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Sample records for autophagosome marker egfp-lc3

  1. Coxsackievirus B exits the host cell in shed microvesicles displaying autophagosomal markers.

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    Scott M Robinson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a member of the picornavirus family and enterovirus genus, causes viral myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, and pancreatitis in humans. We genetically engineered a unique molecular marker, "fluorescent timer" protein, within our infectious CVB3 clone and isolated a high-titer recombinant viral stock (Timer-CVB3 following transfection in HeLa cells. "Fluorescent timer" protein undergoes slow conversion of fluorescence from green to red over time, and Timer-CVB3 can be utilized to track virus infection and dissemination in real time. Upon infection with Timer-CVB3, HeLa cells, neural progenitor and stem cells (NPSCs, and C2C12 myoblast cells slowly changed fluorescence from green to red over 72 hours as determined by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometric analysis. The conversion of "fluorescent timer" protein in HeLa cells infected with Timer-CVB3 could be interrupted by fixation, suggesting that the fluorophore was stabilized by formaldehyde cross-linking reactions. Induction of a type I interferon response or ribavirin treatment reduced the progression of cell-to-cell virus spread in HeLa cells or NPSCs infected with Timer-CVB3. Time lapse photography of partially differentiated NPSCs infected with Timer-CVB3 revealed substantial intracellular membrane remodeling and the assembly of discrete virus replication organelles which changed fluorescence color in an asynchronous fashion within the cell. "Fluorescent timer" protein colocalized closely with viral 3A protein within virus replication organelles. Intriguingly, infection of partially differentiated NPSCs or C2C12 myoblast cells induced the release of abundant extracellular microvesicles (EMVs containing matured "fluorescent timer" protein and infectious virus representing a novel route of virus dissemination. CVB3 virions were readily observed within purified EMVs by transmission electron microscopy, and infectious virus was identified within low-density isopycnic

  2. Coxsackievirus B exits the host cell in shed microvesicles displaying autophagosomal markers.

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    Robinson, Scott M; Tsueng, Ginger; Sin, Jon; Mangale, Vrushali; Rahawi, Shahad; McIntyre, Laura L; Williams, Wesley; Kha, Nelson; Cruz, Casey; Hancock, Bryan M; Nguyen, David P; Sayen, M Richard; Hilton, Brett J; Doran, Kelly S; Segall, Anca M; Wolkowicz, Roland; Cornell, Christopher T; Whitton, J Lindsay; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Feuer, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a member of the picornavirus family and enterovirus genus, causes viral myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, and pancreatitis in humans. We genetically engineered a unique molecular marker, "fluorescent timer" protein, within our infectious CVB3 clone and isolated a high-titer recombinant viral stock (Timer-CVB3) following transfection in HeLa cells. "Fluorescent timer" protein undergoes slow conversion of fluorescence from green to red over time, and Timer-CVB3 can be utilized to track virus infection and dissemination in real time. Upon infection with Timer-CVB3, HeLa cells, neural progenitor and stem cells (NPSCs), and C2C12 myoblast cells slowly changed fluorescence from green to red over 72 hours as determined by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometric analysis. The conversion of "fluorescent timer" protein in HeLa cells infected with Timer-CVB3 could be interrupted by fixation, suggesting that the fluorophore was stabilized by formaldehyde cross-linking reactions. Induction of a type I interferon response or ribavirin treatment reduced the progression of cell-to-cell virus spread in HeLa cells or NPSCs infected with Timer-CVB3. Time lapse photography of partially differentiated NPSCs infected with Timer-CVB3 revealed substantial intracellular membrane remodeling and the assembly of discrete virus replication organelles which changed fluorescence color in an asynchronous fashion within the cell. "Fluorescent timer" protein colocalized closely with viral 3A protein within virus replication organelles. Intriguingly, infection of partially differentiated NPSCs or C2C12 myoblast cells induced the release of abundant extracellular microvesicles (EMVs) containing matured "fluorescent timer" protein and infectious virus representing a novel route of virus dissemination. CVB3 virions were readily observed within purified EMVs by transmission electron microscopy, and infectious virus was identified within low-density isopycnic iodixanol

  3. PI(5)P Regulates Autophagosome Biogenesis

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    Vicinanza, Mariella; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Ashkenazi, Avraham; Puri, Claudia; Menzies, Fiona M.; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of class III PI3K VPS34, recruits specific autophagic effectors, like WIPI2, during the initial steps of autophagosome biogenesis and thereby regulates canonical autophagy. However, mammalian cells can produce autophagosomes through enigmatic noncanonical VPS34-independent pathways. Here we show that PI(5)P can regulate autophagy via PI(3)P effectors and thereby identify a mechanistic explanation for forms of noncanonical autophagy. PI(5)P synthesis by the phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase PIKfyve was required for autophagosome biogenesis, and it increased levels of PI(5)P, stimulated autophagy, and reduced the levels of autophagic substrates. Inactivation of VPS34 impaired recruitment of WIPI2 and DFCP1 to autophagic precursors, reduced ATG5-ATG12 conjugation, and compromised autophagosome formation. However, these phenotypes were rescued by PI(5)P in VPS34-inactivated cells. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for alternative VPS34-independent autophagy-initiating pathways, like glucose starvation, and unravel a cytoplasmic function for PI(5)P, which previously has been linked predominantly to nuclear roles. PMID:25578879

  4. Regulators of autophagosome formation in Drosophila muscles.

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    Jonathan Zirin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the diversity of autophagy targets and regulation, it is important to characterize autophagy in various cell types and conditions. We used a primary myocyte cell culture system to assay the role of putative autophagy regulators in the specific context of skeletal muscle. By treating the cultures with rapamycin (Rap and chloroquine (CQ we induced an autophagic response, fully suppressible by knockdown of core ATG genes. We screened D. melanogaster orthologs of a previously reported mammalian autophagy protein-protein interaction network, identifying several proteins required for autophagosome formation in muscle cells, including orthologs of the Rab regulators RabGap1 and Rab3Gap1. The screen also highlighted the critical roles of the proteasome and glycogen metabolism in regulating autophagy. Specifically, sustained proteasome inhibition inhibited autophagosome formation both in primary culture and larval skeletal muscle, even though autophagy normally acts to suppress ubiquitin aggregate formation in these tissues. In addition, analyses of glycogen metabolic genes in both primary cultured and larval muscles indicated that glycogen storage enhances the autophagic response to starvation, an important insight given the link between glycogen storage disorders, autophagy, and muscle function.

  5. Autophagosomal membranes assemble at ER-plasma membrane contact sites.

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    Nascimbeni, Anna Chiara; Codogno, Patrice; Morel, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    The biogenesis of autophagosome, the double membrane bound organelle related to macro-autophagy, is a complex event requiring numerous key-proteins and membrane remodeling events. Our recent findings identify the extended synaptotagmins, crucial tethers of Endoplasmic Reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, as key-regulators of this molecular sequence.

  6. The fusion of autophagosome with lysosome is impaired in L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis.

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    Zhu, Hongwei; Yu, Xiao; Zhu, Shaihong; Li, Xia; Lu, Ben; Li, Zhiqiang; Yu, Can

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory pancreatic disease that carries considerable morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly understood. We investigated the incidence of autophagy in mice following induction of acute pancreatitis. Mice were received intraperitoneal injections of L-arginine (200 mg × 2/100 g BW), while controls were administered with saline. Pancreatic tissues were assessed by histology, electron microscopy and western blotting. Injection of L-arginine resulted in the accumulation of autophagosomes and a relative paucity of autolysosomes. Moreover, the autophagy marker p62 is significantly increased. However, the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (Lamp-2), a protein that is required for the proper fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, is decreased in acute pancreatitis. These results suggest that a crucial role for autophagy and Lamp-2 in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Our data suggest that the autophagic flux is impaired in acute pancreatitis. The depletion of Lamp-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.

  7. The autophagosome: current understanding of formation and maturation

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    Mannack LVJC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lilith VJC Mannack, Jon D Lane Cell Biology Laboratories, School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Abstract: Autophagy is an important and highly conserved catabolic process with roles in development, homeostasis, and cellular stress responses. It describes various distinct pathways for the delivery of cytoplasmic materials (including misfolded protein aggregates and some organelles to the lysosome for degradation and component recycling. The best understood form of autophagy (macroautophagy describes the de novo assembly, maturation, and trafficking of a unique double membrane-bound organelle – the autophagosomes – that sequesters cytoplasmic materials and ultimately merges with the lysosomal compartment to form a degradative autolysosome. To rapidly assemble such a structure in response to stimuli, cells express a family of dedicated autophagy-related (ATG gene products that act sequentially to control membrane events leading first to the nucleation of an isolation membrane or phagophore, followed by phagophore expansion, and sealing to form an autophagosome that traffics to – and ultimately fuses with – the lysosome. These molecules are activated in response to upstream signaling pathways (notably, the mechanistic target of rapamycin [mTOR] pathway, and comprise protein and lipid kinases, putative membrane coats, and unique ubiquitin-like conjugation systems. In concert, a barrage of accessory proteins involved in various membrane trafficking pathways focused on the endosomal compartment are co-opted at the assembly site to facilitate autophagosome biogenesis. Understanding the integrated pathways that coordinate autophagosome assembly at the molecular level will be crucial if we are to realize the potential for autophagy manipulation in future disease therapies. Keywords: autophagy, ATG proteins, lysosome, phagophore, omegasome, autolysosome, membrane trafficking, ULK1, mTOR, PI(3 kinase, PI3P, LIR motif

  8. PtdIns 3-Kinase Orchestrates Autophagosome Formation in Yeast

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    Keisuke Obara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells can massively transport their own cytoplasmic contents into a lytic compartment, the vacuole/lysosome, for recycling through a conserved system called autophagy. The key process in autophagy is the sequestration of cytoplasmic contents within a double-membrane structure, the autophagosome. Autophagosome formation requires the elaborate cooperation of Atg (autophagy-related proteins and lipid molecules. Phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns by a PtdIns 3-kinase, Vps34, is a key step in coordinating Atg proteins and lipid molecules. Vps34 forms two distinct protein complexes, only one of which is involved in generating autophagic membranes. Upon induction of autophagy, PtdIns(3P, the enzymatic product of PtdIns 3-kinase, is massively transported into the lumen of the vacuole via autophagy. PtdIns(3P is enriched on the inner membrane of the autophagosome. PtdIns(3P recruits the Atg18−Atg2 complex and presumably other Atg proteins to autophagic membranes, thereby coordinating lipid molecules and Atg proteins.

  9. Andrographolide sensitizes cisplatin-induced apoptosis via suppression of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in human cancer cells.

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    Zhou, Jing; Hu, Shuai-Er; Tan, Shi-Hao; Cao, Ruoxi; Chen, Yiyang; Xia, Dajing; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Xing-Fen; Ong, Choon-Nam; Shen, Han-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Suppression of autophagy has been increasingly recognized as a novel cancer therapeutic approach. Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from an herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of Andro on autophagy, and to evaluate whether such effect is relevant to the sensitization effect of Andro on apoptosis induced by DNA damage agents in cancer cells. First, we found that Andro is able to significantly enhance autophagic markers in various cancer cell lines, including GFP-LC3 puncta and LC3-II level. Interestingly, Andro treatment also led to marked increase of p62 protein level and addition of chloroquine (CQ) failed to further enhance either LC3-II or p62 level, indicating that Andro is likely to suppress autophagic flux at the maturation and degradation stage. Next, we provided evidence that Andro inhibits autophagosome maturation not by affecting the lysosomal function, but by impairing autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Lastly, we demonstrated that treatment with cisplatin, a DNA damage agent, induces autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, Andro is capable of sensitizing cisplatin-induced cell killing determined with both short-term apoptosis assays and long-term clonogenic test, via suppression of autophagy, a process independent of p53. In summary, these observations collectively suggest that Andro could be a promising anti-cancer agent in combination therapy via its potent inhibitory effect on autophagy by disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

  10. HCV-induced autophagosomes are generated via homotypic fusion of phagophores that mediate HCV RNA replication.

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    Linya Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV induces autophagy to promote its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be assembled on autophagosomes were largely unknown. During autophagy, crescent membrane structures known as phagophores first appear in the cytoplasm, which then progress to become autophagosomes. By conducting electron microscopy and in vitro membrane fusion assay, we found that phagophores induced by HCV underwent homotypic fusion to generate autophagosomes in a process dependent on the SNARE protein syntaxin 7 (STX7. Further analyses by live-cell imaging and fluorescence microscopy indicated that HCV-induced phagophores originated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Interestingly, comparing with autophagy induced by nutrient starvation, the progression of phagophores to autophagosomes induced by HCV took significantly longer time, indicating fundamental differences in the biogenesis of autophagosomes induced by these two different stimuli. As the knockdown of STX7 to inhibit the formation of autophagosomes did not affect HCV RNA replication, and purified phagophores could mediate HCV RNA replication, the assembly of the HCV RNA replication complex on autophagosomes apparently took place during the formative stage of phagophores. These findings provided important information for understanding how HCV controlled and modified this important cellular pathway for its own replication.

  11. Toxoplasma depends on lysosomal consumption of autophagosomes for persistent infection.

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    Di Cristina, Manlio; Dou, Zhicheng; Lunghi, Matteo; Kannan, Geetha; Huynh, My-Hang; McGovern, Olivia L; Schultz, Tracey L; Schultz, Aric J; Miller, Alyssa J; Hayes, Beth M; van der Linden, Wouter; Emiliani, Carla; Bogyo, Matthew; Besteiro, Sébastien; Coppens, Isabelle; Carruthers, Vern B

    2017-06-19

    Globally, nearly 2 billion people are infected with the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii 1 . This persistent infection can cause severe disease in immunocompromised people and is epidemiologically linked to major mental illnesses 2 and cognitive impairment 3 . There are currently no options for curing this infection. The lack of effective therapeutics is due partly to a poor understanding of the essential pathways that maintain long-term infection. Although it is known that Toxoplasma replicates slowly within intracellular cysts demarcated with a cyst wall, precisely how it sustains itself and remodels organelles in this niche is unknown. Here, we identify a key role for proteolysis within the parasite lysosomal organelle (the vacuolar compartment or VAC) in turnover of autophagosomes and persistence during neural infection. We found that disrupting a VAC-localized cysteine protease compromised VAC digestive function and markedly reduced chronic infection. Death of parasites lacking the VAC protease was preceded by accumulation of undigested autophagosomes in the parasite cytoplasm. These findings suggest an unanticipated function for parasite lysosomal degradation in chronic infection, and identify an intrinsic role for autophagy in the T. gondii parasite and its close relatives. This work also identifies a key element of Toxoplasma persistence and suggests that VAC proteolysis is a prospective target for pharmacological development.

  12. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM)

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    Duke, Elizabeth M.H. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Razi, Minoo [Secretory Pathways Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Weston, Anne [Electron Microscopy Unit, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Soft Matter and Functional Materials, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tooze, Sharon A. [Secretory Pathways Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Collinson, Lucy M., E-mail: lucy.collinson@cancer.org.uk [Electron Microscopy Unit, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10 nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from ‘hotspots’ on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. - Highlights: • We image whole, unstained mammalian cells using cryo-soft X-ray tomography. • Endosomes are identified using a gold marker for the transferrin receptor. • A new workflow for correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT is used to locate early autophagosomes. • Interactions between endosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and forming autophagosomes are mapped in 3D. • Multiple omegasomes are shown to form at ‘hotspots’ on the endoplasmic reticulum.

  13. Markers

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    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  14. SNARE priming is essential for maturation of autophagosomes but not for their formation.

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    Abada, Adi; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Porat, Ziv; Dadosh, Tali; Elazar, Zvulun

    2017-11-28

    Autophagy, a unique intracellular membrane-trafficking pathway, is initiated by the formation of an isolation membrane (phagophore) that engulfs cytoplasmic constituents, leading to generation of the autophagosome, a double-membrane vesicle, which is targeted to the lysosome. The outer autophagosomal membrane consequently fuses with the lysosomal membrane. Multiple membrane-fusion events mediated by SNARE molecules have been postulated to promote autophagy. αSNAP, the adaptor molecule for the SNARE-priming enzyme N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor ( NSF ) is known to be crucial for intracellular membrane fusion processes, but its role in autophagy remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that knockdown of αSNAP leads to inhibition of autophagy, manifested by an accumulation of sealed autophagosomes located in close proximity to lysosomes but not fused with them. Under these conditions, moreover, association of both Atg9 and the autophagy-related SNARE protein syntaxin17 with the autophagosome remained unaffected. Finally, our results suggested that under starvation conditions, the levels of αSNAP, although low, are nevertheless sufficient to partially promote the SNARE priming required for autophagy. Taken together, these findings indicate that while autophagosomal-lysosomal membrane fusion is sensitive to inhibition of SNARE priming, the initial stages of autophagosome biogenesis and autophagosome expansion remain resistant to its loss. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. LAMP-2 is required for incorporating syntaxin-17 into autophagosomes and for their fusion with lysosomes

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    Virginie Hubert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process used for removing surplus and damaged proteins and organelles from the cytoplasm. The unwanted material is incorporated into autophagosomes that eventually fuse with lysosomes, leading to the degradation of their cargo. The fusion event is mediated by the interaction between the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17 on autophagosomes and the R-SNARE VAMP8 on lysosomes. Cells deficient in lysosome membrane-associated protein-2 (LAMP-2 have increased numbers of autophagosomes but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. By transfecting LAMP-2-deficient and LAMP-1/2­-double-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs with a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 we observed a failure of fusion between the autophagosomes and the lysosomes that could be rescued by complementation with LAMP-2A. Although we observed no change in expression and localization of VAMP8, its interacting partner STX17 was absent from autophagosomes of LAMP-2-deficient cells. Thus, LAMP-2 is essential for STX17 expression by the autophagosomes and this absence is sufficient to explain their failure to fuse with lysosomes. The results have clear implications for situations associated with a reduction of LAMP-2 expression.

  16. Mouse Norovirus infection promotes autophagy induction to facilitate replication but prevents final autophagosome maturation

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    O’Donnell, Tanya B. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010 (Australia); Hyde, Jennifer L. [School of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Mintern, Justine D. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010 (Australia); Mackenzie, Jason M., E-mail: jason.mackenzie@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010 (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Autophagy is a cellular process used to eliminate intracellular pathogens. Many viruses however are able to manipulate this cellular process for their own advantage. Here we demonstrate that Mouse Norovirus (MNV) infection induces autophagy but does not appear to utilise the autophagosomal membrane for establishment and formation of the viral replication complex. We have observed that MNV infection results in lipidation and recruitment of LC3 to the autophagosome membrane but prevents subsequent fusion of the autophagosomes with lysosomes, as SQSTM1 (an autophagy receptor) accumulates and Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein1 is sequestered to the MNV replication complex (RC) rather than to autophagosomes. We have additionally observed that chemical modulation of autophagy differentially affects MNV replication. From this study we can conclude that MNV infection induces autophagy, however suppresses the final maturation step of this response, indicating that autophagy induction contributes to MNV replication independently of RC biogenesis. - Highlights: • MNV induces autophagy in infected murine macrophages. • MNV does not utilise autophagosomal membranes for replication. • The MNV-induced autophagosomes do not fuse with lysosomes. • MNV sequesters SQSTM1 to prevent autophagy degradation and turnover. • Chemical modulation of autophagy enhances MNV replication.

  17. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM).

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    Duke, Elizabeth M H; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A; Collinson, Lucy M

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from 'hotspots' on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM)☆

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    Duke, Elizabeth M.H.; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A.; Collinson, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10 nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from ‘hotspots’ on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. PMID:24238600

  19. dnc-1/dynactin 1 knockdown disrupts transport of autophagosomes and induces motor neuron degeneration.

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    Ikenaka, Kensuke; Kawai, Kaori; Katsuno, Masahisa; Huang, Zhe; Jiang, Yue-Mei; Iguchi, Yohei; Kobayashi, Kyogo; Kimata, Tsubasa; Waza, Masahiro; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Mori, Ikue; Sobue, Gen

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. We previously showed that the expression of dynactin 1, an axon motor protein regulating retrograde transport, is markedly reduced in spinal motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients, although the mechanisms by which decreased dynactin 1 levels cause neurodegeneration have yet to be elucidated. The accumulation of autophagosomes in degenerated motor neurons is another key pathological feature of sporadic ALS. Since autophagosomes are cargo of dynein/dynactin complexes and play a crucial role in the turnover of several organelles and proteins, we hypothesized that the quantitative loss of dynactin 1 disrupts the transport of autophagosomes and induces the degeneration of motor neuron. In the present study, we generated a Caenorhabditis elegans model in which the expression of DNC-1, the homolog of dynactin 1, is specifically knocked down in motor neurons. This model exhibited severe motor defects together with axonal and neuronal degeneration. We also observed impaired movement and increased number of autophagosomes in the degenerated neurons. Furthermore, the combination of rapamycin, an activator of autophagy, and trichostatin which facilitates axonal transport dramatically ameliorated the motor phenotype and axonal degeneration of this model. Thus, our results suggest that decreased expression of dynactin 1 induces motor neuron degeneration and that the transport of autophagosomes is a novel and substantial therapeutic target for motor neuron degeneration.

  20. dnc-1/dynactin 1 knockdown disrupts transport of autophagosomes and induces motor neuron degeneration.

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    Kensuke Ikenaka

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. We previously showed that the expression of dynactin 1, an axon motor protein regulating retrograde transport, is markedly reduced in spinal motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients, although the mechanisms by which decreased dynactin 1 levels cause neurodegeneration have yet to be elucidated. The accumulation of autophagosomes in degenerated motor neurons is another key pathological feature of sporadic ALS. Since autophagosomes are cargo of dynein/dynactin complexes and play a crucial role in the turnover of several organelles and proteins, we hypothesized that the quantitative loss of dynactin 1 disrupts the transport of autophagosomes and induces the degeneration of motor neuron. In the present study, we generated a Caenorhabditis elegans model in which the expression of DNC-1, the homolog of dynactin 1, is specifically knocked down in motor neurons. This model exhibited severe motor defects together with axonal and neuronal degeneration. We also observed impaired movement and increased number of autophagosomes in the degenerated neurons. Furthermore, the combination of rapamycin, an activator of autophagy, and trichostatin which facilitates axonal transport dramatically ameliorated the motor phenotype and axonal degeneration of this model. Thus, our results suggest that decreased expression of dynactin 1 induces motor neuron degeneration and that the transport of autophagosomes is a novel and substantial therapeutic target for motor neuron degeneration.

  1. Matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus blocks autophagosome fusion with lysosomes

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    Gannagé, Monique; Dormann, Dorothee; Albrecht, Randy

    2009-01-01

    demonstrate that influenza A virus inhibits macroautophagy, a cellular process known to be manipulated by diverse pathogens. Influenza A virus infection causes accumulation of autophagosomes by blocking their fusion with lysosomes, and one viral protein, matrix protein 2, is necessary and sufficient...... for this inhibition of autophagosome degradation. Macroautophagy inhibition by matrix protein 2 compromises survival of influenza virus-infected cells but does not influence viral replication. We propose that influenza A virus, which also encodes proapoptotic proteins, is able to determine the death of its host cell...

  2. S6K1 controls autophagosome maturation in autophagy induced by sulforaphane or serum deprivation.

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    Hać, Aleksandra; Domachowska, Anna; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Cyske, Karolina; Pawlik, Anna; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that mTORC1 suppresses autophagy by phosphorylation and inactivation of proteins involved in autophagosome formation. However, the role of its substrate, p70S6 kinase1 (S6K1), in autophagy is quite controversial. In some models S6K1 activity correlates with autophagy suppression, however, some other studies show that S6K1 promotes rather than inhibits this process. Here, we investigated the role of S6K1 in prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and non-cancerous, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), either treated with autophagy inducer sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous plants, or deprived of serum. Our results indicate that constitutively active S6K1 decreases the level of LC3 processing and foci formation by autophagosomal vacuoles in cells treated with sulforaphane. On the other hand, presence of S6K1 is necessary for autophagosome maturation under conditions of autophagy induced by either sulforaphane or serum deprivation. Diminished level of S6K1 or lack of S6 kinases results in both, accumulation of autophagosomes and drop in the autophagolysosome number, and thus disturbs autophagy flux under stress conditions. Moreover, lack of S6 kinases reduces cell survival under stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of dynein-mediated autophagosomes trafficking by ASM in CASMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Zhang, Qiufang; Li, Pin-Lan; Nguyen, Thaison; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM; gene symbol Smpd1) has been shown to play a crucial role in autophagy maturation by controlling lysosomal fusion with autophagosomes in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which ASM controls autophagolysosomal fusion remains unknown. In primary cultured CASMCs, lysosomal Ca2+ induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket, an atherogenic stimulus and autophagy inducer) was markedly attenuated by ASM deficiency or TRPML1 gene silencing suggesting that ASM signaling is required for TRPML1 channel activity and subsequent lysosomal Ca(2+) release. In these CASMCs, ASM deficiency or TRPML1 gene silencing markedly inhibited 7-Ket-induced dynein activation. In addition, 7-Ket-induced autophagosome trafficking, an event associated with lysosomal Ca(2+) release and dynein activity, was significantly inhibited in ASM-deficient (Smpd1(-/-)) CASMCs compared to that in Smpd1(+/+) CASMCs. Finally, overexpression of TRPML1 proteins restored 7-Ket-induced lysosomal Ca(2+) release and autophagosome trafficking in Smpd1-/- CASMCs. Collectively, these results suggest that ASM plays a critical role in regulating lysosomal TRPML1-Ca(2+) signaling and subsequent dynein-mediated autophagosome trafficking, which leads its role in controlling autophagy maturation in CASMCs under atherogenic stimulation.

  4. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dong; Wu, Jing; Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan; Xiao, Jian; Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo; Zhang, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy

  5. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dong, E-mail: austhudong@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing8008@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo [Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rongbo, E-mail: lory456@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2015-05-29

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy.

  6. Cytoprotective effect of imatinib mesylate in non-BCR-ABL-expressing cells along with autophagosome formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtomo, Tadashi [Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazawa, Keisuke, E-mail: miyazawa@tokyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, Munekazu [Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Moriya, Shota [Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Masahiko [Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Masahiro [Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Tomoda, Akio [Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) results in an increased viable cell number of non-BCR-ABL-expressing cell lines by inhibiting spontaneous apoptosis. Electron microscopy revealed an increase of autophagosomes in response to IM. IM attenuated the cytotoxic effect of cytosine arabinoside, as well as inhibiting cell death with serum-deprived culture. Cytoprotection with autophagosome formation by IM was observed in various leukemia and cancer cell lines as well as normal murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Complete inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of atg5 in the Tet-off atg5{sup -/-} MEF system attenuated the cytoprotective effect of IM, indicating that the effect is partially dependent on autophagy. However, cytoprotection by IM was not mediated through suppression of ROS production via mitophagy, ER stress via ribophagy, or proapoptotic function of ABL kinase. Although the target tyrosine kinase(s) of IM remains unclear, our data provide novel therapeutic possibilities of using IM for cytoprotection.

  7. Autophagy in the test tube: In vitro reconstitution of aspects of autophagosome biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yijian; Matscheko, Nena; Wollert, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is a versatile recycling pathway that delivers cytoplasmic contents to lysosomal compartments for degradation. It involves the formation of a cup-shaped membrane that expands to capture cargo. After the cargo has been entirely enclosed, the membrane is sealed to generate a double-membrane-enclosed compartment, termed the autophagosome. Depending on the physiological state of the cell, the cargo is selected either specifically or non-specifically. The process involves a highly conserved set of autophagy-related proteins. Reconstitution of their action on model membranes in vitro has contributed tremendously to our understanding of autophagosome biogenesis. This review will focus on various in vitro techniques that have been employed to decipher the function of the autophagic core machinery. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Conserved Atg8 recognition sites mediate Atg4 association with autophagosomal membranes and Atg8 deconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Susana; Kriegenburg, Franziska; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Mari, Muriel; Sánchez-Wandelmer, Jana; Skytte Rasmussen, Mads; Soares Guimarães, Rodrigo; Zens, Bettina; Schuschnig, Martina; Hardenberg, Ralph; Peter, Matthias; Johansen, Terje; Kraft, Claudine; Martens, Sascha; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2017-05-01

    Deconjugation of the Atg8/LC3 protein family members from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by Atg4 proteases is essential for autophagy progression, but how this event is regulated remains to be understood. Here, we show that yeast Atg4 is recruited onto autophagosomal membranes by direct binding to Atg8 via two evolutionarily conserved Atg8 recognition sites, a classical LC3-interacting region (LIR) at the C-terminus of the protein and a novel motif at the N-terminus. Although both sites are important for Atg4-Atg8 interaction in vivo , only the new N-terminal motif, close to the catalytic center, plays a key role in Atg4 recruitment to autophagosomal membranes and specific Atg8 deconjugation. We thus propose a model where Atg4 activity on autophagosomal membranes depends on the cooperative action of at least two sites within Atg4, in which one functions as a constitutive Atg8 binding module, while the other has a preference toward PE-bound Atg8. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Alteration of Dynein Function Affects α-Synuclein Degradation via the Autophagosome-Lysosome Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that dynein dysfunction may be implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. It plays a central role in aggresome formation, the delivery of autophagosome to lysosome for fusion and degradation, which is a pro-survival mechanism essential for the bulk degradation of misfolded proteins and damaged organells. Previous studies reported that dynein dysfuntion was associated with aberrant aggregation of α-synuclein, which is a major component of inclusion bodies in Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, it remains unclear what roles dynein plays in α-synuclein degradation. Our study demonstrated a decrease of dynein expression in neurotoxin-induced PD models in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by an increase of α-synuclein protein level. Dynein down-regulation induced by siRNA resulted in a prolonged half-life of α-synuclein and its over-accumulation in A53T overexpressing PC12 cells. Dynein knockdown also prompted the increase of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II and sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62 expression, and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, dynein suppression impaired the autophagosome fusion with lysosome. In summary, our findings indicate that dynein is critical for the clearance of aberrant α-synuclein via autophagosome-lysosome pathway.

  10. Autophagonizer, a novel synthetic small molecule, induces autophagic cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In-Kwon; Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-19

    Autophagy is an apoptosis-independent mechanism of cell death that protects the cell from environmental imbalances and infection by pathogens. We identified a novel small molecule, 2-(3-Benzyl-4-oxo-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d] pyrimidin-2-ylsulfanylmethyl)-oxazole-4-carboxylic acid (2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethyl)-amide (referred as autophagonizer), using high-content cell-based screening and the autophagosome marker EGFP-LC3. Autophagonizer inhibited growth and induced cell death in the human tumor cell lines MCF7, HeLa, HCT116, A549, AGS, and HT1080 via a caspase-independent pathway. Conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II was greatly enhanced by autophagonizer treatment. Transmission electron microscopy and acridine orange staining revealed increased autophagy in the cytoplasm of autophagonizer-treated cells. In conclusion, autophagonizer is a novel autophagy inducer with unique structure, which induces autophagic cell death in the human tumor cell lines.

  11. Control of autophagosome axonal retrograde flux by presynaptic activity unveiled using botulinum neurotoxin type a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Martin, Sally; Papadopulos, Andreas; Harper, Callista B; Mavlyutov, Timur A; Niranjan, Dhevahi; Glass, Nick R; Cooper-White, Justin J; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Daniel; Davletov, Bazbek; Meunier, Frédéric A

    2015-04-15

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that elicits flaccid paralysis by enzymatic cleavage of the exocytic machinery component SNAP25 in motor nerve terminals. However, recent evidence suggests that the neurotoxic activity of BoNT/A is not restricted to the periphery, but also reaches the CNS after retrograde axonal transport. Because BoNT/A is internalized in recycling synaptic vesicles, it is unclear which compartment facilitates this transport. Using live-cell confocal and single-molecule imaging of rat hippocampal neurons cultured in microfluidic devices, we show that the activity-dependent uptake of the binding domain of the BoNT/A heavy chain (BoNT/A-Hc) is followed by a delayed increase in retrograde axonal transport of BoNT/A-Hc carriers. Consistent with a role of presynaptic activity in initiating transport of the active toxin, activity-dependent uptake of BoNT/A in the terminal led to a significant increase in SNAP25 cleavage detected in the soma chamber compared with nonstimulated neurons. Surprisingly, most endocytosed BoNT/A-Hc was incorporated into LC3-positive autophagosomes generated in the nerve terminals, which then underwent retrograde transport to the cell soma, where they fused with lysosomes both in vitro and in vivo. Blocking autophagosome formation or acidification with wortmannin or bafilomycin A1, respectively, inhibited the activity-dependent retrograde trafficking of BoNT/A-Hc. Our data demonstrate that both the presynaptic formation of autophagosomes and the initiation of their retrograde trafficking are tightly regulated by presynaptic activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356179-16$15.00/0.

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus induces autophagosomes during cell entry via a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Stephen; Brooks, Elizabeth; Burman, Alison; Hawes, Philippa; Roberts, Rebecca; Netherton, Christopher; Monaghan, Paul; Whelband, Matthew; Cottam, Eleanor; Elazar, Zvulun; Jackson, Terry; Wileman, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular pathway that can contribute to innate antiviral immunity by delivering viruses to lysosomes for degradation or can be beneficial for viruses by providing specialized membranes for virus replication. Here, we show that the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces the formation of autophagosomes. Induction was dependent on Atg5, involved processing of LC3 to LC3II, and led to a redistribution of LC3 from the cytosol to punctate vesicles indicative of authentic autophagosomes. Furthermore, FMDV yields were reduced in cells lacking Atg5, suggesting that autophagy may facilitate FMDV infection. However, induction of autophagosomes by FMDV appeared to differ from starvation, as the generation of LC3 punctae was not inhibited by wortmannin, implying that FMDV-induced autophagosome formation does not require the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity of vps34. Unlike other picornaviruses, for which there is strong evidence that autophagosome formation is linked to expression of viral nonstructural proteins, FMDV induced autophagosomes very early during infection. Furthermore, autophagosomes could be triggered by either UV-inactivated virus or empty FMDV capsids, suggesting that autophagosome formation was activated during cell entry. Unlike other picornaviruses, FMDV-induced autophagosomes did not colocalize with the viral 3A or 3D protein. In contrast, ∼50% of the autophagosomes induced by FMDV colocalized with VP1. LC3 and VP1 also colocalized with the cellular adaptor protein p62, which normally targets ubiquitinated proteins to autophagosomes. These results suggest that FMDV induces autophagosomes during cell entry to facilitate infection, but not to provide membranes for replication.

  13. Listeria phospholipases subvert host autophagic defenses by stalling pre-autophagosomal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattoli, Ivan; Sorbara, Matthew T; Yang, Chloe; Tooze, Sharon A; Philpott, Dana J; Girardin, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Listeria can escape host autophagy defense pathways through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. We show here that in epithelial cells, Listeriolysin (LLO)-dependent cytosolic escape of Listeria triggered a transient amino-acid starvation host response characterized by GCN2 phosphorylation, ATF3 induction and mTOR inhibition, the latter favouring a pro-autophagic cellular environment. Surprisingly, rapid recovery of mTOR signalling was neither sufficient nor necessary for Listeria avoidance of autophagic targeting. Instead, we observed that Listeria phospholipases PlcA and PlcB reduced autophagic flux and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) levels, causing pre-autophagosomal structure stalling and preventing efficient targeting of cytosolic bacteria. In co-infection experiments, wild-type Listeria protected PlcA/B-deficient bacteria from autophagy-mediated clearance. Thus, our results uncover a critical role for Listeria phospholipases C in the inhibition of autophagic flux, favouring bacterial escape from host autophagic defense. PMID:24162724

  14. GABARAPL1 tumor suppressive function is independent of its conjugation to autophagosomes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poillet-Perez, Laura; Jacquet, Marine; Hervouet, Eric; Gauthier, Thierry; Fraichard, Annick; Borg, Christophe; Pallandre, Jean-René; Gonzalez, Bruno J; Ramdani, Yasmina; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël; Delage-Mourroux, Régis; Despouy, Gilles

    2017-08-22

    The GABARAPL1 protein belongs to the ATG8 family whose members are involved in autophagy. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that GABARAPL1 associates with autophagic vesicles, regulates autophagic flux and acts as a tumor suppressor protein in breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to determine whether GABARAPL1 conjugation to autophagosomes is necessary for its tumor suppressive functions using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line overexpressing GABARAPL1 or a G116A mutant, which is unable to be lipidated and associated to autophagosomes. We show that the G116A mutation impaired GABARAPL1 function in autophagosome/lysosome fusion and inhibited lysosome activity but did not alter MTOR and ULK1 activities or tumor growth in vivo . Our results demonstrate for the first time that GABARAPL1 plays different regulatory functions during early and late stages of autophagy, independently or not of its conjugation to autophagosomes, but its tumor suppressive function appeared to be independent of its conjugation to autophagic vesicles.

