiographic and radiochemical techniques. These showed that approximately one third of the injected uranium is deposited in the skeleton where it is retained with an initial biological half-time of approximately 40 days. The studies also showed that: 1) Uranium is initially deposited on to all types of bone surface, but preferentially on to those that are accreting. 2) Uranium is deposited in the calcifying zones of skeletal cartilage. 3) Bone accretion results in the burial of surface deposits of uranium. 4) Bone resorption causes the removal of uranium from surfaces. 5) Resorbed uranium is not retained by osteoclasts and macrophages in the bone marrow. 6) Uranium removed from bone surfaces enters the bloodstream where most is either redeposited in bone or excreted via the kidneys. 7) The recycling of resorbed uranium within the skeleton tends to produce a uniform level of uranium contamination throughout mineralized bone. These results are taken to indicate that uranium deposition in bone shares characteristics in common with both the 'volume-seeking radionuclides' typified by the alkaline earth elements and with the 'bone surface-seeking radionuclides' typified by plutonium. (author)

  15. Uranium in bone: metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, N D; Howells, G R; Green, D; Haines, J W

    1982-03-01

    The distribution and retention of intravenously injected hexavalent uranium-233 in the skeleton of the female rat has been investigated using a variety of autoradiographic and radiochemical techniques. These showed that approximately one third of the injected uranium is deposited in the skeleton where it is retained with an initial biological half-time of approximately 40 days. The studies also showed that: 1 Uranium is initially deposited onto all types of bone surface, but preferentially onto those that are accreting. 2 Uranium is deposited in the calcifying zones of skeletal cartilage. 3 Bone accretion results in the burial of surface deposits of uranium. 4 Bone resorption causes the removal of uranium from surfaces. 5 Resorbed uranium is not retained by osteoclasts and macrophages in the bone marrow. 6 Uranium removed from bone surfaces enters the bloodstream where most is either redeposited in bone or excreted via the kidneys. 7 The recycling of resorbed uranium within the skeleton tends to produce a uniform level of uranium contamination throughout mineralized bone. These results are taken to indicate that uranium deposition in bone shares characteristics in common with both the 'volume-seeking radionuclides' typified by the alkaline earth elements and with the 'bone surface-seeking radionuclides' typified by plutonium.

  16. C14 Assays and Autoradiographic Studies on the Rooster Comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Endre A.; Szirmai, John A.; Bergendahl, Gudrun

    1959-01-01

    The distribution of C14 was studied in various parts of the rooster comb following treatment with testosterone. The value of gas-phase assay of C14 in tissue has been demonstrated and the results compared with those of autoradiographic studies on the same tissue. The results of these experiments showed that androgen treatment significantly increases the rate of incorporation of C14 in various parts of the comb. The specific activity of carbon in the comb, cornea, and liver differed, depending on which precursor, viz. glucose-6-C14, glucose-1-C14, and glucuronolactone-U-C14, was administered. The highest values were obtained after the administration of glucose-6-C14; glucuronolactone-U-C14 gave the lowest specific activity. The specific activity of carbon in different parts of the comb showed considerable variation. Carbon assay of serial sections of the comb cut at various planes showed that the specific activity of carbon was highest in the mucoid layer. Both C14 assays and autoradiograms indicate that C14 is also present in other parts of the comb. As seen in autoradiography, the concentration of C14 was highest in the epithelium, in the blood vessel walls, and in the avascular collagenous tissue. These results, and indications from previous studies, suggest that the high specific activity of carbon in the mucoid layer is due mainly to the presence of C14-labelled hyaluronic acid. Autoradiograms and PAS staining suggest that a significant amount of C14 is also incorporated into the glycoproteins associated with the collagen fibers. PMID:13654453

  17. Quantitation of DNA repair in brain cell cultures: implications for autoradiographic analysis of mixed cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambergs, R.; Kidson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitation of DNA repair in the mixed cell population of mouse embryo brain cultures has been assessed by autoradiographic analysis of unscheduled DNA synthesis following UV-irradiation. The proportion of labelled neurons and the grain density over neuronal nuclei were both less than the corresponding values for glial cells. The nuclear geometries of these two classes of cell are very different. Partial correction for the different geometries by relating grain density to nuclear area brought estimates of neuronal and glial DNA repair synthesis more closely in line. These findings have general implications for autoradiographic measurement of DNA repair in mixed cell populations and in differentiated versus dividing cells. (author)

  18. Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin immunohistochemistry. A comparison between autoradiographic and lectin tracing of neuronal efferents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Karst, H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The autoradiographic pattern of anterograde labeling as a result from injections with tritiated amino acids is compared to the labeling of efferents with Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin after lectin injections in the same nucleus visualized by immunohistochemical methods. This comparison is made

  19. Autoradiographic detection of radionuclides on the epithelial surfaces of pulmonary airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappin, J.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Madison, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    We are developing an autoradiographic method for detection of radionuclide deposition sites on the internal surfaces of pulmonary airways. The method is expected to generate information on the distribution as well as on the quantity of radionuclides deposited in pulmonary airways

  20. Computerized pattern recognition used for grain counting in high resolution autoradiographs with low grain densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Zweijpfenning, R. C.; van Marle, J.; Huijsmans, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    Using a video-image system coupled to a minicomputer with commercial image handling software, autoradiographic grains displayed in dark-field are counted with a fast (ca. 3.5 min for 120,000 microns 2) and reliable (false scores less than 5%) grain-recognizing FORTRAN program executed in the users

  1. Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose: a high-resolution marker for autoradiographic localization of brain metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, R.P. Jr.; Herkenham, M.

    1984-01-01

    The technique for autoradiographic localization of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) uptake has become a useful method for observing alterations of functional brain activity resulting from experimental manipulation. Autoradiographic resolution is improved using tritiated ([3H]) rather than carbon-14 ([14C)]2DG, due to the lower energy and shorter path of tritium emissions. In addition, lower 2DG uptake by white matter relative to gray matter is exaggerated in the [3H]2DG autoradiographs due to the greater absorption of tritium emissions by lipids. Using [3H]2DG, it is possible to observe differential metabolic labeling in various individual nuclei or portions of nuclei that is unresolvable using [14C]2DG in the awake, normal animal. Heterogeneous patterns of 2DG uptake seen only with [3H]2DG are found in the nucleus accumbens, the anterior portion of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, specific nuclei of the inferior olivary complex, various hypothalamic regions, and a region straddling the border of the medial and lateral habenular nuclei. The lamination of differential 2DG uptake in the hippocampus is better localized using [3H]2DG. Autoradiographic resolution of labeled 2DG is further improved when the brain is perfused prior to frozen sectioning, due perhaps to selective fixation and retention of intracellular labeled 2-deoxy-glycogen. A series of [3H]2DG autoradiographs are presented together with views of the Nissl-stained sections that produced the autoradiographs

  2. Electron autoradiographic study of intracellular conversion of fatty acids into glycogen in rats with alloxan diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebkova, N.P.; Bobkov, Y.I.; Gorbonova, V.D.; Kolesova, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    An electron-autoradiographic study was undertaken of the intracellular distribution of hydrogen of fatty acids in alloxan diabetes. Alloxan diabetes was induced in rats; between 2 weeks and 2 months after development of the disease 0.1 ml of tritium-oleic or tritium-arachidonic acid was injected into the caudel vein of the rats. After decapitation, myocardial tissue from the subendocardial zone of the left ventricle, liver tissue, and glycogen isolated from the liver by a biochemical method, were taken for electron-autoradiographic investigation. Analysis of the data showed that a radioactive isotope, injected into the blood stream of the animals in the form of oleic or arachidonic acids, is incorporated into various structures of hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. Direct proof is obtained to show that glycogen in hepatocytes and cardiomyoctyes of diabetic rats may be formed from fatty acids

  3. Alkylmercurial encephalopathy in the monkey (Saimiri sciureus and Macaca Arctoides); a histopathologic and autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garman, R H; Weiss, B; Evans, H L

    1975-01-01

    Histopathologic and autoradiographic studies were performed on monkeys of the genera Saimiri and Macaca after acute and chronic oral exposure to several dosage regimens of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg). Neuropathologic changes were primarily cortical, although subcortical lesions also were observed. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 203/Hg was greatest within glial cells (particularly Nissl-plump astrocytes, subependymal glia and Bergmann's glia) and mast cells. High levels of label within normal appearing large neurons (particularly those within Gasserian and dorsal root ganglia) indicate a lower susceptibility of these neurons to the toxic effects of MeHg. Blood and brain levels of mercury correlated well with the degree of neuropathologic change, but individual variations in susceptibility to intoxication also existed. (auth)

  4. An autoradiographic study on the distribution of 14C-glycine in clonorchis sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Song, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To study an aspect of protein metabolism in chinese liverfluke, Clonorchis sinensis, an autoradiographic study was performed. A batch of 25 ml erlenmeyer flasks, each flask containing 10 worms of C. sinensis and 10 ml of Tyrode medium with 2.5 μCi/ml of 14 C-glycine, was incubated for 1 hour in Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 37 0 C. Those worms were processed for microautoradiography immediately after the incubation, and following results were obtained from the autoradiographs. The densities of black silver grains derived from 14 C-glycine were the most apparent in the subparenchymal cells, intestinal epithelium, vitelline gland cells, ovary and the wall of the seminal vesicle. Moderate grade of densities were observed in the tegument, oral sucker, pharynx, intestinal content and in the testes. The reticular tissue, ventral sucker, uterus with eggs, seminal receptacle and the content of seminal vesicle showed trace amount of silver grains. (author)

  5. Autoradiographic study of gamma-ray induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in bean root meristem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenshen; Qiu Quanfa; Chen Dongli

    1989-01-01

    The gamma-ray induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in root meristem cells of Vica faba was studied autoradiographically by calculating the number of cells with different 3H-thymidine labelling degree. It was found that the level of unscheduled synthesis in cells with intermediate dose (500 R) irradiation was higher than that in cells with lower dose (250 R) irradiation; however, higher dose (1000 R) irradiation would inhibit the reparative replication

  6. Autoradiographical Detection of Tritium in Cu-Ni Alloy by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    高安, 紀; 中野, 美樹; 竹内, 豊三郎

    1981-01-01

    The autoradiograph of tritium dispersed in Cu-Ni alloy sheet by 6Li(n,α)3H reaction was obtained by a scanning electron microscope. Prior to the irradiation of neutrons 6Li was deposited on the sheet by evaporation. The liquid emulsion, Fuji-ER, was used in this study. The distribution of tritium was detected by the dispersion of silver grains remaining in the emulsion after the development was carried out.

  7. Development of autoradiographic method for measuring sorption of radionuclides on natural fracture surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muuronen, S.

    1983-11-01

    On the basis of positive results about sorption of radionuclides in rock thin sections an autoradiographic method applicable for measurement sorption of radionuclides on rough rock surfaces was developed. There is no method available because 1) a plane film cannot be used because due to the roughness of rock surfaces 2) rock samples used in this investigation cannot be studied with microscopes and 3) autoradiogram cannot be studied fixed on the surface of a rock sample because the colours of the minerals in the sample will interfere with the interpretation. This report discusses experimental work done to find an useful proedure. In the development of the method main emphasis was put on investigation of the following steps: 1) preparation of the sample for equilibration and spiking; 2) properties of the covering paint for the rock surface and 3) testing of autoradiographic methods using different nuclear emulsions. As the result of these experiments promising autoradiograms with gel emulsion for sawed rock surfaces and with stripping film for rough rock surfaces were obtained. The mineralogic disribution of sorbed activity is easily seen in autoradiograms. Much work must still be done to get reliable quantitative information from autoradiograms. For developing of the autoradiographic method sawed plane rock samples of quartz feldspar intergrowth, pegmatite and limestone were used. In addition core samples of tonalite and mica gneiss from Olkiluoto were utilized. The distribution coefficients (Ksub(a)) obtained for cesium were 560 x 10 -4 and 620 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 for tonalite and mica gneiss, respectively. The results are little higher but of the same order of magnitude as obtained by the autoradiographic method using rock thin sections and by the batch method using crused samples. The natural fracture surface sorption study is a logical step in determining the scaling factor from laboratory to field studies. Field data will be needed to determine whether laboratory

  8. Autoradiographic quantification of vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites in sections from human blood mononuclear cell pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkind, J.S.; Kurihara, M.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic methods were utilized to characterize specific, high-affinity vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites (Kd = 310 +/- 60 pmol/L; Bmax = 93 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein) in frozen sections obtained from a mononuclear cell pellet derived from 20 ml of human blood. The method is at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional membrane binding techniques, and it has the potential for wide applications in studies of neuropeptide, biogenic amine, and drug binding in clinical samples.

  9. Autoradiographic quantification of vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites in sections from human blood mononuclear cell pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkind, J.S.; Kurihara, M.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic methods were utilized to characterize specific, high-affinity vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites (Kd = 310 +/- 60 pmol/L; Bmax = 93 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein) in frozen sections obtained from a mononuclear cell pellet derived from 20 ml of human blood. The method is at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional membrane binding techniques, and it has the potential for wide applications in studies of neuropeptide, biogenic amine, and drug binding in clinical samples

  10. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors using 125I substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shults, C.W.; Quirion, R.; Jensen, R.T.; Moody, T.W.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Chase, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for localization of substance P receptors in the rat central nervous system using 125 I labeled substance P in an autoradiographic procedure. Particularly high densities of substance P receptors were observed in the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, amygdala, superior colliculus, and locus coeruleus. Surprisingly low densities of substance P receptors were found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a region which contains high concentrations of substance P

  11. Detection of antisalivary duct antibody from Sjoegren's syndrome by an autoradiographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, N.A.; Tarpley, T.M. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique to detect anti-salivary duct antibody (ASDA) has been developed by using autoradiographic, rather than immunofluorescent methods. The antibody activity detected by autoradiography is probably classic ASDA. Both techniques may be consecutively performed on the same tissue section without attenuation of either. Some of the potential advantages of the radiolabelling of ASDA are pointed out, and a few preliminary experiments using the labelled antibody as a marker are presented. (Auth.)

  12. Detection of antisalivary duct antibody from Sjögren's syndrome by an autoradiographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, N A; Tarpley, T M

    1978-01-01

    A new technique to detect anti-salivary duct antibody (ASDA) has been developed by using autoradiographic, rather than immunofluorescent methods. The antibody activity detected by autoradiography is probably classic ASDA. Both techniques may be consecutively performed on the same tissue section without attenuation of either. Some of the potential advantages of the radiolabelling of ASDA are pointed out, and a few preliminary experiments using the labelled antibody as a marker are presented.

  13. Metallographic and autoradiographic investigation of the structure of centrifugally cast steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.N.; Krishna Rao, P.

    1981-01-01

    Metallographic and autoradiographic investigations were carried out on the structure of steel tubes cast in a horizontal axis centrifugal casting machine. In chill castings the chill and columnar zones showed significantly lower sulphur contents than the equiaxed zone. Mould rotational speed was found to have an important influence on sulphur segregation. Sulphur-depleted bands, which were often observed in the castings were found to arise due to minor variations in the mould rotational speed. (auth.)

  14. Autoradiographic studies on glucose metabolism in the salivary gland of Lygaeus SP. (Heteroptera, Lygalidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies using 3H-glucose in the salivary glands of Lygaeus sp.were carried out. It has been observed that the radioactivity appears in the cell cytoplasm and lumen within a short period of incubation and attains its peak after 30 min of incubation. Afterwards, the radioactivity is exhausted from the cell and lumen suggesting a very high rate of glucose metabolism in this species. (author) [pt

  15. Ultra-high performance, solid-state, autoradiographic image digitization and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Pratt, J.P.; Ackermann, R.F.; Plotnick, J.; Rumley, S.

    1990-01-01

    We developed a Macintosh II-based, charge-coupled device (CCD), image digitization and analysis system for high-speed, high-resolution quantification of autoradiographic image data. A linear CCD array with 3,500 elements was attached to a precision drive assembly and mounted behind a high-uniformity lens. The drive assembly was used to sweep the array perpendicularly to its axis so that an entire 20 x 25-cm autoradiographic image-containing film could be digitized into 256 gray levels at 50-microns resolution in less than 30 sec. The scanner was interfaced to a Macintosh II computer through a specially constructed NuBus circuit board and software was developed for autoradiographic data analysis. The system was evaluated by scanning individual films multiple times, then measuring the variability of the digital data between the different scans. Image data were found to be virtually noise free. The coefficient of variation averaged less than 1%, a value significantly exceeding the accuracy of both high-speed, low-resolution, video camera (VC) systems and low-speed, high-resolution, rotating drum densitometers (RDD). Thus, the CCD scanner-Macintosh computer analysis system offers the advantage over VC systems of the ability to digitize entire films containing many autoradiograms, but with much greater speed and accuracy than achievable with RDD scanners

  16. Detection of antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine by modified autoradiographic test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanek, J; Hampl, J; Franz, J; Mensik, P; Skrobak, F [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia)

    1982-08-01

    A modified method of autoradiographic determination of virus antibodies of gastroenteritis of swine was developed. It is based on the actual reaction between antigen bound in cells of the infected cell cultures and antibodies in tested sera, which is visualized by rabbit antibodies labelled with /sup 125/I (/sup 125/I RaSw IgG antibody) to porcine IgG, on a sensitive radiograph and evaluated by darkening at the point of positive immunological reaction. Specificity of the test and mutual comparability and reproducibility of the results were confirmed by examining the known positive and negative sera and by a comparison with the results of the virus-neutralization test. Of the 36 examined porcine blood sera, antibodies were only proved autoradiographically in the samples positive also by virus-neutralization. In experimentally infected pigs, the same dynamics of antibody production was recorded by the two tests. They were, however, demonstrated autoradiographically the eighth day after infection, while by virus neutralization test as late as 14th day. Their level increased gradually till 35th day after infection.

  17. Comparative autoradiographic investigations on the tissue distribution of benfotiamine versus thiamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, R; Rahmann, H

    1998-05-01

    The tissue distribution of two therapeutically applied preparations of B-vitamins were investigated in blood and selected organs (liver, brain, muscle, kidney) of laboratory mice using autoradiographic techniques. Incorporation of lipid-soluble 3H-benfotiamine (CAS 22457-89-2) and water-soluble 3H-thiaminehydrochloride (CAS 67-03-8) (200 microCi, equivalent to 105 mg vitamin/kg body weight) was monitored between 0.75 and 168 h after an oral or subcutaneous administration. The labelled tissue slices were autoradiographically analysed after a differential histochemical extraction procedure to evaluate the respective total radioactivity, the uptake into lipid-soluble, water-soluble and residual macromolecular compounds. Evaluation of these autoradiographic data (given as mumol vitamin preparation/mg tissue equivalent) proved that benfotiamine is incorporated much better than thiaminehydrochloride independent of the administration mode. In muscle and brain tissue a 5 to 25 fold higher amount of tracer incorporation was registered following benfotiamine as compared with the thiamine application, whereas in all other organs the difference in the label was mostly between 10 and 40%. Concerning the organ specific distribution, liver and kidney were the structures labelled highest by both substances and administration procedures. In the liver, concerning all incorporation times, a higher proportion of residual macromolecular compounds was found, whereas in the kidney the proportions of lipid- as well as of water-soluble materials prevailed. These data should be clinically relevant.

  18. Autoradiographic detection of diphtheria toxin resistant mutants in human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.S.; Singh, B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic procedure for the detection of diphtheria toxin (DT) resistant (Dip/sub R/) mutants in human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cells has been developed. The assay is based on the observation that when HDFs from confluent cultures are seeded in medium containing 0.01 flocculating units/ml or higher concentration of DT, protein synthesis in sensitive cells is severely inhibited by 4-6 hr. If at this or later time, a radiolabeled protein precursor (eg, 3 H-leucine) is added to the culture, it is almost exclusively incorporated into the resistant cells, which are then readily identified by autoradiography. These studies provide strong evidence that the labeled cells identified by autoradiography are bona fide Dip/sub R/ mutants. The detection of Dip/sub R/ cells by autoradiography is apparently not affected by the presence of the sensitive cells in the mixtures. The spontaneous frequency of Dip/sub R/ cells in HDFs has been found to be in the range of 1-5 x 10 -6 , and this increases in a dose dependent manner upon treatment with the mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate. These results indicate that the autoradiographic assay could be used for quantitative mutagenesis. Since the autoradiographic assay does not depend on cell division, it may prove useful in estimating the incidence of pre-existing mutations in cell populations that either do not divide or have very limited growth potential (eg, lymphocytes, muscle cells, neurons, senescent fibroblasts, etc.)

  19. Development of the indusium griseum. 3. An autoradiographic study of cell production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturrock, R R [Dundee Univ. (UK)

    1978-05-01

    An autoradiographic study of neuronal and glial production was carried out in the indusium griseum of mice whose mothers had received an intraperitoneal injection of (/sup 3/H)thymidine during gestation. Most neurons were produced between 13 and 15 days post-conception. One part of the glial population underwent its last or second-last divisions between 14 and 16 days post-conception, while the other continued to undergo a number of divisions into postnatal life. It is suggested that the former were astrocytes and the latter oligodendrocytes.

  20. JULIDE: a software tool for 3D reconstruction and statistical analysis of autoradiographic mouse brain sections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Ribes

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce JULIDE, a software toolkit developed to perform the 3D reconstruction, intensity normalization, volume standardization by 3D image registration and voxel-wise statistical analysis of autoradiographs of mouse brain sections. This software tool has been developed in the open-source ITK software framework and is freely available under a GPL license. The article presents the complete image processing chain from raw data acquisition to 3D statistical group analysis. Results of the group comparison in the context of a study on spatial learning are shown as an illustration of the data that can be obtained with this tool.

  1. Autoradiographic technique for rapid inventory of plutonium-containing fast critical assembly fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumbach, S.B.; Perry, R.B.

    1977-10-01

    A nondestructive autoradiographic technique is described which can provide a verification of the piece count and the plutonium content of plutonium-containing fuel elements. This technique uses the spontaneously emitted gamma rays from plutonium to form images of fuel elements on photographic film. Autoradiography has the advantage of providing an inventory verification without the opening of containers or the handling of fuel elements. Missing fuel elements, substitution of nonradioactive material, and substitution of elements of different size are detectable. Results are presented for fuel elements in various storage configurations and for fuel elements contained in a fast critical assembly

  2. Study on the metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zhang Lansheng; Kang Baoan

    1988-08-01

    The metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism was studied by diferent types of autoradiographic techniques, such as: (1) in body level by whole-body autoradiography; (2) in organ level by whole-organ autoradiography; (3) in cellular level by microautoradiography; (4) in subcellular level by electron microscopic autoradiography; (5) in combinative form by tissue fixative autoradiography; (6) in ionizing form by freezing autoradiography; (7) for radioactive mateials with two radionuclides by double radionuclide autoradiography; (8) for radioactive materials with low level of radionuclides by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography; (9) in dissociative products by chromatographic autoradiography

  3. Autoradiographic localization of Na+-K+-ATPase with 3H-ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormans, J.A.M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Using 3 H-ouabain as an inhibitor, the site of the Na + -K + -ATPase system in cells was determined autoradiographically. Experiments were performed woth guinea pig's kidney tissue. The application of light microscopical autoradiography to freeze-dried tissue showed that especially the distal tubule, and to a smaller extent the proximal tubule and the collecting tubule have Na + -K + -ATPase. Electron microscopical autoradiography showed that this activity is restricted to the baso-lateral plasmamembranes. The quantity of specific bound ouabain turns out to be correlated to the quantity of baso-lateral plasmamembrane's surface

  4. An autoradiographic map of (3H)diprenorphine binding in rat brain: effects of social interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panksepp, J.; Bishop, P.

    1981-01-01

    (3H)Diprenorphine binding was analyzed autoradiographically in the brains of 33 day old rat pups. A photographic atlas of diprenorphine binding in the coronal plane is provided to highlight the dispersion of opioid receptor systems through the brain. To determine whether brain opioid release may be induced by social interactions, half the animals were sacrificed following a 30 min period of social interaction while the other half were sacrificed following 30 min of social isolation. Opioid binding was higher in isolate-tested animals than socially-tested ones, suggesting that social interaction may promote endogenous brain opioid release

  5. An improved autoradiographic technique for the detection of antibody-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic technique for the detection of antibody-forming cells has been developed for the assay of anti-DNP responses. The lymphoid cell suspension to be assayed was allowed to sediment on to a glass slide coated with DNP-conjugated gelatin to which the secreted antibody bound during subsequent incubation. The bound antibody and its Ig class was revealed by a second incubation using 125 I-anti-immunoglobulin reagents followed by autoradiography. Studies on the sensitivity and specificity of the method are presented and its advantages over other techniques described. The technique should be readily applicable to other haptens

  6. Hide and seek: a comparative autoradiographic in vitro investigation of the adenosine A3 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, D.; Fuchshuber, F.; Girschele, F.; Hacker, M.; Wadsak, W.; Mitterhauser, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Grassinger, L. [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Department of Biomedical Analytics, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Hoerleinsberger, W.J. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Cognitive Science Research Platform, Vienna (Austria); Hoeftberger, R.; Leisser, I. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Shanab, K.; Spreitzer, H. [University of Vienna, Department of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Vienna (Austria); Gerdenitsch, W. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Biomedicinal Research, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    Since the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) is considered to be of high clinical importance in the diagnosis and treatment of ischaemic conditions (heart and brain), glaucoma, asthma, arthritis, cancer and inflammation, a suitable and selective A3R PET tracer such as [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY would be of high clinical value for clinicians as well as patients. A3R was discovered in the late 1990s, but there is still little known regarding its distribution in the CNS and periphery. Hence, in autoradiographic experiments the distribution of A3R in human brain and rat tissues was investigated and the specific binding of the A3R antagonist FE rate at SUPPY and MRS1523 compared. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) experiments were also performed to validate the autoradiographic findings. For autoradiographic competition experiments human post-mortem brain and rat tissues were incubated with [{sup 125}I]AB-MECA and highly selective compounds to block the other adenosine receptor subtypes. Additionally, IHC was performed with an A3 antibody. Specific A3R binding of MRS1523 and FE rate at SUPPY was found in all rat peripheral tissues examined with the highest amounts in the spleen (44.0 % and 46.4 %), lung (44.5 % and 45.0 %), heart (39.9 % and 42.9 %) and testes (27.4 % and 29.5 %, respectively). Low amounts of A3R were found in rat brain tissues (5.9 % and 5.6 %, respectively) and human brain tissues (thalamus 8.0 % and 9.1 %, putamen 7.8 % and 8.2 %, cerebellum 6.0 % and 7.8 %, hippocampus 5.7 % and 5.6 %, caudate nucleus 4.9 % and 6.4 %, cortex 4.9 % and 6.3 %, respectively). The outcome of the A3 antibody staining experiments complemented the results of the autoradiographic experiments. The presence of A3R protein was verified in central and peripheral tissues by autoradiography and IHC. The specificity and selectivity of FE rate at SUPPY was confirmed by direct comparison with MRS1523, providing further evidence that [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY may be a suitable A3 PET

  7. Double tracer autoradiographic method for sequential evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Kinuya, K.; Terada, H.; Sumiya, H.; Shiba, K.; Mori, H.; Hisada, K.; Maeda, T.

    1989-01-01

    A new double tracer autoradiographic method for the sequential evaluation of altered regional cerebral perfusion in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two tracers, 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and N-isopropyl-( 125 I)p-iodoamphetamine. This method is validated in the assessment of brovincamine effects on regional cerebral perfusion in an experimental model of chronic brain ischemia in the rat. The drug enhanced perfusion recovery in low-flow areas, selectively in surrounding areas of infarction. The results suggest that this technique is of potential use in the study of neuropharmacological effects applied during the experiment

  8. Autoradiographic measurement of low concentrations of alpha-active nuclides using CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, K.; Dietze, K.; Weisse, S.; Kummer, G.

    1991-01-01

    An autoradiographic method for the determination of alpha emission rates from plastic packaging materials for VLSI silicon memory devices based on long-time exposure of the samples on CR-39 detectors has been tested. The lower limit of detection will be strongly influenced by the background of the detector material and amounts at times to 0.002 alpha particles cm -2 h -1 after 200 days exposure. A mathematical method for the interpretation of very low track densities is discussed. The first results of its application are presented. (author)

  9. Diffusion and autoradiographic investigations of the tritium--304 stainless steel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, G.L.; Braun, J.D.; Chaney, K.F.; Powell, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of tritium in 304-stainless steel at low temperatures (100 to 300 0 C) was determined. Autoradiography was used to establish the concentration as well as the distribution of tritium in the alloy. The autoradiographic study shows that tritium is distributed heterogeneously at room temperature in the cold-worked alloy and also in the fusion zone of weldments. Tritium partitions preferentially to the delta ferrite in weldments and to martensite produced by the cold working of 304-stainless steel. (auth)

  10. Sensitivity of an autoradiographic film to ionizing radiation of different types and energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, A.B.; Lutzke-Birk, A.; Kalicki, A.

    1984-01-01

    The ORWO-AF3 autoradiographic film has been studied with regard to its sensitivity to beta radiation (E/sub max/ = 0.155 and 0.306 MeV, resp.), gamma radiation of more than 1 MeV and K/sub α/ and K/sub β/ radiation of about 5.9 KeV. The obtained data can be used for the correction of depth distribution profiles if elements are labelled with radioisotopes emitting mixed radiation, e.g., beta and gamma radiation

  11. Autoradiographic and cytochemical studies on the intracellular transport of secreted proteins in the lacrimal ducts (glandula extraorbitalis) of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Azini was isolated from the glandula lacrimalis of the rat. Its vitality was proven by oxygen use measurements. In autoradiographic studies isolated Azini was marked with L-(4,5- 3 H)-leucine and fixed at various times thereafter. The light microscopic autoradiography showed a time dependent distribution of the silver grains whose association with membrane-enclosed compartments made the electron microscopic autoradiography possible. This distribution allows an analysis of the kinetics of the intracellular transport of secreted proteins. Because of its limited spatial resolution the autoradiographic research methods were combined with the cytochemical presentation of the peroxidase, a secreted protein, of the lacrimal duct. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Pharmacological characterization and autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in guinea pig brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, T.V.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Substance P ([ 3 H]SP) was used to characterize substance P (SP) receptor binding sites in guinea pig brain using membrane preparations and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Curvilinear Scatchard analysis shows that [ 3 H]SP binds to a high affinity site (Kd = 0.5 nM) with a Bmax of 16.4 fmol/mg protein and a low affinity site (Kd = 29.6 nM) with a Bmax of 189.1 fmol/mg protein. Monovalent cations generally inhibit [ 3 H]SP binding while divalent cations substantially increased it. The ligand selectivity pattern is generally similar to the one observed in rat brain membrane preparation with SP being more potent than SP fragments and other tachykinins. However, the potency of various nucleotides is different with GMP-PNP greater than GDP greater than GTP. The autoradiographic distribution of [ 3 H]SP binding sites shows that high amounts of sites are present in the hippocampus, striatum, olfactory bulb, central nucleus of the amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei and superior colliculus. The cortex is moderately enriched in [ 3 H]SP binding sites while the substantia nigra contains only very low amounts of sites. Thus, the autoradiographic distribution of SP binding sites is fairly similar in both rat and guinea pig brain

  13. Site of anticonvulsant action on sodium channels: autoradiographic and electrophysiological studies in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, P.F.; Baraban, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine interact allosterically with the batrachotoxin binding site of sodium channels. In the present study, we demonstrate an autoradiographic technique to localize the batrachotoxin binding site on sodium channels in rat brain using [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B). Binding of [ 3 H]BTX-B to brain sections is dependent on potentiating allosteric interactions with scorpion venom and is displaced by BTX-B (Kd approximately 200 nM), aconitine, veratridine, and phenytoin with the same rank order of potencies as described in brain synaptosomes. The maximum number of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites in forebrain sections also agrees with biochemical determinations. Autoradiographic localizations indicate that [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites are not restricted to cell bodies and axons but are present in synaptic zones throughout the brain. For example, a particularly dense concentration of these sites in the substantia nigra is associated with afferent terminals of the striatonigral projection. By contrast, myelinated structures possess much lower densities of binding sites. In addition, we present electrophysiological evidence that synaptic transmission, as opposed to axonal conduction, is preferentially sensitive to the action of aconitine and veratridine. Finally, the synaptic block produced by these sodium channel activators is inhibited by phenytoin and carbamazepine at therapeutic anticonvulsant concentrations

  14. An autoradiographic study on the distribution of 14C-lactate in clonorchis sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of the exogeneous 14 C-lactate by chines liverfluke Clonorchis sinensis was investigated by autoradiography. The radioactive substance, sodium-DL-lactate-1- 14 C (specific activity; 20-40 mCi/mM) dissolved in Tyrode solution at the concentration of 2.5 μCi/ml was designated as incubation medium. Twenth worms of healthy fluke with 10 ml incubation medium were incubated for 1 hour in Dubnoff shaking incubator at 37 0 C. After incubation, the flukes were rapidly removed from the flask and freed of external radioactivity by a series of washing in cold Tyrode solution. The flukes were fixed in 10% formalin, dehydrated and embeded in paraffin, and were sectioned at the thickness of 5 microns. Then the specimen mounted slides were covered with Kodak AR-10 stripping film and were exposed for 30 days in cold dark room. After the exposure, the film was developed and fixed. Autoradiographs were then stained with hematoxylin and brought to microscopy. The autoradiographs of C. sinensis showed apparent densities of black silver grains derived from the 14 C-lactate in regard to various anatomical structure of the worm. The possible reasons for the appearance radioactive substance in respective organs and tissues of the fluke were discussed. (author)

  15. Autoradiographic demonstration of oxytocin-binding sites in the macula densa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, M.E.; Freund-Mercier, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Specific oxytocin (OT)-binding sites were localized in the rat kidney with use of a selective 125 I-labeled OT antagonist ( 125 I-OTA). High concentrations of OT binding sites were detected on the juxtaglomerular apparatus with use of the conventional film autoradiographic technique. No labeling occurred on other renal structures. The cellular localization of the OT binding sites within the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied in light microscope autoradiography, on semithin sections from paraformaldehyde-fixed kidney slices incubated in the presence of 125 I-OTA. These preparations revealed selective labeling of the macula densa, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. Control experiments showed first that 125 I-OTA binding characteristics were not noticeably altered by prior paraformaldehyde fixation of the kidneys and second that autoradiographic detection of the binding sites was not impaired by histological treatments following binding procedures. In view of the role of the macula densa in the tubuloglomerular feedback, the putative OT receptors of this structure might mediate the stimulatory effect of OT on glomerular filtration

  16. Autoradiographic demonstration of oxytocin-binding sites in the macula densa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckel, M.E.; Freund-Mercier, M.J. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France))

    1989-08-01

    Specific oxytocin (OT)-binding sites were localized in the rat kidney with use of a selective {sup 125}I-labeled OT antagonist ({sup 125}I-OTA). High concentrations of OT binding sites were detected on the juxtaglomerular apparatus with use of the conventional film autoradiographic technique. No labeling occurred on other renal structures. The cellular localization of the OT binding sites within the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied in light microscope autoradiography, on semithin sections from paraformaldehyde-fixed kidney slices incubated in the presence of {sup 125}I-OTA. These preparations revealed selective labeling of the macula densa, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. Control experiments showed first that {sup 125}I-OTA binding characteristics were not noticeably altered by prior paraformaldehyde fixation of the kidneys and second that autoradiographic detection of the binding sites was not impaired by histological treatments following binding procedures. In view of the role of the macula densa in the tubuloglomerular feedback, the putative OT receptors of this structure might mediate the stimulatory effect of OT on glomerular filtration.

  17. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of mercury and its transfer to the egg in the laying quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M; Urakawa, N; Ikeda, M

    1971-01-01

    Autoradiographic and tracer techniques were employed to investigate the distribution and movement of radiomercury in the form of /sup 203/Hg-nitrate, and its transfer to eggs in laying quails. After injection, the radiomercury tended to concentrate in the kidneys and ova, plateauing about 12 hours after injection. Within the egg, the mercury concentrated in the yolk.

  18. Polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum in Rhoeo discolor. Cytochemical and autoradiographic study (/sup 3/H-glucose)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, L; Souvre, A [Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique, 31 - Toulouse (France); Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))

    1978-01-01

    In Rhoeo discolor, we have been studying the evolution of cytoplasmic and wall polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum by cytochemical and autoradiographic (6-/sup 3/H glucose) methods with particular attention to the meiocyte special wall, microspore intine, pollen generative cell wall, microsporocyte plastids and tapetum cytoplasm.

  19. Autoradiographic evidence of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin binding sites in the articular cartilage of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, M.T.; Freire-Garabal, M.; Giraldez, M.; Nunez, M.J.; Belmonte, A.; Couceiro, J.; Jorge, J. (Univ. of Santiago (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    After {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin was intravenously injected to rats, an autoradiographic study of distal femur articular cartilage was performed. Results show a specific binding of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin to chondrocytes, suggesting the possible existence of an opiate modulation of articular cartilage.

  20. A study of water in glass by an autoradiographic method that utilizes tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knickerbocker, S.H.; Brown, S.D.; Joshi, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter determines water concentration and spatial distribution in glass by an autoradiographic method that makes use of tritiated water as the tagged species. Describes the method and presents some typical results. Lists advantages and disadvantages associated with the method and examines other methods that might be used for the study of water in glass. Discusses dry glass preparation, the addition of tritiated water to glass, glass preparation, film selection, and film analysis. Shows tritium autoradiography to be a valuable technique for measuring the content and spatial distribution of water in inorganic glasses. Finds that the technique yields unique information, particularly in regard to spatial distribution, when compared with techniques of IR spectroscopy, SIMS, SIPS, NRRA, ESR and NMR. Points out that large areas (e.g., several square inches) of sample can be mapped in a single exposure. Notes that the spatial resolution of water in the glass network can be 10 -7 m, so very accurate diffusion profiles are obtainable

  1. Autoradiographic localization of adenosine receptors in rat brain using [3H]cyclohexyladenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.R.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Adenosine (A1) receptor binding sites have been localized in rat brain by an in vitro light microscopic autoradiographic method. The binding of [ 3 H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine to slide-mounted rat brain tissue sections has the characteristics of A1 receptors. It is saturable with high affinity and has appropriate pharmacology and stereospecificity. The highest densities of adenosine receptors occur in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the molecular and polymorphic layers of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, the medial geniculate body, certain thalamic nuclei, and the lateral septum. High densities also are observed in certain layers of the cerebral cortex, the piriform cortex, the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, and the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. Most white matter areas, as well as certain gray matter areas, such as the hypothalamus, have negligible receptor concentrations. These localizations suggest possible central nervous system sites of action of adenosine

  2. Estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus): an autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufdemorte, T.B.; Van Sickels, J.E.; Dolwick, M.F.; Sheridan, P.J.; Holt, G.R.; Aragon, S.B.; Gates, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    Using an autoradiographic method, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complex of five aged female baboons was studied for the presence of receptors for estradiol-17 beta. The study was performed in an effort to learn more of the pathophysiology of this joint and in an attempt to provide a scientific basis to explain the reported preponderance of women who seek and undergo treatment for signs and symptoms referable to the TMJ. This experiment revealed that the TMJ complex contains numerous cells with receptors for estrogen, particularly the articular surface of the condyle, articular disk, and capsule. Muscles of mastication contained relatively fewer receptors. As a result, one may postulate a role for the sex steroid hormones in the maintenance, repair, and/or pathogenesis of the TMJ. Additional studies are necessary to fully determine the significance of hormone receptors in this site and any correlation between diseases of the TMJ and the endocrine status of affected patients.

  3. Estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus): an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufdemorte, T.B.; Van Sickels, J.E.; Dolwick, M.F.; Sheridan, P.J.; Holt, G.R.; Aragon, S.B.; Gates, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using an autoradiographic method, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complex of five aged female baboons was studied for the presence of receptors for estradiol-17 beta. The study was performed in an effort to learn more of the pathophysiology of this joint and in an attempt to provide a scientific basis to explain the reported preponderance of women who seek and undergo treatment for signs and symptoms referable to the TMJ. This experiment revealed that the TMJ complex contains numerous cells with receptors for estrogen, particularly the articular surface of the condyle, articular disk, and capsule. Muscles of mastication contained relatively fewer receptors. As a result, one may postulate a role for the sex steroid hormones in the maintenance, repair, and/or pathogenesis of the TMJ. Additional studies are necessary to fully determine the significance of hormone receptors in this site and any correlation between diseases of the TMJ and the endocrine status of affected patients

  4. Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, M.J.; Eden, A.R.; Westlund, K.N.; Coulter, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought. (Auth.)

  5. Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, M.J.; Eden, A.R.; Westlund, K.N.; Coulter, J.D. (Texas Univ., Galveston (USA). Medical Branch)

    1982-02-25

    A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought.

  6. Origin of the somatic cells in the rat gonad: An autoradiographic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant-Larios, H [Departamento de Biologia del Desarrollo, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Mexico City

    1979-01-01

    Gonads from rats of 11 and 12 days of gestation that had been given a pulse of /sup 3/H-thymidine were studied at different times using autoradiographic techniques. When the animals were labeled before the formation of the gonadal blastema (11 days), the percentage of labeled cells in this structure was greater than in the coelomic epithelium and mesenchyme. However, when /sup 3/H-thymidine was injected after the gonadal blastema was already established (12 days), very few of these cells took up the compound; they remained in this conditions until the sexual differentiation of the gonad. From this characteristic, which is an indication of the early differentiation of the blastemal cells, one may conclude that the seminiferous cords arise from this initial cellular line. On the other hand, there appears to be a contribution of coelomic epithelial cells during the formation of the sex cords in the ovary.

  7. Tissue distribution of epimucosally applied 3H DNFB: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warfvinge, G.; Larsson, Aa.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of 3 H-labeled 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) has been autoradiographically investigated in buccal mucosa after topical application to sensitized or nonsensitized rats. The rats were killed between 3 min and 24 h after challenge. No significant labeling pattern differences were found between plastic embedded and frozen sections. Surface epithelium was heavily labeled and labeled cells were observed in the lamina propria shortly (3-6 min) after application. These cells were clearly dendritic. Specific accumulation of hapten in epithelial Langerhans cells (LC) could not be clearly demonstrated. The connective tissue labeling gradually diminished and at 24 h post-elicitation, remaining label could be detected only in the epithelial surface layers. (author)

  8. An autoradiographic study of the projections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.L.; Amaral, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The efferent connections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala have been studied using the autoradiographic method for tracing axonal projections. Small injections of 3H-amino-acids which are largely confined to the central nucleus lead to the labeling of several brainstem nuclei as far caudally as the spinomedullary junction. A number of intra-amygdaloid connections between the basal and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the central nucleus are also described. The present findings, taken together with recently reported widespread projections from the temporal association cortex to the amygdala, point out a potentially trisynaptic route between neocortical association regions and a variety of brainstem nuclei, many of which are related to autonomic function

  9. Autoradiographic localization of 131I-labelled thyroxine in the tissues of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, P.; Romack, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt was made to visualize the sites of localization of 131 I-labelled thyroxine in the tissues of the rat by autoradiographic dipping techniques. The maximal uptake of 131 I-thyroxine in rats occured at 12 hours in all the tissues examined. The radioactivity continued to decrease from 12 to 36 hours after the injection. In the liver and kidney, the decline after 12 hours was rather marked. The radioactivity decreased only slightly from 12 to 36 hours in the spleen. After 3 hours of injection, the radioactivity was consistently higher in the thyroid follicular epithelial cells than in the interfollicular connective tissue. A high concentration of radioactivity was found at the periphery of the colloid areas. (author)

  10. Descriptive, cytochemical and autoradiographic data on the paranucleolar mass. Electron microscopic study in several Lacertilians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Jean

    1975-01-01

    In several Lacertilians, a nuclear fibrillar area, called paranucleolar mass in previous works, is a constant cytological feature of germ cells and certain somatic cells. This nuclear area shows many similarities with the nuclear area called in different animals nuclear vacuole, paranucleolar vacuole or light area. The ultrastructure and development of the paranucleolar mass is described. The cytochemical study indicates that it is composed of proteins. The autoradiographic results show that it does not incorporate thymidine 3 H or uridine 3 H, which is in agreement with the lack of DNA and RNA proved with cytochemical procedures. It is rarely labelled with leucine 3 H. This last result which seems to be at variance with the proteinaceous nature of the paranucleolar mass is probably due to our short experimental periods in proportion to the long formation of the paranucleolar mass [fr

  11. High resolution autoradiographic studies of RNA, protein and DNA synthesis during human eosinophil granulocytopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, S.N.; Hughes, M.

    1978-01-01

    Human bone marrow cells which had been incubated with [ 3 H] uridine or [ 3 H]leucine for 1 h were studied using the technique of electron microscope-autoradiography. The autoradiographs revealed the presence of newly-synthesized RNA and protein molecules within or on a proportion of (1) the primary and secondary granules in all classes of eosinophil precursors and (2) the secondary granules in eosinophil granulocytes. It is suggested that the granule-associated RNA molecules may be concerned with the synthesis of at least some of the new protein molecules which were incorporated into the limiting membrane or substance of eosinophil granules long after the immature primary granule stage. Studies of eosinophil precursors which had been incubated with [ 3 H]thymidine for 1 h showed that the eosinophil granules did not label with this DNA precursor. (author)

  12. Autoradiographic measurement of Pu distribution in mixed-oxide nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.; Rasmussen, D.E.; Gray, W.H.

    1976-09-01

    The autoradiographic method described was developed for rapid, economical determination of the Pu distribution and microhomogeneity in mixed oxide fuel. High Pu concentration regions of any size down to 13 microns in diameter can be reproducibly resolved using this method. The new method uses computerized scanning and analysis, and includes automatic self-calibration to virtually elimate variations resulting from photographic film and processing. The speed of this new method allows analysis of enough data to ensure statistical reliability of occurrence frequencies, even for sparse populations of Pu-rich regions with diameters greater than 60 microns. Determination of these occurrence frequencies is an important factor in controlling fuel quality to ensure safe, efficient operation in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

  13. Autoradiographic evidence of 2-methylindole covalent binding to pulmonary epithelial cells in the goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.M.; Breeze, R.G.; Carlson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    3-Methylindole (3MI), the main ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan, causes acute pulmonary edema and interstitial emphysema in ruminants. Intravenous infusion of 3MI in goats causes necrosis and sloughing of pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. Previous studies indicate that a reactive metabolite or metabolites of 3MI bind covalently to tissue macromolecules in the lung and this binding is associated with the pneumotoxicity of 3MI. We undertook this autoradiographic study of 3MI covalent binding to test the hypothesis that reactive 3MI metabolite(s) bind to the lung cells susceptible to 3MI-induced injury. We infused goats with ( 3 H)3MI and killed them either 0.5, 2 or 6 h after start of the infusion. Sections of fixed lung were extensively washed, alcohol dehydrated and embedded in plastic. Only covalently bound radioactivity remained. Silver grains were quantitated per area in the developed autoradiographs. There was a 2:1 ratio of binding to the small airway epithelium compared to the interalveolar septa in all the goats. Both ciliated and non-ciliated bronchiolar cells were labelled, as were both types I and II pneumocytes. Normal goat lung slices incubated in vitro with ( 3 H)3MI were labeled in the same pattern. Inclusion of either of the inhibitors of cytochrome P-450, SKF-525-A or piperonyl butoxide significantly reduced this binding to both the pneumocytes and the bronchiolar cells. We consider these results supportive of our hypothesis that 3MI is metabolized to reactive intermediates by the epithelial cells of the lung, where they bind to macromolecules, which may cause cellular damage. (author)

  14. A difference in [14C]deoxyglucose autoradiographic patterns in striate cortex between Macaca and Saimiri monkeys following monocular stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, A.E.; Wilson, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since the apparent absence of ocular dominance columns (ODC) in some New World primates could be caused by deficiencies of the transsynaptic autoradiographic technique, such as spillage of label in the poorly laminated dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, the authors have examined this question using a functional autoradiographic tracing technique based on the uptake of [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose ([ 14 C]dG) by active neurons. When only one eye is stimulated, this innovative method graphically demonstrates a repetitive pattern in Macaca monkey striate cortex which has been interpreted to be the ODC driven by the open eye. They now report on the results of a comparative study of Old World Macaca and New World Saimiri monkeys using [ 14 C]dG autoradiography in which evidence is found for repetitive patterns of [ 14 C]dG in Saimiri for layers above, but not in, layer IV. (Auth.)

  15. In vitro autoradiographic localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.; Dussaillant, M.; Marie, J.C.; Rostene, W.; Rosselin, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the autoradiographic distribution of VIP binding sites in the rat central nervous system using monoiodinated 125I-labeled VIP. High densities of VIP binding sites are observed in the granular layer of the dorsal dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the dorsolateral and median geniculate nuclei of the thalamus as well as in the ventral part of the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus

  16. An autoradiographic study of new fat cell formation in adipose tissue in adult mice during malnutrition and refeeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasubuchi, Yasuo; Mino, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Tomoichi

    1979-01-01

    The renewal of adipose cells in adult mice has been autoradiographically studied. The number of adipose cells was diminished by eighty percent during malnutrition and the same number of adipose cells proliferated during the refeeding stage. The results of our study showed that adipose tissue, which had previously been believed to be stable in cell number, has the capacity for cell proliferation according to changes in nutritional status. (author)

  17. Autoradiographic study of new fat cell formation in adipose tissue in adult mice during malnutrition and refeeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasubuchi, Y; Mino, M; Yoshioka, H; Kusunoki, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1979-10-01

    The renewal of adipose cells in adult mice has been autoradiographically studied. The number of adipose cells was diminished by eighty percent during malnutrition and the same number of adipose cells proliferated during the refeeding stage. The results of our study showed that adipose tissue, which had previously been believed to be stable in cell number, has the capacity for cell proliferation according to changes in nutritional status.

  18. In vitro autoradiographic studies for determination of mitotic index and labelling index in biopsies of the human oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzbach, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to find the most favourable method of incubation for in-vitro autoradiographies of biopsies of human oral mucosa, tissue biopsies were taken from oral mucosa transplants of 10 patients (7 females, 3 males) and either fixed or incubated at once. The author then investigated the mitotic index of the non-incubated tissue specimens, the mitotic index of the tissue specimens incubated in atmospheric conditions (A), and the mitotic index of the tissue specimens incubated under pressure (B). Simultaneously, autoradiographs of the incubated tissue specimens were prepared in order to determine their labelling indices. The mitotic indices of the non-incubated tissue specimen were found to differ significantly from those of the A-incubated tissue specimens. A similar difference was found between the mitotic indices of the A- and B-incubated tissue biopsies. Further, the labelling indices of A autoradiographs differed significantly from the labelling indices of B autoradiographs. The findings suggest that incubation with an excess oxygen pressure of 2 bar is the method of choice for in-vitro studies of human oral mucosa as the cells retain their specific activity and cell processes will continue unhindered. Further, the findings can be transferred to in-vivo conditions with a reasonable error rate. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of 241Am in the shell of the freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuykov, M.; Pelletier, E.; Rouleau, C.; Popov, L.; Fowler, S.W.; Orlova, M.