  15. Coxsackievirus B3 induces the formation of autophagosomes in cardiac fibroblasts both in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Xia, E-mail: zhai_xia_cool@126.com [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Qin, Ying, E-mail: qinyinggaofeng@163.com [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Chen, Yang, E-mail: cy_hmu@126.com [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Lin, Lexun, E-mail: linlexun@163.com [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Wang, Tianying, E-mail: wangty0929@163.com [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhong, Xiaoyan, E-mail: littlerock712@163.com [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Wu, Xiaoyu, E-mail: xiaoyu_wu2006@163.com [Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Sijia, E-mail: chensj0802@163.com [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: jing070822@163.com [Center of Electron Microscopy, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan@hrbmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhang, Fengmin, E-mail: fengminzhang@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Wu Lien-Teh Institute, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhao, Wenran, E-mail: zhaowenran2002@aliyun.com [Department of Cell Biology, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); and others

    2016-12-10

    Coxsackievirus group B (CVB) is one of the common pathogens that cause myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Evidence has shown that CVB replication in cardiomyocytes is responsible for the damage and loss of cardiac muscle and the dysfunction of the heart. However, it remains largely undefined how CVB would directly impact cardiac fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in human heart. In this study, cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from Balb/c mice and infected with CVB type 3 (CVB3). Increased double-membraned, autophagosome-like vesicles in the CVB3-infected cardiac fibroblasts were observed with electron microscope. Punctate distribution of LC3 and increased level of LC3-II were also detected in the infected cardiac fibroblasts. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, was increased in the CVB3-infected cardiac fibroblasts, while suppressed autophagy by 3-MA and Atg7-siRNA inhibited cytokine expression. Consistent with the in vitro findings, increased formation of autophagosomes was observed in the cardiac fibroblasts of Balb/c mice infected with CVB3. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that cardiac fibroblasts respond to CVB3 infection with the formation of autophagosomes and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that the autophagic response of cardiac fibroblasts may play a role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis caused by CVB3 infection. - Highlights: • CVB3 replication induced autophagosome assembly in primary cardiac fibroblasts. • Both IL-6 and TNF-α in cardiac fibroblasts infected by CVB3 were increased. • IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced in cardiac fibroblasts when autophagy was inhibited. • Autophagosome assembly in cardiac fibroblasts of CVB-infected mice was increased.

  16. Genomic and physical analysis of Rnr1-containing autophagosomes during environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Tamir

    The Ribonucleotide Reductase Complex (RNR), a tetramer composed of 2 large (Rnr1-Rnr1 or Rnr1-Rnr3) and 2 small (Rnr2-Rnr4) subunits, is a key regulatory node in cell growth because it controls the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of DNA. Using Green Fluorescent tagged proteins and high content imaging we show that only Rnr1-GFP will form 700-800 nm2 foci under normal growth conditions, with the number of foci increasing in response to environmental stress. Rnr1-GFP foci formation is dependent on functional autophagy pathway and we hypothesized that a key lysine residue only found in Rnr1 (K853) is used together with the post-translational modification acetylation to regulate Rnr1 targeting into the autophagosome. Using the genetically engineered mutants Rnr1-K853A-GFP and Rnr1-K853Q-GFP, which mimic constitutive de-acetylation and constitutive acetylation, respectively, we show that K853 is a key residue in Rnr1 for regulating foci size, basal levels and stress-induced numbers. Further, data from phenotypic studies support the idea that K853 is a key regulatory point for both the DNA damage and nutrient stress responses. Autophagy pathways are disrupted during cancer development and our mechanistic information provides insights into its control of the therapeutically important DNA damage response.

  17. Rotavirus increases levels of lipidated LC3 supporting accumulation of infectious progeny virus without inducing autophagosome formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Arnoldi

    Full Text Available Replication of many RNA viruses benefits from subversion of the autophagic pathway through many different mechanisms. Rotavirus, the main etiologic agent of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide, has been recently described to induce accumulation of autophagosomes as a mean for targeting viral proteins to the sites of viral replication. Here we show that the viral-induced increase of the lipidated form of LC3 does not correlate with an augmented formation of autophagosomes, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The LC3-II accumulation was found to be dependent on active rotavirus replication through the use of antigenically intact inactivated viral particles and of siRNAs targeting viral genes that are essential for viral replication. Silencing expression of LC3 or of Atg7, a protein involved in LC3 lipidation, resulted in a significant impairment of viral titers, indicating that these elements of the autophagic pathway are required at late stages of the viral cycle.

  18. Fiber type conversion by PGC-1α activates lysosomal and autophagosomal biogenesis in both unaffected and Pompe skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Takikita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PGC-1α is a transcriptional co-activator that plays a central role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Our interest in this protein was driven by its ability to promote muscle remodeling. Conversion from fast glycolytic to slow oxidative fibers seemed a promising therapeutic approach in Pompe disease, a severe myopathy caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA which is responsible for the degradation of glycogen. The recently approved enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has only a partial effect in skeletal muscle. In our Pompe mouse model (KO, the poor muscle response is seen in fast but not in slow muscle and is associated with massive accumulation of autophagic debris and ineffective autophagy. In an attempt to turn the therapy-resistant fibers into fibers amenable to therapy, we made transgenic KO mice expressing PGC-1α in muscle (tgKO. The successful switch from fast to slow fibers prevented the formation of autophagic buildup in the converted fibers, but PGC-1α failed to improve the clearance of glycogen by ERT. This outcome is likely explained by an unexpected dramatic increase in muscle glycogen load to levels much closer to those observed in patients, in particular infants, with the disease. We have also found a remarkable rise in the number of lysosomes and autophagosomes in the tgKO compared to the KO. These data point to the role of PGC-1α in muscle glucose metabolism and its possible role as a master regulator for organelle biogenesis - not only for mitochondria but also for lysosomes and autophagosomes. These findings may have implications for therapy of lysosomal diseases and other disorders with altered autophagy.

  19. Interactions between 2-Cys peroxiredoxins and ascorbate in autophagosome formation during the heat stress response in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Yin, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Foyer, Christine Helen

    2016-03-01

    2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-CPs) function in the removal of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides but their precise roles in the induction of autophagy have not been characterized. Here we show that heat stress, which is known to induce oxidative stress, leads to the simultaneous accumulation of transcripts encoding 2-CPs and autophagy proteins, as well as autophagosomes, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of the tomato peroxiredoxin genes 2-CP1, 2-CP2, and 2-CP1/2 resulted in an increased sensitivity of tomato plants to heat stress. Silencing 2-CP2 or 2-CP1/2 increased the levels of transcripts associated with ascorbate biosynthesis but had no effect on the glutathione pool in the absence of stress. However, the heat-induced accumulation of transcripts associated with the water-water cycle was compromised by the loss of 2-CP1/2 functions. The transcript levels of autophagy-related genes ATG5 and ATG7 were higher in plants with impaired 2-CP1/2 functions, and the formation of autophagosomes increased, together with an accumulation of oxidized and insoluble proteins. Silencing of ATG5 or ATG7 increased the levels of 2-CP transcripts and protein but decreased heat stress tolerance. These results demonstrate that 2-CPs fulfil a pivotal role in heat stress tolerance in tomato, via interactions with ascorbate-dependent pathways and autophagy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Cathepsin S deficiency results in abnormal accumulation of autophagosomes in macrophages and enhances Ang II-induced cardiac inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathepsin S (Cat S is overexpressed in human atherosclerotic and aneurysmal tissues and may contributes to degradation of extracellular matrix, especially elastin, in inflammatory diseases. We aimed to define the role of Cat S in cardiac inflammation and fibrosis induced by angiotensin II (Ang II in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cat S-knockout (Cat S(-/- and littermate wild-type (WT C57BL/6J mice were infused continuously with Ang II (750 ng/kg/min or saline for 7 days. Cat S(-/- mice showed severe cardiac fibrosis, including elevated expression of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, as compared with WT mice. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, transforming growth factor β and interleukin 1β were significantly greater in Cat S(-/- than WT hearts. These Ang II-induced effects in Cat S(-/- mouse hearts was associated with abnormal accumulation of autophagosomes and reduced clearance of damaged mitochondria, which led to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in macrophages. CONCLUSION: Cat S in lysosomes is essential for mitophagy processing in macrophages, deficiency in Cat S can increase damaged mitochondria and elevate ROS levels and NF-κB activity in hypertensive mice, so it regulates cardiac inflammation and fibrosis.

  1. PINK1 and BECN1 relocalize at mitochondria-associated membranes during mitophagy and promote ER-mitochondria tethering and autophagosome formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmetti, Vania; De Rosa, Priscilla; Torosantucci, Liliana; Marini, Elettra Sara; Romagnoli, Alessandra; Di Rienzo, Martina; Arena, Giuseppe; Vignone, Domenico; Fimia, Gian Maria; Valente, Enza Maria

    2017-04-03

    Mitophagy is a highly specialized process to remove dysfunctional or superfluous mitochondria through the macroautophagy/autophagy pathway, aimed at protecting cells from the damage of disordered mitochondrial metabolism and apoptosis induction. PINK1, a neuroprotective protein mutated in autosomal recessive Parkinson disease, has been implicated in the activation of mitophagy by selectively accumulating on depolarized mitochondria, and promoting PARK2/Parkin translocation to them. While these steps have been characterized in depth, less is known about the process and site of autophagosome formation upon mitophagic stimuli. A previous study reported that, in starvation-induced autophagy, the proautophagic protein BECN1/Beclin1 (which we previously showed to interact with PINK1) relocalizes at specific regions of contact between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), from which the autophagosome originates. Here we show that, following mitophagic stimuli, autophagosomes also form at MAM; moreover, endogenous PINK1 and BECN1 were both found to relocalize at MAM, where they promoted the enhancement of ER-mitochondria contact sites and the formation of omegasomes, that represent autophagosome precursors. PARK2 was also enhanced at MAM following mitophagy induction. However, PINK1 silencing impaired BECN1 enrichment at MAM independently of PARK2, suggesting a novel role for PINK1 in regulating mitophagy. MAM have been recently implicated in many key cellular events. In this light, the observed prevalent localization of PINK1 at MAM may well explain other neuroprotective activities of this protein, such as modulation of mitochondrial calcium levels, mitochondrial dynamics, and apoptosis.

  2. WIPI2 links LC3 conjugation with PI3P, autophagosome formation, and pathogen clearance by recruiting Atg12-5-16L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Hannah C; Razi, Minoo; Polson, Hannah E J; Girardin, Stephen E; Wilson, Michael I; Tooze, Sharon A

    2014-07-17

    Mammalian cell homeostasis during starvation depends on initiation of autophagy by endoplasmic reticulum-localized phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) synthesis. Formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic components requires the LC3-conjugating Atg12-5-16L1 complex. The molecular mechanisms of Atg12-5-16L1 recruitment and significance of PtdIns(3)P synthesis at autophagosome formation sites are unknown. By identifying interacting partners of WIPIs, WD-repeat PtdIns(3)P effector proteins, we found that Atg16L1 directly binds WIPI2b. Mutation experiments and ectopic localization of WIPI2b to plasma membrane show that WIPI2b is a PtdIns(3)P effector upstream of Atg16L1 and is required for LC3 conjugation and starvation-induced autophagy through recruitment of the Atg12-5-16L1 complex. Atg16L1 mutants, which do not bind WIPI2b but bind FIP200, cannot rescue starvation-induced autophagy in Atg16L1-deficient MEFs. WIPI2b is also required for autophagic clearance of pathogenic bacteria. WIPI2b binds the membrane surrounding Salmonella and recruits the Atg12-5-16L1 complex, initiating LC3 conjugation, autophagosomal membrane formation, and engulfment of Salmonella. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. mRNA and protein dataset of autophagy markers (LC3 and p62) in several cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M.S.; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Martínez-Chacón, Guadalupe; Uribe-Carretero, Elisabet; Pinheiro de Castro, Diana C.J.; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa A.

    2016-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of autophagy in vitro using four different cell systems and analyzing markers widely used in this field, i.e. LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; protein recruited from the cytosol (LC3-I) to the autophagosomal membrane where it is lipidated (LC3-II)) and p62/SQSTM1 (adaptor protein that serves as a link between LC3 and ubiquitinated substrates), (Klionsky et al., 2016) [1]. Data provided include analyses of protein levels of LC3 and p62 by Western-blotting and endogenous immunofluorescence experiments, but also p62 mRNA levels obtained by quantitative PCR (qPCR). To monitor the turnover of these autophagy markers and, thus, measure the flux of this pathway, cells were under starvation conditions and/or treated with bafilomycin A1 (Baf. A1) to block fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. PMID:27054171

  4. Role of AMPK in regulation of LC3 lipidation as a marker of autophagy in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Frøsig, Christian; Jeppesen, Jacob Fuglsbjerg

    2016-01-01

    During induction of the autophagosomal degradation process, LC3-I is lipidated to LC3-II and associates to the cargo isolation membrane allowing for autophagosome formation. Lipidation of LC3 results in an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and this ratio is an often used marker for autophagy in various...... tissues, including skeletal muscle. From cell studies AMPK has been proposed to be necessary and sufficient for LC3 lipidation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of AMPK in regulation of LC3 lipidation as a marker of autophagy in skeletal muscle. We observed an increase in the LC3...... lipidation with either in vivo treadmill exercise or in situ contractions. Collectively, these findings suggest that AMPKα2 is not necessary for induction of LC3 lipidation with fasting and aging. Furthermore, LC3 lipidation is increased in muscle lacking functional AMPKα2 during fasting and aging. Moreover...

  5. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  6. ROCK1 is associated with Alzheimer’s disease-specific plaques, as well as enhances autophagosome formation but not autophagic Aβ clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bo Hu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most prevalent form of late-life dementia in the population, characterised by amyloid plaque formation and increased tau deposition, which is modulated by Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 1 (ROCK1. In this study, we further analyse whether ROCK1 regulates the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP. We show that ROCK1 is colocalised with mature Aβ plaques in patients with AD, in that ROCK1 enhances the amyloidogenic pathway, and that ROCK1 mediated autophagy enhances the intracellular buildup of Aβ in a cell model of AD, (confirmed by increased ROCK1 and decreased Beclin 1 protein levels, with neuronal autophagosome accumulation in prefrontal cortex of AD APP/PS1 mouse model. In vitro over-expression of ROCK1 leads to a decrease in Aβ secretion and an increase in the expression of autophagy-related molecules. ROCK1 interacts with Beclin1, an autophagy initiator, and enhances the intracellular accumulation of Aβ. Reciprocally, overexpression of APP/Aβ promotes ROCK1 expression. Our data suggest ROCK1 participates in regulating Aβ secretion, APP shedding and autophagosome accumulation, and that ROCK1, rather than other kinases, is more likely to be a targetable enzyme for AD therapy.

  7. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... al., 2004; Lefebvre et al., 2001; Moon et al., 2003; Paran et al., 1998; Prince et al., 1992). These markers have proven to be very useful in assessing genetic diversity and phylogeny, characterization of germplasm and detection of duplicates, parental verification in crosses, gene tagging in marker assisted ...

  8. (RAPD) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... RAPD markers reveal polymorphism among some Iranian pomegranate genotypes. Sci. Hortic. 111: 24-29. Shasany AK, Darokar MP, Dhawan S, Gupta AK, Gupta S, Shukla AK,. Patra NK, Khanuja SPS (2005). Use of RAPD and AFLP Markers to. Identify Inter- and Intraspecific Hybrids of Mentha. J. Hered.

  9. Depletion of kinesin 5B affects lysosomal distribution and stability and induces peri-nuclear accumulation of autophagosomes in cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Carla M P; Groth-Pedersen, Line; Høyer-Hansen, Maria

    2009-01-01

    in HeLa cervix carcinoma cells as analyzed by subcellular fractionation. The depletion of KIF5B triggered peripheral aggregations of lysosomes followed by lysosomal destabilization, and cell death in HeLa cells. Lysosomal exocytosis in response to plasma membrane damage as well as fluid phase...... endocytosis functioned, however, normally in these cells. Both HeLa and MCF-7 cells appeared to express similar levels of the KIF5B isoform but the death phenotype was weaker in KIF5B-depleted MCF-7 cells. Surprisingly, KIF5B depletion inhibited the rapamycin-induced accumulation of autophagosomes in MCF-7......BACKGROUND: Enhanced lysosomal trafficking is associated with metastatic cancer. In an attempt to discover cancer relevant lysosomal motor proteins, we compared the lysosomal proteomes from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells with those from highly invasive MCF-7 cells that express an active form...

  10. The SecA2 pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exports effectors that work in concert to arrest phagosome and autophagosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulauf, Katelyn E; Sullivan, Jonathan Tabb; Braunstein, Miriam

    2018-04-30

    To subvert host defenses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) avoids being delivered to degradative phagolysosomes in macrophages by arresting the normal host process of phagosome maturation. Phagosome maturation arrest by Mtb involves multiple effectors and much remains unknown about this important aspect of Mtb pathogenesis. The SecA2 dependent protein export system is required for phagosome maturation arrest and consequently growth of Mtb in macrophages. To better understand the role of the SecA2 pathway in phagosome maturation arrest, we identified two effectors exported by SecA2 that contribute to this process: the phosphatase SapM and the kinase PknG. Then, utilizing the secA2 mutant of Mtb as a platform to study effector functions, we identified specific steps in phagosome maturation inhibited by SapM and/or PknG. By identifying a histidine residue that is essential for SapM phosphatase activity, we confirmed for the first time that the phosphatase activity of SapM is required for its effects on phagosome maturation in macrophages. We further demonstrated that SecA2 export of SapM and PknG contributes to the ability of Mtb to replicate in macrophages. Finally, we extended our understanding of the SecA2 pathway, SapM, and PknG by revealing that their contribution goes beyond preventing Mtb delivery to mature phagolysosomes and includes inhibiting Mtb delivery to autophagolysosomes. Together, our results revealed SapM and PknG to be two effectors exported by the SecA2 pathway of Mtb with distinct as well as cumulative effects on phagosome and autophagosome maturation. Our results further reveal that Mtb must have additional mechanisms of limiting acidification of the phagosome, beyond inhibiting recruitment of the V-ATPase proton pump to the phagosome, and they indicate differences between effects of Mtb on phagosome and autophagosome maturation.

  11. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  12. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only a small number of people will test positive for the disease who do not have it—in other words, it will result in very few false-positive results. Although tumor markers are extremely useful in ...

  13. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... Replacement or Calcium Supplementation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 82, No. 6 1904-1910, 1997. N. ...

  14. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Unknown. Unknown. V. vinifera L. 2000s. Chile. Stary goru. Ancient variety of Japan. V. vinifera L. 1980s. Japan. Medoc Noir. Unknown. V. vinifera L. 1980s. France. Vidal Blanc. Ugni blanc × seyval blanc. V. vinifera L. 1940s. France. Table 2. Summary of genetic variation statistics for the 19 simple sequence repeat markers ...

  15. (ISSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... Heredity, 65: 179-188. Galvan MZ, Bornet B, Balatti PA, Branchard M (2003). Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers as a tool for the assessment of both genetic diversity and gene pool origin in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Euphytica, 132: 297-301. Kojima T, Nagaoka T, Noda K, Ogihara Y ...

  16. Induction of autophagy by Imatinib sequesters Bcr-Abl in autophagosomes and down-regulates Bcr-Abl protein.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elzinga, Baukje M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a disease of hematopoietic stem cells which harbor the chimeric gene Bcr-Abl. Expression levels of this constitutively active tyrosine kinase are critical for response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment and also disease progression, yet the regulation of protein stability is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that imatinib can induce autophagy in Bcr-Abl expressing cells. Autophagy has been associated with the clearance of large macromolecular signaling complexes and abnormal proteins, however, the contribution of autophagy to the turnover of Bcr-Abl protein in imatinib treated cells is unknown. In this study, we show that following imatinib treatment, Bcr-Abl is sequestered into vesicular structures that co-localize with the autophagy marker LC3 or GABARAP. This association is inhibited by siRNA mediated knockdown of autophagy regulators (Beclin 1\\/ATG7). Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy also reduced Bcr-Abl\\/LC3 co-localization in both K562 and CML patient cells. Bcr-Abl protein expression was reduced with imatinib treatment. Inhibition of both autophagy and proteasome activity in imatinib treated cells was required to restore Bcr-Abl protein levels to those of untreated cells. This ability to down-regulate Bcr-Abl protein levels through the induction of autophagy may be an additional and important feature of the activity of imatinib.

  17. Human vaginal epithelial cells augment autophagy marker genes in response to Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ankit; Sequeira, Roicy; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2017-04-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in clearance of intracellular pathogens. However, no information is available on its involvement in vaginal infections such as vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC is intimately associated with the immune status of the human vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). The objective of our study is to decipher if autophagy process is involved during Candida albicans infection of VECs. In this study, C. albicans infection system was established using human VEC line (VK2/E6E7). Infection-induced change in the expression of autophagy markers like LC3 and LAMP-1 were analyzed by RT-PCR, q-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out to ascertain the localization of autophagosomes. Multiplex ELISA was carried out to determine the cytokine profiles. Analysis of LC3 and LAMP-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels at different time points revealed up-regulation of these markers 6 hours post C. albicans infection. LC3 and LAMP-1 puncti were observed in infected VECs after 12 hours. TEM studies showed C. albicans entrapped in autophagosomes. Cytokines-TNF-α and IL-1β were up-regulated in culture supernatants of VECs at 12 hours post-infection. The results suggest that C. albicans invasion led to the activation of autophagy as a host defense mechanism of VECs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effector Protein Cig2 Decreases Host Tolerance of Infection by Directing Constitutive Fusion of Autophagosomes with the Coxiella-Containing Vacuole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. Kohler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii replicates in an acidified lysosome-derived vacuole. Biogenesis of the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV requires bacterial effector proteins delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm secretion system. Genetic and cell biological analysis revealed that an effector protein called Cig2 promotes constitutive fusion of autophagosomes with the CCV to maintain this compartment in an autolysosomal stage of maturation. This distinguishes the CCV from other pathogen-containing vacuoles that are targeted by the host autophagy pathway, which typically confers host resistance to infection by delivering the pathogen to a toxic lysosomal environment. By maintaining the CCV in an autolysosomal stage of maturation, Cig2 enabled CCV homotypic fusion and enhanced bacterial virulence in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth model of infection by a mechanism that decreases host tolerance. Thus, C. burnetii residence in an autolysosomal organelle alters host tolerance of infection, which indicates that Cig2-dependent manipulation of a lysosome-derived vacuole influences the host response to infection.

  19. Markers of autophagy are adapted to hyperglycaemia in skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Kruse; Vind, Birgitte F; Petersson, Stine J

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Autophagy is a catabolic process that maintains cellular homeostasis by degradation of protein aggregates and selective removal of damaged organelles, e.g. mitochondria (mitophagy). Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and altered...... protein metabolism. Here, we investigated whether abnormalities in autophagy are present in human muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using a case-control design, skeletal muscle biopsies obtained in the basal and insulin-stimulated states from patients with type 2 diabetes during both...... of forkhead box O3A (FOXO3A) were similar among the groups. Insulin reduced lipidation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)B-I to LC3B-II, a marker of autophagosome formation, with no effect on p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) content in muscle of lean and obese individuals. In diabetic patients...

  20. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, C.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (United States). Rockwell Hanford Operations

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  1. Tantalum markers in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, A.S.; Jonsson, N.; Alberius, P.

    1985-01-01

    The biocompatibility of two types of radiopaque tantalum markers was evaluated histologically. Reactions to pin markers (99.9% purity) and spherical markers (95.2% purity) were investigated after 3-6 weeks in rabbits and 5-48 weeks in children with abnormal growth. Both marker types were firmly attached to bone trabeculae; this was most pronounced in rabbit bone, and no adverse macroscopic reactions were observed. Microscopically, no reactions or only slight fibrosis of bone tissue were detected, while soft tissues only demonstrated a minor inflammatory reaction. Nevertheless, the need for careful preparation and execution of marker implantations is stressed, and particularly avoidance iof the use of emery in sharpening of cannulae. The bioinertness of tantalum was reconfirmed as was its suitability for use as skeletal and soft tissue radiographic markers. (orig.)

  2. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    age groups of both maternal and paternal maps. The segre- gating markers were classified into two classes; for DArT class 1 consensus marker the selection criterion were of very high stringency parameters with clustering settings; Q >. 70; P > 75; call rate > 90, 100% reproducibility, no dis- cordance, and probability > 0.001 ...

  3. Radiopaque anastomosis marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.P.; Halseth, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to split ring markers fabricated in whole or in part from a radiopaque material, usually metal, having the terminal ends thereof and a medial portion formed to define eyelets by means of which said marker can be sutured to the tissue at the site of an anastomosis to provide a visual indication of its location when examined fluoroscopically

  4. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  5. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  6. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  7. Human spermatogonial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kopylow, Kathrein; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes A dark , A pale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent) and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human spermatogonial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrein von Kopylow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes Adark, Apale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts.

  9. [Markers of brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, R; Pezzotta, S; Bernini, F; Racagni, G

    1984-05-19

    Biological markers of tumors are compounds or enzymatic activities measurable in body fluids. Their presence or concentration must be linked to tumoral growth. The markers of the central nervous system tumors are detected in CSF. Alpha-feto-protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, adenohypophyseal peptide hormones, enzymes, etc., have found some application in the early diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. Other applications involve the early detection and recurrency of primary brain tumors, as well as the evaluation of efficacy of their therapy. The tests based on the CSF content of desmosterol and polyamines have been studied extensively. Their rationale is discussed and specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictive value are considered. Experimental results concerning a new possible biochemical marker, based on CSF concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, are reported.

  10. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wilt and sterility mosaic disease, etc.) stresses. Despite past. ∗For correspondence. E-mail: r.k.varshney@cgiar.org .... Shi Ying Yang et al. Table 2. Details on 466 polymorphic DArT markers. Female specific. Male specific. Total. 198. 268. Class I. 142. 203. Class II. 27. 16. Others. 29. 49. Mapped. 122. 172. Linkage mapping.

  11. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  12. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  13. Amino acid regulation of autophagosome formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Alfred J.

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are not only substrates for various metabolic pathways, but can also serve as signaling molecules controlling signal transduction pathways. One of these signaling pathways is mTOR-dependent and is activated by amino acids (leucine in particular) in synergy with insulin. Activation of

  14. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on markers of autophagy in the mammary gland during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, S E; Ramirez-Lee, Y; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Ahmed, B M; Dahl, G E

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period compromises mammary gland (MG) growth, thus negatively affecting subsequent milk yield. Cooling during the late dry period, when mammary tissue proliferates, is a common management practice. However, it neglects MG involution during the early dry period, a process that is accomplished by both apoptosis and autophagy. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of HT on MG autophagy during the early dry period. Holstein cows were dried off ~45d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT or cooling (CL). All cows were housed in the same free stall barn during the dry period, but only the stall area for CL cows was equipped with soakers and fans. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured daily during the dry period. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each cow 3d before dry-off and on d 3, 7, 14, and 22±2 after dry-off. Autophagy in the MG was determined by measuring protein expression of 2 autophagic markers, autophagy-related protein 7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 77.7, which indicated that HT and CL cows were exposed to significant heat stress. However, the cooling system effectively alleviated heat strain in CL cows by decreasing the rectal temperature (39.0 vs. 39.4°C) and respiration rate (47.3 vs. 71.2 breaths per minute) relative to HT cows. Protein expression of autophagy-related protein 7, a marker for early autophagosome formation, did not change within or between groups. In contrast, protein expression of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, and its precursor LC3-I showed a dynamic expression pattern in MG from CL cows during the early dry period. Relative to HT cows, MG from CL cows displayed higher expression of LC3-I and LC3-II on d 7 and lower expression of LC3-II on d 14 and 22 after dry-off. Collectively, our data provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the impairment of

  15. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  16. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established industrial host for production of recombinant proteins, fuels and chemicals. To enable stable integration of multiple marker-free overexpression cassettes in the genome of S. cerevisiae, we have developed a vector toolkit EasyClone-MarkerFree. The integr...... standardized genome engineering, and should be of particular interest to researchers working on yeast chassis with limited markers available....

  17. Markers of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballería, Llorenç; Torán, Pere; Caballería, Joan

    2017-10-18

    Chronic liver diseases constitute a major health problem. Chronic liver inflammation, defined by the degree of hepatic fibrosis, is asymptomatic in a significant percentage of patients; hence, the disease often remains undiagnosed until it has reached very advanced phases and, frequently, when the damage is irreversible. Ideally, patients should be screened during the initial phases of chronic inflammation, thus allowing for the effective management of the natural evolution of the disease by stopping or delaying its course. Standard diagnostic methods (transaminase determination or abdominal ultrasonography) do not allow for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. A liver biopsy is the invasive method of choice to screen for fibrosis, however, due to its limitations, non-invasive diagnostic methods such as elastography or serological markers are increasingly used as a good alternative for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  19. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  20. Molecular marker applications in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alice C; Tollenaere, Reece; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Individuals within a population of a sexually reproducing species will have some degree of heritable genomic variation caused by mutations, insertion/deletions (INDELS), inversions, duplications, and translocations. Such variation can be detected and screened using molecular, or genetic, markers. By definition, molecular markers are genetic loci that can be easily tracked and quantified in a population and may be associated with a particular gene or trait of interest. This chapter will review the current major applications of molecular markers in plants.

  1. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  2. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  3. Oral cancer risk and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Font-Costa, Imma; López-López, José

    2004-01-01

    The clinical appearance and, especially, the degree of dysplasia that may be shown by pre-cancerous lesions in the oral cavity suggest a potential for malignisation. An increasing number of studies are seeking new, more specific markers that would help to determine the degree of cell alteration and enable a better understanding of the degree of malignant degeneration of these cells. The present review considers the most recent findings for these markers, grouping them into families: tumour growth markers; markers of tumour suppression and anti-tumour response; angiogenesis markers; markers of tumour invasion and metastatic potential; cell surface markers; intracellular markers; markers derived from arachidonic acid; and enzymatic markers.

  4. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  5. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  6. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living...... speakers. Taken together, the results suggest that humans utilize ethnic markers of unfamiliar individuals to coordinate behavior rather than to cooperate....

  7. Frameworking memory and serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-07-26

    The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory. Bidirectional influence occurs between 5-HT markers and memory/amnesia. A growing number of researchers report that memory, amnesia, or forgetting modifies neural markers. Diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions/dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. At least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors and SERT seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

  8. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...

  9. Tumor Markers: At a Glance

    OpenAIRE

    NS Manikantan; Dhanya Balakrishnan; AD Manoj Kumar; Brijesh Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Tumor markers are biochemical substances elaborated by tumor cells due to either the cause or effect of malignant process. produced by host in response to a tumor that can be used to differentiate a tumor from normal tissue or to determine the presence of a tumor based on measurements in blood or secretions.1 These markers can be normal endogenous products that are produced at a greater rate in cancer cells or the products of newly switched on genes th...

  10. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a central histological feature of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by the accumulation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. The gold standard for assessment of fibrosis is histological evaluation of a percutaneous liver biopsy. Albeit a considerable......-epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  11. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome......This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  12. The Infinitive Marker across Scandinavian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the base-position of the infinitive marker in the Scandinavian languages and English share a common origin site. It is inserted as the top-most head in the VP-domain. The cross-linguistic variation in the syntactic distribution of the infinitive marker can be accounted...... for by assuming that it undergoes head movement. This movement is optional in Danish, English, Norwegian, and Early Modern Danish and is not feature-driven. In Faroese, Icelandic, and Swedish, on the other hand, it is triggered by φ-feature checking on Finº. In Icelandic and Swedish these φ-features are strong...

  13. Marker-assisted selection using ridge regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J C; Thompson, R; Denham, M C

    2000-04-01

    In cross between inbred lines, linear regression can be used to estimate the correlation of markers with a trait of interest; these marker effects then allow marker assisted selection (MAS) for quantitative traits. Usually a subset of markers to include in the model must be selected: no completely satisfactory method of doing this exists. We show that replacing this selection of markers by ridge regression can improve the mean response to selection and reduce the variability of selection response.

  14. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  15. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  16. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  17. NABIC marker database: A molecular markers information network of agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kug; Seol, Young-Joo; Lee, Dong-Jun; Jeong, In-Seon; Yoon, Ung-Han; Lee, Gang-Seob; Hahn, Jang-Ho; Park, Dong-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) reconstructs a molecular marker database for useful genetic resources. The web-based marker database consists of three major functional categories: map viewer, RSN marker and gene annotation. It provides 7250 marker locations, 3301 RSN marker property, 3280 molecular marker annotation information in agricultural plants. The individual molecular marker provides information such as marker name, expressed sequence tag number, gene definition and general marker information. This updated marker-based database provides useful information through a user-friendly web interface that assisted in tracing any new structures of the chromosomes and gene positional functions using specific molecular markers. The database is available for free at http://nabic.rda.go.kr/gere/rice/molecularMarkers/

  18. Early bichemical markers of effects: Enzyme induction, oncogene activation and markers of oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E.; Loft, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    Early bichemical marker, enzyme induction, oncogene activation, oxidative damage, low-density lipoprotein......Early bichemical marker, enzyme induction, oncogene activation, oxidative damage, low-density lipoprotein...

  19. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Hsing Wu; Kuei-Yang Hsiao; Shaw-Jenq Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflam...

  20. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsing Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflammation biomarkers in endometriosis.

  1. Predictive markers of radiation pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provatopoulou, X; Athanasiou, E; Gounaris, A

    2008-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is an acute-phase response to radiation therapy and a common complication that affects a patient's quality of life. Under the need to reduce the incidence and severity of radiation-induced pulmonary complications as well as to identify patients at risk, several investigations on potential predictive markers of radiation pneumonitis have been conducted. The present study reviews the currently available knowledge on biomolecules of potential predictive value for radiation pneumonitis.

  2. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  3. New approach for isolation of VNTR markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Y; Carlson, M; Krapcho, K; Kanamori, M; White, R

    1988-01-01

    Elsewhere we have reported an efficient method for isolating VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) markers. Several of the VNTR markers isolated in those experiments were sequenced, and a DNA sequence of 9 bp (GNNGTGGG) emerged as an apparent consensus sequence for VNTR markers. To confirm this result and to develop more VNTR markers, we synthesized nine different 18-base-long oligonucleotides whose sequences each included GNNGTGGG. When 102 cosmid clones selected by these oligonucleotides...

  4. Characterization of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polymorphic microsatellite markers from the cDNA library of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis and cross-species amplification in bay scallop ... Keywords. microsatellite markers; cDNA library; Mizuhopecten yessoensis; Argopecten irradians. .... EST databases as a source for molecular markers: lessons from.

  5. 49 CFR 195.410 - Line markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... markers is impractical and would not serve the purpose for which markers are intended; and (ii) The local...) The word “Warning,” “Caution,” or “Danger” followed by the words “Petroleum (or the name of the hazardous liquid transported) Pipeline”, or “Carbon Dioxide Pipeline,” all of which, except for markers in...

  6. Markers and residual time to AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geskus, R. B.

    2002-01-01

    The value of immunological and virological markers as predictors of progression to AIDS, or death by AIDS, is a topic of much current interest. Mostly, the influence of markers is investigated in a time-dependent or a baseline proportional hazard model, relating time-varying or baseline marker

  7. (EST-SSR) markers in radi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user2

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... newer molecular marker systems, such as microsatellite. *Corresponding ... recent years, a few molecular marker systems including random ...... markers for estimating genetic diversity in cucumber. Biologia. Plantarum. 55(3):577-580. Huang H, Lu J, Ren Z, Hunter W, Dowd SE, Dang P (2011). Mining and.