    2009-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to identify α-track distributions in a series of shell sections from live mussels Dreissena polymorpha Pallas and dissected shells of dead mussels obtained from laboratory experiments using relatively high concentrations of 241 Am in the exposure media, a required condition for successful use of this autoradiographic technique. A comparable distribution of α-tracks was recorded on autoradiographs from both live and dead shells suggesting that metabolism does not lead to any sizable changes in the process of 241 Am adsorption (present in the extrapallial fluid) onto the inner surface of shell. Autoradiographs showed a preferential accumulation of 241 Am in the organic periostracum, whereas the outer and inner shell layers were characterized by a relatively low α-tracks density. No α-tracks were observed in the central part of the shell in any of the samples. These observations will be useful for the development of a general model to explain bioaccumulation and biosorption processes of radionuclides into mollusk shells. (author)

  20. Autoradiographic localization of (125I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbin, M.A.; Kuhar, M.J.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of ( 125 I-Tyr 4 )bombesin to rat brain slices was investigated. Radiolabeled (Tyr 4 )bombesin bound with high affinity (K/sub d/ . 4 nM) to a single class of sites (B/sub max/ . 130 fmol/mg of protein); the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding was 6/1. Also, pharmacology studies indicated that the C-terminal of bombesin was important for the high affinity binding activity. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites were discretely distributed in certain gray but not white matter regions of rat brain. Highest grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, suprachiasmatic and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, central medial thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and substantia gelatinosa. Moderate grain densities were present in the parietal cortex, deep layers of the neocortex, rhinal cortex, caudate putamen, stria terminalis, locus ceruleus, parabrachial nucleus, and facial nucleus. Low grain densities were present in the globus pallidus, lateral thalamus, and midbrain. Negligible grain densities were present in the cerebellum, corpus callosum, and all regions treated with 1 microM unlabeled bombesin. The discrete regional distribution of binding suggests that endogenous bombesin-like peptides may function as important regulatory agents in certain brain loci

  1. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( [ 3 H]DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. [ 3 H]DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of [ 3 H]DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of [ 3 H] DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT

  2. Autoradiographic determination of catechol estrogen binding sites in brain, pituitary and uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvizi, N.; Sar, M.; Duncan, G.E.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomical pattern of nuclear binding of 2-OH[6,9- 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]2-OHE 2 ) in brain, pituitary and uterus have been studied autoradiographically. Autoradiograms of forebrain, pituitary and uterus show nuclear concentrations of radioactivity in certain cells. This nuclear concentration is abolished when unlabelled 2-OHE 2 or E 2 was injected prior to the injection of [ 3 H]2-OHE 2 . In the brain nuclear labelling is observed in the septal-preoptic region, in the anterior hypothalamic area, and in the central hypothalamic area. Some estrogen-sensitive nuclear groups, such as lateral septum and hippocampus, do not show accumulation of radioactivity. In the uterus, luminal and glandular epithelium, stromal cell and muscle cells are labelled. A comparison of the quantitative nuclear uptake of radioactivity and of the different time intervals after the injection of different doses shows similar uptake of nuclear radioactivity. This is comparable to data obtained after [6,7- 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]E 2 ) injection. The results provide clear evidence for nuclear binding of catechol estrogens of the same magnitude as [ 3 H]E 2 after in vivo treatment. (Auth.).0

  3. Autoradiographic disposition of [1-methyl-14C]- and [2-14C]caffeine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachance, M.P.; Marlowe, C.; Waddell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Male, C57B1/6J mice received either [1-methyl-14C]caffeine or [2-14C]caffeine via the tail vein at a dose of 0.7 or 11 mg/kg, respectively. At 0.1, 0.33, 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr after treatment, the mice were anesthetized with ether and frozen by immersion in dry ice/hexane. The mice were processed for whole-body autoradiography by the Ullberg technique; this procedure does not allow thawing or contact with solvents. All autoradiographs revealed some retention of radioactivity at early time intervals in the lacrimal glands, seminal vesicle fluid, nasal and olfactory epithelium, and retinal melanocytes. The remaining portion of the animal was densitometrically uniform except for the lower levels noted in the CNS and adipose tissues. Excretion of radioactivity by the liver and kidneys seems to be the major routes of elimination. Localization in the liver at late time intervals was confined principally to the centrilobular region. Late sites of retention, observed only after [1-methyl-14C]caffeine administration, included the pancreas, minor and major salivary glands, splenic red pulp, thymal cortex, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal epithelium. Sites of localization present in both studies included the olfactory epithelium, lacrimal glands, hair follicles, and retinal melanocytes. Further studies are needed to determine whether the localization at these various sites is due to metabolic degradation, active transport, or possibly a specific receptor interaction

  4. Autoradiographic studies of chromosome replication during the cell cycle of Streptococcus faecium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, M.L.; Koch, A.L.; Dicker, D.T.; Daneo-Moore, L.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of the distribution of autoradiographic grains around cells of Streptococcus faecium which had been either continuously or pulse-labeled with tritiated thymidine (mass doubling time, 90 min) showed a non-Poisson distribution even when the distribution of cell sizes in the populations studied was taken into account. These non-Poisson distributions of grains were assumed to reflect the discontinuous nature of chromosome replication. To study this discontinuous process further, an equation was fitted to the grain distribution observed for the pulse-labeled cells that assumed that in any population of cells there were subpopulations in which there were zero, one, or two replicating chromosomes. This analysis predicted an average time for chromosome replication and for the period between completion of rounds of chromosome replication and division of 55 and 43 min, respectively, which were in excellent agreement with estimates made by other techniques. The present investigation extended past studies in indicating that the initiation and completion of rounds of chromosome replication are poorly phased with increases in cell volume and that the amount of chromosome replication may be different in different cell halves

  5. A study on measurement of the regional cerebral blood flow using autoradiographic method in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomohiro; Kiya, Katsuzo; Yuki, Kiyoshi; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Mizoue, Tatsuya; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Uozumi, Tohru; Ikawa, Fusao

    1997-01-01

    Development of Autoradiographic method (ARG) has provided measurement of cerebral blood flow in moyamoya disease. We evaluate a cerebral vasodilatory capacity (CVC) for moyamoya disease using ARG method. We used 5 patients with moyamoya disease as a candidate for measurement of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) who admitted to Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital during the past one year. There were 3 patients in an adult age and 2 patients in a young age. We tried to measure the regional CBF (rCBF) using ARG method which was a easy way to estimate the rCBF on SPECT. The CVC was calculated from the difference of the rCBF between resting SPECT and Diamox-loading SPECT. Results were as follows; Reactivity of cerebral vessels to CO 2 loading and CVC weakened in moyamoya disease. The rCBF and CVC in the territories of anterior and middle cerebral arteries reduced in comparison with those in the area supplied by the posterior cerebral artery. The CVC at the treated side with surgical reconstruction recovered somewhat in an adult type. From these results, measurement of CBF using ARG method seems to be useful for evaluation of the CVC in moyamoya disease. (author)

  6. Thiazide diuretic receptors: Autoradiographic localization in rat kidney with [3H]metolazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, K.; Vaughn, D.A.; Healy, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The localization of binding sites for [ 3 H]metolazone, a quinazolinesulfonamide diuretic with thiazide-like actions, was determined by in vitro autoradiography. [ 3 H]Metolazone bound saturably to rat kidney sections incubated in vitro with a dissociation constant (Kd) = 3.4 nM and binding site density = 0.14 pmol/mg of protein. Incubation conditions were used that excluded binding to low affinity sites and carbonic anhydrase. Pharmacological specificity of binding was consistent with labeling of physiologically relevant thiazide diuretic receptors, as identified in previous studies of [ 3 H]metolazone binding to renal membranes. Autoradiographs obtained with tritium-sensitive film demonstrated that binding sites were limited to the renal cortex and were relatively sparsely distributed. Higher resolution autoradiography indicated that [ 3 H] metolazone binding sites were localized in a highly specific manner over short lengths of tubular segments, which by their morphology and distribution most likely represented distal convoluted tubules. In the short sections of tubule that contained receptors, labeling was very dense and appeared to be more prevalent over luminal than peritubular surfaces. The intrarenal distribution of [ 3 H]metolazone binding sites provides further evidence for their identity as thiazide diuretic receptors. These results are consistent with physiological studies demonstrating that the early distal tubule is the location of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport

  7. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptor subtypes and their role in representational memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution of muscarinic receptors in rat brain slices. Agonist and selective antagonist binding were examined by measuring the ability for unlabeled ligands to inhibit [ 3 H]-1-QNB labeling of muscarinic receptors. The distribution of high affinity pirenzepine binding sites (M 1 subtype) was distinct from the distribution of high affinity carbamylcholine sites, which corresponded to the M 2 subtype. In a separate assay, the binding profile for pirenzepine was shown to differ from the profile for scopolamine, a classical muscarinic antagonist. Muscarinic antagonists, when injected into the Hippocampus, impaired performance of a representational memory task. Pirenzepine, the M 1 selective antagonist, produced representational memory deficits. Scopolamine, a less selective muscarinic antagonist, caused increases in running times in some animals which prevented a definitive interpretation of the nature of the impairment. Pirenzepine displayed a higher affinity for the hippocampus and was more effective in producing a selective impairment of representational memory than scopolamine. The data indicated that cholinergic activity in the hippocampus was necessary for representation memory function

  8. Double-label autoradiographic deoxyglucose method for sequential measurement of regional cerebral glucose utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redies, C; Diksic, M; Evans, A C; Gjedde, A; Yamamoto, Y L

    1987-08-01

    A new double-label autoradiographic glucose analog method for the sequential measurement of altered regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two boluses of glucose tracer labeled with two different isotopes (short-lived /sup 18/F and long-lived /sup 3/H, respectively). An operational equation is derived which allows the determination of glucose utilization for the time period before the injection of the second tracer; this equation corrects for accumulation and loss of the first tracer from the metabolic pool occurring after the injection of the second tracer. An error analysis of this operational equation is performed. The double-label deoxyglucose method is validated in the primary somatosensory (''barrel'') cortex of the anesthetized rat. Two different rows of whiskers were stimulated sequentially in each rat; the two periods of stimulation were each preceded by an injection of glucose tracer. After decapitation, dried brain slices were first exposed, in direct contact, to standard X-ray film and then to uncoated, ''tritium-sensitive'' film. Results show that the double-label deoxyglucose method proposed in this paper allows the quantification and complete separation of glucose utilization patterns elicited by two different stimulations sequentially applied in the same animal.

  9. Registration and three-dimensional reconstruction of autoradiographic images by the disparity analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Ginsberg, M.; Young, T.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography is a powerful radio-isotopic-imaging method for neuroscientists to study local cerebral blood flow and glucose-metabolic rate at rest, in response to physiologic activation of the visual, auditory, somatosensory, and motor systems, and in pathologic conditions. Most autoradiographic studies analyze glucose utilization and blood flow in two-dimensional (2-D) coronal sections. With modern digital computer and image-processing techniques, a large number of closely spaced coronal sections can be stacked appropriately to form a three-dimensional (3-d) image. 3-D autoradiography allows investigators to observe cerebral sections and surfaces from any viewing angle. A fundamental problem in 3-D reconstruction is the alignment (registration) of the coronal sections. A new alignment method based on disparity analysis is presented which can overcome many of the difficulties encountered by previous methods. The disparity analysis method can deal with asymmetric, damaged, or tilted coronal sections under the same general framework, and it can be used to match coronal sections of different sizes and shapes. Experimental results on alignment and 3-D reconstruction are presented

  10. A unit density method of grain analysis used to identify GABEergic neurons for electron microscopic autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burry, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of electron microscopic autoradiographic grains over neurons in cerebellar cultures incubated with [ 3 H]gamma-aminobutyric acid ([ 3 H]GABA) was examined. With the unit density method of grain analysis, the number of grains over each structure was tested against the total grain density for the entire section. If an individual structure has a grain density higher than the expected grain density, it is considered one of the group of heavily labeled structures. The expected grain density for each structure is calculated based on the area for that structure, the total grain density and the Poisson distribution. A different expected grain density can be calculated for any P value required. The method provides an adequate population of structures for morphological analysis but excludes weakly labeled structures and thus may underestimate the number of labeled structures. The unit density method of grain analysis showed, as expected, a group of cell bodies and synapses that was labeled heavily. Cultures incubated with other [ 3 H]amino acids did not have any heavily labeled synaptic elements. In addition, serial section analysis of sections showed that synapses heavily labeled with [ 3 H]GABA are seen in adjacent sections. The advantage of the unit density method of grain analysis is that it can be used to separate two groups of metabolically different neurons even when no morphological differences are present. (Auth.)

  11. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  12. Quantitative autoradiographic characterization of GA-BAB receptors in mammalian central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.Chin-Mei.

    1989-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the amino acid neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) within the nervous system appear to be mediated through two distinct classes of receptors: GABA A and GABA B receptors. A quantitative autoradiographic method with 3 H-GABA was developed to examine the hypotheses that GABA A and GABA B sites have distinct anatomical distributions, pharmacologic properties, and synaptic localizations within the rodent nervous system. The method was also applied to a comparative study of these receptors in postmortem human brain from individuals afflicted with Alzheimer's disease and those without neurologic disease. The results indicated that GABA B receptors occur in fewer numbers and have a lower affinity for GABA than GABA A receptors in both rodent and human brain. Within rodent brain, the distribution of these two receptor populations were clearly distinct. GABA B receptors were enriched in the medial habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, cerebellar molecular layer and olfactory glomerular layer. After selective lesions of postsynaptic neurons of the corticostriatal and perforant pathway, both GABA B and GABA A receptors were significantly decreased in number. Lesions of the presynaptic limbs of the perforant but not the corticostriatal pathway resulted in upregulation of both GABA receptors in the area of innervation. GABA B receptors were also upregulated in CA3 dendritic regions after destruction of dentate granule neurons

  13. Follicle and oocyte growth in early postnatal calves: cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhawi, A.J.; Kaňka, J.; Motlík, J.

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of oocyte and follicle growth was studied in 1- and 3-d-old calf ovaries using cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical approaches. Attention was only paid to unilaminar ovarian follicles that were classified into 3 categories: unilaminar flattened (UF), unilaminar flatto-cuboidal (UFC) and unilaminar cuboidal (UC) ovarian follicles when the oocyte was surrounded by 1 layer of flattened, a mixture of flattened and cuboidal and entirely cuboidal follicle cells, respectively. Our findings suggested that oocytes within each of these follicle categories were in different developmental stages. Furthermore, electron microscopic observations revealed that early after birth, oocyte nuclei characteristic of diplotene configuration (aggregation of the nuclear chromatin into moderately electron-dense small patches and fibrillo-granular texture of the nucleolus) were encountered in 41% of the UF follicles. The rest of the UF as well as all of the UFC and UC follicles were found to contain dictyate oocytes in which the chromatin was highly decondensed and the nucleolus differentiated into fibrillar, fibrillo-granular and granular components. The present results also indicated that the complete transition of the surrounding follicle cells from flattened to cuboidal shape and the morphological changes of the oocyte endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were 2 complementary events essential for initiation of oocyte growth

  14. DNA synthesis and pronucleus development in pig zygotes obtained in vivo: an autoradiographic and ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurincik, J.; Hyttel, P.; Kopecny, V.

    1995-01-01

    Porcine zygotes flushed from oviducts 48, 52, 56, 60, or 64 hr after hCG were incubated 30 min in 3H-thymidine, transferred to nonradioactive medium for 2 hr, and incubated for 30 min with 14C-thymidine. After this procedure, ova were prepared (i.e., at 51, 55, 59, 63, or 67 hr after hCG) for autoradiography and ultrastructural observations, respectively. The first autoradiographic labelling, i.e., DNA synthesis, was observed at 56-56.5 hr after hCG, while the latest labelling was seen at 60-60.5 hr. At 51 hr after hCG, formation of the pronuclear envelope was observed, while no nucleolus precursor bodies or prestages to these structures were found. At 55 hr a few clusters of small electron-dense granules were observed, together with condensed chromatin in the pronuclei. At 59 hr the apposed regions of both pronuclei contained nucleolus precursor bodies and condensed chromatin, in close contact with both clusters of small granules and clusters of an additional category of large granules and the nuclear envelope. Additionally, large accumulations of the small granules were found in the vicinity of similarly sized accumulations of the large granules without chromatin association. At 63 hr the spherical accumulations of large granules on some occasions presented a central vacuole, and condensed chromatin and clusters of small granules were attached to its periphery. Within the vacuole, electron-dense material was found

  15. Autoradiographic studies of the adaptative behaviour of the oral flora to xylit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1980-01-01

    Fasten saliva samples of 22 test persons were aerobically incubed with radio-labeled xylit and sorbit for 24 hours at 37 0 C. It was determined by thin-layer chromatography and by the autoradiographic detection of the sugar alcohols, after what incubation time the sugar substitutes were completely metabolised. In order to provide intensive contact between the organisms of the oral cavity and the xylit the test persons rinsed their mouth three times per day with a xylit solution over a period of one month. Then a second saliva sample was examined. By adding the bacteriostaticum chloramphenicol to the cultures, it was proved that in the majority of the test persons the decompensation of xylit and sorbit is enzymatically induced when the organisms living in the oral cavity get into contact with sugar alcohol. Between the decompensation time before and after 30 days of xylit contact no significant difference could be found. These results permit the conclusion that after the contact over one month the organisms of the oral cavity do not adapt to xylit. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Autoradiographic assay of mutants resistant to diphtheria toxin in mammalian cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, A.; Gingerich, J.D.; Duncan, A.M.V.; Heddle, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Diptheria toxin kills mammalian cells by ribosylating elongation factor 2, a protein factor necessary for protein synthesis. The frequency of cells able to form colonies in the presence of the toxin can be used as an assay for mutation to diphtheria toxin resistance. Resistance to diphtheria toxin can also be detected autoradiographically in cells exposed to [ 3 H]leucine after treatment with the toxin. In cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells, the frequency of such resistant cells is increased by exposure of the cells to γ-rays, ultraviolet light, ethylnitrosourea, mitomycin c, ethidium bromide, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The resistant cells form discrete microcolonies if they are allowed to divide several times before intoxication which indicates that they are genuine mutants. The assay is potentially adaptable to any cell population that can be intoxicated with diphtheria toxin and labeled with [ 3 H]leucine, whether or not the cells can form colonies. It may be useful, therefore, for measuring mutation rates in slowly growing or nondividing cell populations such as breast, brain, and liver, as well as in cells that do divide but cannot be readily cloned, such as the colonic epithelium. 23 references, 6 figures

  17. The site of action of intrahypothalamic estrogen implants in feminine sexual behavior: an autoradiographic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.G.; Krieger, M.S.; Barfield, R.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Estrogenic stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus is sufficient to prime progesterone-facilitated estrous behavior in ovariectomized rats. To determine precisely the site(s) of estrogenic stimulation and the locus of its priming action on estrous behavior, we used steroid autoradiographic methods to assess the diffusion of (/sup 3/H)estradiol ((/sup 3/H)E/sub 2/) from behaviorally effective implants diluted 1:300 with cholesterol. Ovariectomized rats received (/sup 3/H)E/sub 2/-cholesterol implants aimed at the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Females were tested twice for feminine sexual behavior after stereotaxic surgery. They received progesterone on the day of behavioral testing. Animals were killed on the day after the second behavior test, cannulae were removed, and the brains were frozen rapidly and processed for autoradiography. Five of eight females with bilateral implants aimed at the VMN exhibited female sexual behavior in at least one of the two tests. Of these, four also showed proceptive behavior. Histological examination of brain sections indicated that behaviorally effective implants were located in, or adjacent to, the central portions of VMN. Implants from nonreceptive animals were located at the extreme anterior or posterior aspects of the VMN. The data collected are consistent with the view that estrogen acts within a sharply defined region of the VMN to prime estrons behavior.

  18. An autoradiographic method of mapping the distribution and density of monoamine neurons in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuoka, D.T.; Alcaraz, A.F.

    1975-01-01

    A combined in vitro uptake and autoradiographic procedure as an important complement to the histochemical fluorescence method is described. Slabs of fresh mouse brain were incubated with 14 C-NE, 14 C-DA or 14 C-5-HT, freeze-dried, and placed against X-ray film for autoradiography. Catecholamine nerve terminals were labeled by in vitro incubation with 14 C-NE or 14 C-DA. Dopaminergic terminals were labeled by 14 C-NE incubation preceded by desipramine (to block uptake into NE terminals). With 14 C-5-HT incubation, the uptake pattern indicated the possibility that 5-HT nerve terminals were being labeled. Advantages of this method are that it allows the visualization of overall density and distribution of selected monoamine nerve terminals or uptake sites of other putative neurotransmitters in whole coronal or sagittal sections, so that data are obtained from many areas of brain or spinal cord rather than in only those areas preselected for microscopic viewing

  19. The site of action of intrahypothalamic estrogen implants in feminine sexual behavior: an autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.G.; Krieger, M.S.; Barfield, R.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Estrogenic stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus is sufficient to prime progesterone-facilitated estrous behavior in ovariectomized rats. To determine precisely the site(s) of estrogenic stimulation and the locus of its priming action on estrous behavior, we used steroid autoradiographic methods to assess the diffusion of [ 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]E 2 ) from behaviorally effective implants diluted 1:300 with cholesterol. Ovariectomized rats received [ 3 H]E 2 -cholesterol implants aimed at the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Females were tested twice for feminine sexual behavior after stereotaxic surgery. They received progesterone on the day of behavioral testing. Animals were killed on the day after the second behavior test, cannulae were removed, and the brains were frozen rapidly and processed for autoradiography. Five of eight females with bilateral implants aimed at the VMN exhibited female sexual behavior in at least one of the two tests. Of these, four also showed proceptive behavior. Histological examination of brain sections indicated that behaviorally effective implants were located in, or adjacent to, the central portions of VMN. Implants from nonreceptive animals were located at the extreme anterior or posterior aspects of the VMN. The data collected are consistent with the view that estrogen acts within a sharply defined region of the VMN to prime estrons behavior

  20. Detection, Quantification, and Microlocalisation of Targets of Pesticides Using Microchannel Plate Autoradiographic Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabruka H. Tarhoni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP compounds are a diverse chemical group that includes nerve agents and pesticides. They share a common chemical signature that facilitates their binding and adduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE within nerve synapses to induce cholinergic toxicity. However, this group diversity results in non-uniform binding and inactivation of other secondary protein targets, some of which may be adducted and protein activity influenced, even when only a relatively minor portion of tissue AChE is inhibited. The determination of individual OP protein binding targets has been hampered by the sensitivity of methods of detection and quantification of protein-pesticide adducts. We have overcome this limitation by the employment of a microchannel plate (MCP autoradiographic detector to monitor a radiolabelled OP tracer compound. We preincubated rat thymus tissue in vitro with the OP pesticides, azamethiphos-oxon, chlorfenvinphos-oxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon, and malaoxon, and then subsequently radiolabelled the free OP binding sites remaining with 3H-diisopropylfluorophosphate (3H-DFP. Proteins adducted by OP pesticides were detected as a reduction in 3H-DFP radiolabelling after protein separation by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantitative digital autoradiography using the MCP imager. Thymus tissue proteins of molecular weights ~28 kDa, 59 kDa, 66 kDa, and 82 kDa displayed responsiveness to adduction by this panel of pesticides. The 59 kDa protein target (previously putatively identified as carboxylesterase I was only significantly adducted by chlorfenvinphos-oxon (p < 0.001, chlorpyrifos-oxon (p < 0.0001, and diazinon-oxon (p < 0.01, the 66 kDa protein target (previously identified as serum albumin similarly only adducted by the same three pesticides (p < 0.0001, (p < 0.001, and (p < 0.01, and the 82 kDa protein target (previously identified as acyl peptide hydrolase only adducted by chlorpyrifos-oxon (p

  1. Autoradiographic investigation of the removal of non-metallic inclusions in connection with the steel remelting process in vacuum furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaski, H.; Siewierski, J.

    1978-01-01

    The labelled radioactive non-metallic inclusions in steel were obtained through deoxidation of steel with an activated aluminium alloy containing 1% rare earths. Quantity and distribution of the non-metallic inclusions in the steel were determined by applying autoradiography to the longitudinal and cross sections of the steel slabs. After remelting in an electronic furnace the distribution of non-metallic inclusions was determined by autoradiography of the lateral surfaces and the cross section of the slabs. It was found that 50 - 70% of the inclusions could be removed. The results obtained from autoradiographic investigation allow the exploration of the mechanism of the removal of inclusions. (author)

  2. Effects of anpirtoline on regional serotonin synthesis in the rat brain: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Arata; Nakai, Akio; Tohyama, Yoshihiro; Nguyen, Khnah Q.; Diksic, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Anpirtoline has been described as an agonist at 5-HT 1B receptors with a relatively high potency. It also acts as an agonist at 5-HT 1A receptors, but has a lower potency than at the 5-HT 1B sites. There is very little known about the mechanism by which anpirtoline influences regional 5-HT synthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acutely and chronically administered anpirtoline on 5-HT synthesis in the rat brain using the autoradiographic α-[ 14 C]methyl-L-tryptophan method. In the acute study, anpirtoline (2.0 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before the tracer injection. The control rats were injected with the same volume of saline. In the chronic study, anpirtoline (2 mg/kg per day) was injected subcutaneously in saline once a day for 10 days. There were no significant differences between the plasma-free and total tryptophan concentrations between the anpirtoline treatment and the respective control groups. In the acute experiment, 5-HT synthesis rates in all of the brain areas investigated were significantly decreased by anpirtoline when compared to the saline-treated group. In the chronic anpirtoline experiment, 5-HT synthesis rates of almost all of the projection areas, as well as the raphe nuclei, were normalized or had a tendency to be normalized. These results suggest that it is likely that the terminal 5-HT 1B receptors are involved in the regulation of 5-HT synthesis in the projection areas and that 5-HT synthesis, in the raphe, is likely influenced by anpirtoline's 5-HT 1A and/or 5-HT 1B agonistic properties

  3. Autoradiographic visualization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and guinea pig lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes have been localized in human and guinea pig lung sections by an autoradiographic technique, using [3H](-)quinuclidinyl benzilate [( 3H]QNB) and selective muscarinic antagonists. [3H]QNB was incubated with tissue sections for 90 min at 25 degrees C, and nonspecific binding was determined by incubating adjacent serial sections in the presence of 1 microM atropine. Binding to lung sections had the characterization expected for muscarinic receptors. Autoradiography revealed that muscarinic receptors were widely distributed in human lung, with dense labeling over submucosal glands and airway ganglia, and moderate labeling over nerves in intrapulmonary bronchi and of airway smooth muscle of large and small airways. In addition, alveolar walls were uniformly labeled. In guinea pig lung, labeling of airway smooth muscle was similar, but in contrast to human airways, epithelium was labeled but alveolar walls were not. The muscarinic receptors of human airway smooth muscle from large to small airways were entirely of the M3-subtype, whereas in guinea pig airway smooth muscle, the majority were the M3-subtype with a very small population of the M2-subtype present. In human bronchial submucosal glands, M1- and M3-subtypes appeared to coexist in the proportions of 36 and 64%, respectively. In human alveolar walls the muscarinic receptors were entirely of the M1-subtype, which is absent from the guinea pig lung. No M2-receptors were demonstrated in human lung. The localization of M1-receptors was confirmed by direct labeling with [3H]pirenzepine. With the exception of the alveolar walls in human lung, the localization of muscarinic receptor subtypes on structures in the lung is consistent with known functional studies

  4. Autoradiographic study of gamma-irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitsov, L.G.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Burneva, V.G.; Martinova, J.Sh.; Viklichka, S.

    1978-01-01

    Study on the kinetics of the cells in the mouse spleen during the primary immune response against thymusdependent antigen after sublethal irradiation was carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep erythrocytes one day after their irradiation with 700 r gamma rays. On the 5th day after the immunization, tritium labelled thymidine was injected three times at two hourly intervals. Mice were killed two hours after the third injection for preparation of routine histological samples and autoradiographs. Immunized, but not irradiated mice were utilized as controls. Extensive zones of lymphocyte destruction were observed in the spleen of the irradiated mice - accumulation of picnotic lymphocyte nuclei, surrounded by reticulo-histocyte elements. The number of the labelled cells and the intensity of labelled are lower than that of the germinal centres in control animal. There is no marked cell destruction in the periarteriolar zone nor labelled cells, whereas in the controls there is a considerable number of labelled blast cells. In the red pulp of the irradiated animals islands of erythroblasts were found, whereas in the controls - parallely to the erythroblast islands, there are islands of proliferating lymphocytes and plasmocytes. The decrease of lymphocyte number in irradiated mice is connected with their destruction and with the altered lymphocytopoiesis in the red pulp. It is assumed that the observed preservation of the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths in an expression of a higher radioresistance of the T-cells as compared to the B-cells in the white pulp. This study contributes for elucidation of the irradiation immunosuppressive effect. It points out also that the post-irradiation lymphopaenia is due not only to the cell death but also to the exclusion of part of the T-lymphocytes from the circulation and their selective deposition in the thymus-dependent zones of the peripheral lymphoid organs. (A.B.)

  5. Heterogeneity of uridine incorporation along the rabbit nephron. I. Autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandewalle, A.; Farman, N.; Cluzeaud, F.; Bonvalet, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of uridine labeling in tubular segments microdissected from the rabbit kidney is presented. Kidney pyramids were incubated for 60 min with low (66 nM) and high (66μM) [ 3 H]-uridine concentration. At the two concentrations studied the labeling was almost exclusively nuclear in all segments studied. At the low concentration, labeling predominated in the macula densa (MD = 63.88 +/- 6.15 silver grains/100 μm 2 , n = 11), cortical ascending limb (CAL = 19.65 +/- 1.65, n = 15), and initial distal tubule (DCT/sub a/ = 24.31 +/- 2.70, n = 6). It was minimal in the proximal tubule (PCT 2 = 9.14 +/- 1.61, n = 16) and in the cortical (CCT = 5.23 +/- 0.75, n = 18) and medullary (MCT = 5.52 +/- 1.10, n = 12) collecting ducts. At a high concentration, the profile of labeling was roughly similar except for a relative increase in labeling much more pronounced in collecting ducts (CCT = +373, MCT = +323%) than in the other structures (MD = -14, CAL = +66, DCT/sub a/ = +49, PCT = +9%). Pulse-chase experiments do not show evidence for differences in turnover or degradation rates of RNA between segments, at least in the PCT and the connecting part of the CCT. Analysis of the results at low and high concentration suggests that the observed heterogeneity in uridine labeling depends on both variable endogenous nucleoside pools and different rates of uridine incorporation into RNA from one segment to another

  6. Heterogeneity of uridine incorporation along the rabbit nephron. I. Autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewalle, A.; Farman, N.; Cluzeaud, F.; Bonvalet, J.P.

    1984-04-01

    An autoradiographic study of uridine labeling in tubular segments microdissected from the rabbit kidney is presented. Kidney pyramids were incubated for 60 min with low (66 nM) and high (66..mu..M) (/sup 3/H)-uridine concentration. At the two concentrations studied the labeling was almost exclusively nuclear in all segments studied. At the low concentration, labeling predominated in the macula densa (MD = 63.88 +/- 6.15 silver grains/100 ..mu..m/sup 2/, n = 11), cortical ascending limb (CAL = 19.65 +/- 1.65, n = 15), and initial distal tubule (DCT/sub a/ = 24.31 +/- 2.70, n = 6). It was minimal in the proximal tubule (PCT/sub 2/ = 9.14 +/- 1.61, n = 16) and in the cortical (CCT = 5.23 +/- 0.75, n = 18) and medullary (MCT = 5.52 +/- 1.10, n = 12) collecting ducts. At a high concentration, the profile of labeling was roughly similar except for a relative increase in labeling much more pronounced in collecting ducts (CCT = +373, MCT = +323%) than in the other structures (MD = -14, CAL = +66, DCT/sub a/ = +49, PCT = +9%). Pulse-chase experiments do not show evidence for differences in turnover or degradation rates of RNA between segments, at least in the PCT and the connecting part of the CCT. Analysis of the results at low and high concentration suggests that the observed heterogeneity in uridine labeling depends on both variable endogenous nucleoside pools and different rates of uridine incorporation into RNA from one segment to another.

  7. Autoradiographic localization of 3H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin

  8. In vivo binding and autoradiographic imaging of (+)-3-[125I]Iodo-MK-801 to the NMDA receptor-channel complex in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.E.; Burns, H.D.; Thorpe, H.H.; Waisi Eng; Ransom, R.; Solomon, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodinated (+)-3-Iodo-MK-801 is a high affinity radioligand for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-channel complex. We have demonstrated in vivo localization in the CNS of rat which is stereoselective and blocked by coinjection of unlabeled MK-801. Autoradiography indicates localization in vivo which is in concordance with in vitro autoradiographic studies. These results indicate that radioiodinated (+)-3-Iodo-MK-801 is a useful probe for in vitro and in vivo autoradiographic studies and suggest that radioligands for the NMDA receptor may be developed which will provide in vivo images of receptor distribution in man. (author)

  9. Double-radionuclide autoradiographic method using N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine for sequential measurements of local cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrenovitch, T.P.; Clayton, C.B.; Strong, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A double-radionuclide autoradiographic method has been assessed for sequential determinations of local CBF (LCBF). It is based on two successive intravascular injections of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) labelled with different radionuclides, whose concentrations can later be differentiated in the same tissue section using double-radionuclide autoradiography. Previous studies suggested that the distribution of IMP, up to 30 min after its administration, still represents LCBFs. Our data indicate that, provided the tracer is injected directly into the left ventricle, there is little back diffusion from normal brain to blood under physiological conditions for at least 35 min following the tracer injection and an injection of unlabelled IMP, in a dose larger than that used for blood flow determination, does not displace any labelled IMP previously taken up by the brain, nor does it displace any labelled IMP previously accumulated in the lung that would lead to secondary brain uptake. On the basis of these results, we conclude that sequential autoradiographic determinations of LCBF using IMP labelled with different radionuclides is possible. This is a promising experimental method for the simultaneous investigation of changes in LCBF in several CNS structures

  10. Quantitative autoradiographic localization of cholecystokinin receptors in rat and guinea pig brain using 125I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehoff, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The autoradiographic localization of receptors for the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) has shown differences in receptor distribution between rat and guinea pig brain. However the full anatomical extent of the differences has not been determined quantitatively. In the present study, 125 I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8 ( 125 I-BH-CCK8) was employed in a comparative quantitative autoradiographic analysis of the distribution of CCK receptors in these two species. The pharmacological profile of 125 I-BH-CCK8 binding in guinea pig forebrain sections was comparable to those previously reported for rat and human. Statistically significant differences in receptor binding between rat and guinea pig occurred in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, amygdala, several cortical areas, ventromedial hypothalamus, cerebellum, and a number of midbrain and brainstem nuclei. The results of this study confirm the presence of extensive species-specific variation in the distribution of CCK receptors, suggesting possible differences in the physiological roles of this peptide in different mammalian species

  11. A novel radioligand for glycine transporter 1: characterization and use in autoradiographic and in vivo brain occupancy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)], E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; O' Brien, Julie A. [Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Lemaire, Wei [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); O' Malley, Stacey S.; Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Zhao Zhijian [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Wallace, Michael A. [Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065 (United States); Raab, Conrad [Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Lindsley, Craig W. [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Departments of Pharmacology and Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L. [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Introduction: In an effort to develop agents to test the NMDA hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, benchmark compounds from a program to discover potent, selective, competitive glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors were radiolabeled in order to further study the detailed pharmacology of these inhibitors and the distribution of GlyT1 in brain. We here report the in vitro characterization of [{sup 35}S](S)-2-amino-4-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl) ethyl)benzamide ([{sup 35}S]ACPPB), a radiotracer developed from a potent and selective non-sarcosine-derived GlyT1 inhibitor, its use in autoradiographic studies to localize (S)-2-amino-6-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl) benzamide (ACPPB) binding sites in rat and rhesus brain and for in vivo occupancy assays of competitive GlyT1 inhibitors. Methods: Functional potencies of unlabeled compounds were characterized by [{sup 14}C]glycine uptake into JAR (human placental choriocarcinoma) cells and synaptosomes. Radioligand binding studies were performed with tissue homogenates. Autoradiographic studies were performed on tissue slices. Results: ACPPB is a potent (K{sub d}=1.9 nM), selective, GlyT1 inhibitor that, when radiolabeled with [{sup 35}S], is a well-behaved radioligand with low nondisplaceable binding. Autoradiographic studies of rat and rhesus brain slices with this ligand showed that specific binding sites were plentiful and nonhomogeneously distributed, with high levels of binding in the brainstem, cerebellar white matter, thalamus, cortical white matter and spinal cord gray matter. In vivo studies demonstrate displaceable binding of [{sup 35}S]ACPPB in rat brain tissues following iv administration of this radioligand. Conclusions: This is the first report of detailed anatomical localization of GlyT1 using direct radioligand binding, and the first demonstration that an in vivo occupancy assay is feasible, suggesting that it may also be feasible to develop

  12. A novel radioligand for glycine transporter 1: characterization and use in autoradiographic and in vivo brain occupancy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhizhen; O'Brien, Julie A.; Lemaire, Wei; O'Malley, Stacey S.; Miller, Patricia J.; Zhao Zhijian; Wallace, Michael A.; Raab, Conrad; Lindsley, Craig W.; Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In an effort to develop agents to test the NMDA hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, benchmark compounds from a program to discover potent, selective, competitive glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors were radiolabeled in order to further study the detailed pharmacology of these inhibitors and the distribution of GlyT1 in brain. We here report the in vitro characterization of [ 35 S](S)-2-amino-4-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl) ethyl)benzamide ([ 35 S]ACPPB), a radiotracer developed from a potent and selective non-sarcosine-derived GlyT1 inhibitor, its use in autoradiographic studies to localize (S)-2-amino-6-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl) benzamide (ACPPB) binding sites in rat and rhesus brain and for in vivo occupancy assays of competitive GlyT1 inhibitors. Methods: Functional potencies of unlabeled compounds were characterized by [ 14 C]glycine uptake into JAR (human placental choriocarcinoma) cells and synaptosomes. Radioligand binding studies were performed with tissue homogenates. Autoradiographic studies were performed on tissue slices. Results: ACPPB is a potent (K d =1.9 nM), selective, GlyT1 inhibitor that, when radiolabeled with [ 35 S], is a well-behaved radioligand with low nondisplaceable binding. Autoradiographic studies of rat and rhesus brain slices with this ligand showed that specific binding sites were plentiful and nonhomogeneously distributed, with high levels of binding in the brainstem, cerebellar white matter, thalamus, cortical white matter and spinal cord gray matter. In vivo studies demonstrate displaceable binding of [ 35 S]ACPPB in rat brain tissues following iv administration of this radioligand. Conclusions: This is the first report of detailed anatomical localization of GlyT1 using direct radioligand binding, and the first demonstration that an in vivo occupancy assay is feasible, suggesting that it may also be feasible to develop positron emission

  13. Double-tracer autoradiographic study of protein synthesis and glucose consumption in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Balchen, T; Bruhn, T

    1999-01-01

    A double-tracer autoradiographic method for simultaneous measurement of regional glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and regional protein synthesis (PS) in consecutive brain sections is described and applied to study the metabolism of the ischemic penumbra 2 h after occlusion of the middle cerebral...... artery (MCAO) in rats. In halothane anesthesia, the left middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded. Two hours after MCAO an i.v. bolus injection of 14C-deoxyglucose and 3H-leucine was given and circulated for 45 min. Two sets of brain sections were processed for quantitative autoradiography....... Neighboring brain sections exposed an X-ray film (3H-insensitive), and a 3H-sensitive for determination of rCMRglc and PS, respectively. Sections for PS determination were washed in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) prior to film exposure in order to remove 14C-deoxyglucose and unincorporated 3H-leucine. Regional...

  14. Autoradiographic localization of target cells for 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in bones from fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbaitz, R.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Huang, S.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Thaw-mount autoradiographic studies after injection of 3 H-1,25-D 3 were conducted on 18- and 20-day-old rat fetuses. In maxillary bones, ribs, and tibia, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was found in osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Osteocytes and chondrocytes in epiphyseal plates were either unlabeled or weakly labeled. In competition experiments, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was blocked by the injection of a high dose of nonradioactive 1,25-D 3 prior to the administration of the labeled hormone, but not by a similar dose of nonradioactive 25-D 3 . The results are interpreted as indicating that osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts are target cells for the direct action of 1,25-D 3 on fetal bone. (orig.)

  15. Utilization of plastic detectors in autoradiographic studies of radioactive minerals from the Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, P.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A short account on an autoradiographic technique using plastic detectors, it's methodology, application and results is presented. With this technique the distribution of radioactive minerals in rocks can be studied in detail. As radioactive source for this study, samples mineralized in uraninite and/or pitchblende were used. The utilized detectors were the CR-39 (a polymer plate) and films of celulose nitrate: CA-80-15 and CN-85. The mineralization is associated to mafics (amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, garnet, etc.) and to plagioclase (albite or albite-oligoclase), occurring as small inclusions and also in microfractures, cleavages and grain boundaries, mainly among plagioclase crystals which occur close to or practically touching mafic minerals. (Author) [pt

  16. Autoradiographic localization of glucocorticosteriod binding sites in rat brain after in vivo injection of [3H]RU 28362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrieau, Alain; Dussaillant, Monique; Rostene, William

    1988-01-01

    The autoradiographic distribution of glucocorticosteriod binding sites in the brain of adrenalectomized rats was studied following in vivo injection of a potent synthetic glucocorticosteriod agonist [ 3 H]RU 28362. Analysis of the autoradiograms revealed a specific and dense labelling in the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn and in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the hypothalmus, the labelling was particularly high in the paraventricular nucleus (site of CRF synthesis), the arcuate, periventricular and the supraoptic nuclei as well as in the median eminence. Autoradiograms also revealed the presence of[ 3 H]RU 28362 binding sites in several brain regions including the amygdala, the pineal gland, the entorhinal cortex, the interpeduncular, interfascicular and dorsal raphe nuclei, the central grey and the substantia nigra suggesting possible effects of glucocorticosteriods in these structures (author)

  17. Autoradiographic demonstration of unscheduled DNA synthesis in oral tissues treated with chemical carcinogens in short-term organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, F.; Umemura, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Takayama, S.

    1981-01-01

    A system in which oral tissues of inbred F344 adult rats and Syrian golden hamster embryos were used in combination with autoradiography was developed for measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). For this, oral mucosa, submandibular gland, tooth germ and mandible in short-term organ cultures were treated with 4-nitroquinoline l-oxide or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea plus (methyl- 3 H)thymidine. Significant numbers of silver grains, indicating UDS, were detected over the nuclei of cells of all these tissues except rat salivary gland after treatment with carcinogens. This autoradiographic method is suitable for detection of UDS in oral tissues in conditions mimicking those in vivo. Results obtained in this study indicated a potential use of this system for studies on the mechanism of carcinogenesis at a cellular level comparable to in vivo carcinogenesis studies on oral tissues. (author)

  18. Cholecystokinin receptors: Biochemical demonstration and autoradiographical localization in rat brain and pancreas using [3H] cholecystokinin8 as radioligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.; Richards, J.G.; Trzeciak, A.; Gillessen, D.; Moehler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Since cholecystokinin8 (CCK8) seems to be the physiological ligand of CCK receptors in the brain, it would be the most suitable probe for the characterization of CCK receptors in radioligand binding studies. [ 3 H]CCK8 was synthetized with a specific radioactivity sufficient for the detection of high affinity binding sites. [ 3 H]CCK8 binds saturably and reversibly to distinct sites in rat brain and pancreas with nanomolar affinity. While the C-terminal tetrapeptide of CCK is the minimal structure required for nanomolar affinity in the brain, the entire octapeptide sequence is required for binding affinity in pancreas. Desulfated CCK8 and several gastrin-I peptides, which are likewise unsulfated, show virtually no affinity to the binding sites in pancreas but high affinity in cerebral cortex. The ligand specificity of the CCK peptides corresponds to their electrophysiological potency in the brain and their stimulation of secretion in pancreas, respectively. Autoradiographically, high densities of [ 3 H]CCK8 binding sites were found in cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb, medium levels in nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and striatum with virtually no labeling in cerebellum. This pattern is similar to the distribution of CCK-like immunoreactivity in the brain. In pancreas, equally high levels of [ 3 H]CCK8 labeling were found in the exocrine and endocrine region. [ 3 H]CCK8 binding sites differ from those identified previously with [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter-CCK33 by their sensitivity to guanyl nucleotides in the brain, their ion dependency in the brain, and pancreas, and their different autoradiographical localization in some parts of the brain. The distribution of CCK binding sites labeled with [ 3 H]CCK8 appears to correlate better with the CCK immunoreactivity than those labeled with [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter-CCK33. Thus, [ 3 H]CCK8 appears to be the radioligand of choice for the investigation of CCK receptors

  19. Autoradiographic detection of [125I]-secondary antiserum: a sensitive light and electron microscopic labeling method compatible with peroxidase immunocytochemistry for dual localization of neuronal antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, V.M.; Chan, J.; Milner, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    We examined whether autoradiographic localization of [ 125 I]-antirabbit immunoglobulin (IgG) was suitable for light and electron microscopic detection of a rabbit antiserum to the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and whether autoradiographic and peroxidase labeling could be combined for simultaneous immunocytochemical identification of TH and neuropeptides in brain. Adult rat brains were fixed by aortic arch perfusion with acrolein and paraformaldehyde. Vibratome sections of the fixed tissues were incubated with various dilutions of TH antiserum followed by [ 125 I]-secondary IgG. These sections were then directly processed for autoradiography or were incubated with rabbit antiserum to substance P (SP) or methionine [Met5]-enkephalin (ME). These latter sections were then processed by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) or conjugated peroxidase methods followed by autoradiography. Exposure periods of 12-20 days for light microscopy or 90 days for electron microscopy yielded substantial accumulations of silver grains even at the highest (1:30,000) dilution of TH antiserum. At this dilution, immunoreactivity for TH was virtually nondetectable by PAP and conjugated peroxidase methods. The differential sensitivities of the autoradiographic versus peroxidase methods provided a means for separable identification of rabbit antiserum to TH and to SP or ME. Ultrastructural analysis of the catecholaminergic neurons in the medial nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) showed selective cytoplasmic localization of silver grains for [ 125 I]-labeling of TH in perikarya, dendrites, and terminals. Within single thin sections prepared for dual labeling, the peroxidase marker for SP and for ME was differentially localized with respect to autoradiographic labeling of TH

  20. Immunoassay of poliovirus antigens by single-radial-diffusion: development and characteristics of a sensitive autoradiographic zone size enhancement (ZE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, G.C.; Wood, J.M.; Minor, P.D.; Dandawate, C.N.; Magrath, D.I.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions of polioviruses in single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRD) tests were investigated with a view to developing accurate and sensitive antigen assay systems. In direct SRD tests, the reactions were type-specific for polioviruses of types 1, 2 and 3 but the tests were of low sensitivity, being applicable only to the assay of virus concentrates. A novel autoradiographic zone size enhancement (ZE) test was developed which increased the sensitivity of the SRD assay 40-to 100-fold. The ZE test was dependent upon the ability of unlabelled poliovirus to co-migrate with the radioactive marker virus and so enhance the zone size detected autoradiographically. The areas of the autoradiographic zones were directly proportional to the concentration of unlabelled antigen. The ZE test was capable of detecting poliovirus D antigens in amounts corresponding to 10sup(3.3) to 10sup(4.3) TCID 50 of infectious virus. Studies with poliovirus type 3 strains indicated that the ZE test was narrowly strain-specific for the D-antigen of poliovirus type 3 strains when homologous type 3 D-antigen was used as radioactive marker, but broadly cross-reactive for the D-antigen of type 3 viruses when heterologous poliovirus type 3 D-antigen was used as marker. (author)

  1. Autoradiographic detection of mutation to exotoxin-A resistance in mouse fibroblasts treated with ethyl methanesulfonate, X-rays and ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiah, M.; Ronen, A.

    1989-01-01

    P. aeruginosa exotoxin-A (PE) blocks protein synthesis in mammalian cells by inactivating elongation factor 2 (EF-2). Toxin-resistant mutant cells can be detected autoradioraphically, in cultures grown on microscope coverslips in the presence of PE, and exposed to [ 3 H]leucine. The frequency of PE-resistant cells detected by the autoradiographic assay in non-mutagenized cells of the established mouse cell line LTKA is 9.7 j 0.6 x 10 -5 . Upon treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), X-rays of ultraviolet (UV) light it increases in a dose-dependent fashion. The mutational nature of the resistance detected by the assay is indicated by its clonal inheritance, and by the dose-dependent increase in the frequency of resistant cells after utagenesis. On the basis of the high frequency of PE-resistant cells detected by the autoradiographic assay, and their cross-resistance to diphteria toxin (DT), the authors suggest that the PE-resistant mutants detected by the autoradiographic assay are of class II, i.e., they are altered in the structural gene for EF-2. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Autoradiographic methods for studying marked volatile substances (1961); Methode.d'etude autoradiographique de substances marquees volatiles (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y; Wepierre, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The autoradiographic methods for animals used up to the present do not make it possible to localise exactly the distribution of marked volatile molecules. The Ullberg method (1954) which we have modified (Cohen, Delassue, 1959) involves cold desiccant. The method due to Pellerin (1957) avoids this desiccant but the histological comparison of the autoradiography with the biological document itself is difficult, if not impossible. Nevertheless, we have adopted certain points in the two methods and propose the following technique for the autoradiographic study of marked volatile molecules: 1- The surface of the frozen sample to be studied is prepared using a freezing microtome. 2- The last section, which is 20 {mu} thick and whose histological elements are parallel to those of the block, is dried by cooling and is used as the biological reference document for the autoradiography obtained, as is indicated in 3; 3- The radiography films are applied to the frozen block at -30 deg. C. The autoradiographs correspond to the radioactivity of the volatile molecule and of its non-volatile degradation products. 4- The radiographic film is also applied to the 20 {mu} section previously dried at -20 deg. C. This autoradiography corresponds to the radioactivity of the non-volatile degradation products of the molecule. 5- We confirmed the absence of diffusion of the volatile molecule and of pseudo-radiographic effects (photochemical and others). This method, which has enabled us to study the distribution of a carbide, para-cymene (C{sup 14}) 7, macroscopically in the case of a whole mouse and microscopically on the skin of a dog, can find general applications. (authors) [French] Les methodes d'autoradiographies sur l'animal, proposees jusqu'a present, ne permettent pas de localiser de facon precise la distribution de molecules marquees volatiles. En effet, la methode de Ullberg (1954) que nous avons modifiee (Cohen, Delassue, 1959) necessite la dessiccation par le froid. La methode

  3. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  4. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min

    2005-01-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1- 14 C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in any

  5. In vivo autoradiographic demonstration of β-adrenergic binding sites in adult rat type II alveolar epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Sidhu, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Adult male rats were injected intravenously with the muscarinic binding probe 3 H-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the β-adrenergic probe 3 H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA). Other rats were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of a 500-fold excess of L-isoproterenol prior to the DHA. Light microscopic autoradiography of 0.5 μm sections of lung from the QNB group demonstrated very little labelling even after 6 months of exposure. In constrast, trachealis smooth muscle from these animals contained substantial labelling. Autoradiographs of lung from rats injected with DHA demonstrated labelling which was well localized over alveolar septa and concentrated over the cytoplasm of type II cells. Quantitative analysis of labelling in the DHA groups indicated a significant reduction of labelling in animals treated with L-isoproterenol prior to DHA, in both the alveolar parenchyma in general and over type II cells. The results of this study provide morphologic evidence for the uptake and specific binding of β-adrenergic antagonists by the adult lung in vivo, while failing to demonstrate similar binding of a muscarinic probe. In addition, the results demonstrate specific β-adrenergic receptors on type II cells in vivo and substantiate the view of a direct effect of β-adrenergic agonists on alveolar type II cells

  6. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, M C; Chasens, A I; Masi, C W [Block Periodontal Research Laboratories, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Fairleigh Dickinson University, School of Dentistry, Hackensack, New Jersey, U.S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed.

  7. Autoradiographic study of the brain of the brambling (Fringilla montifringilla L.) after 3H-testosterone injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, J.; Haase, E.

    1980-01-01

    The topographic distribution of 3 H-testosterone and/or its metabolites in brains of brablings (Fringilla montifringilla L.) was studied autoradiographically and the intensity of labelling was estimated semiquantitatively. The highest accumulation of radioactivity was found in nuclei of the preoptic region and the hypothalamus. Cells of the nucleus preopticus medialis. Nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis and nucleus lateralis hypothalami posterioris showed medium or high intensity labelling, while cells of the nucleus preopticus paraventricularis magnocellularis, nucleus hypothalamicus anterior medialis, nucleus hypothalamicus posterior medialis, and the infundibular area contained low or medium concentrations of radioactivity. The role of these nuclei in the gonadal feedback on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, in the control of the annual reproductive cycle and as effective sites of testosterone on sexual behaviour are discussed. Moderate accumulations of radioactivity were also observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale of the telencephalon, the nucleus intercollicularis of the mesencephalon and the nucleus nervi hypoglossi of the medulla. These structures are known to influence bird song and other vocalisations. Low labelled cells were found in the periventricular zone of the neostriatum, in the lateral septum, and more irregularly in other areas. The pattern of distribution was similar to that in other birds. (author)

  8. Biochemical characterization of an autoradiographic method for studying excitatory amino acid receptors using L-[3H]glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincotta, M.; Summers, R.J.; Beart, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed for radiolabeling excitatory amino acid receptors of rat brain with L-[ 3 H]glutamate. Effective labeling of glutamate receptors in slide-mounted 10-microns sections was obtained using a low incubation volume (0.15 ml) and rapid washing: a procedure where high ligand concentrations were achieved with minimal waste. Saturation experiments using [ 3 H]glutamate revealed a single binding site of micromolar affinity. The Bmax was trebled in the presence of Ca2+ (2.5 mM) and Cl- (20 mM) with no change in the Kd. Binding was rapid, saturable, stereospecific, and sensitive to glutamate receptor agonists. The proportions of [ 3 H]glutamate binding sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) were 34, 54, and 51%, respectively. NMDA inhibited binding at a distinct subset of L-[ 3 H]glutamate sites, whereas AMPA and kainate competed for some common sites. Labeling of sections with L-[ 3 H]glutamate in the presence of the selective agonists allowed autoradiographic visualization of glutamate receptor subtypes in brain tissue

  9. Computer-assisted analyses of (/sup 14/C)2-DG autoradiographs employing a general purpose image processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C; Biral, G P [Modena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisiologia Umana; Fonda, S; Baraldi, P [Modena Univ. (Italy). Lab. di Bioingegneria della Clinica Oculistica; Cavazzuti, M [Modena Univ. (Italy). Clinica Neurologica

    1984-09-01

    A general purpose image processing system is described including B/W TV camera, high resolution image processor and display system (TESAK VDC 501), computer (DEC PDP 11/23) and monochrome and color monitors. Images may be acquired from a microscope equipped with a TV camera or using the TV in direct viewing; the A/D converter and the image processor provides fast (40 ms) and precise (512x512 data points) digitization of TV signal with a 256 gray levels maximum resolution. Computer programs have been developed in order to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of autoradiographs obtained with the 2-DG method, which are written in FORTRAN and MACRO 11 Assembly Language. They include: (1) procedures designed to recognize errors in acquisition due to possible image shading and correct them via software; (2) routines suitable for qualitative analyses of the whole image or selected regions of it, providing the opportunity for pseudocolor coding, statistics, graphic overlays; (3) programs permitting the conversion of gray levels into metabolic rates of glucose utilization and the display of gray- or color-coded metabolic maps.

  10. Autoradiographic research on cell proliferation of prenatal rat lung cells and their influence using the mitogen Kallikrein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock-Lamberlin, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In this work autoradiographic experiments were carried out on the kinetics of proliferation of four cell populations of the prenatal rat lung with the help of the determination of the 3 H-thymidine marker indices, with the following results: 1. The four studied cell populations exhibited variable proliferation rates on the twentieth or twenty-first day of development. 2. The strongest affect of the exogenously applied mitogen Kallikrein was demonstrated on the vessel wall cells, the next strongest on the bronchial epithelial cells, then the cartilage cells and finally the alveolar wall cells. 3. The mitogenic effect is dependent on dose. Higher doses significantly increased the 3 H-thymidine marker indices of the four cell populations tested in this work. 4. When the exposure time of the Kallikrein was extended by one hour this lead partially to stronger mitogenic effects than by the shorter exposure times at the same and higher dose levels of mitogen. 5. The 3 H-thymidine marker indices are dependent on the exposure time. 6. With increasing litter size, the 3 H indices as a rule decrease. (orig./MG) [de

  11. An autoradiographical method using an imaging plate for the analyses of plutonium contamination in a plutonium handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasaki, Koji; Sagawa, Naoki; Kurosawa, Shigeyuki; Mizuniwa, Harumi

    2011-01-01

    An autoradiographical method using an imaging plate (IP) was developed to analyze plutonium contamination in a plutonium handling facility. The IPs were exposed to ten specimens having a single plutonium particle. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) images of the specimens were taken using a laser scanning machine. One relatively large spot induced by α-radioactivity from plutonium was observed in each PSL image. The plutonium-induced spots were discriminated by a threshold derived from background and the size of the spot. A good relationship between the PSL intensities of the spots and α-radioactivities measured using a radiation counter was obtained by least-square fitting, taking the fading effect into consideration. This method was applied to workplace monitoring in an actual uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. Plutonium contaminations were analyzed in ten other specimens having more than two plutonium spots. The α-radioactivities of plutonium contamination were derived from the PSL images and their relative errors were evaluated from exposure time. (author)

  12. An autoradiographic analysis of the cortical connections of the pallidal and cerebellar zones within the feline motor thalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The feline motor thalamus relays both basal ganglia and cerebellar inputs to the motor cortex. This complex is classically subdivided into three nuclei: the ventroanterior nucleus (VA), the ventrolateral nucleus (VL), and the ventromedial nucleus (VM). Poor correlation between recognized patterns of cortical and subcortical connectivity and traditional boundaries used to distinguish these nuclei complicate the elucidation of the role they play in the elaboration of motor behavior. The recent demonstration of complementarity for the pallidothalamic and dentatothalamic projections to the motor thalamus of the cat provided the foundation for a revision of these nuclear borders to reflect differences in subcortical connectivity. Using a revised topography, this study analyzed the afferent and efferent connections of the feline VA and VL through the application of both anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. The extent of the cerebellothalamic projection, as revealed by the bidirectional transport of WGA-HRP, was used to demarcate the boundary between VA and VL. Injections of tritiated amino acids into VA and VL allowed for the autoradiographic tracing of their cortical projections. Autoradiography was also used to demonstrate the distributions of corticothalamic projections from selected pericruciate and posterior parietal subfields to the motor thalamus

  13. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfano, M.C.; Chasens, A.I.; Masi, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed. (author)

  14. Autoradiographic localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding sites in human and guinea pig lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    125 I-Human calcitonin gene-related peptide (hCGRP) binding sites were localized in human and guinea pig lungs by an autoradiographic method. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments from slide-mounted sections of guinea pig lung displayed specific 125 I-hCGRP binding sites with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.72 +/- 0.05 nM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3) and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 133.4 +/- 5.6 fmol/mg protein. In both human and guinea pig lung, autoradiography revealed that CGRP binding sites were widely distributed, with particularly dense labeling over bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels of all sizes and alveolar walls. Airway smooth muscle and epithelium of large airways was sparsely labeled but no labeling was found over submucosal glands. This localization corresponds well to the reported pattern of CGRP-like immunoreactive innervation. The findings of localization of CGRP binding sites on bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels indicate that CGRP may be important in the regulation of airway and pulmonary blood flow

  15. The sensitivity testing of Wilms' tumors to cytostatic agents with an autoradiographic in vitro short-term test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willnow, U.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitivity of 15 Wilms' tumors in children was tested towards cytostatic agents in vitro by means of an autoradiographic short-term test. Sensitivity was measured as the magnitude of the inhibition of 3 H-thymidine or 3 H-uridine incorporation. The test was performed with Adriamycin, Actinomycin D, Daunomycin, Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Trenimon, and Arabinosylcytosine. None of the tumors is resistant to all substances, they are responsive against 2 or more drugs. The most effective drugs tested are Adriamycin, Actinomycin D and Cyclophosphamide. The tumors show a marked individual sensitivity pattern. This behavior is explained mainly by the usually high proliferative activity of Wilms' tumors. The possibilities and limits of long-term and short-term methods for sensitivity testing are discussed critically. For the evaluation of the results of in vitro testing and in vivo effectiveness the close correlation should be considered between the type of cytostatic agent and proliferation kinetics of the tumor, cytostatic agent and effect on tumor metabolism as well as the effect of the cytostatics and the nucleic acid precursors used for the short-term test. Despite the methodological limitations preclinical testing should be preferred to unselected chemotherapy. (author)

  16. Autoradiographic investigations on the prednisolone-induced atrophy and on interdependent reactions in different lymphatic tissues of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigueber, F.

    1980-01-01

    Under the application of 3 H-thymidine the method of organ extirpation (thymectomy and appendectomy) was combined with the cell labeling technique. By autoradiographic evaluation of histologic specimens the content of labelled lymphocytes in the examined tissues was determined. Thymus, appendix, subcutaneous lymphatic nodes and spleen were examined. In the thymus the application of prednisolone induced organ atrophy. Appendectomy leads in the thymic marrow to an increase of the mitotic activity. In the appendix the application of prednisolone causes the emptying of basal lymphatic follicles. Thymectomy induces a large increase of the mitotic activity of the lymphatic tissue. Not all lymphatic nodes show identical changes after organ extirpation and after prednisolone application, but considerable differences. Only a decreased proliferation of labled lymphocytes, occuring under prednisolone application, can be detected in the marrow of the mesenteric lymphatic nodes and of the red splenic pulp in the animal with thymectomy. This result is also valid for the marrow of the remaining deep lymphatic nodes, after thymectomy and appendectomy. The lymphocyte counting in the peripheral blood done during prednisolone treatment, does not indicate that the lymphocyte values depend to a notable extent on the previous surgical treatment of the animals. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Localisation of 3H-GABA in the rat olfactory bulb: An in vivo and in vitro autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, E.H.; Cuello, A.C.; Priestley, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to further clarify the localisation of GABAergic elements in the olfactory bulb we have performed, in vivo and in vitro, autoradiographic studies with 3 H-GABA (#betta#-amino butyric acid) and 3 H-DABA (L-2,4 diamino butyric acid). The results have shown a strong labelling with 3 H-GABA of the glial cells in all the layers of the olfactory bulb. A high concentration of grains was observed in the periglomerular region. The labelling in the external plexiform layer was uniformly distributed in the neuropile with the strongest activity at the level of the dendritic processes of the granule cells, leaving the mitral cell dendrites and cell bodies almost free of grains. 3 H-DABA showed a very similar pattern to 3 H-GABA. When olfactory bulb slices were preincubated with #betta#-alanine the labelling of the glial elements almost disappeared especially at the level of the olfactory nerve layer. The labelling pattern of the other layers of the bulb remained mostly unchanged. This supports the view that a population of periglomerular and granule cells are GABAergic and that #betta#-alanine competes with GABA uptake sites only in glial cells. (orig.)

  18. Autoradiographic imaging of cerebral ischemia using hypoxic marker: Tc-99m-HL91 in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, N.Y.; Zhu, C.S.; Hu, X.K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of Tc-99m-HL91 imaging in detecting the ischemic penumbra during acute stoke. Methods: 16 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into operation group (n=12) and pseudo-operation group (n=4) randomly. In operation group, 12 middle cerebral artery occlusion animal (MCAO) models were established by electrocautery. 4 rats in pseudo-operation group were treated as a control without occlusion. All animals were injected Tc-99m-HL91 intravenously 2 hours after occlusion. Animals were killed at different time after injection and brains were removed rapidly from the skull to do the autoradiographic study. Result: The ischemic territory accumulated more Tc-99m-HL91 than the opposite site in the autoradiogram at 1 hour after injection. The ischemic cerebral tissue can be visualized clearly. At 2, 4 hours after injection, the difference of accumulation of Tc-99m-HL91 in target and non-target site became more obvious. By using computer-enhanced imaging analysis, the optical density (OD) ratio differences between each subgroup of operation group and pseudo-operation group were all significant. Conclusion : Tc-99m-HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra. Tc-99m-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue, and Tc-99m-HL91 SPECT may be a promising imaging method in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  19. Autoradiographic imaging of cerebral ischaemia using hypoxic marker: 99mTc-HL91 in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningyi, J.; Cansheng, Z.; Xiaoke, H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of 99mTc-HL91 imaging in detecting the ischemic penumbra during acute stoke. Methods 16 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into operation group (n=12) and pseudo-operation group (n=4) randomly. In operation group, 12 middle cerebral artery occlusion animal (MCAO) models were established by electrocautery. 4 rats in pseudo-operation group were treated as a control without occlusion. All animals were injected 99mTc-HL91 intravenously 2 hours after occlusion. Animals were killed at different time after injection and brains were removed rapidly from the skull to do the autoradiographic study. Result The ischemic territory accumulated more 99mTc-HL91 than the opposite site in the autoradiogram at 1 hour after injection. The ischemic cerebral tissue can be visualized clearly. At 2, 4 hours after injection, the difference of accumulation of 99mTc-HL91 in target and non-target site became more obvious. By using computer-enhanced imaging analysis, the optical density (OD) ratio differences between each subgroup of operation group and pseudo-operation group were all significant. Conclusion 99mTc-HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra. 99mTc-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue, and 99mTc-HL91 SPECT may be a promising imaging method in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  20. The autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjalainen, S.; Soederling, E.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with ( 14 C)- or ( 3 H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm 2 in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen. (author)

  1. Autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjalainen, S; Soederling, E [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with (/sup 14/C)- or (/sup 3/H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm/sup 2/ in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen.

  2. Autoradiographic studies and experiments on partical synchronization of human tumors, especially mammary carcinomas, in vitro and in vivo following xenotransplantation to NU/NU mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, D.

    1980-01-01

    Human mammary carcinomes were evaluated radiographically in vitro in the native state. Penetration dephts up to 552 μm into the tissue were reached by the incubating medium. The labelling indices for the 3H-thymidine autoradiography lay between 1.5 and 19.3 percent. A correlation of the autoradiographic labelling indices with the findings of a simultaneously performed in vitro sensitivity test against cytostalics could not be proved. There seems to be a relation between the histomorphological tumour image and the proliferation behaviour expressed by the autoradiographic labelling index. Human mammary carcinomes were cultivated as xeno-transplant on thymus-aplastic NU/NU mice in parallel to this investigation. These heterotransplants show a remarkable correlation to the proliferation behaviour of the directly examined human tumours, after an autoradiographic in-vivo-labelling, with index values between 1.5 and 23.8 percent. This parallelism in the biological behaviour represents a further proof for the usefulness of the oncological test model of the NU/NU mouse as a carrier for human cacinomes. The application of this pre-therapeutical test model followed by determination of the synchronization behaviour of three human malignomas after xeno-transplantation onto NU/NU mice. For all three tumous an individual synchronization behaviour could be determined. Therapy attempts followed with cyclophosphonide or ionizing radiation by using the optimal cell-cycle therapy. Therefore an improvement of the therapeutical success by means of pre-therapeutical synchronization of human tumours can be reached in particular cases. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Autoradiographic observations of the induced vascular injuries by arachidonic acid in rabbit's brain and lung using 111In-oxine labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Fukushima, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kuroiwa, Kyoko; Tanoue, Kenjiro; Yamazaki, Hiroh.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiography using 111 In-oxine labeled autologous platelets was performed to observe the behavior of platelets in induced vascular injury by activated platelets in rabbit's brain and lung. Cerebrovascular injuries were induced by injection of arachidonic acid (AA) (0.7 mg/kg) into right internal carotid artery. Fourteen animals were pretreated with antiplatelet drug, ticlopidine (200 mg/kg) and 10 were controls. Before the AA injection, 111 In-oxine (300 μCi) labeled platelets were injected intravenously. Evans blue was given as a marker of disturbances of blood brain barrier. Sixty min after the AA injection, brains were removed and autoradiographic and electron microscopic studies were done. In the nontreated animals and some of the treated animals whose platelet aggregability was not suppressed, blue staining were seen in the cerebral hemisphere of injection side and hot radioactivity in autoradiogram were revealed in corresponding area. In the treated animals whose platelet aggregability was remarkably suppressed, no or slight blue staining or radioactivity were recognized. Only in hot radioactive area, platelet thrombi and vascular injuries were seen. Vascular injuries of lung were produced by decompression after keeping animals under hyperbalic condition (6 atomosphere absolute for 40 min). Before this procedure, 111 In-oxine labeled platelets were injected. Lungs of both 4 control and 4 decompression sickness animals were removed and autoradiographic and lightmicroscopic observations were performed. In lungs of decompression sickness animals remarkable spotty high radioactivity and prominent platelet aggregates in the vessels were seen. These findings were not seen in control animals. Our results suggested important roles of platelets in induced vascular injuries. And this autoradiographic approach seemed to be quite useful for observation of platelet's behavior in injured vessels and evaluation of antiplatelet drugs. (author)

  4. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in Petunia hybrida Hort. I. Localization of Ca2+ ions in mature pollen grain using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, E; Butowt, R

    1994-01-01

    The localization of Ca2+ in the mature pollen grain and the flow of these ions from the somatic tissues of the anther to the pollen grains has been studied using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods. In the pollen grain, Ca2+ ions have been localized in the sporoderm and in the cytoplasmic vesicles of probably dictyosomal origin. Calcium ions were transported into the sporoderm together with the compounds of degenerating tapetum. The material of degenerating tapetum forms pollen coat surrounding the mature pollen grain.

  5. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in 'Petunia hybrida Hor'. Pt. 1. Localization of Ca2+ ions in mature pollen grain using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarska, E.; Butowt, R.

    1994-01-01

    The localization of Ca 2+ in the mature pollen grain and the flow of these ions the somatic tissues of the anther to the pollen grains has been studied using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods. In the pollen grain, Ca 2+ ions have been localized in the sporoderm in the cytoplasmic vesicles of probably dictyosomal origin. Calcium ions were transported into the sporoderm together with the compounds of degenerating tapetum. The material of degenerating tapetum forms pollen coat surrounding the mature pollen grains. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs

  6. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in `Petunia hybrida Hor`. Pt. 1. Localization of Ca{sup 2+} ions in mature pollen grain using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, E.; Butowt, R. [Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The localization of Ca{sup 2+} in the mature pollen grain and the flow of these ions the somatic tissues of the anther to the pollen grains has been studied using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods. In the pollen grain, Ca{sup 2+} ions have been localized in the sporoderm in the cytoplasmic vesicles of probably dictyosomal origin. Calcium ions were transported into the sporoderm together with the compounds of degenerating tapetum. The material of degenerating tapetum forms pollen coat surrounding the mature pollen grains. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs.

  7. Significance of local cerebral glucose utilization determined by the autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method in experimentally induced coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, O.; Kobayashi, M.; Ueno, H.; Ishii, S. (Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral lesions made in the midbrain reticular formation of the rat produced behavioral akinesia. These animals neither ate nor drank. EEGs of these animals usually showed high voltage slow waves at rest. Slight EEG arousal response was demonstrated by clapping, touching and pinching only in rats with moderate impairment. Concerning the rates of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) measured by means of the autoradiographic (/sup 14/C) deoxyglucose method, 13 structures exhibited significant reductions in 28 gray structures examined when compared with sham operated rats. Lesions in the midbrain reticular formation resulted in reduction of LCGU in the neocortex, ventral nucleus of the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and medial and lateral geniculated bodies, mamillary body, septal nucleus and caudateputamen. Structures which did not show any significant change in LCGU were those related to the paleo and archi-cortices. These findings suggest the existence of two types of ascending activating systems. Administration of 30 mg/kg of pentobarbital reduced LCGU diffusely throughout the brain. When thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) was administered to rats with lesions in the midbrain reticular formation, reversal of the reduction of LCGU was observed in the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and the mamillary body. Reversal of LCGU in the dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus was especially significant and its level exceeded the level of the sham control value. This suggests TRH might exert its function through the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and mamillary body. When TRH was administered to rats treated with pentobarbital, significant reversal was observed in the following structures: the lateral and ventral nucleus of the thalamus, dentate gyrus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, pontine gray matter, and raphe nucleus.

  8. The GABAA receptor complex in hepatic encephalopathy. Autoradiographic evidence for the presence of elevated levels of a benzodiazepine receptor ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Gammal, S.H.; Jones, E.A.; Skolnick, P. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Autoradiographic analysis was used to examine radioligand binding to benzodiazepine (BZ) and GABAA receptors in the brains of rabbits with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Thin sections of whole brain from normal rabbits and rabbits with HE were mounted on slides and subdivided into two groups. One group was washed before incubation with radioligand, while the second group was not prewashed. (3H)Flunitrazepam binding to BZ receptors was decreased by 22% to 42% (p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, superior and inferior colliculi, and cerebellum of unwashed sections from rabbits with HE compared to all other groups. The binding of (3H)Ro 15-1788 to unwashed sections from rabbits with HE was reduced by a similar degree (18% to 37%, p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, superior colliculus, and cerebellar cortex. Incubation of sections with the GABA-mimetic muscimol and NaCl produced an additional decrease in (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the cortex and hippocampus (25% to 31%, p less than 0.05) in unwashed HE rabbit brain, but increased radioligand binding (27% to 71%, p less than 0.05) to several regions in control rabbits. No changes in radioligand binding to either GABAA or peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed between HE and control rabbit sections. These findings are consistent with previous electrophysiologic and neurochemical observations indicating no significant changes in either the function or density of GABAA or BZ receptors in this model of HE. Further, they indicate that a reversible BZ receptor ligand with agonist properties is present in the brain in HE. This substance may contribute to the enhancement of GABAergic tone observed in this syndrome.

  9. Partial characterization of insulin-like growth factor I in primary human lung cancers using immunohistochemical and receptor autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, K.; Kataoka, Y.; Kamio, T.; Kurihara, M.; Niwa, M.; Tsuchiyama, H.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated primary human lung cancers resected surgically or obtained at autopsy. Included were squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) (five cases), adenocarcinoma (ADC) (six cases), large cell carcinoma (LCC) (four cases), and small cell carcinoma (SCC) (two cases). The objective of the study was to search for the presence of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-like immunoreactivity using immunohistochemical staining and for the localization of IGF-I binding sites, using in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiographic techniques. IGF-I-like immunostaining was present in all cases of SQC, ADC, and LCC, but not in cases of SCC. Strong immunostaining was observed in cases of SQC. On the other hand, ADC and LCC tissues showed a moderate or weak staining. Specific binding sites for IGF-I were present in all cases of SQC, ADC, LCC, and SCC examined. High densities of 125I-IGF-I binding sites were localized in cases of SQC and SCC. Low to high densities of the binding sites were found in LCC. Cases of ADC showed low densities of 125I-IGF-I binding sites. Specific binding obtained at a concentration of 80 pM 125I-IGF-I was competitively displaced by unlabeled IGF-I, with a 50% inhibitory concentration value of 1.84 +/- 0.31 x 10(-10) mol, whereas human insulin was much less potent in displacing the binding. This specificity profile is consistent with characteristics of IGF-I receptors. Scatchard analysis showed the presence of a single class of high affinity binding sites for IGF-I, with a Kd of approximately 1 nmol. Thus, the possibility that IGF-I may play a role in the growth of human lung cancers would have to be considered

  10. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in intermediate lobe of the pituitary: Biochemical characterization and autoradiographic localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriadis, D.E.; De Souza, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    CRF receptors were characterized using radioligand binding and chemical affinity cross-linking techniques and localized using autoradiographic techniques in porcine, bovine and rat pituitaries. The binding of 125I-[Tyr0]-ovine CRF (125I-oCRF) to porcine anterior and neurointermediate lobe membranes was saturable and of high affinity with comparable KD values (200-600 pM) and receptor densities (100-200 fmoles/mg protein). The pharmacological rank order of potencies for various analogs and fragments of CRF in inhibiting 125I-oCRF binding in neurointermediate lobe was characteristic of the well-established CRF receptor in anterior pituitary. Furthermore, the binding of 125I-oCRF to both anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary was guanine nucleotide-sensitive. Affinity cross-linking studies revealed that the molecular weight of the CRF binding protein in rat intermediate lobe was identical to that in rat anterior lobe (Mr = 75,000). While the CRF binding protein in the anterior lobes of porcine and bovine pituitaries had identical molecular weights to CRF receptors in rat pituitary (Mr = 75,000), the molecular weight of the CRF binding protein in porcine and bovine intermediate lobe was slightly higher (Mr = 78,000). Pituitary autoradiograms from the three species showed specific binding sites for 125I-oCRF in anterior and intermediate lobes, with none being apparent in the posterior pituitary. The identification of CRF receptors in the intermediate lobe with comparable characteristics to those previously identified in the anterior pituitary substantiate further the physiological role of CRF in regulating intermediate lobe hormone secretion

  11. Differential effects of axotomy on immature and mature hamster facial neurons: a tritiated-uridine autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.J.; LaVelle, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, tritiated-uridine incorporation was autoradiographically examined following axotomy of hamster facial motor neurons (HFMN) at the critical development age of 15 days postnatal and in the adult. The postoperative times selected were 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 days. In the 15-day operative series, no changes in incorporation were observed at any of the postoperative times, except at 4 days postoperative, when there was a decrease in tritiated-uridine incorporation in the axotomized neurons relative to the controls. In the adult operative series there were no changes in incorporation at 0.5 or 1 day postoperative, relative to the controls. At 2 days postoperative in the adult, there was a transient increase in tritiated-uridine incorporation that returned to control levels by 4 days postoperative. When axotomized and control cytoplasmic/nuclear grain densities were compared, no changes were found in either operative series. These results of the time course of axotomy-induced changes in RNA synthesis in HFMN corroborate our previous findings of an age-dependent reactive sequence in HFMN and lend support to the hypothesis that the young neurons are synthesizing at peak capacity related to final growth and cannot be stimulated further by axotomy. As discussed, the transient increase in RNA levels in the adult, the lack of any changes in the rate of transfer of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and the decrease in RNA levels in the 15-day neurons may be related to the presence of an unusual intranucleolar body within the nucleolus of HFMN that contains ribosomal precursors

  12. Autoradiographic imaging of cerebral ischemia using hypoxic marker: 99mTc-HL91 in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cansheng; Jiang Ningyi; Hu Xiaoke

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of 99m Tc-HL91 imaging in detecting the ischemic penumbra during acute stoke. Methods; 16 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into operation group (n=12) and pseudo-operation group (n=4) randomly. In operation group, 12 middle cerebral artery occlusion animal (MCAO) models were established by electrocautery. 4 rats in pseudo-operation group were treated as a control without occlusion. All animals were injected 99m Tc-HL91 intravenously 2 hours after occlusion. Animals were killed at different time after injection and brains were removed rapidly from the skull to do the autoradiographic study. Results: The ischemic territory accumulated more 99m Tc-HL91 than the opposite site in the autoradiogram at 1 hour after injection. The ischemic cerebral tissue can be visualized clearly. At 2, 4 hours after injection, the difference of accumulation of 99m Tc-HL91 in target and non-target site became more obvious. By using computer-enhanced imaging analysis, the optical density (OD) ratio differences between each subgroup of operation group and pseudo-operation group were all significant. The OD ratios (T/N) were 1.2691±0.0189, 1.3542±0.0119, 2.1201±0.0616, 2.5369±0.1214 respectively at 1, 2, 4 hours after 99m Tc-HL91 injection. Conclusion: 99m Tc-HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra. 99m Tc-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue, and 99m Tc-HL91 SPECT may be a promising imaging method in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  13. Quantitative autoradiographic localization of cholecystokinin receptors in rat and guinea pig brain using sup 125 I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehoff, D.L. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL (USA))

    1989-03-01

    The autoradiographic localization of receptors for the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) has shown differences in receptor distribution between rat and guinea pig brain. However the full anatomical extent of the differences has not been determined quantitatively. In the present study, {sup 125}I-Bolton-Hunter-CCK8 ({sup 125}I-BH-CCK8) was employed in a comparative quantitative autoradiographic analysis of the distribution of CCK receptors in these two species. The pharmacological profile of {sup 125}I-BH-CCK8 binding in guinea pig forebrain sections was comparable to those previously reported for rat and human. Statistically significant differences in receptor binding between rat and guinea pig occurred in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, amygdala, several cortical areas, ventromedial hypothalamus, cerebellum, and a number of midbrain and brainstem nuclei. The results of this study confirm the presence of extensive species-specific variation in the distribution of CCK receptors, suggesting possible differences in the physiological roles of this peptide in different mammalian species.

  14. Macro-and micro-autoradiographic study in comparison with the incorporation of 35S-methionine by various tissue protein in organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Mei Shengping; Le Shangcheng

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe the incorporation level of 35 S-methionine by various tissue protein in organism. By the use of the macro-and micro-autoradiographic technique, the incorporation of 35 S-methionine by the tissues has been utilized as an index of various tissue protein synthesis. On this basis, the further experiments showed that tracer agent 35 S-methionine was dominantly incorporated in the immature cells of bone marrow and the tissue of liver, kidney and spleen. Its incorporation increased gradually with time. From the experimental results it can be concluded that a strong protein biosynthesis metabolism was produced in these tissues. While the tissues have important physiological function in organism, such as heart, lung and skeletal muscle, but the protein biosynthesis in those tissues was at a low level

  15. Autoradiographic visualization of A 1-adenosine receptors in brain and peripheral tissues of rat and guinea pig using 125I-HPIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.; Lohse, M.J.; Jones, C.R.; Palacios, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A 1 -adenosine receptors were identified in sections of rat brain and guinea pig kidney with the radioiodinated agonist 1 25I-N 6 -p-hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine ( 1 25I-HPIA) using in vitro autoradiography. The affinities of adenosine receptor ligands in competing with 1 25I-HPIA binding to tissue sections were in good agreement with those found in membranes and indicate that the binding site represents an A 1 pattern of [ 3 H]N 6 -cyclohexyladenosine ([ 3 H]CHA) binding sites determined previously, with highest densities in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, the cerebellar cortex, some thalamic nuclei and certain layers of the cerebral cortex. In the guinea pig kidney 1 25I-HPIA labelled longitudinal structures in the medulla. This study demonstrates that 1 25I-HPIA allows the autoradiographic detection of A-1 adenosine receptors in the brain and peripheral organs and has the advantage of short exposure times (author)

  16. Autoradiographical in-vitro examination of the cell proliferation of persisting psoriatic plaques in preferred areas under therapy with ultraviolet light: Photochemotherapy (PUVA) and selective ultraviolet phototherapy (SUP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middendorf, M.

    1982-01-01

    The application of ultraviolet rays (PUVA, SUP) brought significant progress in the treatment of psoriasis. The goal of UV-irradiation is to normalise the epidermal growth conditions. The cell cycle of persisting psoriatic plaque in preferred areas was examined under therapy with PUVA and SUP using an autoradiographic in-vitro method, double labelling with 14 C- and 3 H-thymididin. The results were compared to the known cell-kinetic parameters of psoriasis. The values thus obtained confirm the characteristic changes in the cell cycle of psoriasis. Furthermore, there is a block within the DNA-synthesis phase in the plaques persisting under UV-therapy. The resistence of persisting psoriatic plaques in preferred regions against UV-therapy is regarded as an indication of an extreme disturbance in the proliferation behaviour of the psoriatic skin. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Autoradiographic studies on nucleic acid synthesis of human gastric cancer cells, 1. Relationship between nucleic acid synthesis of cancer cells and clinicopathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, K [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    The rate of nucleic acid synthesis of human gastric cancer cells was studied autoradiographically and was compared with clinicopathological findings. 1) /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling index (TLI, mean 22.4%, n = 21) ranged from 6.2% to 39.5%. Mitotic index (mean 1.96%) ranged from 1.18% to 3.48%. 2) Average TLIs in the cancerous lesions with serosal invasion, in microscopical stages III and IV, in scirrhous type and in cancer cells locating in pm- and ss-layers showed lower values compared with the counterparts. 3) /sup 3/H-uridine labeling index (mean 92.7%) ranged from 75.0% to 99.8%.

  18. Autoradiographic studies on nucleic acid synthesis of human gastric cancer cells, 2. Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on nucleic acid synthesis of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, K [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    Changes in nucleic acid synthesis of gastric cancer cells by oral administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were evaluated autoradiographically. 1) Average /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) in the administered group (31.8%, n = 13) was a significantly high value compared with that of the control group (22.4%, n = 21). This result is considered to show that the pharmacological effects of 5-FU appeared on the cancer cells by the clinical administration of 5-FU. 2) Increase in TLI of the administered group was also found in the advanced stages. However, the degree of its increase seemed to be higher in the early stages. 3) Average /sup 3/H-uridine labeling index (89.9%) was not different from that (92.7%) of control group.

  19. A two emulsion autoradiographic technique and the discriminating of the three different types of labelling after double labelling with 3H- and 14C-thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, B.; Maurer, W.; Hagenbusch, H.

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with a two emulsion autoradiographic technique for double labelling experiments with 3 H- and 14 C-thymidine which permits a clear discrimination of the different types of labelling. In the second part the application of this technique to cell kinetics studies is discussed. Accurate discrimination between the different types of labelling, namely purely 3 H-, purely 14 C- and double ( 3 H + 14 C) labelling, is only possible if the activity ratio of 3 H- to 14 C-thymidine is sufficiently high. This condition is necessary for a reliable distinction between those grains in the first emulsion which are due to true 3 H-labelling and spurious grains which are simultaneously produced in the same emulsion by 14 C-β- particles. Experiments are described to determine the required activity ratio of 3 H- to 14 C-thymidine. (author)

  20. The application of data derived from autoradiographic studies with 241Pu in the formulation of a bone dosimetric model for 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Recently a dosimetric model for 239 Pu in bone has been published which in conjunction with the general ICRP dosimetric model for actinides is used to calculate annual limits of intake for 239 Pu. This model allows for the burial of plutonium in bone, for the recycling of plutonium within the skeleton and for the retention of plutonium in the bone marrow. The model was based upon published descriptions of the distribution and redistribution patterns of plutonium in bone and on evidence obtained from autoradiographic studies of bone from animals injected with 241 Pu. The experiments with 241 Pu demonstrated the initial uptake of plutonium by bone surfaces. As a result of the growth and drift processes much of this plutonium became either buried in the bone or was retained within macrophages in the bone marrow. (author)

  1. Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on local cerebral glucose utilization, by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy [14C] glucose method, in conscious and pentobarbitalized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Y.; Narumi, S.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakurada, O.; Ueno, H.; Ishii, S.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of TRH and pentobarbital alone, and in combination, on local cerebral glucose utilization of rats were studied by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy[ 14 C] glucose method. TRH (5 mg/kg i.v.) reduced the rate of cerebral glucose utilization slightly in the whole brain. Locally, significant depression was observed in the following structures: frontal and visual cortices, hippocampus Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus, medial and lateral geniculate bodies, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, pontine gray matter, superior colliculus, superior olivary nucleus, vestibular nucleus, lateral lemniscus and cerebellar cortex. Pentobarbital (30 mg/kg i.v.) produced a marked and diffuse reduction in the rate of glucose utilization throughout the brain. TRH given 15 min after the administration of pentobarbital markedly shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time and caused some reversal of the depression in local cerebral glucose utilization produced by pentobarbital., These effects were almost completely abolished by pretreatment with intracerebroventricular injection of atropine methyl bromide (20 μg/rat). These results indicate that although TRH acts to cause a reduction in the rate of cerebral glucose utilization, it reverses the depression induced by pentobarbital, via a cholinergic mechanism, in a number of structures, some of which are related to monoaminergic systems and the reticulo-thalamo-cortical activating system. (author)

  2. An autoradiographic study of the synthesis of nucleic acids and protein during the cell cycle of synchronously dividing antheridial filaments in Chara vulgaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewska, M J; Godlewski, M [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1972-01-01

    The synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein in successive mitotic cycles of the synchronously dividing antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris was studied autoradiographically. In all the generations examined, which enter the next mitosis, i.e., in the 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-cell generations, the synthesis of DNA begins as early as telephase and continues into the early stages of interphase. The telephase cells of the 32-cell filaments do not incorporate //sup 3/H/thymidine, because the cells which arise from them do not divide but are transformed into spermatozoa. The DNA synthesis is accompanied by intense synthesis of RNA. The intensity of radioactivity calculated for 100 ..mu../sup 2/ of the area of the nucleus and cytoplasm is similar in all the generations, whereas the radioactivity induced by the incorporation of /8-/sup 14/C/adenine and//sup 3/H/phenylalanine calculated for one cell decreases proportionally to the reduction of the volume of the cytoplasm and nucleus in successive generations. (auth)

  3. Interaction of 125I-labeled botulinum neurotoxins with nerve terminals. II. Autoradiographic evidence for its uptake into motor nerves by acceptor-mediated endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.D.; Dolly, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    Using pharmacological and autoradiographic techniques it has been shown that botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is translocated across the motor nerve terminal membrane to reach a postulated intraterminal target. In the present study, the nature of this uptake process was investigated using electron microscopic autoradiography. It was found that internalization is acceptor-mediated and that binding to specific cell surface acceptors involves the heavier chain of the toxin. In addition, uptake was shown to be energy and temperature-dependent and to be accelerated by nerve stimulation, a treatment which also shortens the time course of the toxin-induced neuroparalysis. These results, together with the observation that silver grains were often associated with endocytic structures within the nerve terminal, suggested that acceptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for toxin uptake. Possible recycling of BoNT acceptors (an important aspect of acceptor-mediated endocytosis of toxins) at motor nerve terminals was indicated by comparing the extent of labeling in the presence and absence of metabolic inhibitors. On the basis of these collective results, it is concluded that BoNT is internalized by acceptor-mediated endocytosis and, hence, the data support the proposal that this toxin inhibits release of acetylcholine by interaction with an intracellular target

  4. Fate and role of macromolecules synthesized during mammalian oocyte meiotic maturation. II. - Autoradiographic topography of (/sup 3/H)-fucose incorporation in pig oocytes cultured in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivko, J. (Animal Production Research Institute, Nitra (Czechoslovakia)); Motlik, J. (Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Libechov (Czechoslovakia)); Kopecny, V. (University J.E. Purkyne, Brno (Czechoslovakia)); Flechon, J.E. (I.N.R.A., Station Centrale de Physiologie Animale, Jouy-en-Josas (France))

    1982-01-01

    Pig oocytes in different maturational stages--germinal vesicle (GV), metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII)- were cultured in vitro with (/sup 3/H)-fucose. The incorporation of the precursor was followed by LM or EM autoradiography on air-dried preparations and on semithin or thin sections. The cumulus cells connected with oocytes at the GV stage were intensely labelled, while the labelling of the cumulus of MI and MII oocytes was lower. The cytoplasm of oocytes in the GV stage was characterized by nests of silver grains located mainly in a juxtanuclear position. The accumulation of label in the cortical region, observed in oocytes cultured with an intact cumulus, was less evident in cumulus-deprived oocytes. Lower labelling of the ooplasm, together with uniform distribution of the grains, was observed in later stages of meiosis. EM autoradiographs demonstrated the main localization, at the GV stage, of label in the Golgi apparatus and near the cell surface of oocytes and cumulus cells, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes of corona radiata cells. It is concluded that a relatively intense glycoprotein synthesis takes place in pig oocytes and cumulus cells during resumption of meiosis, at least before GV breakdown. Metabolic cooperation may occur as long as oocytes and cumulus cells keep membrane junctions.

  5. Autoradiographic evidence for methamphetamine-induced striatal dopaminergic loss in mouse brain: attenuation in CuZn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, H; Ladenheim, B; Carlson, E; Epstein, C; Cadet, J L

    1996-04-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has long-lasting neurotoxic effects on the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system of rodents. METH-induced neurotoxicity is thought to involve release of DA in presynaptic DA terminals, which is associated with increased formation of oxygen-based free radicals. We have recently shown that METH-induced striatal DA depletion is attenuated in transgenic (Tg) mice that express the human CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. That study did not specifically address the issue of loss of DA terminals. In the present study, we have used receptor autoradiographic studies of [(125)I]RTI-121-labeled DA uptake sites to evaluate the effects of several doses of METH on striatal DA terminals of Non-Tg as well as of heterozygous and homozygous SOD-Tg mice. In Non-Tg mice, METH caused decreases in striatal DA uptake sites in a dose-dependent fashion. The loss of DA terminals was more prominent in the lateral region than in the medial subdivisions of the striatum. In SOD-Tg mice, the loss of DA terminals caused by METH was attenuated in a gene dosage-dependent fashion, with the homozygous mice showing the greatest protection. Female mice were somewhat more resistant than male mice against these deleterious effects of METH. These results provide further evidence for a role of superoxide radicals in the long-term effects of METH. They also suggest the notion of a gender-specific handling of oxidative stress.

  6. Autoradiographic analysis of 3H-glutamate, 3H-dopamine, and 3H-GABA accumulation in rabbit retina after kainic acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, C.K.; Redburn, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have previously reported that exposure of isolated rabbit retina to 10(-3) M kainic acid produces profound morphological changes in specific retinal neurons (Hampton et al, 1981). We noted specific swelling of horizontal cell bodies and neurites, necrosis of cell bodies in the amacrine and ganglion cell layers, and swelling of elements in the inner plexiform layer. We now report a differential sensitivity to kainic acid of specific subclasses of amacrine cells autoradiographically labeled with 3H-glutamate, 3H-GABA, or 3H-dopamine. Three different effects were observed: (1) Labeling of neurons after incubation in 3H-glutamate was uniformly reduced while labeling of glia was much less affected. (2) The accumulation of 3H-dopamine was also decreased by kainic acid in two of the three labeled bands of the inner plexiform layer. The outermost labeled band was insensitive to kainic acid at the highest concentration tested (10(-2) M). These findings provide a basis for the subclassification of dopaminergic amacrine cells into at least two subclasses based on their sensitivity to kainic acid. (3) Kainic acid caused a dramatic increase in the labeling of GABAergic amacrine cell bodies and their terminals. This increased intensity may reflect a compensatory increase in uptake activity in response to kainic acid-induced depletion of endogenous GABA stores. These results confirm the highly toxic nature of kainic acid and demonstrate a high degree of specificity and complexity in its action in the retina

  7. Autoradiographic analysis of the in vivo distribution of 3H-imipramine and 3H-desipramine in brain: Comparison to in vitro binding patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, G.E.; Paul, I.A.; Fassberg, J.B.; Powell, K.R.; Stumpf, W.E.; Breese, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using high resolution autoradiographic techniques, the distribution of radioactivity in forebrain and brainstem was assessed after 4 injection of 3H-impramine or 3H-desipramine. Results were compared with regional binding of the drugs to brain sections in vitro. Similar topographic binding of 3H-imipramine and 3H-desipramine was observed in vitro among brain regions, except in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and locus coeruleus, where binding was greater for 3H-desipramine. For both 3H-desipramine and 3H-imipramine, some brain regions that exhibited high binding in vitro also showed high accumulation after in vivo injection. However, certain regions that contained high densities of binding sites for the antidepressant drugs as measured by in vitro binding showed very low accumulation of radioactivity after in vivo treatment. Such regions included the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, layer 1 of piriform cortex, caudate-putamen, pontine and midbrain central gray, and cerebellar granular layer. Compared to in vitro binding of the drugs, the distribution of imipramine and desipramine in vivo appears more anatomically selective. For imipramine, primary sites of action in vivo, as indicated by the topographic distribution in brain, appear to be the locus coeruleus, hippocampus, lateral septal nucleus, and amygdala. For desipramine, the greatest accumulation in vivo was found in the locus coeruleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and anterior thalamic nuclei

  8. Evaluation of autoradiographs and images of biological objects with the electronically operating image analyzer 'Densitron II'. II. Determination of the specific and total radioactivity of single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J; Korn, U; Freyer, K; Ermisch, A [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1976-01-01

    Using the TV image analyzer Densitron, transparencies and areas can be measured by the grey value discrimination method equidensitometry. The time, necessary for one measurement, is approximately 1 min, the standard deviations do not exceed 2%. Microscopical objects such as single cells can be analyzed by this method. Photo-blackings and areas have been measured in autoradiographs of goldfish brain-sections after injection of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. As a parallel, blacking and area calibration curves were obtained which allowed a conversion of the relative values into absolute ones. Using this conversion method, neurons of different brain regions were in the range from 104 to 1476..mu..m/sup 2/ in area and from 4.17 to 14.43..mu..Ci . cm/sup -3/ in specific radioactivity. The standard deviations of the absolute values were 6 and 4.5%, respectively. On the basis of these and additional values (thickness of section, number of sections per cell), calculations of the total radioactivity of a cell section or the whole cell can be made.

  9. Postnatal changes in local cerebral blood flow measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]iodoantipyrine technique in freely moving rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehlig, A.; Pereira de Vasconcelos, A.; Boyet, S.

    1989-01-01

    The postnatal changes in local cerebral blood flow in freely moving rats were measured by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine method. The animals were studied at 10, 14, 17, 21 and 35 days and at the adult stage. At 10 days after birth, rates of blood flow were very low and quite homogeneous in most cerebral structures except in a few posterior areas. From these relatively uniform levels, values of local cerebral blood flow rose notably to reach a peak at 17 days in all brain regions studied. Rates of blood flow decreased between 17 and 21 days after birth and then increased from weaning time to reach the known characteristic distribution of the adult rat. The postnatal evolution of local cerebral blood in the rat is in good agreement with previous studies in other species such as dog and humans that also show higher rates of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization at immature stages. However, in the rat, local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization are not coupled over the whole postnatal period studied, since blood flow rates reach peak values at 17 days whereas glucose utilization remains still quite low at that stage. The high rate of cerebral blood flow in the 17-day-old rat may reflect the energetic and biosynthetic needs of the actively developing brain that are completed by the summation of glucose and ketone body utilization

  10. Hypothalamic projections to the ventral medulla oblongata in the rat, with special reference to the nucleus raphe pallidus: a study using autoradiographic and HRP techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, Yasuhiko

    1985-10-07

    Hypothalamic descending projections to the medullary ventral surface were studied autoradiographically in the rat. A small amount of (/sup 3/H)leucine was injected unilaterally into various parts of the hypothalamus by air pressure. Abundant and characteristic terminal labelings were observed bilaterally in the nucleus raphe pallidus, the ventral surface to the pyramidal tract and the nucleus interfascicularis hypoglossi, after injections into the dorsal posterior hypothalamic area caudal to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Conspicuous, but less numerous labelings were observed in the nucleus raphe obscurus and the ipsilateral raphe magnus. After an injection of (/sup 3/H)leucine into the hypothalamus and injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the spinal cord in the same animal, silver grains were densely distributed around HRP-labeled neurons in the nucleus raphe pallidus including the nucleus interfascicularis hypoglossi. The present results suggest that the dorsal posterior hypothalamic area projects directly to the spinal-projecting neurons of the nucleus raphe pallidus. 53 refs.; 9 figs.

  11. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa; Scremin, Oscar; Maarek, Jean-Michel; Holschneider, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex--changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  12. Radiosynthesis and autoradiographic evaluation of [{sup 11}C]NAD-299, a radioligand for visualization of the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandell, Johan E-mail: Johan.Sandell@psyk.ks.se; Halldin, Christer; Hall, Haakan; Thorberg, Seth-Olov; Werner, Tom; Sohn, Daniel; Sedvall, Goeran; Farde, Lars

    1999-02-01

    The selective 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor antagonist NAD-299 ([R]-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran- 5-carboxamide) was labeled with the positron emitting radionucldie carbon-11. The radioligand was synthesized from NAD-195 ([R]-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylsulfonyloxy-3, 4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran) in two radiochemical steps. A palladium-catalyzed reaction of NAD-195 and [{sup 11}C]cyanide was followed by hydrolysis of the carbon-11-labeled nitrile intermediate with basic hydrogen peroxide. The total radiochemical yield, based on [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} and corrected for decay, was 20-40%. The specific radioactivity was 24 GBq/{mu}mol (900 Ci/mmol) at end of synthesis, with a radiochemical purity better than 99% and a total synthesis time of 40-45 min. Autoradiographic examination of [{sup 11}C]NAD-299 binding in human brain postmortem demonstrated high binding in hippocampus, raphe nuclei, and neocortex. The binding in the hippocampus was higher than in the neocortex. Within the hippocampus, the densest binding was observed in the CA1 region. [{sup 11}C]NAD-299 binding was inhibited by addition of the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor ligands WAY-100635, pindolol, ({+-})-8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT, and buspirone, leaving a low background of nonspecific binding. The results indicate that [{sup 11}C]NAD-299 binds specifically to 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in the human brain in vitro and is a potential radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) examination of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in vivo.