  8. From Subordinate Marker to Discourse Marker: que in Andean Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.

  9. Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-20

    pathogenetic mechanism from dengue-2 and dengue-4 viruses . Additional detailed epidemiological, virological and clinical evaluation on dengue-1 and...Soawy Ca saoouj Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses (U) 12. PCIRSONAL AUTHORS) James L. Hardy, Ph.D. and Srisakul C. Kliks, Ph.D. 13a. TYPE Of REPORT...17. COSATI COOLS I& S UBiJECT TERMS0,G ’-mPJ!’ iwin.. - fl OV nu0a mef) FIELD I GROUP SUS-GROUIP Dengue viruses , dengue hemorrhagic fever, virulence

  10. Biochemical Markers in Meconium Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Gün Eryýlmaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available        The understanding of the mechanism and pathophysiology pertaining to intrauterine release of meconium is limited. An undesired condition of delivery, meconium passage can lead to respiratory difficulty and meconium aspiration syndrome. Since its mechanism has not been fully revealed, early prediction and prevention is not possible.In this review article, an effort is made to gather the most current information on the mechanism of meconium release. Also, based on the probable pathologic mechanisms, an explanation is provided on the potential markers that can aid in early detection of meconium passage.

  11. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  12. Rice genetic marker database: An identification of single nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    based genetic marker system to provide information about SNP and QTL markers in rice. The SNP marker database provides. 7,227 SNP markers including location information on chromosomes by using genetic map. It allows.

  13. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  14. Use of DNA markers in forest tree improvement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.B. Neale; M.E. Devey; K.D. Jermstad; M.R. Ahuja; M.C. Alosi; K.A. Marshall

    1992-01-01

    DNA markers are rapidly being developed for forest trees. The most important markers are restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), polymerase chain reaction- (PCR) based markers such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and fingerprinting markers. DNA markers can supplement isozyme markers for monitoring tree improvement activities such as; estimating...

  15. The Japanese Keigo Verbal Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Triasih Rahayu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studies Japanese keigo in the office domain, a case study at XXX Corporation Japan. Keigo consists of sonkeigo, kenjougo, and teineigo. Each of those speech levels is going to be analyzed based on linguistic and nonlinguistic factors. In this qualitative research, the data are in form of natural conversations gained by using several techniques such as recording, observation, and interview. Natural conversations were obtained through the recording process done with a tape recorder at XXX Corporation. There were 20 respondents coming from business fields to fill in the questionnaire and five informants for the interview.This research shows that keigo has lexical, morphological, and syntactical verbal markers. There are some nonlinguistic factors influencing the implementation of keigo in the office domain, especially the position gap and age.

  16. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a central histological feature of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by the accumulation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. The gold standard for assessment of fibrosis is histological evaluation of a percutaneous liver biopsy. Albeit a considerable...... effort have been invested in finding alternative non-invasive approaches, these have not been sufficiently successful to replace biopsy assessment. AIM: To identify the extracellular matrix proteins of interest, that as protein degradation fragments produced during extracellular matrix metabolism neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  17. Molecular Markers for Food Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martins-Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a way to understand complex organism's genome. It is presently being widely applied across different fields, where food takes a preeminent position. Constant outbreaks of foodborne illnesses are increasing consumer's attention towards more detailed information related to what they are consuming. This overview reports on the areas where food traceability has been considered, and the problems that still remain to be bypassed in order to be widely applied. An outline of the most broadly used PCR-based methods for food traceability is described. Applications in the area of detection of genetically modified organisms, protected denomination of origin, allergenic and intolerance reactions are detailed in order to understand the dimension of the performed studies.

  18. (RAPD) markers and polyphenol oxidases (PPO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and polyphenol oxidases (PPO) genes for distinguishing between the diploid ( glaucum ) and the tetraploid ( leporinum ) accessions in Hordeum murinum complex.

  19. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  20. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  1. Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokeshwar, V.B.; Habuchi, T.; Grossman, H.B.; Murphy, W.M.; Hautmann, S.H.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Bono, A.V.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Goebell, P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schalken, J.A.; Fradet, Y.; Marberger, M.; Messing, E.; Droller, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first of 2 articles that summarize the findings of the International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers. The objectives of our panel were to reach a consensus on the areas where markers are needed, to define the attributes of an ideal tumor marker, and to identify

  2. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  3. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the

  4. New immunological serum markers in bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, S; Pedersen, S S; Koldkjær, O G

    2008-01-01

    High mobility group-box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a late-onset proinflammatory cytokine. Soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor (sCD163) is a specific marker of anti-inflammatory macrophages. The study purpose was to relate the levels of these new markers in bactaeremic patients to levels of well-know...

  5. Preparing size markers for gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2013-12-01

    Here we present two simple methods for preparing radiolabeled size markers for gel electrophoresis. The first procedure describes the generation of an RNA marker ladder by the alkaline hydrolysis of (32)P 5'- or 3'-end-labeled RNA. The second procedure describes the labeling of DNA fragments produced by digestion of pBR322 with the restriction enzyme MspI.

  6. (SSR) markers for drought tolerance in maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... and dominance gene effects in inheritance are included in almost all traits related to drought (Shiri et al., 2010a, b). Identifying the complete-linked molecular markers with target gene and mapping its chromosome locus is an important goal in plant breeding for gene cloning and marker-aided selection.

  7. Chromosomal location of genomic SSR markers associated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have previously reported Xgwm382 as a diagnostic marker for disease resistance against yellow rust in Izgi2001 × ES14 F2 population. Among the same earlier tested 230 primers, one SSR marker (Xgwm311) also amplified a fragment which is present in the resistant parent and in the resistant bulks, but absent in the ...

  8. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This species is threatened throughout its range in West- ern Ghats as a result of overexploitation and habitat destruc- tion, which have reduced local population sizes and has led many populations to local extinction. In this study, we report the development of microsatellite markers and discuss the utility of these markers in ...

  9. germplasm using ISSR markers and their relationships

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... (MAS) is the current trend in 'Modern Agriculture'. These. DNA markers allow the construction of ... are inherited in Mendelian fashion and are scored as dominant markers (Ratnaparkhe et al., 1998) ... ISSR amplified PCR products were resolved on 2% agarose gel in. 1X TBE buffer (89 mM Tris-Hcl, pH 8.3, ...

  10. Optimal marker-strategy clinical trial design to detect predictive markers for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Liu, Suyu; Yuan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In developing targeted therapy, the marker-strategy design (MSD) provides an important approach to evaluate the predictive marker effect. This design first randomizes patients into non-marker-based or marker-based strategies. Patients allocated to the non-marker-based strategy are then further randomized to receive either the standard or targeted treatments, while patients allocated to the marker-based strategy receive treatments based on their marker statuses. Little research has been done on the statistical properties of the MSD, which has led to some widespread misconceptions and placed clinical researchers at high risk of using inefficient designs. In this article, we show that the commonly used between-strategy comparison has low power to detect the predictive effect and is valid only under a restrictive condition that the randomization ratio within the non-marker-based strategy matches the marker prevalence. We propose a Wald test that is generally valid and also uniformly more powerful than the between-strategy comparison. Based on that, we derive an optimal MSD that maximizes the power to detect the predictive marker effect by choosing the optimal randomization ratios between the two strategies and treatments. Our numerical study shows that using the proposed optimal designs can substantially improve the power of the MSD to detect the predictive marker effect. We use a lung cancer trial to illustrate the proposed optimal designs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Intersection tests for single marker QTL analysis can be more powerful than two marker QTL analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerge RW

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported in the quantitative trait locus (QTL literature that when testing for QTL location and effect, the statistical power supporting methodologies based on two markers and their estimated genetic map is higher than for the genetic map independent methodologies known as single marker analyses. Close examination of these reports reveals that the two marker approaches are more powerful than single marker analyses only in certain cases. Simulation studies are a commonly used tool to determine the behavior of test statistics under known conditions. We conducted a simulation study to assess the general behavior of an intersection test and a two marker test under a variety of conditions. The study was designed to reveal whether two marker tests are always more powerful than intersection tests, or whether there are cases when an intersection test may outperform the two marker approach. We present a reanalysis of a data set from a QTL study of ovariole number in Drosophila melanogaster. Results Our simulation study results show that there are situations where the single marker intersection test equals or outperforms the two marker test. The intersection test and the two marker test identify overlapping regions in the reanalysis of the Drosophila melanogaster data. The region identified is consistent with a regression based interval mapping analysis. Conclusion We find that the intersection test is appropriate for analysis of QTL data. This approach has the advantage of simplicity and for certain situations supplies equivalent or more powerful results than a comparable two marker test.

  12. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  13. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR METASTATIC PROSTATE ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The search of molecular markers of metastasing and prognosis in prostate cancer remains an urgent task. In this study, we investigated the relationship of gene expression heparanase-1 (HPSE1 and D-glucuronil C5-epimerase (GLCE with early disease relapse and metastasis of a 2,5−3 years after diagnosis. It was shown that the ratio of the expression levels of genes HPSE1/GLCE > 1 may serve as a prognostic relapse marker and trends of the tumour to metastasis. The data obtained suggest to use this option as a molecular marker for the diagnostics of metastatic process and the disease prognosis.

  14. Tumor markers: applications and recommendations. New IZOTOPE products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenes, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    At work aspects are discussed: Tumor markers; New products IZOTOP; Measuring principle of IRMA kits for tumor markers; Guidelines and Recommendations for the use of tumor markers. pre-analytical, post-analytical and Quality control recommendations are given

  15. Tumor markers of breast cancer: New prospectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Kabel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor markers are substances produced by the tumors or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign conditions. Although most of these markers are made by the normal cells as well as by cancer cells, they are produced at much higher levels in cancerous conditions. These markers are used to evaluate the patient's response to treatment and to detect the presence of metastasis or recurrence. Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in females worldwide. The CA 27-29, CA 15-3, CA27.29, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide specific antigen, p53, cathepsin D, cyclin E, nestin and HER-2 are tumor markers that are often expressed in people with breast cancer. They play a crucial role in diagnosis, monitoring response to therapy, early detection of metastasis and determination of recurrence in patients with breast cancer.

  16. Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers characterized for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MING MING BAO

    2Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Hubei 430070, People's Republic of China. 3Xinjiang Fisheries ... Keywords. microsatellite markers; cross-species amplification; genetic diversity; Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis. Journal of ..... University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Zane L.

  17. Molecular markers of tumor invasiveness in ameloblastoma: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Li; Chen, Xinming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present article was to review the current new knowledge on the molecular markers of tumor invasion in ameloblastoma. In this review, tumor molecular markers were identified and allocated to the following six groups according to their functions: (I) Markers involved in extracellular matrix degradation, (II) Molecular markers involved in cell adhesion lost, (III) Molecular markers involved in bone remodeling, (IV) Cytokines involved in angiogenesis, (V) Molecular markers related ...

  18. Procholecystokinin as marker of human Ewing sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Koefoed, Pernille; Hansen, Thomas von O

    2004-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma patients, and, if so, whether CCK peptides might play a role as tumor markers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CCK gene expression was evaluated with in situ hybridization or reverse transcription-PCR in tumor tissue. CCK precursors and bioactive CCK were measured with specific RIAs in tumor tissue...... in human cancer; Ewing sarcomas synthesize and secrete proCCK that can be identified in plasma as circulating tumor marker....

  19. Smart magnetic markers use in hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-11-01

    One of the main challenges and unknowns during shale gas exploration is to assess the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. It is also essential to assess the distribution of proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. Solving these problems may considerably increase the efficiency of the shale gas extraction. Because of that, the idea of smart magnetic marker, which can be detected when added to fracturing fluid, has been considered for a long time. This study provides overview of the possibilities of magnetic marker application for shale gas extraction. The imaging methods using electromagnetic markers, are considered or developed in two directions. The first possibility is the markers' electromagnetic activity throughout the whole volume of the fracturing fluid. Thus, it can be assumed that the whole fracturing fluid is the marker. Among these type of hydraulic fracturing solutions, ferrofluid could be considered. The second possibility is marker, which is just one of many components of the fracturing fluid. In this case feedstock magnetic materials, ferrites and nanomaterials could be considered. Magnetic properties of magnetite could be too low and ferrofluids' or nanomaterials' price is unacceptably high. Because of that, ferrites, especially ZnMn ferrites seems to be the best material for magnetic marker. Because of the numerous applications in electronics, it is cheap and easily available, although the price is higher, then that of magnetite. The disadvantage of using ferrite, could be too small mechanical strength. It creates an essential need for combining magnetic marker with proppant into magnetic-ceramic composite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection theory for marker-assisted backcrossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Matthias; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2005-06-01

    Marker-assisted backcrossing is routinely applied in breeding programs for gene introgression. While selection theory is the most important tool for the design of breeding programs for improvement of quantitative characters, no general selection theory is available for marker-assisted backcrossing. In this treatise, we develop a theory for marker-assisted selection for the proportion of the genome originating from the recurrent parent in a backcross program, carried out after preselection for the target gene(s). Our objectives were to (i) predict response to selection and (ii) give criteria for selecting the most promising backcross individuals for further backcrossing or selfing. Prediction of response to selection is based on the marker linkage map and the marker genotype of the parent(s) of the backcross population. In comparison to standard normal distribution selection theory, the main advantage of our approach is that it considers the reduction of the variance in the donor genome proportion due to selection. The developed selection criteria take into account the marker genotype of the candidates and consider whether these will be used for selfing or backcrossing. Prediction of response to selection is illustrated for model genomes of maize and sugar beet. Selection of promising individuals is illustrated with experimental data from sugar beet. The presented approach can assist geneticists and breeders in the efficient design of gene introgression programs.

  1. Detection of immunocytological markers in photomicroscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, David; zur Jacobsmühlen, Joschka; Braunschweig, Till; Bell, André; Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Knüchel-Clarke, Ruth; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    Early detection of cervical cancer can be achieved through visual analysis of cell anomalies. The established PAP smear achieves a sensitivity of 50-90%, most false negative results are caused by mistakes in the preparation of the specimen or reader variability in the subjective, visual investigation. Since cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), the detection of HPV-infected cells opens new perspectives for screening of precancerous abnormalities. Immunocytochemical preparation marks HPV-positive cells in brush smears of the cervix with high sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this work is the automated detection of all marker-positive cells in microscopic images of a sample slide stained with an immunocytochemical marker. A color separation technique is used to estimate the concentrations of the immunocytochemical marker stain as well as of the counterstain used to color the nuclei. Segmentation methods based on Otsu's threshold selection method and Mean Shift are adapted to the task of segmenting marker-positive cells and their nuclei. The best detection performance of single marker-positive cells was achieved with the adapted thresholding method with a sensitivity of 95.9%. The contours differed by a modified Hausdorff Distance (MHD) of 2.8 μm. Nuclei of single marker positive cells were detected with a sensitivity of 95.9% and MHD = 1.02 μm.

  2. Interpersonal Metadiscourse Markers in Opinion Articles:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Permana Sukma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writers can apply interpersonal metadiscourse markers to encode an interaction and build a relationship with their readers. In some particular genres, such as newspaper discourse, they can even be used as means of attaining persuasive goals. Initiated by the idea, the present writer attempts to explore the use of interpersonal metadiscourse markers in Indonesian newspaper opinion articles. This present study aims to investigate interpersonal metadiscourse categories and subcategories applied and most predominantly occuring in the type of newspaper article. For the data, eleven selected articles of an Indonesian newspaper were taken to analyze by using Dafouz’s (2008 classification of interpersonal metadiscourse markers. Results reveal that interpersonal metadiscourse categories (hedges, certainty markers, attributors, attitude markers, and commentaries and subcategories (epistemic verbs, probability adverbs, deontic verbs, attitudinal adverbs, attitudinal adjectives, cognitive verbs, rhetorical questions, inclusive expressions, personalizations, and asides were used in Indonesian opinion articles. It is also found that attitude markers and two subcategories, which are deontic and epistemic verbs, are most frequently present in the texts.

  3. Marker-assisted selection in forestry species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, P.; Southerton, S.

    2007-01-01

    The primary goal of tree breeding is to increase the quantity and quality of wood products from plantations. Major gains have been achieved using recurrent selection in genetically diverse breeding populations to capture additive variation. However, the long generation times of trees, together with poor juvenile-mature trait correlations, have promoted interest in marker-assisted selection (MAS) to accelerate breeding through early selection. MAS relies on identifying DNA markers, which explain a high proportion of variation in phenotypic traits. Genetic linkage maps have been developed for most commercial tree species and these can be used to locate chromosomal regions where DNA markers co-segregate with quantitative traits (quantitative trait loci, QTL). MAS based on QTL is most likely to be used for within-family selection in a limited number of elite families that can be clonally propagated. Limitations of the approach include the low resolution of marker-trait associations, the small proportion of phenotypic variation explained by QTL and the low success rate in validating QTL in different genetic backgrounds and environments. This has led to a change in research focus towards association mapping to identify variation in the DNA sequence of genes directly controlling phenotypic variation (gene-assisted selection, GAS). The main advantages of GAS are the high resolution of marker-trait associations and the ability to transfer markers across families and even species. Association studies are being used to examine the adaptive significance of variation in genes controlling wood formation and quality, pathogen resistance, cold tolerance and drought tolerance. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these gene sequences that are significantly associated with trait variation can then be used for early selection. Markers for SNPs can be transferred among individuals regardless of pedigree or family relationship, increasing opportunities for their application in

  4. Macrophage serum markers in pneumococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Weis, Nina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients...... analyses at the time of first positive blood culture. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: sCD163 was highly correlated with other macrophage markers and was significantly elevated (median [25-75 percentiles], 4.6 mg/L [2.8-8.9]) compared with healthy controls (2.7 mg/L [2.1-3.3], p ..., all macrophage markers were increased in patients who died from their infection compared with survivors, whereas no change was observed in any of the markers in the very old age. At cutoff levels of 9.5 mg/L (sCD163) and 1650 nmol/L (C-reactive protein), the relative risk for fatal outcome in patients...

  5. Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.

  6. Prognostic markers for bladder cancer: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habuchi, T.; Marberger, M.; Droller, M.J.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Grossman, H.B.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Murphy, W.M.; Bono, A.V.; Goebell, P.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Hautmann, S.H.; Messing, E.; Fradet, Y.; Lokeshwar, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    The International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers evaluated markers that have the ability to predict tumor recurrence, progression, development of metastases, or response to therapy or patient survival. This article summarizes those findings. The panel mainly reviewed articles

  7. Incorporation of conventional genetic markers and RAPD markers into an RFLP based map in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, E.H. Jr.; McMullen, M.D.; Polacco, M.; Davis, G.L.; Chao, S.

    1998-01-01

    Integration of classical genetic markers, in particular mutants, onto the maize Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) map will provide the tools necessary to further our understanding of plant development and of complex traits. Initially integration was accomplished by visual alignment of common markers and sometimes involved the use of information from several different molecular maps to determine the relative placement of a single mutant. The maize core marker set was designed to provide a common set of markers which could be used for integration of map data. We have completed the mapping, of 56 mutants on chromosome one relative to the core marker set. Phenotypes included whole plant, seedling, and kernel effects and represented a variety of biological processes. Since these mutants were previously located to chromosome arm, mapping required the use of only seven markers per mutant to define the correct bin location. Two mistakes in marker order relative to the classical map were identified, as well as, six groups of mutants which require allelism testing. Placement of mutants and cDNAs into bins using, the core markers provides a necessary resource for identification of gene function in maize. (author)

  8. Marker mapping and resistance gene associations in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The invention provides novel molecular genetic markers in soybean, where the markers are useful, for example, in the marker-assisted selection of gene alleles that impart disease-resistance, thereby allowing the identification and selection of a disease-resistant plant. The markers also find use in positional cloning of disease-resistance genes.

  9. Rice genetic marker database: An identification of single nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based genetic marker system to provide information about SNP and QTL markers in rice. The SNP marker database provides 7,227 SNP markers including location information on chromosomes by using genetic map. It allows users to access a ...

  10. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular...... markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...... was the topic of a recent European plant breeding workshop. The participants evaluated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use of molecular markers and we formalized their inputs into breeder’s perspectives and perspectives seen from the organic sector’s standpoint. Clear strengths were...

  11. Tumor markers in breast cancer- European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations are presented for the routine clinical use of serum and tissue-based markers in the diagnosis and management of patients with breast cancer. Their low sensitivity and specificity preclude the use of serum markers such as the MUC-1 mucin glycoproteins (CA 15.3, BR 27.......29) and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. However, serial measurement of these markers can result in the early detection of recurrent disease as well as indicate the efficacy of therapy. Of the tissue-based markers, measurement of estrogen and progesterone receptors is mandatory...... in the selection of patients for treatment with hormone therapy, while HER-2 is essential in selecting patients with advanced breast cancer for treatment with Herceptin (trastuzumab). Urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are recently validated prognostic markers for lymph node...

  12. Overview of cardiac markers in heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolim, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Cardiac troponins I and T have been the cornerstone of diagnostics of acute coronary syndrome for almost 20 years. Natriuretic peptides have established themselves in heart failure during the last decade. These and additional promising biomarkers, such as ST-2, galectin-3, GDF-15, copeptin, midregional proadrenomedullin, and the markers of glomerular filtration rate and kidney injury, are reviewed in groups corresponding to the pathophysiological processes they probe--cardiomyocyte injury, myocyte stress, inflammation, oxidative stress, plaque instability, extracellular-matrix remodeling, or those markers grouped in the neurohormone category. Biomarkers linking the renal and cardiac functions and microRNAs and metabolomic markers are addressed as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain...... known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction...... of HRP in the mid twentieth-century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level, but it also has limitations. Advantages and disadvantages of these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches...

  14. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages. _______________________ 1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  15. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages._______________________1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  16. 78 FR 35567 - Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 219 to Mile Marker 229, in the Vicinity of Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Captain of the Port, New Orleans has implemented a safety zone from mile marker 219 to mile marker 225... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 219 to Mile Marker 229, in the Vicinity of Port Allen Lock AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final...

  17. The role of Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fruit Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Markers have been used over the years for the classification of plants. Markers are any trait of an organism that can be identified with confidence and relative easy, and can be followed in a mapping population on another hand markers be defined as heritable entities associated with the economically important trait under the control of polygenes. Morphological markers can be detected with naked eye (naked eye polymorphism or as difference in physical or chemical properties of the macromolecules. In other words, there are two types of genetic markers viz. morphological markers or naked eye polymorphism and non-morphological markers or molecular markers. Morphological markers include traits such as plant height, disease response, photoperiod, sensitivity, shape or colour of flowers, fruits or seeds etc. Molecular markers include biochemical constituents. Morphological markers have many limitations for being used as markers particularly in fruit crops because of long generation time and large size of fruit trees besides being influenced by environment. Consequently, molecular markers could be appropriate choice to study and preserve the diversity in any germplasm. Molecular markers have diverse applications in fruit crop improvement, particularly in the areas of genetic diversity and varietal identification studies, gene tagging, disease diagnostics, pedigree analysis, hybrid detection, sex differentiation and marker assisted selection.

  18. A visible dominant marker for insect transgenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Ohde, Takahiro; Hirata, Junya; Uchino, Keiro; Futahashi, Ryo; Tamura, Toshiki; Niimi, Teruyuki; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Transgenesis of most insects currently relies on fluorescence markers. Here we establish a transformation marker system causing phenotypes visible to the naked eye due to changes in the color of melanin pigments, which are widespread in animals. Ubiquitous overexpression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, changes the color of newly hatched first-instar larvae from black to a distinctive light brown color, and can be used as a molecular marker by directly connecting to baculovirus immediate early 1 gene promoter. Suppression of black pigmentation by Bm-arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase can be observed throughout the larval stages and in adult animals. Alternatively, overexpression in another gene, B. mori β-alanyl-dopamine synthetase (Bm-ebony), changes the larval body color of older instars, although first-instar larvae had normal dark coloration. We further show that ectopic Bm-arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase expression lightens coloration in ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, highlighting the potential usefulness of this marker for transgenesis in diverse insect taxa. PMID:23250425

  19. RAPD markers demonstrate genetic diversity in Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD markers demonstrate genetic diversity in Pterocarpus angolensis from Zimbabwe and Zambia. E Chisha-Kasumu, S Woodward, A Price. Abstract. Understanding the availability, extent and apportionment of genetic variability in natural populations of the southern African savanna tree Pterocarpus angolensis can ...

  20. Molecular marker analysis of 'Shatangju' and 'Wuzishatangju ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Wuzishatangju'(Citrus reticulata Blanco) is an excellent cultivar derived from a bud sport of a seedy 'Shatangju' cultivar found in Guangdong Province in the 1980s. In this study, six molecular markers including random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), simple sequence repeat (SSR) ...

  1. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the third largest natural fiber crop and one of the five major oil crops in the world. ... These novel polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful in genetic linkage map construction, germplasm classification and identification, gene identification and QTL mapping, and marker-assisted selection ...

  2. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... by combined RAPD and ISSR markers. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7: 2333-. 2340. Cony MA, Trione SO (1998). Inter- and interspecific variability in. Prosopis flexuosa and P. chilensis: seed germination under salt and moisture stress. J. Arid Environ. 40: 307-317. Crawford RMM (1978). Mineral Nutrition (Chapter 6).

  3. Molecular markers in oral epithelial dysplasia: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiyage, Gayani; Tilakaratne, W M; Tavassoli, Mahvash; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2009-11-01

    The clinical and histologic features alone cannot accurately predict whether potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa remain stable, regress or progress to malignancy. Some of them, with or without epithelial dysplasia, may transform to invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Identification of molecular markers which can predict disease progression is necessary to improve the management of these disorders. Many genes and signaling pathways have been shown to be involved in the development of OSCC. This review summarizes some molecular markers researched in the detection of pre-cancer. We highlight selected markers that are reported to be significantly associated with progression of potentially malignant disorders to OSCC. These include alterations in genes/pathways which control cellular signaling, cell cycle, apoptosis, genomic stability, cytoskeleton, angiogenesis, etc. However, these genetic tumor markers have so far not gained any use in routine diagnosis and their utility in the prediction of risk of malignant transformation remains unknown. It is, however, clear from the large number of studies, some described in this review, that multiple genes/pathways are involved in the progression from normal to metaplastic/dysplastic, and subsequently to cancer. It is therefore necessary to study those significant alterations in multiple genes simultaneously in biopsy samples from large cohorts of subjects.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid markers of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, W. A.; Bolhuis, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in order to answer the question whether CSF contains a specific marker which can be used to support a clinical diagnosis of AD. DATA SOURCES: Studies identified through an English-language literature

  5. Impact of protein markers in wheat breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obreht Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of structure, function and polymorphism of cereal storage and functional proteins has important value in cereal breeding. Beside of emergence of new molecular markers in last decade, special classes of protein markers are still the first choice in conventional breeding programmes. Wheat storage proteins, high molecular weight glutenins (HMW GS represent only 10% of total endosperm proteins, but their composition has a major effect on visco-elastic properties of dough. Second routinely applied marker test in cereal breeding are secaline subunits coded by Sec-1 locus. Their presence in bread wheat genome are marker for IB, 1R substitution or 1BL/1RS translocation which has serious defects in bread making quality such as high dough stickiness and low loaf volume. Composition of HMW GS and the presence of 1BL/1RS traslocation in 93 bread wheat cultivars breed in period 1990-2000. at the Research Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad was detected by SDS-PAG electrophoresis. Eleven alleles were scored, 3 at the Glu-A1, 5 at the Glu-B1, and 3 at the Glu-D1. 1BL/1RS translocation was present in 28 cultivars. Since more than one-third of analyzed cultivars possess high Glu-1 quality score and that 1BL/1RS traslocation presence express retrograde trend it could be conclude that the significant bread-making oriented genetic potential is present. .

  6. Characterizing the transcriptome and molecular markers information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ideal model for analysing ecological and comparative genomics. However, the limited genome ... simple sequence repeats. The identified molecular markers are a basis for further ecological analysis, and the transcriptome repor- ted here .... a series of in-house perl scripts to remove reads containing adapter sequences, or ...

  7. Molecular markers unravel intraspecific and interspecific genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011). However, to develop efficient interspecific crosses it is essential to determine their phy- logenetic relationships. Although some workers have tried nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions for this purpose (Ronsted et al. 2002; Dhar et al. 2006), it would be worthwhile to use molecular markers,.

  8. Molecular marker genes for ectomycorrhizal symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Carolyn McQuattie; Gopi Podila; Jenise. Bauman

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is a mutually beneficial association very commonly found among most vascular plants. Formation of mycorrhiza happens only between compatible partners and predicting this is often accomplished through a trial and error process. We investigated the possibility of using expression of symbiosis specific genes as markers to predict the formation of...

  9. Sequence characterized markers for flax seed authentication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2009), s. 206-213 ISSN 0251-0952 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/03/0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : SCAR markers * cultivar identification * flax seed Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.503, year: 2009

  10. SNP marker detection and genotyping in tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bers, van N.E.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Dibbits, B.W.; Komen, J.

    2012-01-01

    We have generated a unique resource consisting of nearly 175 000 short contig sequences and 3569 SNP markers from the widely cultured GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In total, 384 SNPs were selected to monitor the wider applicability of the

  11. Efficient marker data utilization in genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid

    Genomic prediction is a novel method to recognize the best animals for breeding. The aim of this PhD is to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction in dairy cattle by effeiently utilizing marker data. The thesis focuses on three aspects for improving the genomc prediction, which are: criteria...

  12. Structural assessment of backcrossing using microsatellite markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backcrossing, coupled with marker or gene assisted selection, can be used to introgress a specific gene or chromosomal region from one population into another. The objective of this study was to assess the genomic structure of cattle produced by backcrossing for loci that are unlinked to a locus that was being introgressed ...

  13. Molecular markers unravel intraspecific and interspecific genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular markers unravel intraspecific and interspecific genetic variability in Plantago ovata and some of its wild allies. Shivanjali Kotwal, Manoj K. Dhar, Balbir Kour, Kuldeep Raj and Sanjana Kaul. J. Genet. 92, 293–298. Table 1. Jaccard's similarity matrix of AFLP analysis of Plantago species. P. coronopus P. lanceolata ...

  14. Microsatellite markers: An important fingerprinting tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... further chromosome rearrangements or variations in seq- uences between wheat grass genomes (Mullan et al.,. 2005), and SSR variations have been identified in 60 durum wheat accessions (Wang et al., 2007). UTILIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN. BREEDING PROGRAMS. The efficiency of ...

  15. Selectable genetic markers for nematode transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano-Santini, Rosina; Dupuy, Denis

    2011-06-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used to study genetics and development since the mid-1970s. Over the years, the arsenal of techniques employed in this field has grown steadily in parallel with the number of researchers using this model. Since the introduction of C. elegans transgenesis, nearly 20 years ago, this system has been extensively used in areas such as rescue experiments, gene expression studies, and protein localization. The completion of the C. elegans genome sequence paved the way for genome-wide studies requiring higher throughput and improved scalability than provided by traditional genetic markers. The development of antibiotic selection systems for nematode transgenesis addresses these requirements and opens the possibility to apply transgenesis to investigate biological functions in other nematode species for which no genetic markers had been developed to date.

  16. DNA markers for Portuguese olive oil fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Lopes, Paula; Gomes, Sónia; Santos, Elisabete; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-12-24

    The certification of olive oil has led to the definition of Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) producing regions in European countries. PDO products should be protected, and a solution could be by using DNA fingerprinting. In this work we evaluate the efficiency of RAPD, ISSR, and SSR molecular markers for olive oil varietal identification and their possible use in certification purposes. Twenty-three Portuguese olive oil samples (11 obtained monovarietal and 12 purchased commercial oils) were screened by means of two RAPD, four ISSR, and four SSR markers. The quality of amplified products was used to evaluate the reproducibility and the level of polymorphism. Principal component analysis was performed with DCENTER using unweighted pair group mathematical average (UPGMA) that allowed group formation according to olive oil varietal geographic origin.

  17. Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattapaglia, D.

    2007-01-01

    Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

  18. [Markers of angiogenesis in tumor growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, N A; Kharlova, O A; Danilova, N V; Malkov, P G; Gaifullin, N M

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessels formation. The role of angiogenesis in growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours is nowdays universally recognized. Though, investigation of mechanisms of blood vessels formation and elaboration methods for assessment of tumour angiogenesis are still up-dated. Another important concern are different aspects of usage of immunohistochemical markers of blood vessels endothelium (CD31 and CD34) for assessment of tumour aggressiveness and prognosis. The problems of malignant lymphangiogenesis are also up-to-date. The focus is on methods of immunohistochemical visualization of forming lymphatic vessels, role of podoplanin, the most reliable marker of lymphatic vessels, in their identification, and formulization of the main criteria for lymphangiogenesis estimation, its correlation with metastatic activity and prognostic potential. Studying of angiogenesis and lymph angiogenesis in malignant tumors is important and challenging direction for researching tumour progression and invention of antiangiogenic therapy.

  19. Diagnostic markers for germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2015-01-01

    to gain-of function mutations in survival-promoting genes (e.g. FGFR3, HRAS), thus this tumour has a different expression profile than GCNIS-derived TGCT. Clinically most informative markers for GCT, except teratoma, are genes expressed in primordial germ cell/gonocyte and embryonic pluripotency......-genomic gene expression regulation involves small non-coding RNAs, predominantly micro-RNAs (miRs). Testicular GCTs display micro-RNA profiles similar to embryonic stem cells. Targeted miRNA-based blood tests for miR-371-3 and miR-367 clusters are currently under development and hold a great promise......This concise review summarises tissue and serum markers useful for differential diagnosis of germ cell tumours (GCTs), with focus on the most common testicular GCTs (TGCTs). GCTs are characterised by phenotypic heterogeneity due to largely retained embryonic pluripotency and aberrant somatic...

  20. Biomolecular Markers in Cancer of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daris Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tongue cancer is increasing worldwide, and its aggressiveness remains high regardless of treatment. Genetic changes and the expression of abnormal proteins have been frequently reported in the case of head and neck cancers, but the little information that has been published concerning tongue tumours is often contradictory. This review will concentrate on the immunohistochemical expression of biomolecular markers and their relationships with clinical behaviour and prognosis. Most of these proteins are associated with nodal stage, tumour progression and metastases, but there is still controversy concerning their impact on disease-free and overall survival, and treatment response. More extensive clinical studies are needed to identify the patterns of molecular alterations and the most reliable predictors in order to develop tailored anti-tumour strategies based on the targeting of hypoxia markers, vascular and lymphangiogenic factors, epidermal growth factor receptors, intracytoplasmatic signalling and apoptosis.

  1. Marker-assisted selection for quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although thousands of scientific articles have been published on the subject of marker-assisted selection (MAS andquantitative trait loci (QTL, the application of MAS for QTL in plant breeding has been restricted. Among the main causes for thislimited use are the low accuracy of QTL mapping and the high costs of genotyping thousands of plants with tens or hundreds ofmolecular markers in routine breeding programs. Recently, new large-scale genotyping technologies have resulted in a costreduction. Nevertheless, the MAS for QTL has so far been limited to selection programs using several generations per year, wherephenotypic selection cannot be performed in all generations, mainly in recurrent selection programs. Methods of MAS for QTL inbreeding programs using self-pollination have been developed.

  2. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  3. Leptin : a risk marker for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity and early death in the Western societies is cardiovascular disease (CVD) secondary to atherosclerotic disease. Metabolic aberrations have been linked to CVD. Particular combinations of these so-called risk markers are common and (central) obesity, Type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, dysfibrinolysis and hyperinsulinemia are often associated. This has been entitled the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (1RS), due to underlying insulin re...

  4. Marker-assisted selection in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, D.-J. de; Hocking, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Among livestock species, chicken has the most extensive genomics toolbox available for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). The uptake of MAS is therefore not limited by technical resources but mostly by the priorities and financial constraints of the few remaining poultry breeding companies. With the cost of genotyping decreasing rapidly, an increase in the use of direct trait- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-associations in MAS can be predicted. (author)

  5. Drawing organic photovoltaics using paint marker pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kaori; Izawa, Seiichiro; Chen, Yujiao; Nakano, Kyohei; Tajima, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    Active layers for organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) were prepared by hand drawing with paint marker pens containing solutions of the materials. Although the pen-coated organic films were visually non-uniform with quite high surface roughness, OPV devices using these films exhibited similar or slightly better performances than those using spin-coated films. As such, the pen-coating technique represents an easily accessible, inexpensive, and highly material-efficient method for fabricating OPVs.

  6. Leptin as local inflammatory marker in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, R; Vernooy, J H J; Schols, A M W J; Dentener, M A; Wouters, E F M

    2005-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the lung is a characteristic finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Leptin is a pleiotropic cytokine thought to play a role in host response to inflammation. As recent studies have shown that leptin receptors are present in the lung, this study aimed to determine if leptin is detectable in induced sputum of COPD patients and if there is a relationship between leptin and other inflammatory markers in sputum. Sputum was induced in 14 male patients with moderate COPD (FEV1: 56 (15) % pred.). Leptin, total tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed in induced sputum supernatant by ELISA. Leptin was also determined in EDTA plasma. Leptin was detectable in induced sputum of 10 COPD patients. A significant relationship was found between sputum leptin and CRP (r = 0.943, P leptin and sputum leptin were inversely correlated (r = -0.643, P leptin is detectable in induced sputum of patients with moderate COPD and is related to other inflammatory markers. The observed correlations between leptin and inflammatory markers in sputum may indicate that leptin is involved in the local inflammatory response in COPD.

  7. Early markers of adult obesity: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, T D; Farmer, A P; McCargar, L J

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors in early childhood (≤5 years of age) that are the most significant predictors of the development of obesity in adulthood. Factors of interest included exposures/insults in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables such as socioeconomic status (SES) or birth place that could impact all three time periods. An extensive electronic and systematic search initially resulted in 8,880 citations, after duplicates were removed. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and following two screening processes, 135 studies were retained for detailed abstraction and analysis. A total of 42 variables were associated with obesity in adulthood; however, of these, only seven variables may be considered as potential early markers of obesity based on the reported associations. Possible early markers of obesity included maternal smoking and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Probable early markers of obesity included maternal body mass index, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and father's employment (a proxy measure for SES in many studies). Health promotion programmes/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. PMID:22171945

  8. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri H. Strand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181 and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC.

  9. Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fardellone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin, serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP, serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX, pyridinolines (DPD and PYD, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis. Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

  10. Markers of T Cell Senescence in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are facing the aging of their population, and many more will face a similar obstacle in the near future, which could be a burden to many healthcare systems. Increased susceptibility to infections, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease, cancer as well as reduced efficacy of vaccination are important matters for researchers in the field of aging. As older adults show higher prevalence for a variety of diseases, this also implies higher risk of complications, including nosocomial infections, slower recovery and sequels that may reduce the autonomy and overall quality of life of older adults. The age-related effects on the immune system termed as “immunosenescence” can be exemplified by the reported hypo-responsiveness to influenza vaccination of the elderly. T cells, which belong to the adaptive arm of the immune system, have been extensively studied and the knowledge gathered enables a better understanding of how the immune system may be affected after acute/chronic infections and how this matters in the long run. In this review, we will focus on T cells and discuss the surface and molecular markers that are associated with T cell senescence. We will also look at the implications that senescent T cells could have on human health and diseases. Finally, we will discuss the benefits of having these markers for investigators and the future work that is needed to advance the field of T cell senescence markers.

  11. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  12. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Pennells, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated.......The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated....

  13. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  14. Haptocorrin as marker of disease progression in fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte Launholt; Nguyen, Khoa Tran; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2011-01-01

    No valid markers are routinely available to follow disease progression in patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC). We report data suggesting that the vitamin B12 binding protein haptocorrin (HC) may prove a suitable marker.......No valid markers are routinely available to follow disease progression in patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC). We report data suggesting that the vitamin B12 binding protein haptocorrin (HC) may prove a suitable marker....

  15. Image Processing Marker Augmented Reality for Design Furniture Room

    OpenAIRE

    Desy Siswanti, Sri; Titoyan, Titoyan

    2015-01-01

    AR useful for industrial applications to enhance the visual perception of the user, for example, the AR system is capable of visually new building project at a real construction site, which gives the viewer a better understanding in accordance with the existing environment. The method used by the AR is a marker detection and tracking, the method used for the detection and tracking marker is a natural feature tracking. This method detects features that are in the marker. In detecting marker ob...

  16. New microsatellite markers classifying nontoxic and toxic Jatropha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sions of jatropha from India and a nontoxic accession from. Mexico. Basha and Sujatha (2009) reported genetic vari- ation and interspecific hybrids of Jatropha species using. RAPD and ISSR as nuclear specific markers, and chloro- plast microsatellite markers as organelle specific markers. Ganesh et al. (2008) studied ...

  17. Association of AFLP and SSR markers with agronomic and fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-04

    Aug 4, 2010 ... marker data for each individual markers using Excel data analysis (regression) programe. MRA was conducted using. 'backward' method of 'linear regression analysis' option of. SPSS version 13.0. Markers showing significant regression values were considered as associated with the trait under con-.

  18. The Pragmatic Markers Anyway , Okay , and Shame : A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pragmatic markers are “a class of short, recurrent linguistic items that generally have little lexical import but serve significant pragmatic functions in conversation” (Andersen 2001:39). While pragmatic markers are receiving growing consideration in the literature, pragmatic markers in South African English have been given ...

  19. Perceived Social Support and Markers of Heart Failure Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MARKERS OF...Date 11 iii Abstract Title of Thesis: PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MARKERS OF HEART FAILURE SEVERITY Thesis Advisor: David S. Krantz, Ph.D... PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MARKERS OF HEART FAILURE SEVERITY By Amanda E. Berg Masters Thesis submitted to the faculty of the

  20. Metabolic markers as possible diagnostic tools to distinguish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No metabolic markers could distinguish between gram positive and gram negative septicemia. α-Amino-adipic acid, citramalic acid and xanthurenic acid, produced only by bacteria, show promise. Alanine and glycine increased significantly over 24 h and can be used as diagnostic markers and perhaps as markers of ...

  1. Application of bio-marker to study on tumor radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanfeng; Ding Guirong; Han Liangfu

    2001-01-01

    To definite tumor radiosensitivity is important for applying the schedules of individualization of patient radiotherapy. Many laboratories were carrying on the research which predict the tumor radiosensitivity with one bio-marker or/and multi-bio-marker in various levels. At present has not witnessed the specific bio-marker, but it provides an excellent model for predicting tumor radiosensitivity

  2. Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrumderived leaf rust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-20

    Mar 20, 2017 ... (Short Title: Marker assisted pyramiding of leaf rust resistance genes). Key words: Wheat, leaf rust, molecular marker, gene pyramiding,marker assisted selection. Abstract. The study was undertaken to pyramid two effective leaf rust resistance genes (Lr19 and Lr24) derived from Thinopyrum(syn.Agropyron) ...

  3. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  4. Genetic markers and their application in livestock breeding in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ultimate use of DNA markers would be to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to practice genotypic selection. This paper reviews DNA markers (RAPD, DFP, RFLP AFLP, minisatellites, microsatellites, SNP) and provides a brief overview of the current application of these markers in animal breeding.

  5. Genetic variation of rs438601 marker in the Iranian Population: An informative marker for molecular diagnosis of hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dorri

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that rs438601 marker due to high heterozygosity could be suggested as an appropriate diagnostic marker in linkage analysis and carrier detection of hemophilia B in regard with a sample of Iranian population.

  6. Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer: a European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) status report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In non-jaundiced patients, however, CA 19-9 may complement other diagnostic procedures. In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, presurgical and postresection CA 19-9 levels correlate with overall survival. In advanced disease, elevated pretreatment levels of CA 19-9 are associated with adverse patient outcome and thus may be combined with other factors for risk stratification. Most, but not all, reports indicate that serial levels of CA 19-9 correlate with response to systemic therapy. Use of CA 19-9 kinetics in conjunction with imaging is therefore recommended in monitoring therapy. Although several potential serum and tissue markers for pancreatic cancer are currently undergoing evaluation, none are sufficiently validated for routine clinical use. CA 19-9 thus remains the serum pancreatic cancer marker against which new markers for this malignancy should be judged.

  7. 76 FR 60733 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile Marker 230 to Mile Marker 234, in the Vicinity of Baton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    .... Basis and Purpose The Captain of the Port New Orleans has implemented a safety zone from mile marker 230... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile Marker 230 to Mile Marker 234, in the Vicinity of Baton Rouge, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule...

  8. 75 FR 59620 - Natchez Fireworks Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 365.5 to Mile Marker 363...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ..., Mile Marker 365.5 to Mile Marker 363, Natchez, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Mississippi River from mile marker 365.5 to 363 extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is... W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through...

  9. Detection of fiducial gold markers for automatic on-line megavoltage position verification using a marker extraction kernel (MEK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen, A.; Lagendijk, J.; Hofman, P.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study automatic detection of implanted gold markers in megavoltage portal images for on-line position verification was investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detection method for fiducial gold markers, consisting of a marker extraction kernel (MEK), was developed. The detection

  10. Surface markers. [Quarterly report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This research examined information on natural phenomena and human activities to ultimately recommend specific sites for surface markers to warn future generations of the potential hazards of disposed waste. Literature pertaining to previous marker designs was reviewed and summarized. This literature primarily addressed the recommendations of a consultant team for developing a marker system to warn future generations about radioactive waste (WIPP, New Mexico). Literature on archeological markers (e.g., Nazca lines in Peru, pyramids) and their durability was also covered. Application to Yucca Mountain is discussed; sites for possible placement of surface markers are considered.

  11. Mammographic density and epithelial histopathologic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killeen Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We explored the association of mammographic density, a breast cancer risk factor, with hormonal and proliferation markers in benign tissue from tumor blocks of pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer cases. Methods Breast cancer cases were recruited from a case-control study on breast density. Mammographic density was assessed on digitized prediagnostic mammograms using a computer-assisted method. For 279 participants of the original study, we obtained tumor blocks and prepared tissue microarrays (TMA, but benign tissue cores were only available for 159 women. The TMAs were immunostained for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and beta (ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2/neu, Ki-67, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA. We applied general linear models to compute breast density according to marker expression. Results A substantial proportion of the samples were in the low or no staining categories. None of the results was statistically significant, but women with PR and ERβ staining had 3.4% and 2.4% higher percent density. The respective values for Caucasians were 5.7% and 11.6% but less in Japanese women (3.5% and -1.1%. Percent density was 3.4% higher in women with any Ki-67 staining and 2.2% in those with positive PCNA staining. Conclusion This study detected little evidence for an association between mammographic density and expression of steroid receptors and proliferation markers in breast tissue, but it illustrated the problems of locating tumor blocks and benign breast tissue samples for epidemiologic research. Given the suggestive findings, future studies examining estrogen effects in tissue, cell proliferation, and density in the breast may be informative.

  12. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  13. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinguishing human and possum faeces using PCR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, M; Robson, B; Nourozi, F; Wood, D; Gilpin, B J

    2013-09-01

    Specificity testing of two published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers for the detection of human faecal pollution, revealed 100% false-positive rates to brush-tailed possum faeces (n = 10), but low false-positive rates against other potential pollution sources. Cross-reaction with possums could be a problem with other human-specific markers; therefore, a possum PCR marker was developed for use in conjunction with human PCR markers. The possum PCR marker was based on Bacteroidales 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences, and was tested on 233 individual faecal samples from 11 other animal species. Sensitivity of the possum marker in possum faeces (n = 36) was high at 83.3%. Cross-reactivity of the possum marker was limited to black swan (7/20 samples), human (2/48 samples) and rabbit (1/10) faecal samples, all at marker concentrations at least four orders of magnitude lower than possum faeces. The possum marker was not detected in human sewage or the faeces of other animal species. Specificity of the possum PCR marker, therefore, was high at 95.7%. To exclude the possibility that only possum pollution is being detected, additional testing by other faecal source tracking methods is required where the water sample is positive for both human and possum markers.

  15. Collagen markers in peritoneal dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Joffe, P; Fugleberg, S

    1995-01-01

    (PICP), aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP)] were studied in 19 nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients. The absence of correlation between the mass appearance rates of the markers and the duration of dialysis treatment...... as well as the number of peritonitis episodes supports the concept that peritoneal dialysis does not cause persistent changes in the deposition and degradation rates of collagen. A correlation between the D/Pcreatinine 4 hr and the PICP mass appearance rates was found. Since it is unlikely...

  16. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  17. Induced marker gene mutations in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Non-fluorescent root mutants in soybean are useful as markers in genetic studies. 13 such mutants were detected among more than 150 000 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with 6 mutagens. One of them, derived from variety 'Williams' treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to the already known spontaneous non-fluorescent mutants. It was assigned the identification no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5. The other mutants corresponded with known loci fr1, fr2 or fr4. (author)

  18. Connective tissue markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J

    1998-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology. The most common outcome of RA is a progressive development of joint destruction and deformity. Early introduction of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs seems important for prevention of the long term...... of rheumatoid factor contributes to the classification of arthritis as RA, and acute phase reactants are useful for quantifying and comparing the level of inflammatory activity in the course of a given patient. There is, however, a lack of sensitive and specific biochemical markers for RA, and frontline...

  19. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  20. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bisso-Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data.

  1. Biological markers of Alzheimer?s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cruz de Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for establishing an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD have created a need for biomarkers that reflect the core pathology of the disease. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of total Tau (T-tau, phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau and beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ42 reflect, respectively, neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid pathologies and are considered as surrogate markers of AD pathophysiology. The combination of low Aβ42 and high levels of T-tau and P-Tau can accurately identify patients with AD at early stages, even before the development of dementia. The combined analysis of the CSF biomarkers is also helpful for the differential diagnosis between AD and other degenerative dementias. The development of these CSF biomarkers has evolved to a novel diagnostic definition of the disease. The identification of a specific clinical phenotype combined with the in vivo evidence of pathophysiological markers offers the possibility to make a diagnosis of AD before the dementia stage with high specificity.

  2. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  3. LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS WITH STANDARDIZED MARKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Pepe, Margaret S; Feng, Ziding

    2013-09-01

    Two different approaches to analysis of data from diagnostic biomarker studies are commonly employed. Logistic regression is used to fit models for probability of disease given marker values while ROC curves and risk distributions are used to evaluate classification performance. In this paper we present a method that simultaneously accomplishes both tasks. The key step is to standardize markers relative to the non-diseased population before including them in the logistic regression model. Among the advantages of this method are: (i) ensuring that results from regression and performance assessments are consistent with each other; (ii) allowing covariate adjustment and covariate effects on ROC curves to be handled in a familiar way, and (iii) providing a mechanism to incorporate important assumptions about structure in the ROC curve into the fitted risk model. We develop the method in detail for the problem of combining biomarker datasets derived from multiple studies, populations or biomarker measurement platforms, when ROC curves are similar across data sources. The methods are applicable to both cohort and case-control sampling designs. The dataset motivating this application concerns Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) for diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with or without previous negative biopsy where the ROC curves for PCA3 are found to be the same in the two populations. Estimated constrained maximum likelihood and empirical likelihood estimators are derived. The estimators are compared in simulation studies and the methods are illustrated with the PCA3 dataset.

  4. Biochemical markers of neonatal myocardial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cristina Maria; Carrapato, Manuel R G; Pinto, Fernando; Pinto, Mariana; Ferreira, Sofia; Schmitt, Denise; Marinho, Luis

    2011-04-01

    Cardiac ultrasounds (US) are not always available at the bedside. Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), CK-MB and NT-proBNP may be an alternative or complementary to influence evaluation and treatment. To determine reference ranges of biochemical markers cTnI, CK-MB and NT-proBNP in normal neonates. Cord and blood samples were collected from neonates and the above biochemical markers were determined. Ultrasounds were performed blindly. CK-MB remains constant from cord blood to the first day, declining thereafter to almost half the values (81.5 vs 52.0 U/l); cTnI increases from 0.004 to 0.058 ng/ml by 72 h falling to 0.030 by day 10; NT-proBNP peaks by 24 h (5085.5 pg/ml), subsiding to 3388.5 pg/ml by day 3, falling to 1316.0 pg/ml by day 10. CK-MB, mostly of muscle origin and reflecting labor stress or injury, is not to recommend as a measure of myocardial damage in the neonate. The rise in cTnI may be explained by a degree of myocardial involvement, albeit physiological. The initial rise and subsequent fall of NT-proBNP represents the physiological ventricular overload of transient birth adaptation.

  5. Clinical and Biological Markers in Hypereosinophilic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paneez Khoury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES are rare, heterogeneous syndromes characterized by markedly elevated eosinophil counts in the blood and/or tissue and evidence of eosinophil-associated pathology. Although parasitic infections, drug hypersensitivity, and other disorders of defined etiology can present as HES (associated HES, treatment is directed at the underlying cause rather than the eosinophilia itself. A number of additional subtypes of HES have been described, based on clinical and laboratory features. These include (1 myeloid HES—a primary disorder of the myeloid lineage, (2 lymphocytic variant HES—eosinophilia driven by aberrant or clonal lymphocytes secreting eosinophil-promoting cytokines, (3 overlap HES—eosinophilia restricted to a single organ or organ system, (4 familial eosinophilia—a rare inherited form of HES, and (5 idiopathic HES. Since clinical manifestations, response to therapy, and prognosis all differ between HES subtypes, this review will focus on clinical and biological markers that serve as markers of disease activity in HES (excluding associated HES, including those that are likely to be useful only in specific clinical subtypes.

  6. Predicting Missing Marker Trajectories in Human Motion Data Using Marker Intercorrelations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gløersen, Øyvind; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Missing information in motion capture data caused by occlusion or detachment of markers is a common problem that is difficult to avoid entirely. The aim of this study was to develop and test an algorithm for reconstruction of corrupted marker trajectories in datasets representing human gait. The reconstruction was facilitated using information of marker inter-correlations obtained from a principal component analysis, combined with a novel weighting procedure. The method was completely data-driven, and did not require any training data. We tested the algorithm on datasets with movement patterns that can be considered both well suited (healthy subject walking on a treadmill) and less suited (transitioning from walking to running and the gait of a subject with cerebral palsy) to reconstruct. Specifically, we created 50 copies of each dataset, and corrupted them with gaps in multiple markers at random temporal and spatial positions. Reconstruction errors, quantified by the average Euclidian distance between predicted and measured marker positions, was ≤ 3 mm for the well suited dataset, even when there were gaps in up to 70% of all time frames. For the less suited datasets, median reconstruction errors were in the range 5-6 mm. However, a few reconstructions had substantially larger errors (up to 29 mm). Our results suggest that the proposed algorithm is a viable alternative both to conventional gap-filling algorithms and state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms developed for motion capture systems. The strengths of the proposed algorithm are that it can fill gaps anywhere in the dataset, and that the gaps can be considerably longer than when using conventional interpolation techniques. Limitations are that it does not enforce musculoskeletal constraints, and that the reconstruction accuracy declines if applied to datasets with less predictable movement patterns.

  7. Utility of MRI versus tumor markers for post-treatment surveillance of marker-positive CNS germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Victoria; Segal, Devorah; Gardner, Sharon L; Zagzag, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Allen, Jeffrey C; Karajannis, Matthias A

    2016-09-01

    Patients with marker-positive central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors are typically monitored for tumor recurrence with both tumor markers (AFP and b-hCG) and MRI. We hypothesize that the recurrence of these tumors will always be accompanied by an elevation in tumor markers, and that surveillance MRI may not be necessary. We retrospectively identified 28 patients with CNS germ cell tumors treated at our institution that presented with an elevated serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumor marker at the time of diagnosis. We then identified those who had a tumor recurrence after having been in remission and whether each recurrence was detected via MRI changes, elevated tumor markers, or both. Four patients suffered a tumor recurrence. Only one patient had simultaneously elevated tumor markers and MRI evidence of recurrence. Two patients had evidence of recurrence on MRI without corresponding elevations in serum or CSF tumor markers. One patient had abnormal tumor markers with no evidence of recurrence on MRI until 6 months later. We conclude that in patients with marker-positive CNS germ cell tumors who achieve complete remission, continued surveillance imaging in addition to measurement of tumor markers is indicated to detect recurrences.

  8. Ghost marker detection and elimination in marker-based optical tracking systems for real-time tracking in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Guanghua; Li, Jonathan; Huang, Yin; Mittauer, Kathryn; Lu, Bo; Liu, Chihray

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a simple model to explain the origin of ghost markers in marker-based optical tracking systems (OTS) and to develop retrospective strategies to detect and eliminate ghost markers. Methods: In marker-based OTS, ghost markers are virtual markers created due to the cross-talk between the two camera sensors, which can lead to system execution failure or inaccuracy in patient tracking. As a result, the users have to limit the number of markers and avoid certain marker configurations to reduce the chances of ghost markers. In this work, the authors propose retrospective strategies to detect and eliminate ghost markers. The two camera sensors were treated as mathematical points in space. The authors identified the coplanar within limit (CWL) condition as the necessary condition for ghost marker occurrence. A simple ghost marker detection method was proposed based on the model. Ghost marker elimination was achieved through pattern matching: a ghost marker-free reference set was matched with the optical marker set observed by the OTS; unmatched optical markers were eliminated as either ghost markers or misplaced markers. The pattern matching problem was formulated as a constraint satisfaction problem (using pairwise distances as constraints) and solved with an iterative backtracking algorithm. Wildcard markers were introduced to address missing or misplaced markers. An experiment was designed to measure the sensor positions and the limit for the CWL condition. The ghost marker detection and elimination algorithms were verified with samples collected from a five-marker jig and a nine-marker anthropomorphic phantom, rotated with the treatment couch from −60° to +60°. The accuracy of the pattern matching algorithm was further validated with marker patterns from 40 patients who underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). For this purpose, a synthetic optical marker pattern was created for each patient by introducing ghost markers, marker position

  9. Ghost marker detection and elimination in marker-based optical tracking systems for real-time tracking in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanghua, E-mail: yan@ufl.edu; Li, Jonathan; Huang, Yin; Mittauer, Kathryn; Lu, Bo; Liu, Chihray [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To propose a simple model to explain the origin of ghost markers in marker-based optical tracking systems (OTS) and to develop retrospective strategies to detect and eliminate ghost markers. Methods: In marker-based OTS, ghost markers are virtual markers created due to the cross-talk between the two camera sensors, which can lead to system execution failure or inaccuracy in patient tracking. As a result, the users have to limit the number of markers and avoid certain marker configurations to reduce the chances of ghost markers. In this work, the authors propose retrospective strategies to detect and eliminate ghost markers. The two camera sensors were treated as mathematical points in space. The authors identified the coplanar within limit (CWL) condition as the necessary condition for ghost marker occurrence. A simple ghost marker detection method was proposed based on the model. Ghost marker elimination was achieved through pattern matching: a ghost marker-free reference set was matched with the optical marker set observed by the OTS; unmatched optical markers were eliminated as either ghost markers or misplaced markers. The pattern matching problem was formulated as a constraint satisfaction problem (using pairwise distances as constraints) and solved with an iterative backtracking algorithm. Wildcard markers were introduced to address missing or misplaced markers. An experiment was designed to measure the sensor positions and the limit for the CWL condition. The ghost marker detection and elimination algorithms were verified with samples collected from a five-marker jig and a nine-marker anthropomorphic phantom, rotated with the treatment couch from −60° to +60°. The accuracy of the pattern matching algorithm was further validated with marker patterns from 40 patients who underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). For this purpose, a synthetic optical marker pattern was created for each patient by introducing ghost markers, marker position

  10. Stability of percutaneously implanted markers for lung stereotactic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Bjørnsen Fredberg; Josipovic, Mirjana; Von Der Recke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of complex markers implanted into lung tumors throughout a course of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Fifteen patients referred for lung SBRT were prospectively included. Radio-opaque markers were implanted percutaneously, guided...... by computed tomography (CT). Deep inspiration breath-hold CT scans (BHCT) were acquired at planning and on three treatment days. The treatment days' BHCTs were registered to the planning BHCT. Intraobserver uncertainty in both tumor and marker registration was determined. Deviations in the difference between...... tumor and marker-based image registrations of the BHCT scans during treatment quantified the marker stability. Marker position deviation relative to tumor position of less than 2 mm in all three dimensions was considered acceptable for treatment delivery precision. Intra observer uncertainties for image...

  11. Hepatitis and thrombocytopenia: markers of dengue mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Smitha; Bhatt, Arun N; Mathew, Celine Thalappillil; Ittyachen, Abraham M

    2017-04-01

    Dengue fever is of great concern to public health in India as it contributes significantly to the burden of healthcare. The aim of our study was to measure mortality in dengue and its association with hepatitis and thrombocytopenia. Our study was performed in a tertiary care setting in the state of Kerala in southern India. Adult patients admitted in the year 2013 were included. Among 1308 confirmed dengue patients, the mortality rate was 1.76%. Hepatitis and thrombocytopenia were present in over 80% of all patients, but severe hepatitis was seen in 11.4% and severe thrombocytopenia in 9.3%. These were markers of fatal outcome. Other factors significantly associated with mortality were age >60 years, male sex, diabetes and the presence of any co-morbidity.

  12. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; D'Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO 6 -ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O 6 -ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP

  13. Procholecystokinin as marker of human Ewing sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Koefoed, Pernille; Hansen, Thomas von O

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ewing sarcoma is a rapidly growing mesenchymal tumor in young adults. Although it was shown previously to express the cholecystokinin (CCK) gene, it is unknown whether CCK gene expression is detectable at protein level in Ewing sarcoma tumor cell lines, in tumor tissue, and in plasma from...... Ewing sarcoma patients, and, if so, whether CCK peptides might play a role as tumor markers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CCK gene expression was evaluated with in situ hybridization or reverse transcription-PCR in tumor tissue. CCK precursors and bioactive CCK were measured with specific RIAs in tumor tissue......, in cell culture medium, and in plasma of Ewing sarcoma patients before and after chemotherapy as well as after tumor recurrence. RESULTS: CCK mRNA was identified in 12 Ewing sarcoma biopsies sampled in two series and in four Ewing sarcoma cell lines but not in unrelated neoplasia. Immunoreactive pro...

  14. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  15. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  16. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  17. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (biomolecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.

  18. Apathy as Marker of Frail Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Semprini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a complex and dynamic condition associated with aging. This condition is characterised by the difficult adaptation of an old subject to new challenges occurring during life. Frailty is supposed to be due to the progressive decrease of physiological reserves and multiorgan and multisystem change. It coincides with a reduced or absent resilience. In general comorbidities like hypertension, heart disease, inflammation and infectious diseases are potential risk factors for and psychophysical decline. The aim of this work is to highlight the importance of impaired cognition as factor predisposing to frailty. The authors are convinced and suggest that the presence of neurobehavioral disturbance like apathy associated to impaired executive function could be the major predisposing factor for frailty and unsuccessful aging. Unfortunately available literature largely underestimates the presence of these factors. Thus to better identify markers of frailty, a good neuropsychological assessment and the evaluation of behavioural disturbances are suggested.

  19. SNP marker discovery in koala TLR genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cui

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs play a crucial role in the early defence against invading pathogens, yet our understanding of TLRs in marsupial immunity is limited. Here, we describe the characterisation of nine TLRs from a koala immune tissue transcriptome and one TLR from a draft sequence of the koala genome and the subsequent development of an assay to study genetic diversity in these genes. We surveyed genetic diversity in 20 koalas from New South Wales, Australia and showed that one gene, TLR10 is monomorphic, while the other nine TLR genes have between two and 12 alleles. 40 SNPs (16 non-synonymous were identified across the ten TLR genes. These markers provide a springboard to future studies on innate immunity in the koala, a species under threat from two major infectious diseases.

  20. SNP marker discovery in koala TLR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Frankham, Greta J; Johnson, Rebecca N; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter; O'Meally, Denis; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in the early defence against invading pathogens, yet our understanding of TLRs in marsupial immunity is limited. Here, we describe the characterisation of nine TLRs from a koala immune tissue transcriptome and one TLR from a draft sequence of the koala genome and the subsequent development of an assay to study genetic diversity in these genes. We surveyed genetic diversity in 20 koalas from New South Wales, Australia and showed that one gene, TLR10 is monomorphic, while the other nine TLR genes have between two and 12 alleles. 40 SNPs (16 non-synonymous) were identified across the ten TLR genes. These markers provide a springboard to future studies on innate immunity in the koala, a species under threat from two major infectious diseases.

  1. Calprotectin--a novel marker of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Erikstrup, Christian

    2009-01-01

    obese subjects or subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma calprotectin and skeletal muscle S100A8 mRNA levels were measured in a cohort consisting of 199 subjects divided into four groups depending on presence or absence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and presence or absence...... of obesity. There was a significant interaction between obesity and T2D (p = 0.012). Plasma calprotectin was increased in obese relative to non-obese controls (pobese and non-obese patients with T2D (p = 0.62). S100A8 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle were...... not influenced by obesity or T2D. Multivariate regression analysis (adjusting for age, sex, smoking and HOMA2-IR) showed plasma calprotectin to be strongly associated with BMI, even when further adjusted for fitness, CRP, TNF-alpha or neutrophil number. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma calprotectin is a marker...

  2. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber...... and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only...... retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The Department of Ophthalmology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, has a strong tradition of studying the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. In the present paper, we demonstrate the importance of the retinal vasculature not only as predictors of long...

  3. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second half of the 19th century for Albanian and Bulgarian. Comparative analysis of evidential forms in the Balkan languages conducted by Victor Friedman [Friedman 1982, 1986, 1999], Grace Fielder [Fielder 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999], and several other linguists, has answered some questions about what is common among Balkan languages and what is unique for each of them in the domain of grammaticalised evidentiality. There is a great deal of literature on grammatical evidentiality in general and it is scarcely possible to cite it all within a single article, but a recent study [Aikhenvald 2004] contains the main bibliography on the issue.

  4. Converging intracranial markers of conscious access.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Gaillard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared conscious and nonconscious processing of briefly flashed words using a visual masking procedure while recording intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG in ten patients. Nonconscious processing of masked words was observed in multiple cortical areas, mostly within an early time window (<300 ms, accompanied by induced gamma-band activity, but without coherent long-distance neural activity, suggesting a quickly dissipating feedforward wave. In contrast, conscious processing of unmasked words was characterized by the convergence of four distinct neurophysiological markers: sustained voltage changes, particularly in prefrontal cortex, large increases in spectral power in the gamma band, increases in long-distance phase synchrony in the beta range, and increases in long-range Granger causality. We argue that all of those measures provide distinct windows into the same distributed state of conscious processing. These results have a direct impact on current theoretical discussions concerning the neural correlates of conscious access.

  5. Dermatoglyphics--a marker for malocclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikare, S; Rajesh, G; Prasad, K W; Thippeswamy, V; Javali, S B

    2010-08-01

    Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridge configurations on palmar and plantar surfaces of hands and feet. Dermal ridges and craniofacial structures are both formed during 6-7th week of intra-uterine life. It is believed that hereditary and environmental factors leading to malocclusion may also cause peculiarities in fingerprint patterns. To study and assess the relationship between fingerprints and malocclusion among a group of high school children aged 12-16 years in Dharwad, Karnataka, India. A total of 696 high school children aged 12-16 years were randomly selected. Their fingerprints were recorded using duplicating ink and malocclusion status was clinically assessed using Angle's classification. Chi-square analysis revealed statistical association between whorl patterns and classes 1 and 2 malocclusion (p fingerprint patterns and malocclusion (p > 0.05). Dermatoglyphics might be an appropriate marker for malocclusion and further studies are required to elucidate an association between fingerprint patterns and malocclusion.

  6. Genetic taste markers and food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Henderson, S A; Barratt-Fornell, A

    2001-04-01

    Sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is an inherited trait. Although some people find PROP to be extremely bitter, others cannot distinguish PROP solutions from plain water. In a series of studies, greater PROP sensitivity was linked with lower acceptability of other bitter compounds and with lower reported liking for some bitter foods. Women, identified as "super-tasters" of PROP, had lower acceptance scores for grapefruit juice, green tea, Brussels sprouts, and some soy products. Many of these foods contain bitter phytochemicals with reputed cancer-protective activity. These include flavonoids in citrus fruit, polyphenols in green tea and red wine, glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables, and isoflavones in soy products. Consumer acceptance of these plant-based foods may depend critically on inherited taste factors. This review examines the role of genetic taste markers in determining taste preferences and food choices.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Markers for MRI-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy: Novel Marker-Flange for Cervical Cancer and Marker Catheters for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindel, Joshua; Muruganandham, Manickam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Pigge, F. Christopher [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Anderson, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To present a novel marker-flange, addressing source-reconstruction uncertainties due to the artifacts of a titanium intracavitary applicator used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT); and to evaluate 7 different MRI marker agents used for interstitial prostate BT and intracavitary gynecologic HDR BT when treatment plans are guided by MRI. Methods and Materials: Seven MRI marker agents were analyzed: saline solution, Conray-60, copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) (1.5 g/L), liquid vitamin E, fish oil, 1% agarose gel (1 g agarose powder per 100 mL distilled water), and a cobalt–chloride complex contrast (C4) (CoCl{sub 2}/glycine = 4:1). A plastic, ring-shaped marker-flange was designed and tested on both titanium and plastic applicators. Three separate phantoms were designed to test the marker-flange, interstitial catheters for prostate BT, and intracavitary catheters for gynecologic HDR BT. T1- and T2-weighted MRI were analyzed for all markers in each phantom and quantified as percentages compared with a 3% agarose gel background. The geometric accuracy of the MR signal for the marker-flange was measured using an MRI-CT fusion. Results: The CuSO{sub 4} and C4 markers on T1-weighted MRI and saline on T2-weighted MRI showed the highest signals. The marker-flange showed hyper-signals of >500% with CuSO{sub 4} and C4 on T1-weighted MRI and of >400% with saline on T2-weighted MRI on titanium applicators. On T1-weighted MRI, the MRI signal inaccuracies of marker-flanges were measured <2 mm, regardless of marker agents, and that of CuSO{sub 4} was 0.42 ± 0.14 mm. Conclusion: The use of interstitial/intracavitary markers for MRI-guided prostate/gynecologic BT was observed to be feasible, providing accurate source pathway reconstruction. The novel marker-flange can produce extremely intense, accurate signals, demonstrating its feasibility for gynecologic HDR BT.