  13. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand [3H]PK 14105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, J.; Dubois, A.; Dennis, T.; Hamel, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with [ 3 H]PK 14105. In thymus sections, [ 3 H]PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands

  14. Radiosynthesis and autoradiographic evaluation of [11C]NAD-299, a radioligand for visualization of the 5-HT1A receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandell, Johan; Halldin, Christer; Hall, Haakan; Thorberg, Seth-Olov; Werner, Tom; Sohn, Daniel; Sedvall, Goeran; Farde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The selective 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist NAD-299 ([R]-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran- 5-carboxamide) was labeled with the positron emitting radionucldie carbon-11. The radioligand was synthesized from NAD-195 ([R]-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylsulfonyloxy-3, 4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran) in two radiochemical steps. A palladium-catalyzed reaction of NAD-195 and [ 11 C]cyanide was followed by hydrolysis of the carbon-11-labeled nitrile intermediate with basic hydrogen peroxide. The total radiochemical yield, based on [ 11 C]CO 2 and corrected for decay, was 20-40%. The specific radioactivity was 24 GBq/μmol (900 Ci/mmol) at end of synthesis, with a radiochemical purity better than 99% and a total synthesis time of 40-45 min. Autoradiographic examination of [ 11 C]NAD-299 binding in human brain postmortem demonstrated high binding in hippocampus, raphe nuclei, and neocortex. The binding in the hippocampus was higher than in the neocortex. Within the hippocampus, the densest binding was observed in the CA1 region. [ 11 C]NAD-299 binding was inhibited by addition of the 5-HT 1A receptor ligands WAY-100635, pindolol, (±)-8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT, and buspirone, leaving a low background of nonspecific binding. The results indicate that [ 11 C]NAD-299 binds specifically to 5-HT 1A receptors in the human brain in vitro and is a potential radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) examination of 5-HT 1A receptors in vivo

  15. Autoradiographical detection of cholecystokinin-A receptors in primate brain using 125I-Bolton Hunter CCK-8 and 3H-MK-329

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.R.; Shaw, T.M.; Graham, W.; Woodruff, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    In vitro autoradiography was performed in order to visualize cholecystokinin-A (CCK-A) receptors in sections of Cynomolgus monkey brain. CCK-A receptors were defined as those which displayed high affinity for the selective non-peptide antagonist MK-329 (L-364,718) and were detected in several regions by selective inhibition of 125I-Bolton Hunter CCK using MK-329 or direct labeling with 3H-MK-329. In the caudal medulla, high densities of CCK-A sites were present in the nucleus tractus solitarius, especially the caudal and medial aspects, and also the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. CCK-A sites were localized to a number of hypothalamic nuclei such as the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the dorsomedial and infundibular nuclei as well as the neurohypophysis. The mammillary bodies and supramammillary nuclei also contained CCK-A receptor sites. High concentrations of CCK-A receptors were present in the substantia nigra zona compacta and also the ventral tegmental area and may be associated with dopamine cell bodies. Binding of 3H-MK-329 was also detected in parts of the caudate nucleus and ventral putamen. The detection, by autoradiographical means, of CCK-A receptors throughout the Cynomolgus monkey brain contrasts with similar studies performed using rodents and suggests differences in the density and, perhaps, the importance of CCK-A receptors in the primate as opposed to the rodent. The data suggest the possibility that CCK-A receptors may be involved in a number of important brain functions as diverse as the processing of sensory information from the gut, the regulation of hormone secretion, and the activity of dopamine cell activity

  16. Autoradiographic localization of delta opioid receptors within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system using radioiodinated (2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine)enkephalin ( sup 125 I-DPDPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilts, R.P.; Kalivas, P.W. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The enkephalin analog (2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine)enkephalin was radioiodinated (125I-DPDPE) and shown to retain a pharmacological selectivity characteristic of the delta opioid receptor in in vitro binding studies. The distributions of 125I-DPDPE binding, using in vitro autoradiographic techniques, were similar to those previously reported for the delta opioid receptor. The nucleus accumbens, striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex contain dense gradients of 125I-DPDPE binding in regions known to receive dopaminergic afferents emanating from the mesencephalic tegmentum. Selective chemical lesions of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra were employed to deduce the location of the 125I-DPDPE binding within particular regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Unilateral lesions of dopamine perikarya (A9 and A10) within the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra produced by mesencephalic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in significant (20-30%) increases in 125I-DPDPE binding contralateral to the lesion within the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Lesions of the perikarya (dopaminergic and nondopaminergic) of the ventral tegmental area, induced by quinolinic acid injections, caused increases of less magnitude within these same nuclei. No significant alterations in 125I-DPDPE binding were observed within the mesencephalon as a result of either treatment. The specificity of the lesions was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase. These results suggest that the enkephalins and opioid agonists acting through delta opioid receptors do not directly modulate dopaminergic afferents but do regulate postsynaptic targets of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system.

  17. Quantitative autoradiographic investigations on hairs, skin, and nails with the precursors 35S-cystine or 35S-methionine and 3H-thymidine respectively in animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiegelow, P.; Berndt, G.; Lindner, J.; Puschmann, M.

    1981-01-01

    By quantitative autoradiographic methods we tested the possible influence of the sulphurous amino acid L-cystine on the growth of hair, skin and nails. In the 3 H-thymidine autoradiographic method the tracing index (percentage of traced cell cores in relation to the total number of cell cores of a cell population) is calculated morphologically. In the 35 S-cystine and the 35 S-methionine autoradiography a quantification is carried out by applying the microscopic photometer for the investigation of defined hair root cross-sections. Measured values are indicated which depend on dosage and on the incorporation time. The investigation of other agents provoking negative or positive reactions of the hair growth by means of this method will have to be realized. Unlabelled L-cystine seems to promote the growth of hairs, epidermic basal cells and of germ cells of mouse nails, according to experiences made in animal experiments. The latter findings will have to be completed and confirmed by additional experiments. (orig.) [de

  18. Influence of residual oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide radioactivity on cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction in a dual-tracer autoradiographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanishi, Katsuhiro; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Miyake, Yoshinori; Minato, Kotaro; Iida, Hidehiro

    2009-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) are quantitatively measured with PET with (15)O gases. Kudomi et al. developed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) protocol that enables the duration of a PET study to be shortened by sequentially administrating (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) gases. In this protocol, before the sequential PET scan with (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) gases ((15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan), a PET scan with C(15)O should be preceded to obtain CBV image. C(15)O has a high affinity for red blood cells and a very slow washout rate, and residual radioactivity from C(15)O might exist during a (15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan. As the current DARG method assumes no residual C(15)O radioactivity before scanning, we performed computer simulations to evaluate the influence of the residual C(15)O radioactivity on the accuracy of measured CBF and OEF values with DARG method and also proposed a subtraction technique to minimize the error due to the residual C(15)O radioactivity. In the simulation, normal and ischemic conditions were considered. The (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) PET count curves with the residual C(15)O PET counts were generated by the arterial input function with the residual C(15)O radioactivity. The amounts of residual C(15)O radioactivity were varied by changing the interval between the C(15)O PET scan and (15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan, and the absolute inhaled radioactivity of the C(15)O gas. Using the simulated input functions and the PET counts, the CBF and OEF were computed by the DARG method. Furthermore, we evaluated a subtraction method that subtracts the influence of the C(15)O gas in the input function and PET counts. Our simulations revealed that the CBF and OEF values were underestimated by the residual C(15)O radioactivity. The magnitude of this underestimation depended on the amount of C(15)O radioactivity and the physiological conditions. This underestimation

  19. Metabolism and autoradiographic evaluation of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT: a Comparison with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettlinger, Dagmar E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haeusler, Daniela; Wadsak, Wolfgang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Girschele, Friedrich; Sindelar, Karoline M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mien, Leonhard-Key [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Ungersboeck, Johanna [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Viernstein, Helmut; Kletter, Kurt; Dudczak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: markus.mitterhauser@meduniwien.ac.at

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: Since the late 1980s, cocaine analogues based on the phenyltropane structure, such as [{sup 11}C]CFT and [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT have been used for the imaging of the dopamine transporter. FE-CIT (fluoropropyl ester) and FP-CIT (N-fluoropropyl derivative) are further analogues. The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate and compare the metabolic stability of {beta}-CIT, FP-CIT and FE-CIT against carboxyl esterases and (2) evaluate selectivity of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT compared to [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT using autoradiography. Methods: In vitro enzymatic hydrolysis assays were performed using different concentrations of {beta}-CIT, FE-CIT and FP-CIT with constant concentrations of carboxyl esterase. Autoradiography was performed on coronal 20-{mu}m rat brain sections incubated with different radioactivity concentrations of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT or [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT and, additionally, with 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile [serotonin transporter (SERT)] and nisoxetine [norepinephrine transporter (NET)] for blocking experiments. Results: In vitro assays showed Michaelis-Menten constants of 175 {mu}mol ({beta}-CIT), 183 {mu}mol (FE-CIT) and 521 {mu}mol (FP-CIT). Limiting velocities were 0.1005 {mu}mol/min ({beta}-CIT), 0.1418 {mu}mol/min (FE-CIT) and 0.1308 {mu}mol/min (FP-CIT). This indicates a significantly increased stability of FP-CIT, whereas carboxyl esterase stability of {beta}-CIT and FE-CIT showed no significant difference. Autoradiographic analyses revealed a good correlation between dopamine transporter (DAT)-rich regions and the uptake pattern of FE-CIT. Blocking experiments showed a higher DAT selectivity for [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT than for the other two tracers. Conclusion: We found that (1) the metabolic stability of FE-CIT was comparable to that of {beta}-CIT, whereas FP-CIT showed higher resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis; and (2) the overall uptake pattern of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT on

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in sheep bronchial explants is associated with enhanced ETB receptor-mediate contractile functional and autoradiographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.B.; D'Aprile, A.C.; Betts, R.J.; Goldie, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important precipitant of asthma in children. The impact of RSV infection on endothelin (ET) receptor density and function in airways is unknown. In the present study, sheep bronchial rings were maintained as explants in culture for up to 48 h. During this time, both the structural integrity of the epithelium and carbachol responsiveness were preserved. Bronchial rings in culture were exposed to non-infected culture medium or to RSV (1/50 TCID 50 ) for 0, 24 and 48 h which caused marked damage to and loss of the epithelium. RSV infection did not significantly alter responsiveness to ET-1 at either 24 (Control EC 40 = 102 nM, 95% confidence limits, 76-138 nM vs RSV EC 40 = 66 nM, 95% confidence limits, 48-91 nM, n=5-6, P>0.05) or 48 h (Control EC 40 35 nM, 95% confidence limits, 19-66 nM vs RSV EC 40 = 55 nM, 95% confidence limits, 32-93 nM, n=8, P>0.05). As seen previously (Goldie et al., 1994), sarafotoxin S6c (StxS6c, ET B -selective) did not cause contraction in non-infected sheep bronchial explants. In contrast, StxS6c (300 nM) increased tone by 8±3% carbachol Emax (n=6-8) in explants exposed to RSV for 24 or 48 h. Light microscopic autoradiography was used to determine the relative distribution of ET A and ET B receptors using [ 125 I]-ET-1, BQ-123 (ET A -selective) and StxS6c. Sheep airway smooth muscle contains a homogeneous population of ET A receptors (Goldie et al., 1994). Since StxS6c caused significant contraction in RSV-infected bronchial explants, it was surprising that autoradiographic techniques failed to detect airway smooth muscle ET B receptors in these preparations. It is likely that ET B receptors fell below the level of detection of autoradiography. The significant StxS6c-induced contraction of sheep bronchi suggests the novel expression of ET B receptors triggered by RSV which might be relevant to RSV-associated asthma. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental

  1. Autoradiographic examinations on the synthesis of the virus herpes simplex in macrophages, rabbit kidney- and BHK-cells by labelling with 3H-thymidine, 3H-uridine and UDP-3H-galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindermann, J.

    1979-01-01

    After injection, an autoradiographically measurable reduplication of virus-specific DNA takes place in NMRI-macrophages infected with HSV (herpes simplex virus). For this process, a sufficient duration of the 3 H-thymidine pulses is of essential importance. An infection with HSV of the Lennette strain induces in considerably more cells of a macrophage population the production of virus-specific DNA than the infection with HSV of the D-316 type. After injection a reduplication of virus-specific DNA occurs in more cells of a HSV-infected population of old macrophages than in that one consisting of young macrophages. In the 7th hour after injection a reduction of RNA synthesis was observed in the HSV-infected macrophage cultures. After HSV-infection, a synthesis of virus-specific DNA could not be detected autoradiographically in macrophages of C 57/bl mice. After HSV-infection the virus-specific DNA synthesis was also observed in activated macrophages of NMRI mice, which had been treated with thioglucollate 72 hours before cell extraction. In general, the previous thioglucollate treatment increased the susceptibility of the macrophages of infection with subsequent reduplication of herpes-specific DNA. Compared to other not infected but activated macrophages, the RNA synthesis after injection was found to be not (HSV Lennette) or only minutely (HSV D-316) reduced in HSV-infected cultures of activated macrophages. In the investigations about the utilisation of exogenic UDP- 3 H-galactose by BHK and rabbit cells it was observed that only few cells of the cultures provide an externally accessible galactosyl transferase activity. Due to the influence of cell-damaging mechanisms a cell proliferation is induced, which is accompanied by externally accessible galactosyl transferase activities in the cell cultures. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Calcium antagonist binding sites in the rat brain: Quantitative autoradiographic mapping using the 1, 4-Dihydropyridines [3H]PN 200-110 and [3H]PY 108-068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, R.; Supavilai, P.; Karobath, M.; Palacios, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    An in vitro autoradiographic technique has been used for the quantitative mapping of calcium antagonist binding sites (CABS) in the rat brain, using the 1, 4-dihydropyridines [ 3 H]PN 200-110 and [ 3 H]PY 108-068 as ligands. CABS were distributed throughout the brain in a highly heterogeneous fashion. The highest densities of CABS were observed in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus and parts of the amygdala. The neocortex was also rich in CABS. The basal ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus presented intermediate levels of CABS while low densities of sites were seen in areas such as the cerebellum, pons and white matter tracts. The distributions of CABS in brain does not correlate with indexes of brain blood flow, regional glucose utilization or the distributions of receptor binding sites for drugs and neurotransmitters analyzed until now. No correlation exists between CABS distribution and that of any neurotransmitter or brain enzyme described so far. The heterogeneous distributions of CABS is suggestive of a neuronal localization, an idea supported by lesion experiments. (Author)

  3. Calcium antagonist binding sites in the rat brain: Quantitative autoradiographic mapping using the 1, 4-dihydropyridines (TH)PN 200-110 and (TH)PY 108-068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, R.; Supavilai, P.; Karobath, M.; Palacios, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    An in vitro autoradiographic technique has been used for the quantitative mapping of calcium antagonist binding sites (CABS) in the rat brain, using the 1, 4-dihydropyridines (TH)PN 200-110 and (TH)PY 108-068 as ligands. CABS were distributed throughout the brain in a highly heterogeneous fashion. The highest densities of CABS were observed in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus and parts of the amygdala. The neocortex was also rich in CABS. The basal ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus presented intermediate levels of CABS while low densities of sites were seen in areas such as the cerebellum, pons and white matter tracts. The distributions of CABS in brain does not correlate with indexes of brain blood flow, regional glucose utilization or the distributions of receptor binding sites for drugs and neurotransmitters analyzed until now. No correlation exists between CABS distribution and that of any neurotransmitter or brain enzyme described so far. The heterogeneous distributions of CABS is suggestive of a neuronal localization, an idea supported by lesion experiments. (Author).

  4. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P. (Medical Research Council Centre, Cambridge (UK). Medical School, MRC Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit)

    1985-04-22

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged.

  5. Long-term changes in brain following continuous phencyclidine administration: An autoradiographic study using flunitrazepam, ketanserin, mazindol, quinuclidinyl benzilate, piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP, and AMPA receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Gaylord; Keys, Alan; Noguchi, Kevin [Univ. of California Los Angeles, Dept. of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Phencyclidine induces a model psychosis which can persist for prolonged periods and presents a strong drug model of schizophrenia. When given continuously for several days to rats, phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists induce neural degeneration in a variety of limbic structures, including retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, septohippocampal projections, and piriform cortex. In an attempt to further clarify the mechanisms underlying these degeneration patterns, autoradiographic studies using a variety of receptor ligands were conducted in animals 21 days after an identical dosage of the continuous phencyclidine administration employed in the previous degeneration studies. The results indicated enduring alterations in a number of receptors: these included decreased piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP (TCP), flunitrazepam, and mazindol binding in many of the limbic regions in which degeneration has been reported previously. Quinuclidinyl benzilate and (AMPA) binding were decreased in anterior cingulate and piriform cortex, and in accumbens and striatum. Piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP binding was decreased in most hippocampal regions. Many of these long-term alterations would not have been predicted by prior studies of the neurotoxic effects of continuous phencyclidine, and these results do not suggest a unitary source for the neurotoxicity. Whereas retrosplenial cortex, the structure which degenerates earliest, showed minimal alterations, some of the most consistent, long term alterations were in structures which evidence no immediate signs of neural degeneration, such as anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In these structures, some of the receptor changes appeared to develop gradually (they were not present immediately after cessation of drug administration), and thus were perhaps due to changed input from regions evidencing neurotoxicity. Some of these findings, particularly in anterior cingulate, may have implications for models of

  6. Autoradiographic studies on the cell kinetics after the whole body X-irradiation. 2. Regularities of the post-irradiation death of differentiating and proliferating cells of the rat brain subependimal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracheva, N.D.

    1982-01-01

    A wave-like character of death of proliferating and differentiating (D) cells is shown autoradiographically using 3 H-thymidine introduced 60-80 min before the whole body X-ray irradiation in doses of 50, 150 or 300 R on subependymal cells of rat brain. Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G 2 and S-phases, resulted in 4 peaks of death in mitosis by following the first postradiational mitotic cycle (MC). Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G 1 -phase lost ability for DNA synthesis as cells irradiated in a dose of 300 R did not include additionally introduced (3 hrs before death) 14 C-thymidine from 12 to 17 hrs after 3 H-thymidine injection. However, in the first 4 hrs after irradiation there were no cells irradiated in G 1 -phase among dead ones, as indirec showed the calculations of data obtained tly/ while studying Pliss lymphosarcoma. A supposition is made that the death of cells irradiated in G 1 -phase is attributed to mitotic phase of the first MC after irradiation. Waves of death of lethally damaged D-cells repeated the peaks of death and corresponded to the mitotic peaks of proliferating cells, which permitted to presuppose the presence of ''short cycle'' (SC) in D-cells, which have the rhythm similar to MC and their death has been attributed to the final SC phase, which corresponds to MC mitotic phase in time. According to the peaks of cell death position of one hour block independent of dose in six MC(SC) points is determined. The cells have experienced the block in the point of MC(SC) in subphase of which they were caught by irradiation. Dose effect is manifested in the number of dead cells

  7. Long-term changes in brain following continuous phencyclidine administration: An autoradiographic study using flunitrazepam, ketanserin, mazindol, quinuclidinyl benzilate, piperidyl-3,4-3H(N)-TCP, and AMPA receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, Gaylord; Keys, Alan; Noguchi, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Phencyclidine induces a model psychosis which can persist for prolonged periods and presents a strong drug model of schizophrenia. When given continuously for several days to rats, phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists induce neural degeneration in a variety of limbic structures, including retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, septohippocampal projections, and piriform cortex. In an attempt to further clarify the mechanisms underlying these degeneration patterns, autoradiographic studies using a variety of receptor ligands were conducted in animals 21 days after an identical dosage of the continuous phencyclidine administration employed in the previous degeneration studies. The results indicated enduring alterations in a number of receptors: these included decreased piperidyl-3,4- 3 H(N)-TCP (TCP), flunitrazepam, and mazindol binding in many of the limbic regions in which degeneration has been reported previously. Quinuclidinyl benzilate and (AMPA) binding were decreased in anterior cingulate and piriform cortex, and in accumbens and striatum. Piperidyl-3,4- 3 H(N)-TCP binding was decreased in most hippocampal regions. Many of these long-term alterations would not have been predicted by prior studies of the neurotoxic effects of continuous phencyclidine, and these results do not suggest a unitary source for the neurotoxicity. Whereas retrosplenial cortex, the structure which degenerates earliest, showed minimal alterations, some of the most consistent, long term alterations were in structures which evidence no immediate signs of neural degeneration, such as anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In these structures, some of the receptor changes appeared to develop gradually (they were not present immediately after cessation of drug administration), and thus were perhaps due to changed input from regions evidencing neurotoxicity. Some of these findings, particularly in anterior cingulate, may have implications for models of

  8. Use of Biopsy Tissue Samples, Incubated In Vitro for Autoradiographic Measurement of Cell Proliferation in Human Tissues; Utilisation de Biopsies Incubees In Vitro pour la Mesure Autoradiographique de la Proliferation Cellulaire de Tissus Humains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galand, P. [Faculte de Medecine de l' Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1970-02-15

    To avoid the radiobiological hazards linked to the use of {sup 3}H-thymidine, several workers have performed in vitro incubations of biopsy material in the presence of this labelled DNA -precursor. Attempts were made to define the proliferative pattern of the tissue from the distribution and intensity of labelling in autoradiographs. However, for true estimation of the cell cycle length, one has to know the S-phase (DNA-synthesis phase) duration, since the labelling index reflects only the part taken by this phase in the whole cell cycle. We chose the ''double-labelling technique'' with two dose levels of {sup 3}H-thymidine, which was developed by Maurer's group. By administering two pulses of the tritiated precursor (a weak dose and a heavy dose) at a given time interval and submitting the treated tissue to the autoradiographic process, one can calculate the S-phase duration(s) after the formula N{sub h}/N{sub w} = S/t. N{sub h} is the number of heavily labelled nuclei (i.e. those nuclei that were engaged in S-phase during the second pulse labelling); N{sub w} is the number of weakly labelled nuclei, corresponding to the cells which left S-phase during the time interval (t) between the two pulse labellings. From the percentage of heavily labelled nuclei in the whole population (L.I.), the generation time (G.T.) is then given by the formula G.T. = S/L.I. x 100. Human rectal and gastric biopsies were submitted to this procedure which, because of its brevity, requires simple survival conditions. Normal and pathologic cases were studied. Endometrial tissue is also currently under study. In parallel, experiments on animal tissues were also performed in order to make a comparison for the same individual between in vitro and in vivo measurements. This latter was realized by the classic method of the wave of labelled mitoses. The following aspects were examined: (1) Proper choice of the dose range, for valid recognition of ''weakly'' and ''heavily'' labelled cells; (2

  9. Validation of the dual-table autoradiographic method to quantify two sequential rCBFs in a single SPET session with N-isopropyl-[123I]p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iida, Hidehiro; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Ito, Harumi; Konishi, Junji; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated an autoradiographic (ARG) method to calculate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) sequentially before and after an acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge in a single session of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with two injections of N-isopropyl-[ 123 I]p-iodoamphetamine (IMP). The method uses a table look-up method with a fixed distribution volume (Vd) and a standard input function of IMP. To calculate rCBF after an ACZ challenge, two look-up tables (a dual-table) are used to reflect the effect of radioactivity in the brain from the first dose of IMP. We performed simulation studies to evaluate errors attributable to (a) a change in rCBF induced by an ACZ challenge during the scan and (b) a fixed Vd value that might be different from an individual one, along with the effect of (c) scan length. Thirty-three patients were studied by dynamic SPET with two injections of IMP and frequent arterial blood sampling, and the data were analysed using the dual-table ARG method. Twenty-four of the 33 patients received an injection of ACZ 10 min before the second dose of IMP. We generated a standard input function by averaging individual input functions. The optimal method to calibrate a standard input function was determined so that the SD of differences between rCBF calculated by using a calibrated standard input function (F SIF ) and that calculated by using an individual input function (F IIF ) was minimised. Reliability of the method was evaluated by comparing F SIF with gold standard rCBF (F REF ) obtained by two-compartment model analysis of dynamic SPET data and an individual input function with a non-linear least squares fitting method. Errors caused by (a) were less than 4% for a first rCBF ranging between 20 and 60 ml 100 g -1 min -1 and an rCBF change of between -25% and 50%. Errors caused by (b) were relatively large compared with those caused by (a), and were affected by (c) with an increasing error in a longer scan. In the patient study with a proposed

  10. Autoradiographic and metabolic studies of Mycobacterium leprae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanolkar, S.R.; Ambrose, E.J.; Chulawala, R.G.; Bapat, C.V.

    1978-01-01

    Highly purified suspensions of Mycobacterium leprae show a progressive increase in incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]DOPA in short-term cultures as shown by scintillation counting. The intact bacilli are known to have a high permeability barrier. The experiments described suggest that [ 3 H]DOPA becomes trapped within this barrier and oxidized inside the bacilli. Tests by pre-treatment with diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC inhibitor of DOPA), cold DOPA or hyaluronidase distinguish the uptake of [ 3 H]DOPA by bacilli from the effects of connective tissue contamination. Similar increases in labelling of bacilli by scintillation counting of cultures, have been observed by autoradiography of the organisms. The scintillation method shows promise for rapidly identifying drug resistance in lepromatous patients relapsing while on treatment with dapsone (DDS) rifampicin, clofazimine or other anti-leprosy drugs. (author)

  11. Study of inclusions and segregation in metals by autoradiography; Etude autoradiographic des inclusions et de la segregation dans les metaux; Izuchenie primesej i usadki metalla s pomoshch'yu avtoradiografii; Estudio autoradiografico de las inclusiones y de la segregacion en los metales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makin, S M [Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    Three applications of radioisotope techniques to metallurgy are described. During the course of this work, new autoradiographic techniques are developed. These include the irradiation and autoradiography of extraction replicas, similar to those used in electron microscopy, and a two-colour dye-transfer process in which colour prints of autoradiographs are shown with the corresponding micrographs superposed. These methods are applied to the study of inclusions in steel and uranium and to an investigation of the segregation of sulphur and phosphorus in welds in stainless steel. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit trois applications des radioisotopes en metallurgie. Au cours de ces travaux, l'auteur a mis au point de nouvelles techniques d'autoradiographie. Celles-ci comportent l'irradiation d'empreintes pour autoradiographie et d'empreintes d'extraction, semblables a celles qui sont employees dans la microscopie electronique, et font appel a un procede de transfert en deux couleurs dans lequel on superpose des autoradiographies en couleur et les microphotographies correspondantes. Ces methodes sont appliquees a l'etude des inclusions dans l'acier et l'uranium ainsi qu'aux recherches sur la segregation du soufre et du phosphore dans les pieces soudees en acier inoxydable. (author) [Spanish] Se describen tres aplicaciones de las tecnicas de los radioisotopes en la metalurgia. En el curso de los experimentos se han perfeccionado nuevas tecnicas autorradiograficas, que comprenden la irradiacion de replicas de autorradiografia y extraccion, analogas a las utilizadas en la microscopia electronica y un procedimiento de impresion a dos colores que permite obtener autorradiografias superpuestas a las correspondientes micrografias. Estos metodos se aplican al estudio de inclusiones en el acero y el uranio y a una investigacion de la segregacion del azufre y del fosforo en soldaduras hechas en acero inoxidable. (author) [Russian] Daetsya opisanie trekh sposobov primeneniya

  12. Autoradiographic Study of Incorporation of Tritiated Thymidine in the Rat; Etude Autoradiographique de l'Incorporation de Thymidine Tritiee chez le Rat; 0420 0430 0434 0438 043e 0430 0432 0442 043e 0414 ; Estudio Autorradiografico de la Incorporacion de Timidina Tritiada en la Rata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldague, P.; Hong-Que, Pham; Maisin, J. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie, Institut du Cancer, Louvain (Belgium)

    1962-02-15

    The authors used tritiated thymidine to evaluate desoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in various rat organs. They show by autoradiographs that this synthesis takes place mainly in tissue having intensive mitotic activity (bone marrow, seminiferous tubules of the testis, mucous membrane of the intestine, oesophagus and tongue). The authors also studied the regeneration of the convoluted renal tubules during the months following local irradiation of the kidney at various doses. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont utilise de la thymidine tritiee pour evaluer la synthese de l'acide desoxyribonucleique au niveau de differents organes chez le rat. Ils montrent par autoradiographies que cette synthese s'effectue principalement au niveau des tissus presentant une activite mitotique intense (moelle osseuse, tubes seminiferes du testicule, muqueuse intestinale, oesophagienne et de la lingue). Les auteurs ont en outre etudie la regeneration des tubes contournes du rein apres irradiation locale de cet organe, a differentes doses et dans les mois qui suivent cette irradiation. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han utilizado timidina tritiada para evaluar la sintesis del acido desoxirribonucleico en distintos organos de la rata. Demuestran mediante autorradiografias que esta sintesis se produce principalmente en los tejidos de intensa actividad mitotica (medula osea, tubos seminiferos de los testiculos, mucosas intestinal, del esofago y de la lengua). Finalmente, los autores han estudiado la regeneracion de los tubos y convolvulados del rinon en los meses que siguen a la irradiacion local de este organo con distintas dosis. (author) [Russian] Avtory pol'zovalis' mechennym tritiem timidinom dlja ocenki sin- teza dezoksiribonukleinovoj kisloty v razlichnyh organah krysy. Pri po- moshhi radioavtografii avtory pokazyvajut, chto jetot sintez proishodit glavnym obrazom v tkanjah s intensivnoj mitoticheskoj dejatel'nost'ju (kostnyj mozg, semenenosnye kanaly testikula, slizistaja obolochka

  13. Autoradiographic study of serotonin transporter during memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Ruth; Rocha, Luisa; Castillo, Carlos; Meneses, Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated with drugs of abuse like d-methamphetamine (METH). METH is well known to produce effects on the monoamine systems but it is unclear how METH affects SERT and memory. Here the effects of METH and the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) on autoshaping and novel object recognition (NOR) were investigated. Notably, both memory tasks recruit different behavioral, neural and cognitive demand. In autoshaping task a dose-response curve for METH was determined. METH (1.0mg/kg) impaired short-term memory (STM; lasting less of 90min) in NOR and impaired both STM and long-term memory (LTM; lasting 24 and 48h) in autoshaping, indicating that METH had long-lasting effects in the latter task. A comparative autoradiography study of the relationship between the binding pattern of SERT in autoshaping new untrained vs. trained treated (METH, FLX, or both) animals was made. Considering that hemispheric dominance is important for LTM, hence right vs. left hemisphere of the brain was compared. Results showed that trained animals decreased cortical SERT binding relative to untrained ones. In untrained and trained treated animals with the amnesic dose (1.0mg/kg) of METH SERT binding in several areas including hippocampus and cortex decreased, more remarkably in the trained animals. In contrast, FLX improved memory, increased SERT binding, prevented the METH amnesic effect and re-established the SERT binding. In general, memory and amnesia seemed to make SERT more vulnerable to drugs effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Autoradiographic analysis of iodoamphetamine redistribution in experimental brain ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Shiba, K.; Terada, H.; Kinuya, K.; Mori, H.; Sumiya, H.; Hisada, K.

    1990-01-01

    The pathophysiologic significance of iodoamphetamine (IMP) redistribution was analyzed using a double radionuclide autoradiography technique in experimental brain ischemia in the rat. Within 4 hr after unilateral arterial occlusion, IMP almost completely redistributed at 150 min postinjection in the affected areas. At 2 min postinjection, both a remarkable decrease of IMP accumulation and histopathologic change of diminished staining were observed in these areas. The redistribution amplitude was higher in the affected hemisphere, especially in the regions surrounding the ischemic core than in the unaffected hemisphere. These findings were consistent with computer simulation studies of the time course of brain activity based on the standard diffusible tracer model. The results suggest that IMP redistribution in the ischemic area is due to differences of the temporal changes of the brain activity between the unaffected and affected areas and that it is a physical phenomenon (only flow related) rather than a biologic one

  15. Autoradiographic localization of drug and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    By combining and adapting various methodologies, it is possible to develop radiohistochemical methods for the light microscopic localization of drug and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. These methods are valuable complements to other histochemical methods for mapping neurotransmitters; they provide a unique view of neuroanatomy and they can be used to provide valuable new hypotheses about how drugs produce various effects. Interesting 'hot spots' of receptor localizations have been observed in some sensory and limbic areas of the brain. Because most available methods are light microscopic, the development of ultrastructural methods will be a necessary and important extension of this field. (Auth.)

  16. Autoradiographic thyroid evaluation in short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity is decreased and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase activity is increased 15 days after induction of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM. In the present study we used thyroid histoautoradiography, an indirect assay of in vivo TPO activity, to determine the possible parallelism between the in vitro and in vivo changes induced by experimental DM. DM was induced in male Wistar rats (about 250 g body weight by a single ip streptozotocin injection (45 mg/kg, while control (C animals received a single injection of the vehicle. Seven and 30 days after diabetes induction, each diabetic and control animal was given ip a tracer dose of 125I (2 µCi, 2.5 h before thyroid excision. The glands were counted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with HE and exposed to NTB-2 emulsion (Kodak. The autohistograms were developed and the quantitative distribution of silver grains was evaluated with a computerized image analyzer system. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was significantly decreased only after 30 days of DM (C: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs DM: 0.20 ± 0.04%/mg thyroid, P<0.05 while in vivo TPO activity was significantly decreased 7 and 30 days after DM induction (C: 5.3 and 4.5 grains/100 µm2 vs DM: 2.9 and 1.6 grains/100 µm2, respectively, P<0.05 . These data suggest that insulin deficiency first reduces in vivo TPO activity during short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

  17. Automated autoradiographic analysis of tumor cell colonies in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallman, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The studies reported are basic to the design of therapeutic strategies against cancer and to the understanding of therapeutic effects. It is unlikely that clinical therapy could employ the same methodology, however, so this approach could not be incorporated into 'kinetics-directe' therapy. As defined and implemented successfully by Barranco et al. therapy is kinetics-directed when the kinetic properties of cell populations under treatment are actually determined and used to schedule the timing of multiple treatments. Thus, the substance of this paper is of potential importance to kinetic-based cancer therapy, i.e. using historical or empirical data to formulate models. (orig./AJ)

  18. Neuropeptide Y receptors in rat brain: autoradiographic localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, J.C.; St-Pierre, S.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor binding sites have been characterized in rat brain using both membrane preparations and receptor autoradiography. Radiolabelled NPY binds with high affinity and specificity to an apparent single class of sites in rat brain membrane preparations. The ligand selectivity pattern reveals strong similarities between central and peripheral NPY receptors. NPY receptors are discretely distributed in rat brain with high densities found in the olfactory bulb, superficial layers of the cortex, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, various thalamic nuclei and area postrema. The presence of high densities of NPY and NPY receptors in such areas suggests that NPY could serve important functions as a major neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system

  19. Autoradiographic localization of benzodiazepine receptors in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, K.; Healy, D.P.; Fanestil, D.D.

    1984-11-01

    The localization of benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in the rat kidney was studied by autoradiography after in vitro labeling of kidney slices with flunitrazepam. The affinity, density, and rank order of displacement of (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam by several BZDs (RO 5-4864 > diazepam > clonazepam) demonstrated that binding was to BZD receptors of the peripheral type. In autoradiograms obtained with tritium-sensitive film, a high density of silver grains was obtained in the outer medulla, with lower densities in the cortex. Binding was absent from the inner medulla (papilla). In higher resolution autoradiograms obtained with an emulsion-coated cover slip procedure, silver grains were seen to be concentrated over a tubular element in both outer medulla and cortex, identifiable by morphology and distribution as the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule. The identity of the labeled tubules was confirmed by immunofluorescent localization in adjacent slices of Tamm-Horsfall protein, a specific marker for these segments of tubules. Investigation of the effects of peripherally specific BZDs such as RO 5-4864 on distal tubule function is indicated.

  20. Evaluation of electron microscope autoradiographs of the central nervous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venedey, C.

    1982-01-01

    The methodological part discussed the accuracy of Willimans' ''circle method'' as a function of circle size, the reproducibility of area determination with 25% circles as a function of the number of circles, and the influence of 25% circles on the determination of grain densities. 25% circles should be given preference in view of their higher accuracy. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Autoradiographic imaging of phosphoinositide turnover in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    With [ 3 H]cytidine as a precursor, phosphoinositide turnover can be localized in brain slices by selective autoradiography of the product [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol, which is membrane-bound. In the cerebellum, glutamatergic stimulation elicits an increase of phosphoinositide turnover only in Purkinje cells and the molecular layer. In the hippocampus, both glutamatergic and muscarinic cholinergic stimulation increase phosphoinositide turnover, but with distinct localizations. Cholinergic stimulation affects CA1, CA3, CA4, and subiculum, whereas glutamatergic effects are restricted to the subiculum and CA3. Imaging phosphoinositide turnover in brain slices, which are amenable to electrophysiologic studies, will permit a dynamic localized analysis of regulation of this second messenger in response to synaptic stimulation of specific neuronal pathways

  2. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur

  3. Ultrastructural, autoradiographic and electrophoretic examinations of Chara tomentosa spermiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of a spermatid nucleus changes many times during spermiogenesis. Condensed chromatin forms irregular clusters during phases I-II, a continuous ring adjacent to a nuclear envelope during phases III-V and a network occupying the whole nucleus during phase VI. In advanced spermiogenesis dense chromatin disappears and short randomly positioned fibrils arise, then long parallel ones are found (phase VIII which during phase IX form a lamellar structure. In mature spermatozoids (phase X chromatin becomes extremely condensed. 3H-arginine and 3H-lysine incorporation into spermatids during 2-min incubation is intensive during phases IN, decreases during phases VI, VII and becomes very low during phases VIII-IX. Capillary electrophoresis has shown that during Chara tomentosa spermiogenesis replacement of histones with basic proteins whose mobility is comparable to that of salmon protamines takes place. At the beginning of spermiogenesis core and linker histones are found in spermatids. During early spermiogenesis protamine-like proteins appear and their amount increases in late spermiogenesis when core histones are still present. In mature spermatozoids only protamine-like proteins represented by 3 fractions: 9.1 kDa, 9.6 kDa, 11.2 kDa are found. Disappearance of linker histones following their modification precedes disappearance of core histones. The results indicate that dynamic rearrangement of chromatin ultrastructure and aminoacid incorporation rate during spermiogenesis are reflected in basic nuclear protein changes.

  4. AUTORADIOGRAPHIC DEMONSTRATION OF THORIUM DEPOSITION IN TISSUES. A CASE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianz, Henry; Keller, Sue

    1963-06-15

    A case is reported of a patient suffering from a fatal myocardial infection. Case history and autopsy studies revealed that cerebral arteriograms using Thorotrast some nine years previously had resulted in a nine-year splenic dose of approximately 1500 rad. No malignant processes were found at autopsy, likely because of the relatively short time interval involved since Thorotrast administration. Spleen and liver autoradiograms superimposed on photomicrographs are included. (H.M.G.)

  5. RNA synthesis in pig follicular oocytes. Autoradiographic and cytochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlik, J. (Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, CS, Libechov); Kopecny, V.; Travnik, P. (Faculty of Medecine, J.E. Purkyne University, Brno (Czechoslovakia)); Pivko, J. (Animal Production Research Institute, Nitra (Czechoslovakia))

    1984-01-01

    RNA synthesis in pig oocytes was studied using autoradiography and silver staining of the nucleolus organizing region. Both methods confirmed that oocytes from the smallest follicles (0.5-0.7 mm in diam.) very intensely synthesize nuclear and nucleolar RNA. The nucleolar area of oocytes originating from follicles of 1.6-2.2 mm in diam. was labelled mainly on its periphery. After short pulse labelling (15 min) of oocytes from follicles of 5-6 mm in diam. only the nucleoplasm was labelled. The nucleolus had no significant labelling. The possibility that labelling of the compact nucleolus after a longer pulse represents migration of the newly synthesized nuclear RNA into the compact nucleolus, is discussed. The quantity of silver-positive material in dictyate oocytes significantly decreased as pig follicles enlarged in diam. from 2 mm to 5-6 mm.

  6. RNA synthesis in pig follicular oocytes. Autoradiographic and cytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motlik, J.; Pivko, J.

    1984-01-01

    RNA synthesis in pig oocytes was studied using autoradiography and silver staining of the nucleolus organizing region. Both methods confirmed that oocytes from the smallest follicles (0.5-0.7 mm in diam.) very intensely synthesize nuclear and nucleolar RNA. The nucleolar area of oocytes originating from follicles of 1.6-2.2 mm in diam. was labelled mainly on its periphery. After short pulse labelling (15 min) of oocytes from follicles of 5-6 mm in diam. only the nucleoplasm was labelled. The nucleolus had no significant labelling. The possibility that labelling of the compact nucleolus after a longer pulse represents migration of the newly synthesized nuclear RNA into the compact nucleolus, is discussed. The quantity of silver-positive material in dictyate oocytes significantly decreased as pig follicles enlarged in diam. from 2 mm to 5-6 mm

  7. Autoradiographic investigations of cells from the cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamm, W.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 155 samples of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from 61 patients were subjected to cytological examination and incubated together with 3 1 H-thymidine. Radioactive labelling was thus achieved for lymphocytes, monocytes and tumour cells. The highest contents of radioactivity were seen in tumour cells. To a lesser degree had the isotope become attached to the lymphocytes, while the tendency to take up radioactivity was lowest in cells from autochthonous tumours of the brain. In cerebral and meningeal metastases the labelling index rose proportionately to the progress of the disease. Autoradiography can be used to monitor cytostatic treatment carried out to control the spread of meningeal carcinoma cells. In non-inflammatory disorders, lymphocytes and monocytes of the cerebrospinal fluid only rarely show radioactivity. A suprisignly high labelling index was determined for lymphocytes and monocytes of cerebrospinal fluid from young children, which was considered to be attributable to the high proliferation rates to be expected here. (orig./MG) [de

  8. The Combined Use of Autoradiographic and Electron Microscopic Techniques for Studies on Ultra-Thin Sections of Tritium-Labelled Cells of the Intestinal Epithelium; Emploi Combine de l'Autoradiographie et du Microscope Electronique pour L'Etude de Coupes Ultra-Fines de Cellules Tritiees de l'Epithelium Intestinal; 0421 043e 0432 043c 0435 0414 ; Empleo Combinado de Tecnicas de Autorradiografia y de MicroscopiA Electronica para Estudiar Cortes Ultrafinos de Celulas Tritiadas del Epitelio Intestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, J. C. [Division of Experimental Biology, Baylor University College of Medicine, TX (United States); Quastler, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1962-02-15

    The high resolution now obtainable in sectioned cells studied in the electron microscope offers some promise of visualizing some of the intracellular events leading to the synthesis of proteins. The specificity of incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA provides a system which can be accurately followed with respect to time and localization within the cell. The work to be reported here demonstrates that it is possible to study ultra-thin sections of labelled cells in the electron microscope, to remove the specimen after suitable electron micrographs have been taken, to apply a coating of emulsion sufficiently thick to obtain an autoradiograph but still thin enough' to permit re-examination of the specimen in the electron microscope and to obtain electron micrographic images of autoradiography of cells previously recorded. The autoradiographic emulsion was applied as follows: a thin film was formed by dipping a small wire loop into liquid emulsion and transferring the film by passing the loop over the mounted specimen which was fixed to the top of a small plastic peg. Adequate control can be achieved by taking a one-half micron section after each ultra-thin section during sectioning, mounting it on a glass slide and applying conventional autoradiographic techniques. Because of the fragile nature of ultra-thin sections, the yield of successful autoradiographs is quite low. In spite of this objection it is expected that with improvements in skill and techniques the method will facilitate a better understanding of vital cell processes. (author) [French] Le haut degre de resolution que l'on peut maintenant obtenir dans l'etude des coupes de cellules au microscope electronique offre quelque possiblite d'observer certains des processus intracellulaires qui menent a la synthese des proteines. Le fait que la thymidine tritiee s'incorpore a l'ADN de facon specifique permet de suivre avec precision le deroulement d'un autre processus dans le temps et leur localisation

  9. Optical Density Control of Autoradiographs After Photographic Processing (Preliminary Results); Controle de la Densite Optique des Autoradiogrammes Apres Developpement Photographique. (Resultats Preliminaires); Regulirovanie opticheskoj plotnosti avtoradiogramm posle fotoobrabotki; Control de la Densidad Optica de las Autorradiografias Despues del Tratamiento Fotografico. (Resultados Preliminares)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, A. M. [Comissao de Estudos de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Alta Cultura, Lisbon (Portugal); Terrinha, A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia, Lisbon (Portugal)

    1965-10-15

    In many applications of photographic emulsions it would be desirable to control the optical density after the photographic processing. This would be useful for instance in certain problems of photographic dosimetry and particularly in many applications of autoradiography in medicine and biology. It would then be possible to recover information lost by overexposure as it frequently occurs unavoidably particularly in cases where important grain density variations are observed in the same autoradiograph specimen. The authors report the first results of an attempt to control the grain density after development and fixation of the photographic material by attacking the processed emulsion with diluted solutions of trypsin. By changing concentrations and temperature the attack can be made to proceed at any desirable speed so the trypsin solution acts like an ultra microtome removing very thin layers of the photographic emulsion. More important, the process could be followed continuously under the microscope by using a suitable chamber. Results are presented which suggest that this technique can give a rough idea of the incorporation with time of the radionuclide in the biological structure under observation. (author) [French] Dans diverses applications d'emulsions photographiques, il serait souhaitable de controler la densite optique apres avoir procede au developpement. Cette methode serait utile, par exemple pour resoudre certains problemes de dosimetrie photographique, et notamment dans maintes applications medicales et biologiques de l'autoradiographie. Il serait alors possible de recuperer les indications perdues en raison d'une surexposition, souvent inevitable, surtout dans les cas ou la densite du grain varie tres sensiblement dans un meme specimen autoradiographique. Les auteurs signalent les premiers resultats qu'ils ont pu obtenir en cherchant a controler la densite du grain, apres developpement et fixation de la substance photographique, en attaquant l

  10. Axonal transport and axon sprouting in the adult rat dentate gyrus: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldowitz, D.; Cotman, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    In response to an entorhinal lesion, the commissural and associational afferents to the dentate gyrus have been shown to expand beyond their normal terminal zone into the area denervated by the entorhinal lesion. The present study has investigated the axonal transport of [ 3 H]-labeled proteins in the commissural and associational projections following an entorhinal lesion. Injections of [ 3 H]proline, [ 3 H]leucine or [ 3 H)fucose were given in the vicinity of the commissural and associational cells of origin before, immediately subsequent to, or at 5 to 15 days after the entorhinal lesion. The disposition of previously- or newly-synthesized proteins was examined in the commissural and associational terminal field at different times after an entorhinal lesion by light-microscopic autoradiography. (author)

  11. Autoradiographic study of the efferent connections of the entorhinal cortex in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The major findings can be summarized as follows. Whereas the projection of the lateral entorhinal area (LEA) to the dentate gyrus is broad in its longitudinal extent, the medial entorhinal area (MEA), and especially the ventral portion of this zone, projects in a more lamellar fashion. In the transverse plane the LEA preferentially projects to the inner (dorsal) blade of the dentate gyrus, while the MEA innervates both blades equally. Within the radial dimension, the entorhinal cortex projects to the dentate gyrus according to a medial to lateral gradient, with lateral portions of the LEA projecting along the pial surface and successively more medial portions of the entorhinal projecting closer to the granule cells. The commissural entorhinal to dentate projections are similar to the ipsilateral projections in location; however, they are considerably reduced in septotemporal extent and do not arise from cells in the ventral half of either LEA or the intermediate entorhinal area (IEA). The projection of the entorhinal cortex to Ammon's horn reflects the same longitudinal characteristics as the dentate projections. An alvear input which extends only to the pyramidal cells at the CA1-subicular junction was most noticeable at ventral hippocampal levels. The extrahippocampal projections arise predominantly from cells in the LEA and project forward along the angular bundle to the piriform and periamygdaloid cortices, as well as the endopiriform nucleus, the lateral, basolateral, and cortical amygdaloid nuclei, the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the olfactory tubercle, the anterior olfactory nucleus, the taenia tecta, and the indusium griseum

  12. Autoradiographic visualization on the role of central 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine in acupuncture analgesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Shi Fuxi; Liu Zhonghao; Jiang Ji

    1990-10-01

    The role played by central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in electroacupuncture analgesia has been studied in rats by means of autoradiography with isotopic tracers 3 H-5-HT. The purpose of the study is to determine the localization of 3 H-5-HT in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as periaquaeductal gray matter. Parallel experiments were studied by freezing microautoradiographic method and histo-fixative microautoradiographic method. The analgesic effect of acupuncture can be enhanced or lowered by the increment or the decrement of the 5-HT level in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as periaquaeductal gray matter. The results show that when the rats were subjected to electro-acupuncture analgesia, the microautoradiographic intensities of 3 H-5-HT both in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the areas of mesencephalon aqueduct were significantly increased. It may be observed that the release of 5-HT in these regions of the brain is accelerated during acupuncture analgesia. From this it can be concluded that the midbrain raphe nuclei and the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as the periaquaeductal gray matter are closely related to acupuncture analgesia. The results imply that 5-HT in these areas may be one of the most important neurochemical agents mediating acupuncture analgesia

  13. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. I. Serotonin-1 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, A.; Palacios, M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-1 (5-HT 1 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with [ 3 H]serotonin (5-[ 3 H]HT), 8-hydroxy-2-[N-dipropylamino- 3 H]tetralin (8-OH-[ 3 H]DPAT), [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]mesulergine, and the densities quantified by microdensitometry with the aid of a computer-assisted image-analysis system. Competition experiments for 5-[ 3 H]HT binding by several serotonin-1 agonists led to the identification of brain areas enriched in each one of the three subtypes of 5-HT 1 recognition sites already described. The existence of these 'selective' areas allowed a detailed pharmacological characterization of these sites to be made in a more precise manner than has been attained in membrane-binding studies. Very high concentrations of 5-HT 1 receptors were localized in the choroid plexus, lateroseptal nucleus, globus pallidus and ventral pallidum, dentate gyrus, dorsal subiculum, olivary pretectal nucleus, substantia nigra, reticular and external layer of the entorhinal cortex. The distribution of 5-HT 1 receptors reported here is discussed in correlation with the distribution of serotoninergic neurons and fibers, the related anatomical pathways and the effects which appear to be mediated by these sites. (Auth.)

  14. Cerebral malformation induced by prenatal X-irradiation: an autoradiographic and Golgi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, I.; Xumetra, A.; Santamaria, J. (Neuropatologia, Depto. Anatomia Patologica, C.S. ' Principes de Espana' , Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    Brain malformations are produced after X-irradiation at different post-conceptional ages in the rat. Malformed cortical patterns result from abnormal organisation and capricious orientation of the neurons, while a radical migratory pattern of neuroblasts outwards to the cerebral cortex is preserved in animals irradiated on the fourteenth, sixteenth or eighteenth days of gestation. Migratory disturbances are restricted to the large subcortical ectopic masses found in rats irradiated on the fourteenth gestational day and to pyramidal ectopic nodules in the hippocampus in rats irradiated on the sixteenth gestational day. Subcortical ectopic masses develop from ectopic germinal rosettes and are formed by several types of cortical neuron distributed in a stereotyped pattern. The presence of large numbers of intrinsic, afferent and efferent connections are indicative of integrative functions of the subcortical masses.