  8. Marker tiles coating by TVA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Zaroschi, V.; Anghel, A.; Lungu, A.M.; Chiru, P.; Pompilian, O.; Iacob, C.; Surdu-Bob, C.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.; Pedricke, L.; Handley, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The JET main wall will be made of solid Be tiles. In order to assess the erosion rate of the thick Be wall tiles due to the plasma, an interlayer of Ni was used under a beryllium coating of a few microns. The 'marker' tiles will be placed in the areas of interest such as Outer Poloidal Limiters (OPL) and Inner Wall Guard Limiters (IWGL). The 'marker' is a Be tile with a stripe of an easily detected heavy metal (Ni) deposited on it as a thin interlayer, and with a few microns layer of the bulk-like Be on top of that. If the outer layer is eroded at the same rate as the bulk, then the erosion rate can be determined by measuring the distance of the interlayer from the final surface, for an eroded layer of a thickness that of the outer. An overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using plasma ignited in pure metal vapors by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method [1] and the properties of the prepared coatings will be presented. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on various substrates: glass, silicon, metals. The plasma diagnostic (the ion energy and electron temperature) during deposition and the results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference: [1] C. P. Lungu, I. Mustata, V. Zaroschi, A. M. Lungu, A. Anghel, P. Chiru, M. Rubel, P. Coad G. F. Matthews and JETEFDA contributors, Beryllium Coatings on Metals: Development of Process and Characterizations of Layers, Phys. Scr. T128 (2007) 157-161. (authors)

  9. Marker tiles coating by TVA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Zaroschi, V.; Anghel, A.; Lungu, A.M.; Chiru, P.; Pompilian, O.; Iacob, C. [Association EURATOM-MEC Romania, National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Surdu-Bob, C. [Low Temperature Plasma Laboratory, NILPRP - National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Rubel, M. [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Coad, J.P. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, OX Oxon (United Kingdom); Matthews, G.; Pedricke, L.; Handley, R. [UKAEA Fusion, Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science and Engineering Centre, OX, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The JET main wall will be made of solid Be tiles. In order to assess the erosion rate of the thick Be wall tiles due to the plasma, an interlayer of Ni was used under a beryllium coating of a few microns. The 'marker' tiles will be placed in the areas of interest such as Outer Poloidal Limiters (OPL) and Inner Wall Guard Limiters (IWGL). The 'marker' is a Be tile with a stripe of an easily detected heavy metal (Ni) deposited on it as a thin interlayer, and with a few microns layer of the bulk-like Be on top of that. If the outer layer is eroded at the same rate as the bulk, then the erosion rate can be determined by measuring the distance of the interlayer from the final surface, for an eroded layer of a thickness that of the outer. An overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using plasma ignited in pure metal vapors by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method [1] and the properties of the prepared coatings will be presented. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on various substrates: glass, silicon, metals. The plasma diagnostic (the ion energy and electron temperature) during deposition and the results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference: [1] C. P. Lungu, I. Mustata, V. Zaroschi, A. M. Lungu, A. Anghel, P. Chiru, M. Rubel, P. Coad G. F. Matthews and JETEFDA contributors, Beryllium Coatings on Metals: Development of Process and Characterizations of Layers, Phys. Scr. T128 (2007) 157-161. (authors)

  10. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  11. Development of optical marker for polyolefin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchini, Leonardo Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Research and publications about luminescent polymers have been developed in the last years for the academic innovation; however the industrial application has been very limited in this area. Processed Optical markers are few explored due the difficult to process luminescent polymeric materials with stable luminescence. The materials used to process luminescent polypropylene (PP) were polyamide 6 (PA6) doped with europium complex [Eu(tta) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ] obtained through the dilution and casting process. The polyolefins because they are inert, do not fit the common procedure of doping, in consequence, in this work luminescent polypropylene was indirectly prepared by polyamide 6 doped with europium complex through extrusion process. Product characterization was done using Thermal gravimetry analysis (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and spectro fluorescence of emission and excitation. The blend PP/PA6:Eu(tta) 3 presented luminescent properties, after semi-industrial process, as observed in the narrow bands of intra configuration transitions- 4f 6 relatives to energy levels 7 F 0 → 5 L 6 (394nm), 7 F 0 → 5 D 3 (415nm), 7 F 0 → 5 D 2 (464nm), 7 F 0 → 5 D 1 (525nm) e 7 F 0 → 5 D 0 (578nm) of emission spectrum. Red light of the pellets or film is emitted when excited in UV lamp (365nm). TG results showed under O 2 atmosphere that PP doped with PA6:Eu(tta) 3 was more stable than pure PP. In this work was processed luminescent PP/PA6:Eu(tta) 3 with properties of thermal and photo stability which can be used as optical marker in polymer processing. (author)

  12. Generation and application of SSR markers in avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, D.; Lavi, U.; Cregan, P.B.; Hillel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA markers were generated and applied to avocado. An SSR marker is based on a pair of primers which are synthesized on the basis of DNA sequences flanking a micro satellite. These markers are PCR based, quite polymorphic and abundant in several species. These are the markers, of choice in the human genome. The number of SSR markers in the avocado genome was calculated to be about 45,000, with the A/T micro satellite being the most frequent (1 in 40 kb). SSR markers are quite expensive to generate due to the required multi-step procedure; Screening a genomic library, about 66% of the positive clones turned out after sequencing to be SSR containing clones. In only about 55% of these, was it possible to synthesize primers and, of this group, only about 50% of the markers were useful for typing a specific family. Typing of five avocado cultivars using 59 SSR markers results in one to eight alleles per locus, mean heterozygosity ranging between 0.51 and 0.66 and gene diversity ranging between 0.42 and 0.66. The SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationships between various Persea species. The number of alleles in these species ranged between five and twelve with heterozygosity levels between 0.11-0.78 and gene diversity between 0.69-0.89. A preliminary genetic map, based on these SSR markers together with some DNA fingerprints (DFP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, was drawn. The map consists of 12 linkage group having two to five markers each. Linkage analysis with several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was performed by genetic typing and phenotypic assessment of the progeny of a controlled cross. The results of the interval mapping suggest that the gene(s) coding for the existence of fibers in the flesh, are probably linked to linkage group 3. (author)

  13. Marker-assisted selection of high molecular weight glutenin alleles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... DNA markers as a substitution tool to distinguish wheat bread-making quality. We detected PCR-based DNA markers for coding sequence of Glu-A1x, Glu-B1x and Glu-D1x to be 2300 bp, 2400 bp and 2500 bp respectively. DNA markers related to coding sequence of Glu-A1y, Glu-B1y and Glu-D1y were; ...

  14. In vitro and in vivo applications of tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Ricolleau, G.; Fumoleau, P.; Vuillez, J.P.H.; Chetanneau, A.; Peltier, P.; Lacroix, H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo applications of tumor markers are reviewed. Concerning in vitro applications, the following topics are developed: ideal marker criterion; present availability of markers; immunoassay methodology; clinical applications; future prospects (oncogenes). In vivo applications deal with immunoscintigraphy a new imaging technique, different from conventional morphological methods, based on specific recognition of antigenic target and involving many immunologic, hemodynamic and methodologic parameters. These various parameters are presented and clinical applications and future prospects of immunoscintigraphy are evaluated [fr

  15. Calibration Markers for Digital Templating in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kolja Boese

    Full Text Available Digital templating with external calibration markers is the standard method for planning total hip arthroplasty. We determined the geometrical basis of the magnification effect, compared magnification with external and internal calibration markers, and examined the influence on magnification of the position of the calibration markers, patient weight, and body mass index (BMI. A formula was derived to calculate magnification with internal and external calibration markers, informed by 100 digital radiographs of the pelvis. Intraclass correlations between the measured and calculated values and the strength of relationships between magnification, position and distance of calibration markers and height, weight, and BMI were sought. There was a weak correlation between magnification of internal and external calibration markers (r = 0.297-0.361; p < 0.01. Intraclass correlations were 0.882-1.000 (p = 0.000 for all parameters. There were also weak correlations between magnification of internal and external calibration markers and weight and BMI (r = 0.420, p = 0.000; r = 0.428, p = 0.000, respectively. The correlation between external and internal calibration markers was poor, indicating the need for more accurate calibration methods. While weight and BMI weakly correlated with the magnification of markers, future studies should examine this phenomenon in more detail.

  16. Calibration Markers for Digital Templating in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Lechler, Philipp; Rose, Leonard; Dargel, Jens; Oppermann, Johannes; Eysel, Peer; Geiges, Hansjörg; Bredow, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Digital templating with external calibration markers is the standard method for planning total hip arthroplasty. We determined the geometrical basis of the magnification effect, compared magnification with external and internal calibration markers, and examined the influence on magnification of the position of the calibration markers, patient weight, and body mass index (BMI). A formula was derived to calculate magnification with internal and external calibration markers, informed by 100 digital radiographs of the pelvis. Intraclass correlations between the measured and calculated values and the strength of relationships between magnification, position and distance of calibration markers and height, weight, and BMI were sought. There was a weak correlation between magnification of internal and external calibration markers (r = 0.297-0.361; p < 0.01). Intraclass correlations were 0.882-1.000 (p = 0.000) for all parameters. There were also weak correlations between magnification of internal and external calibration markers and weight and BMI (r = 0.420, p = 0.000; r = 0.428, p = 0.000, respectively). The correlation between external and internal calibration markers was poor, indicating the need for more accurate calibration methods. While weight and BMI weakly correlated with the magnification of markers, future studies should examine this phenomenon in more detail.

  17. Workplace Re-organization and Changes in Physiological Stress Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Rikke Hinge; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in physiological stress markers as a consequence of workplace reorganization. Moreover, we aimed to investigate changes in the psychosocial work environment (job strain, effortreward imbalance (ERI), in psychological distress (stress symptoms...... and questionnaire data was in 2006 and 2008, and in this sub-study we included 359 participants. To reflect stress reactions of the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system, we included 13 physiological markers. We observed significant change in several physiological stress markers...... reorganization and changes in several physiological stress markers. However, these changes could not be explained by a significant change in psychological distress....

  18. The Marker State Space (MSS method for classifying clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Fallon

    Full Text Available The development of accurate clinical biomarkers has been challenging in part due to the diversity between patients and diseases. One approach to account for the diversity is to use multiple markers to classify patients, based on the concept that each individual marker contributes information from its respective subclass of patients. Here we present a new strategy for developing biomarker panels that accounts for completely distinct patient subclasses. Marker State Space (MSS defines "marker states" based on all possible patterns of high and low values among a panel of markers. Each marker state is defined as either a case state or a control state, and a sample is classified as case or control based on the state it occupies. MSS was used to define multi-marker panels that were robust in cross validation and training-set/test-set analyses and that yielded similar classification accuracy to several other classification algorithms. A three-marker panel for discriminating pancreatic cancer patients from control subjects revealed subclasses of patients based on distinct marker states. MSS provides a straightforward approach for modeling highly divergent subclasses of patients, which may be adaptable for diverse applications.

  19. Isolation of microsatellite markers in the Calliptamus genus (Orthoptera, Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, E; Pages, C; Blondin, L; Billot, C; Rivallan, R; Vassal, Jm; Lecoq, M; Risterucci, Am

    2010-01-01

    The Calliptamus genus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) includes locust and grasshopper species, some of which have a high economic impact. Using an enriched methodology, 10 microsatellite markers have been developed from two species, Calliptamus italicus and Calliptamus barbarus. These polymorphic markers were tested on different populations of three Calliptamus species: C. italicus, C. barbarus, C. wattenwylianus. Two markers were amplified on the three species, as well as four on C. barbarus and two on C. italicus. In each species, 9 to 23 alleles per locus were observed. These molecular markers might prove to be a new and interesting tool for Calliptamus population genetics and dispersion studies.

  20. Measurement of some tumour markers by IRMA in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Xuan Truong

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Determination of tumour markers may be useful for screening, monitoring therapy, and follow-up of cancers. In order to achieve perfect status, tumour markers would require total negativity in healthy subject, total positivity for a single tumour type and close correlation between plasma tumor marker concentration and tumour size. With the advances in monoclonal antibodies production, assaying methods for all tumour markers have been improved and made available commercially. Moreover, many new tumour markers have been identified. In Vietnam, we first time used immunoradiometric-assay (IRMA) for the measurement of few tumour markers in normal subjects and in some cancer diseases. These are Thyroglobulin (TG) for thyroid cancer, cancer-antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) for breast cancer and cancer-antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) for stomach cancer. Concentration of tumour markers in the normal subjects was found to be 3.0-4.0 U/ml for CA 72-4 (n =24), 15.0-19.1 U/ml for CA 15-3 (n =26) and 3.6-7.3 (ng/ml) for TG (n =33). We would like to apply the detection of these tumor markers in the evaluation of cancerous diseases viz., CA72-4 in stomach cancer, CA15-3 in breast cancer and TG in thyroid cancer. All these tumour markers would we helpful in the clinical follow-up and early detection of recurrence and metastatic cancer. (author)

  1. Identification of biological/biochemical marker(s) for preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Schendel, Diana; Deshpande, Anjali D.

    2001-01-01

    cohort studies involving serial collection of maternal blood samples, newborn cord blood samples, and relevant confounders and other risk factors for PTD. The first study consists of a completed Danish regional cohort of 3000 pregnant women enrolled in a study of microbiological causes of PTD, upon which...... marker effectively accounting for a large proportion of PTD is unlikely to be found. Rather, a search for multiple markers indicative of the multifactorial aetiology of PTD is likely to be more successful. Knowledge gained from the proposed studies will be implemented in a third, clinical intervention...... study against PTD. The first phase of the clinical intervention study will be to establish a risk-assessment model based on the "best" combination of biological/biochemical measures and other factors associated with PTD in order to identify pregnant women at very high risk of PTD. The second phase...

  2. Comparing single-nucleotide polymorphism marker-based and microsatellite marker-based linkage analyses.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulgen, Ayse; Li, Wentian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract We compared linkage analysis results for an alcoholism trait, ALDX1 (DSM-III-R and Feigner criteria) using a nonparametric linkage analysis method, which takes into account allele sharing among several affected persons, for both microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers (Affymetrix and Illumina) in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) dataset provided to participants at the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW14). The two sets of linkage res...

  3. Database of predicted SCAR markers in five fruit and three ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-03-04

    Mar 4, 2016 ... The objective of the study was to establish a free online database for iSCAR primers in these eight plants. ... store the predicted iSCAR primer sequences and fields like sequence id, product size, etc. Schema of ... Plant Markers, an online database of predicted markers for plants (Rudd et al. 2005) does not ...

  4. Cardio-respiratory fitness markers among Kenyan university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess Cardio-respiratory fitness (CF) markers among university students using a 20m shuttle run test (SRT). Methods: Markers of CF were assessed in 80 males aged 21.4±1.8 years, randomly selected from Moi University, Kenya. Assessed at different stages of SRT protocol included heart rate (HR), systolic and ...

  5. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 1

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... 2Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657,. Japan. 3College ... on the genome. SSR is becoming increasingly recognized as useful DNA markers for genetic analysis, marker assisted selection, and other purposes (Gupta and Varshney ...

  6. Criteria for Evaluation of Novel Markers of Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, Mark A.; Greenland, Philip; Arnett, Donna K.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Criqui, Michael H.; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Go, Alan S.; Harrell, Frank E.; Hong, Yuling; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Kramer, Christopher M.; McConnell, Joseph P.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Smith, Sidney C.; Wilson, Peter W.F.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in utilizing novel markers of cardiovascular disease risk, and consequently, there is a need to assess the value of their use. This scientific statement reviews current concepts of risk evaluation and proposes standards for the critical appraisal of risk assessment methods. An adequate evaluation of a novel risk marker requires a sound research design, a representative at-risk population, and an adequate number of outcome events. Studies of a novel marker should report the degree to which it adds to the prognostic information provided by standard risk markers. No single statistical measure provides all the information needed to assess a novel marker, so measures of both discrimination and accuracy should be reported. The clinical value of a marker should be assessed by its effect on patient management and outcomes. In general, a novel risk marker should be evaluated in several phases, including initial proof of concept, prospective validation in independent populations, documentation of incremental information when added to standard risk markers, assessment of effects on patient management and outcomes, and ultimately, cost-effectiveness. PMID:19364974

  7. (SNP) markers for the Chinese black sleeper, Bostrychus sinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We characterized 11 single nucleotide ploymorphism (SNP) markers for the Chinese black sleeper, Bostrychus sinensis. These markers were isolated from a genomic library and tested in ten geographically distant individuals of B. sinensis. Polymorphisms of these SNP loci were assessed using a wild population including ...

  8. Metabolic and inflammatory faecal markers in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis.......To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis....

  9. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique has been widely applied to identify different varieties of plants for molecular breeding. However, application of RAPD markers to identify parthenogenesis in plants has not been reported. In this investigation, we used pedigree and RAPD markers to differentiate ...

  10. Inhibin A and B as markers of menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overlie, Inger; Mørkrid, Lars; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2005-01-01

    A more direct and precise hormonal marker of the menopause has been required for some time. The aim of this study was to identify the most accurate marker of the menopause, based on analyses of inhibin A and B, FSH, LH and estradiol (E(2)), among 59 healthy women without hormonal treatment during...

  11. The Function of Discourse Markers in Arabic Newspaper Opinion Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kohlani, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the function of discourse markers in Arabic newspaper opinion articles. In this study, discourse markers are not only connecting- words that contribute to the cohesion of text, but they are also crucial tools for achieving communicative act in the text. These expressions that come from different grammatical classes and…

  12. An overview of molecular marker methods for plants | Semagn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of molecular markers for the detection and exploitation of DNA polymorphism is one of the most significant developments in the field of molecular genetics. The presence of various types of molecular markers, and differences in their principles, methodologies, and applications require careful ...

  13. Application of molecular markers in breeding for bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers, linked to four independent quantitative trait loci (QTL) in XAN 159 and GN #1 Nebr. sel. 27, are available for indirect selection of resistance to common bacterial blight in Phaseolus vulgaris. Existing SCAR-markers, SU91, BC420, BC409 and SAP6, were evaluated ...

  14. Genetic diversity studies and identification of SSR markers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-13

    Aug 13, 2013 ... Abstract. Genetic diversity and identification of simple sequence repeat markers correlated with Fusarium wilt resistance was performed in a set of 36 elite cultivated pigeonpea genotypes differing in levels of resistance to Fusarium wilt. Twenty-four polymorphic sequence repeat markers were screened ...

  15. Urethral catheterization facilitates preradiation fiducial marker placement in postprostatectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Costa, Joseph; Mandia, Stephen; Henderson, Randal; Marino, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy

    2012-05-01

    Surgical absence of the prostate can make placement of fiducial markers difficult, because anatomic landmarks are distorted and there is a paucity of substantial tissue to hold fast the markers. We describe a method for improving the accuracy of fiducial marker placement for the purpose of salvage or adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy. To assist with identification of the urethrovesical junction and to facilitate placement of the markers, a Foley catheter was placed and the balloon was inflated. Gentle traction on the catheter seated the balloon at the bladder neck to echographically define the anatomy of the urethrovesical junction. Next, a rectal ultrasound probe was inserted into the rectum, allowing visualization of the region of the urethrovesical junction. Fiducial markers were then placed bilaterally in the detrusor muscle at the bladder neck or in the periurethral tissue using the applicator needle. The treating radiation oncologist verified that marker placement was suitable for assisting with radiation therapy in all cases. Preradiation pelvic imaging verified that markers were not in the bladder or urethral lumen, and there were no patient complaints of voiding out the markers with urination.

  16. Tumour marker expression in blood and lymphatic vessels of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of tumours cannot be effectively assessed on histological tissue sections only, hence, specific bi-ological markers were used to predict tumour behaviour. The biological markers at the same time must provide prognostic information, necessary for the treatment of patients. The immunostaining of antibodies ...

  17. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as a biological marker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne F.; Frederiksen, Camilla B.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during...

  18. Evaluation of genetic diversity in rice using SSR markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hemant

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... The polymorphism information content (PIC) value for the SSR loci ranged from 0.36 to. 0.98. Higher PIC values were associated ... Since each marker system has specific advantages and disadvantages, the choice of the marker ... The objective of current studies was to estimate the genetic diversity among ...

  19. Comparison of genetic detection efficiency of different markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Chinese native sheep populations, Hu sheep, Tong sheep, Small-tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep were used to study the efficiency of genetic markers. The genetic markers used in this study include morphological and ecological indices, blood protein enzyme, microsatellite DNA and the combination of.

  20. Serum Markers and Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Chronic Gastrointestinal Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Noord (Désirée); P.B.F. Mensink (Peter); R.J. de Knegt (Robert); M. Ouwendijk (Martine); J. Francke (Jan Paul); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Diagnosing chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) is a challenging problem in clinical practice. Serum markers for CGI would be of great diagnostic value as a non-invasive test method. Aims: This study investigated serum markers in patients with well-defined ischemia.

  1. New St-chromosome-specific molecular markers for identifying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    specific marker. St-specific markers for wheat–Th. intermedium introgression lines. An introgression line Z148 was selected from the progeny of hybrid between wheat and wheat–Th. intermedium ssp. trichorophrum partial amphiploid (Yang et al. 2006). The chromosome constitution of Z148 was determined using the.

  2. Identification of Prognostic and Susceptibility Markers in Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... prognostic markers, whereas mutations present in more than 50% patients were considered as susceptibility markers. RESULT: Mutations in genes associated with cancer related functions were found in different patient groups. Four variants: rs116201358, rs4014596, rs52897880 and rs2274329 in C8A,.

  3. Increased expression of T-helper cell activation markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    expressing the activation markers naïve/memory (CD45RA/CD45RO) and interleukin–2 light chain receptor (CD25) in ... cells co-expressing both naive and memory surface markers feature atopic asthma from acute lower respiratory .... binding of monoclonal antibodies. Red cells in EDTA samples were lysed using.

  4. Transferability of Rubus Microsatellite Markers for use in Black Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. To date, SSR marker development in Rubus has focused on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenu...

  5. DNA Fingerprinting Eastern Redbud Cultivars (Cercis canadensis) Using SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we present data for a subset of SSR loci, 76 out of the 130 high-quality loci, which were selected out of hundreds of SSR loci identified from a SSR-enriched library. SSR markers are abundant in eukaryotic genomes and are highly reproducible. Previously, we have used SSR markers to e...

  6. Characterization of fifteen SNP markers by mining EST in sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular mark- ers are powerful tools for conservation and management of natural resources, and for marker-assisted selection in captive populations. In recent years, SNP have rapidly become the markers ... nonredundant (NR) database using BLASTX (http://blast. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi) (cut off E-value of 1.0 × 10.

  7. The use of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, gene diversity and genetic relationships among 30 genotypes of genus Hordeum from Kerman province (Iran) were assessed using 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Seven of these markers were highly polymorphic. A total of 96 alleles were detected. The number of alleles per microsatellite marker ...

  8. Markers of mouse macrophage development detected by monoclonal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Leenen (Pieter); M.F.T.R. de Bruijn (Marella F.T.R); J.S. Voerman (Jane); P.A. Campbell (Priscilla); W. van Ewijk (Willem)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this review, we present and discuss a selected panel of antibody-defined markers expressed during different stages of mouse macrophage development. We distinguish four categories of markers, which are characteristic of: (1) macrophage precursors and immature macrophages (ER-MP12,

  9. Diagnostic value of different tumor markers, our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, S.

    2000-01-01

    Variety of tumor markers with varying sensitivity and specificity are used for diagnosis of different malignancies. This study was done to determine the diagnostic value of different tumor markers in our patients with various malignancies. Out of 235 patients studied, 162 were suffering from malignant and 73 from benign diseases. Among these 84 were positive for tumor markers. Out of these positive tumor markers, 75 were suffering from malignancy. Tumor marker analyzed were ca-15-3, ca-125, BETA-HCG, CEA, PSA and alpha-FP depending upon the type of the disease these cases presented. Analysis of the results revealed that different tumor markers had sensitivity varying from 76.9-95.8% and specificity varying form 75-90.9%. CA-125 was observed to be the most specific and sensitive tumor marker for ovarian tumors followed by alpha-FP for hepatocellular tumors and CEA for gastrointestinal tumors. Similarly, PSA for prostate cancers, beta-HCG for choriocarcinoma and CA-15-3 for breast cancer. It is concluded that all the tumor markers have a variable diagnostic value, which cannot be relied upon independently, without other tests added to increase diagnostic value. (author)

  10. Assessing the clinical significance of tumor markers in common neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketic-Oreskovic, Lidija; Maric, Petra; Ozretic, Petar; Oreskovic, Darko; Ajdukovic, Mia; Levanat, Sonja

    2012-06-01

    The term tumor markers include a spectrum of molecules and substances with widely divergent characteristics whose presence in the significant amount can be related to the malignant disease. An ideal tumor marker should have high specificity and sensitivity, which would allow its use in early diagnosis and prognosis of malignant disease, as well as in prediction of therapeutic response and follow-up of the patients. Numerous biochemical entities have emerged as potentially valuable tumor markers so far, but only few markers showed to be of considerable clinical reliability and have been accepted into standard clinical practice. Recent development of genomics and proteomics has enabled the examination of many new potential tumor markers. Scientific studies on discovery, development, and application of tumor markers have been proceeding quite rapidly providing great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients. This review is focusing on the clinical usefulness of various tumor markers already in clinical practice as well as certain potential markers, giving a brief description of their prognostic and predictive significance in most common malignancies.

  11. Airborne characterization of smoke marker ratios from prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. P. Sullivan; A. A. May; T. Lee; G. R. McMeeking; S. M. Kreidenweis; S. K. Akagi; R. J. Yokelson; S. P. Urbanski; J. L. Collett

    2014-01-01

    A Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler - Total Organic Carbon (PILS-TOC) and fraction collector system was flown aboard a Twin Otter aircraft sampling prescribed burning emissions in South Carolina in November 2011 to obtain smoke marker measurements. The fraction collector provided 2 min time-integrated offline samples for carbohydrate (i.e., smoke markers levoglucosan,...

  12. Genetic Variation of 28 microsatellite markers in Australian merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ratiyat

    2016-02-26

    Feb 26, 2016 ... The extracted DNA samples were quantified using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer and then made into aliquot DNA samples of 10 ng/μL. The DNA samples were then genotyped for 28 MS markers on different chromosomes (Tables 1a and 1b). A panel of MS markers was designed, developed and used as.

  13. An Efficiency Analysis of Augmented Reality Marker Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurpytė Dovilė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on the investigation of augmented reality system which is designed for identification and augmentation of 100 different square markers. Marker recognition efficiency was investigated by rotating markers along x and y axis directions in range from −90° to 90°. Virtual simulations of four environments were developed: a an intense source of light, b an intense source of light falling from the left side, c the non-intensive light source falling from the left side, d equally falling shadows. The graphics were created using the OpenGL graphics computer hardware interface; image processing was programmed in C++ language using OpenCV, while augmented reality was developed in Java programming language using NyARToolKit. The obtained results demonstrate that augmented reality marker recognition algorithm is accurate and reliable in the case of changing lighting conditions and rotational angles - only 4 % markers were unidentified. Assessment of marker recognition efficiency let to propose marker classification strategy in order to use it for grouping various markers into distinct markers’ groups possessing similar recognition properties.

  14. Multimodality guidance for accurate bronchoscopic insertion of fiducial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfort, Daniel P; Siva, Shankar; Kron, Tomas; Chee, Raphael R; Ruben, Jeremy D; Ball, David L; Irving, Louis B

    2015-02-01

    Fiducial markers act as visible surrogates of tumor position during image-guided radiotherapy. Marker placement has been attempted percutaneously but is associated with high rates of pneumothorax and chest drain placement. Patients undergoing radical radiation treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer underwent bronchoscopic implantation of gold fiducials using radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) with virtual bronchoscopy and fluoroscopic guidance to achieve tumor localization and placement within/adjacent to peripheral lung tumors. For tumors not localized using radial EBUS, fiducial placement was achieved by electromagnetic navigation to the vicinity of the tumor. Eighteen fiducials were placed to mark 16 lesions in 15 patients. In nine patients (60%), fiducials were implanted at the time of diagnostic bronchoscopy. No procedural complications occurred. EBUS localization allowed marker implantation within the target lesion in 12 cases. In four lesions, electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy-guided implantation achieved a median fiducial-lesion distance of 6 mm (mean 12 mm). No marker migration occurred after the implantation of two-band markers; however, early migration was observed in two of eight (25%) of the smaller linear fiducials. No migration during the course of radiation therapy was observed. Fiducial marker placement is easily and safely performed bronchoscopically, including at the time of diagnostic bronchoscopy. Marker geometry appears important in stability of bronchoscopically inserted fiducials. Future studies are required to confirm the optimal marker size, geometry, and spatial relationship with the target lesion.

  15. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  16. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes and biochemical indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver marker enzymes, total protein, amylase and glucose were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with aqueous extract of Pennisetum purpureum. The liver marker enzymes evaluated were alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Sixteen wistar rats were grouped into ...

  17. Molecular markers for genetic diversity and phylogeny research of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brazilian sheep descended from several breeds brought to the New World by Portuguese and Spanish colonists, and they have evolved and adapted to local climatic variations and acquired tolerance or resistance to many diseases. Molecular markers are widely used in analyzing genetic variability, and markers such as ...

  18. Advance of molecular marker application in the tobacco research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is one of the most important commercial crops in the world. During the last two decades, molecular markers have entered the scene of genetic improvement in different fields of agricultural research. The principles and characteristics of several molecular markers such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, ...

  19. Cardio-respiratory fitness markers among Kenyan university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Aim: To assess Cardio-respiratory fitness (CF) markers among university students using a 20m shuttle run test (SRT). Methods: Markers of CF were ... methods on the other hand are much cheaper than the doubly labelled water method, and ... signal to dictate running speed from 8.0 km/h in level one to a maximum of 18.5 ...

  20. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  1. Using a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... genome has been demonstrated to be a useful molecular tool. SCAR markers can be diagnostic for a genus, spe- cies, or even a particular strain (De Clercq et al., 2003;. Pujol et al., 2005; Felici et al., 2008a). The development of SCAR markers to detect bio-control micro-organisms has been reported for ...

  2. Emerging Role of Endothelial and Inflammatory Markers in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menha Swellam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endothelial disturbance and excess inflammatory response are pathogenic mechanisms in pre-eclampsia (PE. Authors determine the clinical diagnostic role for thrombomodulin (TM, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 as endothelial markers and C-reactive protein (CRP, and interlukin-6 (IL-6 as inflammatory markers when tested independently or in combinations.

  3. Microsatellites as DNA markers in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Guoqing

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. It is necessary to identify additional DNA markers for further genetic research in peanut. Results Microsatellite markers in cultivated peanut were developed using the SSR enrichment procedure. The results showed that the GA/CT repeat was the most frequently dispersed microsatellite in peanut. The primer pairs were designed for fifty-six different microsatellites, 19 of which showed a polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.25, and up to 14 alleles were found at one locus. This suggests that microsatellite DNA markers produce a higher level of DNA polymorphism than other DNA markers in cultivated peanut. Conclusions It is desirable to isolate and characterize more DNA markers in cultivated peanut for more productive genomic studies, such as genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, and gene discovery. The development of microsatellite markers holds a promise for such studies.

  4. Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian coffee arabica varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, E.S.N.; Pinho, Von E.V.R.; Carvalho, M.G.G.; Esselink, G.; Vosman, B.

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of

  5. Applications of Redwood Genotyping by Using Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Brinegar; Dan Bruno; Ryan Kirkbride; Steven Glavas; Ingrid Udranszky

    2007-01-01

    A panel of polymorphic microsatellite markers have been developed in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Two loci in particular (Seq18D7-3 and Seq21E5) demonstrate the potential of microsatellite genotyping in the assessment of genetic diversity and inheritance in redwoods. The highly polymorphic Seq18D7-3 marker provided evidence for the planting...

  6. Screening and identification of a microsatellite marker associated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, primer pairs of 15 microsatellite markers associated with sex determination of tilapia were selected and amplified in Wami tilapia, Oreochromis urolepis hornorum. While one marker, UNH168, on linkage group 3 (LG3) was associated((P<0.001) with the phenotypic sex in the experimental population, nine ...

  7. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for genetic studies of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many wild animal species lack informative genetic markers for analysing genetic variation and structure, which is essential for effective long term conservation and management. We present heterologous microsatellite markers in six Tanzanian antelope species including: grant's gazelle, hartebeest, eland, roan, impala and ...

  8. Use of microsatellite markers in management of conifer forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt

    1999-01-01

    Within the past ten years a new class of genetic marker1 has risen to prominence as the tool of choice for many geneticists. Microsatellite DNAs, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), were first characterized as highly informative genetic markers in humans (Weber and May, 1990; Litt and Luty, 1990), and have since been found in practically all...

  9. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS MARKERS IN SURGEONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers in surgeons in a major city in Nigeria. ... Interventions: Blood samples were taken from subjects and analysed for hepatitis B virus markers ( HBsAg, antiHBs and .... Lagos was comparable to those of Romieu et al (10) who found HBsAg seropositivity ...

  10. Advance of molecular marker application in the tobacco research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is one of the most important commercial crops in the world. During the last two decades, molecular markers have entered the scene of genetic improvement in different fields of agricultural research. The principles and characteristics of several molecular markers such as RFLP,.

  11. The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA markers in constructing genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA markers in constructing genetic relationship among Oryx species. ... These data were used to provide the genetic kinship among different Oryx species. The complete cytochrome b gene ... Key words: Conservation, endangered species, Oryx, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers.

  12. Development of stable marker-free nuclear transformation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To avoid the negative effects caused by the marker genes, we tried to develop a stable marker-free nuclear transformation system in Chlorella. For this, linear gene expression cassettes (LGEC) were constructed with functional domains, which are responsible for transformation, of SV40 large T antigen. The LGECs were ...

  13. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  14. The sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    2012-05-26

    May 26, 2012 ... MapDraw: a Microsoft Excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data. Heraditas,. 25: 317-321. Michelmore RW, Paranand I, Kessali RV (1991). Identification of markers linked to disease resistance gene by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in ...

  15. Identification of stock components using morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, B J; Grabowski, T B; Marteinsdóttir, G

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the development of a quantitative method for distinguishing stock components of Icelandic cod Gadus morhua based on visual examination of morphology. The stock is known to be structured into genetically distinct geographic components (north and south of Iceland) and behavioural types that spawn sympatrically. Differences in morphology were tested between locations, genotypes (a proxy for behaviour) and sexes. Results show morphological markers on the head, fins and body of G. morhua that are correlated with the sex, genotype of the fish at the pantophysin (pan-I) locus and the location at which the fish were caught. Females were found to have relatively deep bodies, and the pan-I(BB) genotype (associated with deep-water feeding behaviour) have greater gaps between their fins. Overall, morphology is more useful for distinguishing sympatric genotypes but less powerful at identifying genetically distinct geographic sub-populations, perhaps because counter-gradient evolution reduces phenotypic differences even with an underlying genetic cause. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Peroxiredoxins are conserved markers of circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Rachel S.; Green, Edward W.; Zhao, Yuwei; van Ooijen, Gerben; Olmedo, Maria; Qin, Ximing; Xu, Yao; Pan, Min; Valekunja, Utham K.; Feeney, Kevin A.; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Hastings, Michael H.; Baliga, Nitin S.; Merrow, Martha; Millar, Andrew J.; Johnson, Carl H.; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; O’Neill, John S.; Reddy, Akhilesh B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cellular life emerged ~3.7 billion years ago. With scant exception, terrestrial organisms have evolved under predictable daily cycles due to the Earth’s rotation. The advantage conferred upon organisms that anticipate such environmental cycles has driven the evolution of endogenous circadian rhythms that tune internal physiology to external conditions. The molecular phylogeny of mechanisms driving these rhythms has been difficult to dissect because identified clock genes and proteins are not conserved across the domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. Here we show that oxidation-reduction cycles of peroxiredoxin proteins constitute a universal marker for circadian rhythms in all domains of life, by characterising their oscillations in a variety of model organisms. Furthermore, we explore the interconnectivity between these metabolic cycles and transcription-translation feedback loops of the clockwork in each system. Our results suggest an intimate co-evolution of cellular time-keeping with redox homeostatic mechanisms following the Great Oxidation Event ~2.5 billion years ago. PMID:22622569

  17. Calprotectin--a novel marker of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Hartvig Mortensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two inflammatory molecules, S100A8 and S100A9, form a heterodimer, calprotectin. Plasma calprotectin levels are elevated in various inflammatory disorders. We hypothesized that plasma calprotectin levels would be increased in subjects with low-grade systemic inflammation i.e. either obese subjects or subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma calprotectin and skeletal muscle S100A8 mRNA levels were measured in a cohort consisting of 199 subjects divided into four groups depending on presence or absence of type 2 diabetes (T2D, and presence or absence of obesity. There was a significant interaction between obesity and T2D (p = 0.012. Plasma calprotectin was increased in obese relative to non-obese controls (p<0.0001, whereas it did not differ between obese and non-obese patients with T2D (p = 0.62. S100A8 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle were not influenced by obesity or T2D. Multivariate regression analysis (adjusting for age, sex, smoking and HOMA2-IR showed plasma calprotectin to be strongly associated with BMI, even when further adjusted for fitness, CRP, TNF-alpha or neutrophil number. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma calprotectin is a marker of obesity in individuals without type 2 diabetes.