  15. Autoradiographic techniques to determine noble metal distribution in automotive catalyst substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of noble metals in the ceramic substrates of automotive catalytic converter systems is important to the functional characteristics of the systems. A radiotracer technique involving microtomy of bead substrate samples and autoradiography using the resultant thin sections was developed to produce detailed images of the metal distributions. The method is particularly valuable to determine the distribution of one metal in the presence of another to aid in the development of more efficient systems

  16. Ultrastructural autoradiographic localization of somatostatin-28 in the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, G.; Leroux, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1985-01-01

    To identify the anterior pituitary cell type(s) containing somatostatin-28 (SS-28)-binding sites and to study the internalization processes of this peptide by the target cells, autoradiography was performed on rat anterior pituitaries removed at specific intervals (2-60 min) after iv injection of the [ 125 I]iodo-SS-28 agonist [Leu8,D-Trp22,Tyr25]SS-28 into intact, adrenalectomized, or castrated male rats. At the light microscopic level, the silver grains were found in 75% of cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled peptide prevented the binding of label, verifying the specificity of binding. No specific labeling could be detected in the adrenocorticotrophs of adrenalectomized rats or gonadotrophs (castration cells) of castrated rats. At the electron microscopic level, three cell types (somatotrophs, thyrotrophs, and mammotrophs) appear to contain radiolabeled SS-28. The time-course study in somatotrophs of intact animals showed that 2 min after injection, most silver grains were associated with the plasma membrane. Five to 15 min after injection, label was found over both the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic organelles, especially the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and secretory granules. At the longest time interval (60 min), labeling was mostly associated with the cytoplasmic organelles. These results indicate that SS-28-binding sites are present only in those cell types in which somatostatin is known to regulate secretory functions. The present data also show that a rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptide occurs

  17. Auto-radiographical study of activity distribution of high-dispersity hot particles from NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, Ts.; Andreev, Ts.; Todorov, N.; Andreev, P.; Kasabov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Autoradiograms of hot particles (HP) detected at Kozloduy NPP have been obtained with ordinary photographic film using direct contact. HP diameter and activity have been calculated by computer processing of the image.The distribution of HP weight and the precipitation time on surfaces has been estimated. Results on 37 HP found at the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 and 9 HP found in special rooms containing waste are reported. The emitters are identified as 60 Co, 54 Mn and α emitters with specific activities 2.10 8 Bq/g, 2.10 7 Bq/g and 3.10 4 Bq/g respectively. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Autoradiographic investigation of the effects of low-dose colchicine on dentinogenesis in rat incisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Nogueira, T. de; Rossetini, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve wistar rats received 0.5 mg/kg colchicine (CLC) i.v. Three animals were sacrified 5 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after the injection. Ninety minutes before sacrifice all animals received tritiated proline intraperitoneally. Autoradiograms of sections from the maxillary incisor were subjected to quantitative, and statistical analysis. These results revealed an increased secretory activity in the odontoblasts in the more incisal parts of the tooth, indicating a stimulatory effect of CLC on collagen production and secretion after 3 days. (author)

  19. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A.

    1990-01-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography

  20. Autoradiographic analysis of tritiated imipramine binding in the human brain post mortem: effects of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Israeli, M.; Biegon, A.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of high-affinity tritiated imipramine binding sites was performed on brains of 12 suicide victims and 12 matched controls. Region-specific differences in imipramine binding were found between the two groups. Thus, the pyramidal and molecular layers of the cornu ammoni hippocampal fields and the hilus of the dentate gyrus exhibited 80%, 60%, and 90% increases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. The postcentral cortical gyrus, insular cortex, and claustrum had 45%, 28%, and 75% decreases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. No difference in imipramine binding was observed in prefrontal cortical regions, in the basal ganglia, and in mesencephalic nuclei. No sex and postmortem delay effects on imipramine binding were found. Imipramine binding was positively correlated with age, the effect of age being most pronounced in portions of the basal ganglia and temporal cortex

  1. Autoradiographic investigation of age-dependent proliferation kinetics in the mucosa of rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, D.; Laue, R.; Fuhrmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    Aging of cells depends on mitotic activity which is particularly evident in multicellular organisms. The cell kinetics of the mucosa of the small intestine in a total of 244 Wistar rats aged 6 days, 6 weeks, 6, 12, 23 and 28 months, resp., were studied histoautoradiographically. It could be demonstrated that the regeneration rate of cells per hour in the crypts of the small intestine and the migration velocity of the enterocytes differ in young and old individuals, and that the intermitotic cells have age-dependent properties as well. In addition, it could be proved that intermitotic cells have a non growth fraction, too, which, at an advanced age, decreases only slightly although significantly in terms of statistics. For the easily vulnerable crypt epithelium it is a reserve capacity and ban be included in the proliferating pool if necessary. (author)

  2. Effect of Diffusion on the Autoradiographic Measurement of Macromolecular Synthesis in Specific Cell Types In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K.; Schwarz, V. [Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1970-02-15

    Organ slices cultured in vitro lack a capillary circulation. Cells within the slice are supplied with nutrients and oxygen by diffusion from the culture medium into the slice. The rate of synthesis of macromolecules, e.g. ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, protein or mucopolysaccharide can be determined in these circumstances by adding labelled precursors to the culture medium. Comparisons of the rate of synthesis between different types of cell within a single organ slice or between different slices can be quantitated by autoradiography and grain counting only if the concentration of labelled precursor in tissue water is uniform throughout all the slices. To achieve this aim the precursor should rapidly saturate the tissue water at the beginning of the incubation period, and subsequently diffusion into the slice should keep pace with consumption of the precursor by the cells. Experimental methods to measure the relevant parameters of any organ slice and precursor combination will be described. These parameters are the diffusion coefficient of the precursor in the organ slice, the rate of consumption of the precursor by each cell type, and the frequency and distribution of tissue within the slice. The relation between precursor concentration and position within the slice can be calculated under differing culture conditions, using the appropriate mathematical model. It is then possible to choose those conditions which give a uniform concentration of precursor throughout the organ slice. The methods are illustrated by consideration of ribonucleic acid synthesis from {sup 3}H-uridine in full thickness slices of human skin, an organ which contains several tissues including epidermis, hair follicle, eccrine sweat gland and sebaceous gland. (author)

  3. Autoradiographic enhancement of polaroid film. Final report, 18 April--17 October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R.G.; Pettijohn, R.R.

    1978-11-01

    SRI International has investigated the application of radiotracer photographic image enhancement (PIE) techniques to increase the photographic speed of three Polaroid Films. SRI has a state-of-the art capability in the field of nondestructive photographic image enhancement of original negatives. These procedures have successfully increased optical density, contrast, and resolution of photographic imagery, and thereby increased the information derivable from original negatives

  4. Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.T.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Whiting, P.; Lindstrom, J.M.; Podleski, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    We have localized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the zebra finch brain by using three 125I-labelled ligands: alpha bungarotoxin and two monoclonal antibodies to neuronal nicotinic receptors. Unfixed brains from intact adult male and female zebra finches were prepared for in vitro autoradiography. Low-resolution film autoradiograms and high-resolution emulsion autoradiograms were prepared for each of the three ligands. The major brain structures that bind all three of the ligands are hippocampus; hyperstriatum dorsalis; hyperstriatum ventralis; nucleus lentiformis mesencephali; nucleus pretectalis, some layers of the optic tectum; nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis; pars dorsalis; locus ceruleus; and all cranial motor nuclei except nucleus nervi hypoglossi. The major structures labelled only by [125I]-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ. Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled. The binding patterns of the two antibodies were similar to one another but not identical. Both labelled nucleus spiriformis lateralis and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis especially heavily and also labelled the nucleus habenula medialis; nucleus subpretectalis; nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis; nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis; nucleus reticularis lateralis; nucleus tractus solitarii; nucleus vestibularis dorsolateralis; nucleus vestibularis lateralis; nucleus descendens nervi trigemini; and the deep cerebellar nuclei

  5. Autoradiographic study of transcription during early germination of Zea mays embryos maintained in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deltour, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Recovery of RNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography in primary root of Zea mays embryos germinating at 16 0 C. [H 3 ] uridine was provided to embryos maintained in situ. During the first 4hrs of germination the cell radioactivity is located almost exclusively in the extranucleolar chromatin. These observations agree well with previous results obtained when [H 3 ] uridine was provided to isolated embryos [fr

  6. Ultrastructural autoradiographic localization of exogenous arachidonic acid in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasca, S.I.; Galis, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The uptake and intracellular localization of exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) were investigated in cultured endothelial (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) isolated from bovine aorta. The [ 14 C]AA uptake was assessed biochemically and by light and electron microscopic autoradiography. The highest values of silver grain surface density were associated with the mitochondria, lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus of the EC. The grain linear density was greater on the nuclear envelope than on plasmalemma. On SMC, the grain density was highest on lipid droplets whereas the linear densities of the nuclear envelope and plasmalemma were similar. The share of each subcellular compartment in the AA distribution was estimated as the percentage of the individual silver grain count out of the total cell-associated radioactivity. The results showed that cytoplasm (including endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and small vesicles) made the main contribution followed by the nucleus and at lower values by other organelles. These subcompartments may represent the intracellular sites from which AA could be mobilized for prostanoid synthesis by EC and SMC. (author)

  7. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. II. Serotonin-2 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, A.; Cortes, R.; Palacios, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-2 (5-HT 2 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with four ligands: [ 3 H]ketanserin, [ 3 H]mesulergine, [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]spiperone, which are reported to show high affinity for 5-HT 2 receptors. Very high concentrations were localized in the claustrum, olfactory tubercle and layer IV of the neocortex. The anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex and layer I of neocortex were also rich in 5-HT 2 receptors. The specificity of the different ligands used is discussed in terms of the other populations of sites recognized by them. The distribution of 5-HT 2 receptors here reported is discussed in correlation with (a) the known distribution of serotoninergic terminals, (b) the specific anatomical systems and (c) the central effects reported to be mediated by 5-HT 2 -selective drugs. (Auth.)

  8. Visualization of μ1 opiate receptors in rat brain by using a computerized autoradiographic subtraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.R.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have developed a quantitative computerized subtraction technique to demonstrate in rat brain the regional distribution of μ 1 sites, a common very-high-affinity binding site for both morphine and the enkephalins. Low concentrations of [D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 ]enkephalin selectively inhibit the μ 1 binding of [ 3 H]dihydromorphine, leaving μ 2 -sites, while low morphine concentrations eliminate the μ 1 binding of [ 3 H][D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 ]enkephalin, leaving sigma sites. Thus, quantitative differences between images of sections incubated in the presence and absence of these low concentrations of unlabeled opioid represent μ 1 binding sites. The regional distributions of μ 1 sites labeled with [ 3 H]dihydromorphine were quite similar to those determined by using [ 3 H][D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 ]enkephalin. High levels of μ 1 binding were observed in the periaqueductal gray, medial thalamus, and median raphe, consistent with the previously described role of μ 1 sites in analgesia. Other regions with high levels of μ 1 binding include the nucleus accumbens, the clusters and subcallosal streak of the striatum, hypothalamus, medial habenula, and the medial septum/diagonal band region. The proportion of total specific binding corresponding to μ 1 sites varied among the regions, ranging from 14% to 75% for [ 3 H][D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 ]enkephalin and 20% to 52% for [ 3 H]dihydromorphine

  9. Digital imaging of autoradiographs from paintings by Georges de La Tour (1593-1652)

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, C O; Laurenze, C; Schmidt, C; Slusallek, K

    1999-01-01

    The artistic work of the painter Georges de La Tour has been studied very intensively in the last few years, mainly by French and US-American art historians and natural scientists. To support the in-depth analysis of two paintings from the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, two similar paintings from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin have been investigated. The method of neutron activation autoradiography has been applied using imaging plates with digital image processing.

  10. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease

  11. Autoradiographic localization of peptide YY and neuropeptide Y binding sites in the medulla oblongata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, R.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Robertson, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Peptide YY is a highly potent emetic when given intravenously in dogs. We hypothesized that the area postrema, a small brain stem nucleus that acts as a chemoreceptive trigger zone for vomiting and lies outside the blood-brain barrier, might have receptors that PYY would bind to, in order to mediate the emetic response. We prepared [ 125 I]PYY and used autoradiography to show that high affinity binding sites for this ligand were highly localized in the area postrema and related nuclei of the dog medulla oblongata. Furthermore, the distribution of [ 125 I]PYY binding sites in the rat medulla oblongata was very similar to that in the dog; the distribution of [ 125 I]PYY binding sites throughout the rat brain was seen to be similar to the distribution of [ 125 I]NPY binding sites

  12. The utilization of glutamine by the retina: an autoradiographic and metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voaden, M.J.; Lake, N.; Marshall, J.; Morjaria, B.

    1978-01-01

    The cells able to accumulate exogenously applied [ 3 H] glutamine in rat, cat, frog, pigeon and guinea pig retinas have been located by autoradiography, and the fate of the labelled glutamine, as regards its incorporation into aspartic, glutamic and γ-amino-butyric acids, followed for 60 min. The results support the notion of glutamine as a precursor of transmitter amino acids in some neurones. In particular, it would appear to be a source of a relatively stable pool of GABA which may be located, with species variation, in amacrine or ganglion cells. In the pigeon retina glutamate pool incorporates and retains a major percentage of the label, and perikarya in the middle of the inner nuclear layer of the tissue are predominantly labelled. (author)

  13. Maximizing precision and accuracy in quantitative autoradiographic determination of radiopharmaceutical distribution for dosimetry calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Mido, K.; Plotnick, J.; Muth, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors developed operational equations which relate ranges of film darkening or optical density produced by exposures from autoradiograms to the ranges of radiopharmaceutical concentration contained in the autoradiograms. The equations were solved and used to define ranges of optical density which were optimal for precise determination of radiopharmaceutical concentration. The solutions indicated that in order to maximize precision in determination of tracer concentration, autoradiograms should be produced with images that are less dark than are typically considered pleasing to the eye. Based upon these observations, a solid state image analyzer was designed and developed for high spatial resolution, quantitative analysis of autoradiograms. The analyzer uses a linear array of charge-coupled devices (CCD's) which mechanically scans the autoradiograms. The images are digitalized into 512 x 512 or 1024 x 1024 pixels with 256 gray levels and directly mapped into memory. The system is therefore called a memory mapped, charge-coupled device scanner (MM-CCD). The images can be directly converted to represent tracer concentration or functional parameters and rapid region of interest analysis can be performed in single or multiple tracer studies. The performance of the system was compared to that of other commercially available image analyzers, rotating drum densitometers and video camera digitizers. Values of tracer concentration using the MM-CCD scanner were generally greater than twice as precise and accurate as from the other systems. 3 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  14. Autoradiographic study on moisture distribution in pearl-barley and in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakharov, Eh.V.; Koz'mina, E.P.; Troitskaya, E.Ya

    1975-01-01

    The dependence of some structural details of the pearl-barley and rice endosperm on the internal moisture distribution is found. The general scheme of the study is shown. The curves of the local moisture distribution in the pearly-barley and rice kernel are plotted according to the radiography data. Moisture distribution over the whole section of the rice kernel is relatively constant at 85 deg C after ten minutes of moisture. Whereas moisture of pearl-barley kernel is only approaching the center of kernel by the time the moisture content increases to 1.5-2%. The slow moisture transfer in the pearl-barley kernel makes the cooking period three times longer as that of the rice

  15. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleolar development and rDNA transcription in preimplantation mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuskens, M.; Alexandre, H. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Dep. de Biologie Moleculaire)

    1984-06-01

    The development of the nucleoli and the sites of rDNA transcription have been studies by high-resolution autoradiography during the cleavage stages of mouse embryos. The appearance of fibrillar centres at the periphery of the fibrillar primary nucleoli has been observed at the 4-cell stage. Several fibrillar centres interconnected by electron-dense fibrillar strands, form a reticulated region around the fibrillar mass at the 6- to 8-cell stage. After a 10 min pulse with (/sup 3/H)uridine, only this peripheral network is labelled. At the late morula and at the blastocyst stage, the fibrillar component (nucleolonema) of the reticulated nucleoli is labelled after 10 min (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation. When the embryos are reincubated for 2 h in cold medium, the label is localized mainly in the granular component. Fibrillar centres are not labelled. Autoradiograms of in vitro developed embryos pulsed for 2 h with (/sup 3/H)uridine confirm that the central fibrillar core of the nucleoli of 6- to 8-cell embryos is never labelled. Thus, the fibrillar constituent of this core is not homologous to the fibrillar component of the nucleoli of later stage embryos, which is the site of active rDNA transcription. An interpretation of nucleologenesis during early mouse embryogenesis is proposed.

  16. Development of mouse dorsal root ganglia: an autoradiographic and quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, S.N.; Biscoe, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine was used to determine the cell birthdays of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in foetal mice. The peak number of cell birthdays occurred at 11.5 days foetal age in cervical DRGs, and at 12.5 days in lumbar DRGs. The satellite cells were becoming heavily labelled by day 13.5 in lumbar and some hours earlier in cervical regions. A very sharp peak of satellite cell labelling was seen at 13 days in the lumbar region. Evidence for the existence of more than one neuronal cell type is presented. The earliest cells to stop dividing were part of a widely spread distribution which included all the large neurons. The birthdays of the population of small neurons began later and continued for at least 48 h after division of the large cells had ceased. (author)

  17. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleolar development and rDNA transcription in preimplantation mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuskens, M.; Alexandre, H.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the nucleoli and the sites of rDNA transcription have been studies by high-resolution autoradiography during the cleavage stages of mouse embryos. The appearance of fibrillar centres at the periphery of the fibrillar primary nucleoli has been observed at the 4-cell stage. Several fibrillar centres interconnected by electron-dense fibrillar strands, form a reticulated region around the fibrillar mass at the 6- to 8-cell stage. After a 10 min pulse with ( 3 H)uridine, only this peripheral network is labelled. At the late morula and at the blastocyst stage, the fibrillar component (nucleolonema) of the reticulated nucleoli is labelled after 10 min ( 3 H)uridine incorporation. When the embryos are reincubated for 2 h in cold medium, the label is localized mainly in the granular component. Fibrillar centres are not labelled. Autoradiograms of in vitro developed embryos pulsed for 2 h with ( 3 H)uridine confirm that the central fibrillar core of the nucleoli of 6- to 8-cell embryos is never labelled. Thus, the fibrillar constituent of this core is not homologous to the fibrillar component of the nucleoli of later stage embryos, which is the site of active rDNA transcription. An interpretation of nucleologenesis during early mouse embryogenesis is proposed. (author)

  18. Autoradiographic studies on the cell proliferation of the human chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagami, Yoshifumi

    1982-01-01

    Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, 3 H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of 3 H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease. (J.P.N.)

  19. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline- 3 H, leucine- 3 H, and glucosamine- 3 H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  20. Autoradiographic studies on the cell proliferation of the human chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagami, Y. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

    1982-02-01

    Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, /sup 3/H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of /sup 3/H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease.

  1. Modulation of [3H]-glutamate binding by serotonin in the rat hippocampus: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennini, T.; Miari, A.

    1991-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) added in vitro increased [ 3 H]-glutamate specific binding in the rat hippocampus, reaching statistical significance in layers rich in N-Methyl-D-Aspartate sensitive glutamate receptors. This effect was explained by a significant increase in the apparent affinity of [ 3 H]-glutamate when 5-HT is added in vitro. Two days after lesion of serotonergic afferents to the hippocampus with 5,7- Dihydroxytryptamine [ 3 H]-glutamate binding was significantly decreased in the CA3 region and stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus, this reduction being reversed by in vitro addition of 10 μM 5-HT. The decrease observed is due to a significant reduction of quisqualate-insensitive (radiatum CA3) and kainate receptors (strata oriens, radiatum, pyramidal of CA3). Five days after lesion [ 3 H]-glutamate binding increased significantly in the CA3 region of the hippocampus but was not different from sham animals in the other hippocampal layers. Two weeks after lesion [ 3 H]-glutamate binding to quisqualate-insensitive receptors was increased in all the hippocampal layers, while kainate and quisqualate-sensitive receptors were not affected. These data are consistent with the possibility that 5-HT is a direct positive modulator of glutamate receptor subtypes

  2. Auto-radiographical study of activity distribution of high-dispersity hot particles from NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonchev, Ts [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet; Angelov, V [Civil Defence Administration, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, Ts; Todorov, N [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria); Andreev, P; Kasabov, I [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-12-31

    Autoradiograms of hot particles (HP) detected at Kozloduy NPP have been obtained with ordinary photographic film using direct contact. HP diameter and activity have been calculated by computer processing of the image.The distribution of HP weight and the precipitation time on surfaces has been estimated. Results on 37 HP found at the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 and 9 HP found in special rooms containing waste are reported. The emitters are identified as {sup 60} Co, {sup 54} Mn and {alpha} emitters with specific activities 2.10{sup 8} Bq/g, 2.10{sup 7} Bq/g and 3.10{sup 4} Bq/g respectively. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Autoradiographic demonstration of 3H-estradiol and 3H-cholesterol incorporation in hamster gonads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, P.; Martinova, J.; Kyncheva, L.; Baleva-Ivanova, K.

    1989-01-01

    Male and female hamster gonads were investigated on day 14 of pregnancy, at birth, on days 7, 18 and 25 after birth and at sexual maturity. [2,4,6,7 3 H]-estradiol -17β, specific activity 110 Ci.mmol -1 and [1α, 2α - 3 H] - cholesterol specific activity 44 Ci.mmol -1 have been used for labelling. On embrional day 14 the histological image has been similar to that in the neonatal gonads - diffusive labelling includding germ, satellite and Leyding cells in fetal ovaries and testes. On the 7th postnatal day in the ovary a formation of primary follicles began in the deeper layers of gonads and an incorporation of the labelled substances in the germ and prefollicular cells in both ovary and testis have been observed. On the 18th postnatal day growing follicles have been seen in the ovary and labelling have been noticed in the oocytes and follicular cells. In the prepubertal testis the meiolic process has started, spermatocytes have been found and an incorporation of the radioactive substances in germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells has been established. In the ovaries of both 25th day old hamsters and adult animals multi-layered and preovulatory follicles have been seen. Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spertamids in the seminiferons tubules have been observed. The incorporation of 3 H-estradiol and 3 H cholesterol in both germ and Sertoli cells has been found. A presence has been observed of specific estradiol receptors in all three main cell types of fetal and developing gonads: germ, satellite and intertitial cells. The presence of estradiol receptors in developing hamster gonads has indicated a participation of steroids in the process of development and differentiation of male and female gonads

  4. (/sup 3/H)Spiperone binding sites in brain: autoradiographic localization of multiple receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, J M; Niehoff, D L; Kuhar, M J [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Spiperone ((/sup 3/H)SP) binding sites were localized by light microscopic autoradiography, after in vitro labelling. The kinetic and pharmacological characteristics of these binding sites were studied in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain, and optimal labeling conditions were defined. Autoradiograms were obtained by apposing emulsion-coated coverslips to labeled sections. Differential drug sensitivity allowed the selective displacement of (/sup 3/H)SP from dopamine receptors by ADTN, from serotonin receptors by cinanserin, from both by haloperidol and from unique spiperone sites by unlabeled spiperone. The various sites presented a differential anatomical localization. For example, only dopaminergic sites were found in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb; only serotonergic sites were found in lamina IV of the neocortex, and a high concentration of unique spiperone sites were found in parts of the hippocampus.

  5. Synthesis of macromolecules by the epithelial surfaces of Schistosoma mansoni: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Barnes, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    The use of tritiated leucine as a marker for protein synthesis and of tritiated glucosamine as a marker for polysaccharide/glycoprotein synthesis, is described. Adult worms were pulse-labelled by incubation in medium containing the substrate. Labelled worms were then incubated in chase medium, without labelled substrate, for varying lengths of time before fixation. The distribution of label which had been incorporated into macromolecules in the worm tissues, was examined by light and electron microscope autoradiography. The results suggest that the bulk of worm secretions have a rapid turnover with a half-life of a few hours. Against this background of rapid mass secretion, a slower process of membrane turnover would be difficult to detect and quantitatively small. (author)

  6. Histological and autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells of fetal rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, L.; Schneider, K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells was investigated in 14- to 20-days old rats of an inbred strain (Wistar-WU, Mueller/Haan). In agreement with the data of the relevant literature, light microscopy revealed a successive evolution of the bronchial tree which consists of a glandular, a canalicular, and an alveolar part. Prophases, metaphases and reconstruction phases are relatively long mitotic phases, while anaphases and telophases are relatively short ones. Combined nuclear volumetry and autoradiography showed that the G-1 phase nuclei are smaller than the 3 H-labelled nuclei at the onset of the S phase and these, in turn, are smaller than the nuclei at the end of the S phase with double 14 C- or 3 H-label or with 'strong' 3H label. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical analysis of opioid receptors and opioid peptide neuronal systems in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.E.; Khachaturian, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using adjacent section autoradiography-immunocytochemistry, the distribution of (TH)naloxone binding sites was studied in relation to neuronal systems containing (Leu)enkephalin, dynorphin A, or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in rat brain. Brain sections from formaldehyde-perfused rats show robust specific binding of (TH)naloxone, the pharmacological (mu-like) properties of which appear unaltered. In contrast, specific binding of the delta ligand (TH)D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin was virtually totally eliminated as a result of formaldehyde perfusion. Using adjacent section analysis, the authors have noted associations between (TH)naloxone binding sites and one, two, or all three opioid systems in different brain regions; however, in some areas, no apparent relationship could be observed. Within regions, the relationship was complex. The complexity of the association between (TH)naloxone binding sites and the multiple opioid systems, and previous reports of co-localization of mu and kappa receptors in rat brain, are inconsistent with a simple-one-to-one relationship between a given opioid precursor and opioid receptor subtype. Instead, since differential processing of the three precursors gives rise to peptides of varying receptor subtype potencies and selectivities, the multiple peptide-receptor relationships may point to a key role of post-translational processing in determining the physiological consequences of opioid neurotransmission.

  8. Autoradiographic study of the regional distribution of gastric blood flow in portal hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraghty, J.G.; Angerson, W.J.; Carter, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This study measures regional gastric blood flow in portal hypertensive rats at three separate periods after portal vein ligation using quantitative autoradiography with 14C-labeled iodoantipyrine. The level of corpus mucosal blood flow was significantly reduced in 3-day portal vein-ligated animals compared with sham-operated control animals (30.4 +/- 2.3 vs. 47.1 +/- 5.6 ml/100 g.min). There was no significant difference in corpus mucosal blood flow between portal vein-ligated and sham-operated animals at 7- and 28-day periods, although the level of perfusion was higher in the 28-day portal vein-ligated group. There was no significant difference in antral mucosal or muscle blood flow between portal hypertensive and control animals at any of the study periods. We conclude that the acute period after portal vein ligation is associated with a reduced corpus mucosal microcirculation but that this effect is not sustained in portal hypertensive animals studied at later intervals after portal vein ligation

  9. Autoradiographic localization of the synthetic sites of tomato spoted wilt virus and potato virus Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, N.L.; Silva, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The biosynthesis sites were investigated of two morfologically different viruses - the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV-spherical particle) and the Potato Virus Y (PVY - long and flexuous particle) in order to discuss the hypothesis of De Zoeten and Schlegel about the relationship between virus morphology and the location of the viral biosynthesis. Samples from uninfected or infected leaves were immersed in distilled water or an aqueous solution and transfered to uridine tritiated solution. After washing in distilled water the samples were fixed, dehydrated and embedded in Epon 812 for electron microscopy conventional techniques. Ultrathin sections were covered with Ilford L-4 photographic emulsion and exposed for two months before photographic development, staining and examinated in the electron microscope. The number of silver grains per unit areas (grain density) in the electronphotomicrographs was used to compare the grains densities of some cells regions of tissues treated or not with AMD. The result indicated the endoplasmic reticulum as the most likely location of the TSWV-RNA replication. The same comparison made with tobacco cells infected with PVY showed that the cytoplasmic area is the most probable site of the PVY-RNA replication. The results obtained seem to show that the rule proposed by De Zoeten and Schlegel cannot be used for all plant viruses because the TSWV replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cell. These viruses seem to be exceptions to that rule. (Author) [pt

  10. Cerebral malformation induced by prenatal X-irradiation: an autoradiographic and Golgi study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, I.; Xumetra, A.; Santamaria, J.

    1984-01-01

    Brain malformations are produced after X-irradiation at different post-conceptional ages in the rat. Malformed cortical patterns result from abnormal organisation and capricious orientation of the neurons, while a radical migratory pattern of neuroblasts outwards to the cerebral cortex is preserved in animals irradiated on the fourteenth, sixteenth or eighteenth days of gestation. Migratory disturbances are restricted to the large subcortical ectopic masses found in rats irradiated on the fourteenth gestational day and to pyramidal ectopic nodules in the hippocampus in rats irradiated on the sixteenth gestational day. Subcortical ectopic masses develop from ectopic germinal rosettes and are formed by several types of cortical neuron distributed in a stereotyped pattern. The presence of large numbers of intrinsic, afferent and efferent connections are indicative of integrative functions of the subcortical masses. (author)

  11. Electron microscope autoradiographic studies of the erythroblasts of a case of congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, type II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, S N [Saint Mary' s Hospital Medical School, London (UK); Parry, T E [Department of Haematology, Llandough Hospital, Penarth, Glamorgan, Wales; Hughes, M [Division of Experimental Pathology, The Mathilda and Terence Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Bute Gardens, London, England

    1978-01-01

    The bone marrow cells of a patient with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, type II, were incubated with /sup 3/H-thymidine /sup 3/H-uridine or /sup 3/H-leucine for 1 h and studied using the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. Several of the erythroblasts which either displayed the characteristic subsurface double membranes or showed various non-specific abnormalities of the nuclear membrane were found to be actively engaged in DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Both members of some pairs of erythroblasts which were joined together by a spindle bridge were found to be engaged in DNA synthesis, indicating that some spindle bridges persist for a period longer than the duration of the G/sub 1/ phase. A small proportion of mononucleate and binucleate late (non-dividing) erythroblasts showed a marked depression or arrest of protein synthesis and some or all of such cells were presumably destined to be phagocytosed by the bone marrow macrophages.

  12. Axonal transport and axon sprouting in the adult rat dentate gyrus: an autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldowitz, D; Cotman, C W [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1980-12-01

    In response to an entorhinal lesion, the commissural and associational afferents to the dentate gyrus have been shown to expand beyond their normal terminal zone into the area denervated by the entorhinal lesion. The present study has investigated the axonal transport of (/sup 3/H)-labeled proteins in the commissural and associational projections following an entorhinal lesion. Injections of (/sup 3/H)proline, (/sup 3/H)leucine or (/sup 3/H)fucose were given in the vicinity of the commissural and associational cells of origin before, immediately subsequent to, or at 5 to 15 days after the entorhinal lesion. The disposition of previously- or newly-synthesized proteins was examined in the commissural and associational terminal field at different times after an entorhinal lesion by light-microscopic autoradiography.

  13. The autoradiographic uptake and turnover of [1-3H] -galactose in mouse periodontal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonna, E.A.; Wysor, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    In 5-week-old Brookhaven National Laboratory short-lived mice, [ 3 H]-galactose was utilized in all the oral tissues studied. Uptake and turnover of the tracer assessed by autoradiography revealed three uptake peaks. Synchronous fluctuation of total grain counts was repeatedly observed in different periodontal tissues. Acid glycosaminoglycans were strongly labelled and the neutral glycosaminoglycan fraction of the tissues was labelled to a lesser degree. The radiotracer became incorporated during their symthesis. The complex plots derived may represent several metabolic events occurring simultaneously. The uptake of radiotracer in fibrogenic, osteogenic and cementogenic cells was low. Accumulation of matrical output, however, was significant. The matrical output of the cementogenic cells and the osteogenic layer mesial to the alveolar bone was the highest of all the oral tissues studied throughout the 30-day period. (author)

  14. Glycine receptor: light microscopic autoradiographic localization with [3H]strychnine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbin, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Glycine receptors have been localized by autoradiography in the rat central nervous system (CNS) using [ 3 H]strychnine. The gross distribution of receptors is in excellent accord with the distribution determined by filtration binding assays. Specifically, the density of glycine receptors is greatest in the gray matter of the spinal cord and decreases progressively in regions more rostral in the neuraxis. Glycine receptors were found to be associated with both sensory and motor systems in the CNS. Moreover, there is a striking correlation between areas of high strychnine binding site density and areas in which glycine has been found to be electrophysiologically active. Finally, the anatomic localization of strychnine binding sites may help explain many of the signs and symptoms of strychnine ingestion. For example, individuals consuming subconvulsive doses of strychnine frequently experience altered cutaneous and auditory sensation. We have localized strychnine receptors in areas of the acoustic system known to influence discriminative aspects of audition and in areas of the spinal cord and trigeminal nuclei which modulate discriminative aspects of cutaneous sensation. The alteration of visceral functions (e.g., blood pressure and respiratory rate) associated with strychnine ingestion may be accounted for in a similar manner

  15. Autoradiographic evidence for reutilization of DNA catabolites by granulocytopoiesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerecke, D.; Gross, R.

    1976-01-01

    The proliferating granulocyte precursor pool of rat bone marrow was labelled during DNA synthesis by continuous infusion and by single injection of 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR), as well as by single injection of 125 I-iododeoxyuridine ( 125 I-UdR). The appearance of neutrophilic granulocytes in the blood stream after these various labelling procedures was studied by autoradiography. Labelling patterns of blood neutrophils were identical during continuous infusion and after single injection of 3 H-TdR, and 100 percent labelling of the blood compartment was achieved. This result indicated reutilization of DNA catabolites to occur in granulocytopoiesis leading to continuous availability of 3 H-labelled DNA precursors even after a single injection of 3 H-TdR. Attempts to suppress reutilization of label by infusion of cold thymidine 1 h after injection of 3 H-TdR were unsuccessful. However, a change in the labelling pattern of blood neutrophils was seen after single injection of 125 I-UdR, a DNA precursor poorly reutilized in comparison to 3 H-TdR. This result provided further evidence for reutilization of DNA catabolites by the cell system investigated. A comprehensive discussion of the results indicates that thymidinemonophosphate is the biochemical level of reutilization in granulocytopoiesis. (author)

  16. Autoradiographic studies on the distribution of 14C-piracetam in the primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, J.; Keil, M.

    1978-01-01

    Autoradiography of the brain of the monkey Callithrix jacchus 2 and 6h after oral application of 200 mg 14 C-piracetam/kg (2-oxo-pyrrolidine-l-acetamide-2- 14 C) shows that the drug is preferably concentrated in the cortex of cerebrum and cerebellum. This specific affinity of piracetam which was observed earlier in dog and rats is thus confirmed in the primate and seems to be species independent. Besides the dominant cortical concentration there is a characteristic storage of piracetam in many nuclei of other brain areas, for instance, nucleus caudatus, hippocampus, n, anteriores thalami, n. dorsales thalami, corpus geniculatum laterale and mediale, corpora mamillaria, nucleus supraopticus, substantia grisea centralis, colliculi superiores and inferiores. Furthermore piracetam is stored in the blood vessel wall of the brain over 6h. The hypophysis and pineal body take up radioactivity intensively. (orig.) [de

  17. Autoradiographic visualization of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors in whole human biceps brachii muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askmark, H.; Gillberg, P.-G.; Aquilonius, S.-M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphological distribution of acetylcholine receptors in the whole biceps brachii muscle from a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and from a control patient was studied by in vitro autoradiography with 3 H-alpha-bungarotoxin alphaBtx). In ALS, 3 H-alpha-Btx binding occurred over the entire muscle, while in the control case the binding was restricted to the motor end-plate region. (author)

  18. Autoradiographic visualization of insulin-like growth factor-II receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, L.G.; Kerchner, G.A.; Clemens, J.A.; Smith, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The documented presence of IGF-II in brain and CSF prompted us to investigate the distribution of receptors for IGF-II in rat brain slices. Human 125 -I-IGF-II (10 pM) was incubated for 16 hrs at 4 0 C with slide-mounted rat brain slices in the absence and presence of unlabeled human IGF-II (67 nM) or human insulin (86 nM). Slides were washed, dried, and exposed to X-ray film for 4-7 days. The results showed dense labeling in the granular layers of the olfactory bulbs, deep layers of the cerebral cortex, pineal gland, anterior pituitary, hippocampus (pyramidal cells CA 1 -CA 2 and dentate gyrus), and the granule cell layers of the cerebellum. Unlabeled IGF-II eliminated most of the binding of these brain regions while insulin produced only a minimal reduction in the amount of 125 I-IGF-II bound. These results indicate that a specific neural receptor for IGS-II is uniquely distributed in rat brain tissue and supports the notion that this peptide might play an important role in normal neuronal functioning

  19. Micro-autoradiographic studies on host-parasite interactions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendgen, K.; Heitefuss, R.

    1975-01-01

    Tritium labeled uredospores of Uromyces phaseoli were produced be feeding the host, Phaseolus vulgaris, with 2 H-orotic acid. These spores were allowed to germinate on and to penetrate into a bean leaf. 24 hrs after inoculation, the bean rust had formed the first haustorium. All fungal structures, including the fungus walls, were heavily labeled. No label could be detected in the cells that had come into contact with the hyphae. In the infected host cell, the haustorium was labeled heavily, but the sheath around the haustorium and the host cell remained free of label. These results indicate that no detectable amounts of label leach from the bean rust into the host at this stage of infection although it is known that the rust takes up many metabolites. Since the sheath remains free of label and all fungal structures are evenly labeled, it is concluded that the sheath is formed by the host. (orig.) [de

  20. Binding sites for endothelin-1 in rat tissues: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, C.; Imai, M.; Hirata, Y.; Yanagisawa, M.; Masaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    By tissue autoradiography in the rat, we demonstrated that receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1) were distributed not only in the cardiovascular system but also in the noncardiovascular organs including the brain, lung, intestine, etc. In the brain, the receptors were mainly found in the basal ganglia and brainstem, in which nuclei are known to be cardiovascular regulatory sites. In addition to its direct vasoconstricting action, ET-1 may exert neural cardiovascular control as a neuropeptide

  1. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of estradiol retention by cells in the preoptic area, hypothalamus and amygdala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, J.I.; Krieger, M.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    These experiments were done to compare quantitatively, on a cell-by-cell basis, estradiol retention by cells in the medial preoptic area, arcuate nucleus, ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial nucleus, and the caudal half of the medial nucleus of the amygdala. The steroid autoradiograms were prepared from 2 μ sections of brains from overlectomized, adrenalectomized adult female rats that had been infused intravenously with [ 3 H] estradiol (E 2 ) in a regimen which kept circulating hormone concentration at or above proestrus levels for 3-4 h. Even in these brain regions, containing the most dense collections of E 2 -concentrating cells, a maximum of only 27-61% of the cells concentrated E 2 . Therefore, in these regions only a particular subset of the cells retain hormone; other cells in the region do not retain hormone. Frequency distribution histograms of the number of grains per cell versus the number of cells in each region showed a wide range in the amount of E 2 retained per cell, and no modes among E 2 -retaining cells. The data followed a distribution markedly different from that predicted by a simple Poisson distribution, confirming that E 2 -retention does not result from a random, passive process such as diffusion. The overall quantitative characteristics of the frequency distribution histograms were similar across the four brain areas. (orig./MG)

  2. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

  3. Study of irradiated bone: Part III. /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate autoradiographic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Corriveau, O.; Casarett, G.W.; Weber, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The macroautoradiographic and microautoradiographic localization of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/TcPPi) was studied in x-irradiated bone of rabbits up to one year post-irradiation. In cortical bone, /sup 99m/TcPPi was concentrated on bone surfaces near vasculature. Both forming and resorbing bone surfaces were comparably labeled at 2 hrs post-injection. Uptake on the surface of sites of haversian bone remodeling was observed to be at least part of the increased /sup 99m/TcPPi observed in irradiated bone in camera images. In irradiated trabecular bone 12 months following irradiation, a patchy decrease in /sup 99m/TcPPi uptake was correlated with localized decreases in vasculature

  4. Acute treatment with fluvoxamine elevates rat brain serotonin synthesis in some terminal regions: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Diksic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A considerable body of evidence indicates the involvement of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods: The acute effect of fluvoxamine, on 5-HT synthesis rates was investigated in rat brain regions, using α- 14 C-methyl-L-tryptophan as a tracer. Fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) and saline (control) were injected intraperitoneally, one hour before the injection of the tracer (30 μCi). Results: There was no significant effect of fluvoxamine on plasma free tryptophan. After Benjamini–Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction, a significant decrease in the 5-HT synthesis rate in the fluvoxamine treated rats, was found in the raphe magnus (− 32%), but not in the median (− 14%) and dorsal (− 3%) raphe nuclei. In the regions with serotonergic axon terminals, significant increases in synthesis rates were observed in the dorsal (+ 41%) and ventral (+ 43%) hippocampus, visual (+ 38%), auditory (+ 65%) and parietal (+ 37%) cortex, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (+ 56%). There were no significant changes in the 5-HT synthesis rates in the median (+ 11%) and lateral (+ 24%) part of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens (+ 5%), VTA (+ 16%) or frontal cortex (+ 6%). Conclusions: The data show that the acute administration of fluvoxamine affects 5-HT synthesis rates in a regionally specific pattern, with a general elevation of the synthesis in the terminal regions and a reduction in some cell body structures. The reasons for the regional specific effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT synthesis are unclear, but may be mediated by the presynaptic serotonergic autoreceptors.

  5. Autoradiographic demonstration of target cells for the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in the rat pineal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.J.; Ermisch, A.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats received [ 3 H]aldosterone 30 min before sacrifice. Autoradiograms were prepared from brain and pineal gland by a thaw-mount technique. Grain counting revealed that the pineal retained 4 times as much radioactivity as brain regions with tight capillaries. Using an appropriate method of quantitative autoradiogram evaluation, it was shown that in adrenalectomized animals, but not after shamoperiation, 28% of the pinealocytes concentrated the steroid in their nuclei. This is the first demonstration of saturable mineralocorticoid binding in the pineal gland. (author)

  6. Neurogenesis in the brain stem of the rabbit: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblinger, M.M.; Das, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    With the aid of ( 3 H)-thymidine autoradiography, neurogenesis was documented in the nuclear groups of the medulla oblongata, pons, and mid-brain, as well as in the brain stem reticular formation of the rabbit. Following single injections of ( 3 H)-thymidine, counts were taken of intensely labeled neurons within the nuclei of the functional columns related to the cranial nerves, nuclei of several other functional classifications, and nuclei that did not fit into a functional category. In the brain stem as a whole, neurogenesis was found to occur between days 10.0 and 18.5 of gestation: however, the majority of nuclei studied contained intensely neurons only between days 12.0 and 15.0. Only in the pontine nucleus and the tectum were intensely labeled cells observed as late as day 18.5. Directional gradients of histogenesis were often observed within, as well as between, various nuclei. Within the nuclear columns related to the cranial nerves, a clear mediolateral spread of neurogenesis was observable such that nuclei of the motor columns reached a peak in neurogenesis before those in the sensory columns. Likewise, a mediolateral proliferation pattern was seen in the brain stem reticular formation. Other individual directional gradients were discernible; however, in the brain stem as a whole, distinct overall gradients were not observable. In many individual nuclei, gradients in neuron size were observed such that large neurons preferentially arose prior to smaller neurons. Information pertaining to gradients in neurogenesis, as well as to relationships among functionally related nuclei, are discussed

  7. GABA accumulating neurons are relatively resistant to chronic hypoxia in vitro: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, P.K.; Hu, S.

    1990-01-01

    Whether there is preferential loss of certain types of nerve cells or specific cellular functions after hypoxic or ischemic insults remains unclear. To evaluate this phenomenon in vitro, the vulnerability of GABAergic neurons to hypoxia was investigated both quantitatively and with autoradiography. Immature neuronal cortical cultures obtained from fetal mice were subjected to chronic hypoxia (5% O2) for 24 h or 48 h and then returned to the normoxic condition for 48 h. The shorter hypoxic exposure resulted in significantly reduced numbers of neurons in comparison to the longer exposure and also to controls (29% and 26%, respectively; p less than 0.001). LDH efflux, a reliable indicator of cell damage, also was higher after the shorter exposure insult. Nevertheless, in these same 24 h hypoxic cultures there was prominent sparing of those neurons which accumulate GABA: by 48 h of recovery GABAergic neurons constituted 29.3 +/- 2.0% of the remaining neuronal population in comparison to 11.6 +/- 0.6 and 14.4 +/- 0.8% for controls and 48 h hypoxia, respectively; (p less than 0.001). Although total GABA uptake per neuron was significantly decreased after both types of insult, there was a concomitant increase in glial GABA uptake (i.e., that which could be displaced by beta-alanine). These observations suggest that certain GABAergic cortical neurons are relatively more resistant to chronic hypoxia than the general neuronal population and that depression of overall neuronal GABA uptake may be associated with enhanced glial GABA uptake

  8. A metrological study of autoradiographs from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiron, O; Lefkovits, I; Garderet, P; Steinberg, C

    1984-12-01

    Samples prepared from a single batch of labeled cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Three factors were varied: total quantity of protein, quantity of labeled protein, and exposure time. The mean background absorbance of the film remained identical (about 0.5 A) for all the treated series, whatever the exposure time and whether or not there were unlabeled proteins in the sample. Hence any spot with a peak A of the same order of magnitude can be seen. The standard deviation was about 0.05 A. Thus, the measurement precision is 2.5% of full scale for digitalization over 0 to 2 A. We derived experimental calibration curves, which are neither linear nor logarithmic because of the film response and which can be used on randomly chosen spots.

  9. Autoradiographic study on percutaneous absorption of several oils useful for cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Asaba, K.; Komatsu, H.; Mochizuka, M.

    1978-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption of five 14 C-labelled oils, n-octadecane, decanoxy decane, 2-hexyldecanoxy octane, isopropyl myristate and glyceryl tri-(oleate), commonly used is cosmetics were studied from the point of view of their safety. In whole body autoradiography of hairless mice, there was no visible penetration into the skin and organs, whereas microautoradiography of guinea pigs showed local penetration. Isopropyl myristate penetrated to the greatest extent, whereas 2-hexyldecanoxy octane was hardly absorbed. Percutaneous absorption of these two oils, therefore, was examined in Angora rabbits by microautoradiography simultaneously with skin irritation potential by a histological method, from the following aspects, (1) patterns of penetration and irritation in relation to application time and (2) fate within the skin and pattern of irritation after application. In addition, intradermal metabolic fate was studied in vivo. (author)

  10. Autoradiographic evidence for reutilization of DNA catabolites by granulocytopoiesis in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerecke, D; Gross, R [Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Klinik

    1976-01-01

    The proliferating granulocyte precursor pool of rat bone marrow was labelled during DNA synthesis by continuous infusion and by single injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR), as well as by single injection of /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine (/sup 125/I-UdR). The appearance of neutrophilic granulocytes in the blood stream after these various labelling procedures was studied by autoradiography. Labelling patterns of blood neutrophils were identical during continuous infusion and after single injection of /sup 3/H-TdR, and 100 percent labelling of the blood compartment was achieved. This result indicated reutilization of DNA catabolites to occur in granulocytopoiesis leading to continuous availability of /sup 3/H-labelled DNA precursors even after a single injection of /sup 3/H-TdR. Attempts to suppress reutilization of label by infusion of cold thymidine 1 h after injection of /sup 3/H-TdR were unsuccessful. However, a change in the labelling pattern of blood neutrophils was seen after single injection of /sup 125/I-UdR, a DNA precursor poorly reutilized in comparison to /sup 3/H-TdR. This result provided further evidence for reutilization of DNA catabolites by the cell system investigated. A comprehensive discussion of the results indicates that thymidinemonophosphate is the biochemical level of reutilization in granulocytopoiesis.

  11. Autoradiographic localization of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaker, S.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the rat and human central nervous system (CNS). The binding of [ 3 H]-3-methyl-histidine 2 -TRH ([ 3 H]-MeTRH) to TRH receptors was saturable, of a high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5 nM), and specific for TRH analogs. Studies with neurotoxins ibotenic acid and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) suggest that TRH receptors within the amygdala are predominantly located on cell bodies, and not nerve terminals. Finally, an examination was made of the concentrations of TRH receptors in spinal cords of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease of the motor neurons located in Lamina IX. Large decreases in TRH receptors were noted in ALS spinal cords, when compared to non-neurological controls, probably reflecting the loss of motor neurons. In addition, decreases in the TRH receptor concentration of Lamina II were observed. This finding may reflect the sensitivity of neurons throughout the CNS to the pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuronal degeneration which cause ALS

  12. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: histologic and autoradiographic observations on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Examination of biopsies from exposed and relatively unexposed areas of the face revealed changes that were consistent with actinic elastic degeneration associated with solar exposure, except in the areas in which sources of alpha radiation were detected in the upper dermis. In those areas particles judged to be ion exchange resin were found within a few macrophages and extracellularly among connective tissue fibers. Elastic fibers in those areas showed more advanced degenerative change than fibers not closely associated with heavy concentrations of alpha radiation

  13. Autoradiographic study of the nucleolar RNA metabolism during the oogenesis of Lineus ruber Mueller (Heteronemertes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rue, Gerard; Gontcharoff, Marie

    1975-01-01

    During Lineus ruber oogenesis, there is a very high uridine uptake by the oocyte before the yolk formation. At the end of this stage, the nucleolus shows a special structure that seems to be related to a decrease of the ribosomal RNA synthesis. During the yolk formation, the nucleolus scatters in the nucleus, allowing ribonucleoprotein granules to go towards the cytoplasm [fr

  14. Localised uptake and extraction of Calcium/sup 45/ in dinoflagellate nuclei: An autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigee, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake of Ca/sup 45/ into cells of the dinoflagellate Glenodinium foliaceum was investigated using insoluble compound light microscope autoradiography. The distribution of silver grains showed marked localisation to the dinocaryotic nucleus, with a random scatter of grains over the surrounding protoplasm (cytoplasm and supernumerary nucleus). Correction of grain counts for lateral sensitisation from the dinocaryotic nucleus indicated an isotope concentration 16-32 times greater in this organelle compared to the rest of the cell. Cells labelled for varying periods of time showed differences in the pattern of Ca/sup 45/ uptake throughout the sample populations, but no increase in the mean level of uptake per cell. This would suggest a rapid incorporation of isotope within 1-2 hours, with little subsequent uptake. The presence of high levels of label after processing with both additive (glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde) and coagulative (acetic alcohol) fixatives indicated that the retention of Ca/sup 45/ in these preparations was not simply a fixation artefact. Although the isotope did not appear to be suitable for (high resolution) electron microscope autoradiography, the intranuclear site of incorporation was demonstrated indirectly using a buffer extraction technique. Prolonged treatment with phosphate buffer resulted in a large scale loss of label from both cytoplasm and dinocaryotic nucleus. The latter appeared to show specific correlation with the loss of (protein) matrix from the chromosomes - as observed under both light and electron microscopy, with no apparent change in either nucleolus or nucleoplasm. This would suggest that incorporated Ca/sup 45/ in the nucleus was largely confined to the condensed chromatin, where it was combined with the acidic proteins which make up the bulk of the chromatin matrix. The results obtained in this investigation are related to previous studies involving X-ray microanalysis and uptake of Ni/sup 63/.

  15. Cytochemical and autoradiographic studies of meiosis and microsporanogenesis in tradescantia paludosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryanovska, O.

    1981-01-01

    Labelling experiments with H 3 -thymidine, H 3 -uridine and H 3 -leucine have been carried out with Tradescantia paludosa. The results of this study showed that from pre-meiosis to the pollen grain the chromatin, the nucleoli and the cytoplasm undergo alternative structural, cytochemical and functional changes connected with the differential functioning of the genes and the differentiation of the cells. Chromatin condensation is connected with DNA synthesis only in the pre-meiosis and in the microspore. Decondensation is connected with despiralization and with slight heterochromatization of the chromatin, with development and functioning of the nucleoli, slight DNA synthesis and intense synthesis of RNAs and proteins. Probably the nucleolus in meiosis is playing a certain role. (author)

  16. Cytochemical and autoradiographic studies of meiosis and microsporanogenesis in tradescantia paludosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryanovska, O. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Genetika)

    1981-01-01

    Labelling experiments with H/sup 3/-thymidine, H/sup 3/-uridine and H/sup 3/-leucine have been carried out with Tradescantia paludosa. The results of this study showed that from pre-meiosis to the pollen grain the chromatin, the nucleoli and the cytoplasm undergo alternative structural, cytochemical and functional changes connected with the differential functioning of the genes and the differentiation of the cells. Chromatin condensation is connected with DNA synthesis only in the pre-meiosis and in the microspore. Decondensation is connected with despiralization and with slight heterochromatization of the chromatin, with development and functioning of the nucleoli, slight DNA synthesis and intense synthesis of RNAs and proteins. Probably the nucleolus in meiosis is playing a certain role.

  17. Utilization of glutamine by the retina: an autoradiographic and metabolic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voaden, M J; Lake, N; Marshall, J; Morjaria, B [Institute of Ophthalmology, London (UK). Dept. of Visual Science

    1978-10-01

    The cells able to accumulate exogenously applied (/sup 3/H) glutamine in rat, cat, frog, pigeon and guinea pig retinas have been located by autoradiography, and the fate of the labelled glutamine, as regards its incorporation into aspartic, glutamic and ..gamma..-amino-butyric acids, followed for 60 min. The results support the notion of glutamine as a precursor of transmitter amino acids in some neurones. In particular, it would appear to be a source of a relatively stable pool of GABA which may be located, with species variation, in amacrine or ganglion cells. In the pigeon retina glutamate pool incorporates and retains a major percentage of the label, and perikarya in the middle of the inner nuclear layer of the tissue are predominantly labelled.

  18. Autoradiographic localization of putative nicotinic receptors in the rat brain using 125I-neuronal bungarotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, D.W.; Loring, R.H.; Aizenman, E.; Zigmond, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Neuronal bungarotoxin (NBT), a snake venom neurotoxin, selectively blocks nicotinic receptors in many peripheral and central neuronal preparations. alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha BT), on the other hand, a second toxin isolated from the venom of the same snake, is an ineffective nicotinic antagonist in most vertebrate neuronal preparations studied thus far. To examine central nicotinic receptors recognized by NBT, we have characterized the binding of 125I-labeled NBT (125I-NBT) to rat brain membranes and have mapped the distribution of 125I-NBT binding in brain sections using quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. The binding of 125I-NBT was found to be saturable, of high affinity, and heterogeneously distributed in the brain. Pharmacological studies suggested that more than one population of sites is labeled by 125I-NBT. For example, one component of 125I-NBT binding was also recognized by alpha BT, while a second component, not recognized by alpha BT, was recognized by the nicotinic agonist nicotine. The highest densities of these alpha BT-insensitive, nicotine-sensitive sites were found in the fasciculus retroflexus, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract, and the olivary pretectal nucleus. alpha BT-sensitive NBT binding sites were found in highest density in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus, the dorsal tegmental nucleus, and the medial mammillary nucleus (lateral part). The number of brain regions with a high density of 125I-NBT binding sites, blocked either by alpha BT or by nicotine, is low when compared with results obtained using other approaches to studying the central distribution of nicotinic receptors, such as labeling with 3H-nicotine or labeling with cDNA probes to mRNAs coding for putative receptor subunits

  19. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of herpes simplex virus encephalitis with a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Price, R.W.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Fox, J.J.; Su, T.L.; Watanabe, K.A.; Philips, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-ν-D-arabinosyluracil (FMAU) labeled with carbon-14 was used to image herpes simplex virus type 1-infected regions of rat brain by quantitative autoradiography. FMAU is a potent antiviral pyrimidine nucleoside which is selectively phosphorylated by virus-coded thymidine kinase. When the labeled FMAU was administered 6 hours before the rats were killed, the selective uptake and concentration of the drug and its metabolites by infected cells (defined by immunoperoxidase staining of viral antigens) allowed quantitative definition and mapping of HSV-1-infected structures in autoradiograms of brain sections. These results shown that quantitative autoradiography can be used to characterize the local metabolism of antiviral drugs by infected cells in vivo. They also suggest that the selective uptake of drugs that exploit viral thymidine kinase for their antiviral effect can, by appropriate labeling, be used in conjunction with clinical neuroimaging techniques to define infected regions of human brain, thereby providing a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis in man

  20. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel

  1. A method for autoradiographic studies of single clones of plaque forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Lefkovits, I.; Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen

    1977-01-01

    By limiting dilution of B lymphocytes from spleens of immunized mice, microcultures were obtained that contained only one clone of plaque forming cells (PFC). The cultured cells were labelled with [ 14 C]thymidine for varying period of time. Plaques were obtained in monolayers of sheep erythrocytes in plastic dishes. After fixation with glutaraldehyde, the bottoms of the dishes were stripped off and autoradiograms prepared. By this method, it is possible to determine the proportion of labelled PFC within a given clone and to quantitate the incorporation of label. The method described can be applied to study the incorporation of other labelled molecules and for cytochemical investigations

  2. Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using [ 125 I]labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of [ 125 I]thyroxine under comparable conditions

  3. Histological and autoradiographic changes in locally irradiated lymph nodes (an experimental study on rabbits)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kett, K.; Csere, T.; Lukacs, L.; Szilagyi, K.; Illenyi, L.

    1979-01-01

    The authors studied the local effect of 3000 Rxl X-ray irradiation on the popliteal lymph nodes of rabbits. Beside the morpho-histological description autoradiography was performed after injection of H 3 -thymidine in the afferent lymphatic of the irradiated knee node. The main finding is the appearence of newly-formed germinal centers between the 6-10 days after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  4. Quantitative autoradiographic distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenamyre, J.T.; Young, A.B.; Penney, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine the distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in the rat central nervous system. Autoradiography was carried out in the presence of Cl- and Ca2+ ions. Scatchard plots and Hill coefficients of glutamate binding suggested that glutamate was interacting with a single population of sites having a K-D of about 300 nM and a capacity of 14.5 pmol/mg of protein. In displacement studies, ibotenate also appeared to bind to a single class of non-interacting sites with a KI of 28 microM. However, quisqualate displacement of [3H]glutamate binding revealed two well-resolved sites with KIS of 12 nM and 114 microM in striatum. These sites were unevenly distributed, representing different proportions of specific glutamate binding in different brain regions. The distribution of glutamate-binding sites correlated very well with the projection areas of putative glutamatergic pathways. This technique provides an extremely sensitive assay which can be used to gather detailed pharmacological and anatomical information about L-[3H]glutamate binding in the central nervous system

  5. Histological and autoradiographic studies on rat joints after experimental nervous shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, C.

    1981-01-01

    22 SPF-Wistar-rats of both sexes, ranging in age from 49 to 56 days, were used in this investigation. Of these, 6 served as controls. The remaining 16 rats received i.v. injections of E. coli-neurotoxin serotyp 0 139 : K 82 (B). 6 rats died in acute shock. The surviving animals received 4 injections of the neurotoxin. The maximum weight loss 24 h p.i. amounted to an average of 8.3% in the females and 10.4% in the males. The clinical symptoms after the inducement of skock are slight to severe apathy, rough coat, dyspnoe and nervous symptoms which are expressed in various degrees of oversensitivity to touch or sound. The light microscopic examination of the synovial membrane from control animals coincides with the findings of previous investigations. In acute shock the joints show a middle to high degree of hyperemia, slight sticking effect, and isolated microthrombi in the vessels of the subsynoviocytic tissue as well as increased exsudation in the joint cavities. Edemas of the subsynoviocytic tissue are found to a small extent. The joints of animals in protracted shock show none of the changes evident in acute shock. Autoradiological examinations were performed on 13 rats which had been injected with 1 μCi/g body weight 3H-thymidine 1 hour before killing. Joints were embedded in paraffin- and methyl-methacrylat. Comparison cuts from the same stifle joint resulted each time in reproducable labeling indices. This can be taken as a confirmation of the applicability of 3H-autoradiography in the case of joint cuts embedded in methacrylat. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  7. Interactions of neurotoxins with non-NMDA glutamate receptors: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenig, G.; Niedermeyer, B.; Krause, F.; Hartmann, J.; Deckert, J.; Heinsen, H.; Beckmann, H.; Riederer, P.; Ransmayr, G.

    1994-01-01

    Neurotoxic substances are discussed to cause neurode-generation by acting as excitotoxins on glutamate receptors. We investigated the properties of L-beta-oxalyl-amino-alanine (L-BOAA) and 3,4,6-trihydroxyphenlyalanine (6-OH-Dopa) at the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor and that of L-BOAA and domoic acid at the kainate glutamate receptor in human hippocampus. (3 H)AMPA binding in hippocampal subfields was inhibited by L-BOAA and 6-OH-Dopa with mean IC50-values in the low micromolar range. (3H)Kainate binding was inhibited by L-BOAA with similar potency as (3H)AMPA binding and by domoic acid with mean IC50-values in the low nanomolar range. These results support the notion that symptoms like anterograde amnesia and epileptic seizures seen in domoic acid intoxication and limbic symptoms, e.g. cognitive and mood impairment observed in neurolathyrism may be caused by excitotoxic action on non-NMDA receptors. The potent interaction of 6-OH-Dopa with the AMPA-receptor may point to a possible dopaminergic-glutamatergic interaction in the development of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. (author)

  8. Autoradiographic and biochemical observations on the distribution of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D; Schweitzer, A; Brune, K

    1981-04-01

    A comparison has been made of the distribution of some new radioactively-labelled non-steroid anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs or pro-drugs with their respective progenitors and/or standard acidic NSAI drugs (i.e. aspirin, indomethacin and phenylbutazone), using whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting. The object of this study was to establish if the distribution of these new NSAI drugs may contribute to changes in their side-, or therapeutic effects compared with the older drugs. All the NSAI drugs accumulated in those tissues wherein the principle therapeutic and side-effects are manifest. The accumulation in inflamed tissues occurs regardless of the structural type of NSAI drugs, i.e. with specific accumulation occurring in this tissue of the acidic drugs or their acidic metabolites. New aspects of the distribution of the acetyl moiety of aspirin are reported which may be significant in relation to the side-effects induced by this drug.

  9. An autoradiographic analysis of the development of the chick trigeminal ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amico-Martel, A.D; Noden, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The avian trigeminal ganglion, which is embryonically derived from the neural crest and epidermal placodes, consists of two topographically segregated classes of immature neurons, large and small, during the second week of incubation, and two neuronal cell types, dark and light, interspersed throughout the mature ganglion. In order to establish the times of terminal mitosis of trigeminal sensory neurons, embryos were treated with [ 3 H]thymidine during the first week of incubation and their ganglia fixed on embryonic day 11. The embryonically large, distal, placodal-derived neurons were generated between days 2 and 5, while the small, proximal, neural crest-derived neurons were formed mostly between days 4 and 7. By comparing the locations of labelled cells in ganglia treated with isotope but fixed on day 18 on incubation with their 11-day counterparts, it was shown that there are no morpho-genetic rearrangements of neurons during the final week of incubation. Thus, no unique relationship exists between the two neuron types in the mature ganglion and the two cell classes in the immature trigeminal. Therefore, both the light and the dark neurons in the mature trigeminal ganglion arise from neural crest as well as placodal primordia. (author)

  10. An autoradiographic study on the mechanism of mast cell hyperplasia evoked by a carcinogen, 20-methylcholanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Narashi

    1974-01-01

    A reactive increase of mast cells was studied by means of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography. Mice were painted on the back skin with 20-methylcholanthrene twice a week for two to eight weeks. No labeled mast cells were found with flash labeling or fourty-eight hours' cumulative labeling immediately before the sacrifice at the end of varying periods of painting. Subsequently, a cumulative chase method was performed in order to obtain labeled mast cells. Mice were painted with 20-methylcholanthrene for thirty-one days. Twenty-four hours' cumulative labelings were performed 31 (i.e. at the beginning of painting), 21, 14, 7, 5 and 3 days before the sacrifice. In each of these labeling experiments, labeled mast cells were observed. From these results it was concluded that the increase of mast cells in response to an irritation is not due to the proliferation of mast cells themselves but to the proliferation of undifferentiated precursor cells and their differentiation into the mast cells. A histogram of the labeling indices of mast cells in the subepidermal, dermal and subcutaneous layers indicated that, in the early period of painting, a peak of labeling indices of mast cells appeared in the subcutaneous layer, and that, in the late period of painting, a peak of indices appeared in the subepidermal layer. This suggests that mast cells are produced in the subepidermal layer and migrate into the deep layers of the skin. (author)

  11. Autoradiographic assessment of [3H]proline uptake by neurons of epileptogenic mirror focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudoerkov, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Epileptogenic mirror focus was produced in the left parietal area of the rat brain by cobalt implantation into the contralateral hemisphere. On the 14th day after cobalt implantation [ 3 H]proline was injected into both experimental and control rats (without cobalt). The incorporation of [ 3 H]proline in neurons of layers III and V of the parietal brain cortex and neurons of the nucleus lateralis thalami was investigated by the autoradiography technique. A statistically reliable increase in [ 3 H]proline uptake was observed in neurons of layer III (31%) and in neurons of layer V (41%) of the epileptogenic mirror focus. The other neuronal types revealed no reliable changes. The morphological and functional aspects of the altered protein metabolism during epileptogenesis are discussed. (author)

  12. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal

  13. Autoradiographic localization of GABA-regulated chloride ionophore binding site using t-[3H]butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, L.H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    t-Butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB) has been shown to bind with high affinity to sites on or near the chloride ionophore in rat brain membrane preparations. The present study used in vitro quantitative autoradiography to localize the regional distribution of [ 3 H]TBOB binding sites in rat forebrain. Receptors were labelled with 10 nM [ 3 H]TBOB. Nonspecific binding was determined by adding 10 μM picrotoxin to the incubation. Autoradiograms were generated using LKB Ultrofilm and then quantitated using computer-assisted spot-densitometry. The highest specific binding was found in frontal cortex layer 4, islands of Calleja, and ventral palladium. High binding was also found in many regions including anterior hypothalamic n., ventromedial hypothalamic n., dentate gyrus, stratum oriens and stratum lacunosum moleculare of hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Nonspecific binding represented 5 to 15% of total binding and was uniformly low throughout all brain regions. Thus, this selective probe for GABA-regulated chloride ionophore binding sites should provide a useful tool for characterizing this system and its relationship to convulsant and depressant drug action

  14. Autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of fetal supporting cells and wall cells in rats 19 days after conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugani-Mehta, S.

    1980-01-01

    The duration of the S-phase of supporting cells and wall cells of rat fetuses aged 19 days was determined by the ''labelled mitosis'' method. The supporting cells are predecessors of the sertoli cells while the wall cells are predecessors of the boundary tissue and, possibly, of part of the peritubular Leydig cell system. The S-phase of the supporting cells was found to last 10.1 h while the S-phase of the wall cells lasted 9.2 h. The data were not in agreement with the data of other authors. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Autoradiographic studies of the protein metabolism and histochemical demonstration of the zinc content of the brain in diabetic rats. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzke, H.D.; Wildmeister, W.

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by application of streptozotocin: 40 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin produced a fairly serious diabetes with minimal ketosis, 125 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin caused a severe diabetic keto-acidosis. After 72 hours these animals and also a group of control animals received 308 MBq/animal 3 H-leucine intraperitoneally. By means of stripping film autoradiograms the rates of uptake of 3 H-leucine in different areas of the rat brain were measured. The values of the control animals were compared with those of a fairly serious diabetes and those of a severe diabetic keto-acidosis. In the regions of the neocortex parietalis and of the thalamus the 3 H-leucine values of the diabetic animals were considerably lower in comparison with the controls, and that irrespective of the degree of severity of the diabetic disease. Compared with the control animals the 3 H-leucine values as well as the zinc content of diabetic animals decreased according to the degree of severity of the disease within the Ammon's horn and the dentate fascia. The particular significance of the Ammon's horn and the dentate fascia concerning diabetic metabolic conditions was discussed. (author)

  16. Autoradiographic studies on the distribution of 14C-5,7-dihydroxytryptamine in the brain of new-born rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappe, U.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of intracisternally injected 14 C-5,7-dihydroxy tryptamine (5,7-DHT) in the central nervous system of new-born rat is studied by means of autoradiography. The radio-active neurotoxin is incorporated into the neurones of all known serotonine nucleus groups. This labelling allows a detailed demonstration of the topography of the serotonine neurones in the brain stem of the new-born rat and to compare it with systems obtained by other methods. Serotonine neurones were mapped in 22 representative frontal sections through the brain stem. 14 C-5,7-DHT is incorporated into noradrenergic neurones, too. However, labelling is less marked than in serotonergic neurones. 14 C-5,7-DHT is incorporated at small quantities into the following extraneural elements: fibroblasts of the pia mater/arachnoidea, some endothelical cells of pial vessels, epithelial cells of the plexus choroideus, and subependymal macrophages. 6 h after injection of 25 μg 14 C-5,7-DHT, the vast majority of serotonergic neurones reveal strong degenerative changes which are irreversible. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Autoradiographic demonstration of glucocorticoid receptors in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary transplanted to the anterior eye chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.J.; Schnabel, C.; Lausch, A.

    1989-01-01

    The neurointermediate lobe of adult male Wistar rats was syngeneic transplanted to the anterior eye chamber. The recipient rats were adrenalectomized 19 days after grafting and injected with (3H)corticosterone 5 days later. After a survival time of 60 min, autoradiograms were prepared by thaw-mount technique and quantitatively evaluated by silver grain counting. Beside the classical targets, anterior pituitary and hippocampal stratum pyramidale, the intraocular transplants showed a nuclear accumulation of radioactivity. This was abolished in rats treated for competition with an excess of unlabelled corticosterone prior to tracer application. No such receptor binding was found in the normotopic intermediate lobe and in the diaphragm studied as a non-target reference. Thus, this study confirmed that the glucocorticoid receptor gene is expressed of the tissue is grafted into an ectopic site. (author)

  18. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves

  19. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and [3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5]enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids

  20. Autoradiographic study of protein synthesis recovery in root cells of Zea mays embryos during early stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deltour, Roger

    1977-01-01

    Recovery of protein synthesis was studied in primary root of germinating Zea mays embryos. [H 3 ] leucine or [H 3 ] lysine was provided for two hours at 16 0 C to embryos excised from kernels at various times after the beginning of germination. Protein synthesis (probably dependent on long-lived mRNA stocked in dormant embryo root cells) resumed during the first two hours of seed imbibition [fr

  1. Autoradiographic imaging and quantification of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in rodent brain using (3)H-HOCPCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Bay, T; Villumsen, I S

    2016-01-01

    analogue, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) as a tritiated version ((3)H-HOCPCA) to radioactively label the specific GHB high-affinity binding site and gain further insight into the density, distribution and developmental profile of this protein. We show that, in low nanomolar concentrations...... brain development. Due to the high sensitivity of this radioligand, we were able to detect low levels of specific binding already at E15 in mouse brain, which increased progressively until adulthood. Collectively, we show that (3)H-HOCPCA is a highly sensitive radioligand, offering advantages over...

  2. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dubois-Dauphin, M.; Dreifuss, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 μM. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide

  3. Autoradiographic study of 3H-proline incorporation by rat periodontal ligament, gingival connective tissue and dental pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The rates of 3 H-proline incorporation by the rat periodontal ligament, the gingival connective tissue and the dental pulp were studied by autoradiography. The rate of 3 H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was 2.8 times higher than by the gingival connective tissue and 5 times higher than by the dental pulp. These differences were significant (p 3 H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was significantly different (p 3 H-proline incorporation. The ratio of the rates of 3 H-proline incorporation by the three tissues did not correlate with the ratio of the cellular densities in the same three tissues. (author)

  4. Autoradiographic studies of the pancreas and adrenal cortex with 3H-thymidine, age dependence and other influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izbirak, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The cell proliferation of pancreatic and corticoadrenal cells and their susceptibility towards exogenically administered kallikrein and isoprenalin was studied with the aid of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography. It can be assumed that those cells tabelled with 3 H-thymidine within the time available and which after pooling, served as labelling index also included those undergoing DNA synthesis in the mitotic phase and which therefore also join in cell proliferation. This investigation is based on material generated from 28 black mice of the strain C 57. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the human central nervous system : autoradiographic distribution and receptor densities in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Wilczak, N

    1997-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors were studied in postmortem adult human brain and cervical spinal cord using autoradiography with human recombinant I-125-PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB binds to the three different dimers of PDGF receptors (alpha alpha, alpha beta and beta beta) PDGF receptors were

  6. Autoradiographic investigations on the question of diurnal variations of cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herterich, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    In this work the question was investigated whether the proliferation activity of the crypt epithelia of the small intestine of mice is subject to diurnal variations. The results published so far to settle this question are contradictory. The flow rate at the beginning and end of the S phase was measured as a function of daytime for the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice following a double labelling with 3-H and 14-C-TdR. The quotient of the cell flow rate in and out of the S phase is supposed to be = 1 over the whole day if there are no diurnal variations. The method of measurements of the cell flow rate was chosen above all because the quotient is largely independent of the variation from animal to animal. The experiments provided dues as to the presence of deviations of the quotient of cell flow rate at the end and beginning of the S phase and of the mitotic index from the daily mean value. However, on account of the relatively large statistical variations of the values at the different daytimes it is not possible to state clearly whether the cell proliferation of the jejunal epithelium is subject to diurnal variations. Should there be such variations, then they are not large at any rate. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Autoradiographic analysis of regional alterations in brain receptors following chronic administration and withdrawal of typical and atypical neuroleptics in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, R.E.; Ellison, G.; Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were administered haloperidol, clozapine, raclopride, or no drug for 28 days or 8 months. Following a 3 week withdrawal period, in vitro autoradiography was utilized to examine receptor binding for dopamine D2([ 3 H]spiperone and [ 3 H]raclopride), dopamine D1([ 3 H]SCH23390), GABA A ([ 3 H]muscimol), benzodiazepine ([ 3 H]RO15-1788), and muscarinic ACh receptors ([ 3 H]QNB). [ 3 H]spiperone was elevated in striatal subregions only in haloperidol-treated rats, with the largest increases seen in the 8 month duration animals. Striatal [ 3 H]raclopride binding was increased after both short- and long-term treatment in both haloperidol and raclopride, but not clozapine-treated animals. Clozapine-treated rats showed significant increases in [ 3 H]SCH23390 in the nucleus accumbens after 28-day administration; otherwise no changes were seen for this ligand in any other groups. Increases in [ 3 H]muscimol binding in the substantia nigra reticulata were seen in haloperidol-treated rats after 8 month treatment. Binding of [ 3 H]QNB and [ 3 H]RO15-1788 were not significantly different from control for any of the drug-treated groups. These data suggest that persisting alterations in receptor binding are primarily seen in dopamine D2 and GABA receptors after withdrawal from chronic administration of haloperidol but not the atypical neuroleptics, clozapine and raclopride. (Authors)

  8. Autoradiographic analysis of regional alterations in brain receptors following chronic administration and withdrawal of typical and atypical neuroleptics in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, R E; Ellison, G; Toga, A W [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). School of Medicine

    1990-01-01

    Rats were administered haloperidol, clozapine, raclopride, or no drug for 28 days or 8 months. Following a 3 week withdrawal period, in vitro autoradiography was utilized to examine receptor binding for dopamine D2(({sup 3}H)spiperone and ({sup 3}H)raclopride), dopamine D1(({sup 3}H)SCH23390), GABA{sub A}(({sup 3}H)muscimol), benzodiazepine (({sup 3}H)RO15-1788), and muscarinic ACh receptors (({sup 3}H)QNB). ({sup 3}H)spiperone was elevated in striatal subregions only in haloperidol-treated rats, with the largest increases seen in the 8 month duration animals. Striatal ({sup 3}H)raclopride binding was increased after both short- and long-term treatment in both haloperidol and raclopride, but not clozapine-treated animals. Clozapine-treated rats showed significant increases in ({sup 3}H)SCH23390 in the nucleus accumbens after 28-day administration; otherwise no changes were seen for this ligand in any other groups. Increases in ({sup 3}H)muscimol binding in the substantia nigra reticulata were seen in haloperidol-treated rats after 8 month treatment. Binding of ({sup 3}H)QNB and ({sup 3}H)RO15-1788 were not significantly different from control for any of the drug-treated groups. These data suggest that persisting alterations in receptor binding are primarily seen in dopamine D2 and GABA receptors after withdrawal from chronic administration of haloperidol but not the atypical neuroleptics, clozapine and raclopride. (Authors).

  9. Autoradiographic investigations of cell wall development. 1. Tritiated glucose assimilation in relation to cellulose and hemicellulose deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M; Harada, H [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1978-07-01

    Light microscopic and electron microscopic autoradiography, using D-glucose-6/sup 3/-H, were employed to the study of the differentiating compression wood tracheids which had been examined in an earlier series of studied. From this work, it could be demonstrated that: (1) In cells depositing S/sub 1/, the radioactivity was heavily or strongly incorporated into S/sub 1/. (2) Its incorporation was temporarily decreased and was scattered throughout the wall and cytoplasm in the transitional cells during S/sub 1/ to S/sub 2/ development. (3) The radioactivity was abundantly and specifically concentrated on the inner surface region of the developing S/sub 2/ while rarely taken up in the cytoplasm, in cells with a rapidly thickening S/sub 2/. (4) In the transitional cells going from the S/sub 2/ thickening stage to the secondary wall lignification stage, it was again dispersed in the interior of S/sub 2/ and in the cytoplasm besides the inner surface of S/sub 2/. (5) Thereafter, the incorporation decrease sharply in the secondary-wall-lignifying cells. The sequences of secondary wall development depending on cellulose and hemicellulose deposition are discussed in relation to the above observations.

  10. Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse: an autoradiographic study of vitamin A-storing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, K.; Yamada, E.

    1981-01-01

    Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse was investigated by the use of light- and electron-microscopic autoradiography. Young male mice were fed a diet containing 3H-vitamin A acetate for a week. Lymph nodes were removed and prepared for autoradiography. Lipid droplets in fibroblast-like cells showed high concentrations of radioactivity. These cells were distributed around lymphatic sinuses and blood vessels. The cells can, therefore, be classified as ''vitamin A-storing cells'' according to criteria proposed earlier by Yamada and Hirosawa (1976). Control animals from the same litter were maintained on ordinary laboratory food for the same period and examined by electron microscopy. Lipid-droplet-containing cells were found in the same areas as in the experimental animals but in fewer numbers. This suggests that the increased number of vitamin A-containing lipid droplets is due to hypervitaminosis A in the experimental animals. The presence of some cells containing these droplets in the control animals would imply that even under normal feeding conditions the animals ingested excess amounts of vitamin A, which was retained in lipid droplets. The stored vitamin A probably participates in metabolic processes such as the formation of glycoproteins in ground substance

  11. Receptors for corticotropin-releasing hormone in human pituitary: Binding characteristics and autoradiographic localization to immunocytochemically defined proopiomelanocortin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, G.; Vauquelin, G.; Moons, L.; Smitz, J.; Kloeppel, G. (Department of Experimental Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium))

    1991-08-01

    Using autoradiography combined with immunocytochemistry, the authors demonstrated that the target cells of CRH in the human pituitary were proopiomelanocortin cells. Scatchard analysis of (125I)Tyr0-oCRH saturation binding revealed the presence of one class of saturable, high affinity sites on pituitary tissue homogenate. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for (125I)Tyr0-oCRH ranged from 1.1-1.6 nM, and the receptor density was between 200-350 fmol/mg protein. Fixation of cryostat sections with 4% paraformaldehyde before tracer incubation improved both tissue preservation and localization of the CRH receptor at the cellular level. Additional postfixation with 1% glutaraldehyde inhibited tracer diffusion during subsequent immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. (125I)Tyr0-oCRH was found in cytoplasmic inclusions or at the cell periphery of ACTH/beta-endorphin cells in the anterior pituitary. Single cells of the posterior pituitary were also CRH receptor positive. Cells staining for PRL or GH were CRH receptor negative. They conclude that CRH binds only to high affinity receptors on ACTH/{beta}-endorphin cells in the human pituitary.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative autoradiographic investigations on DNA-repair in the pars optica retinae of the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellner, G.; Reindl, E.; Pichler, L.; Hofer, H.

    1974-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations into the incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into the nuclei of pars optica retinae of rabbits after β-irradiation with 60 krad were performed. The results of the in vitro and in vivo experiments are comparable with the in vitro data showing smaller statistical deviations. The rate comparable with the in vitro data showing smaller statistical deviations. The rate of incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into the nuclei of Ggl. opticum and Ggl. retinae is about the same, but it is significantly lower in the nuclei of photoreceptor cells by one order of magnitude. The in vitro experiment demonstrates that ganglion cells are capable of DNA repair even after circulation has been stopped for 15 or more minutes. (author)

  13. Central transport and distribution of labelled glutamic and aspartic acids to the cochlear nucleus in cats. An autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, E S [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (USA). Dept. of Anatomy

    1979-01-01

    Tritiated L-glutamic acid or L-aspartic acid was injected unilaterally into the cochleas of adult cats, and 4 h-7 days later the localization of label was studied by light-microscopic autoradiography in sections of the brain stem. Consistent differences in labelling after glutamate and after aspartate suggest differences in their uptake, metabolic conversion and/or transport to the cochlear nucleus by cochlear fibers. The morphological differences shown here agree with the distribution of those two amino acids in the cat cochlear nucleus as shown by microchemical analyses.

  14. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3- 125 I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci

  15. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Rubenstein, R.; Price, R.W.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ([14C]FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional [14C]FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application

  16. Autoradiographic quantification of the efficacy of niridazole in mice infected with (75)Se-labelled cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waruiru, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role

  17. Development of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive neurons in the rat occipital cortex: A combined immunohistochemical-autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanagh, M.E.; Parnavelas, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The postnatal development of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neurons, previously labeled with [3H]thymidine on embryonic days E14-E21, has been studied in the rat occipital cortex. Immunohistochemistry combined with autoradiography showed evidence of a modified inside-out pattern of maturation. NPY-neurons are generated between E14 and E20 and are found in layers II-VI of the cortex and the subcortical white matter. NPY neurons from all these birthdates are overproduced at first, although cells generated at E16 produce the greatest excess, followed by E15 and E17. Some of these transient neurons are found in the wrong layer for their birthdates, and their elimination produces a more correct alignment at maturity. However, most of the NPY neurons that survive are generated at E17, and these cells are found throughout layers II-VI with a preponderance in layer VI. This evidence is strongly suggestive of cell death rather than merely cessation of production of NPY

  18. Autoradiographic imaging and quantification of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in rodent brain using H-3-HOCPCA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klein, A. B.; Bay, T.; Villumsen, I. S.; Falk-Petersen, C. B.; Marek, Aleš; Frolund, B.; Clausen, R. P.; Hansen, H. D.; Knudsen, G. M.; Wellendorph, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 100, Nov (2016), s. 138-145 ISSN 0197-0186 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : quantitative autoradiography * gamma-hydroxybutyric acid * HOCPCA * radioligand * expression * mouse brain development Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.262, year: 2016

  19. Radioactive choline uptake in the isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. A biochemical and autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldsema-Currie, R.D.; van Marle, J.; Langemeijer, M.W.; Lind, A.; van Weeren-Kramer, J.

    1984-10-01

    When hemidiaphragms are stimulated via the phrenic nerve in the presence of 10 microM radioactive choline (Ch), the rate of radioactive Ch uptake in the endplate-rich area (EPA) is greater than that in the endplate-poor muscle (M). Ch uptake in the EPA is temperature-dependent, with a Q10 of 2.9 and an activation energy of 19.5 kcal/mol. It is inhibited in a Na+-depleted medium, in the absence of Ca2+, and by 10-20 microM hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) and it is not inhibited by alpha-bungarotoxin even when the muscle is completely paralyzed. In the absence of stimulation the rate of uptake in the EPA is slightly, but not significantly, greater than in M. Using autoradiography, we find an enhanced amount of isotope in the nerve terminals and their immediate vicinities compared with the muscle fibres, in both stimulated and unstimulated hemidiaphragms. There is no enhanced uptake of isotope into the nerve terminals in stimulated tissues in the presence of 26 microM HC-3. The uptake of isotope into the muscle is not altered by any of these treatments. There is a positive correlation between the initial rate of radioactive Ch uptake in the EPA and the amount of isotope in the nerve terminals (the mean corrected grain density above the nerve terminals). Without correcting for the large amount of diffusion that occurs, the ratio of the grain density above the synapses to that above the muscle fibres is 1.66 in tissue stimulated at 1 Hz, 1.04 in stimulated tissues in the presence of 26 microM HC-3, and 1.31 in unstimulated tissues.

  20. Autoradiographic studies on the effect of allopurinol on 14C-hydpoxanthine metabolism in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Yoshimasa; Miyazaki, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Masahisa

    1980-01-01

    The Effect of orally given allopurinol on the distribution of intravenously administered 14 C-hypoxanthine radioactivity was studied in squirrel monkeys 8 hr after administration of the label by the whole body autoradiography. Although the distribution of radioactivity in the normal and allopurinol-treated animals was essentially similar to each other, more intense radioactivity was noted in the latter monkey; salvage of 14 C-hypoxanthine was enhanced. Similarly to our previous observation in mice, significant radioactivity in monkeys was seen in tissues undergoing rapid nucleic acid synthesis except for slight species differences in some organs. 14 C-Allantoin alone was the urinary metabolite of the hypoxanthine in the normal monkey whereas significant amounts of 14 C-hypoxanthine and 14 C-xanthine as well were detected in the urine of the drug-treated animal. (author)

  1. An Autoradiographic Study of the Process of Hormone Formation in the Thyroid Gland Under Various Experimental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-26

    to be a generally recognized mechanism of antithyroid action of thiourea derivatives (Astwood, Frank- lin, Chaikoff, and Lerner, Ya. M. Kabak, I. E...expresses an original point of view concerning the mechanisms of the antithyroid action of thiourea: he considers, that an impoverishment of the thyroid...Vol. 30, No. 5, 31. Boyd, Dzh. A., Avtoradiografiya v biologii i meditsine (Auto- radiography in Biology and Medicine ), Moscow, 1957. Fittszheral’d

  2. Autoradiographic study of protein synthesis recovery in root cells of Zea mays embryos during early stages of germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deltour, R [Liege Univ. (Belgium)

    1977-05-02

    Recovery of protein synthesis was studied in primary root of germinating Zea mays embryos. (H/sup 3/) leucine or (H/sup 3/) lysine was provided for two hours at 16/sup 0/C to embryos excised from kernels at various times after the beginning of germination. Protein synthesis (probably dependent on long-lived mRNA stocked in dormant embryo root cells) resumed during the first two hours of seed imbibition.

  3. Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain distribution of 14C-melatonin in rat: a biochemical and autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitte, P.A.; Harthe, C.; Lestage, P.; Claustrat, B.; Bobillier, P.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of 14C-Melatonin (14C-MT) after systemic injection was studied in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain of rats. Chromatographic analysis (thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography) indicated that the radioactivity from biological samples taken at various times following the injection of label was mainly associated with 14C-MT. Computer analysis of plasma 14C-MT kinetics showed a three-compartment system with half-lives of 0.21 +/- 0.05, 5.97 +/- 1.11, and 47.52 +/- 8.86 min. The volume of distribution and the clearance were 1,736 +/- 349 ml.kg-1 and 25.1 +/- 1.7 ml.min-1.kg-1 respectively. The entry of 14C-MT into the CSF was rapid and reached a maximum at 5 min. The decay followed a two-compartment system with half-lives of 16.5 +/- 2.9 and 47.3 +/- 8.6 min. The CSF/plasma concentration ratio was 0.38 at the steady state (30 min). At 2 min the level of 14C-MT in the brain was 3.8 higher than in the CSF. Representative autoradiograms revealed an heterogeneous localization of 14C-MT in the grey matter. The highest regional values, as evaluated by the permeability area product technique, were found in cortex, thalamic nuclei, medial geniculate nucleus, anterior pretectal area, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, choroid plexuses, and bulb-pons. Thirty minutes later 14C-MT was still detected in most of the brain regions analyzed. These results point to a low but rapid penetration of circulating MT into the brain and the CSF. The heterogeneous distribution and the partial retention of 14C-MT in the brain are compatible with the hypothesis of a central action of this hormone mediated via binding sites

  4. Autoradiographic demonstration of sup 3 H-estradiol and sup 3 H-cholesterol incorporation in hamster gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, P; Martinova, J; Kyncheva, L; Baleva-Ivanova, K [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Morfologiya

    1989-01-01

    Male and female hamster gonads were investigated on day 14 of pregnancy, at birth, on days 7, 18 and 25 after birth and at sexual maturity. (2,4,6,7 {sup 3}H)-estradiol -17{beta}, specific activity 110 Ci.mmol{sup -1} and (1{alpha}, 2{alpha} -{sup 3}H) - cholesterol specific activity 44 Ci.mmol{sup -1} have been used for labelling. On embrional day 14 the histological image has been similar to that in the neonatal gonads - diffusive labelling includding germ, satellite and Leyding cells in fetal ovaries and testes. On the 7th postnatal day in the ovary a formation of primary follicles began in the deeper layers of gonads and an incorporation of the labelled substances in the germ and prefollicular cells in both ovary and testis have been observed. On the 18th postnatal day growing follicles have been seen in the ovary and labelling have been noticed in the oocytes and follicular cells. In the prepubertal testis the meiolic process has started, spermatocytes have been found and an incorporation of the radioactive substances in germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells has been established. In the ovaries of both 25th day old hamsters and adult animals multi-layered and preovulatory follicles have been seen. Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spertamids in the seminiferons tubules have been observed. The incorporation of {sup 3}H-estradiol and {sup 3}H cholesterol in both germ and Sertoli cells has been found. A presence has been observed of specific estradiol receptors in all three main cell types of fetal and developing gonads: germ, satellite and intertitial cells. The presence of estradiol receptors in developing hamster gonads has indicated a participation of steroids in the process of development and differentiation of male and female gonads.

  5. A mathematical model to determine incorporated quantities of radioactivity from the measured photometric values of tritium-autoradiographs in neuroanatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennissen, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The mathematical/empirical model developed in this paper helps to determine the incorporated radioactivity from the measured photometric values and the exposure time T. Possible errors of autoradiography due to the exposure time or the preparation are taken into consideration by the empirical model. It is shown that the error of appr. 400% appearing in the sole comparison of the measured photometric values can be corrected. The model is valid for neuroanatomy as optical nerves, i.e. neuroanatomical material, were used to develop it. Its application also to the other sections of the central nervous system seems to be justified due to the reduction of errors thus achieved. (orig.) [de

  6. Autoradiographic studies of the distribution of radium-226 in rat bone: their implications for human radiation dosimetry and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Haines, J.W.; Howells, G.; Green, D.

    1983-01-01

    A solution containing 226 Ra chloride was injected into young female rats via the saphenous vein. Subsequently, the distribution and retention of the 226 Ra in the skeleton was studied. The results show that 226 Ra is initially deposited in the rat femur as a volume deposit and is fairly evenly distributed throughout the bone matrix. Much of the 226 Ra initially deposited in the skeleton is lost within a few days of its administration. During the first week 226 Ra gradually accumulates at sites of bone deposition including accreting surfaces. Subsequent bone growth results in the burial of contaminated bone surfaces. Following bone resorption some of the 226 Ra released from individual bones is recycled systemically so that all skeletal components tend towards a uniform 226 Ra concentration per unit of bone mineral. Of the two models conventionally used for radiation dosimetry purposes, these results reported for rats suggest that though neither is ideal, the volume distribution model is preferable to the surface model at all times after the uptake of radium by the skeleton. (author)

  7. Autoradiographic imaging of the serotonin transporter, using S-[18F](fluoromethyl)-(+)-McN5652 ([18F]Me-McN) in the brains of several animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, M.; Zessin, J.; Brust, P.; Cumming, P.; Bergmann, R.

    2002-01-01

    The [ 18 F]fluoromethyl analogue of (+)-McN5652 ([ 18 F]Me-McN) was recently proposed as a new potential PET tracer [1]. To further validate its use in PET, we studied the binding of [ 18 F]Me-McN in the brains of rats and pigs using autoradiography. The binding was compared with the uptake of the known 5-HT uptake inhibitor [ 3 H] citalopram [2] and the radioligand (+)-[ 11 C]McN5652. The binding of the three compounds was qualitatively identical in the autoradiograms of the individual brains. Intense labelling was observed in regions known to be serotonin uptake sites. The binding was specifically inhibited, using the 5-HT uptake inhibitors citalopram and fluoxetine. (orig.)

  8. Autoradiographic studies with the 14C-IAA in relation to synergism between auxin and non-auxin chemicals in the rooting of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, K.G.; Basu, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    Indole and α-naphthol significantly synergized the IAA-induced rooting of P. vulqaris cuttings. The pattern of incorporation of radiocarbon of IAA-I- 14 C and IAA-2- 14 C supplied to the base of the cuttings was, however, not altered by the synergists and the same radioactive metabolites were located on the radioautograms of ethanolic extracts of the hypocotyls of cuttings under the different treatments. The results thereby discount the possibility of formation of bioactive complexes between auxins and synergists as the mechanism of synergism in rooting. The synergists, however, influenced the extent of incorporation of radiocarbon of the labelled auxin molecules into some of the radioactive metabolites. (auth.)

  9. Selective cortical decrease of high-affinity choline uptake carrier in Alzheimer's disease: an autoradiographic study using 3H-hemicholinium-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Puertas, R.; Pazos, A.; Zarranz, J.J.; Pascual, J.

    1994-01-01

    H-hemicholinium-3 (H-HC-3) binding, a marker of the presynaptic high-affinity choline uptake carrier (HACU), was measured by autoradiography in several brain regions of 17 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and of 11 matched controls. A significant decrease in the density of H-HC-3 binding sites was found in entorhinal cortex, hippocampus and layers I-III of the frontal cortex. By contrast, in the caudate-putamen the number of H-HC-3 binding sites in AD cases was comparable to that of control striata. These data concur with previous results using classical presynaptic markers and reflect the loss in the activity of HACU, and, hence, in the synthesis of acetylcholine, that selectively occurs in cortical areas of AD brains due to the degeneration of presynaptic cholinergic terminals arising from the basal forebrain. However, the relatively low mean reduction in HACU in cortical areas (-40 %), together with the apparent indemnity of this marker in certain severely demented AD cases, suggest that AD dementia cannot be explained simply by the loss of presynaptic terminals originating in the basal forebrain. These data seem to be a good explanation for the poor response to cholinergic replacement in AD. (author)

  10. Contribution to the ultrastructural study of silk-excretion cells and autoradiographic analysis of intracellular fibroin transport in Bombyx mori L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couble, Pierre.

    1974-01-01

    It is much easier to study the mechanisms involved in the synthesis and exportation of extracellular proteins in the biological material chosen is highly differentiated. The silk-excretion gland of the silkworm is ideal in this respect because during the larva period, especially at the end of the 5th and last stage, the cells at the rear (excreting tube) synthesize and export massive quantities of a single protein: fibroin. These phenomena were explored by a cytological study carried out mainly by electron microscopy and autoradiography. The results obtained are given. They relate first of all to the morphological development of the secretion tube cells from the end of the 4th larva stage to the spinning of the cocoon, and contribute new information on the cell changes during the 4th slough and the end of the 5th age. They also concern intracellular fibroin transport which is proved to take place through the Golgi apparatus, and finally the possible role of the microtubules and microfilaments in fibroin transport and secretion. On this last point the results so far constitute only, a preliminary approach which justifie no final conclusions; they merely suggest that the microfilaments of the apical region are involved in the secretion process [fr

  11. 3H-thymidine autoradiographic study of cell proliferation and the influence of isoproterenol and kallikrein in various cell populations of the gastrointestinal tract in animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, S.

    1981-01-01

    Morphological studies were carried out with the aim of studying cell proliferation in various tissues (stable and epithelial tissues) of the gastrointestinal tract. The cells were studied by 3 H thymidine autoradiography in the normal age cycle and under the influence of kallikrein or isoproterenol. Epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the forestomach, stomach, small intestine and colon were investigated and, in the case of the stomach, also connective-tissue cells of the mucotic stroma. Counts across the total epithelial thickness yielded similar results for the oesophagus and the forestomach. A count of 1000 cells per animal was found to yield representative information on a defined type of cell. Kallikrein was not found to have a constant mitosis-promoting effect. Isoproterenol caused the labelling index to increase or to decrease; in higher concentrations, it increased the proliferation rate in all cell types. In male animals, the labelling indices of connective-tissue cells of the gastric mucosa were significantly higher than in female animals. (orig./MG) [de

  12. A whole-body autoradiographic study on the distribution of tritium in cynomolgus monkeys dosed with a tritiated extract of Ruscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, P.; Rico, A.G.; Cousse, H.; Fauran, F.

    1985-01-01

    A metabolic study has been performed on macaca monkey treated with a tritiated Ruscus extract. There is a rather good absorption of radioactivity when the preparation is delivered orally. The percutaneous absorption is much lower. A large part of the delivered activity is excreted in feces and urine. Sapogenins are the main urinary metabolites. In the body, tritium is mainly localized in the liver, the kidney, the spleen (white pulp) and the bone marrow [fr

  13. Receptors for insulin-like growth factors I and II: autoradiographic localization in rat brain and comparison to receptors for insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesniak, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Kiess, W.; Rojeski, M.; Pert, C.B.; Roth, J.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in rat brain were visualized using autoradiography with [125I]IGF-I. The binding of the labeled peptide was competed for fully by high concentrations of unlabeled IGF-I. At intermediate concentrations of unlabeled peptide the binding of [125I]IGF-I was competed for by unlabeled IGF-I more effectively than by IGF-II or insulin, which is typical of receptors for IGF-I. Essentially every brain section shows specific binding of IGF-I, and the pattern of binding of IGF-I to its receptors correlated well with the cytoarchitectonic structures. In parallel studies we showed that [125I]IGF-II was bound to tissue sections of rat brain and that the binding was competed for by an excess of unlabeled IGF-II. However, intermediate concentrations of unlabeled peptides gave inconclusive results. To confirm that the binding of [125I]IGF-II was to IGF-II receptors, we showed that antibodies specific for the IGF-II receptor inhibited the binding of labeled IGF-II. Furthermore, the binding of the antibody to regions of the brain section, visualized by the application of [125I]protein-A, gave patterns indistinguishable from those obtained with [125I]IGF-II alone. Again, the binding was very widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, and the patterns of distribution corresponded well to the underlying neural structures. Densitometric analysis of the receptors enabled us to compare the distribution of IGF-I receptors with that of IGF-II receptors as well as retrospectively with that of insulin receptors

  14. Design and synthesis of enantiomerically enriched, radiolabeled MK-801 analogs as potential radiotracers for imaging and autoradiographic studies of the NMDA receptor-ion channel complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.S.; Burns, H.D.; Gibson, R.E.; Ransom, R.W.; Thorpe, H.; Fioravanit, C.; Britcher, S.F.; Magill, C.A.; Solomon, H.F.; Dannals, R.F.; Wilson, A.A.; Ravert, H.T.; Wagner, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    MK-801 is a potent, non-competitive antagonist for the N-methyl-D-asspartate (NMDA) receptor-ion channel complex. This complex is though to be involved in nerve cell damage in stroke patients when excess calcium is released through the activated channel. A thorough understanding of drug interactions with the NMDA receptor complex could lead to improved therapy for reducing hypoxic-ischemic neuronal injuries in stroke patients. Based on the results of extensive structure-activity studies, the authors have developed several enantiomerically enriched, radiolabeled analogs of MK-801, including: 3-1231-MK-801 for Single Photon Emission Computed tomography (SPECT); 3-1251-MK-801 for in-vivo and in-vitro autoradiography; 8-11C-MeO-MK-801 for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Details of the synthesis of these radiotracers and their application to both in-vitro and in-vivo studies are described

  15. Evaluation of cellular viability by quantitative autoradiographic study of myocardial uptake of a fatty acid analogue in isoproterenol-induced focal rat heart necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, T.; Luu-Duc, C.; Comet, M.; Demenge, P.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies led us to hypothesize that a fatty acid analogue, 15-p-iodophenyl-β-methyl pentadecanoic acid (IMPPA or BMIPP), which is taken up but not quickly metabolized by heart cells, would be a more suitable tracer of cellular viability that 201 Tl. Biodistribution studies of 1- 14 C-IMPPA in conscious, freely moving rats showed that the concentration ratio of radioactivity in the heart with respect to the blood was about 8 for at least 60 min after intravenous administration, permitting its use as a putative tracer in these conscious, freely moving rats. Thereafter, the myocardial uptake of 14 C-IMPPA was studied in isoproterenol-treated rats (daily treatment for 10 days in order to induce cardiac hypertrophy and necrotic foci) with respect to control ones. Comparison of myocardial localizations by quantitative autoradiography of the uptake of 201 Tl and 14 C-IMPPA with that of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining enabled comparative evaluation of nutritional blood flow, localization and uptake of 14 C-IMPPA and necrotic foci size. Distributions of 14 C-IMPPA and 201 Tl in control rats' hearts were homogenous, like TTC staining. In infarcted hearts, areas of decreased 14 C-IMPPA uptake were nearly the same (100%±5%) as those unstained by TTC. These areas were larger than those showing a decrease in thallium uptake (about 70%±5% of the total scar size). Therefore, IMPPA seems to be a more accurate and sensitive indicator of necrosis localization compared with thallium. It may be a useful agent for assessment of myocardial viability by single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. (orig.)