  18. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  19. New markers in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Wu, Tzu-Fan; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Lin, Long-Yau; Wang, Po-Hui

    2014-04-20

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common infection in women of reproductive age. However, diagnosis of PID can be difficult due to the wide variation in the symptoms and signs, ranging from subtle or mild symptoms to severe pain in the lower abdomen. Clinical diagnosis alone has only 87% sensitivity and 50% specificity. Therefore, identifying biological factors that are useful for early diagnosis and correlating their expression with the severity of PID could provide significant benefits to women suffering from PID. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), E-cadherin, myeloperoxidase, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)/MMP-2 ratio are potential candidates for detecting PID reliably. As PID is often subtle, highly sensitive PID detection methods are needed to promote the prevention of severe sequelae. Growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), in combination with its soluble tyrosine kinase receptor, sAxl, could elevate the sensitivity to 92%, which was higher than all other markers tested. Moreover, PTX3, D-dimer and YKL-40 concentrations can predict the clinical course of PID. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms of biomarker genes are not associated with the development of PID, myeloperoxidase SNP -463 G/A and SDF-1 SNP 801 G/A may affect the aggravated expression of their biomarkers in PID. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Online social network data as sociometric markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jens F; Buglass, Sarah L; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2017-10-01

    Data from online social networks carry enormous potential for psychological research, yet their use and the ethical implications thereof are currently hotly debated. The present work aims to outline in detail the unique information richness of this data type and, in doing so, to support researchers when deciding on ethically appropriate ways of collecting, storing, publishing, and sharing data from online sources. Focusing on the very nature of social networks, their structural characteristics, and depth of information, we provide a detailed and accessible account of the challenges associated with data management and data storage. In particular, the general nonanonymity of network data sets is discussed, and an approach is developed to quantify the level of uniqueness that a particular online network bestows upon the individual maintaining it. Using graph enumeration techniques, we show that comparatively sparse information on a network is suitable as a sociometric marker that allows for the identification of an individual from the global population of online users. The impossibility of anonymizing specific types of network data carries implications for ethical guidelines and research practice. At the same time, network uniqueness opens up opportunities for novel research in psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in Human Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanet, Narjes; Tosca, Lucie; Brisset, Sophie; Liehr, Thomas; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by banding cytogenetics. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of sSMC frequency and characterization in a context of infertility and to review the literature describing sSMC in relation with male and female infertility. Therefore, a systematic literature review on sSMC associated with infertility was conducted by means of a PubMed literature and a sSMC database (http://ssmc-tl.com/sSMC.html) search. A total of 234 patients with infertility were identified as carriers of sSMC. All chromosomes, except chromosomes 10, 19 and the X, were involved in sSMC, and in 72% the sSMC originated from acrocentric chromosomes. Euchromatic imbalances were caused by the presence of sSMC in 30% of the cases. Putative genes have been identified in only 1.2% of sSMC associated with infertility. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to a partial trisomy of some genes but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis. Further precise molecular and interphase-architecture studies on sSMC are needed in the future to characterize the relationship between this chromosomal anomaly and human infertility. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Differentiation of ricin using rapd markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivodik, M.; Balazova, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity within the set of 111 ricin genotypes using 13 RAPD primers. For differentiation of 111 ricin genotypes 13 RAPD primers were used. Amplification of genomic DNA of 111 genotypes using RAPD analysis yielded 102 fragments, with an average of 7.85 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments with RAPD primers ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1500 bp. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.491 to 0.898 with an average of 0.764 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.576 to 0.900 with an average of 0.776. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. In dendrogram separated unique genotype RM-32 from other 110 genotypes which were further grouped into 3 subclusters (1, 2, 3). Only four genotypes were not distinguished. Using more polymorphic RAPD markers genetically close genotypes can be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production to meet the ever increasing demand of castor oil for industrial uses as well as for biodiesel production. (author)

  3. Molecular genetic markers of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Grishina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the second most common type of cancer worldwide and affects 1 in 8 women over the course of their lifetime. A personalized approach to treating BC can substantially increase efficiency and consequently maintain the active life of many people. This encourages investigators and physicians to better understand tumor biology in order to make a correct diagnosis, to determine recurrence risk, and to choose adequate therapy. This paper discusses the bases for the molecular classification of BC into its expression subtypes, as well as current prognostic kits that assist oncologists in classifying the subtypes of cancer and in predicting the development of the disease. The existing test systems are not universal, each of them is applicable only to a limited group of patients, but they totally cover a considerable number of cases. The tumor gene mutations in BC, which have been characterized by up-to-date methods, can serve as predictive markers for the efficiency of targeted therapy.

  4. Immunohistochemical markers of cancerogenesis in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for people of both sexes worldwide. Early diagnosis of precancer lesions may be of crucial significance to lowering lung cancer mortality. The World Health Organization has defined three preneoplastic lesions of the bronchial epithelium: squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. These lesions are believed to progress to squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors, respectively. Apart from WHO classification, two other lesions such as bronchiolization and bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD can be observed and thought to be preneoplastic lesions leading to adenocarcinoma. In this review we summarize the data of morphological and cell cycle related proteins changes in both central and peripheral compartments of lung. Many molecular changes, which accompany the multistep process of the development of invasive types of cancer, may be observed thanks to the application of immunohistochemical markers. A deeper knowledge of molecular and genetic changes accompanying pre-cancer states may show new directions of early diagnostics of cancer development.

  5. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eSpence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English-speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavour. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception.

  6. Novel prognostic tissue markers in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James R

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a relatively common disorder associated with high morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Better tools to predict outcomes for patients with heart failure could allow for better decision making concerning patient treatment and management and better utilization of health care resources. Endomyocardial biopsy offers a mechanism to pathologically diagnose specific diseases in patients with heart failure, but such biopsies can often be negative, with no specific diagnostic information. Novel tissue markers in endomyocardial biopsies have been identified that may be useful in assessing prognosis in heart failure patients. Such tissue markers include ubiquitin, Gremlin-1, cyclophilin A, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C. In some cases, tissue markers have been found to be independent of and even superior to clinical indices and serum markers in predicting prognosis for heart failure patients. In some cases, these novel tissue markers appear to offer prognostic information even in the setting of an otherwise negative endomyocardial biopsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant breeding with marker-assisted selection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Sussumu Sakiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, molecular marker studies reached extraordinary advances, especially for sequencing and bioinformatics techniques. Marker-assisted selection became part of the breeding program routines of important seed companies, in order to accelerate and optimize the cultivar developing processes. Private seed companies increasingly use marker-assisted selection, especially for the species of great importance to the seed market, e.g. corn, soybean, cotton, and sunflower. In the Brazilian public institutions few breeding programs use it efficiently. The possible reasons are: lack of know-how, lack of appropriate laboratories, few validated markers, high cost, and lack of urgency in obtaining cultivars. In this article we analyze the use and the constraints of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs of Brazilian public institutes

  8. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion...

  9. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  10. Markers of overcrowding in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Antonia S; McGillivray, David; Bhatt, Maala; Colacone, Antoinette; Soucy, Nathalie; Léger, Ruth; Afilalo, Marc

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify markers of overcrowding in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) according to expert opinion and then to use statistical methods to further explore the underlying construct of overcrowding. A cross-sectional survey of all PED directors (n = 12) and pediatric emergency medicine fellowship program directors (n = 10) across Canada was conducted to elicit expert opinion on relevant markers of emergency department (ED) crowding. The list of markers was reduced to those specific to the ED for which data could be extracted from one tertiary care PED from an existing computerized patient tracking system. Data representing 2,190 consecutive shifts and 138,361 patient visits were collected between April 2005 and March 2007. Common factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the underlying factors that best represented overcrowding as determined by markers identified by experts in pediatric emergency medicine The main markers of overcrowding identified by the survey included measures of patient volume (25%), ED operational processes (55%), and delays in transferring patients to inpatient beds (13%). Data collected on 41 markers were retained for the CFA. The results of the CFA indicated that the largest portion of variation in the data (48%) was accounted for by markers describing patient volumes and flow through the ED. Measures of admission delays accounted for a smaller proportion of variability (9%). The results suggest that for this tertiary PED, markers of ED operational processes and patient volume may be more relevant for determination of overcrowding than markers reflecting delays in transferring patients to inpatient beds. This study provides a foundation for further research on markers of overcrowding specific to the pediatric setting. (c) 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  11. Serum tumor markers in pediatric osteosarcoma: a summary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitskaya Yulia A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common primary high-grade bone tumor in both adolescents and children. Early tumor detection is key to ensuring effective treatment. Serum marker discovery and validation for pediatric osteosarcoma has accelerated in recent years, coincident with an evolving understanding of molecules and their complex interactions, and the compelling need for improved pediatric osteosarcoma outcome measures in clinical trials. This review gives a short overview of serological markers for pediatric osteosarcoma, and highlights advances in pediatric osteosarcoma-related marker research within the past year. Studies in the past year involving serum markers in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma can be assigned to one of four categories, i.e., new approaches and new markers, exploratory studies in specialized disease subsets, large cross-sectional validation studies, and longitudinal studies, with and without an intervention. Most of the studies have examined the association of a serum marker with some aspect of the natural history of pediatric osteosarcoma. As illustrated by the many studies reviewed, several serum markers are emerging that show a credible association with disease modification. The expanding pool of informative osteosarcoma-related markers is expected to impact development of therapeutics for pediatric osteosarcoma positively and, it is hoped, ultimately clinical care. Combinations of serum markers of natural immunity, thyroid hormone homeostasis, and bone tumorigenesis may be undertaken together in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma. These serum markers in combination may do better. The potential effect of an intrinsic dynamic balance of tumor angiogenesis residing within a single hormone (tri-iodothyronine is an attractive concept for regulation of vascularization in pediatric osteosarcoma.

  12. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: IV. the Pause Marker Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Three previous articles provided rationale, methods, and several forms of validity support for a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), termed the pause marker (PM). Goals of the present article were to assess the validity and stability of the PM Index (PMI) to scale CAS severity. Method: PM scores and speech, prosody,…

  13. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: II. Validity Studies of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2nd article in this supplement is to report validity support findings for the Pause Marker (PM), a proposed single-sign diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: PM scores and additional perceptual and acoustic measures were obtained from 296 participants in cohorts with idiopathic and…

  14. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. Method: The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical…

  15. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic and low-input agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Ostergard, H.; Vriend, H.; Backes, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular

  16. Endoscopy/EUS-guided fiducial marker placement in patients with esophageal cancer: a comparative analysis of 3 types of markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, Melanie; van Hooft, Jeanin; Jin, Peng; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke M.; Alderliesten, Tanja; Hulshof, Maarten C.

    2015-01-01

    Markers placed at the borders of esophageal tumors are potentially useful to facilitate radiotherapy (RT) target delineation, which offers the possibility of image-guided RT. To evaluate and compare the feasibility and technical benefit of endoscopy/EUS-guided marker placement of 3 different types

  17. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres

  18. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data.

  19. Early syphilis affects markers of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsafti, Ourania; Paparizos, Vassilios; Kourkounti, Sofia; Chatziioannou, Argiro; Nicolaidou, Electra; Kapsimali, Violetta; Antoniou, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if early syphilis infection affects markers of HIV infection; CD4 T cells and viral load (VL). A retrospective study was performed on 160 HIV-positive patients (111 receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 49 without ART). Early syphilis diagnosis was made in HIV patients during their follow-up at the HIV/AIDS Unit at a Greek Dermatology and Venereology Unit. The patients' blood tests were available at the time of diagnosis, as well as before and 12 weeks after early syphilis diagnosis. CD4 T cell counts and VL levels were measured. It was found that syphilis infection had a negative impact on the CD4 T cell counts in both groups, with reduced CD4 T cell counts observed in 84.6% (99/111) and 79.5% (39/49) of patients receiving and not receiving ART, respectively. After treatment for syphilis, CD4 T cell counts returned to pre-treatment levels in most patients, especially those receiving ART. There was a slight and transient VL increase. Patients receiving ART had a 27% increase in VL, compared to 71.4% among patients not receiving ART. Although the VL increase was slight (41-14,000 copies/ml) in the group under treatment, 4-5% (5/111) patients did not return to pre-treatment levels. Moreover, viral mutations associated with treatment resistance were identified in these patients. Early syphilis accelerates and complicates the progression of HIV infection. Early diagnosis and treatment of syphilis may prevent infection-associated complications in most instances. Consequently, prevention of syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections is of great importance for patients infected with HIV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Association between Immune Markers and Surrogate Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in HIV Positive Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Alinda G; Hulzebosch, Annelieke; Grobbee, Diederick E; Barth, Roos E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic low-grade immune activation is likely one of the driving mechanisms. This systematic review provides an overview of the evidence addressing the relation between immune markers and surrogate markers of CVD (except CIMT) in HIV infection. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library identifying all articles from 1996 to April 2015. It addressed the relation between immune markers and surrogate markers of CVD (except Carotid Intima-media Thickness) in HIV-positive adults. Two authors, using predefined criteria, independently conducted the selection of articles, critical appraisal and extraction of the data. Analysis focused on immune markers that were assessed most frequently. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline and performed as part of an overarching review registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014010516). Twenty-nine articles were selected, describing 34 immune markers and nine different CVD surrogate outcomes: coronary calcium score (13 times) and flow-mediated dilation (10 times) were used most frequently. Twenty-seven studies had a cross-sectional design. CRP, IL-6 and sVCAM-1 were assessed most frequently. None of the immune markers were clearly associated with any of the surrogate CVD outcomes. No effect estimate could be calculated due to marked heterogeneity in study populations, immune markers, outcomes and statistical approaches. This review could not identify a clear association between any of the immune markers and surrogate CVD outcomes. This may reflect a true lack of association, or may be explained by heterogeneity across studies and lack of follow-up data. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies measuring a select set of immune markers and surrogate CVD outcomes awaiting the primary outcome of clinical cardiovascular events.

  1. Navigation system based on machine vision of multiple reference markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaopeng; Dong, Wenbo; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2017-11-01

    The position and attitude measurement of space object is a key problem in the field of real-time navigation, modern control and motion tracking. As a non-contact position and attitude estimation method, machine vision position and attitude estimation has the advantages of simple structure and convenient measurement. This paper presents a vision positioning system and method based on multiple reference markers. The camera moving along the object continuously collects images containing reference markers from the camera's field of view. The spatial position information of reference mark is determined in advance, and the position and direction of moving target are calculated according to location and attitude algorithm. The main contribution of this paper: first, a plurality of reference markers is arranged in the range of moving objects so as to enlarge the range of visual positioning; second, when more than one reference marker appears in the field of view, it is possible to improve the positioning accuracy by selecting the marker of the larger contour area or the marker of the distance closer to the imaging plane principal point; third, we use the decoder to transform the reference marker into digital number. This method can improve the robustness of the system.

  2. Study of skin markers for magnetic resonance imaging examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Umezaki, Yoshie; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2013-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skin markers are used as a landmark in order to make plans for examinations. However, there isn't a lot of research about the material and shape of skin markers. The skin marker's essential elements are safety, good cost performance, high signal intensity for T 1 weighted image (T 1 WI) and T 2 weighted image (T 2 WI), and durable. In order to get a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of T 1 WI and T 2 WI, baby oil, salad oil and olive oil were chosen, because these materials were easy to obtain and safe for the skin. The SNR of baby oil was the best. Baby oil was injected into the infusion tube, and the tube was solvent welded and cut by a heat sealer. In order to make ring shaped skin markers, both ends of the tube were stuck with adhesive tape. Three different diameters of markers were made (3, 5, 10 cmφ). Ring shaped skin markers were put on to surround the examination area, therefore, the edge of the examination area could be seen at every cross section. Using baby oil in the ring shaped infusion tube is simple, easy, and a highly useful skin marker. (author)

  3. Measurement of some tumor markers by IRMA in vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Xuan Truong

    2004-01-01

    As we known that a perfect tumor markers could be used in five different ways : for population screening, for diagnose, for monitoring therapy and for follow-up early evidence of cancer recurrence. In order to achieve perfect status a tumor markers would require total negativity in healthy subject, total positivity for single tumor type and close correlation between plasma tumor marker concentration and tumor size . The advance of monoclonal antibodies has had dramatic impact in oncology, where new tumor markers have been discovered and assay methods for all tumor markers have been improved commercially . Analytical performance of these new methods are potentially as good as that of the best Immunoradiometric assay for others analytes. In Vietnam, the first time we use immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the measurement of some tumor markers in normal subject and cancer diseases. These are Thyroglobulin (TG) of thyroid cancer, cancer-antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) of breast cancer and cancer-antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) of stomach cancer. We would like applying the CA72-4 in the indication of stomach cancer, CA15-3 in the differential diagnosis of breast cancer, and TG in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. And all of these tumor markers were also used in the clinical follow-up and early detection of recurrence and metastatic Cancer of them. We could try researching on them much more. (authors)

  4. Sonodynamic therapy induces the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in K562 cells through ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaomin; Wang, Pan; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a relatively new approach in the treatment of various cancers including leukemia cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of apoptosis and autophagy after treated by protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-mediated SDT (PpIX-SDT) on human leukemia K562 cells as well as the relationship between them. Firstly, mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis was observed through morphological observation and biochemical analysis. Meanwhile, SDT was shown to induce autophagy in K562 cells, which caused an increase in EGFP-LC3 puncta cells, a conversion of LC3 II/I, formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and co-localization between LC3 and LAMP2 (a lysosome marker). Besides, pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or bafilomycin A1 was shown to provide protection against autophagy and to enhance SDT-induced apoptosis and necrosis, while the apoptosis suppressor z-VAD-fmk failed to affect formation of autophagic vacuoles or partially prevented SDT-induced cytotoxicity, which suggested that SDT-induced autophagy functioned as a survival mechanism. Additionally, this study reported apparent apoptosis and autophagy with dependence on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Preliminary data showed that ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively blocked the SDT induced accumulation of ROS, reversed sono-damage, cell apoptosis and autophagy. Taken together, these data indicate that autophagy may be cytoprotective in our experimental system, and the ROS caused by PpIX-SDT treatment may play an important role in initiating apoptosis and autophagy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixed Marker-Based/Marker-Less Visual Odometry System for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lamberti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When moving in generic indoor environments, robotic platforms generally rely solely on information provided by onboard sensors to determine their position and orientation. However, the lack of absolute references often leads to the introduction of severe drifts in estimates computed, making autonomous operations really hard to accomplish. This paper proposes a solution to alleviate the impact of the above issues by combining two vision-based pose estimation techniques working on relative and absolute coordinate systems, respectively. In particular, the unknown ground features in the images that are captured by the vertical camera of a mobile platform are processed by a vision-based odometry algorithm, which is capable of estimating the relative frame-to-frame movements. Then, errors accumulated in the above step are corrected using artificial markers displaced at known positions in the environment. The markers are framed from time to time, which allows the robot to maintain the drifts bounded by additionally providing it with the navigation commands needed for autonomous flight. Accuracy and robustness of the designed technique are demonstrated using an off-the-shelf quadrotor via extensive experimental tests.

  6. Plasmacytoma with aberrant expression of myeloid markers, T-cell markers, and cytokeratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J S; Stopyra, G A; Warhol, M J; Multhaupt, H A

    2001-06-01

    Plasmacytomas are localized neoplastic proliferations of monoclonal plasma cells. When multifocal, the process is referred to as multiple myeloma. These lesions exhibit a pattern of antigen expression and cytomorphology that usually leads to a ready diagnosis. However, potentially troublesome variations in immunophenotype occur. We describe a case of a plasmacytoma from a patient who presented with sudden onset of pain and a lytic lesion of the left proximal humerus. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections showed a lymphoproliferative lesion composed of large lymphoid cells, some with plasmacytoid and immunoblastic features. The lesion also showed significant mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD45 (LCA), CD56 (N-CAM), CD43 (MT1), and cytokeratin CAM5.2. There was also clonal staining for lambda light chains. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed positivity for myeloid markers such as CD13, CD33, CD38, and CD138. Significant negative markers include CD20 (L26), CD45RO (UCHL-1), and CD79alpha. The unusual phenotypic features of this plasmacytoma illustrate potential diagnostic pitfalls. It is important to fully study such lesions to correctly classify them, because this has significant impact on prognosis and management.

  7. Deficits in Processing Case Markers in Individuals with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with aphasia demonstrated greater difficulties in the case marker assignment compared to their normal control group. Furthermore, noncanonical word-order and passive sentences elicited more errors on the task than canonical and active sentences. Passive sentences were the significant predictors for overall aphasia severity. The results suggested that PWA using a verb-final language with well-developed case-marking systems presented deficits in case marker processing. The syntactic structure and canonicity of word order need to be considered as critical linguistic features in testing their performance on dealing with case markers.

  8. An insight into salivary markers in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Prasad, Ramnarayan Belur; Sharma, Akhilesh; Babu, Harsha Mysore

    2013-05-01

    Salivary diagnostics has fascinated many researcheres and has been tested as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of many systemic conditions and for drug monitoring. Advances in the field of molecular biology, salivary genomics and proteomics have led to the discovery of new molecular markers for oral cancer diagnosis, therapeutics and prognosis. Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease and the outcome of the treatment and prognosis largely depends on early diagnosis. Abnormal cellular products elucidated from malignant cells can be detected and measured in various body fluids including saliva and constitute tumor markers. This article discusses the various salivary tumor markers and their role in oral pre-cancer and cancer.

  9. Inhibin B as a serum marker of spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T K; Andersson, A M; Hjollund, N H

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on reproductive health of men in the general population. However, semen samples are difficult to obtain within sampling frames that allow comparisons. Blood samples are easier to obtain than ejaculates. Therefore, serum biomarkers of spermatogenesis are of major intere...... reproductive health, may serve as a new marker of spermatogenesis, in addition to sperm concentration and serum FSH....... for population studies. FSH has previously been used as a marker of spermatogenesis, although it is also influenced by the hypothalamus. Serum inhibin B was recently suggested as a possible, more direct serum marker of spermatogenesis in men with testicular disorders. In a Danish nationwide collaborative study...

  10. Cardiac and proinflammatory markers predict prognosis in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe; Mortensen, Christian; Gøtze, Jens P

    2014-01-01

    -TnT) and proinflammatory markers including soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are related to these complications. We aimed to investigate if cardiac and proinflammatory markers are related to severity of liver disease, cardiac and haemodynamic......: Markers of cardiac dysfunction and inflammation are significantly associated with disease severity, degree of portal hypertension and survival in cirrhosis. In particular, hs-TnT and suPAR seem to contain prognostic information....

  11. Discourse Markers s Sentence Openers in Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onorina Botezat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Discourse markers can be defined as linguistic expressions of different length which carry pragmatic and propositional meaning, they are used to combine clauses or to connect sentence elements andthey appear in both speech and writing, and facilitate the discourse. Each discourse marker indicates a particular meaning relationship between two or more clauses. English is predominantly the language ofinternational legal practice and its importance to lawyers cannot be over-emphasized. The way in which one uses legal English can therefore be crucial to professional success. This paper stresses the importance of good usage of discourse markers in legal English.

  12. How to Measure Separations and Angles Between Intramolecular Fluorescent Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kim; Sung, J.; Spudich, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    firmly; (b) we established how to map with super-resolution between color-separated channels, which should be useful for all dual-color colocalization measurements with either fixed or freely rotating fluorescent molecules. Throughout, we use only simple means: from each color-separated microscope image......Structure and function of an individual biomolecule can be explored with minimum two fluorescent markers of different colors. Since the light of such markers can be spectrally separated and imaged simultaneously, the markers can be colocalized. Here, we describe the method used for such two-color...

  13. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in the aquatic plant Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae). This species, which belongs to basal Magnoliophyta, reproduces sexually. All of these 11 microsatellite markers yielded 25 alleles in a survey of a wild population of 34 individuals. Two or three alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.056 to 0.634 and observed heterozygosity from 0.000 to 0.088. These simple sequence repeat markers will be useful for evaluating the genetic structure of the E. ferox population in the future. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Identification of tsunami deposits using organic markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanova, Piero; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Reicherter, Klaus; Jaffe, Bruce; Szczucinski, Witold

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical analyses of tsunami deposits are becoming standard and are used in almost every study. However, only inorganic proxies are typically studied. Recent studies that developed and broaden geochemical methods to investigate tsunami deposits (e.g., Szczucinski et al., 2016) and illustrate the importance of information from biomarker analyses (e.g., Shinozaki et al., 2015). These studies indicated that organic geochemistry can be used for the differentiation between marine and terrestrial matter, indicating a potential source of a deposit. Organic proxies also have the advantage of remaining longer in the sediment than inorganic proxies, which can be leached out by groundwater or rain. The 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami inundated as much as 4.5 km inland and had run up heights of up to 40 m. Samples of sandy tsunami deposits from Sendai Plain, Samenoura Bay, and Oppa Bay (Japan) were collected and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to search for natural compounds (biomarkers) and anthropogenic pollutants (anthropogenic markers). Natural compounds substances, such as fatty acids and n-alkanes, and anthropogenic compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides) were identified and quantified. Further, the two different compound types (natural vs. anthropogenic) were evaluated for their usefulness in identification of deposits from extreme flooding events. The analyzed chemical compounds and their diagenetic transformation products were distinctly different for the pre-tsunami, the tsunami and the thin post-tsunami eolian deposits. The preliminary results of this study point out the utility of organic indicators for the identification of extreme flooding events (like tsunamis), particularly for historic events. References Shinozaki, T., Fujino, S., Ikehara, M., Sawai, Y., Tamura, T., Goto, K., Sugawara, D., Abe, T., 2015. Marine biomarkers deposited on coastal land by the 2011Tohoku-oki tsunami. Natural Hazards 77

  15. Ideal, nonideal, and no-marker variables: The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) marker technique works when it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Larry J; O'Boyle, Ernest H

    2015-09-01

    A persistent concern in the management and applied psychology literature is the effect of common method variance on observed relations among variables. Recent work (i.e., Richardson, Simmering, & Sturman, 2009) evaluated 3 analytical approaches to controlling for common method variance, including the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) marker technique. Their findings indicated significant problems with this technique, especially with nonideal marker variables (those with theoretical relations with substantive variables). Based on their simulation results, Richardson et al. concluded that not correcting for method variance provides more accurate estimates than using the CFA marker technique. We reexamined the effects of using marker variables in a simulation study and found the degree of error in estimates of a substantive factor correlation was relatively small in most cases, and much smaller than error associated with making no correction. Further, in instances in which the error was large, the correlations between the marker and substantive scales were higher than that found in organizational research with marker variables. We conclude that in most practical settings, the CFA marker technique yields parameter estimates close to their true values, and the criticisms made by Richardson et al. are overstated. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. amdSYM, a new dominant recyclable marker cassette for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solis-Escalante, D.; Kuijpers, N.G.A.; Bongaerts, N.; Bolat, I.; Bosman, L.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large collection of selectable marker genes available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, marker availability can still present a hurdle when dozens of genetic manipulations are required. Recyclable markers, counterselectable cassettes that can be removed from the targeted genome after use,

  17. [Valuation for usefulness of selected chromosomal markers for Bacillus anthracis identification. II. Valuation for markers SSH and rpoB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Aleksandra Anna; Jagielski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    The article presents results of valuation for B. anthracis-specificity and usefulness for its identification obtained for different chromosomal markers. In the second part of the study markers SSH241, SSH196, SSH163, SSH133 as well as a fragment of the house-keeping gene rpoB were analyzed. For the investigation MSSCP and multiplex-PCR assays were used. There were also tested different techniques of electrophoresis. The results gave an information about specificity of tested markers and their usefulness for B. anthracis identification.

  18. Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of genetic diversity among different Jatropha curcas genotypes. S Gupta, M Srivastava, GP Mishra, PK Naik, RS Chauhan, SK Tiwari, M Kumar, R Singh ...

  19. New St-chromosome-specific molecular markers for identifying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chromosome-specific PLUG and SCAR markers, and successfully used them to detect the St-chromosome in wheat–Th. intermedium introgression lines. Materials and methods. Plant materials. Wheat line ML13 was provided by International Maize and.

  20. New microsatellite markers classifying nontoxic and toxic Jatropha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 90; Online resources. New microsatellite markers classifying nontoxic and toxic Jatropha curcas. Patcharin Tanya Sujinna Dachapak Maung Maung Tar Peerasak Srinives. Volume 90 Online resources 2011 pp e76-e78 ...

  1. Serum and cellular biologic tumor markers in testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadpour, N.; Lalehzarian, M.

    1987-01-01

    Several serum and cellular biologic tumor markers in testicular cancer are studied. The role of alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin in staying testicular tumors is reported and the use of radioimmunoassay is considered. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Food-grade Selection Markers in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song He

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are generally regarded as safe (GRAS microorganisms and widely used in industry and medicine. We are trying to add additional properties to them by gene engineering. However, the genetically modified bacteria are not acceptable to use in food and medicine due to the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in plasmids. Thus, it is necessary to develop food-grade selection markers. Food-grade markers can be divided into three classes based on their selected characteristics: dominant, complementary and sugar fermentation markers. The developments on these food-grade selection markers were reviewed in order to provide valuable references for the further study. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 499-510

  3. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Conclusions: Procalcitonin is a good marker for differentiation between bacterial and nonbacterial AECOPD and could be used to guide antibiotic therapy and reduce antibiotic overuse in hospitalized patients with AECOPD.

  4. Objective Markers of Postural Instability in Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riley, Michael A; Shockley, Kevin D

    2005-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this proposal was to identify markers of postural instability associated with PD and to relate the objective measures of postural instability to clinical ratings of PD severity...

  5. Characterization of microsatellite markers for Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñailillo, Johany; Kuo, Wenhsi; Olivares, Gabriela; Silva-Poblete, Gerardo; Peña-Ahumada, Barbara; Muñoz, Sofía; Moncada, Ximena; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae) is native to Asia and is used as a medicinal plant and as a source of fiber for making paper. It was dispersed into the Pacific region as a fiber source for making nonwoven textiles (barkcloth). Microsatellites were developed to trace the human-mediated dispersal of this species into the Pacific region. A set of 36 microsatellites was isolated and initially assayed on 10 accessions to assess polymorphism. We found that 20 markers were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per marker ranging from four to 35 in 70 accessions genotyped from three Asian populations. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.04 to 0.85 and from 0.19 to 0.94, respectively. These markers were tested in four Moraceae species and one Rosaceae species. These markers will be useful for the assessment of genetic diversity in B. papyrifera . They show low transferability to other species tested.

  6. Molecular Markers of Metastasis in Ductal Mammary Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achary, Patnala

    2002-01-01

    ...% of those patients, however, the disease spreads, and they are at risk of death. Our goal is to develop DNA markers that could be reliably used to identify the ductal mammary carcinomas that are prone to develop metastasis...

  7. Marker-guided multimodality matching of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsen, P.A. van den [Computer Vision Research Group, Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands); Viergever, M.A. [Computer Vision Research Group, Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes a method for matching any combination of CT, MRI, single-photon emission CT (SPECT), and electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) derived dipole estimations, based on external markers which are easy to apply to the skin. A marker design for CT and MRI is presented which allows sub-slice accuracy in indicating points, and can also be used to pinpoint reference points slightly outside the scanned volume. Accurate registration is thus provided even in standard imaging protocols employing thick slices and/or large interslice gaps. While a similar triangular marker can be used for SPECT imaging, point-like radioactive markers have been considered instead because of their simplicity. Results of the method are presented by means of two- and three-dimensional visualisations. (orig.)

  8. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  9. Positron emission tomography using 18fluorodeoxyglucose and tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, P.J.; Grenier, J.

    2004-01-01

    Tumor cells present different characteristics that are used to diagnosis metastasis. Tumor markers are substances that can often be detected in higher-than-normal amounts in the blood, urine, or body tissues of some patients with certain types of cancer. The main use of tumor markers is to assess a cancer's response to treatment and to check for recurrence. Less than 20 % of the initial rises of tumor marker is accompanied with clinical events or radiological signs. TEP using 18 FDG allows metastasis detection at early stage. Tumor markers as tools to monitor recurrence can help to select the patients who need a TER. These two diagnostic ways, used together, should improve patients follow-up. (author)

  10. Phylogenetic Assessment Of Arthrocnemum Macrostachyum (Chenopodiaceae Genotypes, Using Ramp Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Basel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker technique was employed to test its usefulness for assessing phylogenetic relationships in three genotypes of Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric. Moris. & Delponte from Syria. PCR reactions with 21 RAMP primer combinations (PCs distinguished 145 loci, 139 of which (95.862% were polymorphic. The (AG8TC/OPE18 primer combination generated the highest number of fragments (11 amplicons, and the (AC8T/OPE04 primer combination the fewest (4 amplicons. Average estimated polymorphic information content (PIC was 0.431, with an average marker index (MI of 2.836. Analysis by the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA was performed and a dendrogram was constructed. UPGMA cluster analysis based on RAMP markers distinguished genotype 2, suggested here to be a subspecies, from genotypes 1 and 3. In this study the RAMP marker method proved to be a reliable tool for discriminating and estimating genetic diversity within A. macrostachyum.

  11. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those....... Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based...

  12. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    1998). DNA fingerprinting of strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa) cultivars using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Euphytica. 102:247-253. Doyle JJ, Doyle LJ (1990). Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue.

  13. 36 CFR 12.7 - Headstones and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “In Memory Of” are mandatory elements of such an inscription. (f) Except as may be authorized by the... vault or a headstone or marker determined by the superintendent not to be in keeping with the historic...

  14. Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by Antiaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by Antiaris africana leaf extract following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Omotayo B. Ilesanmi, Afolabi C. Akinmoladun, Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu, M. Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi A. Akindahunsi ...

  15. Molecular marker screening of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular marker screening of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) germplasm for Meloidogyne arenaria resistance. V Carpentieri-Pipolo, M Gallo-Meagher, DW Dickson, DW Gorbet, M de Lurdes Mendes, SG Hulse de Souza ...

  16. 30 CFR 715.12 - Signs and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or by other means approved by the regulatory authority. (d) Buffer zone markers. Buffer zones as... boundary of the buffer zone. (e) Blasting signs. If blasting is necessary to conduct surface coal mining...

  17. Minisatellites as DNA markers to classify bermudagrasses (Cynodon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minisatellites as DNA markers to classify bermudagrasses. (Cynodon spp.): confirmation of minisatellite in amplified products. MEHMET KARACA* and AYSE GUL INCE. Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07059, Turkey. Introduction. Hyper variable repetitive DNA sequences such as microsatel-.

  18. Microsatellite Markers for the Invasive Species Bidens alba (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bin Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the invasive species Bidens alba (Asteraceae to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking its expansion in China. Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for B. alba. The markers were tested on one population of B. alba (30 individuals and one population of the closely related B. pilosa (30 individuals in China. For B. alba, all of the markers were polymorphic, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 32. The expected heterozygosity values were from 0.3787 to 0.9284, and the Shannon–Wiener index was from 0.6796 to 2.8401. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for investigating the genetic structure, genetic diversity, and invasion dynamics of B. alba and will also be useful in studies of B. pilosa.

  19. Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread wheat showing an association with karnal bunt resistance. M Kumar, OP Luthra, NR Yadav, L Chaudhary, N Saini, R Kumar, I Sharma, V Chawla ...

  20. Serum clusterin as a marker for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) are untreatable because of advanced tumor stages at presentation. Therefore, finding newer markers for screening and diagnosing HCC is of utmost importance. Clusterin (CLU) is a 449 amino acid, heterodimeric glycoprotein with a ...

  1. Research notes : solar powered markers not up to challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    ODOT performed preliminary tests on eight different models of solar powered raised pavement markers. These included environmental tests (extreme temperatures, immersion), optical performance tests, and observation tests. Federal Highway Administratio...

  2. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and 25–OH vitamin D deficiency were common in our haemodialysis patients. Hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were strong predictors for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism. Keywords: Biochemical markers, guidelines, mineral bone disorder, haemodialysis ...

  3. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Marker in Rickettsia typhi Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Jill Michelle; Radulovic, Suzana; Azad, Abdu F.

    1999-01-01

    Transformation of rickettsiae is a recent accomplishment, but utility of this technique is limited due to the paucity of selectable markers suitable for use in this intracellular pathogen. We chose a green fluorescent protein variant optimized for fluorescence under UV lights (GFPUV) as a fluorometric marker and transformed Rickettsia typhi with an rpoB-GFPUV fusion construct. The rickettsiae were subsequently grown in Vero cells, and cultures were screened by PCR and restriction fragment len...

  4. Inflammatory markers and extent and progression of early atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeit, Peter; Thompson, Simon G; Agewall, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large-scale epidemiological evidence on the role of inflammation in early atherosclerosis, assessed by carotid ultrasound, is lacking. We aimed to quantify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of inflammatory markers with common-carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CCA...... in its assessment within a limited time period. Our findings for 'inflammatory load' suggest important combined effects of the three inflammatory markers on early atherosclerosis....