  16. Autoradiographic investigation of proliferative processes of the gastric mucosa of patients suffering from chronic atrophic gastritis, hyperplastic mucous polypi or ulcus ventriculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbeck, L.; Guetz, H.J.; Wildner, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A series of pathological changes of the gastric mucosa such as ulcers hyperplastic polypi and intestinal metaplasias are accompanied with an increased 3 H-thymidine incorporation into the mucosa. This disorder of the regulation of DNA synthesis is important as to the diagnosis of stomach cancer, but it is unsuitable as screening test in early recognition

  17. Pontine and medullary projections to the nucleus retroambiguus : A wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase and autoradiographic tracing study in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Holstege, Gert

    1996-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla oblongata plays a role in expiration, vocalization, vomiting, and possibly lordosis. The present study tried to determine which structures, in turn, control the NRA. One cell group is the periaqueductal gray (FAG), which is considered to be the

  18. Characterization and autoradiographic visualization of (+)-[3H]SKF10,047 binding in rat and mouse brain: further evidence for phencyclidine/sigma opiate receptor commonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircar, R.; Nichtenhauser, R.; Ieni, J.R.; Zukin, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The binding specificity of (+)-[ 3 H]N-allylnormetazocine, the dextrorotatory isomer of the prototypical sigma opiate SKF10,047, was determined in rat and mouse brain and the neuroanatomical distribution of its binding sites elucidated by quantitative autoradiography in sections of rat brain. Computer-assisted Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent two-site fit of the binding data in both species and in all rat brain regions examined. In whole rat brain, the Kd values were 3.6 and 153 nM and the maximum binding values were 40 fmol and 1.6 pmol/mg of protein for the apparent high- and low-affinity binding sites, respectively. (+)-SKF10,047, haloperidol and pentazocine were among the most potent inhibitors of 7 nM (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 binding to the higher affinity sites; rank orders of ligand potencies at these sites differ sharply from those that have been reported for the [ 3 H]phencyclidine (PCP) site, or for eliciting PCP-like or SKF10,047-like behaviors. By contrast, rank orders of potency of sigma opiods, PCP derivatives and dioxolanes for displacement of 100 nM (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 from the more numerous lower affinity sites in the presence of 100 nM haloperidol agreed closely with their potencies in the [ 3 H]PCP binding assay as well as their potencies in exerting PCP- or SKF10,047-like behavioral effects. In order to compare directly the anatomical localizations of PCP and (+)-SKF10,047 binding sites, quantitative light microscopy autoradiography utilizing tritium-labeled PCP and (+)-SKF10,047 was carried out in rat brain sections. (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 binding was observed to follow the regional pattern of [3H]PCP binding but also to bind in other regions not associated with PCP receptors

  19. Fucosylated glycans in the periventricular structures and the cerebrospinal fluid of the fetal rat forebrain. An autoradiographic and lectin binding histiotopic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Vladislav; Brückner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2001), s. 297-303 ISSN 0736-5748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fetal rat brain * fucosylated glycans * cerebrospinal fluid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.156, year: 2001

  20. Selection of appropriate medial branch of the optic tract by fibres of ventral retinal origin during development and in regeneration: an autoradiographic study in Xenopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straznicky, C.; Gaze, R.M.; Horder, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of the branches of the optic tract has been studied with the use of [ 3 H] -proline autoradiography, during development and during regeneration of the optic nerve in Xenopus with one compound ventral (VV) eye made by the embryonic fusion of two ventral eye fragments. The formation of the optic pathway was abnormal in that the lateral branch failed to develop, suggesting that fibres from a VV retina selectively entered the tectum via the medial branch during development. Three months after section of the optic nerve of a VV eye, regenerated fibres were present both in the contralateral and ipsilateral tecta. On the ipsilateral side regenerated fibres entered the tectum via the medial branch only. Retinal fibres entered the contralateral tectum through both branches in some animals and through the medial branch only in others. It is concluded that mechanical factors alone are insufficient to explain the phenomenon of selection of the appropriate medial branch fibres of ventral retinal origin either during development or in regeneration. Some form of fibre-substrate interaction seems to be necessary; and this ability of fibres from a VV eye to take the path appropriate for ventral retina argues strongly that the VV eye is not a regulated system in terms of cell specificities. 8author)

  1. 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 binding sites in male sex organs of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, G.; Bartke, A.; Bidmon, H.J.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Using autoradiography, binding sites for 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 are found in certain genital organs of male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), in particular in basal epithelial cells and fibroblasts of the lamina propria of prostate glands. Scattered labeled cells are also present in the epithelium of coagulation and urethral glands. In contrast to the findings in mice, under the conditions of the experiment, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 binding sites are not recognizable in other accessory sex glands and gonads. The frequency of basal epithelial cells with [3H]1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 nuclear binding is higher in regressed dorsal prostate glands of animals living in short photoperiods. The data suggest that 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 may promote proliferation and differentiation in basal epithelial cells, modulated by the seasonal and functional status of the animal

  2. ( sup 125 I)Ifenprodil: a convenient radioligand for binding and autoradiographic studies of the polyamine-sensitive site of the NMDA receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beart, P M; Mercer, L D; Jarrott, B [University of Melbourne, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Unit, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Vic (Australia)

    1991-04-01

    Iodination of ifenprodil, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, with Na{sup 125}I/Chloramin-T gave a radioligand which bound rapidly and saturably to a single population of sites (dissociation constant 145 nM) in membranes of rat cerebral cortex. In competition studies, specific binding of ({sup 125}I)-ifenprodil was inhibited by analogues of ifenprodil, as well as by spermine and spermidine. Binding was sensitive to Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. ({sup 125}I)-Ifenprodil labelled a population of binding sites, which was topographically distributed in rat forebrain, as shown by autoradiography. ({sup 125}I)-Ifenprodil is a useful radioligand for the investigation of the polyamine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-complex. (author).

  3. Selective cortical decrease of high-affinity choline uptake carrier in Alzheimer`s disease: an autoradiographic study using {sup 3}H-hemicholinium-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Puertas, R; Pazos, A [Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Unit of Pharmacology, Univ. of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Zarranz, J J [Dept. of Neuroscience, Univ. of the Basque Country, Leioa (Spain); Pascual, J [Dept. of Medicine, Service of Neurology, Univ. Hospital ` Marques de Valdecilla` , Univ. of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    H-hemicholinium-3 (H-HC-3) binding, a marker of the presynaptic high-affinity choline uptake carrier (HACU), was measured by autoradiography in several brain regions of 17 Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients and of 11 matched controls. A significant decrease in the density of H-HC-3 binding sites was found in entorhinal cortex, hippocampus and layers I-III of the frontal cortex. By contrast, in the caudate-putamen the number of H-HC-3 binding sites in AD cases was comparable to that of control striata. These data concur with previous results using classical presynaptic markers and reflect the loss in the activity of HACU, and, hence, in the synthesis of acetylcholine, that selectively occurs in cortical areas of AD brains due to the degeneration of presynaptic cholinergic terminals arising from the basal forebrain. However, the relatively low mean reduction in HACU in cortical areas (-40 %), together with the apparent indemnity of this marker in certain severely demented AD cases, suggest that AD dementia cannot be explained simply by the loss of presynaptic terminals originating in the basal forebrain. These data seem to be a good explanation for the poor response to cholinergic replacement in AD. (author).

  4. Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of [3H]acetylcholine, [3H]nicotine, and [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, P.B.; Schwartz, R.D.; Paul, S.M.; Pert, C.B.; Pert, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three radioligands have been commonly used to label putative nicotinic cholinoceptors in the mammalian central nervous system: the agonists [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh--in the presence of atropine to block muscarinic receptors), and the snake venom extract, [ 125 I]-alpha-bungarotoxin([ 125 I]BTX), which acts as a nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction. Binding studies employing brain homogenates indicate that the regional distributions of both [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh differ from that of [ 125 I]BTX. The possible relationship between brain sites bound by [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh has not been examined directly. The authors have used the technique of autoradiography to produce detailed maps of [ 3 H]nicotine, [ 3 H]ACh, and [ 125 I]BTX labeling; near-adjacent tissue sections were compared at many levels of the rat brain. The maps of high affinity agonist labeling are strikingly concordant, with highest densities in the interpeduncular nucleus, most thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, medial habenula, presubiculum, cerebral cortex (layers I and III/IV), and the substantia nigra pars compacta/ventral tegmental area. The pattern of [ 125 I]BTX binding is strikingly different, the only notable overlap with agonist binding being the cerebral cortex (layer I) and superior colliculus. [ 125 I]BTX binding is also dense in the inferior colliculus, cerebral cortex (layer VI), hypothalamus, and hippocampus, but is virtually absent in thalamus. Various lines of evidence suggest that the high affinity agonist-binding sites in brain correspond to nicotinic cholinergic receptors similar to those found at autonomic ganglia; BTX-binding sites may also serve as receptors for nicotine and are possibly related to neuromuscular nicotinic cholinoceptors

  5. Autoradiographic localization of adenosine A1 receptors in rat brain using [3H]XCC, a functionalized congener of 1,3-dipropylxanthine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, M.J.; Williams, M.; Jacobson, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to visualize the anatomical distribution of adenosine receptors labeled by the carboxylic acid congener of 1,3-dipropylxanthine, [ 3 Hi](8-(p-carbonxymethyloxy) phenyl-1,3 dipropylxanthine)([ 3 H]XCC) in rat brain. [ 3 H]XCC was observed to specifically bind to rat brain sagittal sections in a heterogenous pattern. Saturation experiments revealed that [ 3 H]XCC binds with nanomolar affinity to 20μm frozen tissue sections with the highest binding densities occurring in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Both the binding characteristics and regional receptor distribution obtained with [ 3 H]XCC demonstrate the potential usefulness of this new ligand in the study of adenosine A 1 receptors. 13 refs. (Author)

  6. Development of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I in head and brain of chick embryos: Autoradiographic localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassas, L.; Girbau, M.; Lesniak, M.A.; Roth, J.; de Pablo, F.

    1989-01-01

    In whole brain of chick embryos insulin receptors are highest at the end of embryonic development, while insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors dominate in the early stages. These studies provided evidence for developmental regulation of both types of receptors, but they did not provide information on possible differences between brain regions at each developmental stage or within one region at different embryonic ages. We have now localized the specific binding of [125I]insulin and [125I]IGF-I in sections of head and brain using autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometric analysis. Embryos have been studied from the latter part of organogenesis (days 6 and 12) through late development (day 18, i.e. 3 days before hatching), and the binding patterns have been compared with those in the adult brain. At all ages the binding of both ligands was to discrete anatomical regions. Interestingly, while in late embryos and adult brain the patterns of [125I]insulin and [125I] IGF-I binding were quite distinct, in young embryos both ligands showed very similar localization of binding. In young embryos the retina and lateral wall of the growing encephalic vesicles had the highest binding of both [125I]insulin and [125I]IGF-I. In older embryos, as in the adult brain, insulin binding was high in the paleostriatum augmentatum and molecular layer of the cerebellum, while IGF-I binding was prominent in the hippocampus and neostriatum. The mapping of receptors in a vertebrate embryo model from early prenatal development until adulthood predicts great overlap in any possible function of insulin and IGF-I in brain development, while it anticipates differential localized actions of the peptides in the mature brain

  7. The EM autoradiographic distribution of label in tissue blocks of pallidum incorporating [3H]-Leu-enkephalin and [3H]-naloxone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csillag, A.; Hajos, F.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of radioactivity in pallidal tissue blocks incubated in the presence of either a tritiated enkephalin analogue or [ 3 H]-naloxone, was examined using EM autoradiography. The quantitative evaluation was based on the principle of proportional grain counting. The results showed a preferential accumulating of silver grains over dendrites in the enkephalin-labelled tissue. Following naloxone-labelling, a slight enrichment of grains over axonal elements was found. The findings provide ultrastructural support for previous biochemical data which suggested that different types of opiate binding sites have different tissue localizations. (author)

  8. Ropizine concurrently enhances and inhibits [3H] dextromethorpan binding to different structures of the guinea pig brain: Autoradiographic evidence for multiple binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoll, P.D.; Smith, P.R.; and Musacchio, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Ropizine produces a simultaneous enhancement and inhibition of [ 3 H] dextromethorphan (DM) high-affinity binding to different areas of the guinea pig brain. These results imply that there are two distinct types of high-affinity [ 3 H]DM binding sites, which are present in variable proportions in different brain structures. The ropizine-enhances [ 3 H]DM binding type was preferentially inhibited by (+)-pentazocine. This is consistent with the presumption that the (+)-pentazocine-sensitive site is identical with the common site for DM and 3-(-3-Hydroxphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine ((+)-3-PPP). The second binding type, which is inhibited by ropizine and is not so sensitive to (+)- pentazocine, has not been fully characterized. This study demonstrates that the biphasic effects to ropizine are due, at least in part, to the effects of ropizine on two different types of [ 3 H]DM binding sites. However, this study does not rule out that the common DM/(+)-3-PPP site also might be inhibited by higher concentrations of ropizine

  9. Autoradiographic binding studies with [3H]oestradiol and [3H]dihydrotestosterone in the autonomic genital ganglion (plexus of Frankenhaeuser) of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, G.; Stumpf, W.E.; Thiedemann, K.-U.; Drews, U.

    1985-01-01

    Male, female and Tfm mice (testicular feminization) were injected with [ 3 H]oestradiol or [ 3 H]dihydrotestosterone, and autoradiograms prepared of male accessory sex organs and of the cervico-vaginal portion of the female reproductive tract. After injection of [ 3 H]oestradiol in male, female and Tfm animals a nuclear concentration of radioactivity was found in a subpopulation - about 20-30% - of the neurons of the genital ganglion. No such concentration was seen after [ 3 H] dihydrotestosterone. The results suggest a direct genomic effect of oestradiol on certain neurons of the autonomic genital ganglion in both sexes. (author)

  10. [125I]Bolton-Hunter neuropeptide-Y-binding sites on folliculo-stellate cells of the pars intermedia of Xenopus laevis: A combined autoradiographic and immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rijk, E.P.; Cruijsen, P.M.; Jenks, B.G.; Roubos, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    It has previously been established that neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is a potent inhibitor of alpha MSH release from the pars intermedia of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The location of binding sites for NPY in the pars intermedia of the pituitary has now been studied with light microscopic autoradiography, using a dispersed cell labeling method with the specific NPY receptor ligand [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter NPY. The majority of radioactive labeling was associated with folliculo-stellate cells; the percentage of labeling as well as the mean number of grains were approximately 5 times higher for folliculo-stellate cells than for melanotropes. An excess of nonlabeled NPY drastically reduced radiolabeling of folliculo-stellate cells, but had no effect on the degree of labeling of melanotropes. These results show that folliculo-stellate cells of X. laevis possess specific binding sites for NPY and indicate that NPY exerts its inhibitory action on the release of alpha MSH in an indirect fashion, by acting on the folliculo-stellate cells

  11. Pattern of labelling of the rat brain stem after intraventricular administration of 3H-leucine; low and high resolution autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakoubek, B.; Jirmanova, I.; Soukup, T.; Krekule, I.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of labelling proteins of the periventricular grey matter was studied two hours after intraventricular administration of 3 H-leucine by low- and high-resolution autoradiography. The pattern was investigated by computer-controlled densitometry. The deposition of radioactive proteins in periventricular grey surrounding the mesencephalic part of the aquaeductus Sylvii was compared with that surrounding the fourth ventricle. In the former case, the distribution of grains was in a circular area 500 to 600 μm in diameter; the densitometric tracing revealed a homogeneous distribution of the label; in the latter case, the distribution was nonhomogeneous and was limited by the tissue components forming the wall of the fourth ventricle. A comparison of the intensity of labelling (performed by a combination of low- and high-resolution autoradiography) indicated relatively substantial labelling of proteins of ependymal cells, very sparce labelling of subependymal layers, and very high labelling of neurones adjacent to the subependymal layer. The significance of these findings for the interpretation of studies using intraventricular administration of labelled amino acids for investigating brain macromolecular metabolism is discussed. (author)

  12. Modulation of lymphocyte nuclear matrix organization in vivo by 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole: an autoradiographic and immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaly, N; Cadrin, M; Kaplan, J G; Brown, D L

    1988-01-01

    Assembly of active nuclei in lymphocytes stimulated by mitogen is paralleled by the elaboration of a structurally and biochemically complex nuclear matrix (NM). To examine the dynamics of individual NM polypeptide components during blastogenesis, we have applied immunofluorescence labelling with anti-NM antibodies to concanavalin A-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Whereas peripherin and PI2 antigens did not reorganize during stimulation, labelling of PI1 and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) antigens increased markedly in intensity and redistributed in concert with the previously reported NM restructuring. Double-labelling showed, furthermore, that snRNPs and the internal staining component of PI1 were largely co-localized. As an approach to studying the role of RNA and RNA synthesis in NM organization, we have further examined the effects of the inhibitor of RNA synthesis, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole (DRB), on NM antigen distribution. The rapid inhibition of 3H-uridine incorporation by DRB was accompanied by coordinate aggregation of snRNPs and of the internal PI1 component into large, brightly stained patches. Both 3H-uridine incorporation levels and antigen localization were readily reversed upon removal of DRB. We conclude that NM antigens behave independently during nuclear and NM assembly and that NM organization, as reflected by NM antigen distribution, is modulated by con A- and DRB-induced alterations in RNA synthesis. We propose, furthermore, that the PI1 antigen plays a role in RNA metabolism, and is possibly involved in RNA transport to the nuclear periphery.

  13. Autoradiographic studies of the protein metabolism and histochemical demonstration of the zinc content of the brain in diabetic rats. 1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatzke, H D [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.); Wildmeister, W [Krankenhaus Kempen (Germany, F.R.). Innere Klinik

    1979-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by application of streptozotocin: 40 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin produced a fairly serious diabetes with minimal ketosis, 125 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin caused a severe diabetic keto-acidosis. After 72 hours these animals and also a group of control animals received 308 MBq/animal /sup 3/H-leucine intraperitoneally. By means of stripping film autoradiograms the rates of uptake of /sup 3/H-leucine in different areas of the rat brain were measured. The values of the control animals were compared with those of a fairly serious diabetes and those of a severe diabetic keto-acidosis. In the regions of the neocortex parietalis and of the thalamus the /sup 3/H-leucine values of the diabetic animals were considerably lower in comparison with the controls, and that irrespective of the degree of severity of the diabetic disease. Compared with the control animals the /sup 3/H-leucine values as well as the zinc content of diabetic animals decreased according to the degree of severity of the disease within the Ammon's horn and the dentate fascia. The particular significance of the Ammon's horn and the dentate fascia concerning diabetic metabolic conditions was discussed.

  14. Light microscopic and autoradiographic study of the subcommissural organ and the post-subcommissurral area in the native cat, Dasyurus hallucatus (Dasyuridae, Marsupialia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueck, M.; Hoefner, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In Dasyurus hallucatus the subcommissural organ (SCO) cells differentiate around the 22nd day after gestation (a.g.). 3 H-thymidine studies demonstrate no multiplication of differentiated SCO cells. The cells of the lateral part of the organ multiply longer than the cells of the medial part. Beside the secretion into the cerebrospinal fluid, the subcommissural organ cells possess intimate contact with their basal processes to leptomeningeal blood vessels. Between the 40th and 100th day a.g., but not in adults, a concentration of cells like the tail of a comet is demonstrated in the dorsomedian wall of the aquaeduct of Sylvii. (author)

  15. Distribution of neurotensin receptors in the primate hippocampal region: a quantitative autoradiographic study in the monkey and the postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, Christer; Radesater, A.; Chan-Palay, V.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of [ 3 H]neurotensin ([ 3 H]NT) binding sites in the monkey and the postmortem human brain was studied by using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Biochemical experiments carried out on tissue sections of the monkey hippocampus showed that the binding of [ 3 H]NT was saturable, reversible and of high specificity. The hippocampal [ 3 H]NT binding was displaced by fragment NT 8-13 but not fragment NT 1-8 of the peptide. The anatomical analysis showed a highly heterogeneous distribution of [ 3 H]NT binding sites within both the monkey and the human hippocampal region. In both species the highest density of [ 3 H]NT binding sites was found in the presubiculum (rank order of binding density: layer 2>6>1>3, 4, 5 in both monkey and man) and the entorhinal area (monkey: layer 4>6>5>1>2>3; human: layer 1=2>5>3). The subiculum and Ammon's horn were relatively poor in [ 3 H]NT binding sites in both species. In the area dentata the highest density of [ 3 H]NT binding sites was found in the hilar region. (author)

  16. Hepatic glycogen synthesis in the fetal mouse: An ultrastructural, morphometric, and autoradiographic investigation of the relationship between the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslin, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Fetal rodent hepatocytes undergo a rapid and significant accumulation of glycogen prior to birth. The distinct association of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) with glycogen during glycogen synthesis documented in the adult hepatocyte has not been clearly demonstrated in the fetus. The experiments described in this dissertation tested the hypothesis that SER is present and functions in the synthesis of fetal hepatic glycogen. Biochemical analysis, light microscopic (LM) histochemistry and electron microscope (EM) morphometry demonstrated that fetal hepatic glycogen synthesis began on day 15, with maximum accumulation occurring between days 17-19. Glycogen accumulation began in a small population of cells. Both the number of cells containing glycogen and the quantity of glycogen per cell increased as glycogen accumulated. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) was observed on day 14 of gestation and throughout fetal hepatic glycogen synthesis, primarily as dilated ribosome-free terminal extensions of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), frequently associated with glycogen. SER was in close proximity to isolated particles of glycogen and at the periphery of large compact glycogen deposits. Morphometry demonstrated that the membrane surface of SER in the average fetal hepatocyte increased as glycogen accumulated through day 18 and dropped significantly as glycogen levels peaked on day 19. Parallel alterations in RER membrane surface, indicated overall increases in ER membrane surface. Autoradiography following administration of 3 H-galactose demonstrated that newly synthesized glycogen was deposited near profiles of SER at day 16 and at day 18; however, at day 18 the majority of label was uniformly distributed over glycogen remote from profiles of SER

  17. Inter- and intracellular relationship of substance P-containing neurons with serotonin and GABA in the dorsal raphe nucleus: combination of autoradiographic and immunocytochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoul, R.; Onteniente, B.; Oblin, A.; Calas, A.

    1986-01-01

    Double-labeling experiments were performed at the electron microscopic level in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rat, in order to study the inter- and intracellular relationship of substance P with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin. Autoradiography for either [ 3 H]serotonin or [ 3 H]GABA was coupled, on the same tissue section, with peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry for substance P in colchicine-treated animals. Intercellular relationships were represented by synaptic contacts made by [ 3 H]serotonin-labeled terminals on substance P-containing somata and dendrites, and by substance P-containing terminals on [ 3 H]GABA-labeled cells. Intracellular relationships were suggested by the occurrence of the peptide within [ 3 H]serotonin-containing and [ 3 H]GABA-containing cell bodies and fibers. Doubly labeled varicosities of the two kinds were also observed in the supraependymal plexus adjacent to the dorsal raphe nucleus. The results demonstrated that, in addition to reciprocal synaptic interactions made by substance P with serotonin and GABA, the dorsal raphe nucleus is the site of intracellular relationships between the peptide and either the amine or the amino acid

  18. Generation patterns of four groups of cholinergic neurons in rat cervical spinal cord: a combined tritiated thymidine autoradiographic and choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, P.E.; Barber, R.P.; Vaughn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report examines the generation of cholinergic neurons in the spinal cord in order to determine whether the transmitter phenotype of neurons is associated with specific patterns of neurogenesis. Previous immunocytochemical studies identified four groups of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the cervical enlargement of the rat spinal cord. These cell groups vary in both somatic size and location along the previously described ventrodorsal neurogenic gradient of the spinal cord. Thus, large (and small) motoneurons are located in the ventral horn, medium-sized partition cells are found in the intermediate gray matter, small central canal cluster cells are situated within lamina X, and small dorsal horn neurons are scattered predominantly through laminae III-V. The relationships among the birthdays of these four subsets of cholinergic neurons have been examined by combining 3H-thymidine autoradiography and ChAT immunocytochemistry. Embryonic day 11 was the earliest time that neurons were generated within the cervical enlargement. Large and small ChAT-positive motoneurons were produced on E11 and 12, with 70% of both groups being born on E11. ChAT-positive partition cells were produced between E11 and 13, with their peak generation occurring on E12. Approximately 70% of the cholinergic central canal cluster and dorsal horn cells were born on E13, and the remainder of each of these groups was generated on E14. Other investigators have shown that all neurons within the rat cervical spinal cord are produced in a ventrodorsal sequence between E11 and E16. In contrast, ChAT-positive neurons are born only from E11 to E14 and are among the earliest cells generated in the ventral, intermediate, and dorsal subdivisions of the spinal cord

  19. (/sup 3/H)-muscimol, (/sup 3/H)-nipecotic acid and (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine as autoradiographic markers for GABA neurotransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agardh, E.; Ehinger, B. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ophthalmology)

    1982-01-01

    Retinas from rabbit, goldfish and guinea-pig were exposed to (/sup 3/H) GABA, (/sup 3/H)-muscimol, (/sup 3/H)-nipecotic acid and (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine either by intravitreal injection in vivo or by incubations in a balanced salt solution and the distribution of radioactivity was then studied with autoradiography. All substances labelled a similar set of presumed amacrine cells. Incubating at 0/sup 0/C, in 10/sup -5/ M ouabain, or in 10/sup -3/ M GABA inhibited the labelling by (/sup 3/H)-muscimol whereas bicuculline (10/sup -4/ M), and glycine (10/sup -3/ M) were less efficient blockers. The result is interpreted as a neuronal uptake of (/sup 3/H)-muscimol rather than as a GABA receptor binding. All the substances except (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine also labelled glia to such a degree that neuronal labelling was often disguised in rabbits and goldfish. Glial labelling by muscimol was less pronounced in guinea-pig. (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine (tested only in rabbits) gave a strong labelling of cells with the distribution of GABA neurons and only little glial labelling.

  20. Autoradiographic demonstration of 3H-labelled glycoproteins in 'light' and 'dark' neurons of different grisea of rat brain after intraventricular application of tritiated fucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.; Rummelfaenger, H.; Pohle, W.

    1982-01-01

    The simultaneous demonstration of 3 H radioactivity and of 'light' and 'dark' neurons by histological staining revealed that the occurrence of 'light' and 'dark' neurons are morphological correlates of different activity stages of cell metabolism. In this connection it became evident that 'light' nerve cells incorporated significantly greater amounts of fucose and therefore should be regarded as metabolically more active. (author)

  1. Functional mapping in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachron, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Two Views of Functional Mapping and Autoradiography; Quantitative Analysis of Autoradiographs; Hardware and Software Design Considerations in Engineering an Image Processing Workstation: Autoradiographic Analysis with DUMAS and the BRAIN Autoradiograph Analysis Software Package (with 1 color plate); and Quantitative Autoradiography and in vitro Radioligand Binding

  2. Autoradiographic imaging of the serotonin transporter, using S-[{sup 18}F](fluoromethyl)-(+)-McN5652 ([{sup 18}F]Me-McN) in the brains of several animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, M.; Zessin, J.; Brust, P.; Cumming, P. [PET Centre of Aarhus Univ. Hospitals, Aarhus C (Denmark); Bergmann, R.

    2002-01-01

    The [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl analogue of (+)-McN5652 ([{sup 18}F]Me-McN) was recently proposed as a new potential PET tracer [1]. To further validate its use in PET, we studied the binding of [{sup 18}F]Me-McN in the brains of rats and pigs using autoradiography. The binding was compared with the uptake of the known 5-HT uptake inhibitor [{sup 3}H] citalopram [2] and the radioligand (+)-[{sup 11}C]McN5652. The binding of the three compounds was qualitatively identical in the autoradiograms of the individual brains. Intense labelling was observed in regions known to be serotonin uptake sites. The binding was specifically inhibited, using the 5-HT uptake inhibitors citalopram and fluoxetine. (orig.)

  3. Autoradiographic analysis of mu1, mu2, and delta opioid binding in the central nervous system of C57BL/6BY and CXBK (opioid receptor-deficient) mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the authors used semi-quantitative in vitro autoradiography to compare the levels of binding to central mu 1 , mu 2 , and delta opioid sites in two strains of mice, C57BL/6BY and CXBK. The CXBK strain is known to be deficient in whole brain opioid binding sites and to be less sensitive than the C57 strain to the analgesic and locomotor stimulatory effects of opiates and opioids. Delta sites were visualized using [ 3 H][D-Ala 2 -D-Leu 5 ]-enkephalin (DADL) plus a low concentration of morphine, total mu sites (mu 1 and mu 2 ) were visualized using [ 3 H]dihydromorphine (DHM), and mu 2 sites were visualized using [ 3 H]DHM plus a low concentration of DADL. Binding to mu 1 sites was determined by subtracting mu 2 binding from total mu binding. The authors found that the two strains did not consistently differ in the levels of delta sites. The CXBK strain, however, either had less or the same amount of mu binding as the C57 strain in all areas studied. The CXBK strain was especially deficient in mu 1 binding, particularly in areas involved in pain processing. (Auth.)

  4. [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT-FE and [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT-FP are superior to [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT for dopamine transporter visualization: Autoradiographic evaluation in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Ilonka; Hall, Haakan; Halldin, Christer; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Farde, Lars; Sedvall, Goeran

    1997-10-01

    The binding of the three dopamine transporter radioligands ([{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT, [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT-FE, and [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT-FP) was studied using whole-hemisphere autoradiography on postmortem human brains. The autoradiograms revealed an intense and homogeneous labeling of the nucleus caudatus and putamen but also to varying extent to serotonergic and noradrenergic transporters of neocortex and thalamus. The order of specificity estimated (striatum over neocortex ratios) was {beta}-CIT-FP > {beta}-CIT-FE >> {beta}-CIT, suggesting that {beta}-CIT-FE and {beta}-CIT-FP should be preferred for in vivo studies of the dopamine transporter in the human brain.

  5. Autoradiographic localization of binding sites for (/sup 3/H). gamma. -aminobutyrate, (/sup 3/H) muscimol, (+) (/sup 3/H) bicuculline methiodide and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam in cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoesli, E; Hoesli, L [Basel Univ. (Switzerland); Moehler, H; Richards, J G [Hoffmann-La Roche (F.) and Co., Basel (Switzerland)

    1980-01-01

    Cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord were used to visualize sites for (/sup 3/H)..gamma..-aminobutyrate, (/sup 3/H)muscimol, (/sup 3/H)bicuculline methiodide and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam by autoradiography. In cerebellar cultures, many large neurons (presumably Purkinje cells) and interneurons were labelled. In spinal cord cultures, these compounds were mainly bound to small and medium-sized neurons, whereas the majority of large neurons were unlabelled. No binding sites for these radioligands were found on glial cells. Binding of (/sup 3/H)..gamma..-aminobutyrate, (/sup 3/H)muscimol and (/sup 3/H)bicuculline methiodide was markedly reduced or inhibited by adding unlabelled ..gamma..-aminobutyrate, muscimol and bicuculline (10/sup -3/M) respectively to the incubation medium. Addition of a thienobenzazepine markedly reduced binding with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam. It is concluded that tissues cultures are an excellent tool to visualize the cellular localization of binding sites for neurotransmitters and drugs using autoradiography.

  6. Quantitative light microscopic autoradiographic localization of binding sites labelled with [3H]vasopressin antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)VP in the rat brain, pituitary and kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuwen, F.W. van; Beek, E.M. van der; Heerikhuize, J.J. van; Wolters, P.; Meulen, G. van der; Wan, Yieh-Ping

    1987-01-01

    Binding sites for the vasopressin (VP) antagonist d(CH 2 ) 5 Tyr(Me)VP, were located in various brain areas (e.g. the lateral septum, amygdala, choroid plexus and nucleus of the solitary tract) using light microscopic autoradiography. A number of areas (e.g. suprachiasmatic and arcuate nucleus, pineal gland) which previously showed no VP binding were labelled in the present study. The olfactory nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus were not labelled. It therefore appears that d(CH 2 ) 5 Tyr(Me)VP is capable of discriminating between VP and oxytocin binding sites and more sensitive means of detecting VP binding sites than VP alone. (Author)

  7. Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding sites in the brain of the one-day-old domestic chick (Gallus domesticus): An in vitro quantitative autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csillag, A.; Bourne, R.C.; Stewart, M.G. (Open Univ., Milton Keynes (England))

    1990-12-15

    Three highly specific opioid ligands--(D-Ala2,Gly-ol)-enkephalin (DAGO) for mu (mu) receptor sites, (D-Pen2,D-Pen5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) for delta (delta) sites, and U-69593 for kappa (kappa) sites--were used to determine the regional distribution of the three major subtypes of opioid receptor binding sites in the brains of 1-day-old domestic chicks by the technique of quantitative receptor autoradiography. While there was a degree of heterogeneity in the binding levels of each of the ligands, some notable similarities existed in the binding of the mu and kappa ligands in several forebrain regions, and in the optic tectum of the midbrain where mu and delta binding was very high. In the forebrain there was a high level of binding of mu and kappa ligands in the hyperstriatum, and for the mu ligand there was a very distinct lamination of binding sites in hyperstriatum accessorium, intercalatum supremum, dorsale and ventrale. Levels of binding of the mu and kappa ligands were also high in nucleus basalis, and (for mu only) in the neostriatum. The distribution of binding of the delta specific ligand in the forebrain showed marked differences to that of mu and kappa, being particularly low in the hyperstriatum and neostriatum. Very high levels of labelling of delta binding sites were, however, found in the nucleus rotundus. Binding of the three ligands was generally low or absent in the cerebellum and medulla, apart from a distinct labelling of the granule cell layer by the mu-ligand. A kinetic analysis was made of the binding of the three ligands to whole forebrain sections using scintillation counting methods.

  8. The fate and role of macromolecules synthesized during mammalian oocyte meiotic maturation. I. Autoradiographic topography of newly synthesized RNA and protein in the germinal vesicle of the pig and rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motlik, J.; Kopecny, V.; Pivko, J.

    1978-01-01

    Pig and rabbit oocytes were cytoautoradiographically checked for their synthetic activities during meiotic maturation. Tritiated uridine and lysine or 35 S-methionine were introduced into the culture medium in which the oocytes were maintained either immediately at the beginning of the germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro or after reaching a more advanced stage of this process in vitro or in vivo. Some oocytes were maintained thereafter in a cold medium to trace the metabolism of the labelled protein. In addition to uridine- 3 H incorporation into the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, during pig oocyte maturation it was found that an intensive RNA synthesis site appeared in association with condensing chromocentres of the GV II. A considerable proportion of oocytes from slaughterhouse material did not show intensive GV activity in RNA synthesis during maturation in vitro. In the pig and rabbit oocyte it was shown that the newly synthesized 3 H-lysine-labelled protein accumulated to a high degree in the GV and in the nucleolus. The labelled protein accumulated in the GV up to the stage of GV IV (pig) and persisted during the chase period in the ooplasm; it was found to be associated with chromosomes of metaphase I (pig) or metaphase II (rabbit) of the meiotic division. The process of protein accumulation in the GV was not influenced by meiotic arrest during oocyte culture in autologous follicular fluid. A similar accumulation of the label in the GV was detected in oocytes which were cultured in a medium enriched by 35 S-methionine. In some oocytes the labelled protein failed to accumulate in the nucleolar area during maturation in vitro

  9. Distribution of seratonin-1A receptors in the monkey and the postmortem human hippocampal region. A quantitative autoradiographic study using the selective agonist (3H)8-PH-DPAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Christer; Radesaeter, A.C.; Lang, Walter; Chan-Palay, Victoria

    1986-01-01

    Serotonin-1A receptors were visualized and their anatomical distribution mapped within the monkey and the human hippocampus by using in vitro receptor autoradiography of the selective agonist ( 3 H)8-OH-N, N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (( 3 H)8-OH-DPAT). The results show high densities of serotonin-1A receptors hetergeneously distributed in different subfields and layers of the monkey and the human hippocampal region. High densities are found in the molecular layer of area dentata, all layers of regio superior and the subiculum, parasubiculum, and layers 2, and 4 through 6 of the entorhinal area. In the human hippocampus, a distinct band of ( 3 H)8-OH-DPAT binding sites is present in the subgranular zone of the area dentata. The similar anatomical distribution of ( 3 H)8-OH-DPAT binding sites in the monkey and the human hippocampal region suggests that the serotonin-1A receptor is phylogenetically well preserved and indicates that this receptor may mediate action(s) of serotonin in the primate, including the human hippocampal region. (author)

  10. Interaction of 125I-labeled botulinum neurotoxins with nerve terminals. I. Ultrastructural autoradiographic localization and quantitation of distinct membrane acceptors for types A and B on motor nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.D.; Dolly, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    The labeling patterns produced by radioiodinated botulinum neurotoxin ( 125 I-BoNT) types A and B at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction were investigated using electron microscopic autoradiography. The data obtained allow the following conclusions to be made. (a) 125 I-BoNT type A, applied in vivo or in vitro to mouse diaphragm or frog cutaneous pectoris muscle, interacts saturably with the motor nerve terminal only; silver grains occur on the plasma membrane, within the synaptic bouton, and in the axoplasm of the nerve trunk, suggesting internalization and retrograde intra-axonal transport of toxin or fragments thereof. (b) 125 I-BoNT type B, applied in vitro to the murine neuromuscular junction, interacts likewise with the motor nerve terminal except that a lower proportion of internalized radioactivity is seen. This result is reconcilable with the similar, but not identical, pharmacological action of these toxin types. (c) The saturability of labeling in each case suggested the involvement of acceptors; on preventing the internalization step with metabolic inhibitors, their precise location became apparent. They were found on all unmyelinated areas of the nerve terminal membrane, including the preterminal axon and the synaptic bouton. (d) It is not proposed that these membrane acceptors target BoNT to the nerve terminal and mediate its delivery to an intracellular site, thus contributing to the toxin's selective inhibitory action on neurotransmitter release

  11. Microautoradiographic methods and their applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, L.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of microautoradiographic methods and of their application in biology is given. The current state of biological microautoradiography is shown, focusing on the efficiency of techniques and on special problems proceeding in autoradiographic investigations in biology. Four more or less independent fields of autoradiography are considered. In describing autoradiographic techniques two methodological tasks are emphasized: The further development of the labelling technique in all metabolic studies and of instrumentation and automation of autoradiograph evaluation. (author)

  12. Radial plutonium redistribution in mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1981-10-01

    Alpha autoradiographs from all HEDL fuel pin metallography samples are evaluated and catalogued according to different plutonium distribution patterns. The data base is analyzed for effects of fabrication and operating parameters on redistribution

  13. Development of a fluorescent microscope combined with a real-time autoradiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Hiroki; Kanno, Satomi; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Nihei, Naoto; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2008-01-01

    For combination with microscope, we developed real-time autoradiography system for micro-scale analysis with adjustment of the CsI(Ti) scintillator thickness for higher resolution and applying tapered fiber optic plate for magnification of autoradiograph image. We combined real-time autoradiography system with an inverted fluorescent microscope so that an autoradiograph image as well as fluorescent image, bright-field image can be acquired at the same time. In the case of observation of sliced soybean stalk traced 45 CaCl, the fluorescent and bright-field image was acquired which magnified to 50 times, the autoradiograph image of 45 Ca distribution in the tissue was acquired in almost same scale. The new microscopic system which can acquire autoradiograph image of labeled signals (low molecular weight) is expected to develop the signal transduction study and gene expression, combined with fluorescent protein techniques such as GFP etc. (author)

  14. Recent advances in multiple sclerosis therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsette, R.E.; Delmotte, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven papers in this volume are in INIS scope, one dealing with autoradiographic detection of multiple sclerosis plaques with radiologands, and the others with magnetic resonance imaging of MS lesions. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. RNA synthesis during cleavage of the Lymnaea egg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    In eggs of Lymnaea RNA synthesis can be detected autoradiographically from the 8- to the 16-cell stage. From the 16- to the 24-cell stage distinct nucleoli reappear which are immediately engaged in RNA synthesis.

  16. The problematic detection of 51Cr-labelled lymphocytes by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, N. van; Molen, J. van der

    1978-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the possibilities for autoradiographic detection of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes are reported. From the high background in the autoradiographs, caused by 51 Cr eluted from the cells and from the varying labelling results which were obtained it was deduced that the bulk of the 51 Cr was not fixed in the cells after fixation and cell death. Due either to the 51 Cr elution from the cells or to participation of gamma-rays in the autoradiographic results or both, grains were also formed at a distance of several microns from the 51 Cr labelled cells. It is concluded that although 51 Cr may be used as a lymphocyte label in some autoradiographic studies on cell smears, the use of this label for studies in which the tissue localization of labelled cells is intended, seems limited by these disadvantages of the 51 Cr labelling. (U.K.)

  17. Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1970-01-01

    The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131 I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. 37 CFR 1.84 - Standards for drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: electrophoresis gels, blots (e.g., immunological, western, Southern, and northern), autoradiographs, cell cultures... loss in facility of understanding the view. Partial views drawn on separate sheets must always be...

  19. Neutron radiography in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Ilic, R.

    1977-01-01

    The review surveys microneutronographic and neutron-induced autoradiographic techniques and their applications in metallurgy. A brief survey of applications of neutron radiography as a method of non-destructive testing to some macroscopic problems in metallurgy is included. (author)

  20. Examination of arrangement of alloy structural elements in models of metallographic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, M.; Gibas, K.; Lybacka, K.; Narbantowicz, E.

    1986-01-01

    To verify the structure description method taking the probability of component concentration distributions in alloys into account, it is necessary to answer the following question: do the geometrical shapes of component arrangement which are visible on the autoradiographs as dark spots determine the type and parameters of the probability distribution. To solve the problem, 14 autoradiographic models representing different shapes of labelled compounds have been prepared and measured. The results show that different structures have a different distribution of the same element

  1. Determination of microdistribution of boron in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illic, R; Najzer, M; Rant, J [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1976-07-01

    A neutron induced autoradiographic technique was used for the determination of the boron microdistribution in metals. The specimens, which were in close contact with a LR 115 SSTD, were irradiated in the exposure room of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The spatial resolution of the autoradiographic image recorded by the LR 115 detector was found to be influenced mainly by the size of the reaction product tracks. The track diameter of a normally etched detector was about 7 {mu}m. An appreciable reduction of track size was achieved by pre-etching the detector foil before neutron irradiation. By this procedure it was possible to obtain a track diameter as small as 1 {mu}m and correspondingly to improve the spatial resolution of the autoradiographs of type EC 80 steel and Al Mg 3 alloy which contain 30 and 2 ppm of boron respectively. (author)

  2. Study of monitoring protection of radionuclides contamination in organism by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Kang Baoan; He Guangren

    1987-01-01

    In view of the exceptionally important role of the medical radiation protection in human health, the authors try to study on the monitoring of internal contamination of radionuclides in organism by different autoradiographic methods, such as: monitoring of the body retention of isolated or combined radionuclides by freezing microautoradiography; monitoring of blood, bone marrow and excreta radioactive samples by smear autoradiography; differentiation of two radionuclides contamination by double radionuclide autoradiography; especially, monitoring of low level of radionuclides contamination by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography. The sensitivity of autoradiographic formation was increased by the scintillator by 10 times

  3. Increased DNA-repair in spleen cells of M. Hodgkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.; Neumann, E.; Howanietz, L.; Dolejs, I.; Tuschl, H.; Altmann, H.

    1974-11-01

    In spleen cells of control patients and cells of Morbus Hodgkin, DNA-repair after gamma- and UV-irradiation was determined measuring the incorporated 3H-thymidine activity in the DNA. Additionally, the ratio of labeled cells compared to non-labeled cells and the grains per cell were evaluated by autoradiographic investigations. DNA-content per cell was measured using pulsecytophotometry. A significant increase of DNA-repair capacity after gamma-irradiation was found by density gradient centrifugation in alkaline sucrose. The same trend could be shown by investigations of unscheduled DNA-synthesis using autoradiographic method. (author)

  4. Method of determining local distribution of water or aqueous solutions penetrated into plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Joks, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Penetrating water is labelled with tritium and the distribution is autoradiographically monitored. The discovery consists in that the plastic with the penetrating water or aqueous solution is cooled with liquid nitrogen and under the stream of liquid nitrogen the plastic is cut and exposed on the autoradiographic film in the freezer at temperatures from -15 to -30 degC. The autoradiogram will show the distribution of water in the whole area of the section. The described method may be used to detect water distribution also in filled plastics. (J.P.)

  5. Measurement of activity distribution using photostimulable phosphor imaging plates in decommissioned 10 MV medical linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Yonai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sakae, Takeji; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Yoshihisa; Itami, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Photonuclear reactions generate neutrons in the head of the linear accelerator. Therefore, some parts of the linear accelerator can become activated. Such activated materials must be handled as radioactive waste. The authors attempted to investigate the distribution of induced radioactivity using photostimulable phosphor imaging plates. Autoradiographs were produced from some parts of the linear accelerator (the target, upper jaw, multileaf collimator and shielding). The levels of induced radioactivity were confirmed to be non-uniform within each part from the autoradiographs. The method was a simple and highly sensitive approach to evaluating the relative degree of activation of the linear accelerators, so that appropriate materials management procedures can be carried out.

  6. State-of-art and future development of activation autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babikova, Yu.F.; Gusakov, A.A.; Kazakov, S.S.; Minaev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Autoradiography as one of the long-term techniques of local analysis of chemical inhomogenities of materials finds a wide application. Autoradiographic techniques using sample activation by charged particles and nuclear decay radiation detection are most favourable from the analytical point of view. The same applies to activation by neutrons and gamma rays and the detection of nuclear reaction products. By choosing optimum conditions and modes of conducting activation autoradiographic research it is possible to determine selectively such elements as lithium, boron, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, silicon and phosphorus in most of the metal matrices

  7. Mechanistic Studies of Oligonucleotide Aptamers With Potent Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Activity Against Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Quadruplex structures in nucleic acids. Biopolymers , 2000. 56(3): p. 123-46. 16. Mills, M., et al., Unusual DNA conformations: implications for telomeres...scanning autoradiographic films and using UN-SCAN-IT gel software ( Silk Scientific Corporation, UT, USA). Band intensities were normalized as indicated in

  8. Neutron activation autoradiography of paintings by Rembrandt and his time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.O.; Leuther, W.; Laurenze, C.; Slusallek, K.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a Rembrandt Research Project, 19 paintings of the Dahlem gallery in Berlin have been investigated by neutron activation autoradiography. The autoradiographs make visible underlying structures such as preparatory sketches, conceptional changes, signatures, and the individual brush-work of the artist. (author)

  9. Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophs in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Swanson, L W; Vale, W

    1986-01-01

    The mitogenic effect of the hypothalamic peptides growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin on cultured growth hormone (GH)-producing cells (somatotrophs) was studied. Using autoradiographic detection of [3H]thymidine uptake and immunocytochemical identification of GH-producing cells...

  10. A functional study of the rat olfactory bulb through autoradiography with 14C-2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrier, Marie; Leveteau, Jean; Giachetti, Ismene; MacLeod, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    The autoradiographic methods has been used in the rat to map active regions in the olfactory bulb after a pulse of 14 C-2-deoxyglucose with electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract. The highest optical densities were found at the external plexiform, mural, internal plexiform and granular layers: the lowest was found in the glomerular layer [fr

  11. Development, comparative morphology and cornification of reptilian claws in relation to claws evolution in tetrapods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alibardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of claws in different reptiles and their cornification are analyzed using histological, ultrastructural and autoradiographic methods. Claws develop at the tip of digits in relation to the growth of the terminal phalanx and appear as modified scales. The apical epidermis of digit

  12. Equal contribution of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood to cerebral blood flow reduction and receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    chain reaction was used to determine the mRNA levels for ET(A), ET(B), and 5-HT(1) receptors. Regional and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) were quantified by means of an autoradiographic technique. RESULTS: Compared with the sham condition, both SAH and saline injection resulted in significantly...

  13. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of exogenous 32 Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-[ 32 P]ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments

  15. Quantitative electron microscope autoradiography: application of multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of high resolution EM autoradiographs is described. It identifies labelled cell organelle profiles in sections on a strictly statistical basis and provides accurate estimates for their radioactivity without the need to make any assumptions about their size, shape and spatial arrangement. (author)

  16. Population studies of echinoderms and growth and mortality of sea cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: methods of collecting sea cucumbers; determination of growth rates of plates of the calcareous ring; use of growth parameters and a length-frequency distribution to estimate mortality and population turnover; movement of materials through the atoll ecosystem; and autoradiographic studies on spines of sea urchins

  17. Application of the boron autoradiography in structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, A.L.T. de

    1985-01-01

    An example of the use of the autoradiographic method for obtaining boron distribution images is described. The technique is based on an emitting nuclear reaction (neutron irradiation), which leaves a latent track in a cellulose film. This detector material is revealed by chemical etching and observed by optical and electron transmission microscopy. (Author) [pt

  18. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  19. Radionuclide techniques in criminology. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.

    1979-01-01

    A radiotracer method was developed and tested for the age determination of manuscripts. The method is based on the autoradiographic detection of chloride ions migration from inks and on the use of insoluble sup(110m)AgCl formation. (author)

  20. Point-based warping with optimized weighting factors of displacement vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielot, Ranier; Scholz, Michael; Obermayer, Klaus; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Hess, Andreas

    2000-06-01

    The accurate comparison of inter-individual 3D image brain datasets requires non-affine transformation techniques (warping) to reduce geometric variations. Constrained by the biological prerequisites we use in this study a landmark-based warping method with weighted sums of displacement vectors, which is enhanced by an optimization process. Furthermore, we investigate fast automatic procedures for determining landmarks to improve the practicability of 3D warping. This combined approach was tested on 3D autoradiographs of Gerbil brains. The autoradiographs were obtained after injecting a non-metabolized radioactive glucose derivative into the Gerbil thereby visualizing neuronal activity in the brain. Afterwards the brain was processed with standard autoradiographical methods. The landmark-generator computes corresponding reference points simultaneously within a given number of datasets by Monte-Carlo-techniques. The warping function is a distance weighted exponential function with a landmark- specific weighting factor. These weighting factors are optimized by a computational evolution strategy. The warping quality is quantified by several coefficients (correlation coefficient, overlap-index, and registration error). The described approach combines a highly suitable procedure to automatically detect landmarks in autoradiographical brain images and an enhanced point-based warping technique, optimizing the local weighting factors. This optimization process significantly improves the similarity between the warped and the target dataset.

  1. Quantitative autoradiography of radionuclides in biological tissues by high resolution nuclear analysis: application in radio-toxicology and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubineau Laniece, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of radiation damage on cells in living organisms an auto-radiograph, based on the STIC method, has been developed for the particles detection. This apparatus associates a thin scintillator with a photosensitive detector (CCD). The design and the performance of this well adapted tool for low activity biological samples study, are described. (A.L.B.)

  2. Some principles about microchemical examination of weak active waste water. Einige Grundlagen zur mikrochemischen Untersuchung schwach-radioaktiver Abwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loley, F

    1961-01-01

    By combination of the ring oven technique and autoradiographic methods it was possible to detect radioactive isotopes in waste water. The detection limit is about 10/sup -13/ gramm or 10/sup -9/ curie. Some milliliters of water are used. In case of a complex mixture a separation is necessary.

  3. 13th international symposium on autoradiography (13th ISA '83)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strba, J.

    1983-01-01

    At the conference, 39 papers were heard all of which are included in INIS. Topics covered include: trends in development of solid state track detectors, theory and methods of quantitative autoradiography, equipment for autoradiographs processing and track counting, uses of autoradiography in research of semiconductors, in metallography and in biology

  4. Improved coating and fixation methods for scanning electron microscope autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple apparatus for emulsion coating is described. The apparatus is inexpensive and easily assembled in a standard glass shop. Emulsion coating for scanning electron microscope autoradiography with this apparatus consistently yields uniform layers. When used in conjunction with newly described fixation methods, this new approach produces reliable autoradiographs of undamaged specimens

  5. The incorporation of 14C-adenine into the oocytes of Asellus aquaticus as studied by autoradiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, C.J.H. van den; Tates, A.D.