  5. Markers of Inflammation and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Sarwar; Alexander J. Thompson; Emanuele Di Angelantonio

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of global mortality, with coronary heart disease (CHD) its major manifestation. Although inflammation, the body?s response to noxious stimuli, is implicated in several stages of CHD development, the relevance of circulating levels of markers of inflammation to CHD risk remains uncertain. This review summarizes available epidemiological evidence for four emerging inflammatory markers implicated in CHD (fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-asso...

  6. Biological Basis and Clinical Application of Serum Tumor Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is the result of the accumulation of changes in molecules with important functions in processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell death and gene repair. Molecules, substances or altered pathways constitute tumor markers or biomarkers useful in clinical monitoring of cancer patients, because they have demonstrated to be suitable for the valuation of the patient’s treatment and it efficiency. Determination of tumor markers has not been very successful due to the low sensitivity...

  7. Morphological Markers Of Verb Modality In Javanese Surabaya Dialect

    OpenAIRE

    ZULFERDI, LAZUAR AZMI

    2014-01-01

    Zulferdi, Lazuar Azmi. 2013. Morphological Markers of Verb Modality in Javanese Surabaya Dialect. Study Program of English, Universitas Brawijaya. Supervisor: Eni Maharsi; Co-Supervisor: Yana Shanti Manipuspika. Keywords: Dialect, Javanese Language, Verb Modality, Morphological Markers, Surabaya Dialect Dialect is a variety of a language that has unique patterns of phonology, morphology, syntax, and vocabulary. Dialect is spoken and understood by a particular language society. One of ...

  8. Glomerular and Tubular Damage Markers in Individuals with Progressive Albuminuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Ferdau L.; Scheven, Lieneke; Meijer, Esther; van Oeveren, Wim; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Albuminuria is associated with risk for renal and cardiovascular disease. It is difficult to predict which persons will progress in albuminuria. This study investigated whether assessment of urinary markers associated with damage to different parts of the nephron may help identify individuals that will progress in albuminuria. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Individuals were selected from a prospective community-based cohort study with serial follow-up and defined as “progressors” if they belonged to the quintile of participants with the most rapid annual increase in albuminuria, and reached an albuminuria ≥150 mg/d during follow-up. Patients with known renal disease or macroalbuminuria at baseline were excluded. Each progressor was matched to two control participants, based on baseline albuminuria, age, and sex. Furthermore, damage markers were measured in a separate set of healthy individuals. Results After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 183 of 8394 participants met the criteria for progressive albuminuria. Baseline clinical characteristics were comparable between progressors and matched controls (n=366). Both had higher baseline albuminuria than the overall population. Urinary excretion of the glomerular damage marker IgG was significantly higher in progressors, whereas urinary excretion of proximal tubular damage markers and inflammatory markers was lower in these individuals compared with controls. Healthy individuals (n=109) had the lowest values for all urinary damage markers measured. Conclusions These data suggest that albuminuria associated with markers of glomerular damage is more likely to progress, whereas albuminuria associated with markers of tubulointerstitial damage is more likely to remain stable. PMID:23539232

  9. Comparison of tumor markers using different detection devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Rong; Tu, Shaohua; Liu, Chong; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Min; Shen, Jiangfan

    2015-01-01

    This paper has been retracted  Rong Tao, Shaohua Tu, Chong Liu, Qi Yang, Min Zhu, Jiangfan Shen Nuclear Medicine, Putuo District Center Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: With the development of proteomics, tumor markers have attracted increasing attention for the early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. As biochip technology and nanotechnology continues to grow, rapid and highly sensitive joint detection of multi-tumor markers has beco...

  10. Bone turnover marker reference intervals in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Emma T; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M; Chiang, Cherie Y; Wark, John D

    2017-07-01

    Background The use of bone turnover markers in clinical practice and research in younger people is limited by the lack of normative data and understanding of common causes of variation in bone turnover marker values in this demographic. To appropriately interpret bone turnover markers, robust reference intervals specific to age, development and sex are necessary. This study aimed to determine reference intervals of bone turnover markers in females aged 16-25 years participating in the Safe-D study. Methods Participants were recruited through social networking site Facebook and were asked to complete an extensive, online questionnaire and attend a site visit. Participants were tested for serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and total procollagen type 1 N-propeptide using the Roche Elecsys automated analyser. Reference intervals were determined using the 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles of normalized bone turnover marker values. Results Of 406 participants, 149 were excluded due to medical conditions or medication use (except hormonal contraception) which may affect bone metabolism. In the remaining 257 participants, the reference interval was 230-1000 ng/L for serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and 27-131  µg/L for procollagen type 1 N-propeptide. Both marker concentrations were inversely correlated with age and oral contraceptive pill use. Therefore, intervals specific to these variables were calculated. Conclusions We defined robust reference intervals for cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and procollagen type 1 N-propeptide in young females grouped by age and contraceptive pill use. We examined bone turnover markers' relationship with several lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors. Our normative intervals should aid interpretation of bone turnover markers in young females particularly in those aged 16 to 19 years where reference intervals are currently provisional.

  11. Collagen derived serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P

    1995-01-01

    Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose......, ICTP, and PICP did not differ between these two groups. In patients with metastatic prostatic cancer all five markers were increased compared to the level measured in patients with localized cancer (p

  12. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins o......, M-ficolin and MAp44 in combination discriminate between CRC and patients without cancer. The markers did not have sufficient discriminatory value for CRC detection, but may prove useful for screening when combined with other markers....

  13. meta-analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng LU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.

  14. Peptide nucleic acid probes with charged photocleavable mass markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Rachel J; Green, Philip S; Gale, Nittaya; Langley, G John

    2010-01-01

    Halogen-labelled peptide organic acid (HPOA) monomers have been synthesised and incorporated into sequence-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Three different types of probe have been prepared; the unmodified PNA probe, the PNA probe with a mass marker, and the PNA probe with photocleavable mass marker. All three types of probe have been used in model studies to develop a mass spectrometry-based hybridisation assay for detection of point mutations in DNA. PMID:21687524

  15. Endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia. Predictors of clinical radiation resistance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vordermark, D.; Brown, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation have defined an adverse effect of tumor hypoxia on prognosis after radiotherapy and other treatment modalities, in particular in head and neck and cervix carcinomas as well as soft tissue sarcomas. Recently, the immunohistochemical detection of proteins involved in the ''hypoxic response'' of tumor cells has been discussed as a method to estimate hypoxia in clinical tumor specimens. Material and Methods: This review focuses on clinical and experimental data, regarding prognostic impact and comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection, for three proteins suggested as endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia: hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA 9), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: None of the three potential hypoxia markers is exclusively hypoxia-specific, and in each case protein can be detected under normoxic conditions in vitro. HIF-1α responds rapidly to hypoxia but also to reoxygenation, making this marker quite unstable in the context of clinical sample collection. The perinecrotic labeling pattern typical of chronic hypoxia and a reasonable agreement with injectable hypoxia markers such as pimonidazole have most consistently been described for CA 9. All three markers showed correlation with Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation in carcinoma of the cervix. In nine of 13 reports, among them all three that refer to curative radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, HIF-1α overexpression was associated with poor outcome. CA 9 was an adverse prognostic factor in cervix, head and neck and lung cancer, but not in two other head and neck cancer reports. GLUT1 predicted for poor survival in colorectal, cervix and lung cancer. Conclusion: Endogenous markers have the potential to indicate therapeutically relevant levels of hypoxia within tumors. Clinical trials assessing a marker's ability to predict a benefit from specific hypoxia

  16. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic Mapping in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that recently have revolutionized human, mouse, and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila by using a sequence tagged site-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that sp...

  17. The significance of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika M. Żyła

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers experienced by women throughout the world. It is also the most common malignancy within the female reproductive system, representing 37.7% of all disorders. The incidence increases with age, and is diagnosed most frequently in women between 45 and 65 years old. In the last few years, numerous studies have been performed to identify tumour biomarkers. Biomarkers include not only protein routinely used as tumour markers but also genes and chromosomes. The limiting factor in the use of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer is their lack of specificity. However, specific markers for endometrial cancer are the subject of much research attention. Although moderately elevated levels of markers are present in a number of inflammatory or non-malignant diseases, significantly increased levels of markers indicate the development of cancer. Recently, research has been focused on the identification of molecular changes leading to different histological subtypes of endometrial cancer. In this paper the authors reviewed several currently investigated markers. Progress in these investigations is very important in the diagnostics and treatment of endometrial cancer. In particular, the identification of novel mutations and molecular profiles should enhance our ability to personalise adjuvant treatment with genome-guided targeted therapy.

  18. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  19. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  20. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra eTóthová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis.

  1. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers in healthy dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, F.J.; Guilford, W.G.; Robertson, I.D.; Jones, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    The gastric emptying of 1.5 mm diameter (small) and 5.0 mm diameter (large) radiopaque markers (BIPS) was assessed in 20 dogs. The markers were fed to the dogs in a test meal and abdominal radiographs were made hourly thereafter. Studies were repeated three times in each dog. The variation between two veterinarians interpreting the radiographs was low. The sex, age and day of the study did not have a significant effect on the lag phase or the time taken to empty 25%, 50% and 75% of the markers (T25, T50 and T75 respectively). There was a weak but significant positive correlation between the body weight and T50. There was no significant difference in gastric emptying parameters between the large and small markers.The mean gastric emptying versus time curve of the small markers on day one was chosen to represent the reference curve for healthy dogs. The lag phase of the small markers on day one was 2.45 ± 2.04 hours, the T25 was 4.85 ± 2.15 hours, the T50 was 6.05 ± 2.99 hours and the T75 was 8.32 ± 2.72 hours (mean ± SD)

  2. Nuclear medicine markers of tumor oxygenation and radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J. Donald; Schneider, R.H.; Stobbe, C.C.; Kim, E.; Engelhardt, E.L.; Coia, L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The objective of this research project was to synthesize, purify, radiolabel and characterize second-generation nuclear medicine markers of tissue oxygenation with properties superior to iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) and to validate the hypoxia-marking activity of optimal compounds by independent measurements of tumor oxygenation and tumor radioresistance. Materials and Methods: Six hypoxic markers of the iodoazomycin nucleoside class with water solubilities greater than IAZA were synthesized by published procedures. The markers were purified, chemically characterized and labeled with Iodine-125 or Iodine-131. Absolute rates of marker ligation to the macromolecules of hypoxic EMT-6 tumor cells in vitro were determined as a function of marker concentration and used to establish relative marker effectiveness. Hypoxic marking activity in tumors was determined from tumor/blood (T/B) and tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios of radiolabelled marker in EMT-6 tumor-bearing C.B17/Icr scid mice. The optimal marker was administered to R3327-H and R3327-AT tumor-bearing Fischer X Copenhagen rats for estimates of tumor oxygenation by T/B and T/M ratios. Oxygen distributions in the same tumors were obtained with the Eppendorf pO 2 Histograph. The radioresistance of individual tumors was determined from in vitro plating efficiencies of cells released from tumors which had been irradiated in vivo with 20 Gy Cs-137 γ-rays. Results: Of the six iodinated azomycin nucleosides investigated, five were novel markers and all had water solubilities higher than IAZA. Iodinated azomycin xylopyranoside (β-D-IAZXP) was selected as the optimal marker of this class since it 1) exhibited the highest absolute rate of ligation to hypoxic tumor cells in vitro, 2) had the fastest plasma clearance rate in tumor-bearing mice and 3) yielded high T/B ratios in both the mouse and rat tumor models employed in this study. Planar nuclear medicine images of (I-131) β-D-IAZXP in tumor-bearing rats

  3. Genetic diversity of Halla horses using microsatellite markers

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    Joo-Hee Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%, Thoroughbred (18.8% and Halla horse (75.1%. Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people’s weighted interest toward Jeju horses. Method Using 17 Microsatellite (MS Markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG, genomic DNAs were extracted from the hair roots of 3,880 Halla horses breeding in Korea and genetic diversity was identified by genotyping after PCR was performed. Results and conclusion In average, 10.41 alleles (from 6 alleles in HTG7 to 17 alleles in ASB17 were identified after the analysis using 17 MS Markers. The mean value of Hobs was 0.749 with a range from 0.612(HMS1 to 0.857(ASB2. Also, it was found that Hexp and PIC values were lowest in HMS1 (0.607 and 0.548, respectively, and highest in LEX3(0.859 and 0.843, respectively, and the mean value of Hexp was 0.760 and that of PIC was 0.728. 17 MS markers used in this studies were considered as appropriate markers for the polymorphism analysis of Halla horses. The frequency for the appearance of identical individuals was 5.90 × 10−20 when assumed as random mating population and when assumed as half-sib and full-sib population, frequencies were 4.08 × 10−15 and 3.56 × 10−8, respectively. Based on these results, the 17 MS markers can be used adequately for the Individual Identification and Parentage Verification of Halla horses. Remarkably, allele M and Q of ASB23 marker, G of HMS2 marker, H and L of HTG6 marker, L of HTG7 marker, E of LEX3 marker were the specific alleles

  4. Comparison of two different methods of preoperative marking for toric intraocular lens implantation: bubble marker versus pendulum marker

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    Javed Hussain Farooqui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the accuracy of two different methods of preoperative marking for toric intraocular lens (IOL implantation, bubble marker versus pendulum marker, as a means of establishing the reference point for the final alignment of the toric IOL to achieve an outcome as close as possible to emmetropia. METHODS: Toric IOLs were implanted in 180 eyes of 110 patients. One group (55 patients had preoperative marking of both eyes done with bubble marker (ASICO AE-2791TBL and the other group (55 patients with pendulum marker (Rumex(3-193. Reference marks were placed at 3-, 6-, and 9-o'clock positions on the limbus. Slit-lamp photographs were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop (version 7.0. Amount of alignment error (in degrees induced in each group was measured. RESULTS: Mean absolute rotation error in the preoperative marking in the horizontal axis was 2.42±1.71 in the bubble marker group and 2.83±2.31in the pendulum marker group (P=0.501. Sixty percent of the pendulum group and 70% of the bubble group had rotation error ≤3 (P=0.589, and 90% eyes of the pendulum group and 96.7% of the bubble group had rotation error ≤5 (P=0.612. CONCLUSION: Both preoperative marking techniques result in approximately 3 of alignment error. Both marking techniques are simple, predictable, reproducible and easy to perform.

  5. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer.

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    Grunnet, M; Sorensen, J B

    2012-05-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA serum level as a prognostic marker in NSCLC was investigated in 23 studies and the use of CEA plasma level in two. In 18 (17 serum, 1 plasma) of these studies CEA was found to be a useful prognostic marker for either OS, recurrence after surgery or/and progression free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients. Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based on preoperative CEA and CYFRA21-1 serum levels, is useful as a prognostic marker for OS in NSCLC. Six studies evaluated the use of CEA as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death in NSCLC patients. Four of these studies found, that CEA was useful as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death measured over time. No studies found CEA levels useful as a diagnostic marker for lung cancer. With regard to NSCLC the level of CEA measured in tumor tissue in

  6. Mining expressed sequence tags identifies cancer markers of clinical interest

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    Skrabanek Lucy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression data are a rich source of information about the transcriptional dis-regulation of genes in cancer. Genes that display differential regulation in cancer are a subtype of cancer biomarkers. Results We present an approach to mine expressed sequence tags to discover cancer biomarkers. A false discovery rate analysis suggests that the approach generates less than 22% false discoveries when applied to combined human and mouse whole genome screens. With this approach, we identify the 200 genes most consistently differentially expressed in cancer (called HM200 and proceed to characterize these genes. When used for prediction in a variety of cancer classification tasks (in 24 independent cancer microarray datasets, 59 classifications total, we show that HM200 and the shorter gene list HM100 are very competitive cancer biomarker sets. Indeed, when compared to 13 published cancer marker gene lists, HM200 achieves the best or second best classification performance in 79% of the classifications considered. Conclusion These results indicate the existence of at least one general cancer marker set whose predictive value spans several tumor types and classification types. Our comparison with other marker gene lists shows that HM200 markers are mostly novel cancer markers. We also identify the previously published Pomeroy-400 list as another general cancer marker set. Strikingly, Pomeroy-400 has 27 genes in common with HM200. Our data suggest that a core set of genes are responsive to the deregulation of pathways involved in tumorigenesis in a variety of tumor types and that these genes could serve as transcriptional cancer markers in applications of clinical interest. Finally, our study suggests new strategies to select and evaluate cancer biomarkers in microarray studies.

  7. Analysis of morphological markers of chromosomal instability in ascitic fluid.

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    Tyagi, Ruchita; Dey, Pranab; Uppal, Radha; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2015-10-01

    Chromosomal instability (CI) plays a major role in the carcinogenesis. Micronuclei, nuclear budding, chromatin bridges,and multipolar mitoses are the morphological markers of CI and have never been studied in routine cytological specimens. Aims of the study is to analyze the significance of morphological markers of CI in malignant and benign ascitic fluid smears. A total of sixty benign and 40 malignant ascitic fluid samples were selected for this study. All the cases with malignant ascitic fluid showed histopathological evidence of malignancy in ovary and omentum. Chromatin bridges, multipolar mitosis (MPM), micronuclei and nuclear budding were counted in 1000 cells in representative May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) stained smears. The CI markers were correlated with the cytological diagnosis of effusion. The mean number of micronuclei, nuclear budding, chromatin bridge and multipolar mitoses found in malignant effusions were 13.2611.79, 10.1067.07, 2.5362.67, 1.964.5, respectively. The mean number of micronuclei, nuclear budding, anaphase bridges, and MPM found in benign effusion cases were 0.566761.07934, 0.516761.33, 0.66760.25, and 0, respectively. The student t test showed significant differences between malignant and benign ascitic fluid samples for each marker of CI. This is the first comprehensive study of morphological markers of CI in ascitic fluid smears. This study has shown strong correlation between markers of CI and cytological diagnosis of malignancy. In future, the knowledge of these markers can be applied to diagnose malignancy in suspected cases of effusion in difficult situations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pancreatic cancer stem cell markers and exosomes - the incentive push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiler, Sarah; Wang, Zhe; Zöller, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) has the highest death rate and incidence is increasing. Poor prognosis is due to late diagnosis and early metastatic spread, which is ascribed to a minor population of so called cancer stem cells (CSC) within the mass of the primary tumor. CSC are defined by biological features, which they share with adult stem cells like longevity, rare cell division, the capacity for self renewal, differentiation, drug resistance and the requirement for a niche. CSC can also be identified by sets of markers, which for pancreatic CSC (Pa-CSC) include CD44v6, c-Met, Tspan8, alpha6beta4, CXCR4, CD133, EpCAM and claudin7. The functional relevance of CSC markers is still disputed. We hypothesize that Pa-CSC markers play a decisive role in tumor progression. This is fostered by the location in glycolipid-enriched membrane domains, which function as signaling platform and support connectivity of the individual Pa-CSC markers. Outside-in signaling supports apoptosis resistance, stem cell gene expression and tumor suppressor gene repression as well as miRNA transcription and silencing. Pa-CSC markers also contribute to motility and invasiveness. By ligand binding host cells are triggered towards creating a milieu supporting Pa-CSC maintenance. Furthermore, CSC markers contribute to the generation, loading and delivery of exosomes, whereby CSC gain the capacity for a cell-cell contact independent crosstalk with the host and neighboring non-CSC. This allows Pa-CSC exosomes (TEX) to reprogram neighboring non-CSC towards epithelial mesenchymal transition and to stimulate host cells towards preparing a niche for metastasizing tumor cells. Finally, TEX communicate with the matrix to support tumor cell motility, invasion and homing. We will discuss the possibility that CSC markers are the initial trigger for these processes and what is the special contribution of CSC-TEX. PMID:27468191

  9. [Gender differences in the use of tumour markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campoy, E E; Mérida-De la Torre, F J; Martos-Crespo, F; Plebani, M

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the factors that can influence the use of health resources. The use of tumour markers is widespread, due to the importance of these in monitoring cancer development. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of gender on the use of tumour markers, and to investigate whether there are differences in their use. A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study, with a 2-year follow-up, was conducted in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Padua. An analysis was performed on 23,059 analytical requests for tumour markers. A descriptive and frequency analysis was performed on all variables. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi squared, Student t and Mann-Whitney U to test for significance. The number of requests for women (1.5) was lower than men (1.6). In patients with tumour pathology, the number of requests was higher than in patients without tumour disease. In the analysis by disease and gender, the difference remained significant. As regards the number of tumour markers per request, the difference between genders was also significant: 2.13 in males versus 2.85 in women. Similar results were obtained when requests for tumour markers linked to gender-related diseases were eliminated. There are differences in the use of tumour markers by gender with the number of requests for male patients being higher than for females. However, the number of tumour markers per request is greater in women than in men. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyzing Cultural Markers to Characterize Regional Identity for Rural Planning

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    Falco Knaps

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional identity is the shared sense of regional ‘one-ness’, distinctiveness and difference. However, it is an undervalued factor to promote development in lagging rural areas and little is known about methods to reveal its content. This paper aims to develop and apply a method to explore regional identity in rural areas. We argue that the most important cultural markers – understood as rural landscapes and heritage features, perceived as regional identity reference points – can be analyzed and used to characterize regional identity. To this end, a case study was undertaken in two rural areas in northern Germany. We conducted 55 semi-structured interviews and determined cultural markers, using a new procedure with different analysis stages (identification, collectivity, historical depth, relationships. Results revealed a broad spectrum of cultural markers exhibiting collective significance with respect to landscape, built structures, history, intangible heritage and land-use. Next to traditional cultural markers, we found modern ones, introduced after the Second World War. Partially, traditional and modern cultural markers were perceived as related. Based on this knowledge, a first characterization of both regional identities was conducted, showing differences between our study areas. While one regional identity appears to be fragmented, conflicting and influenced by modern cultural markers, the other was characterized as coherent and rooted in traditional cultural markers. However, the integration of these characterizations into further planning steps remains challenging and needs additional, regionally adapted methods. A key finding of the study is that there is no single standard method for linking regional identity and rural planning.

  11. Tagging of blast resistance gene(s) to DNA markers and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, J.Y.; Lu, J.; Qian, H.R.; Lin, H.X.; Zheng, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports progress made on the tagging of blast resistance gene(s) to DNA markers and on the initiation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for blast resistance in rice improvement. A pair of near isogenic lines, K8OR and K79S, were developed using a Chinese landrace Hong-jiao-zhan as the resistance donor. Ten putatively positive markers were identified by screening 177 mapped DNA markers. Using the F 2 population of 143 plants and the derived F 3 lines, three Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) markers (RG81, RG869 and RZ397) on chromosome 12 of rice were identified to be closely linked to the blast resistance gene Pi-12(t). The genetic distance between Pi-12(t) and the closest marker RG869 was 5.1 cM. By employing the bulk segregant analysis (BSA) procedure, six of 199 arbitrary primers were found to produce positive Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) bands. Tight linkage between Pi-12(t) and three RAPD bands, each from a different primer, was confirmed after amplification of DNA of all F 2 individuals. Two fragments were cloned and sequenced, and two sequence characterised amplified re-ion (SCAR) markers were established. In two other F 3 populations, Xian-feng I/Tetep and Xian-feng, 1/Hong-jiao-zhan, the blast resistance was found to be controlled by interactions of two or more genes. One resistance gene was located in the vicinity of RG81 in both populations. Work to identify other gene(s) is currently under way. Marker assisted selection for blast resistance was initiated. Crosses were made between elite varieties and blast resistance donors to develop populations for DNA marker-assisted selection of blast resistance. In addition, 48 varieties widely used in current rice breeding programs were provided by rice breeders. DNA marker-based polymorphism among, these varieties and resistance donors were analysed to produce a database for future MAS program. (author)

  12. Preclinical assessment of hypoxic marker specificity and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Renuka V.; Engelhardt, Edward L.; Stobbe, Corinne C.; Schneider, Richard F.; Chapman, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In the search for a sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive technique for quantifying human tumor hypoxia, our laboratory has synthesized several potential radiodiagnostic agents. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the hypoxic marking properties of both radioiodinated and Tc-99m labeled markers in appropriate test systems which can predict for in vivo activity. Materials and Methods: Preclinical assessment of hypoxic marker specificity and sensitivity employed three laboratory assays with tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Radiolabeled marker uptake and/or binding to whole EMT-6 tumor cells under extremely hypoxic and aerobic conditions was measured and their ratio defined hypoxia-specific factor (HSF). Marker specificity to hypoxic tumor tissue was estimated from its selective avidity to two rodent tumors in vivo, whose radiobiologic hypoxic fractions (HF) had been measured. The ratios of % injected dose/gram (%ID/g) of marker at various times in EMT-6 tumor tissue relative to that in the blood and muscle of scid mice were used to quantify hypoxia-specific activity. This tumor in this host exhibited an average radiobiologic HF of ∼35%. As well, nuclear medicine images were acquired from R3327-AT (HF ≅15%) and R3327-H (no measurable HF) prostate carcinomas growing in rats to distinguish between marker avidity due to hypoxia versus perfusion. Results: The HSF for FC-103 and other iodinated markers were higher (5-40) than those for FC-306 and other Tc-99m labeled markers. The latter did not show hypoxia-specific uptake into cells in vitro. Qualitative differences were observed in the biodistribution and clearance kinetics of the iodinated azomycin nucleosides relative to the technetium chelates. The largest tumor/blood (T/B) and tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios were observed for compounds of the azomycin nucleoside class in EMT-6 tumor-bearing scid mice. These markers also showed a 3-4 x higher uptake into R3327-AT tumors relative to the well

  13. Migrainomics - identifying brain and genetic markers of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholt, Dale R; Borsook, David; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-12-01

    Migraine is one of the world's most prevalent and disabling disorders and imposes an enormous socioeconomic burden. The exact causes of migraine are unknown, and no recognizable diagnostic pathological changes have been identified. Specific identifiable markers of migraine would aid diagnosis and could provide insight into the pathogenesis of the condition, with the potential to direct development of new therapeutics. In the past few years, advances in neuroimaging and genetic studies have provided the most substantial progress towards the identification of markers. A growing number of brain imaging studies have provided important insights into the brain mechanisms that underlie migraine symptoms during and between migraine attacks. Similarly, large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with the common forms of migraine - migraine with aura and migraine without aura. In total, 44 independent single-nucleotide polymorphism loci have been robustly associated with the risk of migraine and provide new evidence for the involvement of vascular mechanisms. Both imaging and genetics, therefore, have excellent potential as markers of migraine. In this Review, we provide a summary of results regarding current and potential neuroimaging and genetic markers of migraine, consider what conclusions can be drawn from these markers about migraine mechanisms and discuss the potential of combining imaging and genetics.

  14. Evaluation of inflammatory markers after orthopedic surgical intervention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Radivoj; Bukva, Bojan; Nikolic, Dejan; Petronic, Ivana; Golubovic, Zoran; Abramovic, Dusan; Vidosavljevic, Marko; Ducic, Sinisa; Radlovic, Vladimir; Cirovic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate inflammation markers values (C-reactive protein (CRP), Erythrocite sedimentation (ES), White blood cells count (WBC)) in surgically treated pediatric patients with diagnosed developmental displasia of the hip or Perthes disease before and after operation. We have evaluated 43 children (20 patients were with diagnosed unilateral developmental displasia of the hip while 23 had Perthes disease). Blood samples were drown at the admission and 5 days after admission, and further inflammatory parameters were analyzed: ES (mm/hour), CRP (mg/L) and WBC (x1000/mm3) count. Elevated erythrocite sedimentation (ESR) was significantly frequent than elevated CRP (p0.05) while CRP values correlate significantly with the age of the patients (FCRP= 4.948; p<0.05). The most frequently isolated marker was ESR (34.88%). The most frequent elevated two markers were ESR and CRP (44.19%). Surgical procedure could alter the values of inflammatory markers leading to the increasement even though there is no other clinical signs of infection. For estimation of the possible presence of the infection, clinical signs and patients intensive clinical follow-up after the surgery, should be done along with the evaluation of inflammatory markers.

  15. DNA Fingerprinting of Olive Varieties by Microsatellite Markers

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    Dunja Bandelj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites combine several features of an ultimate molecular marker and they are used increasingly in various plant genetic studies and applications. In this work we report on the utilisation of fourteen previously developed olive microsatellite markers for the identification and differentiation of a set of nineteen olive varieties. All analysed microsatellite markers revealed a high level of polymorphism that allowed unique genotyping of the examined varieties. Ninety-six alleles were detected at all 14 loci, which multiplied into a large number of observed genotypes, giving high discrimination value for varietal identification. A minimum number of three microsatellite markers was chosen for the rapid and unambiguous varietal identification of nineteen olive varieties and only two markers were sufficient for differentiation of five local varieties. DNA fingerprints of olive cultivars by means of microsatellites provided meaningful data, which can be extended by additional olive varieties or new microsatellites and used for accurate inter-laboratory comparison. The data obtained can be used for the varietal survey and construction of a database of all olive varieties grown in Slovenia providing also additional genetic information on the agronomic and quality characteristics of the olive varieties.

  16. Screening transferable microsatellite markers across genus Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ya-Zhu; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Ho, Hsing-Hua; Liao, Pei-Chun; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2017-11-15

    Molecular identification based on microsatellite loci is an important technology to improve the commercial breeding of the moth orchid. There are more than 30,000 cultivars have been enrolled at the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS). In this study, genomic microsatellite primer sets were developed from Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana to further examine the transferability of across 21 Phalaenopsis species. Twenty-eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were obtained using the magnetic bead enrichment method, with high transferability of the 21 species of the genus Phalaenopsis, especially in the subgenus Phalaenopsis. The 28 newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers with high polymorphism information content values. The best and second fit grouping (K) are inferred as two and four by the ΔK evaluation in the assignment test. This result indicates that these microsatellite markers are discernible to subgenus Phalaenopsis. Our results indicate that these new microsatellite markers are useful for delimiting species within genus Phalaenopsis. As expected, the genetic relationships between species of subgenus Phalaenopsis can be well distinguished based on the assignment test. These molecular markers could apply to assess the paternity of Phalaenopsis as well as investigating hybridization among species of genus Phalaenopsis.

  17. Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)

  18. Maternal Serum Screening Markers and Adverse Outcome: A New Perspective

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    David Krantz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies evaluating the association of aneuploidy serum markers with adverse pregnancy outcome. More recently, the development of potential treatments for these adverse outcomes as well as the introduction of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA screening for aneuploidy necessitates a re-evaluation of the benefit of serum markers in the identification of adverse outcomes. Analysis of the literature indicates that the serum markers tend to perform better in identifying pregnancies at risk for the more severe but less frequent form of individual pregnancy complications rather than the more frequent but milder forms of the condition. As a result, studies which evaluate the association of biomarkers with a broad definition of a given condition may underestimate the ability of such markers to identify pregnancies that are destined to develop the more severe form of the condition. Consideration of general population screening using cffDNA solely must be weighed against the fact that traditional screening using serum markers enables detection of severe pregnancy complications, not detectable with cffDNA, of which many may be amenable to treatment options.

  19. Evaluation of SRAP markers for mapping of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Guindon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linkage maps have become important tools for genetic studies. With the aim of evaluating the SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism technique for linkage mapping in Pisum sativum L., a F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between cvs. DDR11 and Zav25 was generated. A total of 25 SRAP primer combinations were evaluated in 45 F2 plants and both parental lines, generating 208 polymorphic bands/markers. The markers were analyzed by the chi-square goodness-of-fit test to check the expected Mendelian segregation ratio. The resulting linkage map consists of 112 genetic markers distributed in 7 linkage groups (LGs, covering a total of 528.8 cM. The length of the LGs ranged from 47.6 to 144.3 cM (mean 75.54 cM, with 9 to 34 markers. The linkage map developed in this study indicates that the SRAP marker system could be applied to mapping studies of pea.

  20. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Emily J; Stovold, Grahame T; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario G; Dungey, Heidi S

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource

  1. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Telfer

    Full Text Available Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K. The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi

  2. Pea Marker Database (PMD) - A new online database combining known pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, Olga A; Zhernakov, Aleksandr I; Afonin, Alexey M; Boikov, Sergei S; Sulima, Anton S; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Zhukov, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn., possessing sequenced and annotated genome. In the last 5 years, a large number of pea gene-based molecular markers have been designed and mapped owing to the rapid evolution of "next-generation sequencing" technologies. However, the access to the complete set of markers designed worldwide is limited because the data are not uniformed and therefore hard to use. The Pea Marker Database was designed to combine the information about pea markers in a form of user-friendly and practical online tool. Version 1 (PMD1) comprises information about 2484 genic markers, including their locations in linkage groups, the sequences of corresponding pea transcripts and the names of related genes in M. truncatula. Version 2 (PMD2) is an updated version comprising 15944 pea markers in the same format with several advanced features. To test the performance of the PMD, fine mapping of pea symbiotic genes Sym13 and Sym27 in linkage groups VII and V, respectively, was carried out. The results of mapping allowed us to propose the Sen1 gene (a homologue of SEN1 gene of Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen) as the best candidate gene for Sym13, and to narrow the list of possible candidate genes for Sym27 to ten, thus proving PMD to be useful for pea gene mapping and cloning. All information contained in PMD1 and PMD2 is available at www.peamarker.arriam.ru.

  3. Evaluation of soft-tissue artifacts when using anatomical and technical markers to measure mandibular motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: It appears that markers on the frontal nose bridge are good alternatives to transoral rigid devices for measuring mandibular motion, compared to optical frame markers and other skin markers on the face. The results of the current study will be helpful for establishing guidelines for marker placement when measuring mandibular movements in patients with potential temporomandibular disorders.

  4. Unraveling biocomplexity of Northeast Atlantic herring stocks using SNP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Limborg, Morten; Helyar, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    polymorphism (SNP) markers in Northeast Atlantic herring population samples. Marker panels were targeted to include gene‐associated loci to maximize statistical resolution. Application of 281 SNP markers to samples representing different levels of stock complexity showed that the regional origin of individual......Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) exhibit biocomplexity, with widespread, geographically explicit populations that perform long‐range migration to common feeding and wintering areas, where they are exploited by fisheries. This means that exploited stocks do not describe discrete units, thereby...... complicating stock assessment and management. It is therefore of management interest to trace individual population migration patterns and contributions to fisheries. To underpin management and to develop a validated tool for traceability of individuals from mixed‐stock samples we applied single nucleotide...

  5. Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Katja; Wagner, Ludwig; Bergh, Anders

    2007-01-01

    marker in carcinoid tumors of the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. The present study analyzes the expression of secretagogin in normal and malign prostate tissue. METHODS: We analyzed immunoreactivity for secretagogin, chromogranin A (CgA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and synaptophysin (SYN......BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer (PCa), promoted by NE cell secreted products, appears to be associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and hormone-refractory disease. We recently reported secretagogin, a hexa-EF-hand Ca(2+) binding protein, as a novel NE...... and co-localized with the NE markers CgA and NSE. The expression of secretagogin is significantly correlated to CgA (P marker in the prostate with more extended...

  6. An insight into salivary markers in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Belur Krishna Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary diagnostics has fascinated many researcheres and has been tested as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of many systemic conditions and for drug monitoring. Advances in the field of molecular biology, salivary genomics and proteomics have led to the discovery of new molecular markers for oral cancer diagnosis, therapeutics and prognosis. Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease and the outcome of the treatment and prognosis largely depends on early diagnosis. Abnormal cellular products elucidated from malignant cells can be detected and measured in various body fluids including saliva and constitute tumor markers. This article discusses the various salivary tumor markers and their role in oral pre-cancer and cancer.

  7. Novel cardiovascular risk markers in women with ischaemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Dana; Dădârlat, Alexandra; Zdrenghea, D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women is lower than in men because of their hormonal protection. Angina pectoris occurs in women about 10 years later than in men. However, mortality from ischaemic heart disease remains higher in women than in men. Current studies are focusing on novel cardiovascular risk biomarkers because it seems that traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their assessment scores underestimate the risk in females. Increased plasma levels of these newly established biomarkers of risk have been found to worsen endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which play a key role in the pathogenesis of microvascular angina, which is very common in women. These novel cardiovascular risk markers can be classified into three categories: inflammatory markers, markers of haemostasis, and other biomarkers.

  8. CONTIG EXPLORER: Interactive marker-content map assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, P.M.; Miller, P.; Banks, A. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    In STS-content mapping of a region, multiple optimal or near-optimal putative orders of markers exist. Determining which of the markers lack sufficient evidence to be placed requires software that facilitates exploratory sensitivity analysis and interactive reassembly with different subsets of the input data and that also assists the evaluation of any arbitrary (user-specified) marker order. We describe CONTIG EXPLORER, a package for interactive assembly of STS-content maps that provides the user with various ways of performing such analysis, thereby facilitating the design of laboratory experiments aimed at reducing ambiguity in STS order. We then compare the output of CONTIG EXPLORER with two other assembly programs, SEGMAP and CONTIGMAKER, for a region of chromosome 12p between 21 and 38 cM on the sex-averaged CEPH/Genethon linkage map. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Chloroplast microsatellite markers for Artocarpus (Moraceae) developed from transcriptome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Elliot M; Laricchia, Kristen M; Murphy, Matthew; Ragone, Diane; Scheffler, Brian E; Simpson, Sheron; Williams, Evelyn W; Zerega, Nyree J C

    2015-09-01

    Chloroplast microsatellite loci were characterized from transcriptomes of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and A. camansi (breadnut). They were tested in A. odoratissimus (terap) and A. altilis and evaluated in silico for two congeners. Fifteen simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in chloroplast sequences from four Artocarpus transcriptome assemblies. The markers were evaluated using capillary electrophoresis in A. odoratissimus (105 accessions) and A. altilis (73). They were also evaluated in silico in A. altilis (10), A. camansi (6), and A. altilis × A. mariannensis (7) transcriptomes. All loci were polymorphic in at least one species, with all 15 polymorphic in A. camansi. Per species, average alleles per locus ranged between 2.2 and 2.5. Three loci had evidence of fragment-length homoplasy. These markers will complement existing nuclear markers by enabling confident identification of maternal and clone lines, which are often important in vegetatively propagated crops such as breadfruit.

  10. Diagnostic markers of Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) has been difficult without sensitive laboratory markers, and in light of the non-specificity of the symptoms of dry eyes and mouth. Rather than complaints about dry eyes or dry mouth, objective symptoms and extraglandular manifestations should raise suspicion of SS. This evaluation requires the detection of antibodies against Ro (SSA) and La (SSB) or a pathologic salivary gland biopsy. Since an invasive biopsy is not always performed, further diagnostic markers are required. Recently antibodies against alpha-fodrin have been shown to be present in the majority of untreated patients, and can be used in the screening process of SS as an additional marker. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Turor markers in focal and diffuse hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasatkin, Yu.N.; Ametov, A.S.; Mit'kov, V.V.; Sevast'yanov, S.I.; Zarudin, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    The level of tumor markeps (α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, ferritin, β 2 -microglobulin) in the blood serum was determined in 147 patiepts with benign and malignant hepatic diseases, 105 patients with cancer of extrahepatic site, Stage 1-4, without liver metastases (a control group) and 36 practically healthy persons. An analysis of the results obtained allowed one to establish that an increase in the concentration of tumor markers as compared to the normal one, is noted in both malignant and benign hepatic diseases as well as in the control group. However hepatic tumors were caused by a more frequent rise of the concentration of tumor markers in the blood serum with higher absolute values. Among benign hepatic diseases the most frequent increase in the level of tumor markers was noted in hepatitis and cirrhosis

  12. Blood markers of alcohol use in epistaxis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael B; Schrepfer, Thomas; Holzmann, David

    2012-08-01

    Epistaxis and alcohol overconsumption are frequently encountered in patients admitted to emergency wards. The aim of the study was to analyze indirect markers of alcohol overconsumption in epistaxis patients and evaluate its role as a risk factor. In a cohort of 510 epistaxis patients indirect markers of alcohol overuse were measured including the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. The results were compared to the normal findings in literature. Pathologic mean levels of GGT were found in epistaxis patients. Almost 5% had macrocytosis and MCV correlated positively with liver enzyme levels. Platelet counts were negatively correlated with both corpuscular volumes and liver enzymes. Indirect markers of alcohol overconsumption were found to be elevated in epistaxis patients. These results suggest that a subgroup of epistaxis patients overconsumes alcoholic beverages supporting the idea of alcohol abuse being a risk factor in epistaxis. Questioning about drinking habits should be employed and help offered to affected patients.

  13. Glycan Markers as Potential Immunological Targets in Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Denong; Wu, Lisa; Liu, Xiaohe

    2017-01-01

    We present here an experimental approach for exploring a new class of tumor biomarkers that are overexpressed by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and are likely targetable in immunotherapy against tumor metastasis. Using carbohydrate microarrays, anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were scanned against a large panel of carbohydrate antigens to identify potential tumor glycan markers. Subsequently, flow cytometry and fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST) were applied to determine whether the identified targets are tumor-specific cell-surface markers and are, therefore, likely suitable for targeted immunotherapy. Finally, the tumor glycan-specific antibodies identified were validated using cancer patients' blood samples for their performance in CTC-detection and immunotyping analysis. In this article, identifying breast CTC-specific glycan markers and targeting mAbs serve as examples to illustrate this tumor biomarker discovery strategy.

  14. Gait Analysis Using Floor Markers and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Suh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a gait analysis system which estimates step length and foot angles is proposed. A measurement unit, which consists of a camera and inertial sensors, is installed on a shoe. When the foot touches the floor, markers are recognized by the camera to obtain the current position and attitude. A simple planar marker with 4,096 different codes is used. These markers printed on paper are placed on the floor. When the foot is moving off the floor, the position and attitude are estimated using an inertial navigation algorithm. For accurate estimation, a smoother is proposed, where vision information and inertial sensor data are combined. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed system can both track foot motion and estimate step length.

  15. Development of discrimination SNP markers for Hanwoo (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, H S; Kim, L H; Namgoong, S; Shin, H D

    2013-07-01

    In the Korean meat market, the native cattle, Hanwoo beef, are preferred over imported beef and domestic Holstein beef despite its relatively high price. In order to hold the beef industry accountable and support consumers' right to know, correct beef-origin labeling is required. For this purpose, we developed 90 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to discriminate between Hanwoo and other breeds including Holstein using 1602 cattle DNAs. The probability of discrimination was found to be 100% in a subsequent validation set consisting of 632 DNAs. Our study suggests that improved beef-origin discrimination can be achieved by using a combined genetic model that takes into account small genetic differences among a large number of markers. These markers could be useful for discriminating between Hanwoo and imported breeds including domestic Holsteins, and would contribute to the prevention of falsified beef origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Can New Inflammatory Markers Improve the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Manne; Rubér, Marie; Ekerfelt, Christina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of appendicitis is difficult and resource consuming. New inflammatory markers have been proposed for the diagnosis of appendicitis, but their utility in combination with traditional diagnostic variables has not been tested. Our objective is to explore the potential of new...... inflammatory markers for improving the diagnosis of appendicitis.METHODS: The diagnostic properties of the six most promising out of 21 new inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6, chemokine ligand [CXCL]-8, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]-2, serum amyloid A [SAA], matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-9......, and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were compared with traditional diagnostic variables included in the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) score (right iliac fossa pain, vomiting, rebound tenderness, guarding, white blood cell [WBC] count, proportion neutrophils, C-reactive protein and body temperature) in 432 patients...

  17. Cannabinoid Markers in Biological Fluids and Tissues: Revealing Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Smith, Michael L

    2018-02-01

    Understanding cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid intake history is vital for treating drug dependence, investigating cannabinoid effects, and providing information to healthcare personnel, medical examiners, and public health officials; this is particularly relevant today with cannabis medicalization and legalization. Required information includes identifying exposure, time of use, frequency of use, relapse, withdrawal, and predicting cannabinoid effects. Recent controlled cannabinoid administration studies enable the development of models and markers to better identify patterns of intake and exposure. Future challenges include developing behavioral markers of cannabis impairment, bringing to market breathalyzers for cannabinoid detection, and identifying markers of recent cannabis intake in diverse biological matrices. We posit that biological monitoring of cannabinoids and metabolites will improve the characterization of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid intake history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of neuronal markers, NFP and GFAP, in malignant astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Forough; Naderian, Majid; Kadivar, Maryam; Nilipour, Yalda; Gheytanchi, Elmira

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemical markers are considered as important factors in diagnosis of malignant astrocytomas. The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of the immunohistochemical markers neurofilament protein (NFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in malignant astrocytoma tumors in Firoozgar and Rasool-Akram hospitals from 2005 to 2010. In this cross-sectional study, immunohistochemical analysis of NFP and GFAP was performed on 79 tissue samples of patients with the diagnosis of anaplastic and glioblastoma multiform (GBM) astrocytomas. The obtained results demonstrated that all patients were positive for GFAP and only 3.8% were positive for NFP. There was no significant association between these markers and clinical, demographic, and prognostic features of patients (p>0.05). NFP was expressed only in GBMs and not in anaplastic astrocytomas. It would be crucial to confirm the present findings in a larger number of tumors, especially in high grade gliomas.

  19. Application of tumor markers in the immunodiagnosis of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, F.B.; Barr, L.H.; Goldman, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, research directed toward the detection of both tumor-specific and tumor-related products has intensified for several reasons. 1. The growing knowledge of tumor metabolism has lead some investigators to hypothesize that most, if not all, malignant tumors produce these substances. 2. The use of multiple tumor markers appears more valuable than application of single markers. 3. The availability of highly sensitive and specific immunological methods provides the tools to measure substances which previously could not be assayed. 4. As additional information evolves, the events associated with malignant transformation and tumor behaviour may become clear. Tumor-related products include immune markers, altered cell surface membranes, as well as fetal and/or ectopic proteins, to name but a few. The synthesis of fetal and/or ectopic proteins occurs in several cancers. These have served as the basis for most immunodiagnostic tests and comprise the major thrust of this review

  20. Using AFLP markers and the Geneland program for the inference of population genetic structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Santos, Filipe

    2010-01-01

    the computer program Geneland designed to infer population structure has been adapted to deal with dominant markers; and (ii) we use Geneland for numerical comparison of dominant and codominant markers to perform clustering. AFLP markers lead to less accurate results than bi-allelic codominant markers...... such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers but this difference becomes negligible for data sets of common size (number of individuals n≥100, number of markers L≥200). The latest Geneland version (3.2.1) handling dominant markers is freely available as an R package with a fully clickable graphical...

  1. NGAL and other markers of inflammation as competitive or complementary markers for depressive symptom dimensions in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudé, Petrus J W; Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Gouweleeuw, Leonie; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Denollet, Johan; Westerhuis, Lambertus W J J M; Schoemaker, Regien G

    2015-10-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an inflammatory marker associated with the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), the psychopathology of depression and the co-existing symptoms of depression in HF patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether the association of serum NGAL levels with depressive symptoms dimensions in HF is independent of well-known inflammatory markers. Serum NGAL, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), its two soluble receptors; sTNFR1, sTNFR2, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leukocytes were measured in 104 patients with HF at baseline and 12 months. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at both timepoints. Correlations between NGAL and inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms dimensions were determined. The effect of hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2 and leukocytes on the association of NGAL with depressive symptoms was determined and adjusted for time, demographics, cardiac disease severity, and kidney function. NGAL levels were significantly correlated with hsCRP, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2 and leukocytes. NGAL was significantly associated with somatic depressive symptoms, independent of abovementioned markers. Serum NGAL is an independent inflammatory marker for somatic depressive symptoms in HF and may function as an immunopathogen linking somatic symptoms of depression to HF.

  2. Tumor marker CA 15-3 in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzić, Hanifa; Mujagić, Svjetlana; Azabagić, Sanida; Burina, Mensura

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between the serum concentration of the tumor marker CA 15-3 and breast cancer, which has not been proven by the existence of regional and distant metastases, and breast cancer with the presence of regional and distant metastases. The study was a retrospective-prospective study, and was conducted on 100 women aged 40-70 years of age in the period of January 2007 until June 2011, in whom, after surgery, breast cancer was histologically verified, where before the surgery serum tumor marker CA 15-3 levels were established. The serum tumor marker CA 15-3 concentrations are determined in all patients after radiological diagnosis of suspected breast cancer (radiological findings concluded as BI RADS 4 and 5). The study excluded patients with liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and lung cancer. The study group consisted of patients with metastatic breast cancer, and the control group of patients with breast cancer comprised those shown to be without verified metastatic disease. To calculate the correlation, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used. A difference in p values of less than 0.05 (ptumor marker CA 15-3 was elevated in all patients with proven remote or clubbing metastasis in 35.5% of patients with metastasis spreading to regional lymph nodes. There is a significant correlation between serum concentrations of the tumor marker CA 15-3 and the presence of metastasis, and serum concentrations of tumor markers and the dissemination of the underlying disease. Copyright © 2015 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Y-Chromosome Markers for the Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Halie M; Stutchman, Jeremy T; Bastounes, Estelle R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Trut, Lyudmila N; Sacks, Benjamin N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2017-09-01

    The de novo assembly of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) genome has facilitated the development of genomic tools for the species. Efforts to identify the population history of red foxes in North America have previously been limited by a lack of information about the red fox Y-chromosome sequence. However, a megabase of red fox Y-chromosome sequence was recently identified over 2 scaffolds in the reference genome. Here, these scaffolds were scanned for repeated motifs, revealing 194 likely microsatellites. Twenty-three of these loci were selected for primer development and, after testing, produced a panel of 11 novel markers that were analyzed alongside 2 markers previously developed for the red fox from dog Y-chromosome sequence. The markers were genotyped in 76 male red foxes from 4 populations: 7 foxes from Newfoundland (eastern Canada), 12 from Maryland (eastern United States), and 9 from the island of Great Britain, as well as 48 foxes of known North American origin maintained on an experimental farm in Novosibirsk, Russia. The full marker panel revealed 22 haplotypes among these red foxes, whereas the 2 previously known markers alone would have identified only 10 haplotypes. The haplotypes from the 4 populations clustered primarily by continent, but unidirectional gene flow from Great Britain and farm populations may influence haplotype diversity in the Maryland population. The development of new markers has increased the resolution at which red fox Y-chromosome diversity can be analyzed and provides insight into the contribution of males to red fox population diversity and patterns of phylogeography. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture, to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker. These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment. They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  5. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; El-Hage, Wissam; Gomes, Marlène; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; Atanasova, Boriana

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE) through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram) against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture), to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker) that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker). These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment). They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  6. Endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia. Predictors of clinical radiation resistance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vordermark, D. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Brown, J.M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Background: Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation have defined an adverse effect of tumor hypoxia on prognosis after radiotherapy and other treatment modalities, in particular in head and neck and cervix carcinomas as well as soft tissue sarcomas. Recently, the immunohistochemical detection of proteins involved in the ''hypoxic response'' of tumor cells has been discussed as a method to estimate hypoxia in clinical tumor specimens. Material and Methods: This review focuses on clinical and experimental data, regarding prognostic impact and comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection, for three proteins suggested as endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia: hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA 9), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: None of the three potential hypoxia markers is exclusively hypoxia-specific, and in each case protein can be detected under normoxic conditions in vitro. HIF-1{alpha} responds rapidly to hypoxia but also to reoxygenation, making this marker quite unstable in the context of clinical sample collection. The perinecrotic labeling pattern typical of chronic hypoxia and a reasonable agreement with injectable hypoxia markers such as pimonidazole have most consistently been described for CA 9. All three markers showed correlation with Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation in carcinoma of the cervix. In nine of 13 reports, among them all three that refer to curative radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, HIF-1{alpha} overexpression was associated with poor outcome. CA 9 was an adverse prognostic factor in cervix, head and neck and lung cancer, but not in two other head and neck cancer reports. GLUT1 predicted for poor survival in colorectal, cervix and lung cancer. Conclusion: Endogenous markers have the potential to indicate therapeutically relevant levels of hypoxia within tumors. Clinical trials assessing a marker's ability to predict a

  7. Combining risk markers improves cardiovascular risk prediction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewijn, Suzanne; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; de Graaf, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk stratification could be improved by adding measures of atherosclerosis to current risk scores, especially in intermediate-risk individuals. We prospectively evaluated the additive value of different non-invasive risk markers (both individual and combined) for gender-specific cardiovascular risk stratification on top of traditional risk factors in a middle-aged population-based cohort. Carotid-plaques, IMT (intima-media thickness), ABI (ankle-brachial index), PWV (pulse-wave velocity), AIx (augmentation index), CAP (central augmented pressure) and CSP (central-systolic pressure) were measured in 1367 CVD (cardiovascular disease)-free participants aged 50-70 years old. Cardiovascular events were validated after a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. AUC (area-under-the-curve) and NRI (net reclassification improvement) analyses (total-NRI for all and clinical-NRI for intermediate-risk groups) were used to determine the additive value of individual and combined risk markers. Cardiovascular events occurred in 32 women and 39 men. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors explained 6.2% and 12.5% of the variance in CVD in women and men respectively. AUCs did not substantially increase by adding individual or combined non-invasive risk markers. Individual risk markers only improved reclassification in intermediate-risk women and more than in men; clinical-NRIs ranged between 48.0 and 173.1% in women and 8.9 and 20% in men. Combined non-invasive-risk markers improved reclassification in all women and even more in those at intermediate risk; 'IMT-presence-thickness-of-plaques' showed largest reclassification [total-NRI=33.8%, P=0.012; IDI (integrated-discrimination-improvement)=0.048, P=0.066; clinical-NRI=168.0%]. In men, combined non-invasive risk markers improved reclassification only in those at intermediate risk; 'PWV-AIx-CSP-CAP-IMT' showed the largest reclassification (total-NRI=14.5%, P=0.087; IDI=0.016, P=0.148; clinical-NRI=46.0%). In all women

  8. [Procalcitonin as a marker of intra-abdominal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Comesaña, Elías; Ballinas-Miranda, Julio Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin is a quite specific biomarker of infection and in recent years has shown its superiority to others markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein, for the diagnosis and monitoring of a variety of infections. For this reason, several researchers have studied the potential role of procalcitonin for diagnosis and management of these infections. Intra-abdominal infections are a heterogeneous group of infections that, sometimes, pose difficult challenges to physicians. The published studies have produced mixed results, leading to controversy on the utility of this marker in intra-abdominal infections. This review summarizes these data and discuss the utility of procalcitonin in several intra abdominal infections, including postoperative infections.

  9. Markers of Inflammation and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Sarwar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of global mortality, with coronary heart disease (CHD its major manifestation. Although inflammation, the body’s response to noxious stimuli, is implicated in several stages of CHD development, the relevance of circulating levels of markers of inflammation to CHD risk remains uncertain. This review summarizes available epidemiological evidence for four emerging inflammatory markers implicated in CHD (fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and interleukin-6; considers their likely utility in cardiovascular risk prediction; and outlines areas of outstanding uncertainty.

  10. Detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as a marker of irradiated avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Damaris L. Moreno; Werner, Dalal

    2013-01-01

    The 2-alkylcyclobutanones are compound only formed in processed foods with ionizing radiations, which are used as markers to detect foods that have been irradiated and they have some content of fat. The samples were irradiated in a dose 7 kGy, the extraction was carried out for the Shoxlet method and the detection for the EN 1785 Standard. The results showed the utility of the 2- alkylcyclobutanone marker for the identification of irradiated foods. The obtained results showed that the avocado can be identification by the marked 2-TCB. (author)

  11. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  12. Progress on macrophage's proinflammatory products as markers of acute endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Ziętek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To provide the review of the macrophage activity products as pathophysiological markers of endometriosis by literature survey (PubMed, Cochrane. Immunoreactive cells and several of their synthesis products concentrations are elevated in the serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with endometriosis. The enhanced reactive proteins contributed to local inflammation and aggregation of endometriotic lesions. Immune response and immune surveillance of tissue play an important role in pathogenesis of endometriosis. Activated macrophages in peritoneal environment secrete immunoreactive cytokines which are responsible for inflammatory cascade of reactions. The immunoreactive cytokines should be a target not only as a disease marker but also as a part of therapeutic protocol.

  13. Identification of novel genetic markers of breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Kraft, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We conducted a large meta-analysis ......BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We conducted a large meta...... in addition to standard tumor prognostic factors....

  14. Gender impact on first trimester markers in Down syndrome screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Severin Olesen; Wøjdemann, Karen R; Shalmi, Anne-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    with normal outcome. Mean log MoM values for pregnancies with female and male fetuses were calculated using regression of log marker values on gestational age expressed as crown rump length and on maternal weight. A pronounced gender impact was found for free betahCG, being 16% higher for female than for male......The influence of fetal gender on the level in the first trimester of the serological markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (betahCG) and on nuchal translucency is described for 2637 singleton pregnancies...

  15. Ultrasonographic soft markers of aneuploidy in second trimester fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khairy Ali

    2012-09-01

    Introduction: Chromosomal abnormalities occur in 0.1–0.2% of live births, and the most common clinically significant aneuploidy among live-born infants is Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21. Soft markers of aneuploidy are nonspecific, often transient, and can be readily detected during the second and third trimester ultrasound. The most commonly studied soft markers of aneuploidy include a thickened nuchal fold, mild fetal pyelectasis, echogenic bowel, echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cyst. There is a great deal of interest in the ultrasound detection of aneuploidy, as evidenced by the large number of publications in the literature on this topic.

  16. Detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as a marker of irradiated avocado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Damaris L. Moreno, E-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrolo Nuclear (CEADEN), Habana (Cuba); Werner, Dalal [Technical Institute for Food Industry (AERIAL), Strasbourg (France). Technology Resource Centre; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The 2-alkylcyclobutanones are compound only formed in processed foods with ionizing radiations, which are used as markers to detect foods that have been irradiated and they have some content of fat. The samples were irradiated in a dose 7 kGy, the extraction was carried out for the Shoxlet method and the detection for the EN 1785 Standard. The results showed the utility of the 2- alkylcyclobutanone marker for the identification of irradiated foods. The obtained results showed that the avocado can be identification by the marked 2-TCB. (author)

  17. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genic presence/absence variants (PAVs) correlate closely to the phenotypic variation, impacting plant genome sizes and the adaption to the environment. To shed more light on their genome-wide patterns, functions and to test the possibility of using them as molecular markers, we analyzed...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...

  18. Influence of Productivity on the Acquisition of Inflectional Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans; Christensen, René dePont

    Influence of productivity on the acquisition of inflectional markers Studies on acquisition of inflectional morphology often distinguish between ‘regular’ and ‘irregular’ inflection. This distinction originates from studies of English, which is characterized by having one default inflectional...... marker for a grammatical category (e.g. the PL suffix -s) and a minor number of exceptions to this default rule. We find this distinction rather inexpedient since this is not the case for all languages (e.g. Danish, German). In order to address this issue we have developed a scale with three degrees...

  19. Genetic and molecular markers of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J T; Frommer, M; Sved, J A; Gillies, C B

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-six microsatellite markers, along with two restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and three morphological markers, have been mapped to five linkage groups, corresponding to the five autosomes of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. All these molecular and genetic markers were genotyped in three-generation pedigrees. Eight molecular markers were also localized to the salivary gland polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization. This provides a substantial starting point for an integrated genetic and physical map of B. tryoni.

  20. Interpretation of the results of in vivo studies of tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhtarin, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Parshkov, E.M.; Sergeeva, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    Some approaches in development of criteria for assessment of results of in vitro studies of tumor markers are considered. Substantiation of tactics for using tumor markers in clinical practice is given. Use of four markers is concluded to be justified in examination of risk group for oncopathologies. For each of markers it is necessary to have curves of criterion power in all range of determined marker concentration

  1. Marker-based quantification of interfractional tumor position variation and the use of markers for setup verification in radiation therapy for esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Peng; van der Horst, Astrid; de Jong, Rianne; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Kamphuis, Martijn; van Wieringen, Niek; Machiels, Melanie; Bel, Arjan; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify interfractional esophageal tumor position variation using markers and investigate the use of markers for setup verification. Sixty-five markers placed in the tumor volumes of 24 esophageal cancer patients were identified in computed tomography (CT) and follow-up

  2. Marker list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Database Site Policy | Contact Us Marker list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods

  3. Evaluation of the genetic variability of 13 microsatellite markers in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tification methods such as typing of blood groups and biochemical polymorphism have proved their usefulness, but the discriminating power of these techniques is less than that of DNA markers. Moreover, the number of different tissues on which the typing can be done is very limited and represents a significant limitation of ...

  4. Profile of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Markers in Asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim/Background: The objective of the study was to determine the profile of viral markers of HBV and HCV among asymptomatic individuals with chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Methods: Seventy one subjects who were chronic HBsAg positive were recruited as cases and thirty three apparently normal ...

  5. Mining microsatellite markers from public expressed sequence tag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasnaoui N., Buonamici A., Sebastiani F., Mars M., Zhang D. and. Vendramin G. G. 2012 Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers (SSR). Gene 493, 105–112. Huang X. and Madan A. 1999 CAP 3: a DNA sequence assembly program. Genome Res.

  6. Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer: Prediction on Tumor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Karina Banin Hirata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical management in cancer patients, assisting in diagnostic, staging, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of recurrence and metastasis, and development of new treatment modalities. In this context, this review aims to discuss the main tumor markers in breast carcinogenesis. The most well-established breast molecular markers with prognostic and/or therapeutic value like hormone receptors, HER-2 oncogene, Ki-67, and p53 proteins, and the genes for hereditary breast cancer will be presented. Furthermore, this review shows the new molecular targets in breast cancer: CXCR4, caveolin, miRNA, and FOXP3, as promising candidates for future development of effective and targeted therapies, also with lower toxicity.

  7. Cardiovascular risk markers in type II diabetes and hypertension at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Inflammation has been suugested to be associated with hypertension and type 2 diabetes; inflammation either precedes or is a consequence of the development of these diseases. This study sought to evaluate the role of inflammatory markers as cardiovascular risk factors and also determine their association ...

  8. Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

  9. Determinants of molecular marker based classification of rice (Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr devi singh

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... The present communication is aimed to find out determinants of molecular marker based classification of rice (Oryza sativa L) germplasm using the available data from an experiment conducted for development of molecular fingerprints of diverse varieties of Basmati and non Basmati rice adapted to.

  10. Identification of SSR and RAPD markers associated with QTLs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... Parents and. F3 families had significant differences in studied traits (p ≤. 0.01). In this study, SSR and RAPD markers were used together for constructing linkage groups and rescanning the genome of rapeseed to identify QTLs controlling winter survival and related traits. For this, the parental polymorphism ...

  11. Identification of RAPD markers linked to salinity tolerance in wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity can be measured by a number of ways, including pedigree, phenotype and allelic diversity at loci controlling phenotypes of interest. A DNA marker for root length in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was identified. The individual plants from F2 population segregation for salinity tolerance and the parents (S-24 ...

  12. Development of stable marker-free nuclear transformation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed & Sameh

    Schematic flow diagram for the construction of naked marker-free DNA cassettes. QIAquick Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen, CA, USA). All PCR reactions were carried out using the high fidelity DNA polymerase (TLA polymerase) (Bioneer, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). Generation of transgenic C. vulgaris by electroporation.

  13. Recent advances in development of marker-free transgenic plants ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we describe the current technologies to eliminate the selectablemarker genes (SMG) in order to develop marker-free transgenic plants and also discuss the ... International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India; Proteomics and Genomics Lab, Agricultural ...

  14. Inheritance of blast resistance and identification of SSR marker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-02

    Aug 2, 2013 ... An F2 population was developed from a cross between rice. (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes, EK 70 (highly susceptible to blast) and RDN 98-2-3-5-14 (resistant to blast), to study the inheritance of blast resistance and to identify the marker associated with resistance. The F2 population segregated in 3:1 ratio for ...

  15. Supplementary data: Development of nuclear DNA markers for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Development of nuclear DNA markers for evolutionary studies in Plasmodium falciparum. Celia Thomas, Sneh Shalini, N. Raghavendra, Meenakshi Choudhary, Anju Verma, Hema Joshi,. A. P. Dash and Aparup Das. J. Genet. 86, 65–68. Primer sequences for amplification of putatively neutral ...

  16. (SNP) markers for the Chinese black sleeper, Bostrychus sinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... population genetics (Morin et al., 2004). Here, we developed the first set of SNP markers for Chinese black sleeper which can be widely used in population genetics studies of this organism in the future. *Corresponding author. E-mail: sxding@xmu.edu.cn. Genomic DNA of B. sinensis individuals sampled ...

  17. Influence of hyperglyceamia on some haemorheological markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The altered rheological properties of the blood have been shown to precede clinically detectable diabetic vasculopathy. This study seeks to investigate whether hypoglycaemic treatment would have any impact on some haemorheological markers: haematocrit (Hct), total plasma protein (TPP) and relative plasma viscosity ...

  18. Identification of prognostic and susceptibility markers in chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthy controls (n=5) were also enrolled. DNA from blood of subjects was subjected to Next Generation Sequencing. Rare mutations present in one patient group and absent in another group were considered as prognostic markers, whereas mutations present in more than 50% patients were considered as susceptibility ...

  19. Prevalence of the molecular marker of chloroquine resistance ( pfcrt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline on chloroquine (CQ) resistance, CQ was withdrawn as the first-line antimalarial drug in Nigeria in 2005 as a result of ... We monitored the resistance pattern 5 years after withdrawal of CQ, using the pfcrt K76T mutation as a molecular marker for CQ resistance.

  20. DNA marker mining of ILSTS035 microsatellite locus on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We describe tests for detecting and locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits in Hanwoo cattle. From results of a permutation test to detect QTL for marbling, we selected the microsatellite locus ILSTS035 on chromosome 6 for further analysis. K-means clustering analysis applied to five traits and nine DNA markers in ...

  1. Bayesian Reasoning Using 3D Relations for Lane Marker Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesman, Bart; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a lane marker detection algorithm that integrates 3D attributes as well as 3D relations between local edges and semi-global contours in a Bayesian framework. The algorithm is parameter free and does not make use of any heuristic assumptions. The reasoning is based on the complete...

  2. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers have been extensively used in sugarcane breeding research, little is known about its inheritance mechanism. To address this problem, a high throughput molecular genotyping experiment was conducted on 964 single pollen grains and a 288-self progeny S1 map...

  3. Combining risk markers improves cardiovascular risk prediction in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holewijn, S.; den Heijer, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; de Graaf, J.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk stratification could be improved by adding measures of atherosclerosis to current risk scores, especially in intermediate-risk individuals. We prospectively evaluated the additive value of different non-invasive risk markers (both individual and combined) for gender-specific

  4. Cytogenetic characterization of cat eye syndrome marker chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, S L; Surti, U; Nwokoro, N A; Steele, M W

    1994-01-01

    Cat eye syndrome is associated with a partial tetrasomy 22q and can be inherited. The authors have evaluated the marker chromosome in a proband and his mother by cytogenetic banding techniques to verify the dicentric chromosomal rearrangement and by fluorescence in situ hybridization to confirm the involvement of 22. The mother also had an affected offspring with an unrelated aneuploidy, trisomy 21.

  5. Biochemical markers predictive for bone marrow involvement in systemic mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Marjolein L.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kluin, Philip M.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Kema, Ido P.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2008-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by bone marrow involvement, which requires a bone marrow biopsy for diagnostic work-up. We questioned whether bone marrow involvement could be predicted using biochemical markers. We selected patients with various symptoms suggestive of indolent systemic

  6. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes...... it an accurate diagnostic test for diabetes mellitus....

  7. Biochemical markers predictive for bone marrow involvement in systemic mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Marjolein L.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kluin, Philip M.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Kema, Ido P.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by bone marrow involvement, which requires a bone marrow biopsy for diagnostic work-up. We questioned whether bone marrow involvement could be predicted using biochemical markers. We selected patients with various symptoms suggestive of indolent systemic

  8. Antinuclear human autoantibodies as markers in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Poggialini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we report on the use of antinuclear human autoantibodies as specific markers in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes. The antibodies have been tested by fluorescence techniques using a confocal laser scanning microscope. All the antibodies showed specifc labelling pattern and the results, although preliminary in nature, could open new perspectives of research.

  9. Serum markers thrombophilia in pregnant women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the frequency of serum markers for hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and their association with pregnancy in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Methods: a case-control study was conducted among 25 pregnant women with SLE (study group and 32 pregnant women without known disease and with at least one previous pregnancy (control group. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and hereditary thrombophilia were examined in both groups. We used the y2 Test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test to verify the associations and calculate the relative risk. Results: thrombophilia was present in 72.0% of pregnant women with SLE and in 6.0% of patients in the control group. A significant association was found between the presence of SLE and serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia / antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05. The relative risks for antiphospholipid antibodies were 13.20 (ICR95%= 1.81 - 96.46 in pregnant women with SLE, 7.26 (CI95%= 1.77 - 29.86 for the presence of serum markers of hereditary thrombophilia and 7.92 (CI95%= 2.62 - 3.94 for the presence of hereditary thrombophilia and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. Conclusions: the identification of markers for hereditary and/or acquired thrombophilia in pregnant women with lupus may be clinically useful to determine which patients have a higher risk of obstetric complications.

  10. Inheritance of blast resistance and identification of SSR marker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-02

    Aug 2, 2013 ... visualized on Gel Documentation System (Flour ChemTM. Alpha Innotech Corporation, San Leandro, USA). The SSR markers found polymorphic .... ysis of segregating generations, breeding lines and varieties having RDN 98-2 as a parent. Acknowledgements. Authors thank the Head of the Department of ...

  11. Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrum-derived leaf rust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 6. Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrum-derived leaf rust resistance genes Lr19 and Lr24 in bread wheat variety ...

  12. Evaluation of the genetic variability of 13 microsatellite markers in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evaluation of the genetic variability of 13 microsatellite markers in native Indian pigs. Rajeev Kaul Atar ... The evaluated microsatellites exhibited a very high heterozygosity and polymorphism information content. ... Animal Genetics Division, National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, P.O. Box 129, Karnal 132 001, India ...

  13. Perspectives on genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second one would be to have access to a whole genome sequence so that candidate genes in a fine mapping interval delimited by flanking markers could be mined, reannotated and then analysed in association mapping. A fully public draft of the E. grandis genome will be sequenced by the US Department of Energy ...

  14. Association of Biochemical Markers, Hepatitis C Virus and Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection and diabetes mellitus (DM), and the effects of these pathological conditions on some biochemical markers in Pakistanis. Methods: A total number of 4717 chronic HCV patients were enrolled in this study out of which 4250 were positive with ...

  15. Marker assisted characterization of chickpea genotypes for wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) analysis of seed storage protein showed a difference in protein profile among studied genotypes but none of polypeptide fragment was specific to wilt resistance or susceptibility. In present study, the reported markers linked to susceptibility ...

  16. Collagen-derived markers of bone metabolism in osteogenesis imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, A M; Hansen, M; Kollerup, Gina Birgitte

    1998-01-01

    )] were measured in 78 osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) patients to investigate bone metabolism in vivo and relate marker concentrations to phenotype and in vitro collagen I defects, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). PICP and PINP were generally low...

  17. SSR markers reveal genetic variation between improved cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... Afr. J. Biotechnol. 4(9): 873-881. Mba REC, Stephenson P, Edwards K, Melzer S, Mkumbira J, Gullberg. U. Apel K, Gale M, Tohme J, Fregene M (2000). Simple Sequence. Repeats (SSR) Markers Survey of the Cassava (Manihot esculenta. Crantz) genome: Towards an SSR-based molecular genetic map of.

  18. Identification of SSR and RAPD markers associated with QTLs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of importance of winter survival in winter type of Brassica napus, this study was performed to identify the QTLs controlling winter survival and related traits using SSR and RAPD markers. For this, an F2:3 population of 200 families derived from crossing between cv. 'SLMO46' (winter type and cold resistant) and cv.

  19. INHIBIN AS A MARKER FOR GRANULOSA-CELL TUMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPPOHN, RE; BURGER, HG; BOUMA, J; BANGAH, M; KRANS, M

    1992-01-01

    In order to determine whether serum-immunoreactive inhibin could constitute a biochemical marker for the presence and progression of ovarian granulosa cell tumors and their metastases, we measured immunoreactive inhibin concentrations in series of serum samples obtained from 8 patients with

  20. Molecular marker screening of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker linked to a locus for resistance to. Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1, along with visual evaluation following root staining were used to screen four breeding populations and three lines of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in a root-knot.