    Asellus aquaticus females were injected with 8-14C-adenine, fixed after 3 hours and sectioned. In coated autoradiographs, the number of β-tracks from 14C were counted over nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm of the oocytes at various stages of their development. Incorporation into nucleolar RNA, being

  6. Nucleolar development and allocation of key nucleolar proteins require de novo transcription in bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarcova, Olga; Laurincik, Jozef; Avery, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    and the early 8-cell stage, and the entire nucleoplasm as well as nucleolus precursor bodies (NBBs) were prominently labelled in all late 8-cell stages. The NPBs displayed initial transformation into fibrillo-granular nucleoli. In the a-amanitin group, lack of autoradiographic labelling was seen at all...

  7. Contribution to mathematical handling of autoradiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kummer, G; Baumbach, H; Freyer, K [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung

    1976-01-01

    The method of optimum inverse filter is derived from the mathematical modelation of the autoradiographic transfer process. With it authoradiographic pictures errors can be characterized and corrected, and a number of ''picture'' manipulations like classification, differentiation a.o.m. at digitalized autoradiograms can be done.

  8. Microstructure characterizaton of advanced oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Gerber, E.W.; McCord, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Preirradiation porosity, grain size, and microcomposition characteristics are presented for selected advanced oxide (PuO 2 -UO 2 ) LMFBR developmental fuels fabricated for irradiation testing in EBR-II. Quantitative microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and a recently developed quantitative autoradiographic technique are utilized to relate microstructure characteristics to fabrication parameters

  9. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides from different types of mastocytes kept in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two different types of mice mastocitomas - solid and/or ascitic - are analysed in detail using a methodology based mainly in azarose gel microelectrophoresis and degradation by specific mucopolysaccharidases. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides are assayed in both types of tumors in cells cultivated in vitro. Radioactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  10. Pulmonary distribution of inhaled 239PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McShane, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Catt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 by inhalation were killed from 1 to 69 mo postexposure. The distribution of plutonium in the lungs, which was studied by analyzing autoradiographs, changed relative to time postexposure. This study investigates methods of measuring these changes

  11. Digital autoradiography technique for studying of spatial Impurity distributions Delara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamrayeva, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the possibilities of the digital image processing for autoradiographic investigations of impurity distributions in the different objects (crystals, biology, geology et al) are shown. Activation autoradiography based on the secondary beta-irradiation is the method spread widely for investigations of the spatial distribution of chemical elements in the different objects. The analysis of autoradiography features is connected with the elucidation of optical density distribution of photoemulsion by means of photometry. The photoemulsion is used as detector of secondary beta irradiation. For different technological and nature materials to have elemental shifts the fine structure of chemical element distribution is often interested. But photometry makes it difficult to study the inhomogeneous chemical elements with the little gradient of concentration (near 20%). Therefore, the suppression of the background and betterment of linear solvability are the main problems of autoradiographic analysis. Application of the fast-acting digital computers and the technical means of signals treatment are allowed to spread the possibilities and the resolution of activation autoradiography. Mechanism of creation of autoradiographic features is described. The treatment of autoradiograms was conducted with the help of the dialogue system having matrix in 512 x 512 elements. For the interpretation of the experimental data clustering analysis methodology was used. Classification of the zones on the minimum of the square mistake was conducted according to the data of histograms of the optical densities of the studying autoradiograms. It was proposed algorithm for digital treatment for reconstruction of autoradiographic features. At a minimal contrast the resolution of the method has been enhanced on the degree by adaptation of methods of digital image processing (DIP) to suppress background activity. Results of the digital autoradiographic investigations of spatial impurity

  12. Accumulation of fission fragment 147Pm in subcellular level studied by electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Yuanchang

    1990-11-01

    The subcellular localization of fission fragment 147 Pm in tissue cells by electron microscopic autoradiography was investigated. The early harm of internal contaminated accumulation of 147 Pm appeared in blood cells and endothelium cells, obviously in erythrocytes. Then 147 Pm was selectively deposited in ultrastructure of liver cells. Autoradiographic study demonstrated that dense tracks appeared in mitochondria and lysosome of podal cells within renal corpuscle. In nucleus as well as in mitochondria and microbodies of epicyte of kidney near-convoluted tubule, there are numerous radioactive 149 Pm accumulated. With the prolongation of observing time, 149 Pm was selectively and steadily deposited in subcellular level of organic component bone. The radionuclides could be accumulated in nucleus of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In organelles, the radionuclides was mainly accumulated in rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Autoradiographic tracks of 149 Pm was obviously found to be localized in combined point between Golgi complex and transitive vesicle of rough endoplasmic reticulum

  13. Uptake and translocation of zinc absorbed through roots and fruiting organs in peanuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahal, R.S.; Singh, S.P.; Shukla, U.C.

    1979-01-01

    Peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L.) are known to absorb Ca, P and S through the fruiting organs but information on Zn uptake pattern is lacking. Therefore, a green-house experiment was conducted to study the uptake and translocation of Zn when applied in the rooting and fruiting zones of peanut plants. To locate the pathway and distribution of radioactive Zn, autoradiographs of plants were also taken. Zinc uptake data and autoradiographs indicated that a substantial amount of 65 Zn was absorbed through the fruiting organs (auxillary system). Of the total 65 Zn in the whole plant, 55.2 per cent was absorbed through roots and remaining 44.8 per cent through fruiting organs. Zinc was translocated to all the plant parts regardless of its absorption through roots or fruiting organs. The highest zinc concentration was recorded in the kernels, followed by leaves, stem and the shell. (Auth.)

  14. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  15. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  16. Alpha-Bungarotoxin labeling and acetylcholinesterase localization at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse in the hatchetfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.W.; Hall, D.H.; Hall, L.M.; Bennett, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiographic and histochemical techniques have been used to characterize further the pharmacology of transmission at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse of the South American hatchetfish. [ 125 I]alpha-Bungarotoxin was applied to hatchetfish medullae and a standard autoradiographic procedure was carried out on 3- to 4-microns sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. All Mauthner fiber giant synapses, as identified by light microscopic criteria, had closely associated silver grains. Labeling was blocked by d-tubocurarine. Glutaraldehyde-fixed slices of hatchetfish medulla were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase; all giant synapses that could be identified in the light microscope showed heavy deposits of reaction product. Staining was blocked by diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, which inhibits both pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, but was not blocked by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, a specific pseudocholinesterase inhibitor. This evidence strongly supports the suggestion that the Mauthner fiber giant synapse is nicotinic cholinergic

  17. alpha-Bungarotoxin labeling and acetylcholinesterase localization at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse in the hatchetfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.W.; Hall, D.H.; Hall, L.M.; Bennett, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiographic and histochemical techniques have been used to characterize further the pharmacology of transmission at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse of the South American hatchetfish. [ 125 I]alpha-Bungarotoxin was applied to hatchetfish medullae and a standard autoradiographic procedure was carried out on 3- to 4-microns sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. All Mauthner fiber giant synapses, as identified by light microscopic criteria, had closely associated silver grains. Labeling was blocked by d-tubocurarine. Glutaraldehyde-fixed slices of hatchetfish medulla were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase; all giant synapses that could be identified in the light microscope showed heavy deposits of reaction product. Staining was blocked by diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, which inhibits both pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, but was not blocked by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, a specific pseudocholinesterase inhibitor. This evidence strongly supports the suggestion that the Mauthner fiber giant synapse is nicotinic cholinergic

  18. Tracer techniques for the study of host-parasite relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendgen, K.

    1975-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques have been used to study the interaction of many facultative and obligate parasites, including viruses. After feeding the host plant with labelled substrates, labelled material accumulates in the infected cells and seems to penetrate into structures of the parasite. After labelling the parasite, its influence on the host may be studied. We use this technique to study the interaction of host (bean) and parasite (bean rust) during the infection process. After infection with uredospores labelled with tritiated orotic acid, the radioactivity is retained almost completely within the young haustorium at 22 h after inoculation. This may indicate a very small influence of the parasite on its compatible host. In incompatible host-parasite combinations, the infection process proceeds in a different way. The use of autoradiographic techniques to compare combinations of varying compatibilities will be discussed. (author)

  19. Internalisation of gonadotrophin-receptor complex in ovarian luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, P.M.; Conti, M.; Harwood, J.P.; Dufau, M.L.; Catt, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Following evidence that certain protein hormones can enter target cells the present investigation was undertaken which shows that gonadotrophin-induced receptor loss may occur by a process of internalisation of the hormone-receptor complex following the initial interaction of gonadotrophin with the cell surface. Localisation studies were carried out in 33-d old female rats previously treated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to induce ovarian luteinisation. Animals were injected with 125 I-hCG to label the ovarian receptors for luteinising hormone in vivo. Microscope autoradiographs demonstrating distribution of 125 I-hCG in ovaries at various times following injection are shown. The combined results from the autoradiographs and from solubilisation experiments were used to determine the location and nature of the hCG-receptor complex following occupancy and loss of receptors from the plasma membrane of luteinised ovarian cells. (U.K.)

  20. Demonstration of the therapeutic effect of /sup 35/S labelled L-cystine in articular and intervertebral cartilage as well as in skeletal musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiegelow, P.; Puschmann, M.; Giese, U.

    1984-01-16

    Clinical experience has obviously shown a positive effect of application of sulfated amino acids on degenerative cartilage diseases. L-Cystin, presumed to be of therapeutic effect, was autoradiographically localized in articular, columnar and intervertebral cartilage as well as in skeletal musculature. In 10 days old NMRI-mice, we had shown a dose-dependent incorporation of the radioactively labelled /sup 35/S-Cystin in hair follicle. These statistically significant differences had been measured by quantitative autoradiographical microscope photometry. The sulfated amino acids are also proven in nail matrix, nail hyponychium as well as in cartilage and skeletal musculature. Besides a localization of radioactively labelled L-Cystin in tissues, presumed as target organs of a therapeutic effect, there is still lacking an experimental proof of efficacy on cell proliferation and functional metabolism e.g. in arthrosis by suitable animal models.

  1. Sorption of plutonium and curium on ion exchange resins in mixed aqueous organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidvogel, N.; Reitsamer, G.; Grass, F.

    1974-12-01

    The sorption of the sulfate and nitrate-complexes of the actinides Pu(III), Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Am(III) and Om(III) on the ion-exchange-resins Dowex 1X8 and Dowex 50 WX8 is investigated. The strong sorbability of these actinide ions in solvents with high content of alcohol is explained by the existence of anionic complexes like Pu(III) (SO 4 ) 2 - , Pu(IV) (SO 4 ) 3 2 - , Pu(VI)O 2 (SO 4 ) 2 2 - , Am(SO 4 ) 2 - respectively Am(NO 3 ) 4 - and Om(NO 3 ) 4 - . The taking of autoradiographs from the thin-layer chromatograms by the aid of a special device and the evaluation of the autoradiographs by a particular photodensitometer are described. The measurement of the radioactivity of the α-emitting nuclides Pu 239, Am 241 and Om 242 are done by liquid-scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  2. Scintillating Optical Fiber Imagers for biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrippolito, R.

    1990-01-01

    S.O.F.I (Scintillating Optical Fiber Imager) is a detector developed to replace the autoradiographic films used in molecular biology for the location of radiolabelled ( 32 P) DNA molecules in blotting experiments. It analyses samples on a 25 x 25 cm 2 square area still 25 times faster than autoradiographic films, with a 1.75 and 3 mm resolution for two orthogonal directions. This device performs numerised images with a dynamic upper than 100 which allows the direct quantitation of the analysed samples. First, this thesis describes the S.O.F.I. development (Scintillating Optical Fibers, coding of these fibers and specific electronic for the treatment of the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier signals) and experiments made in collaboration with molecular biology laboratories. In a second place, we prove the feasibility of an automatic DNA sequencer issued from S.O.F.I [fr

  3. H3-THYMIDINE DERIVATIVE POOLS IN RELATION TO MACRONUCLEAR DNA SYNTHESIS IN TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G. E.; Miller, O. L.; Prescott, D. M.

    1965-01-01

    The formation of a soluble H3-thymidine derivative pool has been examined in Tetrahymena pyriformis as a function of macronuclear DNA synthesis during the cell life cycle. An autoradiographic technique which allows the detection of water-soluble materials within a cell has shown that these cells do not take up and retain exogenous H3-thymidine during G1 or G2. Uptake of H3-thymidine is restricted to the S period of the cell cycle. Additional autoradiographic experiments show, however, that a soluble pool of H3-thymidine derivatives persists from the end of one DNA synthesis period to the beginning of the next synthesis period in the subsequent cell cycle. Since this persisting pool cannot be labeled with H3-thymidine, the pool does not turn over during non-S periods. PMID:19866660

  4. Alpha-Bungarotoxin labeling and acetylcholinesterase localization at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse in the hatchetfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, J.W.; Hall, D.H.; Hall, L.M.; Bennett, M.V.

    1983-02-01

    Autoradiographic and histochemical techniques have been used to characterize further the pharmacology of transmission at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse of the South American hatchetfish. (/sup 125/I)alpha-Bungarotoxin was applied to hatchetfish medullae and a standard autoradiographic procedure was carried out on 3- to 4-microns sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. All Mauthner fiber giant synapses, as identified by light microscopic criteria, had closely associated silver grains. Labeling was blocked by d-tubocurarine. Glutaraldehyde-fixed slices of hatchetfish medulla were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase; all giant synapses that could be identified in the light microscope showed heavy deposits of reaction product. Staining was blocked by diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, which inhibits both pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, but was not blocked by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, a specific pseudocholinesterase inhibitor. This evidence strongly supports the suggestion that the Mauthner fiber giant synapse is nicotinic cholinergic.

  5. alpha-Bungarotoxin labeling and acetylcholinesterase localization at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse in the hatchetfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, J.W.; Hall, D.H.; Hall, L.M.; Bennett, M.V.

    1983-02-01

    Autoradiographic and histochemical techniques have been used to characterize further the pharmacology of transmission at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse of the South American hatchetfish. (/sup 125/I)alpha-Bungarotoxin was applied to hatchetfish medullae and a standard autoradiographic procedure was carried out on 3- to 4-microns sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. All Mauthner fiber giant synapses, as identified by light microscopic criteria, had closely associated silver grains. Labeling was blocked by d-tubocurarine. Glutaraldehyde-fixed slices of hatchetfish medulla were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase; all giant synapses that could be identified in the light microscope showed heavy deposits of reaction product. Staining was blocked by diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, which inhibits both pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, but was not blocked by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, a specific pseudocholinesterase inhibitor. This evidence strongly supports the suggestion that the Mauthner fiber giant synapse is nicotinic cholinergic.

  6. Comparative study on the dependence of quantitative results in the electron microscopic autoradiography on the type of developer (Microdol X, Phenidon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, H.; Marx, I.; Nanoff, S.

    1978-01-01

    It was the aim of the investigation to compare quantitative results of electron microscopic autoradiographs after the use of different developers (Microdol X, Phenidon) adapting morphometrical methods. Erythroblasts of rabbit were tested after incorporation of 3 H-uridine in vitro. Both developers showed the same tendency at higher rates of incorporation (basophilic erythroblasts and polychromatic erythroblasts). Using Phenidon, however, we could obtain only half the values for the individual cell components. At high rates of incorporation Microdol X results in an overlapping of the silver filaments. Thus, more distinct grains can be reached by Phenidon. At smaller rates of incorporation (orthochromatic erythroblasts) after using. Phenidon a quantitative evaluation is however influenced by too many factors of uncertainty so that according to our investigations Microdol X is better suited for a quantitative evaluation of electron microscopic autoradiographs. (author)

  7. Quantitative analysis of macro-ARG using IP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Eiichi; Kawai, Kenji; Furuta, Yoshitake

    1997-01-01

    Recent progress in imaging plate (IP) system allow us to analyze autoradiographic images quantitatively. In the 'whole-body autoradiography', a method clarify the distribution of radioisotope or labeled compounds in the tissues and organs in a freeze-dried whole-body section of small animals such as rats and mice, the sections are pressed against a IP for exposure and the IP is scanned by Bio-Imaging Analyzer (Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd) and a digital autoradiographic image is given. Quantitative data concerning the activity in different tissues can be obtained using an isotope scale as a reference source. Fading effect, application of IP system for distribution of receptor binding ARG, analysis of radio-spots on TLC and radioactive concentration in liquid such as blood are also discussed. (author)

  8. Autoradiography after incubation of tissue slices in 111 In-pentetreotide. Demonstration of the feasibility of the technique on rat brain slices. Application in two cases of human renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Allard, S.; Fouret, P.; Daty, N.; Talbot, J.N.; Bernaudin, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a macroscopic autoradiographic technique using 111 In-pentetreotide after in vitro incubation of the slices. The feasibility of this technique has been demonstrated by the actual labeling of the deeper layers of the rat cerebral cortex, corresponding to the known cerebral distribution of somatostatin subtype 2 receptor. This technique has subsequently been applied in two of human renal cell carcinoma and has proven the presence of somatostatin receptors in both tumours. In one of these cases, a preoperative scintigraphy using 111 In-pentetreotide showed the absence of tumour visualization. The mechanism proposed to explain this discrepancy between scintigraphic and autoradiographic results is a lack of accessibility of the somatostatin analog to the receptor in case of voluminous renal tumour. (authors). 19 refs., 2 figs

  9. Tomography by positrons: methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellershohn, C.; Comar, D.

    1979-01-01

    Whereas gamma tomography (single photon) provides a new and fruitful dimension to conventional nuclear medicine, tomography by positrons makes possible a novel approach to the in-vivo analysis of fundamental and biological processes. The main object of both is the cross sectional representation of the distribution of a radioactive marker injected into the organism and in comparison with conventional detectors (gamma cameras and scintigraphs) they afford a much improved accuracy in position finding. The characteristics of these two methods may be represented diagrammatically by comparing their respective advantages and drawbacks. The method of fabricating positron emitting radioelements, the preparation of the radopharmeutics and the detection appliances are then examined in turn. To conclude, the medical uses: anatomical autoradiographs, as well as physiological, metabolic and pharmacological autoradiographs are described [fr

  10. Effects of low dose radiation on repair processes in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Altmann, H.; Kovac, R.; Topaloglou, A.; Egg, D.; Guenther, R.

    1978-10-01

    DNA excision repair was investigated in lymphocytes of persons occupationally exposed to low dose radiation of 222 Rn. Autoradiographic studies of unscheduled DNA synthesis and measurement of 3 H-thymidine incorporation by repair replication into double stranded and single-strand containing DNA fractions obtained by BND cellulose chromatography seem to indicate a stimulatory effect of repeated low dose radiation on repair enzymes. (author)

  11. Digital imaging of regional glucose metabolism of the heart with a MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Camici, P.; Coppini, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Ragadini, M.; Spandre, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1983-01-01

    The digital imaging of carbohydrate consumption in myocardial tissue has been performed by using a deposit tracer of glucose metabolism ( 3 H-deoxyglucose) and a specially designed Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) that acts as a position sensitive radioactivity detector. The resolving power (approx. =1.5 mm FWHM), sensitivity (approx. =10 -1 Bq/cm 2 ), efficiency (approx. =10%) and uniformity (+ or -4%) of the system are shown and MWPC digital autoradiographs of canine heart in different pathophysiological conditions are presented

  12. A high resolution β-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Cuzon, J.C.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    1987-01-01

    We present a detector which associates a charge coupled device to a light amplifier. This image sensor must detect weak β-activity, with a 10 μm resolution and should replace the autoradiographic films used for molecular hybridization. The best results are obtained with the 35 S emittor, for which the resolution and the efficiency are respectively 20 μm and 100% (relative to the measured standard source)

  13. RNA synthesis during meiosis and spermiogenesis in Tylototriton verrucosus anderson - an annual testicular cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.R.; Ray, D.; Ghosal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    RNA synthetic activity during various stages of meiosis and spermiogenesis in Tylotatriton verrucosus has been studied throughout the testicular cycle by autoradiographic technique. Meiocytes are 'hot' during breeding months while spermatids as well as spermatozoa has shown RNA synthetic activity during breeding and non breeding months. Continuation of RNA synthetic activity in spermatozoa suggests continued transcription necessary for sperm preservation of this seasonal breeder. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  14. Mechanism of Action of Presynaptic Neurotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    lGTb 1Db. gnlisde RE-105 cells and their structures were verified by partial hydrolysis studies performed by the principal Investigator in...internalized 12sI-tetanus toxin migrates with authentic toxin on SDS gels ( Staub et al., 1985). This is consistent with recent reports that tetanus...for a Transsynaptic Migration of Tetanus Toxin in Spinal Cord Motoneurons: An Autoradiographic and Morphometric Study. Brain Res. 105, 213-227. Simpson

  15. Sequential topographical portrayal of myocardial blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richeson, J.F.; Waag, R.C.; Zwierzynski, D.; Schenk, E.A. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Methods to portray myocardial blood flow in a two-dimensional continuum are advantageous in that they allow blood flow history to be overlaid on histological or histochemical descriptions of the consequences of ischemia. We describe here autoradiographic methods that allow such portrayals at three separate times during the evolution of ischemic injury. A computer-based image-analysis system was used to derive such flow maps by taking advantage of the physical characteristics of radioactive isotopes.

  16. Application of the boron autoradiography in structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, A.L.T. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of boron containing steels requires a knowledge of the microstructural state of that element, determined by the competition between precipitation and solution.An example of the use of the autoradiographic method for obtaining boron distribution images is described and showed. The technique is based on an α emitting nuclear reaction, which leaves a latent track in cellulose. This detector material is revealed by chemical etching and observed by optical and electron transmission microscopy. (Author) [pt

  17. In vitro labeling receptor autoradiography: loss of label during ethanol dehydration and preparative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.; Unnerstall, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Slide-mounted tissue sections of brain were incubated with several reversibly binding [ 3 H]ligands to label receptors. Exposure of these labeled, mounted tissue sections to ethanol solutions for dehydration resulted in a substantial loss of receptor bound ligands in all cases, even when the tissues were fixed with formaldehyde vapors before exposure. Thus, serious problems can be introduced into in vitro labeling autoradiographic procedures by exposure of sections to aqueous or organic media. (Auth.)

  18. Radiation effect of radioiodide therapy on the hypophyseal and hypothalamic feedback control centers for thyroid function studied by dry-mount autoradiography. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported from studies in rats on the effects of β radiation from therapeutic doses of 131 I on the physiology of the pituitary gland and on brain structures considered thyroid hormone control areas. Iodine-125-labeled triiodothyronine and thyroxine and autoradiographic techniques were used to determine the cellular and subcellular localization of thyroid hormones in the brain tissues of untreated and thyroidectomized animals. The results suggest that thyroid hormones act on all neurons throughout the mature brain. (U.S.)

  19. Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcho, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of [ 35 S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

  20. Cerebral blood flow in migraine and cortical spreading depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, M.

    1987-01-01

    In a series of migraine patients, carotid arteriography was carried out as part of the clinical evalution. Nine patients developed a migrainous attack with focal neurological symptoms and headache after the angiography and during the subsequent, ongoing regional cerebral blood flow rCBF study. rCBF was measured by bolus injection of Xenon/sup 133/ into the internal carotid artery and a gamma camera with 254 collimated scintillation detectors covering the lateral aspect of the hemisphere. This technique depicts rCBF mainly at the level of the superficial cortex, with no depth resolution. The resolution is 1 cm/sup 2/ providing detailed spatial information of the cortical blood flow. Other methods for measuring local blood flow in animal and man employ a radioactive, freely diffusible tracer, in combination with an autoradiographic technique for the assessment of the tissue concentration, the so-called autoradiographic methods. In the series of patients with spontaneous migraine, rCBF was estimated using an in-vivo application of the autoradiographic principle. Xenon/sup 133/ was administered by inhalation and the time course of the arterial concentration curve was assessed by a scintillation detector over the upper right lung, since the arterial curve has been found to follow the shape of the lung curve. The rCBF was studied accompanying cortical spreading depression in rat experiments to evaluate wheter this phenomenon could explain the blood flow changes in migraine. (/sup 14/C) iodoantipyrine was given as an intravenous bolus injection and the brain content of indicator was determined by tissue sample or autoradiography after 10 or 20 seconds of isotope circulation. The conditions of the autoradiographic methods are that the flow remains constant within the period of measuring, and that the region under study is homogenous with regard to flow and lambda. (EG).

  1. Application of autoradiography in finger print analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.; Simek, J.

    1983-01-01

    In order to broaden the possibilities of developing latent finger prints a tracer technique has been developed using sup(110m)Ag and autoradiographic imaging. This method has been tested on glass, paper and certain plastics. On paper it is possible to visualize finger prints even after previous development using Ninhydrin. It is shown that usable finger prints may be obtained also from materials from which they cannot be obtained using classical methods, e.g., polyethylene and simulated leather. (author)

  2. Aspects of physicochemical methods for the detection of latent fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews physicochemical methods of detecting latent finger-prints on a wide range of materials commonly found at the scene of a crime, with particular emphasis placed on the newer autoradiographic techniques. This is set against a description of studies on the fundamental nature of the latent fingerprint and its host substrate, with a brief review of the history of reagents used in latent fingerprint examination. (author)

  3. Comparison of Analysis and Quantification of Cell Death in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    mammalian somatic cells appear to have a finite life span that is genetically programmed ( Hayflick , 1977). Following the consummation of this program... limited situations it is possible to evaluate the proliferation kinetics of cell populations in tis- sues by autoradiographically detecting radiolabeled...are, therefore, virtually limited to the analysis of toxicity of directly active chemicals. Primary cultures of target cells retain the ability to

  4. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1976-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artifical test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiographs by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (orig.) [de

  5. Creatinine metabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus bacillisporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polacheck, I; Kwon-Chung, K J

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus, C. neoformans and C. bacillisporus, utilized creatinine as a source of nitrogen but not of carbon. Chromatographic and autoradiographic studies suggest that creatinine metabolism in both species involves a single step resulting in the production of methylhydantoin and ammonia. The enzyme responsible for this step, creatinine deiminase, was produced by the cells only in the presence of creatinine in both species. The synthesis of creatinine deiminase was...

  6. Quantitative autoradiography of semiconductor base material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiographic methods for the quantitative determination of elements interesting in semiconductor technology and their distribution in silicon are described. Whereas the local concentration and distribution of phosphorus has been determined with the aid of silver halide films the neutron-induced autoradiography has been applied in the case of boron. Silicon disks containing diffused phosphorus or implanted or diffused boron have been used as standard samples. Different possibilities of the quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are considered and compared

  7. Neutron distribution in the central cell and a peripheral cell of the Fontenay-aux-Roses pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roullier, F.

    1958-01-01

    The distribution of the neutron density has been determined in the central cell and a peripheral cell of the pile at Fontenay-aux-Roses. This measurement was carried out by the autoradiographic method with manganese detectors. The neutron density distribution in the uranium rod has already been studied. The measurement was completed by the study of the neutron density in the complete cell by means of detectors placed in the uranium and in the heavy water. (author) [fr

  8. Isolation and characterization of repeat elements of the oak genome and their application in population analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluch, S.; Burg, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four minisatellite sequence elements have been identified and isolated from the genome of the oak species Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. Minisatellites 1 and 2 are putative members of repeat families, while minisatellites 3 and 4 show repeat length variation among individuals of test populations. A 590 base pair (bp) long element has also been identified which reveals individual-specific autoradiographic patterns when used as probe in Southern hybridisations of genomic oak DNA. (author)

  9. The use of autoradiography in experimental pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, L.J.

    The applications are surveyed of autoradiography in histological examinations, using tritium-labelled thymidine. Also discussed is the use of other tracers, such as carbon 14. Examples are given of the determination of substances by autoradiography, such as estradiol in soft tissues, nicotine in nerve ganglias, estradiol in nerve tissues, alkaloids etc. The use is also treated of light microscopy and electron microscopy for autoradiographic purposes. (L.O.)

  10. Effects of Na2CaEDTA on lead deposits in rabbit osseous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doniec, J.; Trojanowska, B.; Trzcinka-Ochocka, M.; Garlicka, I.

    1983-01-01

    Radiochemical and autoradiographic methods were used for 210 Pb determination after Na 2 CaEDTA administration to rabbits. 210 Pb was determined in soft tissues, compact and trabecular bones and growing microareas on the endosteum of the long bone. After Na 2 CaEDTA injection lead was depleted from 'new' deposits mainly on the growing surface of both trabecular and compact bones. (Auth.)

  11. Measurement of PuO2 spot in the mixed-oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosuka, Yoshifumi; Kaneda, Kenichiro; Ishikawa, Eiji; Nakajima, Katsuaki; Kashima, Sadamitsu

    1974-01-01

    The homogeneity of mixed-oxide fuel is evaluated with the maximum diameter of PuO 2 spots. PuO 2 spot distribution is influenced by fuel production process and raw materials used. Analytical measurement of the PuO 2 spot distribution was carried out. α-autoradiograph was taken with nitrocellulose film as a detector. The film was exposed for 15 and 30 minutes to the sample pellets, and etched in 10% NaOH for 2 minutes at 60 0 C. Measurement of PuO 2 spots was performed manually with a projector. PuO 2 spot distribution was measured. There is no difference of spot distribution owing to the location in a pellet. However some discrepancy exists in spot number and maximum diameter between surface and inner part. This phenomenon is explained by considering that the diffusion on surface is more effective than in inner part in sintering process. Three pellets were taken out from a lot at random, and α-autoradiograph was taken longitudinally with a pellet and transversely with the others. PuO 2 spot number counted from three autoradiographs was about 150/cm 2 , and the standard deviation was about 1.5. No difference was observed among them. Concerning the influence of mixing method on PuO 2 spot formation, three methods were examined; ball mill mixing (with and without lining) and Kneader mixing. Kneader mixing gave the worst results in maximum spot diameter and spot distribution range. (Tai, I.)

  12. Application of the quantitative autoradiography for determination of specific activity of labelled non-metallic inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, J.T.; Wilczynski, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of specific activity of labelled non-metallic inclusions, i.e. the knowledge of the content of the radiotracer in a single inclusion, allows to obtain new information about the mechanism and the kinetics of steel deoxidation. In order to determine this specific activity quantitative autoradiography was used. Fo; this purpose, various standards of aluminium oxides with different amounts of cerium oxide Ce 2 O 3 and an aluminium-cerium alloy were prepared. The standards and the alloy were activated with thermal neutrons. Then several autoradiographs were made for these standards (ORWO AF-3 films were used). The autoradiographs served as the basis for evaluation of the standardization curves: optical density versus dimension of particles for a constant cerium concentration; optical density versus concentration of cerium for a constant dimension of particle. The samples of liquid steel were deoxidated with Al-Ce alloy. After labelled non-metallic inclusions had been isolated, the autoradiographs were made under the same conditions as for the standards. The standardization curves were used to determine the cerium content in the single inclusions. (author)

  13. Metabolic activity in striate and extrastriate cortex in the hooded rat: contralateral and ipsilateral eye input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurlow, G.A.; Cooper, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of changes in glucose metabolism resulting from ipsilateral and contralateral eye activity in the posterior cortex of the hooded rat was demonstrated by means of the C-14 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique. By stimulating one eye with square wave gratings and eliminating efferent activation from the other by means of enucleation or intraocular TTX injection, differences between ipsilaterally and contralaterally based visual activity in the two hemispheres were maximized. Carbon-14 levels in layer IV of autoradiographs of coronal sections were measured and combined across sections to form right and left matrices of posterior cortex metabolic activity. A difference matrix, formed by subtracting the metabolic activity matrix of cortex contralateral to the stimulated eye from the ipsilateral depressed matrix, emphasized those parts of the visual cortex that received monocular visual input. The demarcation of striate cortex by means of cholinesterase stain and the examination of autoradiographs from sections cut tangential to the cortical surface aided in the interpretation of the difference matrices. In striate cortex, differences were maximal in the medial monocular portion, and the lateral or binocular portion was shown to be divided metabolically into a far lateral contralaterally dominant strip along the cortical representation of the vertical meridian, and a more medial region of patches of more or less contralaterally dominant binocular input. Lateral peristriate differences were less than those of striate cortex, and regions of greater and lesser monocular input could be distinguished. We did not detect differences between the two hemispheres in either anterior or medial peristriate areas

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement with intravenous [15O]water bolus and [18F]fluoromethane inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.; Pietrzyk, U.; Wienhard, K.; Hebold, I.; Pawlik, G.; Wagner, R.; Holthoff, V.; Klinkhammer, P.; Heiss, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    In 20 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, classic migraine, or angiomas, we compared paired dynamic positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow using both [ 15 O]water and [ 18 F]fluoromethane as tracers. Cerebral blood flow was also determined according to the autoradiographic technique with a bolus injection of [ 15 O]water. There were reasonable overall correlations between dynamic [ 15 O]water and [ 18 F]fluoromethane values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.82) and between dynamic and autoradiographic [ 15 O]water values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.83). We found a close correspondence between abnormal pathologic findings and visually evaluated cerebral blood flow tomograms obtained with the two tracers. On average, dynamic [ 15 O]water cerebral blood flow was 6% lower than that measured with [ 18 F]fluoromethane. There also was a general trend toward a greater underestimation with [ 15 O]water in high-flow areas, particularly in hyperemic areas, probably due to incomplete first-pass extraction of [ 15 O]water. Underestimation was not detected in low-flow areas or in the cerebellum. Absolute cerebral blood flow values were less closely correlated between tracers and techniques than cerebral blood flow patterns. The variability of the relation between absolute flow values was probably caused by confounding effects of the variation in the circulatory delay time. The autoradiographic technique was most sensitive to this type error

  15. Selective retrograde transport of D-aspartate in spinal interneurons anc cortical neurons of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustioni, A.; Cuenod, M.

    1982-01-01

    Retrograde labeling of neuronal elements in the brain and spinal cord has been investigated by autoradiographic techniques following injections of D-[ 3 H]aspartate (asp), [ 3 H]γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the medulla and spinal cord of rats. Twenty-four hours after D-[ 3 H]asp injections focused upon the cuneate nucleus, autoradiographic labeling is present over fibers in the pyramidal tract, internal capsule and over layer V pyramids in the forelimb representation of the sensorimotor cortex. After [ 3 H]GABA injections in the same nucleus no labeling attributable to retrograde translocation can be detected in spinal segments, brain stem or cortex. Conversely, injections of 30% HRP in the cuneate nucleus label neurons in several brain stem nuclei, in spinal gray and in layer V of the sensorimotor cortex. D-[ 3 H]Asp injections focused on the dorsal horn at cervical segments label a fraction of perikarya of the substantia gelatinosa and a sparser population of larger neurons in laminae IV to VI for a distance of 3-5 segments above and below the injection point. No brain stem neuronal perikarya appear labeled following spinal injections of D-[ 3 H]asp although autoradiographic grains overlie pyramidal tract fibers on the side contralateral to the injection. (Auth.)

  16. Plastic reorganization in the inferior colliculus of the immature mouse studied by 14C$deoxyglucose method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Ikuo; Saito, Nozomu

    1978-01-01

    Plastic reinnervation was observed in the mouse by means of autoradiography with [ 14 C]deoxyglucose (DG). It is possible that the ipsilateral inhibitory pathway for input from the cochlea to the inferior colliculus (IC) switches to excitation or disinhibition following unilateral cochlear destruction. Autoradiographs of the brains of mice exposed to sound stimuli exhibited high optical densities in activated regions due to the increased uptake of DG. IC revealed essentially the same optical density on both sides. No bilateral asymmetry appeared in autoradiographs of IC in 46-day-old normal animals with binaural hearing, indicating glucose consumption at the same rate bilaterally at the level of IC in normal animals. On the 1st and 4th days after destruction of the left cochles, the contralateral IC exhibited less labeling than the ipsilateral IC. However, optical density in the contralateral IC increase. On the 11th day, it was apparently reduced in bilateral asymmetry. Autoradiographs on the 18th day demonstrated essentially an equal uptake of DG on both sides and almost the same pattern as in normal animals. These changes suggested postoperative reorganization possible occurred as a result of reinnervation of the input fibers to IC via the commissure of inferior colliculi (COM) or the lateral lemniscus ipsilaterally. COM was transectioned 31 days after destruction of the left cochlea. IC demonstrated symmetrical uptake of DG on both sides. (J.P.N.)

  17. Scanning electron microscope autoradiography of critical point dried biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the localization of isotopes in the scanning electron microscope. Autoradiographic studies have been performed using a model system and a unicellular biflagellate alga. One requirement of this technique is that all manipulations be carried out on samples that are maintained in a liquid state. Observations of a source of radiation ( 125 I-ferritin) show that the nuclear emulsion used to detect radiation is active under these conditions. Efficiency measurement performed using 125 I-ferritin indicate that 125 I-SEM autoradiography is an efficient process that exhibits a 'dose dependent' response. Two types of labeling methods were used with cells, surface labeling with 125 I and internal labeling with 3 H. Silver grains appeared on labeled cells after autoradiography, removal of residual gelatin and critical point drying. The location of grains was examined on a flagellated green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardi) capable of undergoing cell fusion. Fusion experiments using labeled and unlabeled cells indicate that 1. Labeling is specific for incorporated radioactivity; 2. Cell surface structure is preserved in SEM autoradiographs and 3. The technique appears to produce reliable autoradiographs. Thus scanning electron microscope autoradiography should provide a new and useful experimental approach

  18. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  19. An experimental study on cerebral ischemic penumbra imaging with 99Tcm-HL91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cansheng; Jiang Ningyi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biodistribution of 99 Tc m -4,9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyl dodecan-2,11-dione dioxime (HL91) in rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods: Thirty-one MCAO rats were established. Fourteen rats were used to study the biodistribution of 99 Tc m -HL91 and 15 rats were used to study the distribution of 99 Tc m -HL91 in the brain of MCAO model rats. Autoradiographic study of brain was also done in 16 MCAO model rats. Results: The liver and kidney retention were higher than that in other tissues. At 1 h after injection, small intestine retention was also high. But radioactivity in normal brain was low. Retention in target site was higher than that in non-target site. Difference between subgroups of operation and that of pseudo operation was significant (P 99 Tc m -HL91 at the target-ischemic area was shown in the autoradiograph. By using computer-enhanced image analysis, difference between target site and non-target site in the same autoradiograph and the differences between operation subgroups and that of pseudo-subgroups were all significant via Dunnett t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra and target/non-target ratio is high. 99 Tc m -HL91 is a potential agent for hypoxic tissue imaging, and 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT is a promising modality in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  20. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane

  1. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhizhen; Chen, T.-B.; Miller, Patricia J.; Dean, Dennis; Tang, Y.S.; Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [ 3 H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [ 3 H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [ 11 C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K d =0.20±0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B max ) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66±8 fmol/mg protein using [ 3 H]-DASB, similar to the B max value obtained using the reference radioligand [ 3 H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83±22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [ 3 H]-DASB and [ 3 H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [ 3 H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K i values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [ 3 H]-DASB and [ 3 H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [ 11 C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates

  2. Exploration of central dopamine D2 receptors by autoradiography, pathology and functional behaviour observation in rat model with experimental parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1996-01-01

    The rat model with experimental parkinsonism mimic the course of human parkinsonism were made by cerebral-stereotaxic techniques. 125 I-IBZM was used to evaluate the D 2 receptors distribution by autoradiographic analysis of coronal brain section. In 6 parkinsonism model rats, on the lesioned side the striatum/frontal cortex ratio was 5.32 +- 0.37, it was significantly (P 125 I-IBZM as the ligand of D 2 receptor can well reflect the distribution and changes of D 2 receptors, and also as the theoretical basis for the clinical imaging diagnosis

  3. The development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat limbic brain. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaney, M.J.; Sapolsky, R.M.; McEwen, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report the results of an autoradiographic analysis of the postnatal development of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat brain. Quantitative analysis of the autoradiograms revealed a varied pattern of gradual development towards adult receptor concentrations during the second week of life. Receptor concentrations in the dentate gyrus increased dramatically between Days 9 and 15, while the changes during this period in the pyramidal layers of Ammon's horn seemed to reflect both structural changes in these regions as well as increases in receptor concentrations. (orig.)

  4. Defense of cutaneous cells against uv irradiation. II. Restricted photomediated binding of trimethyl psoralen to pigmented skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.M.; Jegasothy, B.V.; Condit, E.S.

    1973-01-01

    Distinct differences in grain distribution were seen in autoradiographs of pigmented and nonpigmented skin from spotted guinea-pig ears subjected to photosensitizing conditions by the topical application of tritiated trimethyl psoralen ( 3 H TMP) and exposure to uv irradiation at 365 nm. Grains were localized over cells throughout the epidermis in nonpigmented skin, but they were not seen beneath the stratum corneum in pigmented skin. Since TMP covalently binds to epidermal nucleic acids only after irradiation, these experiments demonstrate that the compacted melanized cells of the outer epidermis shield the DNA of underlying cells by severely restricting the penetration of uv light into the skin. (auth)

  5. Quantitative analysis of tritium distribution in austenitic stainless steels welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roustila, A.; Kuromoto, N.; Brass, A.M.; Chene, J.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium autoradiography was used to study the tritium distribution in laser and arc (TIG) weldments performed on tritiated AISI 316 samples. Quantitative values of the local tritium concentration were obtained from the microdensitometric analysis of the autoradiographs. This procedure was used to map the tritium concentration in the samples before and after laser and TIG treatments. The effect of the detritiation conditions and of welding on the tritium distribution in the material is extensively characterized. The results illustrate the interest of the technique for predicting a possible embrittlement of the material associated with a local enhancement of the tritium concentration and the presence of helium 3 generated by tritium decay. ((orig.))

  6. Two views of functional mapping and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachron, D.L.; Adler, N.T.; Tretiak, O.J.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter is meant to serve as an initial introduction into the use and analysis of functional mapping with radiotracers and film autoradiography. The first section describes functional autoradiography from a biologist's point of view, reviewing the advantages of radiotracers for bridging the gap between behavior and neurophysiology. The physical and chemical assumptions underlying the use of radiotracers in biological systems are then examined. The second section looks at the autoradiogram from an engineering standpoint and investigates how the basic physics of radioactive decay influences the measured parameters of autoradiographs. The problems of video densitometry and the quantification of optical density and isotope concentrations are discussed

  7. Studies on the apple trees grafted on high-position for cold-resistance and high yield by using radioactive isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zengyu

    1985-01-01

    The effect of high-position grafting of apple trees on cold-resistance and high yield was significant. The yields of varieties 'Huantaiping' etc. grafted on high posotion after 7 years were increased by up to 100 kg per plant in comparing with that grafted on low position. The photosynthetic products synthesized by high grafting trees and 32 P absorbed by roots were studied by measuring the radioactivity of 32 P and 14 C, and by autoradiograph. The distribution of nutrient in various organs was affected by graft union, and the accumulation of photosynthetic produts in fruit bearing portions was in favour of the differentiation of flowers and the formation of fruits

  8. Effect of hydroxyurea on mitotic activity 3H-thymidine and 3H-phenylalanine incorporation in the antheridial filament cells of Chara vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielecka, A.

    1979-01-01

    Hydroxyurea inhibits mitotic activity in cells of the antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris by blocking phase S and phase G 2 . Blocking of cells in phase G 2 also occurs in the case of the root meristem cells of Helianthus annuus and Vicia faba var. minor. 3 H-thine incorporation confirmed autoradiographically the blocking of cells of the antheridial filaments in Chara vulgaris at phase S and slowing down of the rate of DNA replication. Incubation with 3 H-phenylalanine demonstrated that hydroxyurea inhibits protein synthesis. (author)

  9. Regional distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the telencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). [Use of TH-quinuclidinylbenzylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, K.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was studied autoradiographically in croystat sections of the pigeon telencephalon using TH-quinuclidinylbenzylate as a ligand. Highest receptor density was observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale, palaeostriatum augmentatum, septum, and parts of the archistriatum. In sites of known sensory input of neostriatum (field L) and ectostriatum low receptor binding was observed. Acetylcholinesterase distribution is in good agreement with the receptor picture only in the basal telencephalon. In the pallium differences in the pattern of these two components can be seen.

  10. Regional distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the telencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechtler, K.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was studied autoradiographically in croystat sections of the pigeon telencephalon using 3 H-quinuclidinylbenzylate as a ligand. Highest receptor density was observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale, palaeostriatum augmentatum, septum, and parts of the archistriatum. In sites of known sensory input of neostriatum (field L) and ectostriatum low receptor binding was observed. Acetylcholinesterase distribution is in good agreement with the receptor picture only in the basal telencephalon. In the pallium differences in the pattern of these two components can be seen. (author)

  11. Correspondence: chromosomal localization of uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berliner, J.; Mello, R.S.; Norman, A.

    1976-01-01

    We have measured the grain density - the number of grains per unit length - over the centromere and noncentromere regions of metaphase chromosomes in autoradiographs of human lymphocytes. When the chromosomes were labeled in G 0 by uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis, the grain density was two to four times larger over the centromere than over the noncentromere regions. When the labeling was done by scheduled DNA synthesis in S or unscheduled synthesis in M, the grain densities were approximately equal over both regions

  12. Application of autoradiography methods for solving problems of microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejer, K.; Trojtler, Kh.-Kh.; Birkgol'ts, V.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of contact autoradiography with halogen-silver emulsions and autoradiography, caused by the interaction of neutrons with solid track detectors, are successfully used for determination of lateral and longitudal distributions of matter in the basic semiconductor material as well as in the frameworks of its preparation. Possibilities for application and power parameters of some autoradiographic methods related to sensitivity of detection and local resolution are considered on the example of the basic material - silicon. In this case, special attention was paid on investigation of elements combibation, for example: boron/phosphorus as well as on the methods of correlation of solid track and halogen-silver autoradiogrammes [ru

  13. Natural radiation dose to Gammarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Wrenn, M.E.; Eisenbud, M.

    1975-01-01

    The natural radiation dose rate to whole body and components of the Gammarus species (i.e., G. Tigrinus, G. Fasciatus and G. Daiberi) that occurs in the Hudson River is evaluated and the results compared with the upper limits of dose rates from man made sources to the whole body of the organisms. Methods were developed to study the distribution of alpha emitters from 226 Ra plus daughter products in Gammarus using autoradiographic techniques, taking into account the amount of radon that escapes from the organisms. This methodology may be adapted to study the distribution of alpha emitters in contaminated tissues of plants and animals

  14. The role of hormones and growth factors in the cellular proliferation control in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is done about fibroblast proliferation, its control by classic hormones and hormonal growth factors, showing their main implications and the stage of this research at present. The control exerted on fibronlast proliferation by hormonal growth factors and classic hormones is demonstrated. The existence of basic mechanisms valid for all types of cells is suggested. Experiences are carried out with the aim of finding growth mutants useful in the elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms involved in growth regulation. Radiactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Effect of irradiation on unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline in tracheal epithelium of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Kennedy, R.; Brooks, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was determined in rat epithelium by autoradiographic techniques to determine the influence of prior irradiation on the ability of the cells to repair mutagenic damage induced by 4-nitroquionoline (4NQO). UDS was stimulated by in vitro exposure to 4NPO. However, prior whole-body irradiation of rats with either 50 or 300 rad did not alter the UDS induced by 4NQO. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that irradiation can induce DNA repair enzymes in respiratory tract epithelium. 5 references, 3 figures

  16. Development of the indusium griseum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturrock, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of neuronal and glial production was carried out in the indusium griseum of mice whose mothers had received an intraperitoneal injection of [ 3 H]thymidine during gestation. Most neurons were produced between 13 and 15 days post-conception. One part of the glial population underwent its last or second-last divisions between 14 and 16 days post-conception, while the other continued to undergo a number of divisions into postnatal life. It is suggested that the former were astrocytes and the latter oligodendrocytes. (author)

  17. High speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb in the phloem of Tradescantia viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penot, M.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of the rooted shoots of Tradescantia viridis showed a high speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb applied to a leaf for short periods of time (5 to 2.5 min). The speed of this translocation (between 840 and 1.440 cm h/sup -1/) speaks for the existence of a very rapid phloem component translocating ions to an active sink, represented here by the growing roots. Pretreatment with cycloheximide (48 h, 50 mg 1/sup -1/) decreases the quantity of this long distance transport but not the velocity.

  18. Cell cycle disturbances in slowly growing sublines isolated from X-irradiated L5178Y-S cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.Z.; Bocian, E.; Budzicka, E.; Szumiel, I.; Ziemba-Zak, B.; Kopec, M.

    1974-01-01

    Cell cycle was analyzed autoradiographically in a test line of murine leukaemic lymphoblasts L5178Y-S and in two slowly growing sublines isolated from cell cultures irradiated with 300 rad of X-rays. It was found that prolongation of the cell cycle in the slowly growing sublines is connected primarily with delayed progression through G2 phase. This conclusion was further supported by results of determination of DNA content per cell in 13 slowly growing cell sublines and karyotype analysis of 18 sublines. No correlation was found between a sublines' mean doubling time and its chromosome number whereas DNA content per cell was clearly dependent on the growth rate. (author)

  19. Phagocytosis of 131I labelled Salmonella typhymurium in splenic remnants. Experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, A.J.; Yamamuro, E.; Camargo, E.; Sato, M.; Rodrigues, C.J.; Birolini, D.; Manlio, B.S.; Oliveira, M.R. de

    1988-01-01

    Forty-one male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: Group I - Normal animals; Group II - Animals submitted to total splenectomy with subsequent intraperitoneal splenic autotransplantion; Group III - Animals submitted to partial 50% splenectomy with subsequent autotransplantation of the removed fragment. After 40 weeks of close observation all animals were administred 70 Micro Ci of an 131 I - labelled ''Salmonella Typhymurium'' suspension. Twelve hours later all animals were sacrificed and a complete peritoneal cavity inventory was performed. Samples of both topic spleen and regenerated autotransplant were obtained, processed and autoradiographed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. The study of distribution and forms of uranium occurrences in Lake Baikal sediments by the SSNTD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmodik, S.M.; Verkhovtseva, N.V.; Soloboeva, E.V.; Mironov, A.G.; Nemirovskaya, N.A.; Ilic, R.; Khlystov, O.M.; Titov, A.T.

    2005-01-01

    Sediments of Lake Baikal drill cores VER-96-1 St8 TW2 (53 deg. 32 ' 15 ' 'E; 107 deg. 56 ' 25 ' 'N) (interval 181.8-235cm from the sediment surface) were studied by means of SSNTD with the aim of defining uranium occurrence in the sediments and the uranium concentration. The neutron-fission ((n,f)-autoradiographic) method allowed a detailed study of uranium distribution of these Lake Baikal sediments within the Academicheskiy Ridge. Layered accumulations of uranium-bearing grained phosphorite, uranium-bearing particles of organic material, and abnormal uranium concentration in diatomite of unknown origin were discovered